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Sample records for fungus verticillium dahliae

  1. Perturbations in the Primary Metabolism of Tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana Plants Infected with the Soil-Borne Fungus Verticillium dahliae.

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    Anja Buhtz

    Full Text Available The hemibiotrophic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae is a major pathogen of a number of economically important crop species. Here, the metabolic response of both tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana to V. dahliae infection was analysed by first using non-targeted GC-MS profiling. The leaf content of both major cell wall components glucuronic acid and xylose was reduced in the presence of the pathogen in tomato but enhanced in A. thaliana. The leaf content of the two tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates fumaric acid and succinic acid was increased in the leaf of both species, reflecting a likely higher demand for reducing equivalents required for defence responses. A prominent group of affected compounds was amino acids and based on the targeted analysis in the root, it was shown that the level of 12 and four free amino acids was enhanced by the infection in, respectively, tomato and A. thaliana, with leucine and histidine being represented in both host species. The leaf content of six free amino acids was reduced in the leaf tissue of diseased A. thaliana plants, while that of two free amino acids was raised in the tomato plants. This study emphasizes the role of primary plant metabolites in adaptive responses when the fungus has colonized the plant.

  2. Genotypic Resistance of F1 Cotton Hybrids by Inoculation with Different Virulent Isolates of the Fungus Verticillium Dahliae Klebahn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AMANTURDIEV Alisher; KIM Robert

    2008-01-01

    @@ The plant pathogen Verticilliurn dahliae causes severe cotton losses in Uzbekistan.To create cotton varieties that are resistant to the more virulent races of V.dahliae we wanted to determine genotypic resistance of varieties and lines of cotton to more virulent isolates of different geographic populations of the fungus V.dahliae isolated from different cotton varieties in Uzbekistan and determine the inheritance of wilt resistance with hybrids of the first generation to various isolates of V.dahliae.

  3. Population biology of Verticillium dahliae isolates from lettuce in the Sallinas Valley of Californis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae is a soil borne fungus and the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilt, which affects many crops worldwide. Many crops grown in the Salinas Valley (SV) of California, including strawberry and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), are susceptible to V. dahliae and severe outbreaks are comm...

  4. Insertional mutagenesis in the vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santhanam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae causes vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of dicotyledonous plant species, including important crops such as eggplant, lettuce, olive, spinach

  5. Functional analysis of autophagy genes via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in the vascular Wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Wangzhen; Zhang, Tianzhen

    2013-08-20

    Autophagy is a widely conserved intracellular process for degradation and recycling of proteins, organelles and cytoplasm in eukaryotic organisms and is now emerging as an important process in foliar infection by many plant pathogenic fungi. However, the role of autophagy in soil-borne fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood. Here, we report the establishment of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system and its application to investigate two autophagy genes, VdATG8 and VdATG12, by means of targeted gene replacement and complementation. Transformation of a cotton-infecting Verticillium dahliae strain Vd8 with a novel binary vector pCOM led to the production of 384 geneticin-resistant transformants per 1 × 10(6) conidia. V. dahliae mutants lacking either VdATG8 or VdATG12 exhibited reduced conidiation and impaired aerial hyphae production. Disease development on Arabidopsis plants was slightly delayed when inoculated with VdATG8 or VdATG12 gene deletion mutants, compared with the wild-type and gene complemented strains. Surprisingly, in vitro inoculation with unimpaired roots revealed that the abilities of root invasion were not affected in gene deletion mutants. These results indicate that autophagy is necessary for aerial hyphae development and plant colonization but not for root infection in V. dahliae.

  6. Identification of lettuce genes differentially expressed in a Verticillium dahliae-lettuce interaction by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae, is an emerging threat to the U.S. lettuce industry. Lettuce germplasm with resistance to race 1of V. dahliae is available for breeding programs, although germplasm with resistance to race 2 of the pathogen has not been identified. The obj...

  7. Ecology and biological control of Verticillium dahliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soesanto, L.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of wilt disease in many crops including potato, cotton, and olive, were investigated. Its biological control with Talaromyces flavus with or without additional Pseudomonas fluorescens was attempted. Arabidopsis thaliana was selected as a bioass

  8. The Vayg1 gene controls microsclerotia development and melanin production in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae causes plant vascular diseases on economically important crops and ornamental plants worldwide. This fungus produces darkly pigmented resting structures known as microsclerotia, which are able to survive for years in the soil, and represent a one of the defining char...

  9. Analysis of a MULE-cyanide hydratase gene fusion in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae encodes numerous Class II “cut-and-paste” transposable elements, including those of a small group of MULE transposons. We have previously identified a fusion event between a MULE transposon sequence and sequence encoding a cyanide hydrata...

  10. Functional Analysis of Autophagy Genes via Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation in the Vascular Wilt Fungus Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Zhou; Jun Zhao; Wangzhen Guo; Tianzhen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a widely conserved intracellular process for degradation and recycling of proteins,organelles and cytoplasm in eukaryotic organisms and is now emerging as an important process in foliar infection by many plant pathogenic fungi.However,the role of autophagy in soil-borne fungal physiology and infection biology is poorly understood.Here,we report the establishment of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) system and its application to investigate two autophagy genes,VdATG8 and VdATG12,by means of targeted gene replacement and complementadon.Transformation of a cotton-infecting Verticilliun dahliae strain Vd8 with a novel binary vector pCOM led to the production of 384 geneticin-resistant transformants per 1 × 106 conidia.V.dahliae mutants lacking either VdATG8 or VdATG12 exhibited reduced conidiation and impaired aerial hyphae production.Disease development on Arabidopsis plants was slightly delayed when inoculated with VdATG8 or VdATG12 gene deletion mutants,compared with the wildtype and gene complemented strains.Surprisingly,in vitro inoculation with unimpaired roots revealed that the abilities of root invasion were not affected in gene deletion mutants.These results indicate that autophagy is necessary for aerial hyphae development and plant colonization but not for root infection in V.dahliae.

  11. Evaluation of the Biocontrol Potential of Purpureocillium lilacinum QLP12 against Verticillium dahliae in Eggplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zong, Zhaofeng

    2017-01-01

    A fungus with broad spectrum antifungal activity was isolated from the soil in Qinling Mountain, Shaanxi Province, in China. The fungus was identified as Purpureocillium lilacinum based on ITS rDNA gene analysis. The strain, coded as QLP12, showed high inhibition activity on fungal mycelium growth in vitro, especially to Mucor piriformis, Trichothecium roseum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Verticillium dahliae, and its potential for biocontrol efficacy of eggplant. Verticillium wilt disease caused by Verticillium dahliae among 10 fungal species tested was explored. In greenhouse experiments, QLP12 showed an excellent growth-promoting effect on eggplant seed germination (76.7%), bud growth (79.4%), chlorophyll content (47.83%), root activity (182.02%), and so on. QLP12 can colonize the eggplant interior and also develop in rhizosphere soil. In greenhouse, the incidence of Verticillium wilt decreased by 83.82% with pretreated QLP12 fermentation broth in the soil. In the field, QLP12 showed prominent biocontrol effects on Verticillium wilt by reducing the disease index over the whole growth period, a decline of 40.1%. This study showed that the strain QLP12 is not only an effective biocontrol agent for controlling Verticillium wilt of eggplant, but also a plant growth-promoting fungus that deserves to be further developed.

  12. Genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression profile of vesicle fusion components in Verticillium dahliae.

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    Xue Yang

    Full Text Available Vesicular trafficking plays a crucial role in protein localization and movement, signal transduction, and multiple developmental processes in eukaryotic cells. Vesicle fusion is the final and key step in vesicle-mediated trafficking and mainly relies on SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors, the regulators including SM (Sec1/Munc18 family proteins, Rab GTPases and exocyst subunits. Verticillium dahliae is a widespread soil fungus that causes disruptive vascular diseases on a wide range of plants. To date, no genes involved in vesicular fusion process have been identified and characterized in V. dahliae. The recent publication of the draft genome sequence of V. dahliae allowed us to conduct a genome-wide identification, phylogeny and expression profile of genes encoding vesicular fusion components. Using compared genomics and phylogenetic methods, we identified 44 genes encoding vesicle fusion components in the V. dahliae genome. According to the structural features of their encoded proteins, the 44 V. dahliae genes were classified into 22 SNAREs (6 Qa-, 4 Qb-, 6 Qc-, 1 Qbc- and 5 R-types, 4 SM family proteins, 10 Rab GTPases and 8 exocyst proteins. Based on phylogeny and motif constitution analysis, orthologs of vesicle fusion component in filamentous fungi were generally clustered together into the same subclasses with well-supported bootstrap values. Analysis of the expression profiles of these genes indicated that many of them are significantly differentially expressed during vegetative growth and microsclerotia formation in V. dahliae. The analysis show that many components of vesicle fusion are well conserved in filamentous fungi and indicate that vesicle fusion plays a critical role in microsclerotia formation of smoke tree wilt fungus V. dahliae. The genome-wide identification and expression analysis of components involved in vesicle fusion should facilitate research in this gene family and give

  13. Identification and characterization of a pathogenicity-related gene VdCYP1 from Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Xin-Yan; Chen, Jie-Yin; Kong, Zhi-Qiang; Gui, Yue-Jing; Li, Nan-Yang; Bao, Yu-Ming; Dai, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a wide variety of crop plants, thereby causing extensive economic loss. In present study, one V. dahliae T-DNA mutant M01C06 showed the pathogenicity loss on cotton, and the expression of a flanking gene encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450, VdCYP1) was strongly repressed. P450s of fungi could affect the fungal pathogenicity by involving in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. However, there was no report about the pathogenic function of P450s in V. dahliae. VdCYP1 gene deletion and complementation experiments confirmed that VdCYP1 was the pathogenicity-related gene in V. dahliae. A comparison of culture supernatants of the VdCYP1 deletion mutants and wild-type strains indicates that at least 14 kinds of secondary metabolites syntheses were affected due to VdCYP1 gene deletion. One of these compounds, sulfacetamide, had the ability to induce the necrosis and wilting symptoms in cotton. Above results indicate that VdCYP1 could participate in pathogenesis by involving the secondary metabolism in V. dahliae, such as the compound sulfacetamide. In conclusion, VdCYP1 acts as an important pathogenicity-related factor to involve in secondary metabolism that likely contributes to the pathogenic process in V. dahliae. PMID:27329129

  14. Resistance to Verticillium dahliae (Kleb.) in the strawberry breeding lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, J; Hortyński, J; Cholewa, T; Honcz, K

    2006-01-01

    Verticillium species are soil-borne fungi with worldwide distribution, causing vascular disease that results in severe yield and quality losses in fruit and nut crops, legumes, vegetables, forest trees, and woody and herbaceous ornamentals. Most crop diseases are caused by the two species Verticillium dahliae Klebahn and V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthier, which differ in morphology, host range, and growth characteristics. The control of Verticillium spp. is especially difficult because they can survive in the soil as resting structures for several years. Cultivation of resistant plant material is the most effective method of the disease elimination. Resistance to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. was examined in the four strawberry breeding lines i.e.'Kent S1', 'Kent o.p.', 'Plena S1', 'Plena o.p'. The strawberry isolate of cv. 'Elsanta' no.1093 of Verticillium dahliae from Pathogen Gene Bank (Poland-Poznań) was used throughout this study. Seedlings of strawberry breeding lines were used for in vitro inoculation at stage of 4 leaves. Their roots were dipped for approximately 1 min in conidial suspensions (inoculum concentration--60 spores at 100x magnification in the microscopic field). Observations of disease symptoms were performed at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 days post inoculation. Extent of leaf chlorosis was rated on a scale of 0-4 in which: 0 no symptom. 1 up to 25% chlorotic leaves. 2 up to 50% chlorotic leaves. 3 up to 75% chlorotic leaves. 4 up to 100% chlorotic leaves. Plant response to in vitro inoculation of V. dahliae was different and depended on the breeding line. The most susceptible breeding line was 'Plena S1' and the most resistant was the line 'Kent o.p'. The line 'Kent S1' was more susceptible than the last one, but much more resistant than the line 'Plena o.p'. Seedlings without disease symptoms were observed in all examined lines at 15 and 30 days post inoculation At 45 days post inoculation no plant without disease symptoms was observed. Disease

  15. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum in controlling wilt disease of pistachio caused by Verticillium dahliae

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    Fotoohiyan Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae, is one of the most devastating diseases in pistachio orchards in the world including Iran. In search for an effective non-chemical strategy for the management of this disease, we evaluated the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolates obtained from the rhizosphere of healthy pistachio trees in different locations of the Kerman province of Iran against V. dahliae under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Dual culture tests in the laboratory were conducted in a completely randomized design using 72 T. harzianum isolates. Twenty isolates showed the highest in vitro antagonistic activity. The results indicated that all 20 isolates were capable of inhibiting the mycelial growth of V. dahliae significantly. Among them, isolates Tr8 and Tr19 were the most effective by 88.89% and 85.12% inhibition, respectively. Extracted cell free metabolites of all effective isolates also inhibited the growth of V. dahliae in the culture medium significantly. According to the results, isolates Tr4 and Tr6 inhibited fungal pathogen growth by 94.94% and 88.15% respectively, through production of non-volatile metabolites. In the evaluation of volatile metabolites, isolates Tr5 and Tr4 were the most effective by 26.27% and 24.49% growth inhibition, respectively. Based on the results of the in vitro experiments, the five most effective isolates were selected for evaluation under greenhouse conditions for their biocontrol potential in controlling Verticillium wilt of pistachio. Results of the greenhouse, (in vivo experiments were positive and indicated that the occurrence of wilt disease in plants treated with the antagonists alone or in combination with pathogenic fungus was lower than in plants inoculated with pathogen alone. The overall results of this study suggest that Trichoderma fungal antagonist may be an effective biocontrol agent for the control of Verticillium wilt of pistachio.

  16. Genetics of the partial resistance against race 2 of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production on the Coastal California is threatened by Verticillium wilt, a soil borne fungal disease caused by Verticillium dahliae that diminishes yield and quality. Two races of V. dahliae were identified on lettuce, race 1 and race 2. Complete resistance to race 1 is c...

  17. AAC as a Potential Target Gene to Control Verticillium dahliae

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    Xiaofeng Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae invades the roots of host plants and causes vascular wilt, which seriously diminishes the yield of cotton and other important crops. The protein AAC (ADP, ATP carrier is responsible for transferring ATP from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. When V. dahliae protoplasts were transformed with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs targeting the VdAAC gene, fungal growth and sporulation were significantly inhibited. To further confirm a role for VdAAC in fungal development, we generated knockout mutants (ΔVdACC. Compared with wild-type V. dahliae (Vd wt, ΔVdAAC was impaired in germination and virulence; these impairments were rescued in the complementary strains (ΔVdAAC-C. Moreover, when an RNAi construct of VdAAC under the control of the 35S promoter was used to transform Nicotiana benthamiana, the expression of VdAAC was downregulated in the transgenic seedlings, and they had elevated resistance against V. dahliae. The results of this study suggest that VdAAC contributes to fungal development, virulence and is a promising candidate gene to control V. dahliae. In addition, RNAi is a highly efficient way to silence fungal genes and provides a novel strategy to improve disease resistance in plants.

  18. Island cotton Gbve1 gene encoding a receptor-like protein confers resistance to both defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

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    Baolong Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.

  19. Nachweis von Verticillium dahliae an Pfefferminze (Mentha x piperita L.

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    Gärber, Ute

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Beständen von Pfefferminze wurden Krankheitssymptome beobachtet, die sich in Wuchshemmungen, Stängelverbräunungen, Blattchlorosen und Welke zeigten. Teilweise starben die Pflanzen bzw. einzelne Triebe ab. Als Ursache konnte Verticillium dahliae nachgewiesen werden. In einem Infektionsversuch im Gewächshaus wurden sieben Wochen alte Pfefferminzpflanzen der Sorte Multimentha durch Angießen mit einer Konidiensuspension (106 Konidien/ml Suspension inokuliert. Erste Krankheitssymptome erschienen acht Wochen nach Inokulation. Innerhalb kurzer Zeit nahm der Befall stark zu. Aus den kranken Pflanzenteilen wie Stängel und Blatt konnte der Erreger reisoliert werden.

  20. QTL mapping and candidate gene discovery in potato for resistance to the Verticillium wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by fungal pathogens, Verticillium dahliae and V. albo atrum, is a disease of major significance throughout the potato growing regions in the world. In the past, researchers have focused on the Ve gene, which is a major dominant gene that c...

  1. Soil temperature determines the reaction of olive cultivars to Verticillium dahliae pathotypes.

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    Rocío Calderón

    Full Text Available Development of Verticillium wilt in olive, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, can be influenced by biotic and environmental factors. In this study we modeled i the combined effects of biotic factors (i.e., pathotype virulence and cultivar susceptibility and abiotic factors (i.e., soil temperature on disease development and ii the relationship between disease severity and several remote sensing parameters and plant stress indicators.Plants of Arbequina and Picual olive cultivars inoculated with isolates of defoliating and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes were grown in soil tanks with a range of soil temperatures from 16 to 32°C. Disease progression was correlated with plant stress parameters (i.e., leaf temperature, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, photochemical reflectance index, chlorophyll content, and ethylene production and plant growth-related parameters (i.e., canopy length and dry weight.Disease development in plants infected with the defoliating pathotype was faster and more severe in Picual. Models estimated that infection with the defoliating pathotype was promoted by soil temperatures in a range of 16 to 24°C in cv. Picual and of 20 to 24°C in cv. Arbequina. In the non-defoliating pathotype, soil temperatures ranging from 16 to 20°C were estimated to be most favorable for infection. The relationship between stress-related parameters and disease severity determined by multinomial logistic regression and classification trees was able to detect the effects of V. dahliae infection and colonization on water flow that eventually cause water stress.Chlorophyll content, steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf temperature were the best indicators for Verticillium wilt detection at early stages of disease development, while ethylene production and photochemical reflectance index were indicators for disease detection at advanced stages. These results provide a better understanding of the differential

  2. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Genes Involved in Cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) Response to Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Xian-long; ZHU Long-fu; TU Li-li

    2008-01-01

    @@ Verticillium dahliae Kleb.is a necrotrophic plant pathogen which causes serious soil borne vascular disease in cotton.The molecular basis the defense response of cotton to this pathogen is poorly understood.

  3. ANTAGONISMO IN VITRO DE Trichoderma spp. A Verticillium dahliae KLEB

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    MARTINS-CORDER M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho visou testar e selecionar isolados selvagens de Trichoderma spp. quanto à capacidade antagônica ao fungo fitopatogênico Verticillium dahliae. Os ensaios in vitro consistiram de testes para avaliar a capacidade hiperparasítica e de antibiose através da produção de metabólitos voláteis e não voláteis. Pela técnica de culturas pareadas, 47 isolados de diversas espécies de Trichoderma foram avaliados e, pelos resultados obtidos, 20 foram selecionados. Através do teste de antibiose, selecionaram-se 7 isolados: T15P e Tal-1 (T. viride, TW6 e CNP311A (T. koningii, CNP17 e TCII (T. harzianum e Tal-10 (T. aureoviride os quais inibiram completamente o crescimento micelial de V. dahliae através da produção de metabólitos. Observações microscópicas demonstraram interações de hifas entre Trichoderma sp. e V. dahliae, tais como: enrolamento, crescimento paralelo de ambos, formação de ganchos.

  4. Transcriptome profiling of Gossypium barbadense inoculated with Verticillium dahliae provides a resource for cotton improvement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is the most severe disease in cotton (Gossypium spp.), causing great lint losses worldwide. Disease management could be achieved in the field if genetically improved, resistant plants were used. However, the interaction between V. dahliae and cotton is a complicated process, and its molecular mechanism remains obscure. To understand better the defense response to this pathogen as a means for obtaining more toler...

  5. Maintenance of sex-related genes and the co-occurrence of both mating types in Verticillium dahliae.

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    Dylan P G Short

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a cosmopolitan, soilborne fungus that causes a significant wilt disease on a wide variety of plant hosts including economically important crops, ornamentals, and timber species. Clonal expansion through asexual reproduction plays a vital role in recurring plant epidemics caused by this pathogen. The recent discovery of recombination between clonal lineages and preliminary investigations of the meiotic gene inventory of V. dahliae suggest that cryptic sex appears to be rare in this species. Here we expanded on previous findings on the sexual nature of V. dahliae. Only 1% of isolates in a global collection of 1120 phytopathogenic V. dahliae isolates contained the MAT1-1 idiomorph, whereas 99% contained MAT1-2. Nine unique multilocus microsatellite types comprised isolates of both mating types, eight of which were collected from the same substrate at the same time. Orthologs of 88 previously characterized sex-related genes from fungal model systems in the Ascoymycota were identified in the genome of V. dahliae, out of 93 genes investigated. Results of RT-PCR experiments using both mating types revealed that 10 arbitrarily chosen sex-related genes, including MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1, were constitutively expressed in V. dahliae cultures grown under laboratory conditions. Ratios of non-synonymous (amino-acid altering to synonymous (silent substitutions in V. dahliae MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 sequences were indistinguishable from the ratios observed in the MAT genes of sexual fungi in the Pezizomycotina. Patterns consistent with strong purifying selection were also observed in 18 other arbitrarily chosen V. dahliae sex-related genes, relative to the patterns in orthologs from fungi with known sexual stages. This study builds upon recent findings from other laboratories and mounts further evidence for an ancestral or cryptic sexual stage in V. dahliae.

  6. Verticillium dahliae Infects, Alters Plant Biomass, and Produces Inoculum on Rotation Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, D L; Johnson, D A

    2016-06-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae, reduces yields of potato and mint. Crop rotation is a potential management tactic for Verticillium wilt; however, the wide host range of V. dahliae may limit the effectiveness of this tactic. The hypothesis that rotation crops are infected by V. dahliae inoculum originating from potato and mint was tested by inoculation of mustards, grasses, and Austrian winter pea with eight isolates of V. dahliae. Inoculum density was estimated from plants and soil. Typical wilt symptoms were not observed in any rotation crop but plant biomass of some crops was reduced, not affected, or increased by infection of specific isolates. Each isolate was host-specific and infected a subset of the rotation crops tested but microsclerotia from at least one isolate were observed on each rotation crop. Some isolates were host-adapted and differentially altered plant biomass or produced differential amounts of inoculum on rotation crops like arugula and Austrian winter pea, which supported more inoculum of specific isolates than potato. Evidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infection and differential inoculum formation of V. dahliae on rotation crops presented here will be useful in designing rotations for management of Verticillium wilt.

  7. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that...

  8. 黄栌枯萎病菌拮抗细菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of an antagonistic bacterium against smoke tree wilt fungus Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙妍; 于地美; 黄华毅; 王永林; 田呈明

    2015-01-01

    为了获得能有效拮抗黄栌枯萎病的大丽轮枝菌( Verticillium dahliae)和尖孢镰刀菌( Fusarium oxysporum)的生防菌株,采用系列稀释分离法和平板对峙法从盐碱地土壤中筛选拮抗细菌,基于形态特征、生理生化特性和16S rDNA序列分析鉴定菌株,并测定其无菌滤液和挥发性气体的抑菌活性。筛选结果表明,菌株C-2-3-2是一株能有效抑制黄栌枯萎病菌和尖孢镰刀菌的生防菌株,经鉴定其为枯草芽孢杆菌( Bacillus subtilis)。该菌株的无菌滤液对黄栌枯萎病菌和尖孢镰刀菌均具有明显的体外抑菌作用,且能有效抑制黄栌枯萎病菌微菌核的形成。同时,其挥发性气体也能有效抑制黄栌枯萎病菌的生长。另外,研究还发现该菌株能产生铁载体和合成氨,并产生几丁质酶、纤维素酶、蛋白酶和β-1,3-葡聚糖酶。研究结果表明菌株C-2-3-2在黄栌枯萎病生物防治中具有较好的应用潜力和较高的研究价值。%In order to isolate and characterize an antagonistic bacterial strain against Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum, serial dilution and plate⁃confrontation methods were used for preliminary screening and selecting antagonistic bacteria from saline⁃alkali soil. Strain identification was based on morphological and physiological characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequence. The antagonistic effects of sterile culture filtrates and volatiles of antagonis⁃tic bacteria were determined. An antagonistic bacteria, named as C-2-3-2, was isolated and identified as Bacillus sub⁃tilis. The results indicated that sterile culture filtrate of the strain exhibited obvious in vitro inhibition against V. dahliae and F. oxysporum, and suppressed the production of microsclerotia of V. dahliae. The volatiles also effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of V. dahliae. In addition, the results indicated that C-2

  9. Suppression of the homeobox gene HDTF1 enhances resistance to Verticillium dahliae and Botrytis cinerea in cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Gao; Lu Long; Li Xu; Keith Lindsey; Xianlong Zhang; Longfu Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Development of pathogen-resistant crops, such as fungus-resistant cotton, has significantly reduced chemical application and improved crop yield and quality. However, the mechanism of resistance to cotton pathogens such as Verticillium dahliae is still poorly understood. In this study, we characterized a cotton gene (HDTF1) that was isolated following transcriptome profiling during the resistance response of cotton to V. dahliae. HDTF1 putatively encodes a homeodomain transcription factor, and its expression was found to be down-regulated in cotton upon inoculation with V. dahliae and Botrytis cinerea. To characterise the involvement of HDTF1 in the response to these pathogens, we used virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to generate HDTF1-silenced cotton. VIGS reduction in HDTF1 expression significantly enhanced cotton plant resistance to both pathogens. HDTF1 silencing resulted in activation of jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated signaling and JA accumulation. However, the silenced plants were not altered in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) or the expression of marker genes associated with SA signaling. These results suggest that HDTF1 is a negative regulator of the JA pathway, and resistance to V. dahliae and B. cinerea can be engineered by activation of JA signaling.

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-González, M. Mercedes; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of Verticillium wilts (VW), diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from olive roots with demonstrated ability to control VW of olive caused by the highly virulent, defoliating (D) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the study of the PICF7-V. dahliae-olive tripartite interaction poses difficulties because of the inherent characteristics of woody, long-living plants. To overcome these problems we explored the use of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results obtained in this study showed that: (i) olive D and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes produce differential disease severity in A. thaliana plants; (ii) strain PICF7 is able to colonize and persist in the A. thaliana rhizosphere but is not endophytic in Arabidopsis; and (iii) strain PICF7 controls VW in Arabidopsis. Additionally, as previously observed in olive, neither swimming motility nor siderophore production by PICF7 are required for VW control in A. thaliana, whilst cysteine auxotrophy decreased the effectiveness of PICF7. Moreover, when applied to the roots PICF7 controlled Botrytis cinerea infection in the leaves of Arabidopsis, suggesting that this strain is able to induce systemic resistance. A. thaliana is therefore a suitable alternative to olive bioassays to unravel biocontrol traits involved in biological control of V. dahliae by P. fluorescens PICF7. PMID:25904904

  11. Verticillium dahliae LysM effectors differentially contribute to virulence on plant hosts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kombrink, Anja; Rovenich, Hanna; Shi, Xiaoqian; Rojas-Padilla, Eduardo; Berg-Velthuis, van den Grardy; Domazakis, Emmanouil; Jonge, De Ronnie; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Seidl, Michael F.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Chitin-binding LysM effectors contribute to virulence of various plant pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report on LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM effectors that are

  12. Potato stem cuttings to study Verticillium dahliae infection for resistance breeding and ‘omics’ studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of consistent and effective methods for early discrimination of resistance to pathogens and selection of appropriate times for tissue sampling are important for experiments focused on global gene expression and metabolomics. Assays for resistance to the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae...

  13. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mercedes eMaldonado-González

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effective management of Verticillium wilts, diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from olive roots with demonstrated ability to control Verticillium wilt of olive caused by the highly-virulent, defoliating (D pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the study of the PICF7-V.dahliae-olive tripartite interaction poses difficulties because of the inherent characteristics of woody, long-living plants. To overcome these problems we explored the use of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results obtained in this study showed that: (i olive D and non-defoliating (ND V. dahliae pathotypes produce differential disease severity in A. thaliana plants; (ii strain PICF7 is able to colonize and persist in the A. thaliana rhizosphere but is not endophytic in Arabidopsis; and (iii strain PICF7 controls Verticillium wilt (VW in Arabidopsis. Additionally, as previously observed in olive, neither swimming motility nor siderophore production by PICF7 are required for VW control in A. thaliana, whilst cysteine auxotrophy decreased the effectiveness of PICF7. Moreover, when applied to the roots PICF7 controlled Botrytis cinerea infection in the leaves of Arabidopsis, suggesting that this strain is able to induce systemic resistance. Arabidopsis thaliana is therefore a suitable alternative to olive bioassays to unravel biocontrol traits involved in biological control of V. dahliae by P. fluorescens PICF7.

  14. Selection for resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 2 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. The pathogen exists as two races (races 1 and 2) in lettuce, and complete resistance to race 1 is known. Resistance to race 2 isolates has not been reported, and production of race 1 re...

  15. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  16. Genetics of resistance in lettuce to races 1 and 2 of Verticillium dahliae from different host species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race 1 resistance against Verticillium dahliae in lettuce was originally shown in the cultivar La Brillante to be conditioned by a single dominant gene (Verticillium resistance 1, Vr1). Multiple, morphologically diverse sources of germplasm have been identified as resistant to race 1. In this study...

  17. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Gossypium thurberi in Response to Verticillium dahliae Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Fang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt is threatening cotton productivity globally. This disease is caused by soil-borne Verticillium dahliae which directly infects cotton roots, and exclusively colonizes and occludes xylem vessels, finally resulting in necrosis, defoliation, and most severely, plant death. For the first time, iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification was applied to screen the differentially expressed proteins of Gossypium thurberi inoculated with V. dahliae. A total of 6533 proteins were identified from the roots of G. thurberi after inoculation with V. dahliae, and 396 showed up- and 279 down-regulated in comparison to a mock-inoculated roots. Of these identified proteins, the main functional groups were those involved in cell wall organization and reinforcement, disease-resistant chemicals of secondary metabolism, phytohormone signaling, pathogenesis-related proteins, and disease-resistant proteins. Physiological and biochemical analysis showed that peroxidase activity, which promotes the biosynthesis and accumulation of lignin, was induced early in the hypocotyl after inoculation with V. dahliae. Similarly, salicylic acid also accumulated significantly in hypocotyl of the seedlings after inoculation. These findings provide an important knowledge of the molecular events and regulatory networks occurring during G. thurberi-V. dahliae interaction, which may provide a foundation for breeding disease-resistance in cotton.

  18. A synthetic antimicrobial peptide BTD-S expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana confers enhanced resistance to Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Shen, Hao; Wang, Ming; Fan, Kai; Bibi, Noreen; Ni, Mi; Yuan, Shuna; Wang, Xuede

    2016-08-01

    BTD-S is a synthetic non-cyclic θ-defensin derivative which was previously designed in our laboratory based on baboon θ-defensins (BTDs). It shows robust antimicrobial activity against economically important phytopathogen, Verticillium dahliae. Here, we deduced the coding nucleotide sequence of BTD-S and introduced the gene into wild-type (ecotype Columbia-0) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Results demonstrated that BTD-S-transgenic lines displayed in bioassays inhibitory effects on the growth of V. dahliae in vivo and in vitro. Based on symptom severity, enhanced resistance was found in a survey of BTD-S-transgenic lines. Besides, crude protein extracts from root tissues of BTD-S-transformed plants significantly restricted the growth of fungal hyphae and the germination of conidia. Also, fungal biomass over time determined by real-time PCR demonstrated the overgrowth of V. dahliae in wild-type plants 2-3 weeks after inoculation, while almost no fungal DNA was detected in aerial tissues of their transgenic progenitors. The result suggested that fungus failed to invade and progress acropetally up to establish a systemic infection in BTD-S-transgenic plants. Moreover, the assessment of basal defense responses was performed in the leaves of WT and BTD-S-transgenic plants. The mitigated oxidative stress and low antioxidase level in BTD-S-transgenic plants revealed that BTD-S acts via permeabilizing target microbial membranes, which is in a category different from hypersensitive response-dependent defense. Taken together, our results demonstrate that BTD-S is a promising gene to be explored for transgenic engineering for plant protection against Verticillium wilt.

  19. The Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase VdPbs2 of Verticillium dahliae Regulates Microsclerotia Formation, Stress Response, and Plant Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Longyan; Wang, Yonglin; Yu, Jun; Xiong, Dianguang; Zhao, Hengjun; Tian, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae, a ubiquitous phytopathogenic fungus, forms resting structures, known as microsclerotia that play crucial roles in Verticillium wilt diseases. VdHog1, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), controls microsclerotia formation, virulence, and stress response in V. dahliae. In this study, we present detailed evidence that the conserved upstream component of VdHog1, VdPbs2, is a key regulator of microsclerotia formation, oxidative stress and fungicide response and plant virulence in V. dahliae. We identified VdPbs2, homologous to the yeast MAPK kinase Pbs2. Similar to the VdHog1 deletion mutant, VdPbs2 deletion strains exhibited delayed melanin synthesis and reduced formation of microsclerotia. When exposed to stresses, VdPbs2 mutants were more sensitive than the wild type to osmotic agents and peroxide, but more resistant to inhibitors of cell wall synthesis and some fungicides. Finally, VdPbs2 deletion mutants exhibited reduced virulence on smoke tree and tobacco seedlings. When taken together, we implicate that VdPbs2 and VdHog1 function in a cascade that regulates microsclerotia formation and virulence, but not all VdHog1 dependent functions are VdPbs2 regulated. This study thus provides novel insights into the signal transduction mechanisms that regulate microsclerotia formation and pathogenesis in this fungus. PMID:27729908

  20. Molecular determinants of resistance to Verticillium dahliae in potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    A constant evolutionary arms race between host resistance genes and pathogen effectors determine adaptive fitness. Therefore, identification of both host resistance genes and pathogen effectors is important in devising effective strategies to control disease. In tomato, resistance to Verticillium da...

  1. "Cryptic" group-I introns in the nuclear SSU-rRNA gene of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Ioannis A; Dimopoulou, Chrysoula D; Typas, Milton A

    2014-08-01

    Group-I introns are widespread--though irregularly distributed--in eukaryotic organisms, and they have been extensively used for discrimination and phylogenetic analyses. Within the Verticillium genus, which comprises important phytopathogenic fungi, a group-I intron was previously identified in the SSU-rRNA (18S) gene of only V. longisporum. In this work, we aimed at elucidating the SSU-located intron distribution in V. dahliae and other Verticillium species, and the assessment of heterogeneity regarding intron content among rDNA repeats of fungal strains. Using conserved PCR primers for the amplification of the SSU gene, a structurally similar novel intron (sub-group IC1) was detected in only a few V. dahliae isolates. However, when intron-specific primers were used for the screening of a diverse collection of Verticillium isolates that originally failed to produce intron-containing SSU amplicons, most were found to contain one or both intron types, at variable rDNA repeat numbers. This marked heterogeneity was confirmed with qRT-PCR by testing rDNA copy numbers (varying from 39 to 70 copies per haploid genome) and intron copy ratios in selected isolates. Our results demonstrate that (a) IC1 group-I introns are not specific to V. longisporum within the Verticillium genus, (b) V. dahliae isolates of vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) 4A and 6, which bear the novel intron at most of their rDNA repeats, are closely related, and (c) there is considerable intra-genomic heterogeneity for the presence or absence of introns among the ribosomal repeats. These findings underline that distributions of introns in the highly heterogeneous repetitive rDNA complex should always be verified with sensitive methods to avoid misleading conclusions for the phylogeny of fungi and other organisms.

  2. Verticillium dahliae LysM effectors differentially contribute to virulence on plant hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombrink, Anja; Rovenich, Hanna; Shi-Kunne, Xiaoqian; Rojas-Padilla, Eduardo; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Domazakis, Emmanouil; de Jonge, Ronnie; Valkenburg, Dirk-Jan; Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Seidl, Michael F; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2017-05-01

    Chitin-binding lysin motif (LysM) effectors contribute to the virulence of various plant-pathogenic fungi that are causal agents of foliar diseases. Here, we report the LysM effectors of the soil-borne fungal vascular wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae. Comparative genomics revealed three core LysM effectors that are conserved in a collection of V. dahliae strains. Remarkably, and in contrast with the previously studied LysM effectors of other plant pathogens, no expression of core LysM effectors was monitored in planta in a taxonomically diverse panel of host plants. Moreover, targeted deletion of the individual LysM effector genes in V. dahliae strain JR2 did not compromise virulence in infections on Arabidopsis, tomato or Nicotiana benthamiana. Interestingly, an additional lineage-specific LysM effector is encoded in the genome of V. dahliae strain VdLs17, but not in any other V. dahliae strain sequenced to date. Remarkably, this lineage-specific effector is expressed in planta and contributes to the virulence of V. dahliae strain VdLs17 on tomato, but not on Arabidopsis or N. benthamiana. Functional analysis revealed that this LysM effector binds chitin, is able to suppress chitin-induced immune responses and protects fungal hyphae against hydrolysis by plant hydrolytic enzymes. Thus, in contrast with the core LysM effectors of V. dahliae, this lineage-specific LysM effector of strain VdLs17 contributes to virulence in planta. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology published by British Society for Plant Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Development of an assay for rapid detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Koike, Steven T; Uribe, Pedro; Martin, Frank N

    2012-03-01

    ABSTRACT Verticillium dahliae is responsible for Verticillium wilt on a wide range of hosts, including strawberry, on which low soil inoculum densities can cause significant crop loss. Determination of inoculum density is currently done by soil plating but this can take 6 to 8 weeks to complete and delay the grower's ability to make planting decisions. To provide a faster means for estimating pathogen populations in the soil, a multiplexed TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) intergenic spacer (IGS) was developed for V. dahliae. The assay was specific for V. dahliae and included an internal control for evaluation of inhibition due to the presence of PCR inhibitors in DNA extracted from soil samples. An excellent correlation was observed in regression analysis (R(2) = 0.96) between real-time PCR results and inoculum densities determined by soil plating in a range of field soils with pathogen densities as low as 1 to 2 microsclerotia/g of soil. Variation in copy number of the rDNA was also evaluated among isolates by SYBR Green real-time PCR amplification of the V. dahliae-specific amplicon compared with amplification of several single-copy genes and was estimated to range from ≈24 to 73 copies per haploid genome, which translated into possible differences in results among isolates of ≈1.8 cycle thresholds. Analysis of the variation in results of V. dahliae quantification among extractions of the same soil sample indicated that assaying four replicate DNA extractions for each field sample would provide accurate results. A TaqMan assay also was developed to help identify colonies of V. tricorpus on soil plates.

  4. A Glutamic Acid-Rich Protein Identified in Verticillium dahliae from an Insertional Mutagenesis Affects Microsclerotial Formation and Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Ying; Jia, Pei-Song; Li, Hui; Zhao, Yun-Long; Zhao, Pan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2010-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a phytopathogenic fungus that causes wilt disease in a wide range of crops, including cotton. The life cycle of V. dahliae includes three vegetative phases: parasitic, saprophytic and dormant. The dormant microsclerotia are the primary infectious propagules, which germinate when they are stimulated by root exudates. In this study, we report the first application of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) for construction of insertional mutants from a virulent defoliating isolate of V. dahliae (V592). Changes in morphology, especially a lack of melanized microsclerotia or pigmentation traits, were observed in mutants. Together with the established laboratory unimpaired root dip-inoculation approach, we found insertional mutants to be affected in their pathogenicities in cotton. One of the genes tagged in a pathogenicity mutant encoded a glutamic acid-rich protein (VdGARP1), which shared no significant similarity to any known annotated gene. The vdgarp1 mutant showed vigorous mycelium growth with a significant delay in melanized microsclerotial formation. The expression of VdGARP1 in the wild type V529 was organ-specific and differentially regulated by different stress agencies and conditions, in addition to being stimulated by cotton root extract in liquid culture medium. Under extreme infertile nutrient conditions, VdGARP1 was not necessary for melanized microsclerotial formation. Taken together, our data suggest that VdGARP1 plays an important role in sensing infertile nutrient conditions in infected cells to promote a transfer from saprophytic to dormant microsclerotia for long-term survival. Overall, our findings indicate that insertional mutagenesis by ATMT is a valuable tool for the genome-wide analysis of gene function and identification of pathogenicity genes in this important cotton pathogen. PMID:21151869

  5. Mapping QTL associated with Verticillium dahliae resistance in the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanaviciute, L; Šurbanovski, N; Harrison, N; McLeary, K J; Simpson, D W; Wilson, F; Sargent, D J; Harrison, R J

    2015-01-01

    A biparental cross of octoploid strawberry segregating for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, the causative agent of Verticillium wilt, was screened under field conditions for three seasons. Average wilt scores were significantly associated with multiple QTL, which were mostly significant across all years. Markers significantly associated with the traits were used to screen material with known wilt resistance and susceptibility phenotypes. A clear and statistically significant relationship was observed between resistant, tolerant and susceptible material and the total number of markers present in the different resistance classes. In field situations resistance QTL appear to behave in an additive manner. These markers are abundant in the cultivated strawberry germplasm indicating that, despite the large number of markers, clear genetic gain is possible through marker-assisted breeding.

  6. Influence of Soil Type, Cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the Structure of the Root and Rhizosphere Soil Fungal Microbiome of Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar. PMID:25347069

  7. Influence of soil type, cultivar and Verticillium dahliae on the structure of the root and rhizosphere soil fungal microbiome of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallanchakravarthula, Srivathsa; Mahmood, Shahid; Alström, Sadhna; Finlay, Roger D

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable management of crop productivity and health necessitates improved understanding of the ways in which rhizosphere microbial populations interact with each other, with plant roots and their abiotic environment. In this study we examined the effects of different soils and cultivars, and the presence of a soil-borne fungal pathogen, Verticillium dahliae, on the fungal microbiome of the rhizosphere soil and roots of strawberry plants, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Fungal communities of the roots of two cultivars, Honeoye and Florence, were statistically distinct from those in the rhizosphere soil of the same plants, with little overlap. Roots of plants growing in two contrasting field soils had high relative abundance of Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g whereas rhizosphere soil was characterised by high relative abundance of Trichosporon dulcitum or Cryptococcus terreus, depending upon the soil type. Differences between different cultivars were not as clear. Inoculation with the pathogen V. dahliae had a significant influence on community structure, generally decreasing the number of rhizosphere soil- and root-inhabiting fungi. Leptodontidium sp. C2 BESC 319 g was the dominant fungus responding positively to inoculation with V. dahliae. The results suggest that 1) plant roots select microorganisms from the wider rhizosphere pool, 2) that both rhizosphere soil and root inhabiting fungal communities are influenced by V. dahliae and 3) that soil type has a stronger influence on both of these communities than cultivar.

  8. Media for efficient generating nitrate- - nonutilizing (NIT) mutants of Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rataj-Guranowska, M.; Pieczul, K.; Nowak, E.; Hiemstra, J.A.; Drapikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of several media amended wit potassium chlorate (1.5% and 6%) on generation of nit mutants, especially nit M mutants from Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum were studied. For all species minimal medium with 6% chlorat

  9. Media for efficient generating nitrate- - nonutilizing (NIT) mutants of Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rataj-Guranowska, M.; Pieczul, K.; Nowak, E.; Hiemstra, J.A.; Drapikowska, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of several media amended wit potassium chlorate (1.5% and 6%) on generation of nit mutants, especially nit M mutants from Verticillium dahliae, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and Fusarium oxysporum were studied. For all species minimal medium with 6%

  10. Assessment of Tolerance Level of some Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. Varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine KARADEMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the tolerance level of some cotton varieties against Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae Kleb. disease. Verticillium wilt is one of the major constraint diseases of cotton production worldwide and also in Turkey. The study was carried out at the Southeastern Anatolia Agricultural Research Institute’s naturally infected experimental area during 2004-2006. In this study, 10 different commercial cotton varieties were used as plant material. The experimental design was a randomized complete-block with four replications. During the cotton growing season, foliar disease index (FDI, vascular disease index (VDI and vascular disease rate (VDR were observed in addition to seed cotton yield and some fiber quality characteristics. According to the results, it was determined that with regards to FDI, VDI and VDR, the most tolerant varieties were ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’, while the most sensitive varieties were ‘Maraş 92’, ‘Sayar 314’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. The other varieties had moderate tolerance levels. The highest seed cotton yield and lint yield were obtained from ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’. These results showed that some sensitive varieties had high yield; the reason for this situation may be related with early or late occurrence of the disease. The result of this study indicated that ‘GW-Teks’, ‘GW-Golda’ and ‘Carmen’ varieties must be preferred for infected areas; on the other hand, ‘DP-Deltaopal’ and ‘Stoneville 453’ can be recommended and grown in uninfected areas. Additionally, ‘Carmen’, ‘GW-Teks’ and ‘GW-Golda’ varieties can be used as material for improving disease resistance in cotton breeding programs.

  11. Effects of methyl jasmonate and gums formed in stone fruit trees on in vitro ethylene production by mycelium of verticillium dahliae and alternaria alternata

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elżbieta Węgrzynowicz-Lesiak; Anna Jarecka Boncela; Justyna Góraj; Marian Saniewski

    2013-01-01

    .... In this study, we describe the effect of methyl jasmonate (JA-Me) and gums formed in stone fruit trees on the growth and in vitro ethylene production by mycelium of Verticillium dahliae and Alternaria alternata...

  12. A comparison of real-time PCR protocols for the quantitative monitoring of asymptomatic olive infections by Verticillium dahliae pathotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramaje, D; Pérez-Serrano, V; Montes-Borrego, M; Navas-Cortés, J A; Jiménez-Díaz, R M; Landa, B B

    2013-10-01

    Early, specific, and accurate in planta detection and quantification of Verticillium dahliae are essential to prevent the spread of Verticillium wilt in olive using certified pathogen-free planting material and development of resistance. We comparatively assessed the accuracy, specificity, and efficiency of eight real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocols published since 2002 for the specific detection and quantification of V. dahliae in various host plant species and in soil, using a background of DNAs extracted from olive roots, stems, and leaves. Results showed that some of those protocols were not specific for V. dahliae or were inhibited when using backgrounds other than water. Ranking of protocols according to a weighted score system placed protocols TAQ (based on intergenic spacer ribosomal DNA target gene) and SYBR-4 (based on the β-tubulin 2 target gene) first in sensitivity and efficiency for the quantification of V. dahliae DNA in small amounts and different types of olive tissues (root and stem) tested. Use of TAQ and SYBR-4 protocols allowed accurate quantification of V. dahliae DNA regardless of the background DNA, with a detection limit being fixed at a cycle threshold of 36 (≈18 fg for SYBR-4 and 15 fg for TAQ) of V. dahliae. The amount of DNA from defoliating (D) and nondefoliating (ND) V. dahliae pathotypes was monitored in Verticillium wilt-resistant 'Frantoio' olive using the TAQ and SYBR-4 protocols. In the infection bioassay, higher amounts of D V. dahliae DNA were measured in olive stems, whereas the average amount of fungal DNA in roots was higher for ND-infected plants than D-infected ones. Overall, V. dahliae DNA amounts in all olive tissues tested tended to slightly decrease or remain stable by the end of the experiment (35 days after inoculation). The SYBR-4 and TAQ protocols further enabled detection of V. dahliae in tissues of symptomless plants, suggesting that both techniques can be useful for implementing

  13. Liquid Swine Manure Can Kill Verticillium dahliae Microsclerotia in Soil by Volatile Fatty Acid, Nitrous Acid, and Ammonia Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kenneth L; Tenuta, Mario; Lazarovits, George

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT In previous studies, liquid swine manure (LSM) was sometimes shown to reduce Verticillium wilt of potato caused by Verticillium dahliae. We also observed that microsclerotia of this fungus died within 1 day, or between 3 and 6 weeks, after addition of LSM to some acid soils and within 1 week in some alkaline soils. In this study, we demonstrated that a volatile fatty acid (VFA) mixture with an identical concentration of VFAs as that found in an effective LSM reduced germination in an acid soil (pH 5.1) to the same extent as the LSM after 1 day of exposure. Germination was reduced by 45, 75, and 90% in the 10, 20, and 40% ([wt/wt] soil moisture) treatments, respectively, with the latter being equivalent to an application of 80 hl/ha. Addition to this acid soil of 19 LSMs (30% [wt/wt] soil moisture) collected from different producers resulted in complete kill of microsclerotia with 12 manures. Effective manures had a total concentration of nonionized forms of VFAs in soil solution of 2.7 mM or higher. In some acid soils (pH 5.8), addition of LSM (40% [wt/wt] soil moisture) did not kill microsclerotia until 3 to 6 weeks later. Here, a reduction in viability of microsclerotia was attributed to the accumulation of 0.06 mM nitrous acid in the soil solution at 4 weeks. When an LSM was added (40% [wt/wt] soil moisture) to an alkaline soil (pH 7.9) where VFAs are not toxic, microsclerotia germination was reduced by 80% after 1 week. Here the pH increased to 8.9 and the concentration of ammonia reached 30 mM in the soil solution. An ammonium chloride solution having an equivalent concentration of ammonium as the manure was shown to have the same spectrum of toxicity as the manure in assays ranging from pH 7 to 9, both in solutions and above the solutions. At pH 9, the concentration of ammonia reached 18 mM and 100% mortality of microsclerotia occurred. Thus, in acid soils, LSM can kill microsclerotia of V. dahliae by VFA and/or nitrous acid toxicity and in alkaline

  14. Protoplast transformation as a potential platform for exploring gene function in Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Latifur; Su, Xiaofeng; Guo, Huiming; Qi, Xiliang; Cheng, Hongmei

    2016-07-26

    Large efforts have focused on screening for genes involved in the virulence and pathogenicity of Verticillium dahliae, a destructive fungal pathogen of numerous plant species that is difficult to control once the plant is infected. Although Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) has been widely used for gene screening, a quick and easy method has been needed to facilitate transformation. High-quality protoplasts, with excellent regeneration efficiency (65 %) in TB3 broth (yeast extract 30 g, casamino acids 30 g and 200g sucrose in 1L H20), were generated using driselase (Sigma D-9515) and transformed with the GFP plasmid or linear GFP cassette using PEG or electroporation. PEG-mediated transformation yielded 600 transformants per microgram DNA for the linear GFP cassette and 250 for the GFP plasmid; electroporation resulted in 29 transformants per microgram DNA for the linear GFP cassette and 24 for the GFP plasmid. To determine whether short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can be delivered to the protoplasts and used for silencing genes, we targeted the GFP gene of Vd-GFP (V. dahliae GFP strain obtained in this study) by delivering one of four different siRNAs-19-nt duplex with 2-nt 3' overhangs (siRNA-gfp1, siRNA-gfp2, siRNA-gfp3 and siRNA-gfp4)-into the Vd-GFP protoplasts using PEG-mediated transformation. Up to 100 % silencing of GFP was obtained with siRNA-gfp4; the other siRNAs were less effective (up to 10 % silencing). Verticillium transcription activator of adhesion (Vta2) gene of V. dahliae was also silenced with four siRNAs (siRNA-vta1, siRNA-vta2, siRNA-vta3 and siRNA-vta4) independently and together using the same approach; siRNA-vta1 had the highest silencing efficiency as assessed by colony diameter and quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Our quick, easy transformation method can be used to investigate the function of genes involved in growth, virulence and pathogenicity of V. dahliae.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro Manuel; Ruano-Rosa, David; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Prieto, Pilar; Ramos, Cayo; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism.

  16. Systemic responses in a tolerant olive (Olea europaea L. cultivar upon root colonization by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gómez-Lama Cabanás

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt of olive (VWO is caused by the vascular pathogen Verticillium dahliae. One of the best VWO management measures is the use of tolerant cultivars; however, our knowledge on VWO tolerance/resistance genetics is very limited. A transcriptomic analysis was conducted to (i identify systemic defence responses induced/repressed in aerial tissues of the tolerant cultivar Frantoio upon root colonization by V. dahliae, and (ii determine the expression pattern of selected defence genes in olive cultivars showing differential susceptibility to VWO. Two suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries, enriched in up-regulated (FU and down-regulated (FD genes respectively, were generated from ‘Frantoio’ aerial tissues. Results showed that broad systemic transcriptomic changes are taking place during V. dahliae-‘Frantoio’ interaction. A total of 585 FU and 381 FD unigenes were identified, many of them involved in defence response to (abiotic stresses. Selected genes were then used to validate libraries and evaluate their temporal expression pattern in ‘Frantoio’. Four defence genes were analyzed in cultivars Changlot Real (tolerant and Picual (susceptible. An association between GRAS1 and DRR2 gene expression patterns and susceptibility to VWO was observed, suggesting that these transcripts could be further evaluated as markers of the tolerance level of olive cultivars to V. dahliae.

  17. The inheritance of resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae in the lettuce cultivar La Brillante.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ryan J; McHale, Leah K; Vallad, Gary E; Truco, Maria Jose; Michelmore, Richard W; Klosterman, Steve J; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

    2011-08-01

    Verticillium wilt of lettuce caused by Verticillium dahliae can cause severe economic damage to lettuce producers. Complete resistance to race 1 isolates is available in Lactuca sativa cultivar (cv.) La Brillante and understanding the genetic basis of this resistance will aid development of new resistant cultivars. F(1) and F(2) families from crosses between La Brillante and three iceberg cultivars as well as a recombinant inbred line population derived from L. sativa cv. Salinas 88 × La Brillante were evaluated for disease incidence and disease severity in replicated greenhouse and field experiments. One hundred and six molecular markers were used to generate a genetic map from Salinas 88 × La Brillante and for detection of quantitative trait loci. Segregation was consistent with a single dominant gene of major effect which we are naming Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1). The gene described large portions of the phenotypic variance (R(2) = 0.49-0.68) and was mapped to linkage group 9 coincident with an expressed sequence tag marker (QGD8I16.yg.ab1) that has sequence similarity with the Ve gene that confers resistance to V. dahliae race 1 in tomato. The simple inheritance of resistance indicates that breeding procedures designed for single genes will be applicable for developing resistant cultivars. QGD8I16.yg.ab1 is a good candidate for functional analysis and development of markers suitable for marker-assisted selection.

  18. Role of brassinosteroids in alleviating toxin-induced stress of Verticillium dahliae on cotton callus growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Noreen; Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Fan, Kai; Dawood, Muhammad; Li, Feng; Yuan, Shuna; Wang, Xuede

    2017-03-29

    Brassinosteroids are well known to mitigate biotic stresses; however, their role to induce tolerance against Verticillium dahliae is unknown. The current study employed V. dahliae (Vd) toxin as pathogen-free model system to induce stress on cotton callus growth, and its amelioration was investigated using 24-epibrassinolide (EBR). Results revealed that EBR has ameliorative effects against Vd toxin with greater seen effect when callus was treated with EBR prior to its exposure to Vd toxin (pre-EBR treatment) than EBR applied along with Vd toxin simultaneously (co-EBR treatment). Pre-EBR-treated calli remained green, while 65 and 90% callus browning was observed in co-EBR- and Vd toxin-alone-treated callus, respectively. Likewise, the fresh weight of the pre-EBR-treated callus was 52% higher than Vd toxin-alone treatment, whereas this increase was only 23% in co-EBR-treated callus. Meanwhile, EBR treatment of the cotton callus has also increased the contents of chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids, total phenols, flavonoids, soluble sugars, and proteins and increased the activity of enzymes involved in secondary metabolism like polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), cinnamyl alchol dehydrogenase (CAD), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH) over Vd toxin-alone treatment with higher increments being observed in pre-EBR-treated callus. Furthermore, EBR treatment mimicked the DNA damage and improved the structure of mitochondria, granum, stroma thylakoids, and the attachment of ribosomes with the endoplasmic reticulum. This EBR-mediated mitigation was primarily associated with substantially increased contents of photosynthetic pigments and regulation of secondary metabolism.

  19. [Construction and analysis of SSH library of Gossypium barbadense upon infection with Verticillium dahliae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Long-Fu; Tu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xian-Long; Nie, Yi-Chun; Guo, Xiao-Ping; Xia, Qi-Zhong

    2005-05-01

    Roots were collected from the seedlings inoculated with pathogen Verticillium dahliae after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours for total RNA extraction. The cDNAs from the inoculated seedlings were used as the tester and those from the control seedlings as the driver. SSH method was employed to find the differently expressed cDNAs responding to the pathogen. T/A clone library was constructed containing 534 clones. The cDNA inserts were amplified from the bacterial clones directly with M13 primers by PCR. The size of the products ranged 0.2 - 1.2 kb with an average size of 0.5 kb. The SSH products were dotted on nylon filters, and the positive clones were screened by virtual Northern blotting with probes of the two kinds of initiative cDNAs. Totally 78 clones which were up-regulated and putatively involved in the defense response of G. barbadense were identified and sequenced. Sequence similarity searches were performed with the Blastn and Blastx. Most of them showed high or partial homology to genes or ESTs induced by different stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana and other species,such as the pathogenesis-related 10 family of G. hirsumtum and disease resistance-responsive family protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results would be helpful to understand the molecular mechanisms of disease response in cotton.

  20. Discovery and identification of candidate genes from the chitinase gene family for Verticillium dahliae resistance in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Xu, Xiaoyang; Tian, Liangliang; Wang, Guilin; Zhang, Xueying; Wang, Xinyu; Guo, Wangzhen

    2016-06-29

    Verticillium dahliae, a destructive and soil-borne fungal pathogen, causes massive losses in cotton yields. However, the resistance mechanism to V. dahilae in cotton is still poorly understood. Accumulating evidence indicates that chitinases are crucial hydrolytic enzymes, which attack fungal pathogens by catalyzing the fungal cell wall degradation. As a large gene family, to date, the chitinase genes (Chis) have not been systematically analyzed and effectively utilized in cotton. Here, we identified 47, 49, 92, and 116 Chis from four sequenced cotton species, diploid Gossypium raimondii (D5), G. arboreum (A2), tetraploid G. hirsutum acc. TM-1 (AD1), and G. barbadense acc. 3-79 (AD2), respectively. The orthologous genes were not one-to-one correspondence in the diploid and tetraploid cotton species, implying changes in the number of Chis in different cotton species during the evolution of Gossypium. Phylogenetic classification indicated that these Chis could be classified into six groups, with distinguishable structural characteristics. The expression patterns of Chis indicated their various expressions in different organs and tissues, and in the V. dahliae response. Silencing of Chi23, Chi32, or Chi47 in cotton significantly impaired the resistance to V. dahliae, suggesting these genes might act as positive regulators in disease resistance to V. dahliae.

  1. Late summer disease symptoms in western Washington red raspberry fields associated with co-occurrence of Phytophthora rubi, Verticillium dahliae, and Pratylenchus penetrans

    Science.gov (United States)

    60% of the $109 million processed by the U.S. red raspberry industry is in northern Washington. In 2012, late summer disease symptoms were observed in many raspberry fields. These symptoms were initially attributed to Verticillium dahliae, but other soilborne pathogens (Phytophthora rubi, Pratylench...

  2. Hyphopodium-Specific VdNoxB/VdPls1-Dependent ROS-Ca2+ Signaling Is Required for Plant Infection by Verticillium dahliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungus obligate in root infection. A few hyphopodia differentiate from large numbers of hyphae after conidia germination on the root surface for further infection. However, the molecular features and role of hyphopodia in the pathogenicity of V. dahliae remain elusive. In this study, we found that the VdPls1, a tetraspanin, and the VdNoxB, a catalytic subunit of membrane-bound NADPH oxidases for reactive oxygen species (ROS production, were specifically expressed in hyphopodia. VdPls1 and VdNoxB highly co-localize with the plasma membrane at the base of hyphopodia, where ROS and penetration pegs are generated. Mutant strains, VdΔnoxb and VdΔpls1, in which VdPls1 and VdNoxB were deleted, respectively, developed defective hyphpodia incapable of producing ROS and penetration pegs. Defective plasma membrane localization of VdNoxB in VdΔpls1 demonstrates that VdPls1 functions as an adaptor protein for the recruitment and activation of the VdNoxB. Furthermore, in VdΔnoxb and VdΔpls1, tip-high Ca2+ accumulation was impaired in hyphopodia, but not in vegetative hyphal tips. Moreover, nuclear targeting of VdCrz1 and activation of calcineurin-Crz1 signaling upon hyphopodium induction in wild-type V. dahliae was impaired in both knockout mutants, indicating that VdPls1/VdNoxB-dependent ROS was specifically required for tip-high Ca2+ elevation in hyphopodia to activate the transcription factor VdCrz1 in the regulation of penetration peg formation. Together with the loss of virulence of VdΔnoxb and VdΔpls1, which are unable to initiate colonization in cotton plants, our data demonstrate that VdNoxB/VdPls1-mediated ROS production activates VdCrz1 signaling through Ca2+ elevation in hyphopodia, infectious structures of V. dahliae, to regulate penetration peg formation during the initial colonization of cotton roots.

  3. The Innate Immune Signaling System as a Regulator of Disease Resistance and Induced Systemic Resistance Activity Against Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkizi, Danai; Lehmann, Silke; L'Haridon, Floriane; Serrano, Mario; Paplomatas, Epaminondas J; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Tjamos, Sotirios E

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades, the plant innate immune responses against pathogens have been extensively studied, while biocontrol interactions between soilborne fungal pathogens and their hosts have received much less attention. Treatment of Arabidopsis thaliana with the nonpathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus alvei K165 was shown previously to protect against Verticillium dahliae by triggering induced systemic resistance (ISR). In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of the innate immune response in the K165-mediated protection of Arabidopsis against V. dahliae. Tests with Arabidopsis mutants impaired in several regulators of the early steps of the innate immune responses, including fls2, efr-1, bak1-4, mpk3, mpk6, wrky22, and wrky29 showed that FLS2 and WRKY22 have a central role in the K165-triggered ISR, while EFR1, MPK3, and MPK6 are possible susceptibility factors for V. dahliae and bak1 shows a tolerance phenomenon. The resistance induced by strain K165 is dependent on both salicylate and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways, as evidenced by an increased transient accumulation of PR1 and PDF1.2 transcripts in the aerial parts of infected plants treated with strain K165.

  4. Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

  5. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldonado-González, M Mercedes; Bakker, Peter A H M; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of Verticillium wilts (VW), diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PIC

  7. Iceberg lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and the University of California, Davis, announce the release of two breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lines RH08-0472 and RH08-0475 are F9 iceberg type lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wil...

  8. Dysfunctionality of the xylem in Olea europaea L. Plants associated with the infection process by Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Role of phenolic compounds in plant defense mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báidez, Ana G; Gómez, Pedro; Del Río, José A; Ortuño, Ana

    2007-05-02

    Xylem ultrastructural modification and the possible participation of phenolic compounds in the natural defense or resistance mechanisms of olive plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. were studied. Microscopic study showed that the mycelium propagated and passed from one element to another through the pit. The formation of tyloses and aggregates contributed to obstruction of the xylem lumen. In vivo changes in the levels of these phenolic compounds in infected olive plants and their antifungal activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb., as revealed by in vitro study, strongly suggest that they are involved in natural defense or resistance mechanisms in this plant material, the most active being quercetin and luteolin aglycons, followed by rutin, oleuropein, luteolin-7-glucoside, tyrosol, p-coumaric acid, and catechin. .

  9. Ectopic expression of a Ve homolog VvVe gene from Vitis vinifera enhances defense response to Verticillium dahliae infection in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Juan; Lin, Jing; Yang, Yuwen; Chen, Tianzi; Ling, Xitie; Zhang, Baolong; Chang, Youhong

    2016-01-15

    Verticillium wilt is a soil borne disease that can cause devastating losses to the production of many economically important crops. A Ve1 homologous gene responding to Verticillium dahliae infection was identified in Vitis vinifera cv. "HeiFeng" by semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and was designated as VvVe. The overexpression of VvVe in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants significantly enhanced the resistance to isolate V991 of V. dahliae when compared with the wild type plants. The expressions of defense-related genes including the salicylic acid regulated gene pathogen-related 1 (PR1) but not PR2, the ethylene- and jasmonic acid-regulated genes ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and lipoxygenase (LOX) were significantly increased due to over expression of VvVe. And greater accumulation of active oxygen, callose and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were observed in the leaves of transgenic VvVe tobacco plants than the wild type when under infection by V. dahliae. Moreover, the hypersensitive response mimicking cell death was exclusively occurred in the transgenic VvVe tobacco plants but not in the wild type. Taken together, the VvVe gene is a Ve1 like gene which involves in the signal cascade of salicylic acid, jasmonate, and ethylene defense pathways and enhances defense response to V. dahliae infection in the transgenic tobacco. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. An endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain DHV3-2 from diseased root as a potential biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae and growth elicitor in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng; Liu, Chongxi; Sun, Pengyu; Fu, Xuepeng; Wang, Shaoxian; Wu, Fengzhi; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-12-01

    Plant endophytes play important roles in biocontrol of plant diseases. Actinomycetes are used for biocontrol of fungal diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae. Many studies have focused on the endophytic actinomycetes isolated from the roots of healthy plants, but few on those from the roots of diseased plants. In the present research, actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of diseased and healthy tomato plants, respectively. The results showed that, in total, 86 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated for screening of their antimicrobial activities, 8 of which showed antagonism to V. dahliae in vitro. Among the 8 antagonistic strains, 5 (out of 36) were from the roots of diseased plants, with inhibition diameter zones ranging from 11.2 to 18.2 mm, whereas 3 (out of 50) were from the roots of healthy plants, with inhibition diameter zones ranging from 11.5 to 15.5 mm. Endophytic strain DHV3-2 was isolated from the root of a diseased plant and demonstrated a potent effect against V. dahliae and other pathogenic fungi by showing the largest inhibition diameter zones among all the eight antagonistic strains. Thus, strain DHV3-2 was chosen to investigate its biological control efficacies in vivo. Further study showed that the disease incidence and disease severity indices of tomato Verticillium wilt decreased significantly (P biocontrol agent against V. dahliae and growth elicitor in tomato.

  11. 大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae VdLs.17)分泌组预测及分析%Prediction and Analysis of Verticillium dahliae VdLs.17 Secretome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田李; 陈捷胤; 陈相永; 汪佳妮; 戴小枫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study was to predict and analyze secretome of Verticillium dahliae, an important soil-born fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt diseases. [Method] The softwares SignalP, TargetP, TMHMM, Big-pi and PROSITE were used to predict the sectetome of V. Dahliae. Protein databases were used for secretome annotation to find putative pectinase, cellulose and pathogen-host interaction proteins. The proteins with common fungal effector character were investigated by a set of computer algorithms. By using BLASTP, the secretome of V. Dahliae and V. Albo-atrum was compared to find V. Dahliae specifically secreted proteins. [Result] A total of 922 possible secreted proteins were identified in V. Dahliae scretome. The most frequent amino acid in signal peptides is alanine, and the least is glutamic acid and aspartic acid. The amino acid in the position -3 and -1 are very conserved. The secretome is equipped with 158 carbohydrate-active enzymes which include 10 pectic hydrolases and 14 pectic lyases, 190 putative pathogen-host interaction proteins, 97 RxLx[EDQ] motif containing proteins and 52 small cysteine-rich secreted proteins, and 58 V. Dahliae specifically secreted proteins compared with V. Albo-atrum. [Conclusion] Thisstudy has provided secretome prediction algorithms for V. Dahliae. Length of signal peptides vary greatly. Composition of signal peptides are mainly aliphatic amino acid and sequences of signal peptides near C-terminal are conservative. V. Dahliae secretome are rich in potential pectinase, pathogen-host interaction protein, RxLx[EDQ] motif containing protein and small cysteine-rich protein which may play roles in V. Dahliae pathogenetic mechanism.%[目的]预测并分析大丽轮枝菌基因组范围内的分泌蛋白,为大丽轮枝菌分泌蛋白致病机理的研究奠定基础.[方法]利用已公布的大丽轮枝菌全基因组序列,组合使用生物信息学软件SignalP、TargetP、TMHMM、Big-pi和PROSITE,预测大丽

  12. Identification of miRNAs and Their Targets in Cotton Inoculated with Verticillium dahliae by High-Throughput Sequencing and Degradome Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a group of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress response processes. Verticillium wilt is a vascular disease in plants mainly caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., the soil-borne fungal pathogen. However, the role of miRNAs in the regulation of Verticillium defense responses is mostly unknown. This study aimed to identify new miRNAs and their potential targets that are involved in the regulation of Verticillium defense responses. Four small RNA libraries and two degradome libraries from mock-infected and infected roots of cotton (both Gossypium hirsutum L. and Gossypium barbadense L. were constructed for deep sequencing. A total of 140 known miRNAs and 58 novel miRNAs were identified. Among the identified miRNAs, many were differentially expressed between libraries. Degradome analysis showed that a total of 83 and 24 genes were the targets of 31 known and 14 novel miRNA families, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis indicated that many of the identified miRNA targets may function in controlling root development and the regulation of Verticillium defense responses in cotton. Our findings provide an overview of potential miRNAs involved in the regulation of Verticillium defense responses in cotton and the interactions between miRNAs and their corresponding targets. The profiling of these miRNAs lays the foundation for further understanding of the function of small RNAs in regulating plant response to fungal infection and Verticillium wilt in particular.

  13. The Ve-mediated resistance response of the tomato to Verticillium dahliae involves H2O2, peroxidase and lignins and drives PAL gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merino Fuencisla

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verticillium dahliae is a fungal pathogen that infects a wide range of hosts. The only known genes for resistance to Verticillium in the Solanaceae are found in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Ve locus, formed by two linked genes, Ve1 and Ve2. To characterize the resistance response mediated by the tomato Ve gene, we inoculated two nearly isogenic tomato lines, LA3030 (ve/ve and LA3038 (Ve/Ve, with V. dahliae. Results We found induction of H2O2 production in roots of inoculated plants, followed by an increase in peroxidase activity only in roots of inoculated resistant plants. Phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL activity was also increased in resistant roots 2 hours after inoculation, while induction of PAL activity in susceptible roots was not seen until 48 hours after inoculation. Phenylpropanoid metabolism was also affected, with increases in ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde contents in resistant roots after inoculation. Six tomato PAL cDNA sequences (PAL1 - PAL6 were found in the SolGenes tomato EST database. RT-PCR analysis showed that these genes were expressed in all organs of the plant, albeit at different levels. Real-time RT-PCR indicated distinct patterns of expression of the different PAL genes in V. dahliae-inoculated roots. Phylogenetic analysis of 48 partial PAL cDNAs corresponding to 19 plant species grouped angiosperm PAL sequences into four clusters, suggesting functional differences among the six tomato genes, with PAL2 and PAL6 presumably involved in lignification, and the remaining PAL genes implicated in other biological processes. An increase in the synthesis of lignins was found 16 and 28 days after inoculation in both lines; this increase was greater and faster to develop in the resistant line. In both resistant and susceptible inoculated plants, an increase in the ratio of guaiacyl/syringyl units was detected 16 days after inoculation, resulting from the lowered amount

  14. Molecular Variability Within and Among Verticillium dahliae Vegetative Compatibility Groups Determined by Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism and Polymerase Chain Reaction Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Romero, Melania; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Olivares-García, Concepción; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT A degree of genetic diversity may exist among Verticillium dahliae isolates within vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) that bears phytopathological significance and is worth investigating using molecular tools of a higher resolution than VCG characterization. The molecular variability within and among V. dahliae VCGs was studied using 53 artichoke isolates from eastern-central Spain, 96 isolates from cotton, 7 from cotton soil, and 45 from olive trees in countries of the Mediterranean Basin. Isolates were selected to represent the widest available diversity in cotton- and olive-defoliating (D) and -nondefoliating (ND) pathotypes, as well as for VCG. The VCG of 96 cotton and olive isolates was determined in this present study. Molecular variability among V. dahliae isolates was assessed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for DNA fragments associated with the D (462 bp) and ND (824 bp) pathotypes, as well as a 334-bp amplicon associated with D pathotype isolates but also present in some VCG2B isolates. Isolates from cotton were in VCG1A, VCG1B, VCG2A, VCG2B, and VCG4B and those from olive trees were in VCG1A, VCG2A, and VCG4B. Artichoke isolates included representatives of VCG1A, VCG2A, VCG2B (including a newly identified VCG2Ba), and VCG4B. AFLP data were used to generate matrixes of genetic distance among isolates for cluster analysis using the neighbor-joining method and for analysis of molecular variance. Results demonstrated that V. dahliae isolates within a VCG subgroup are molecularly similar, to the extent that clustering of isolates correlated with VCG subgroups regardless of the host source and geographic origin. VCGs differed in molecular variability, with the variability being highest in VCG2B and VCG2A. For some AFLP/VCG subgroup clusterings, V. dahliae isolates from artichoke grouped in subclusters clearly distinct from those comprising isolates from cotton and

  15. Identification of MiRNA from eggplant (Solanum melongena L. by small RNA deep sequencing and their response to Verticillium dahliae infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    Full Text Available MiRNAs are a class of non-coding small RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of gene expression. Although plant miRNAs have been extensively studied in model systems, less is known in other plants with limited genome sequence data, including eggplant (Solanum melongena L.. To identify miRNAs in eggplant and their response to Verticillium dahliae infection, a fungal pathogen for which clear understanding of infection mechanisms and effective cure methods are currently lacking, we deep-sequenced two small RNA (sRNA libraries prepared from mock-infected and infected seedlings of eggplants. Specifically, 30,830,792 reads produced 7,716,328 unique miRNAs representing 99 known miRNA families that have been identified in other plant species. Two novel putative miRNAs were predicted with eggplant ESTs. The potential targets of the identified known and novel miRNAs were also predicted based on sequence homology search. It was observed that the length distribution of obtained sRNAs and the expression of 6 miRNA families were obviously different between the two libraries. These results provide a framework for further analysis of miRNAs and their role in regulating plant response to fungal infection and Verticillium wilt in particular.

  16. Fontes de resistência em acessos de Solanum (secção Lycopersicon a Verticillium dahliae raças 1 e 2 Sources of resistance to Verticillium dahliae races 1 and 2 in accessions of Solanum (section Lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo C de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A murcha-de-verticílio (Verticillium dahliae é uma das doenças mais severas do tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Duas raças fisiológicas de V. dahliae foram caracterizadas infectando o tomateiro e ambas estão presentes no Brasil. A estratégia de controle mais efetiva para isolados da raça 1 tem sido a utilização de cultivares resistentes em associação com práticas culturais. Entretanto, não existem cultivares comerciais de tomate resistentes à raça 2 do patógeno. Neste contexto, torna-se importante a identificação de novas fontes de resistência que sejam efetivas contra as duas raças de V. dahliae. Buscou-se fontes de resistência a isolados de V. dahliae (raças 1 e 2. Cem acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma contendo espécies cultivadas e selvagens de Solanum (secção Lycopersicon foram inicialmente inoculados pelo método de imersão de raízes com um isolado de V. dahliae raça 1 (5 mL de uma suspensão de 10(6 conídios/mL em condições de casa de vegetação. A avaliação foi feita aos 30 dias após a inoculação, usando uma escala de notas variando de 1 (planta sadia a 5 (planta morta. Foram considerados resistentes os acessos que apresentaram nota média entre 1 e 2. Um grupo composto por 38 acessos classificados como resistentes neste primeiro ensaio foi reavaliado para resistência a outros quatro isolados de V. dahliae pertencentes às raças 1 e 2. As cultivares Ponderosa e Floradade foram utilizadas como controles. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso em arranjo fatorial 5 x 40, com três repetições (vasos com quatro plantas. A avaliação foi feita baseada nos parâmetros epidemiológicos: período de incubação e índice de doença. Foram identificados acessos com resistência raça-específica e também com resistência a ambas as raças. Estes acessos podem ser indicados para futuros programas de melhoramento genético visando incorporar

  17. Verticillium wilt in trees. Detection, prediction and disease management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae , the causal agent of verticillium wilt, is the cause of high losses in a number of crops, especially nursery trees. Existing methods for quantification of V. dahliae microsclerotia in the soil were compared. The distinction of V. dahliae and V. tricorpus was studied on two semi

  18. Isolation and identification of the antagonistic strain DM-54 of Bacillus amyloliquefacien against Verticillium dahliae, and optimization of antifungal protein producing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHU; Shuna LI; Hongshui YUAN; Xiaojun GUO; Baocheng ZHU

    2009-01-01

    The strains capable of resistance against Verticillium dahliae Kleb were isolated and screened from the soils of cotton fields from several different provinces in China. A strain, coded DM-54, with a rather high antagonistic activity was obtained. Its morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical properties and a 16 S rDNA sequence of this strain were further studied. The DM-54 strain was finally identified as a kind of Bacillus amyloliquefacien. Through a single factor experiment and an orthogonal experiment, the optimal shaking flask fermentation condition of strain DM-54 was found to be: media composed of 5% dextrin, 3% soy peptone, 0.02% MgSO4 0.01% CaCl2, initial pH 7.0 and 10% inoculum volume, media volume 30/250 (mL/mL), fermentation temperature at 32℃, rotating speed activity was distinguished to be elevated, at about 39.9%. Our research offers an effective means for the massive production of antagonistic proteins.

  19. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  20. Screening and identification of intagonistic bacterium strain 8-52 against Verticillium dahliae%大丽轮枝菌拮抗细菌8-52菌株的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国江; 王占利; 李术娜; 王全; 李红亚; 朱宝成

    2009-01-01

    为筛选对棉花黄萎病病原菌大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae)具有拮抗作用的芽孢细菌,采用改良的琼脂平板扩散法,通过初筛从各地的土样中分离到83株拮抗细菌菌株,对其中的69株进行了复筛,得到一株具有较强的抑菌活性的拮抗细菌8-52菌株.对该菌株进行了形态特征的观察、生理生化试验和16S rDNA的序列分析.将该菌株的形态特征和生理生化特性鉴定的结果与相应种、属模式菌的性状相对照,认为菌株8-52与芽孢杆菌(Bacillus)的相应性状很相近.根据16S rDNA序列相似性分析,此菌株与Bacillus velezensis标准菌株AB245422的16S rDNA序列相似度达99.78%,因此鉴定拮抗菌株8-52为Bacillus velezensis.%In order to obtain antagonistic bacteria against Verticillium dahliae, 83 antagonistic strains were isolated and screened with the improved agar plate diffusion method from the soil of different districts. 69 strains of them were tested their antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb via secondary screening. As a result, a strain called 8-52 which had strong inhibition capability against Verticillum dahliae strain V-190 was obtained. Then the strain 8-52 was characterized by morphological and culture features observation, physiological and biochemical experiments, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. As the morphology characteristics and physiological and biochemical characteristics of the stain are similar to Bacillus and the similarity of the 16S rDNA sequences between strain 8-52 and the type strain was up to 99.21%, the strain 8-52 was initially identified as Bacillus malacitensis.

  1. Pattern Analysis of the Interaction between Verticillium dahliae Strains and Cotton Varieties%棉花黄萎病菌与品种互作的格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴元奇; 房卫平; 胡秉民

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the interaction pattern of strains and cotton varieties, the disease indices of twenty-three different resistant or susceptible varieties inoculating 18 isolates of Verticillium dahliae were analyzed by biplot method based on cluster analysis. The results showed that 23 cotton cultivars were grouped into six clusters, and 18 Verticillium dahliae strains were clustered into five groups. With the highest resistance to all strain groups, variety cluster G1 which was consisted of two lines (5031 and 50312) could be used as good resistant resource in breeding of Verticillium wilt resistance. There is a high host-pathogen interaction between strain group S4 and variety group G5. As dominant strains and with the highest pathogenicity, S4 consisting of 4 Verticillium dahliae strains among which VD25 came from Chengan of Hebei Province and the rest, named as XS4, XS6, and XS7 all from Changshu of Jiangsu Province, should be very important in identifying and breeding for Verticillium wilt resistance. Strain groups S2 and S3, which highly interacted with 3 variety groups (accounting for 56% of the tested material), might be the potential dominant strains. With average resistance to all strains, variety group G2 was the excellent host for Verticillium dahliae.%以23个棉花品种(系)接种18个黄萎病菌株的抗感表现(病情指数)为分析对象,在聚类分析的基础上用双标图方法研究了寄主-病原的互作格局.结果表明:23个棉花品种分为6个抗病性不同的品种组,18个菌株聚为5个致病力不同的菌株群.5031和50312组成的品种组G1对所有菌株群具有最高抗性,可作为抗黄育种的高抗质源.来自河北成安的VD25与来自江苏常熟的XS4、XS6和XS7组成的菌株群S4与G5品种组存在互作,其致病力最强,是棉花黄萎病的优势菌株群,在抗黄育种和抗黄鉴定中应予以高度重视.S2和S3菌株群与56%的参试品种构成的3个品种组间存在互作,是潜在的

  2. Ação antagônica e de metabólitos bioativos de Trichoderma spp. contra os patógenos Sclerotium rolfsii e Verticillium dahliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Oliveira Isaias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antagônico exercido por fungos do gênero Trichoderma foi avaliado contra os fitopatógenos Sclerotium rolfsii e Verticillium dahliae, isolados de áster ornamental e morangueiro, respectivamente. Utilizaram-se 20 isolados do antagonista, pertencentes às espécies T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. harzianum, T. koningiopsis, T. spirale e Trichoderma sp. O antagonismo foi verificado por meio de testes de culturas pareadas e produção de metabólitos bioativos pelo método de sobreposição de placas. A maioria dos isolados exibiu efeito inibitório sobre o crescimento micelial de S. rolfsii e V. dahliae quando comparado com as testemunhas. Excetuando-se os testes de produção de metabólitos não-voláteis, verificou-se maior ação inibitória contra V. dahliae. Mesmo os metabólitos não-voláteis termoestáveis apresentaram efeito inibitório contra ambos os patógenos testados, mostrando que os metabólitos secundários do antagonista exercem efeito significativo sobre essas espécies patogênicas.

  3. Efficacy of resistance selection to Verticillium wilt in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. tissue culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga I. Żebrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. causes economic losses in crops in temperate regions of the world and hence is the most studied species. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. belongs to plant species susceptible to Verticillium dahliae, although the response to infection caused by this pathogen is varied and depends on the cultivar. Due to a lack of efficient methods in Verticillium wilt elimination, the selection of genetically resistant plant material is a priority direction in breeding programs. Efficacy of resistance selection to Verticillium dahliae Kleb. in strawberry tissue culture was examined on the basis of response to in vitro infection by this pathogenic fungus in two tissue cultured strawberry cultivars, i.e. 'Filon' and 'Teresa'. Culture was conducted for 16 months in an environmentally controlled growth room at 18-20°C, 60-70% relative humidity and light intensity of 100 µm E × m-2 × s-1 on a 16h light / 8h dark cycle. Subcultures were proliferated every 6 weeks on modified Murashige and Skoog medium. Four hundred microplants from each tissue cultured cultivar were inoculated under in vitro conditions at the 4-leaf stage with a homogenate of liquid mycelium of Verticillium dahliae serving as the selecting agent. Disease symptoms were observed at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75th days post inoculation. The extent of leaf chlorosis was rated on a scale of 0-4. At day 75th post inoculation, the percentage of totally chlorotic plants in micropropagated cv. Teresa reached the value of 76.27%, whereas the proportion of such plants in inoculated tissue cultured cv. Filon reached the value of 89.40%. Also, the index of infection calculated for very severe disease symptoms in the subclone 'Teresa' reached the mean value lower when compared with that calculated for subclone 'Filon' (0.0962 and 0.1150, respectively. These results suggested that the micropropagated cv. Teresa exhibited higher genetic resistance to the

  4. Isolation and characterization of a chitinase gene from entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii Isolamento e caracterização de um gene de quitinase do fungo entomopatogênico Verticillium lecanii

    OpenAIRE

    Yanping Zhu; Jieru Pan; Junzhi Qiu; Xiong Guan

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a promising whitefly and aphid control agent. Chitinases secreted by this insect pathogen have considerable importance in the biological control of some insect pests. An endochitinase gene Vlchit1 from the fungus was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The Vlchit1 gene not only contains an open reading frame (ORF) which encodes a protein of 423 amino acids (aa), but also is interrupted by three short introns. A homology modelling of Vl...

  5. Control of Verticillium Yellows in Chinese Cabbage by the Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus LtVB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narisawa, K; Usuki, F; Hashiba, T

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of Verticillium longisporum. Two isolates effective against the pathogen were Phialocephala fortinii, which had been obtained from the roots of eggplant and Chinese cabbage. The third isolate was a dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus obtained from barley roots. Hyphae of P. fortinii grew along the surface of the root and formed microsclerotia on or in the epidermal layer. Hyphae of the DSE fungus heavily colonized root cells of the cortex. Seedlings grown for 1 week in the presence of the endophytes were then challenged with the Verticillium pathogen. In DSE-treated roots, some of cell walls in the epidermal and cortical layers showed cell wall appositions and thickenings, which appeared to limit the ingress of the pathogen into adjacent cells. Such marked host reactions were not observed in the root cells colonized by P. fortinii. Chinese cabbage preinoculated with the above endophytes and, for comparison, a previously reported disease-suppressive fungal endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira, were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. The DSE could most effectively inhibit the development of Verticillium yellows, with reductions in the percentages of external and internal disease symptoms of 84 and 88%, respectively. The protective values against the disease are extremely high compared with those of other isolates. Most of the DSE-treated plants in the plots achieved marketable quality.

  6. Fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência a Verticillium dahliae Kleb., em mudas de cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. Effect of potassium phosphite on the induction of resistance in cocoa seedlings (Theobroma cacao L. against Verticillium dahliae Kleb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins Ribeiro Júnior

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Há vários relatos da utilização de fosfitos no controle de doenças de plantas, por meio de ação direta, antifúngica e indireta por indução de resistência. Essa atuação como indutor é questionada, não sendo encontradas, em muitos desses trabalhos, evidências de respostas de defesa ativadas pelos sais de fosfito. Com o presente trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de doses (0,62; 1,25; 2,5 e 5 mL.L-1 de água de fosfito de potássio na indução de resistência em mudas de cacaueiro a V. dahliae, além de investigar os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na resposta de defesa. Foram realizados experimentos no Laboratório de Fisiologia do Parasitismo e casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Fitopatologia UFLA. A aplicação foliar do fosfito foi realizada 7 dias antes das inoculações e as avaliações de severidade foram realizadas aos 20, 30, 40, 50 e 60 dias após a inoculação. Foi realizado também um experimento para verificar o efeito tóxico direto e outro para avaliar a atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases e a concentração de lignina. O tratamento com o fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água proporcionou 10% de redução na área abaixo da curva de progresso da severidade da murcha-de-Verticillium (AACPD, 60 dias após aplicação foliar, não diferindo de nenhuma das doses, nem da testemunha. Todas as doses utilizadas apresentaram efeito fungitóxico, inibindo a germinação de V. dahliae. A aplicação do fosfito de potássio (1,25 mL.L-1 de água não induziu aumento na atividade das enzimas peroxidases e polifenoloxidases em relação à testemunha. Plantas tratadas com esse produto apresentaram um pequeno incremento na concentração de lignina, não apresentando diferença significativa da testemunha absoluta.There are several reports concerning with the use of phosphites for controlling of plant diseases, through direct action, antifungal, and indirect, by resistance induction. The

  7. Unravelling aspects of spatial and temporal distribution of Verticillium dahliae in olive, maple and ash trees and improvement of detection methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keykhasaber, Mojtaba

    2017-01-01

    Vascular wilts caused by xylem-colonizing pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases that affect a wide range of plant species worldwide. Information on the distribution of V. dahliae in infected trees helps to design an appropriate and efficient sampling method for reliable detection o

  8. Physiological mechanisms involved in resistance to cotton verticillium wilt induced by AM fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-jiang; LIU Run-jin

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was proved that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi played an important role in increasing plant resistance to soilborne pathogens, especially when plants were pre-inoculated with AM fungi.Mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are not yet well understood. On the basis of the former experiment results in our lab, effects of AM fungi on cotton Verticillium wilt and the mechanisms of increasing disease resisitance by the tested fungi were studied in pot culture under greenhouse conditions. Two cotton cutivars Litai 8 and 86-1 which are susceptible to Verticillium dahliae were pre-inoculated with Glomus fasiculatum, and Gigaspora margarita, then inoculated with the strain of Verticillium dahliae, namely "An-Yang" (belong to intermediate virulent type) 30 days after the former inoculation. Results showed that AM fungi could improve the growth and development of cotton plants, increase plants dry mass, decrease incidence and disease index of Verticillium wilt of cotton plants, inhibit the infection and development of V. dahliae to different extent in the rhizosphere of cotton pre-inoculated with AM fungi, while the colonization and spore numbers of AM fungi were not reduced significantly by this pathogen. The defence enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase, β-1, 3-glucanase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO) were induced, and their activities and peak increased by AM fungi in roots and leaves, and the increasing speed and peak of the enzyme activity were higher in treatment with AM fungus preinoculation than the inoculation with only V. dahliae, which suggested that defense response was activated by AM fungi, and then made the cotton to react strongly and rapidly to the infection of V. dahliae. In addition, AM fungi decreased the content of malondiadehyde (MDA) in cotton roots and leaves,protected membrane system and alleviated the damage caused by the pathogen. The AM fungus,Glomus fasiculatum showed the superior effects of biological

  9. Verticillium wilt in nursery trees: damage thresholds, spatial and temporal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium wilt can cause high losses in tree nurseries. To be able to predict disease and unravel disease dynamics over time and space, the relationship between verticillium wilt and soil inoculum densities of Verticillium dahliae and the nematode Pratylenchus fallax was studied in two 4-year fie

  10. Molecular research and genetic engineering of resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium dahliae, a soil-borne pathogen, causes Verticillium wilt, one of the most serious diseases in cotton, deleteriously influencing the crop’s production and quality. Verticillium wilt has become a major obstacle in cotton production since Helicoverpa armigera, the cotton bollworm, became e...

  11. Interfamily Transfer of Tomato Ve1 Mediates Verticillium Resistance in Arabidopsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fradin, E.F.; Abd-El-Haliem, A.; Masini, L.; Berg, van den G.C.M.; Joosten, M.H.A.J.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Vascular wilts caused by soil-borne fungal species of the Verticillium genus are devastating plant diseases. The most common species, Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, have broad host ranges and are notoriously difficult to control. Therefore, genetic resistance is the preferred meth

  12. 环腺苷酸对向日葵大丽轮枝菌生物学特性及致病力的影响%Effect of cAMP on biological characteristics and pathogenicity of sunflower Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    To unravel the effects of cAMP on biological characteristics and pathogenicity of sunflower pathogen Verticillium dahlia,growth rate,conidia production,germination rate of conidia spores,microsclerotia production, crude toxin and pathogenicity of V. dahliae were measured after V. dahlia cultured in medium with 10 mmol/L cAMP. Results showed that pathogen conidia was increased by 55. 45% in the medium,but conidia germination rate,microsclerotia yield,crude toxin production and disease index were reduced by 69%,46. 8%,35. 27% and 7. 28% respectively. In conclusion,exogenously cAMP promoted V. dahliae conidia yield,inhibited conidia germi-nation rate,and reduced microsclerotia yield,crude toxin production and pathogenicity. Among them,cAMP inhi-bition effect on microsclerotia formation was greater.%为探究环腺苷酸( cAMP,cyclic AMP)对向日葵大丽轮枝菌生物学特性及致病力的影响,在实验室条件下研究了外源添加cAMP(10mmol/L)后,向日葵大丽轮枝菌的菌落形态、生长速率、产孢量、分生孢子萌发率、微菌核数量、粗毒素分泌量以及致病力的变化。结果表明,外源cAMP使向日葵大丽轮枝菌分生孢子的产孢量提高了55.45%;而在含有cAMP的水琼胶培养基上培养24h后,大丽轮枝菌的分生孢子萌发率降低了69%;在含有cAMP的PDA上培养25d后,大丽轮枝菌微菌核形成的数量相比对照降低了46.8%;在含有cAMP的液体培养基中振荡培养15d后,大丽轮枝菌粗毒素的含量仅为0.156mg/mL,比对照培养液中毒素降低了35.27%。向日葵接种10mmol/L cAMP处理的大丽轮枝菌后,其病情指数为34.38,相比对照组降低了7.28%。因此,外源添加10mmol/L cAMP除了能够提高向日葵大丽轮枝菌的产孢量外,对其生长速率、分生孢子萌发率、微菌核形成的数量、粗毒素分泌量以及致病力均有不同程度的抑制作用,尤其是对微菌核

  13. Busca de fontes de resistência genética à verticillium dahliae em solanum melongena, s. stramonifolium e s. scuticum e manejo da irrigação para controle da murcha de verticílio em berinjela

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Ricardo Nunes

    2016-01-01

    A berinjela (Solanum melongena L.) éuma das hortaliças mais rústicas , porém,é suscetível a algumas doenças, principalmente fúngicas. A murcha de verticilio (Verticillium dahliae) é uma doença de manejo difícil, pois o controle curativo é impossível na prática e o preventivo nem sempre é eficaz, devido à capacidade de sobrevivência do patógeno no solo. Não há cultivares comerciais de berinjela resistentes ao Verticillium, o que torna atualmente inviável o controle por resistência genética. O ...

  14. 棉花黄萎病拮抗细菌HMB-1005鉴定及定殖%Studies on identification and colonization of antagonistic bacteria HMB-1005 to cotton Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭慧娟; 李术娜; 李红亚; 王全; 王树香; 王伟; 朱宝成

    2011-01-01

    In this study, determination of antagonistic activity was done to the strain HMB-1005 from the cotton fields with the Verticillium dahliae strains as the instructions, characteristics of strain HMB-1005 equates well with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens at the level of species in morphological, 19 physiological biochemical items and 16S rDNA sequence. This test required sterile soil and non-sterile soil in two soil samples, this test need two soil samples of three different treatment that was: The antagonistic bacterium bacillus soaking liquid, all mixed soil and part of soil for plants mixed. The purpose of this paper was to study antagonistic bacteria HMB-1005 in the soil and in the colonization of cotton roots and rhizosphere colonization of the situation. The results showed that antagonistic bacteria HMB-1005 in non-sterilized soil and sterilized soil colonization could reproduce, and the quantity achieved 106cfu/g. Through revovery bacteria of cotton roots, confirmed the antagonistic bacteria in the HMB-1005 designated cotton root colonization, number of 103cfu/g. This experiment indicated the antibacterial number in antiseptic was higher than the non-antiseptic earth, and the difference during three processing modes was not obviously. Considered the various factor, minded that the first method would be better.%以大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae)为指示菌,对从棉田土壤中已经分离筛选到的细菌HMB-1005进行形态、19项生理生化特征及16S rDNA试验,结果表明,HMB-1005为解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens);通过灭菌土和非灭菌土进行盆栽试验,拮抗菌HMB-1005芽孢液浸种、土壤全部混菌和部分混菌3种处理,经过5个月的盆栽试验表明,拮抗细菌HMB-1005能够在灭菌土和非灭菌土中定殖,且定殖数量达106cfu/g 土左右,并仍能保持较高的抑菌活性.通过对棉苗根内细菌的分离,证实拮抗细菌HMB-1005能在棉花根内定殖,数量达到103cfu/g.实验结果显

  15. 人工接种棉花黄萎病菌种子包衣效果研究%STUDIES ON ANTI- FUNGAL EFFECT OF SEED COATING FOR COTION BY ARTIFICIAL INOCUIATION OF VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE KL E. B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖中元; 柴勇; 何正明; 邓先明; 朱玉香; 秦森荣

    2001-01-01

    人工接种中等致病力的棉花黄萎病菌(VD),再用不同组分的种衣剂包衣处理种子,结果以20%克·福·多+0.1%消菌灵的效果最优,相对防效达65.6%,比标准对照药卫福40%200FF(相对防效为60.3%)增加5.3%,667m2产皮棉80.8kg,比对照增产34.7%,比卫福增产4.4%。%The spores of Verticillium dahliae Kleb with medium pathogenity were artificially inoculated onto the seeds of cotton before they were coated with different types of seed coating agents. The results showed that the anti- fungal effect of the seed coating agent was the best which contained 20% carbofuran- thiram- carbendazin plus 0.1 Xiao Jun Ling- a newly developed fungicide, its relative control effect being as high as 65.6%,or a 5.3% increase as compared with that of vitavax 200FF(60.3% )-a standard Ameriean seed coating agent. Lint cotton yield per mu was 80.8 kg,being 34.7% and4.4% higher than the blank control and the vitavax 200FF treatment.

  16. The mononuclear nickel(II) complex bis(azido-κN)bis[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(2) N(2) ,N(3) ]nickel(II) protects tomato from Verticillium dahliae by inhibiting fungal growth and activating plant defences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Hanane; Rifai, Lalla Aicha; Koussa, Tayeb; Bentiss, Fouad; Guesmi, Salaheddine; Laachir, Abdelhakim; Makroum, Kacem; Belfaiza, Malika; Faize, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The antifungal properties of the nickel(II) complex bis(azido-κN)bis[2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(2) N(2) ,N(3) ]nickel(II) [NiL2 (N3 )2 ] and its parental ligand 2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole were examined to evaluate their ability to protect tomato plants against Verticillium dahliae. Our main objectives were to determine their effects on the in vitro growth of the pathogen, and their aptitude for controlling verticillium wilt and activating plant defence responses in the greenhouse. NiL2 (N3 )2 exhibited in vitro an elevated inhibition of radial growth of three strains of the pathogen. According to the strain, the EC50 values ranged from 10 to 29 µg mL(-1) for NiL2 (N3 )2 . In the greenhouse, it induced an elevated protection against V. dahliae when it was applied twice as foliar sprays at 50 µg mL(-1) . It reduced the leaf alteration index by 85% and vessel browning by 96%. In addition, its protective ability was associated with the accumulation of H2 O2 and the activation of total phenolic content, as well as potentiation of the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. These results demonstrated that the coordination of the ligand with Ni associated with the azide as a coligand resulted in an improvement in its biological activity by both inhibiting the growth of V. dahliae and activating plant defence responses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Mutational analysis of the Ve1 immune receptor that mediates Verticillium resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Z.; Song, Y.; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic Verticillium species are economically important plant pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of plant species. The Ve1 gene of tomato confers resistance against race 1 strains of Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Ve1 encodes an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLR

  18. Identification of genetic determinants in potato for resistance to Verticillium wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite decades of research to control Verticillium wilt (VW), which is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogens Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum, this disease continues to be a recurrent problem for potato production throughout North America. It can result in yield losses of up to 50% and is...

  19. Breeding and genetics of lettuce for resistance against race 2 Verticillium wilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb., is an economically important disease of lettuce in central coastal California. Most isolates of the pathogen detected in the Salinas Valley belong to race 1 for which complete resistance exists. However, adequate level of resistance is not ava...

  20. Functional analysis of the tomato Ve resistance locus against Verticillium wilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fradin, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. longisporum are soil-borne plant pathogens that are responsible for Verticillium wilt diseases in temperate and subtropical regions. Collectively they can infect over 200 hosts, including many economically important crops. Chapter 1 is a “pathogen pro

  1. Isolation and characterization of a chitinase gene from entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii Isolamento e caracterização de um gene de quitinase do fungo entomopatogênico Verticillium lecanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Zhu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii is a promising whitefly and aphid control agent. Chitinases secreted by this insect pathogen have considerable importance in the biological control of some insect pests. An endochitinase gene Vlchit1 from the fungus was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The Vlchit1 gene not only contains an open reading frame (ORF which encodes a protein of 423 amino acids (aa, but also is interrupted by three short introns. A homology modelling of Vlchit1 protein showed that the chitinase Vlchit1 has a (α/β8 TIM barrel structure. Overexpression test and Enzymatic activity assay indicated that the Vlchit1 is a functional enzyme that can hydrolyze the chitin substrate, so the Vlchit1 gene can service as a useful gene source for genetic manipulation leading to strain improvement of entomopathogenic fungi or constructing new transgenic plants with resistance to various fungal and insects pests.O fungo entomopatogênico Verticillium lecanii é um agente promissor no controle da mosca-branca e do pulgão. As quitinases secretadas por esse patógeno de insetos têm uma grande importância no controle biológico de doenças causadas por insetos. Um gene de endoquitinase Vlchit1 desse fungo foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli. O gene Vlchit contém não apenas um ORF que codifica uma proteína de 423 aminoácidos, mas também é interrompido por três pequenos introns. A modelagem de homologia da proteína Vlchit1indicou que a quitinase Vlchit1 tem uma estrutura (α/β 8 TIM barrel. Testes de expressão e de atividade enzimática indicaram que Vlchit1 é uma enzima funcional que hidroliza quitina, portanto o gene Vlchit pode ser um gene útil para manipulação genética para melhoramento de cepas de fungos entomopatogênicos ou para a construção de novas plantas transgênicas com resistência a várias doenças causadas por fungos e insetos.

  2. SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

  3. Expression Differences of Dirigent-Like Protein Genes in Upland Cotton Responsed to Infection by Verticillium dahliae%黄萎病菌侵染下陆地棉Dirigent-like蛋白基因表达差异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宝生; 师恭曜; 王凯辉; 刘素恩; 赵存鹏; 王兆晓; 耿军义; 华金平

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study is to explore the Dirigent-like protein gene family and to figure out polymorphism of genes and expression differences between resistant and susceptible varieties of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in responding to infection by Verticillium dahliae.[Method]Dirigent-like protein genes were acquired using Illumina Hiseq 2000 RNA-Seq transcriptional analysis. Multiple sequence alignment of encoding proteins was carried using online sequence analysis softwares and bioinformatics analysis tools for phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR with gene-specific primers was employed to identify the expression differences between resistant variety‘Ji 79’ and susceptible variety‘TM-1’, at 0, 1, 8, 24, 48, 72 h, and 96 h after inoculation. The quantitative reactions were performed on the ABI 7500 Real-Time PCR System with 7500 System Software (Applied Biosystems, USA) using the SYBR Green Master Mix. The comparative 2-ΔΔCt method of quantification was used with cotton GhACTIN as the reference.[Result]Totally 12 members of this gene family were found in Gossypium hirsutum, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated 3 distinct subfamilies and 4 relatively conservative domains existed. The members of Dirigent-like protein genes were located on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 13 in Gossypium raimondii, and some located in clusters on the same chromosome of D5 genome. Differential expression analysis indicated that dynamic response existed in different varieties. There were 6 members (GhDIR4, GhDIR6, GhDIR7, GhDIR9, GhDIR10 and GhDIR11) up-regulated (RQ≥2) in resistant variety Ji 79 after 1h inoculation, and RQ of GhDIR9 reached about 6.5;and 4 members (GhDIR1, GhDIR4, GhDIR7 and GhDIR11) up-regulated (RQ≥1) after 8h inoculation, only GhDIR4 up-regulated (RQ≥2) after 24h inoculation, GhDIR1, GhDIR4, GhDIR7 and GhDIR11 up-regulated (RQ≥2) after 48h inoculation;only GhDIR9 up-regulated (RQ=6.4) after 72h inoculation

  4. Preliminary Study on Screening and Antagonistic Mechanism of Indicator Microbe for Wilting Toxin from Verticillium dahliae%大丽轮枝菌致萎毒力指示菌的筛选及拮抗作用初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世英; 姜军坡; 李术娜; 朱宝成; 薛庆林

    2010-01-01

    为了筛选可指示Verticillium dahliae致萎毒素毒力大小的指示菌.并对致萎毒素抑制指示菌生长的机理进行初步探讨,采用指示菌平板打孔法,对黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger)BF-3758、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、金黄色葡萄球(Staphylococcus aurcus)、啤酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)等12种具有微生物种属代表性的菌株进行筛选:采用拮抗试验、致萎试验结合显微观察的方法,初步探索了Verticillium dahliae致萎毒素对指示菌生长的抑制作用.结果表明,Verticillium dahliae粗毒素对Aspergillus niger BF-3758的生长具有较强的抑制作用,且该抑制作用和粗毒素对离体叶片的致萎作用具有一致性,并存在一定的量效关系,Aspergillus niger BF-3758菌株可以作为Verticillium dahliae致萎毒素的毒力指示菌;Verticillium dahliae粗毒素可抑制Aspergillus niger BF-3758的孢子萌发和菌丝生长,对成熟菌丝也有破坏作用.上述研究可为评价Verticillium dahliae的致病力提供一种操作简便、耗时短、费用低的生物学方法.

  5. Construction of Yeast Two-hybrid cDNA Library of Verticillium dahliae%大丽轮枝菌酵母双杂交 cDNA 文库的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康静敏; 刘坤; 刘严; 张怡; 李成伟; 谭光轩

    2015-01-01

    为了分离克隆与植物互作的大丽轮枝菌致病相关蛋白基因,利用 SMART 技术构建了大丽轮枝菌酵母双杂交 cDNA 文库。结果表明,构建的文库滴度为5.2×107 cfu/mL,库容为3.9×107 cfu;文库 cDNA 插入片段长度主要分布在0.5~2.0 kb,平均为1 kb;文库重组率为96%。表明文库质量较好,为筛选与植物互作的大丽轮枝菌致病蛋白基因奠定了基础。%To seek out the V. dahliae proteins involved in the interaction of plant with V. dahliae,a yeast two-hybrid library of V. dahliae was constructed using SMART technique. Results showed that the titer of cDNA library was 5. 2 × 107 cfu/mL,the library contained 3. 9 × 107 cfu independent clones,the size distribution of insert frag-ments ranged from 0. 5 -2. 0 kb,and the recombination rate was about 96%. These data demonstrated that the li-brary could meet the requirements of standard cDNA library,which laid a foundation for screening the interaction proteins from V. dahliae.

  6. 利用寄主诱导的基因沉默技术验证大丽轮枝菌糖代谢相关基因的致病力%Verification of Verticillium dahliae Pathogenicity of Glycometabolism Related Genes by Using Host-Induced Gene Silencing Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉兰; 苏晓峰; 程红梅

    2015-01-01

    [Objective] The objective of this study is to screen glycometabolism related genes from Verticillium dahliae, confirm the relationship between those genes and the growth and pathogenicity of V. dahliae, and to provide a theoretical basis for the control of plant Verticillium wilt. [Method] The glycometabolism related genes of V. dahliae were screened using host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) method. The Tobacco rattle virus vectors containing target genes were injected into tobacco for transient expression of those genes, then V.d991 was inoculated to those transgenic tobacco using the root-dip approach, PDS would be whitened 7-10 days later, and their disease indexes were counted after 14 days. The fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the amount of V.d991 biomass and the expression of VDPDF-1, VDEG-1, VDMAN-1and VDPD-1. [Result] Four glycometabolism related genes from V. dahliae (VDPDF-1, VDEG-1, VDMAN-1 and VDPD-1) were selected because of the great change of their disease indexes. Transgenic tobacco disease indexes of these four genes were reduced by 35%, 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively, compared with the negative control. After injected with the mixture of VDEG-1/VDPDF-1, VDPD-1/VDPDF-1/VDMAN-1, VDPD-1/VDMAN-1, VDPD-1/VDPDF-1, and VDEG-1/VDPD-1, transgenic tobacco disease indexes were reduced by 45%, 45%, 40%, 40%, and 35%. In addition to VDPD-1 transgenic tobacco, the transgenic tobacco disease indexes had significant differences compared with the control. After inoculation with V.d991, the V.d991 biomass and expression of target gene were decreased, mixed gene injection had better interference effect than the single gene. The most obvious biomass reduction were EG/PDF (VDEG-1/VDPDF-1) and EG/PD (VDEG-1/VDPD-1), reached to 0.94, and the most significant interference effect was VDPDF-1, from PD/PDF (VDPD-1/VDPDF-1),reduced by 0.91.[Conclusion]Four genes were selected from V. dahliae by HIGS method. When these genes were interfered, those plants had

  7. Identification and Differentiation of Verticillium Species and V. longisporum Lineages by Simplex and Multiplex PCR Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inderbitzin, Patrik; Davis, R. Michael; Bostock, Richard M.; Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species identification is essential for effective plant disease management, but is challenging in fungi including Verticillium sensu stricto (Ascomycota, Sordariomycetes, Plectosphaerellaceae), a small genus of ten species that includes important plant pathogens. Here we present fifteen PCR assays for the identification of all recognized Verticillium species and the three lineages of the diploid hybrid V. longisporum. The assays were based on DNA sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region, and coding and non-coding regions of actin, elongation factor 1-alpha, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and tryptophan synthase genes. The eleven single target (simplex) PCR assays resulted in amplicons of diagnostic size for V. alfalfae, V. albo-atrum, V. dahliae including V. longisporum lineage A1/D3, V. isaacii, V. klebahnii, V. nonalfalfae, V. nubilum, V. tricorpus, V. zaregamsianum, and Species A1 and Species D1, the two undescribed ancestors of V. longisporum. The four multiple target (multiplex) PCR assays simultaneously differentiated the species or lineages within the following four groups: Verticillium albo-atrum, V. alfalfae and V. nonalfalfae; Verticillium dahliae and V. longisporum lineages A1/D1, A1/D2 and A1/D3; Verticillium dahliae including V. longisporum lineage A1/D3, V. isaacii, V. klebahnii and V. tricorpus; Verticillium isaacii, V. klebahnii and V. tricorpus. Since V. dahliae is a parent of two of the three lineages of the diploid hybrid V. longisporum, no simplex PCR assay is able to differentiate V. dahliae from all V. longisporum lineages. PCR assays were tested with fungal DNA extracts from pure cultures, and were not evaluated for detection and quantification of Verticillium species from plant or soil samples. The DNA sequence alignments are provided and can be used for the design of additional primers. PMID:23823707

  8. Genetic dissection of tetraploid cotton resistant to Verticillium wilt using interspecific chromosome segment introgression lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Wang; Zhiyuan; Ning; Ling; Lin; Hong; Chen; Hongxian; Mei; Jun; Zhao; Bingliang; Liu; Xin; Zhang; Wangzhen; Guo; Tianzhen; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt(caused by the pathogen Verticillium dahliae) is of high concern for cotton producers and consumers. The major strategy for controlling this disease is the development of resistant cotton(Gossypium spp.) cultivars. We used interspecific chromosome segment introgression lines(CSILs) to identify quantitative trait loci(QTL) associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt in cotton grown in greenhouse and inoculated with three defoliating V. dahliae isolates. A total of 42 QTL, including 23 with resistance-increasing and 19 with resistancedecreasing, influenced host resistance against the three isolates. These QTL were identified and mapped on 18 chromosomes(chromosomes A1, A3, A4, A5, A7, A8, A9, A12, A13, D1, D2,D3, D4, D5, D7, D8, D11, and D12), with LOD values ranging from 3.00 to 9.29. Among the positive QTL with resistance-increasing effect, 21 conferred resistance to only one V. dahliae isolate, suggesting that resistance to V. dahliae conferred by most QTL is pathogen isolate-specific. The At subgenome of cotton had greater effect on resistance to Verticillium wilt than the Dt subgenome. We conclude that pyramiding different resistant QTL could be used to breed cotton cultivars with broad-spectrum resistance to Verticillium wilt.

  9. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  10. Genetic dissection of Verticillium wilt resistance mediated by tomato Ve1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fradin, E.F.; Zhang, Z.; Juarez Ayala, J.C.; Castroverde, C.C.M.; Nazar, R.N.; Robb, J.; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum ca

  11. Comparison of Crop Rotation for Verticillium Wilt Management and Effect on Pythium Species in Conventional and Organic Strawberry Production

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, Krishna V.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of broccoli and lettuce rotations on population densities of Verticillium dahliae and Pythium spp. in soil and on strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) growth, yield, and Verticillium wilt were evaluated in conventional and organic production systems in California for 2 years. Under both management systems, strawberry was planted after two successive crops of broccoli or lettuce. The control treatment in the conventional field was strawberry planted in soils fumigated with methyl bromi...

  12. Histopathological Response in the Interaction between Cotinus coggygria and Verticillium dahliae%黄栌与大丽轮枝菌互作的组织病理学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍绍文; 陶万强; 田呈明

    2011-01-01

    Histopathological changes of Cotinus coggygria inoculated with Venicillium dahliae were observed by using paraffin sections and optical microscope photography. The results showed that the different parts of C. coggygria had different infection levels, with leaves the highest (18.83%), and branches the lowest (6. 72% ). After inoculation, the hyphae initially invaded the elongation zone and mature zone of roots, and then appeared in the intercelluar space cortex parenchyma cells within 1 - 3 cm of the root tip, and further went into vessels of the roots, then reached leaves through the vessels of stems and branches finally. V. dahliae mainly occurred in vessels of xylem in the form of hyphae, however it did not appear continuously. In order to prevent expansion of the pathogen after infected, wall of the vessel was thickened,inner diameter of the vessel was decreased by accumulating jelly and tylosis generated in the xylem, or even the vessel was totally blocked. When the C. coggygria was infected, the vessel walls, parenchyma cells and cortical cells were thickened, the inclusions of pith, resin canals and secretory cells nearby increased, the jelly appeared in the parenchyma cells and wood rays. Although parts of vessels were blocked with hyphae, jelly and tylosis to different extent, most of the vessels were healthy and were able to function water transport normally. The partial block of vessels sometime caused plants wilt, but the plant managed to maintain almost normal activities.%采用石蜡切片和光学显微摄像的方法,对黄栌接种大丽轮枝菌后的组织病理学变化进行系统观察.接种大丽轮枝菌后黄栌不同组织部位受侵染的程度不同,叶部最高(18.83%),而枝条最低(6.72%).菌丝首先由根的伸长区及成熟区侵入,而后出现在距根尖1~3 cm处的皮层薄壁细胞的间隙,接着进入根部的导管内,最终经茎部及枝条的导管到达叶部.大耐轮枝菌主要以菌丝形态存在于木

  13. Primary Analysis of Antifungal Proteins Produced by Bacillus amylolique faciens X-278 against Verticillium dahliae%解淀粉芽孢杆菌X-278菌株抗菌蛋白初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎波; 魏学军; 李亚宁; 孟庆芳; 张汀; 刘大群; 赤国彤

    2013-01-01

    为研究解淀粉芽孢杆菌X-278菌株所产抗菌蛋白的性质,通过饱和硫酸铵沉淀法提取X-278菌株蛋白粗提液,并对蛋白粗提液进行蛋白酶稳定性试验和热稳定性试验.结果表明,当硫酸铵饱和度为50%时,沉淀得到的X-278菌株蛋白粗提液对棉花黄萎病菌的押菌作用最强,抑菌圈直径迭18.9 mm.蛋白粗提液对蛋白酶K敏感性最差,对胰蛋白酶最敏感;蛋白粗提液经40℃处理后押菌活性最高,而121℃处理后抑菌活性最低,抑菌圈直径为13.6 mm,为对照(常温处理)的72%.以上结果表明,X-278菌株粗蛋白的部分抗菌成分属于耐热物质,并且抗菌成分间存在性质上的差异.%In order to study the characteristics of antifungal proteins isolated from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X-278,crude proteins were extracted via precipitation of the cell culture of strain X-278 with ammonium sulphate,and the protease stability and thermal stability were determined.The result showed that the crude proteins of strain X-278 had strongest control effect on cotton Verticillium wilt using ammonium sulphate at 50% saturation,with the inhibition zone diameter of 18.9 mm.The crude protein extracts were relatively insensitive to proteinase K,but more sensitive to trypsin.The activity of the antifungal substrates was investigated under different temperatures,and the result showed that the antifungal activity at 40 ℃ was the highest,while it decreased most at 121 ℃ and showed significant difference from the control.However,the crude protein extracts still retained 72 % of the antifungal activity compared to the control and the diameter of inhibition zone was 13.6 mm after heat treatment for 30 min under 121 ℃.The results above indicated that part of the antifungal extracts of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X-278 were heat-resistant substance and the antifungal extracts were several substrates with different traits.

  14. Biocontrol of verticillium wilt and colonization of cotton plants by an endophytic bacterial isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C-H; Shi, L; Han, Q; Hu, H-L; Zhao, M-W; Tang, C-M; Li, S-P

    2012-09-01

    To explore biocontrol potential of 39 DAEB isolates (doubly antagonistic towards both Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Fusarium oxysporum) against verticillium wilt of cotton and to elucidate colonization and category characteristics of an endophytic bacterium with significant biocontrol activity. Thirty-nine antagonistic endophytic bacteria strains were tested for their ability to control verticillium wilt in cotton plants caused by a defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae 107 in cotton under controlled conditions. The biocontrol trial revealed that an endophytic bacterium, designated HA02, showed a significant biocontrol activity to V. dahliae 107. After cotton seedlings were inoculated with a gfp gene-tagged HA02 (HA02-gfp), HA02-gfp populations were higher in the root than in the stem; in addition, the HA02-gfp was distributed in the maturation zone of cotton root. Furthermore, HA02-gfp also colonized seedlings of maize, rape and soybean after the bacteria inoculation. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rDNA sequences combined with morphological, physiological and identification showed that the bacterium belongs to the Enterobacter genus. Our results showed that only 1 of 39 DAEB isolates demonstrated more efficient biocontrol potential towards V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. HA02-gfp mainly colonized cotton in roots. In addition, we quantitatively observed HA02 colonization in other hosts. HA02 belongs to the Enterobacter genus. This is the first study on biocontrol to defoliating pathotype of V. dahliae Kleb by endophytic bacteria. The HA02 showed effective biocontrol to V. dahliae 107 in greenhouse and field trials. Furthermore, we assessed the quantitative and qualitative colonization of HA02 in cotton seedlings. Our study provides basic information to further explore managing strategies to control this critical disease. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Fermentation Conditions Optimization of Antagonistic Bacteria B.velezensis 6-61Against Verticillium dahliae Kleb%棉花黄萎病拮抗细菌B.velezensis6-61拮抗蛋白发酵条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亚; 李术娜; 朱宝成

    2011-01-01

    为了提高棉花黄萎病拮抗细菌B.velezensis 6-61活性物质的产量,为进一步开展6-61菌株的后续研究奠定基础,对6-61菌株产生的活性物质的性质进行了分析,并对其发酵条件进行了优化研究.采用有机溶剂萃取、硫酸铵沉淀对菌株6-61发酵液进行处理并检测抑茵活性,初步确定了该拮抗物质为蛋白质.采用单因素试验对6-61菌株的发酵培养基所需的碳源、氮源、无机盐进行了筛选,并采用L16(44)正交实验对棉花黄萎病拮抗细菌6-61的发酵培养基组成以及发酵培养条件进行了优化.最终优化后的培养基组成为:麦芽糖3%、大豆蛋白胨3%、NaCl 0.01%、KCl 0.01%;最佳发酵条件:pH 7.0、接种量8%、种龄16h、装瓶量30 mL/250 mL.在优化后的培养基及培养条件下进行发酵,拮抗细菌6-61的发酵液抑茵圈直径可达到36 mm.与其他一些常见培养基的发酵效果相比较,在优化后的发酵条件下6-61茵株拮抗物质的产量明显高于其他常见培养基.%In order to improve the yield of antagonistic substance produced by B. Velezensis 6-61 which has antagonistic activity against Verticillium dahliae Kleb, the analysis of the properties of antagonistic substance and fermentation conditions optimization of stain 6-61 were studied to provide a basis for further study of the antagonistic mechanism. First, the fermented broth of strain 6-61 was treated by two following methods: extraction with organic solvent and precipitation by ammonium sulfate respectively. The results indicated that the component of strain 6-61 responsible for antagonistic activity was considered as protein. Then, the optimum fermentation medium ingredients, such as carbon sources, nitrogen sources and inorganic salts, were determined by using the single-factor methods. And the optimal medium compositions and other fermentation conditions of antagonistic bacteria 6-61 were optimized through Li6(44) orthogonal

  16. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deketelaere, Silke; Tyvaert, Lien; França, Soraya C; Höfte, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae, and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta. Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1) affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2) colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3) induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4) promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods should be

  17. Desirable Traits of a Good Biocontrol Agent against Verticillium Wilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Deketelaere

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The soil-borne fungus Verticillium causes serious vascular disease in a wide variety of annual crops and woody perennials. Verticillium wilt is notoriously difficult to control by conventional methods, so there is great potential for biocontrol to manage this disease. In this study we aimed to review the research about Verticillium biocontrol to get a better understanding of characteristics that are desirable in a biocontrol agent (BCA against Verticillium wilt. We only considered studies in which the BCAs were tested on plants. Most biocontrol studies were focused on plants of the Solanaceae, Malvaceae, and Brassicaceae and within these families eggplant, cotton, and oilseed rape were the most studied crops. The list of bacterial BCAs with potential against Verticillium was dominated by endophytic Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates, while non-pathogenic xylem-colonizing Verticillium and Fusarium isolates topped the fungal list. Predominant modes of action involved in biocontrol were inhibition of primary inoculum germination, plant growth promotion, competition and induced resistance. Many BCAs showed in vitro antibiosis and mycoparasitism but these traits were not correlated with activity in vivo and there is no evidence that they play a role in planta. Good BCAs were obtained from soils suppressive to Verticillium wilt, disease suppressive composts, and healthy plants in infested fields. Desirable characteristics in a BCA against Verticillium are the ability to (1 affect the survival or germination of microsclerotia, (2 colonize the xylem and/or cortex and compete with the pathogen for nutrients and/or space, (3 induce resistance responses in the plant and/or (4 promote plant growth. Potential BCAs should be screened in conditions that resemble the field situation to increase the chance of successful use in practice. Furthermore, issues such as large scale production, formulation, preservation conditions, shelf life, and application methods

  18. In vitro inhibition of pathogenic Verticillium dahliae, causal agent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... Combined analysis of wilt incidence resulting from using two inoculation methods for ... isolates consisting of 21 isolates isolated from potato soils from seven districts of Guizhou, 11 isolates .... were used as test plants.

  19. The ascomycete Verticillium longisporum is a hybrid and a plant pathogen with an expanded host range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Inderbitzin

    Full Text Available Hybridization plays a central role in plant evolution, but its overall importance in fungi is unknown. New plant pathogens are thought to arise by hybridization between formerly separated fungal species. Evolution of hybrid plant pathogens from non-pathogenic ancestors in the fungal-like protist Phytophthora has been demonstrated, but in fungi, the most important group of plant pathogens, there are few well-characterized examples of hybrids. We focused our attention on the hybrid and plant pathogen Verticillium longisporum, the causal agent of the Verticillium wilt disease in crucifer crops. In order to address questions related to the evolutionary origin of V. longisporum, we used phylogenetic analyses of seven nuclear loci and a dataset of 203 isolates of V. longisporum, V. dahliae and related species. We confirmed that V. longisporum was diploid, and originated three different times, involving four different lineages and three different parental species. All hybrids shared a common parent, species A1, that hybridized respectively with species D1, V. dahliae lineage D2 and V. dahliae lineage D3, to give rise to three different lineages of V. longisporum. Species A1 and species D1 constituted as yet unknown taxa. Verticillium longisporum likely originated recently, as each V. longisporum lineage was genetically homogenous, and comprised species A1 alleles that were identical across lineages.

  20. Physiological response and sulfur metabolism of the V. dahliae-infected tomato plants in tomato/potato onion companion cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xuepeng; Li, Chunxia; Zhou, Xingang; Liu, Shouwei; Wu, Fengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Companion cropping with potato onions (Allium cepa var. agrogatum Don.) can enhance the disease resistance of tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) to Verticillium dahliae infection by increasing the expressions of genes related to disease resistance. However, it is not clear how tomato plants physiologically respond to V. dahliae infection and what roles sulfur plays in the disease-resistance. Pot experiments were performed to examine changes in the physiology and sulfur metabolism of tomato roots infected by V. dahliae under the companion cropping (tomato/potato onion). The results showed that the companion cropping increased the content of total phenol, lignin and glutathione and increased the activities of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in the roots of tomato plants. RNA-seq analysis showed that the expressions of genes involved in sulfur uptake and assimilation, and the formation of sulfur-containing defense compounds (SDCs) were up-regulated in the V. dahlia-infected tomatoes in the companion cropping. In addition, the interactions among tomato, potato onion and V. dahliae induced the expression of the high- affinity sulfate transporter gene in the tomato roots. These results suggest that sulfur may play important roles in tomato disease resistance against V. dahliae. PMID:27808257

  1. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  2. Expression of baculovirus anti-apoptotic genes p35 and op-iap in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. enhances tolerance to verticillium wilt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death plays an important role in mediating plant adaptive responses to the environment such as the invasion of pathogens. Verticillium wilt, caused by the necrotrophic pathogen Verticillium dahliae, is a serious vascular disease responsible for great economic losses to cotton, but the molecular mechanisms of verticillium disease and effective, safe methods of resistance to verticillium wilt remain unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we introduced baculovirus apoptosis inhibitor genes p35 and op-iap into the genome of cotton via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and analyzed the response of transgenic plants to verticillium wilt. Results showed that p35 and op-iap constructs were stably integrated into the cotton genome, expressed in the transgenic lines, and inherited through the T(3 generation. The transgenic lines had significantly increased tolerance to verticillium wilt throughout the developmental stages. The disease index of T(1-T(3 generation was lower than 19, significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control line z99668. After treatment with 250 mg/L VD-toxins for 36 hours, DNA from negative control leaves was fragmented, whereas fragmentation in the transgenic leaf DNA did not occur. The percentage of cell death in transgenic lines increased by 7.11% after 60 mg/L VD-toxin treatment, which was less than that of the negative control lines's 21.27%. This indicates that p35 and op-iap gene expression partially protects cells from VD-toxin induced programmed cell death (PCD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Verticillium dahliae can trigger plant cells to die through induction of a PCD mechanism involved in pathogenesis. This paper provides a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum necrotrophic disease resistance in plants.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M.; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M.; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B.; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Braus, Gerhard H; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  5. Screening and Identification of Cotton Verticillium Wilt Antagonistic Bacteria Strain 7-30%棉花黄萎病拮抗细菌7-30菌株的筛选与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷白时; 姜军坡; 王伟; 张冬冬; 王全; 朱宝成

    2008-01-01

    [Objective]The aim of this study was to screen the antagonistic spore-forming bacteria of Verticillium dahliae and identify its physiological and biochemical characteristics. [Method]Taking the cotton verticillium wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae V-190 as the test microorganism, the antagonistic spore-forming bacteria were screened. Through the preliminary screening and secondary screening, an antagonistic bacteria strain 7-30 with stronger antibacterial activity was obtained, and its morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics were also identified. [Result]84 antagonistic bacteria strains were isolated from soil in various places by the preliminary screening. Especially, 18 strains with better antagonistic ability were screened again, so an antagonistic bacteria strain 7-30 with the diameter of inhibition zone 18.9 mm and stronger antibacterial activity was obtained. According to its morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics, the antagonistic bacteria strain 7-30 was identified as Bacillus subtilis primarily. [Conclusion]The strain 7-30 was obtained as the antagonistic spore-forming bacteria of Verticillium dahliae.

  6. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) using high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiejun; Yu, Long-Xi; McCord, Per; Miller, David; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Johnson, David; Monteros, Maria J; Ho, Julie; Reisen, Peter; Samac, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  7. Identification of molecular markers associated with Verticillium wilt resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. using high-resolution melting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiejun Zhang

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt, caused by the soilborne fungus, Verticillium alfalfae, is one of the most serious diseases of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. worldwide. To identify loci associated with resistance to Verticillium wilt, a bulk segregant analysis was conducted in susceptible or resistant pools constructed from 13 synthetic alfalfa populations, followed by association mapping in two F1 populations consisted of 352 individuals. Simple sequence repeat (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers were used for genotyping. Phenotyping was done by manual inoculation of the pathogen to replicated cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Marker-trait association was analyzed by TASSEL. Seventeen SNP markers significantly associated with Verticillium wilt resistance were identified and they were located on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7 and 8. SNP markers identified on chromosomes 2, 4 and 7 co-locate with regions of Verticillium wilt resistance loci reported in M. truncatula. Additional markers identified on chromosomes 1 and 8 located the regions where no Verticillium resistance locus has been reported. This study highlights the value of SNP genotyping by high resolution melting to identify the disease resistance loci in tetraploid alfalfa. With further validation, the markers identified in this study could be used for improving resistance to Verticillium wilt in alfalfa breeding programs.

  8. Evidences for involvement of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses to Verticillium toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing JIANG; Ling Wen FAN; Wei Hua WU

    2005-01-01

    Although there were reports suggesting the involvement of endogenous cAMP in plant defense signaling cascades,there is no direct evidence supporting this notion yet and the detailed mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we have used pathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Arabidopsis plants as a model system of plant-microb interaction to demonstrate the function of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses. Both V. dahliae inoculation and Verticillium toxins injection induced typical "wilt" symptoms in Arabidopsis seedlings. When either 8-Br-AMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) or salicylic acid (SA) was applied to Arabidopsis, the plants became resistant to V. dahliae toxins. However, addition of 8-Br-AMP did not increase the resistance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants deficient in SA to the toxins, suggesting that cAMP might act upstream of SA in plant defense signaling pathway.Indeed, 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly stimulated the endogenous SA level in plants, whereas DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase dramatically reduced toxin-induced SA increase. Both the endogenous cAMP and SA increased significantly in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with toxins. Furthermore, transcription level of pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene (PR1) was strongly induced by both 8-Br-cAMP and the toxin treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that endogenous cAMP is involved in plant defense responses against Verticilliumsecreted toxins by regulating the production of the known signal SA in plant defense pathway.

  9. Genetic dissection of Verticillium wilt resistance mediated by tomato Ve1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Emilie F; Zhang, Zhao; Juarez Ayala, Juan C; Castroverde, Christian D M; Nazar, Ross N; Robb, Jane; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2009-05-01

    Vascular wilt diseases caused by soil-borne pathogens are among the most devastating plant diseases worldwide. The Verticillium genus includes vascular wilt pathogens with a wide host range. Although V. longisporum infects various hosts belonging to the Cruciferaceae, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum cause vascular wilt diseases in over 200 dicotyledonous species, including economically important crops. A locus responsible for resistance against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum has been cloned from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) only. This locus, known as Ve, comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, that encode cell surface receptor proteins of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein class of disease resistance proteins. Here, we show that Ve1, but not Ve2, provides resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and not against race 2 strains. Using virus-induced gene silencing in tomato, the signaling cascade downstream of Ve1 is shown to require both EDS1 and NDR1. In addition, NRC1, ACIF, MEK2, and SERK3/BAK1 also act as positive regulators of Ve1 in tomato. In conclusion, Ve1-mediated resistance signaling only partially overlaps with signaling mediated by Cf proteins, type members of the receptor-like protein class of resistance proteins.

  10. Serine proteases and metalloproteases associated with pathogenesis but not host specificity in the Entomophthoralean fungus Zoophthora radicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Baldwin, D; Kindrachuk, C; Hegedus, D D

    2006-06-01

    The protease activity of a Zoophthora radicans strain that was highly infective toward Pieris brassicae (cabbage butterfly) larvae was compared with that of isogenic strains that were adapted to Plutella xylostella (diamondback moth) larvae through serial passage. All strains produced three distinct serine proteases ranging in size from 25 to 37 kDa; however, the original strain from P. brassicae also produced large amounts of an approximately 46 kDa metalloprotease. Subsequently, a cDNA encoding a 43 kDa (mature enzyme) zinc-dependent metalloprotease, ZrMEP1, was isolated from the original fungal strain and most likely corresponds to the 46 kDa protease observed with in-gel assays. ZrMEP1 possessed characteristics of both the fungalysin and thermolysin metalloprotease families found in some pulmonary and dermal pathogens. This is the first report of this type of metalloprotease from an entomo pathogenic fungus. A cDNA encoding a trypsin-like serine protease, ZrSP1, was also identified and was most similar to a serine protease from the plant pathogen Verticillium dahliae. In artificial media, ZrMEP1 and ZrSP1 were found to be differentially responsive to gelatin and catabolite repression in the fungal strains adapted to P. brassicae and P. xylostella, but their expression patterns within infected larvae were the same. It appears that while these proteases likely play a role in the infection process, they may not be major host specificity determinants.

  11. The pathogenic diversity and the genetic diversity of cotton Verticillium dahliae in the Yangtze River Basin%长江流域棉花黄萎病菌的致病力多样性和遗传多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金利容; 万鹏; 黄薇; 杨晓华

    2016-01-01

    Cotton Verticillium wilt is an important disease in the world, and a serious threat to cotton production.The four provinces, Hubei Province, Hunan Province, Jiangxi Province and Anhui Province, lie in the Yangtze River Basin.More than three hundreds isolates were collected and 67 isolates were selected from different cities and counties as the tested strains, then the cultural character, the pathogenic diversity and genetic diversity of the 67 strains were analyzed.The results showed that the high virulent types, the medium virulent types and the weak virulent types accounted for 35.82%, 43.28% and 17.91% respectively.The microsclerotia types, the intermediate types and the hyphae types acounted for 38.81%, 22.39% and 38.81%respectively.Further analysis showed that there was no correlation between the pathogenicity, the cultural character and the strain origin.However, there were some correlations between the pathogenicity and the cultural character.Most of high virulent strains belonged to microsclerotia types and the weak virulent strains dominate hyphae types.Fifteen pairs of RAPD primers were gained for DNA amplification, cluster analysis showed that the genetic diversity had no significant correlation with the strain origin.Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the strains had no significant correlation with the pathogenicity and the cultural character.%棉花黄萎病是棉花上的重要病害,严重威胁着棉花的产量.从长江流域4个省即湖北省、湖南省、江西省和安徽省采集300多个菌株,选择各省不同县市的67个菌株,对这67个供试菌株进行培养性状的鉴定、致病力的测定以及遗传多样性的分析,结果表明,在67个供试菌株中,就致病力类型而言,强致病力类型、中等致病力类型和弱致病力类型分别占35.82%、43.28%和17.91%.就培养性状类型而言,菌核型、中间型和菌丝型分别占38.81%、22.39%和38.81%.菌株的

  12. Induced Resistance in Tomato Plants against Verticillium Wilt by the Binuclear Nickel Coordination Complex of the Ligand 2,5-Bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine, Hanane; Rifai, Lalla Aicha; Faize, Mohamed; Bentiss, Fouad; Guesmi, Salaheddine; Laachir, Abdelhakim; Smaili, Amal; Makroum, Kacem; Sahibed-Dine, Abdelaziz; Koussa, Tayeb

    2016-04-06

    Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae is a major limiting factor for tomato production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ligand 2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole (L) and its complex bis[μ-2,5-bis(pyridin-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ(4)N(2),N(3):N(4),N(5)]bis[dihydrato-κO)nickel(II)] as activators of plant defenses in controlling Verticillium wilt. In the greenhouse, they protected tomato plants against V. dahliae when they were applied twice as foliar sprays at 100 μg mL(-1). A synergistic effect was observed between the ligand L and the transition metal Ni, with disease incidence reduced by 38% with L and 57% with Ni2L2. Verticillium wilt foliar symptoms and vascular browning index were reduced by 82% for L and 95% for Ni2L2. This protection ability was associated with the induction of an oxidative burst and the activation of the total phenolic content as well as potentiation of the activity of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. These results demonstrated that L and Ni2L2 can be considered as new activators of plant defense responses.

  13. Potential of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Cotton Roots for Biological Control against Verticillium Wilt Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingfei; Li, Zhifang; Shi, Yongqiang; Zhao, LiHong; Feng, Zili; Zhu, Heqin

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is a soil-borne disease, and severely limits the development of cotton production. To investigate the role of endophytic fungi on Verticillium wilt, CEF-818 (Penicillium simplicissimum), CEF-714 (Leptosphaeria sp.), CEF-642 (Talaromyces flavus.) and CEF-193 (Acremonium sp.) isolated from cotton roots were used to assess their effects against cotton wilt disease caused by a defoliating V. dahliae strain Vd080. In the greenhouse, all treatments significantly reduced disease incidence and disease index, with the control efficacy ranging from 26% (CEF-642) to 67% (CEF-818) at 25 days (d) after inoculation. In the disease nursery, compared to controls (with disease incidence of 33.8% and disease index of 31), CEF-818, CEF-193, CEF-714 and CEF-642 provided a protection effect of 69.5%, 69.2%, 54.6% and 45.7%, respectively. Especially, CEF-818 and CEF-714 still provided well protection against Verticillium wilt with 46.9% and 56.6% or 14.3% and 33.7% at the first peak of the disease in heavily infected field, respectively (in early July). These results indicated that these endophytes not only delayed but also reduced wilt symptoms on cotton. In the harvest, the available cotton bolls of plant treated with CEF-818 and CEF-714 increased to 13.1, and 12.2, respectively. And the seed cotton yield significantly increased after seed bacterization with CEF-818 (3442.04 kg/ha) compared to untreated control (3207.51 kg/ha) by 7.3%. Furtherly, CEF-818 and CET-714 treatment increased transcript levels for PAL, PPO, POD, which leads to the increase of cotton defense reactions. Our results indicate that seed treatment of cotton plants with CEF-818 and CET-714 can help in the biocontrol of V. dahliae and improve seed cotton yield in cotton fields. This study provided a better understanding of cotton-endophyte interactions which will aid in developing effective biocontrol agents for Verticillium wilt of cotton in futhre. PMID:28107448

  14. Development of modified medium for the enhancement in antifungal activity of P. steckii (MF1 mangrove fungi against verticillium wilt pathogenic fungi of rose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotasanmayee Sabat

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of Penicillium steckii (MF1 against pathogenic fungi of rose causing verticillium wilt was evaluated under differential nutrient condition. A suitable and modified medium was obtained in which test fungus exhibited enhanced antifungal activity and produced larger inhibition zone against the verticillium fungus. The study carried out to modify the medium components at level of nitrogen, carbon source and their concentration on agar plates. Addition of amino acids, metals and plant growth hormones did not show positive effect but glycerol enhanced the antifungal activity very much.

  15. Isolation, Identification and Activity of an Antagonistic Spore Bacterium against Cotton Verticillium Wilt%一株棉花黄萎病拮抗芽孢细菌的分离鉴定及活性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬冬; 李术娜; 郭晓军; 朱宝成

    2012-01-01

    采用改良的琼脂平板扩散法,通过初筛和复筛,得到一株对棉花黄萎病病原菌大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae)具有较强的抑菌活性的拮抗细菌Z-5菌株.通过对该菌株的形态特征观察、生理生化鉴定和16S rDNA 的序列分析,确定拮抗细菌Z-5菌株为Bacillus malacitensis.盆栽实验表明Z-5菌株对大丽轮枝菌的防治效果达到76.05%,对棉花黄萎病具有明显的防治作用.%A bacterial strain called Z-5 that had strong inhibition capability against Verticillium dahliae V-190 was obtained via preliminary and secondary screening with the improved agar plate diffusion method. Characterized by morphological and cultural features observation, physiological and biochemical experiments, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the Z-5 strain was initially identified as Bacillus malacitensis. Control of cotton Verticillium wilt by this antagonistic bacterium was assessed via potted plants. Results showed that the control efficacy of the antagonistic Z-5 strain on cotton Verticillium wilt was 76.05%. Preliminary results demonstrated that the antagonistic Z-5 bacterial strain could significantly inhibit the growth of V. dahliae.

  16. Transposable elements in phytopathogenic Verticillium spp.: insights into genome evolution and inter- and intra-specific diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amyotte Stefan G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verticillium dahliae (Vd and Verticillium albo-atrum (Va are cosmopolitan soil fungi causing very disruptive vascular diseases on a wide range of crop plants. To date, no sexual stage has been identified in either microorganism suggesting that somatic mutation is a major force in generating genetic diversity. Whole genome comparative analysis of the recently sequenced strains VdLs.17 and VaMs.102 revealed that non-random insertions of transposable elements (TEs have contributed to the generation of four lineage-specific (LS regions in VdLs.17. Results We present here a detailed analysis of Class I retrotransposons and Class II “cut-and-paste” DNA elements detected in the sequenced Verticillium genomes. We report also of their distribution in other Vd and Va isolates from various geographic origins. In VdLs.17, we identified and characterized 56 complete retrotransposons of the Gypsy-, Copia- and LINE-like types, as well as 34 full-length elements of the “cut-and-paste” superfamilies Tc1/mariner, Activator and Mutator. While Copia and Tc1/mariner were present in multiple identical copies, Activator and Mutator sequences were highly divergent. Most elements comprised complete ORFs, had matching ESTs and showed active transcription in response to stress treatment. Noticeably, we found evidences of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP only in some of the Gypsy retroelements. While Copia-, Gypsy- and Tc1/mariner-like transposons were prominent, a large variation in presence of the other types of mobile elements was detected in the other Verticillium spp. strains surveyed. In particular, neither complete nor defective “cut-and-paste” TEs were found in VaMs.102. Conclusions Copia-, Gypsy- and Tc1/mariner-like transposons are the most wide-spread TEs in the phytopathogens V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. In VdLs.17, we identified several retroelements and “cut-and-paste” transposons still potentially active. Some of these

  17. Pathogenicity and virulence of the two Dutch VCGs of Verticillium dahliae to woody ornamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goud, J.C.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in two consecutive years to test whether isolates of different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) differ in their ability to cause disease in woody ornamentals, to study the host specificity of the isolates and to get an insight into disease development in woody

  18. Decorative value of three dahlia cultivars (Dahlia ×cultorum Thorsr. et Reis treated with gibberellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dahlia (Dalia ×cultorumThorsr. et Reis is a perennial that due to special decorative value, diversity of inflorescences colours and shapes as well as plants height, is widely planted in flowerbeds, borders and different garden containers. Growth regulators play a significant role in ornamental plants cultivation. They influence size and shape of plants, number of inflorescences and flowering earliness. Gibberellins are among substances that are commonly used in plants production. In the years 2010-2011 research on the effect of GA 3 on morphological features of 3 Polish dahlia cultivars of Top-Mix group was conducted.

  19. 向日葵黄萎病拮抗细菌Y1-2菌株的鉴定与抑制效果%IDENTIFICATION AND INHIBITION EFFECT OF VERTICILLIUM WILT OF SUNFLOWER ANTAGONISM BACTERIA STRAIN Y1 -2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王颖; 周臣; 张一名; 赵君; 周洪友

    2011-01-01

    从向日葵黄萎病病区的健康植株根际分离到l株对向日葵黄萎病病原菌(Verticillium dahliae Kleb.)具有较强拮抗作用的菌株Y1-2.经形态观察、生理生化测定及16S rDNA序列对比分析结果表明,菌株Y1-2鉴定为Bacillus subtilis,其与(CJT14XVY01S)B.subtilis序列相似性达99.96%.菌株Y1 -2与大丽轮枝菌对峙培养可以形成4 mm的抑菌带,室内防治试验表明Y1 -2菌株对向日葵黄萎病的防治效果为75.3%;在田间小区防治试验中,Y1-2菌株对向日葵黄萎病的防治效果为81.8%.%We isolated the Verticillium wilt of sunflower pathogen( Verticillium dahliae Kleb. ) antagonist bacterial stain Yl -2 from the soil of sunflower roots. The identification results via morphology, physiological and biochemical characters and 16S rDNA analysis suggested that Yl -2 has 99.96% similarity with (CJT14XVY01S) B. Subtilis. The mutual confrontation training of stain Yl -2 and Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Results showed the width of the inhibition belt is 4 mm. The greenhouse control effect of Yl -2 is 75. 3% , and the field control effect reaches to 81. 8 %.

  20. Biological control agent against verticillium wilt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Verticillium wilt Presented at the 14th Biennial congress of the South African Society for Microbiology WHN Gumede CSIR Biosciences 11-04-06 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za INTRODUCTION • Historical background • Application...

  1. In Vitro and In Vivo Tests for Parasitism of Verticillium psalliotae Treschow on Hemileia Vastatrix BERK. and BR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Verticillium psalliotae Treschow is known to grow on the rust sori masses of Hemileia vastatrix in coffee plantings in Malaysia. However, published reports on this parasite or other biocontrol organisms present naturally in the coffee ecosystems in Malaysia are lacking. In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to elucidate evidence of parasitism of V. psalliotae on H. vastatrix. The host-mycoparasite interaction conducted in vitro resulted a significant reduction in germination of Hemileia uredespores and an increase in germination of Verticillium conidia. A significant reduction in leaf rust severity by the presence of V. psalliotae, particularly when V. psalliotae was applied 24 hours before the inoculation of H. vastatrix, demonstrated an evidence parasitism in vivo. The evidences were supported by SEM observation of penetration and damage to Hemileia uredospores by hyphae of V. psalliotae.

  2. The significance of ecology in the development of Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological agent against root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    OpenAIRE

    Leij, van der, T.

    1992-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the interactions which occur between nematode parasites and nematode pests and the influence of biotic and abiotic factors on these interactions, is essential in the development of biological control agents for nematodes. The aim of this study was to develop a particular isolate of the nematophagous fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium as a biological control agent for root-knot nematodes. The work has gained insight into some of the key factors which govern the eff...

  3. Molecular mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance QTL clustered on chromosomes D7 and D9 in upland cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Feng; ZHAO Jun; ZHOU Lei; GUO WangZhen; ZHANG TianZhen

    2009-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is s destructive disease with international consequences for cotton production. Breeding broad-spectrum resistant cultivars is considered to be one of the most effective means for reducing crop losses. A resistant cotton cultivar, 60182, was crossed with a susceptible cultivar, Junmian 1, to identify markers for Verticillium resistance genes and validate the mode of its inheritance. Genetic segregation analysis for Verticillium wilt resistance was evaluated based upon infected leaf percentage in the seedling stage using major gene-polygene mixed inheritance models and joint analysis of P_1, P_2, F_1, B_1, B_2 and F_2 populations obtained from the cultivar cross. We found that resistance of upland cotton cultivar 60182 to isolates BP2, VD8 and T9, and their isoconcentration mixture was controlled by two major genes with additive-dominance-epistatic effects, and the inheritance of the major gene was dominant. Furthermore, a genetic linkage map was constructed using F_2 segregating population and resistance phenotypic data were obtained using F_(2:3) families inoculated with different isolates and detected in different developmental stages. The genetic linkage map with 139 loci was comprised of 31 linkage groups covering 1165 cM, with an average distance of 8.38 cM between two markers, or 25.89% of the cotton genome length. From 60182, we found 4 QTL on chromosome D7 and 4 QTL on D9 for BP2, 5 QTL on D7 and 9 QTL on D9 for VD8, 4 QTL on D7 and 5 QTL on D9 for T9 and 3 QTL on D7 and 7 QTL on D7 for mixed pathogens. The QTL mapping results revealed that QTL clusters with high contribution rates were screened simultaneously on chromosomes D9 and D7 by multiple interval mapping (CIM), whether from resistance phenotypic data from different developmental stages or for different isolates. The result is consistent with the genetic model of two major genes in 60182 and suggests broad-spectrum resistance to both defoliating isolates of V. dahliae and

  4. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  5. Molecular evidence for the involvement of a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein, GhPGIP1, in enhanced resistance to Verticillium and Fusarium wilts in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Zhang, Xueyan; Sun, Yun; Wang, Ping; Li, Xiancai; Pei, Yakun; Li, Fuguang; Hou, Yuxia

    2017-01-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP), belonging to a group of plant defence proteins, specifically inhibits endopolygalacturonases secreted by pathogens. Herein, we showed that purified GhPGIP1 is a functional inhibitor of Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, the two fungal pathogens causing cotton wilt. Transcription of GhPGIP1 was increased in cotton upon infection, wounding, and treatment with defence hormone and H2O2. Resistance by GhPGIP1 was examined by its virus-induced gene silencing in cotton and overexpression in Arabidopsis. GhPGIP1-silenced cotton was highly susceptible to the infections. GhPGIP1 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred resistance to the infection, accompanied by enhanced expression of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), isochorismate synthase 1 (ICS1), enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1), and phytoalexin-deficient 4 (PAD4) genes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cell wall alteration and cell disintegration in plants inoculated with polygalacturonase (PGs), implying its role in damaging the cell wall. Docking studies showed that GhPGIP1 interacted strongly with C-terminal of V. dahliae PG1 (VdPG1) beyond the active site but weakly interacted with C-terminal of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (FovPG1). These findings will contribute towards the understanding of the roles of PGIPs and in screening potential combat proteins with novel recognition specificities against evolving pathogenic factors for countering pathogen invasion. PMID:28079053

  6. First report of Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae on tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Rebbeck; M.A. Malone; D.P.G. Short; M.T. Kasson; E.S. O' Neal; D.D. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Verticillium wilt of the highly invasive tree-of-heaven [Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle], caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae Interbitzin et al. (1), formerly classified as V. albo-atrum Reinke and Berthold, has been reported in the United States from two states: Pennsylvania (2) and Virginia (3). Infected...

  7. Toelating Herbasan SC welkom voor dahlia, A. coronaria en narcis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.J.; Koster, A.T.J.; Trompert, J.P.T.

    2005-01-01

    Onlangs is Herbasan SC voor de onkruidbestrijding in onder meer dahlia, narcis en Anemone coronaria toegelaten. PPO ging na hoe het middel het beste is in te zetten. In dit artikel zijn de resultaten van het onderzoek vermeld en een advies voor toepassing

  8. Comparative analysis of endogenous plant pararetroviruses in cultivated and wild Dahlia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeyda, C V; Eid, S G; Saar, D; Samuitiene, M; Pappu, H R

    2014-02-01

    Two distinct caulimoviruses, Dahlia mosaic virus (DMV) and Dahlia common mosaic virus, and an endogenous plant pararetroviral sequence (DvEPRS) were reported in Dahlia spp. DvEPRS, previously referred to as DMV-D10, was originally identified in the US from the cultivated Dahlia variabilis, and has also been found in New Zealand, Lithuania and Egypt, as well as in wild dahlia species growing in their natural habitats in Mexico. Sequence analysis of three new EPRSs from cultivated dahlias from Lithuania [D10-LT; 7,159 nucleotide level (nt)], New Zealand (D10-NZ, 7,156 nt), and the wild species, Dahlia rupicola, from Mexico (D10-DR, 7,133 nt) is reported in this study. The three EPRSs have the structure and organization typical of a caulimovirus species and showed identities among various open reading frames (ORFs) ranging between 71 and 97 % at the nt when compared to those or the known DvEPRS from the US. Examination of a dataset of seven full-length EPRSs obtained to date from cultivated and wild Dahlia spp. provided clues into genetic diversity of these EPRSs from diverse sources of dahlia. Phylogenetic analyses, mutation frequencies, potential recombination events, selection, and fitness were evaluated as evolutionary evidences for genetic variation. Assessment of all ORFs using phylogenomic and population genetics approaches suggests a wide genetic diversity of EPRSs occurring in dahlias. Phylogenetic analyses show that the EPRSs from various sources form one clade indicating a lack of clustering by geographical origin. Grouping of various EPRSs into two host taxa (cultivated vs. wild) shows little divergence with respect to their origin. Population genetic parameters demonstrate negative selection for all ORFs, with the reverse transcriptase region more variable than other ORFs. Recombination events were found which provide evolutionary evidence for genetic diversity among dahlia-associated EPRSs. This study contributes to an increased understanding of

  9. Production of inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus using dahlia tuber extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sumat Chand; Jain, P C; Kango, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    Various carbon sources were evaluated for production of inulinase by yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus MTCC 3995. Highest inulinase activity was observed with Dahlia extract (25.3 nkat mL(-1)) as carbon source. The enzyme activity was 1.4 folds higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (17.8 nkat mL(-1)). The yeast showed good growth on a simple medium containing dahlia extract (20% w/v) and yeast extract (2%w/v) as carbon and nitrogen source respectively, in 96 h. at 28°C and 120 rpm. Lowest inulinase yield (4.8 nkat mL(-1)) was seen in the medium containing glucose as C-source. Although varied inulinase levels were noticed on different C- sources, Inulinase: Sucrase (I/S) ratios were noticed to be similar. Among various protein sources tested, yeast extract was found to be the best source followed by beef extract (17.9 nkat mL(-1)) and peptone (13.8 nkat mL(-1)). The enzyme was optimally active at pH (4.0) and 50°C. TLC analysis of end product revealed that inulinase hydrolyzed inulin exclusively into fructose. Results suggest that the dahlia extract induced exoinulinase synthesis in Kluyveromyces marxianus and can be utilized as a potential substrate for inulinase production.

  10. Production of inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus using Dahlia tuber extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumat Chand Jain

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Various carbon sources were evaluated for production of inulinase by yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus MTCC 3995. Highest inulinase activity was observed with Dahlia extract (25.3 nkat mL-1 as carbon source. The enzyme activity was 1.4 folds higher than that observed in media containing pure chicory inulin (17.8 nkat mL-1. The yeast showed good growth on a simple medium containing dahlia extract (20% w/v and yeast extract (2%w/v as carbon and nitrogen source respectively, in 96 h. at 28°C and 120 rpm. Lowest inulinase yield (4.8 nkat mL-1 was seen in the medium containing glucose as C-source. Although varied inulinase levels were noticed on different C- sources, Inulinase: Sucrase (I/S ratios were noticed to be similar. Among various protein sources tested, yeast extract was found to be the best source followed by beef extract (17.9 nkat mL-1 and peptone (13.8 nkat mL-1. The enzyme was optimally active at pH (4.0 and 50°C. TLC analysis of end product revealed that inulinase hydrolyzed inulin exclusively into fructose. Results suggest that the dahlia extract induced exoinulinase synthesis in Kluyveromyces marxianus and can be utilized as a potential substrate for inulinase production.

  11. AKTIVITAS INULINASE OLEH Pichia manshurica DAN FUSAN F4 PADA FERMENTASI BATCH DENGAN UMBI DAHLIA (Dahlia sp SEBAGAI SUBSTRAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ACTIVITY OF INULINASE OF Pichia Manshuria AND FUSAN F4 ON BATCH FERMENTATION UDING DAHLIA TUBER (Dahlia sp AS A SUBSTRATE. A dahlia tuber is one of the common inulin rich crops. Inulin is formed by units of fructans, which are polymers of D-fructose. Inulinases (EC 3.2.1.7 catalyze the hydrolysis of inulin, producing fructooligosaccharides (FOS, inulooligosaccharides (IOS, pulullan, acetone, butanol and sorbitol, therefore dahlia tubers are used as growth media. The inulin hydrolyzing activity has been reported from various microbial strains Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4 which is the result of fusion protoplast. The objective of this study was to determine the activity of inulinase Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4 on the substrate dahlia tubers. Fusan F4 to increase inulinase activity compared with Pichia manshurica and to investigate the kinetics of specific growth rate (μ and time double (g from of Pichia manshurica and Fusan F4. The results showed that the exponential phase occurs at 0-12 hour without a lag phase. P. manshurica has a specific growth rate (μ of 0.18/hour with time double (g 3.90 hours and the inulinase enzyme activity of 0.56 IU, while for Fusan F4 consecutive has a value μ of 0.20/hour, g of 3.49 hours and the activity of 0.69 IU. The conclusion of this research is to improve Fusan F4 inulinase activity and the ability has to be better than the Pichia manshurica.Umbi dahlia merupakan salah satu umbi yang mengandung inulin. Inulin merupakan polimer fruktan yang dapat dipecah oleh enzim inulinase (E.C. 3.2.1.7 menjadi fruktosa. Fruktosa merupakan bahan baku dasar untuk pembuatan FOS, IOS, pulullan, aseton dan sorbitol, oleh karena itu umbi dahlia digunakan sebagai media pertumbuhan. Enzim inulinase ini secara indigenous dimiliki oleh Pichia manshurica dan Fusan F4 yang merupakan hasil fusi protoplas.Tujuan  penelitian ini adalah  untuk mengetahui aktivitas inulinase Pichia manshurica dan Fusan F4 pada substrat umbi dahlia

  12. Investigating Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Verticillium albo-atrum on plant surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Knight

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Agrobacterium tumefaciens has long been known to transform plant tissue in nature as part of its infection process. This natural mechanism has been utilised over the last few decades in laboratories world wide to genetically manipulate many species of plants. More recently this technology has been successfully applied to non-plant organisms in the laboratory, including fungi, where the plant wound hormone acetosyringone, an inducer of transformation, is supplied exogenously. In the natural environment it is possible that Agrobacterium and fungi may encounter each other at plant wound sites, where acetosyringone would be present, raising the possibility of natural gene transfer from bacterium to fungus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate this hypothesis through the development of experiments designed to replicate such a situation at a plant wound site. A. tumefaciens harbouring the plasmid pCAMDsRed was co-cultivated with the common plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium albo-atrum on a range of wounded plant tissues. Fungal transformants were obtained from co-cultivation on a range of plant tissue types, demonstrating that plant tissue provides sufficient vir gene inducers to allow A. tumefaciens to transform fungi in planta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work raises interesting questions about whether A. tumefaciens may be able to transform organisms other than plants in nature, or indeed should be considered during GM risk assessments, with further investigations required to determine whether this phenomenon has already occurred in nature.

  13. 分裂型人格障碍脑结构影像的研究进展%FUNGICIDE SCREENING AND TOXICITY TEST AGAINST Verticilium dahliae IN SUNFLOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茜; 王继军

    2011-01-01

    @@ 分裂型人格障碍(schizotypal personality disorder,SPD)最早由美国第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)提出,是以奇特思维或行为、无明显幻觉和妄想为特征,缺乏人际交往能力的一类人格障碍.由于SPD在精神分裂症患者亲属中出现频度很高,因此也被认为是精神分裂症遗传谱的一部分.%The toxicity of 8 kinds of organic fungicides in different concentration, Diethofencarb, Chlorothalonil, Triazolone, Azoxys trobin, Copper acetate, Manganese zinc. , Dismerthiazol and Carbendazim, was measured against Verticillium dahliae of sunflower by mycelium growth rate test. The result showed Manganese zinc. had best inhibitory effect on this pathogen, its EC50 was only 13. 143.?g/ml. The next was Diethofencarb, its EC50 was 37. 19? g/ml. The worst is Chlorothalonil, its EC50 was highest 964.72? g/mi. For the same fungicide inhibitory effect increased with increasing concentration of chemical.

  14. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  15. In vitro selection in resistance breeding of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa duch.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, Jadwiga Irena

    2010-01-01

    Genetic resistance to pathogenetic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. was examined in two strawberry somaclones. Strawberry somaclones were obtained in sterile culture from runner tips of cultivars 'Merton Dawn' and 'Selva'. In vitro selection was performed with the use of homogenate of liquid cultures of Verticillium dahliae. Microplants of both somaclones were inoculated at stage of 4. Leaves. Disease symptoms were observed at 15., 30., 45., 60. and 75. days post inoculation. Extent of leaf chlorosis was rated on a scale of 0-4. Under the controlled in vitro culture conditions a different response to infection by this pathogenic fungus was observed. After 75. days post inoculation the contribution of necrotic plants in somaclone of 'Merton Dawn' reached the value of 76%, whereas in somaclone of 'Selva' this value reached 86%. In control somaclones of 'Merton Dawn' and 'Selva' the contribution of necrotic plants after 75. days post mock-inoculation with sterile distilled water reached the considerably lower value of 13%. These results revealed that somaclone of 'Merton Dawn' was more genetically resistant to infection by V. dahliae than somaclone of 'Selva'. The observed response to in vitro infection caused by Verticillium dahliae in examined somaclones was similar in comparison with original cultivars. Furthermore, somaclonal variation induced in tissue cultured strawberry was sufficient to select variants that showed enhanced genetic resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by V. dahliae. In vitro selection can be efficiently used as an alternative program to conventional resistance breeding in strawberry.

  16. Repetitive elements, architects of genomic variation in Verticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular wilt pathogens in the genus Verticillium show considerable variation with respect to their host ranges, genomic organization, and the variety and number of transposable elements (TEs) that they carry. These families of TE sequences were first documented in the wide host range, plant pathog...

  17. Effect of solarization with fresh chicken manure on verticillium wilt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BİM

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... possible to use solar energy instead of fumigation, and it is also beneficial to use it ...... be overcome by supplementation of green plant or .... Verticillium wilt on resistant tomato cultivars in California: Virulence of isolates from ...

  18. Enzymatic production of DFA III from fresh dahlia tubers as raw material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budiwati, Thelma A.; Ratnaningrum, D.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Dahlia is an annual ornamental plants and tubers that have not been widely used in Indonesia. Dahlia tubers contain nearly 70 per cent of the starch in the form of inulin. Inulin addition can be used as a food ingredient can also be used as a raw material for making DFA III (ie functional oligosaccharides), using inulin fructotransferase (IFTase) Nonomuraea sp. In this study conducted production of DFA III through enzymatic reactions and yeast fermentation, using inulin from fresh dahlia tubers and fresh dahlia tuber extract. Dahlia tubers which is one source of inulin, do blanching before extracted. Most dahlia tuber extract used directly for enzymatic reactions in the production of DFA III and some extracts are processed to produce inulin by precipitation using ethanol and then inulin is used for the enzymatic reaction. Syrup DFA III was measured volume and viscosity, and then do decolorization and then crystallization. The analysis was done of Thin Layer Chromatography (to see DFA III formed) and HPLC to see the purity of the product. The results showed that the average of inulin from precipitation with ethanol in the two batch of 113,5 g with an average water content of 7.41%, average whiteness degree 62.29% and an average yield 7.345% (w/w, wb dahlia tuber). From the average of DFA III liquid of 480 mL with density of 14.15%, the result of the average of DFA III crystal from enzyme reaction in the two reactor using inulin dahlia tubers as a substrate, was obtained of 55.4 g with an average whiteness degree of 93.8%, and the average of yield 3.56% w/w (wb dahlia tuber) or 48.89% w/w (db inulin). And then from the average of 475 mL with density of 16.85% was obtained an average DFA III crystals of 29 g from the enzyme reaction in the two reactor using fresh dahlia tuber extract as a substrate, with an average whiteness degree o 80.75% and the average of the yield of 1.86% w/w (wb dahlia tuber).

  19. Genomics spurs rapid advances in our understanding of the biology of vascular wilt pathogens in the genus Verticillium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimes, A.; Dobinson, K.F.; Thomma, B.; Klosterman, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of genomic sequences of several Verticillium species triggered an explosion of genome-scale investigations of mechanisms fundamental to the Verticillium life cycle and disease process. Comparative genomics studies have revealed evolutionary mechanisms, such as hybridization and inte

  20. Entomopathogenic Potential of Verticillium and Acremonium Species (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Humber, Richard A

    1999-01-01

    entomopathogen. The fungi were identified as Verticillium fusisporum, Veritcillium psalliotae, Verticillium lamellicola, and species of Acremonium. Isolates of these fungi were bioassayed against the sweet-potato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and against the housefly (Musca domestica) to examine...... their entomopathogenicity. A test was also conducted with a coleopteran (lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus) to further evaluate the host range for some of the fungi. V. lamellicola was not pathogenic to the two species of insects treated, while varying levels of pathogenicity were shown for the other species....... In general, V. lecanii was the most pathogenic species. Immature whiteflies appeared to be more susceptible to fungal infection than adult houseflies, and the host range for several of the fungi also included lesser mealworm....

  1. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease.

  2. 2-氧代和2-羟基环烷基磺酰胺对14种病原真菌的杀菌活性%Fungicidal activity of 2-oxo and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides against 14 fungus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴海; 吴德财; 祁之秋; 谷祖敏; 李修伟; 纪明山

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:The fungicidal activity of 10 compound containing 7V-(2-trifluoromethyl-4-chlorophenyl)-2-oxo and 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides against 14 fungus species were evaluated by the method of mycelial growth inhibition. The results of bioassay at concentration of 50 mg/L showed that compound A3, A4, B3 and B4 possessed a broad anti-fungal spectrum, which was similar to or broader than those of chlorothalonil. The EC,,, values of compound A3 and B3 against Gibberella zeae ( Schw. ) Petch, Verticillium dahliae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. ) de Bary, Fusarium moniliforme Sheld, Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc. ) Shoem, Curvularia lunata (Walker) Boed, Colletotrichum gossypii Southw and Corynespora cassiicola were all less than 20 mg/L. The fungicidal activity of 2-hydroxycycloalkylsulfonamides against fungi was similar to that of 2-oxocycloalkylsulfonamides, and compounds containing 7 or 8-membered ring were better than those containing 5,6 or 12-membered ring.%为了研究2-氧代和2-羟基环烷基磺酰胺类化合物的杀菌谱,选择N-(2-三氟甲基4-氯苯基)-2-氧代和2-羟基环戊、己、庚、辛、十二烷基磺酰胺(A1~A5和B1~B5)共10个化合物,采用菌丝生长速率法测试了其对14种病原真菌的杀菌活性,并进行了初步的构效关系分析.在质量浓度50 mg/L下,2-氧代环庚、环辛烷基衍生物(A3、A4)和2-羟基环庚、环辛烷基衍生物(B3、B4)的杀菌谱接近或宽于对照药剂百菌清.精密毒力测定结果表明,化合物A3和B3对小麦赤霉病菌Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch、棉花黄萎病菌Verticillium dahliae等8种病原菌的ECso值均在20 mg/L以内.2-氧代和2-羟基对该类化合物杀菌活性的影响基本一致,7、8员环化合物的活性明显高于5、6员环和12员环化合物.

  3. Comparative pathogenicity, biocontrol efficacy, and multilocus sequence typing of Verticillium nonalfalfae from the invasive Ailanthus altissima and other hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasson, M T; Short, D P G; O'Neal, E S; Subbarao, K V; Davis, D D

    2014-03-01

    Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium nonalfalfae, is currently killing tens of thousands of highly invasive Ailanthus altissima trees within the forests in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Virginia and is being considered as a biological control agent of Ailanthus. However, little is known about the pathogenicity and virulence of V. nonalfalfae isolates from other hosts on Ailanthus, or the genetic diversity among V. nonalfalfae from confirmed Ailanthus wilt epicenters and from locations and hosts not associated with Ailanthus wilt. Here, we compared the pathogenicity and virulence of several V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates, evaluated the efficacy of the virulent V. nonalfalfae isolate VnAa140 as a biocontrol agent of Ailanthus in Pennsylvania, and performed multilocus sequence typing of V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae. Inoculations of seven V. nonalfalfae and V. alfalfae isolates from six plant hosts on healthy Ailanthus seedlings revealed that V. nonalfalfae isolates from hosts other than Ailanthus were not pathogenic on Ailanthus. In the field, 100 canopy Ailanthus trees were inoculated across 12 stands with VnAa140 from 2006 to 2009. By 2011, natural spread of the fungus had resulted in the mortality of >14,000 additional canopy Ailanthus trees, 10,000 to 15,000 Ailanthus sprouts, and nearly complete eradication of Ailanthus from several smaller inoculated stands, with the exception of a few scattered vegetative sprouts that persisted in the understory for several years before succumbing. All V. nonalfalfae isolates associated with the lethal wilt of Ailanthus, along with 18 additional isolates from 10 hosts, shared the same multilocus sequence type (MLST), MLST 1, whereas three V. nonalfalfae isolates from kiwifruit shared a second sequence type, MLST 2. All V. alfalfae isolates included in the study shared the same MLST and included the first example of V. alfalfae infecting a non-lucerne host. Our results indicate that V. nonalfalfae is host adapted and

  4. Isolation of Pichia manshurica protoplast from Dahlia sp plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijanarka Wijanarka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of protoplasts is an important step in the fusion process. Protoplasts are cells that have eliminated the cell wall, but the cell membranes and organs can still function properly. Pichia manshurica is one of indogenous yeast that derived from Dahlia €™s plants. The success rate protoplast isolation was determined by various factors, include the age of the culture and the used of lytic enzymes. The purpose of this research is to get the perfect age of yeast culture that is ready to be harvested and also to get the appropriate concentration of Glucanex lytic enzymes which used for protoplast isolation. The yeast of Pichia manshurica grown on YPD broth medium and growth observed in turbidimetry. Observation of the growth of yeasts performed every 6 hours for 42 hours. Glucanex lytic enzyme concentration used for the isolation of protoplasts is 0 mg / mL (L0 = control, 2 mg / mL (L2 and 4 mg / mL (L4. The results showed that the age of the culture is right and ready for harvest at the age of 24 hours and Glucanex lytic enzyme concentration of 4 mg / mL (L4 is able to produce the best of protoplasts at 7.2 x 1010.

  5. Effect of Verticillium lecanii on biological characteristics and life table of Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of whiteflies under laboratory conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lazreg Fatiha; Zhen Huang; Shun-Xiang Ren; Shaukat Ali

    2008-01-01

    Effects of entomopathogenic fungus Verticillium lecanii on biological characteristics and life table of Serangiumjaponicum, a predator of whiteflies against five different conidial concentrations (1×104, 1×105, 1×106, 1×107, and 1×108 conidia/mL) were studied under laboratory conditions. The developmental periods for all immature stages (from eggs, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th instar nymph and pupae up to emergence) among the treatments were significantly different when compared to that of control, and the longest development period was observed as treated with 1×108spore/mL. However, no significant difference on the percent survival of all immature stages was observed among the treatments and control. Also, there were no significantly different effects of V. lecanii on mean generation time, intrinsic rate, the finite rate of increase and longevity of S. japonicum among the treatments and control.

  6. Verticillium longisporum Infection Affects the Leaf Apoplastic Proteome, Metabolome, and Cell Wall Properties in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerl, Saskia; Majcherczyk, Andrzej; Possienke, Mareike; Feussner, Kirstin; Tappe, Hella; Gatz, Christiane; Feussner, Ivo; Kües, Ursula; Polle, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Verticillium longisporum (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases in important oil crops from the family of Brassicaceae. The fungus resides for much time of its life cycle in the extracellular fluid of the vascular system, where it cannot be controlled by conventional fungicides. To obtain insights into the biology of VL-plant interaction in the apoplast, the secretome consisting of the extracellular proteome and metabolome as well as cell wall properties were studied in the model Brassicaceae, Arabidopsis thaliana. VL infection resulted in increased production of cell wall material with an altered composition of carbohydrate polymers and increased lignification. The abundance of several hundred soluble metabolites changed in the apoplast of VL-infected plants including signalling and defence compounds such as glycosides of salicylic acid, lignans and dihydroxybenzoic acid as well as oxylipins. The extracellular proteome of healthy leaves was enriched in antifungal proteins. VL caused specific increases in six apoplast proteins (three peroxidases PRX52, PRX34, P37, serine carboxypeptidase SCPL20, α-galactosidase AGAL2 and a germin-like protein GLP3), which have functions in defence and cell wall modification. The abundance of a lectin-like, chitin-inducible protein (CILLP) was reduced. Since the transcript levels of most of the induced proteins were not elevated until late infection time points (>20 dpi), whereas those of CILLP and GLP3 were reduced at earlier time points, our results may suggest that VL enhances its virulence by rapid down-regulation and delay of induction of plant defence genes. PMID:22363647

  7. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium

  8. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium ingredi

  9. Micropropagation of dahlia in static liquid medium using slow-release tools of medium ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.

    2011-01-01

    Growth of dahlia shoots in vitro was ca. 4 times faster in liquid medium than on solidified medium. In liquid standard medium (3% sucrose, macroelements according to Driver–Kuniyuki Walnut medium, microelements according to Murashige–Skoog medium, 0.44 µM benzylaminopurine), the major medium ingredi

  10. FERMENTATION OF INULIN BY A NEW STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM-THERMOAUTOTROPHICUM ISOLATED FROM DAHLIA TUBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENT, WJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1991-01-01

    A new inulin-fermenting strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum was isolated through enrichment on dahlia tubers, and subsequent plating on agar media with undissolved inulin. Both the cell-bound and cell-free inulinase(s) functioned optimally at 60-degrees-C and at neutral pH. This new strain I1

  11. FERMENTATION OF INULIN BY A NEW STRAIN OF CLOSTRIDIUM-THERMOAUTOTROPHICUM ISOLATED FROM DAHLIA TUBERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENT, WJ; GOTTSCHAL, JC

    1991-01-01

    A new inulin-fermenting strain of Clostridium thermoautotrophicum was isolated through enrichment on dahlia tubers, and subsequent plating on agar media with undissolved inulin. Both the cell-bound and cell-free inulinase(s) functioned optimally at 60-degrees-C and at neutral pH. This new strain I1

  12. 'Le Rouge et le Noir': A decline in flavone formation correlates with the rare color of black dahlia (Dahlia variabilis hort. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thill Jana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 20,000 cultivars of garden dahlia (Dahlia variabilis hort. are available showing flower colour from white, yellow and orange to every imaginable hue of red and purple tones. Thereof, only a handful of cultivars are so-called black dahlias showing distinct black-red tints. Flower colour in dahlia is a result of the accumulation of red anthocyanins, yellow anthochlors (6’-deoxychalcones and 4-deoxyaurones and colourless flavones and flavonols, which act as copigments. White and yellow coloration occurs only if the pathway leading to anthocyanins is incomplete. Not in all cultivars the same step of the anthocyanin pathway is affected, but the lack of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity is frequently observed and this seems to be based on the suppression of the transcription factor DvIVS. The hitherto unknown molecular background for black colour in dahlia is here presented. Results Black cultivars accumulate high amounts of anthocyanins, but show drastically reduced flavone contents. High activities were observed for all enzymes from the anthocyanin pathway whereas FNS II activity could not be detected or only to a low extent in 13 of 14 cultivars. cDNA clones and genomic clones of FNS II were isolated. Independently from the colour type, heterologous expression of the cDNA clones resulted in functionally active enzymes. FNS II possesses one intron of varying length. Quantitative Real-time PCR showed that FNS II expression in black cultivars is low compared to other cultivars. No differences between black and red cultivars were observed in the expression of transcription factors IVS and possible regulatory genes WDR1, WDR2, MYB1, MYB2, 3RMYB and DEL or the structural genes of the flavonoid pathway. Despite the suppression of FHT expression, flavanone 3-hydroxylase (FHT, synonym F3H enzyme activity was clearly present in the yellow and white cultivars. Conclusions An increased accumulation of anthocyanins establishes

  13. A primary study on effec of VAM fungi to strawberry and Verticillium wilt%VAM真菌对草莓促生、防草莓黄萎病效应初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宝红; 甄文超; 曹克强; 武玉环

    2004-01-01

    在室内条件下研究了Glomus mosseae和Glomus versiforme与草莓共生后对由大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae Kelb)引起的草莓黄萎病的抗病效果.结果表明:两种VAM真菌对草莓黄萎病均有明显的防效.与对照相比接种G.mosseae和G.versiforme的处理病情指数分别降低39.4和34.7,防效分别为66.22%和58.32%.此外,两种VAM真菌对草莓生长有明显的促进作用,接种G.mosseae和G.versiforme处理的单株株高、茎粗、根长和地上部鲜重等各项指标均明显高于对照.

  14. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  15. Biological control and endophytism of the olive root bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado González, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) has always been a fundamental crop in the Mediterranean Basin. Driven by the fact, among others, that an increasing number of scientific reports highlight the benefits that olive oil consumption has for human health, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide to other regions with Mediterranean-type climate. Two relevant pathogens affecting olive trees are the hemibiotrophic soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae and the bacterium Pseudomonas savastano...

  16. Cotton GhBAK1 Mediates Verticillium Wilt Resistance and Cell Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiquan Gao; Fangjun Li; Maoying Li; Ali S.Kianinejad; Jane K.Dever; Terry A.Wheeler; Zhaohu LP

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a powerful approach for functional analysis of individual genes by knocking down their expression.We have adopted this approach to dissect gene functions in cotton resistant to Verticillium wilt,one of the most devastating diseases worldwide.We showed hera that highly efficient VIGS was obtained in a cotton breeding line (CA4002) with partial resistance to Verticillium wilt,and GhMKK2 and Gh Ve 1 are required for its resistance to Verticillium wilt.Arabidopsis AtBAK1/SERK3,a central regulator in plant disease resistance,belongs to a subfamily of somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) with five members,AtSERK1 to AtSERK5.Two BAK1 orthologs and one SERK1 ortholog were identified in the cotton genome.Importantly,GhBAK1 is required for CA4002 resistance to Verticillium wilt.Surprisingly,silencing of GhBAK1 is sufficient to trigger cell death accompanied with production of reactive oxygen species in cotton.This result is distinct from Arabidopsis in which AtBAK1 and AtSERK4 play redundant functions in cell death control.Apparently,cotton has only evolved SERK1 and BAK1 whereas AtSERK4/5 are newly evolved genes in Arabidopsis.Our studies indicate the functional importance of BAK1 in Verticillium wilt resistance and suggest the dynamic evolution of SERK family members in different plant species.

  17. 8种杀菌剂对向日葵黄萎病菌的室内毒力测定%FUNGICIDE SCREENING AND TOXICITY TEST AGAINST Verticilium dahliae IN SUNFLOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴旭; 赵永新; 周洪友; 赵君; 景岚

    2011-01-01

    通过生长速率法测定了乙霉威、百菌清、三唑酮、嘧菌酯、乙酸铜、多.锰锌、叶枯唑、多菌灵8种药剂在不同浓度下对向目葵黄萎病病原菌的室内抑菌效果.结果表明:多.锰锌对病原菌的抑制效果最好,EC50仅为13.143μg/ml,其次是乙霉威,EC50为37.19μg/ml,百菌清抑菌效果最差,EC50高达964.72μg/ml.对于同1种药剂随着浓度的增加抑菌效果增强.%The toxicity of 8 kinds of organic fungicides in different concentration, Diethofencarb, Chlorothalonil, Triazolone, Azoxystrobin, Copper acetate, Manganese zinc., Dismerthiazol and Carbendazim, was measured against Verticillium dahliae of sunflower by mycelium growth rate test.The result showed Manganese zinc.had best inhibitory effect on this pathogen, its EC50 was only 13.143?g/ml.The next was Diethofencarb, its EC50 was 37.197 g/ml.The worst is Chlorothalonil, its EC50 was highest 964.72? g/ml.For the same fungicide inhibitory effect increased with increasing concentration of chemical.

  18. Voltammogram of stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode on water electrolysis in base condition with dahlia pinnata tuber starch media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isana S. Y., L.; Yuanita, Dewi; Sulistyani, Al, Heru Pratomo

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen production in a safe, enviromentally friendly, and inexpensive is an attempt to realize energy needs commercially, one of them is electrolysis. Many attempts which relate with water electrolysis had been conducted to produce hydrogen, for example by using wastewater as water substitution. The research is to study the effect of dahlia pinnata tuber starch to stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode activity on water electrolysis in base condition. Stainless steel/Fe-Co-Ni electrode activity for breaking the water molecules eventually is better than stainless steel electrode, either there is existance of dahlia pinnata tuber starch or not. The presence of dahlia pinnata tuber starch apparently makes the covering on surface of the electrode so the catalytic activity of the electrode is reduced. Covering is mostly affected by dahlia pinnata tuber starch concentration. Wastewater which contains starch, especially dahlia pinnata tuber starch, obviously is not good enough because hydrogen production rate becomes obstructed.

  19. PENAMBAHAN TEPUNG UMBI DAHLIA, KEDELAI DAN BAWANG PUTIH SEBAGAI SUMBER PREBIOTIK UNTUK ENKAPSULASI PROBIOTIK [Addition of Flours from Dahlia Tuber, Soybean and Garlic as Prebiotic Sources for Probiotic Encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of flours made from dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic as the sources of natural prebiotic on the encapsulation of probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus Dad 13 with carragenan and chitosan. Carragenan and chitosan are potential encapsulating agents that can protect bacterial cells from unfavorable conditions. It is hypothesized that addition of natural prebiotics from dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic can stimulate the growth of probiotic (L. acidophilus Dad 13 in MRS broth medium. Parameters evaluated were size and weight of capsule, number of cells in the capsule, acid and bile salt resistance of the biocapsule produced from carragenan and chitosan added with flours of dahlia tuber, soybean and garlic as the sources of natural prebiotic. The randomized complete block design was used as the experimental design with two factors. The first factor was the encapsulating agents (A1 carragenan, A2 chitosan and second factor was the sources of natural prebiotic (P1 dahlia tuber, P2 garlic, P3 soybean. The results showed that the type of encapsulating agent had an effect on weight, diameter and number of cells in the capsule but did not affect the acid and bile salt resistance. Addition of prebiotic flour to biocapsules had an effect on weight and diameter of capsules but no effect on acid and bile salt resistance and the number of cells. Addition of flour as prebiotic source from dahlia, garlic and soybean increased the cell number by 1 log cycle. Capsules made from chitosan with the addition of prebiotic source flour were lighter, had shorter diameter and lower cell reduction by acid (4.63-5.24 log cycle than those made with carragenan (6.93-7.19 log cycle. Based on the acid resistance, the best biocapsules was made with chitosan and dahlia prebiotic flour.

  20. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  1. RabGAP22 is required for defense to the vascular pathogen Verticillium longisporum and contributes to stomata immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Roos

    Full Text Available Verticillium longisporum is a soil-borne pathogen with a preference for plants within the family Brassicaceae. Following invasion of the roots, the fungus proliferates in the plant vascular system leading to stunted plant growth, chlorosis and premature senescence. RabGTPases have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in regulating multiple responses in plants. Here, we report on the identification and characterization of the Rab GTPase-activating protein RabGAP22 gene from Arabidopsis, as an activator of multiple components in the immune responses to V. longisporum. RabGAP22Pro :GUS transgenic lines showed GUS expression predominantly in root meristems, vascular tissues and stomata, whereas the RabGAP22 protein localized in the nucleus. Reduced RabGAP22 transcript levels in mutants of the brassinolide (BL signaling gene BRI1-associated receptor kinase 1, together with a reduction of fungal proliferation following BL pretreatment, suggested RabGAP22 to be involved in BL-mediated responses. Pull-down assays revealed serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT1 as an interacting partner during V. longisporum infection and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC showed the RabGAP22-AGT1 protein complex to be localized in the peroxisomes. Further, fungal-induced RabGAP22 expression was found to be associated with elevated endogenous levels of the plant hormones jasmonic acid (JA and abscisic acid (ABA. An inadequate ABA response in rabgap22-1 mutants, coupled with a stomata-localized expression of RabGAP22 and impairment of guard cell closure in response to V. longisporum and Pseudomonas syringae, suggest that RabGAP22 has multiple roles in innate immunity.

  2. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René;

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural II...

  3. Optimization of Verticillium lecanii spore production in solid-state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Y.; Xu, X.; Zhu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Verticillium lecanii is an entomopathogen with high potential in biological control of pests. We developed a solid-state fermentation with sugarcane bagasse as carrier absorbing liquid medium to propagate V. lecanii spores. Using statistical experimental design, we optimized the medium composition f

  4. Multimodel Inference for the Prediction of Disease Symptoms and Yield Loss of Potato in a Two-Year Crop Rotation Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim Van den Berg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The second order Akaike information criterion was used for the assessment of 139 regression models for three responses of potato test crops: (a incidence of Spongospora subterranea on the harvested tubers, (b percentage of haulms infected with Verticillium dahliae, and (c tuber yield. Six variables that are likely related to the response variables were taken into consideration: soil infestations of the fungus Verticillium dahliae and of three nematode species (Globodera pallida, Trichodoridae, and Meloidogyne spp. and, furthermore, soil pH and water soluble phosphor (P. Interactions between V. dahliae and the three nematode species were included as well. Based on multimodelling, predictors are given a weight from which one may decide about the need to include them in a prediction of crop yield. The most important predictors were soil infestation levels of V. dahliae and G. pallida and soil pH. The outcome also showed that tubers suffered more from S. subterranea for higher soil pH values. Finally, yield reduction from the presence of V. dahliae was enhanced by the presence of higher densities of G. pallida.

  5. Meat Characteristic of Crossbred Local Chicken Fed Inulin of Dahlia Tuber and Lactobacillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Husein Abdurrahman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the meat characteristic of crossbred local chicken fed diet containing both dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and probiotic Lactobacillus sp. The experimental animals were 168 crossbred local chickens which were randomly divided into 6 groups of treatment (4 replications each when they were 21-d old. A completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial pattern consisted of 2 levels of prebiotic [(0.8% (D1 and 1.2% (D2] and 3 levels of probiotic [without probiotic (L0, 1.2 mL (L1, and 2.4 mL (L2] was arranged in the present study. One mL probiotic (Lactobacillus sp. was equal to 108 cfu. Results showed that the supplementation of prebiotic and probiotic significantly (P<0.05 affected breast meat color in terms of L* (lightness and b* (yellowness. The meat fat mass and cholesterol was significantly (P<0.05 decreased by the combination of prebiotic and probiotic. The hardness of meat was not affected significantly by all treatments. The conclusion is that breast meat color could be improved, and both meat fat mass and cholesterol content could be decreased by feeding a combination of 1.2% dahlia tuber powder as inulin source and 1.2 mL probiotic Lactobacillus sp.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  7. INHIBITION OF OLIGOSACCHARIDE TO SOME PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS%寡聚糖对几种植物病原菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凌欣; 裴旭; 景岚

    2010-01-01

    运用培养基加药法进行了寡聚糖对向日葵菌核病病菌(Sclerotinia sclertiorum),甜瓜黑斑病病菌(Alternaria spp.),番茄灰霉病病菌(Botrytis cinerea),番茄早疫病病菌(Alternaria solani),番茄叶霉病菌(Cladosporium fulvum),小麦纹枯病病菌(Rizoctonia cerealia),苹果腐烂病病菌(Valsa mali),茄子黄萎病病菌(Verticillium dahliae),葡萄白腐病菌(Coniothyrium diplodiellas),蒜白腐病菌(Sclerotium cepivorum)等10种植物病原菌抑菌试验,结果表明寡聚糖对这些病原菌均有一定程度的抑制作用,其作用大小因寡聚糖的浓度和病原菌种类而异.

  8. FEEDING EFFECT OF INULIN DERIVED FROM DAHLIA TUBER COMBINED WITH Lactobacillus sp. ON MEAT PROTEIN MASS OF CROSSBRED KAMPONG CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. H. Abdurrahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding Lactobacillus species (Lactobacillus sp. and inulin derived from dahlia tuber powder on antioxidant activity, calcium mass, and protein mass of crossbred kampong chicken meat. A total of  168 birds of 21 days old crossbred kampong chickens were randomly allocated into 6 treatments with four replications per treatment. The present experiment was assigned in  a completely randomized design with 2 x 3 factorial scheme. The first factor was levels of dahlia tuber powder, namely 0.8% (A1 and 1.2% (A2, and the second factor was levels of Lactobacillus sp., namely none (B0, 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL/B1 and 2.4 mL (108 cfu/mL/B2. The parameters measured were antioxidant activity, meat calcium and protein mass. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and followed by Duncan multiple range test (P<0.05 when the treatment indicated significant effect. The supplementation of dahlia tuber powder and Lactobacillus sp. significantly (P<0.05 increased antioxidant activity and protein mass of meat. However, calcium mass of meat was not significantly affected by treatments. In conclusion, feeding dahlia tuber powder at the level of 1.2% combined with Lactobacillus sp. at 1.2 mL (108 cfu/mL, can be categorized as the best combination based on the increase in antioxidant activity and meat protein mass.  

  9. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium Fungi as Biological Control of Fasciolosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a worm disease caused of Fasciola gigantica and an important problem in husbandry especially for cattle. Controlling of this worm disease can be conducted by prevention and treatment. The use of antihelminthic is commonly causes a resistance problem. Natural control by mold such as Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium can be applied to reduce egg of F. gigantica. Although it was recently found, in vitro study gave satisfied result. This gives a new hope in controlling the disease although the extend application still needs to be studied. This paper discussed about the use of P. lilacinus and V. chlamydosporium for reducing F. gigantica population.

  10. Body Resistance and Productive Performances of Crossbred Local Chicken Fed Inulin of Dahlia Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fajrih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to examine the role of inulin as a prebiotic derived from dahlia flower tuber in the form of powder and extract as a prebiotic on body immunity of crossbred local chicken. The research was assigned in a completely randomized design with 7 treatments and 4 replications (10 birds each. The treatments applied were T0: basal ration, T1: ration + 0.4% powder, T2: ration + 0.8% powder, T3: ration + 1.2% powder, T4: ration + 0.39% extract, T5: ration + 0. 78% extract, T6: ration + 1.17% extract. The birds were reared for conditioning from day 1 until day 21, and dietary treatment was given thereafter until 11 wk of age. The data were statistically analyzed according to ANOVA and continued to Duncan test at the level of 5% probability. The results showed that feeding inulin in the form of powder or extract significantly (P<0.05 increased the weight of bursa fabricius and BWG, but it decreased meat fat and cholesterol while the weight of spleen was not affected. In conclusion, the higher levels of feeding inulin in the form of powder at 1.2% (T3 and extract at 1.17% (T6, improves health status, performances and product quality of crossbred local chicken.

  11. Data integration and knowledge management to facilitate research on plant-pathogen interactions: case study Solanum tuberosum – Verticillium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt is an important disease causing considerable economic losses in potato production globally. Soil and environmental conditions affect symptom expression and the effect of the disease on yield. A ten year field trial has been conducted in order to better understand the dynamics of wi...

  12. Improvement of the efficacy of Verticillium lecanii used in biocontrol of Sphaerotheca fuliginea by addition of oil formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaar, M.A.; Hijwegen, T.; Zadoks, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Biocontrol of cucumber powdery mildew, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, by Verticillium lecanii is seriously hampered at low humidities. The effect is especially marked at low humidity (60% RH) during the three hours following the application of V. lecanii spores suspended in water. Formulations of V.

  13. Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Verticillium Wilt Resistance Genes in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Wang; Zhong-Xu Lin; Xian-Long Zhang; Wei Chen; Xiao-Ping Guo; Yi-Chun Nie; Yun-Hai Li

    2008-01-01

    Verticillium wilt is one of the most serious constraints to cotton production in almost all of the cotton-growing countries. In this study, "XinLuZao1" (XLZ1), a susceptible cultivar Gossypium hirsutum L. and "Hai7124" (H7124), a resistant line G. barbadense, and their F2:3 families were used to map and study the disease Index induced by verticillium wilt. A total of 430 SSR loci were mapped into 41 linkage groups; the map spanned 3 745.9 cM and the average distance between adjacent loci was 8.71 cM. Four and five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected based on the disease index investigated on July 22 and August 24 in 2004, respectively. These nine QTLs explained 10.63-28.83% of the phenotypic variance, six of them were located on the D sub-genome. Two QTLs located In the same marker intervals may partly explain the significant correlation of the two traits. QTLs explaining large phenotypic variation were identified in this study, which may be quite useful in cotton anti-disease breeding.

  14. Screening of Antagonistic Bacterium Strains against Verticillium dahliae and Identification of the Antifungal Substance%大丽轮枝菌拮抗细菌的分离与抗菌物质鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁洪水; 杜红方; 李佳; 张爱莲; 张元亮; 朱宝成

    2008-01-01

    从黄萎病发病棉田未发病棉株根际土样中分离芽孢杆菌,利用对峙培养法对大丽轮枝菌进行平板拮抗实验,筛选出6株对大丽轮枝菌有拮抗作用的芽孢杆菌,其中3株菌发酵代谢产物具有抗菌活性.S4-3菌株发酵液滤液经100℃、30 min热处理丧失抗菌活性,发酵液氯仿抽提物不具有抗菌活性,发酵液硫酸铵沉淀物有抑菌活性,但经蛋白酶处理后活性丧失,认为S4-3菌株抑菌活性物质是蛋白质.而菌株S4-5发酵液经100℃热处理后还有较高的抗菌活性,发酵液氯仿抽提物也具有抗菌活性,但硫酸铵沉淀物对病原菌无抑制作用;S5-6菌株发酵液滤液经100℃热处理丧失抗菌活性,硫酸铵沉淀物也不具有抗菌活性,而发酵液氯仿抽提物有抗菌活性,因此认为S4-5和S5-6菌株产生的抑菌物质不是蛋白质类.

  15. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  16. Genetic structure, linkage disequilibrium and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance in elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunlei; Wang, Hongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Yunhai

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the population structure and linkage disequilibrium in an association panel can effectively avoid spurious associations and improve the accuracy in association mapping. In this study, one hundred and fifty eight elite cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm from all over the world, which were genotyped with 212 whole genome-wide marker loci and phenotyped with an disease nursery and greenhouse screening method, were assayed for population structure, linkage disequilibrium, and association mapping of Verticillium wilt resistance. A total of 480 alleles ranging from 2 to 4 per locus were identified from all collections. Model-based analysis identified two groups (G1 and G2) and seven subgroups (G1a-c, G2a-d), and differentiation analysis showed that subgroup having a single origin or pedigree was apt to differentiate with those having a mixed origin. Only 8.12% linked marker pairs showed significant LD (Pmapping, which widely were distributed among 15 chromosomes. Among which 10 marker loci were found to be consistent with previously identified QTLs and 32 were new unreported marker loci, and QTL clusters for Verticillium wilt resistanc on Chr.16 were also proved in our study, which was consistent with the strong linkage in this chromosome. Our results would contribute to association mapping and supply the marker candidates for marker-assisted selection of Verticillium wilt resistance in cotton.

  17. Design and development of a DNA array for rapid detection and identification of tomato vascular wilt pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievens, B.; Brouwer, M.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Lévesque, C.A.; Cammue, B.P.A.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and Verticillium wilt, caused by either Verticillium albo-atrum or Verticillium dahliae, are devastating diseases of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) found worldwide. Monitoring is the cornerstone of integrated pest management of any di

  18. Redox activities and ROS, NO and phenylpropanoids production by axenically cultured intact olive seedling roots after interaction with a mycorrhizal or a pathogenic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Espinosa

    Full Text Available Roots of intact olive seedlings, axenically cultured, were alternatively placed in contact with Rhizophagus irregularis (mycorrhizal or Verticillim dahliae (pathogenic fungi. MeJA treatments were also included. In vivo redox activities in the apoplast of the intact roots (anion superoxide generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were measured. All our results showed that apoplastic redox activities of intact seedling roots in contact with the compatible mycorrhizal fungus were clearly attenuated in comparison with the pathogenic fungus or treated with MeJA, even at the early stages of treatment used. Total phenolics, flavonoids and phenylpropanoid glycosides were also quantified. Roots in contact with the mycorrhizal fungus did not enhance the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds with respect to controls, while those in contact with the pathogenic one significantly enhanced the biosynthesis of all phenolic fractions measured. Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxid accumulation in roots were examined by fluorescence microscopy. All of them presented much higher accumulation in roots in contact with the pathogenic than with the mycorrhizal fungus. Altogether these results indicate that intact olive seedling roots clearly differentiated between mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi, attenuating defense reactions against the first to facilitate its establishment, while inducing a strong and sustained defense reaction against the second. Both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species seemed to be involved in these responses from the first moments of contact. However, further investigations are required to clarify the proposed crosstalk between them and their respective roles in these responses since fluorescence images of roots revealed that reactive oxygen species were mainly accumulated in the apoplast (congruently with the measured redox activities in this compartment while nitric oxid was mainly stored in the cytosol.

  19. Spéculation et spécularité, immobilier et policier : The Black Dahlia de James Ellroy

    OpenAIRE

    Boof-Vermesse, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The Image: Or What Happened to the American Dream de Daniel Boorstin montre comment le rêve américain s’est perverti en culte de l’image ; l’Amérique est devenue une « Image-nation », ce qui hélas n’est pas la même chose que l’imagination qu’elle portait en projet. The Black Dahlia raconte la même histoire. Fondé sur un fait-divers réel, la découverte d’un cadavre de femme, éviscérée, le visage tailladé, The Black Dahlia replace le fait-divers dans un contexte de l’Amérique de l’époque, celle...

  20. Simultaneous post-transcriptional gene silencing of two different chalcone synthase genes resulting in pure white flowers in the octoploid dahlia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Sho; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Kojima, Misa; Kitamura, Yoshikuni; Hoshino, Atsushi; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki; Yazawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    Garden dahlias (Dahlia variabilis) are autoallooctoploids with redundant genes producing wide color variations in flowers. There are no pure white dahlia cultivars, despite its long breeding history. However, the white areas of bicolor flower petals appear to be pure white. The objective of this experiment was to elucidate the mechanism by which the pure white color is expressed in the petals of some bicolor cultivars. A pigment analysis showed that no flavonoid derivatives were detected in the white areas of petals in a star-type cultivar 'Yuino' and the two seedling cultivars 'OriW1' and 'OriW2' borne from a red-white bicolor cultivar, 'Orihime', indicating that their white areas are pure white. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that in the pure white areas, transcripts of two chalcone synthases (CHS), DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 which share 69% nucleotide similarity with each other, were barely detected. Premature mRNA of DvCHS1 and DvCHS2 were detected, indicating that these two CHS genes are silenced post-transcriptionally. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from CHSs were produced in these pure white areas. By high-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in the pure white areas with no mismatch acceptance, small RNAs were mapped to two alleles of DvCHS1 and two alleles of DvCHS2 expressed in 'Yuino' petals. Therefore, we concluded that simultaneous siRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing of redundant CHS genes results in the appearance of pure white color in dahlias.

  1. QTL Analysis of Fiber Yield and Quality and Resistance to Verticillium Wilt Using Gossypium hirsutum and G.barbadense Advanced Backcross Populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-guo; WANG Tao; YUAN You-lu; LIU Guang-ping; ZHANG Bao-cai; LI Jun-wen; SHI Yu-zhen; LIU Ai-ying; YANG Ze-mao; LIU Zhi; YU Xiao-nan

    2008-01-01

    @@ To introgress elite QTL alleles of Gossypium barbadense L.for fiber yield and quality and resistance to Verticillium wilt into G.hirsutum L.,enlarge the genetic base of G.hirsutum,and provide new germplasm resources for the variety development,the cultivars Zhongmiansuo 36,G.hirsutum,and Hai 1,G.barbadense,were used as recurrent and donor parent,respectively,to produce BC1 F1,BC1S1,and BC2F1 populations.QTL analyses of fiber quality,yield-related,Key words: interspecific backcrosss; AB-QTL; fiber quality; yield; Verticillium wilt resistance

  2. Biochemical indices of hop resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Piotrowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and peroxidase activity as well as monophenols to polyphenols ratio were studies in the suckers of the hops as indices of resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum and Fusarium sambucinum. The suckers of hop taken in the early spring from the healthy and infected plots were used in the experiments. As a research material were included cv. 'Northern Brewer' - a wilt tolerant variety, two wild susceptible varieties - cv. 'Lubelski' and cv. 'Brewers Gold', four breeding clones and one male plant. It was found that, 'Northern Brewer' contains more total phenolic compounds, rnonophenols and chlorogenic acid, and in particular considerably higher peroxidase activity as compared to cv. 'Lubelski'. Taking into consideration the contents of these compounds, in the majority of cases, the new breeding clones were similar to the mother variety 'Northern Brewer'. It seems resonable to assume, that the new clones should be more wilt tolerant than varieties and populations cultivated in our country.

  3. Verticillium longisporum infection induces organ-specific glucosinolate degradation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eWitzel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The species Verticillium represents a group of highly destructive fungal pathogens, responsible for vascular wilt in a number of crops. The host response to infection by V. longisporum at the level of secondary plant metabolites has not been well explored. Natural variation in the glucosinolate (GLS composition of four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions was characterized: the accessions Bur-0 and Hi-0 accumulated alkenyl GLS, while 3-hydroxypropyl GLS predominated in Kn-0 and Ler-0. With respect to GLS degradation products, Hi-0 and Kn-0 generated mainly isothiocyanates, whereas Bur-0 released epithionitriles and Ler-0 nitriles. An analysis of the effect on the composition of both GLS and its breakdown products in the leaf and root following the plants' exposure to V. longisporum revealed a number of organ- and accession-specific alterations. In the less disease susceptible accessions Bur-0 and Ler-0, colonization depressed the accumulation of GLS in the rosette leaves but accentuated it in the roots. In contrast, in the root, the level of GLS breakdown products in three of the four accessions fell, suggestive of their conjugation or binding to a fungal target molecule(s. The plant-pathogen interaction influenced both the organ- and accession-specific formation of GLS degradation products.

  4. First interception of Verticillium albo-atrum in Fangchenggang of Guangxi%广西防城港首次截获苜蓿黄萎病菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜光; 卢兆山; 邱世明; 奚国华; 陆道; 钟恒禄

    2012-01-01

    从一批进境的美国苜蓿草样品中保湿分离得到了3株与苜蓿黄萎病菌(Verticillium albo-atrum)相似的目标菌VA1、VA2、VA3.该目标菌在PDA上生长迅速,菌丝生长0.8~1.0 mm/d,2~3 d即可生成肉眼可见的菌落斑点;菌落为白色圆形,边缘规则呈圆形,菌丝较致密,气生菌丝较少,菌落中心乳白色奶冻状;培养4~5 d即后产生气生典型轮枝状分生孢子梗,7~8 d后菌落中央表面因产生休眠菌丝开始变成黑褐色至黑色,20 d后菌落的表面和背面大部分均变黑色,仍不产生微菌核和厚垣孢子.该目标菌的纯培养用V.albo-atrum特异引物Vaa1/Vaa2进行检测,PCR 扩增后得到预期330 bp的产物片段,产物序列与V.albo-atrum相应序列的相似性为100%.从而鉴定确认该目标菌为苜蓿黄萎病菌V.albo-atrum.%Three strains of the fungus, namely VA1, VA2 and VA3, were isolated from a batch of alfalfa samples, which were imported from USA and incubated under moist conditions, demonstrating the characters similar to V. Albo-atrum. The strains grew rapidly on the PDA, with the colony growing at 0.8 - 1. Omm/d. After 2-3 days, the spot colony could be seen on the PDA. In addition, the colony had a regular and rounded margin with white compact mycelium and fewer aerial mycelia. The target fungus produced typical round aerial branched co-nidiophores after 4-5 days, and then became dark brown to black along with production of resting hyphae at the centre of the colony after 7-8 days, and the color of the surface and most of the back of the colony changed to black 20 days later, but still could not produce micro-sclerotia and chlamydospores. The pure cultures of the target germ were detected by the specific primers Vaal/Vaa2. As expected, a 330 bp fragment was obtained by PCR amplification. The similarity between the product and corresponding sequence in V. Albo-atrum was 100%. Therefore, it was confirmed that the target germ was V. Albo-atrum.

  5. The impact of genotyping-by-sequencing pipelines on SNP discovery and identification of markers associated verticillium wilt resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (sedicago sativa l.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of alfalfa is a soilborne disease that causes severe yield loss in alfalfa. To identify molecular markers associated with VW resistance, an integrated framework of genome-wide association study (GWAS) with high-throughput genotyping by sequencing (GBS) was used for mapping lo...

  6. Genotyping-by-sequencing based genome-wide association studies on Verticillium wilt resistance in heterozygous autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) is a fungal disease which causes severe yield loss in alfalfa. The most effective method to control the disease is through the development and use of resistant varieties. Identification of gene loci linked to VW resistance will facilitate breeding for the disease-resistant al...

  7. Screening and identification of antagonistic spore bacterium S12 against cotton Verticillium wilt and preliminary study on its antagonistic mechanisms%棉花黄萎病拮抗芽孢杆菌S12的筛选鉴定及拮抗机制的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李全胜; 谢宗铭; 张国丽; 武冬梅; 马盼盼

    2015-01-01

    [目的]近年来,新疆棉田由于长期连作导致棉花黄萎病呈逐年加重的趋势,筛选适合新疆特殊地理环境的高效拮抗菌株对防治棉花黄萎病尤为重要.[方法]采用平板对峙和琼脂平板扩散法从生长健康的棉花根际土壤中筛选拮抗细菌,利用常规PCR方法扩增拮抗细菌16S rRNA基因序列,应用BLAST进行同源性搜索,通过构建系统发育树并结合生理生化检测对拮抗细菌进行鉴定.用底物水解法检测其产生水解酶的能力,PCR方法检测其产生抗菌肽的潜力.[结果]枯草芽孢杆菌S12对大丽轮枝菌(Verticillium dahliae Kleb.)的抑菌率为56%,抑菌圈直径为20 mm,其发酵液对病原菌孢子萌发抑制率为95.93%,表现出较好的抑菌能力;菌株S12能合成蛋白酶,含有srfAA、spaS、bacA抗菌肽合成基因,具有一定的生防潜力.[结论]获得了可抑制大丽轮枝菌的芽孢杆菌菌株S12,并分析了其拮抗机制,为新疆棉花黄萎病的生物防治提供菌株资源和理论指导.

  8. Verticase:a Fibrinolytic Enzyme Produced by Verticillium sp.Tj33,an Endophyte of Trachelospermum jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Plant endophytes are among the most important resources of biologically active metabolites.Twenty-three endophyte strains residing in Trachelospermum jasminoides were cultivated In with the cultures assayed for the fibrinolytic substance production.As a result,the culture of Verticillium sp.Tj33 was shown to be the most active.A fibrinolytic enzyme designated as verticase was subsequently purified from the supernatant of Verticillium sp.culture broth by a combination of DEAE-52,Sephadex G-75 and hydrophobic column chromatographies.Verticase,with its molecular mass of 31 kDa and pl of 8.5,was demonstrated to be homogeneous by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing electrophoresis.Verticase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes fibrin directly without activation of plaminogen.It was stable in a broad pH range from 4 through to 11 with the optimal reaction pH value and temperature shown to be around 9-10 and 50-60℃,respectively.The fibrinolytic activity of verticase was severely inhibited by phenylmethylsulfony fluoride,Indicating that verticase was a serine protease.

  9. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  10. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  11. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  12. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  13. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  14. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  15. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  16. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  17. A New Macrocyclic Trichochecene from Soil Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoWANG; YiZHANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province, a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopie evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  18. Soil suppressiveness and functional diversity of soil microflora in organic farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Arable fields of 10 organic farms from different locations within the Netherlands were sampled in four subsequent years. The soil samples were analysed for disease suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani, Streptomyces scabies and Verticillium dahliae. Furthermore, a variety of microbial character

  19. Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, J.; Blom-Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study control of spread by insect vectors of non-persistent Lily symptomless virus and Lily mottle virus in lily, Tulip breaking virus in tulip, Iris mild mosaic virus, Narcissus latent virus and Iris severe mosaic virus in bulbous iris, and semi-persistent Dahlia mosaic virus and persistent

  20. Comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em solo infestado pelo fungo causador da murcha verticilar Comparative reactions of some cotton varieties to Verticillium wilt in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Cia

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento de variedades paulistas de algodoeiro em terreno infestado pelo fungo causador da "murcha de Verticillium", no Estado de São Paulo. As variedades IAC RM3 e IAC RM4, resistentes à Fusariose, destacaram-se em produção e apresentaram as menores porcentagens de plantas com sintomas externos da doença estudada. Os resultados sugerem que tais variedades constituem também fontes genéticas de resistência à murcha verticilar.A study was made on the reactions of the cotton varieties commonly cultivated in the State of São Paulo (Brazil to Verticillium wilt under field conditions. The effects of the disease were evaluated by determining the percentages of plants showing the symptoms of the Verticilliumwilt and by measuring the yield of each variety. The Fusarium resistant varieties IAC RM3 and IAC RM4 gave the highest yields and the lowest percentages of plants infected by Verticilliumwilt. It is suggested that these varieties might represent sources of resistance to Verticillium wilt.

  1. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  2. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  3. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  4. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  5. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  6. Renal fungus ball: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Phin; Turba, Ulku C; Deane, Leslie A

    2017-04-28

    We describe a case of renal pelvi-ureteric fungus ball managed with placement of two nephrostomy tubes and amphotericin B irrigation through a nephrostomy tube with the other to free drain. A 46-year-old man with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to the urology clinic for workup of recurrent urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew Candida albicans. The patient was started on oral fluconazole therapy. Cystoscopy and cystogram revealed a grade 3 left vesicoureteral reflux and right retrograde pyelogram revealed a filling defect in the right renal pelvis extending into the proximal ureter with severe hydroureteronephrosis. Two nephrostomy tubes were placed (mid-pole and lower pole) to ensure that the system was not obstructed. Amphotericin B (50 mg/1000 ml normal saline) irrigation was then instilled through the mid-pole nephrostomy tube at a rate of 30 ml/h with the lower pole nephrostomy tube to free drain. An antegrade nephrostogram was performed after 5 days of amphotericin B instillation, showing complete resolution of the fungus ball. The patient is awaiting definitive minimally invasive management of the distal ureteral narrowing. Renal and pelvi-ureteric fungus ball is a challenging clinical entity. It must be addressed promptly and efficiently to be successful. We describe a minimally invasive approach that was tolerated well and resulted in complete clearance of the fungus ball in a relatively short time frame.

  7. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  8. Growth of Verticillium longisporum in Xylem Sap of Brassica napus is Independent from Cultivar Resistance but Promoted by Plant Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    As Verticillium stem striping of oilseed rape (OSR), a vascular disease caused by Verticillium longisporum, is extending into new geographic regions and no control with fungicides exists, the demand for understanding mechanisms of quantitative resistance increases. Because V. longisporum is strictly limited to the xylem and resistance is expressed in the systemic stage post root invasion, we investigated a potential antifungal role of soluble constituents and nutritional conditions in xylem sap as determinants of cultivar resistance of OSR to V. longisporum. Assessment of biometric and molecular genetic parameters applied to describe V. longisporum resistance (net area under disease progress curve, stunting, stem thickness, plant biomass, and V. longisporum DNA content) showed consistent susceptibility of cultivar 'Falcon' in contrast to two resistant genotypes, 'SEM' and 'Aviso'. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed a consistently stronger in vitro growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap extracted from OSR compared with the water control. Further comparisons of fungal growth in xylem sap of different cultivars revealed the absence of constitutive or V. longisporum induced antifungal activity in the xylem sap of resistant versus susceptible genotypes. The similar growth of V. longisporum in xylem sap, irrespective of cultivar, infection with V. longisporum and xylem sap filtration, was correlated with about equal amounts of total soluble proteins in xylem sap from these treatments. Interestingly, compared with younger plants, xylem sap from older plants induced significantly stronger fungal growth. Growth enhancement of V. longisporum in xylem sap of aging plants was reflected by increased contents of carbohydrates, which was consistent in mock or V. longisporum-infected plants and independent from cultivar resistance. The improved nutritional conditions in the xylem of more mature plants may explain the late appearance of disease symptoms, which are observed only in

  9. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  10. PENGARUH INFESTASI VERTICILLIUM LECANII TERHADAP KEPARAHAN PENYAKIT KARAT DAUN KOPI PADA TANAMAN DAN KETERJADIAN KOLONINYA PADA DAUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Ginting .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of infestation of Verticillium lecanii on the severity of coffee leaf rust on plants and the incidence of its colony on coffee leaves.  V. lecanii often antagonizes H. vastatrix on lesions caused by the pathogen on coffee leaves in the field.  The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of V. lecanii to control disease severity on coffee plants in a green house and to compare the incidence of V. lecanii colonies on coffee leaves naturally infested by V. lecanii in the field and that in the leaves with additional infestation in the laboratory.  For efficacy test and additional infestation in the laboratory, conidia were harvested from YMPD medium.  Suspension with 107 conidia ml-1 was sprayed into coffee foliage until both surfaces of the leaves were saturated with the suspension.  After the leaves were air dried, they were sprayed with urediospores (104 ml-1.  The results show that disease severity in plants treated with V. lecanii and control plants was not significantly different (P < 0.05, except that obtained at the fourth week when disease severity on the treated plants was significantly lower that that in control plants.  The number of V. lecanii colonies on coffee leaves naturally infested with the biocontrol agent was not increased by additional infestation with V. lecanii conidia in the laboratory.

  11. Genotyping-by-sequencing-based genome-wide association studies on Verticillium wilt resistance in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Tiejun; Rodringuez, Jonas; Main, Dorrie

    2017-02-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) is a fungal disease that causes severe yield losses in alfalfa. The most effective method to control the disease is through the development and use of resistant varieties. The identification of marker loci linked to VW resistance can facilitate breeding for disease-resistant alfalfa. In the present investigation, we applied an integrated framework of genome-wide association with genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to identify VW resistance loci in a panel of elite alfalfa breeding lines. Phenotyping was performed by manual inoculation of the pathogen to healthy seedlings, and scoring for disease resistance was carried out according to the standard test of the North America Alfalfa Improvement Conference (NAAIC). Marker-trait association by linkage disequilibrium identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers significantly associated with VW resistance. Alignment of the SNP marker sequences to the M. truncatula genome revealed multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Three, two, one and five markers were located on chromosomes 5, 6, 7 and 8, respectively. Resistance loci found on chromosomes 7 and 8 in the present study co-localized with the QTLs reported previously. A pairwise alignment (blastn) using the flanking sequences of the resistance loci against the M. truncatula genome identified potential candidate genes with putative disease resistance function. With further investigation, these markers may be implemented into breeding programmes using marker-assisted selection, ultimately leading to improved VW resistance in alfalfa. PUBLISHED 2016. THIS ARTICLE IS A U.S. GOVERNMENT WORK AND IS IN THE PUBLIC DOMAIN IN THE USA.

  12. Dahlia-shaped BiOClxI1-x structures prepared by a facile solid-state method: Evidence and mechanism of improved photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Cao, Yali; Jia, Dianzeng; Li, Yizhao

    2017-10-01

    A rapid and cheap solid-state chemical process was employed to synthesize BiOClxI1-x (x=1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25, 0) solid solutions with dahlia-shaped hierarchitectures. The dahlia-shaped BiOClxI1-x hierarchitectures were effectively constructed by nanoplates with a thickness about 5-13nm. The band gap structure of the solid solutions can be modulated by adjusting the composition ratio of Cl and I, which has a significant effect on the photocatalytic activity of the solid solutions. The dahlia-shaped BiOClxI1-x (x=0.75) solid solution exhibits excellent adsorption and effective photocatalytic performances for rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation, which degraded more than 98% of RhB within 60min under the visible light irradiation, it is higher than the reported bismuth oxyhalides materials. The trapping experiments confirmed that O(2-) and h(+) played the major role in the photocatalytic process and the possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism was illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pulmonary infections by the fungus aspergillus

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    Rao P

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of respiratory infection by Aspergillus fumigates are described. Species of aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature. Therefore, repeated demonstration of fungus, serological evidence tend radiological findings are essential for diagnosis. Potassium iodide is a useful drug in aspergillus infection of the lung when other drugs are not available. Injection Emetine hydrochloride is promising as a therapeutic agent in pulmonary aspergillosis, where the lung parenchyma is involved.

  14. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

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    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. In vitro effect of essential oils from aromatic and medicinal plants on mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanović Brankica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lavender, anise, chamomile, fennel, geranium, oregano, parsley, and sage essential oils were tested for their effectiveness against mushroom pathogens: Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola, Mycogone perniciosa, and Cladobotryum sp. Isolates were exposed to the volatile phase of the oils and then ventilated in order to determine if the effect of the oil was lethal to the pathogen. Oregano and geranium oils were the most toxic, having a fungicidal effect at 0.02-0.08 μl/ml of air, depending on the pathogen. Oregano oil was characterized by high content of carvacrol and thymol, while citranelol and geraniol were the main components of geranium oil.

  16. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera gly...

  17. Symbiotic fungi produce laccases potentially involved in phenol degradation in fungus combs of fungus-growing termites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.

  18. Crescimento e esporulação de isolados de Verticillium lecanii sob diferentes condições nutricionais

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    Barbosa Claudio Camargo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as melhores condições de crescimento e esporulação de dois isolados de Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viégas, cultivados em vários meios de cultura, fontes de C, fontes orgânicas e inorgânicas de N e relações C:N. Após 20 dias de cultivo, BDA e Meio Completo mostraram ser os melhores meios de cultura, e a lactose e o amido foram as fontes de C que mais favoreceram o crescimento dos isolados JAB 02 e JAB 45, respectivamente; baixa esporulação foi apresentada por JAB 02, enquanto JAB 45 obteve boa esporulação em glicose e maltose. JAB 02 desenvolveu melhor quando a fonte orgânica de N era casitona; JAB 45 obteve bom desenvolvimento em presença de casitona e peptona, mas houve pouca esporulação em presença de triptona e caseína hidrolisada. As fontes inorgânicas de N que favoreceram o melhor desenvolvimento dos isolados foram (NH42HPO4 e NaNO3, porém, JAB 02 apresentou baixa esporulação. Entre as relações C:N analisadas, JAB 02 obteve melhor crescimento na relação 60:1 e JAB 45 nas relações 5:1, 10:1 e 20:1; baixa esporulação foi obtida por JAB 02 nas relações testadas, mas não se verificou efeito da relação C:N do meio sobre a esporulação dos isolados.

  19. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  20. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  1. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cul...

  2. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  3. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  4. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  5. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  6. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  7. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  8. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, de Wietse; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study, we descri

  9. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leave...

  10. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  11. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  13. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  14. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  15. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  16. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  18. Will a fungus save us from the Ailanthus invasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Lorenzini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth rate, prolific fruiting and vegetative reproduction from root sprouts, ready germination and extended root system, allelopathic effects, resistance to herbivory combined to tolerance to environmentally stressful conditions such as infertile sites, make Ailanthus altissima (Mill. Swingle (also known as Heaven tree, Simaroubaceae a noxious and highly invasive tree in all countries where it has been introduced and is become naturalized. After a brief historical trait of the importance of the presence of this plant and the complexity of eradication campaigns based on manual cutting and herbicide treatments, the note illustrates the possible role as a candidate mycoherbicide of a soilborne fungal wilt agent (Verticillium nonalfalfae H.W. Platt, R.M. Bostock, R.M. Davis & Subbarao recently described in the USA and also reported from Austria.

  19. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  20. The synergetic inhibition effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi cooperated Bacillus vallismortis organic fertilizer on cotton Verticillium wilt%菌根真菌和死谷芽孢杆菌生物有机肥对连作棉花黄萎病的协同抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国漪; 丁传雨; 任丽轩; 沈其荣; 冉炜

    2012-01-01

    通过温室盆栽试验,育苗期接种丛枝菌根真菌(AMF),移栽时接种死谷芽孢杆菌(Bacillus vallismortis HJ-5)、有机肥(OF)或者生物有机肥(HJ-5OF),研究了不同处理对棉花黄萎病和棉花生长的影响.结果表明:配合施用AMF与HJ-5OF显著降低了棉花黄萎病的发病指数,与对照相比其病情指数下降了72.80%;根际可培养微生物数量和种类发生显著变化,施用AMF与HJ-5OF处理的真菌、大丽轮枝菌菌核数量分别比对照下降了68.88%、47.20%,细菌、放线菌数量分别为对照的23.81倍、2.40倍;根际区系中,真菌的种类显著降低,细菌的种类显著增加;AMF和HJ-5OF的协同作用,显著提高了棉花的生物量,促进了棉花对磷素的吸收.结论:接种AMF提高HJ-5OF对棉花黄萎病的防治效果,促进棉花的生长,改善土壤微生物区系.%Pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus(AMF) and Bacillus vallismortis HJ-5 on cotton growth and Verticillium wilt by inoculation of AMF on seedling nursery stage and bio-organic fertilizer after transplanting. The results showed that the disease index significantly decreased by 72. 80% as compared with the non-inoculation control unde combined application of AMF and bio-organic fertilizer. The microbial communities were improved by inoculation of bio-agents. The number of fungi and sclerotia decreased by 68. 88% and 47. 20% compared with control, respectively; in addition, the number of bacteria and actinomyces increased by 23.81 times and 2.40 times compared with control,respectively. The fungi species significantly reduced and the bacteria species reduced in the rhizosphere. The number of cottons biomass and phosphorus absorption was significantly promoted by inoculation of AMF and HJ-50F. In conclusion,HJ-5OF bio-organic fertilizer associated with AMF significantly decreased the Verticillium wilt,promoted cotton growth,and altered the soil microbial

  1. Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host plant. This led us to suppose that secretory glands on the leaf surface of the host plant may play an essential role in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis which takes place in the epibiotic fungus. PMID:19704834

  2. The Vascular Pathogen Verticillium longisporum Does Not Affect Water Relations and Plant Responses to Drought Stress of Its Host, Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopisso, Daniel Teshome; Knüfer, Jessica; Koopmann, Birger; von Tiedemann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Verticillium longisporum is a host-specific vascular pathogen of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) that causes economic crop losses by impairing plant growth and inducing premature senescence. This study investigates whether plant damage through Verticillium stem striping is due to impaired plant water relations, whether V. longisporum affects responses of a susceptible B. napus variety to drought stress, and whether drought stress, in turn, affects plant responses to V. longisporum. Two-factorial experiments on a susceptible cultivar of B. napus infected or noninfected with V. longisporum and exposed to three watering levels (30, 60, and 100% field capacity) revealed that drought stress and V. longisporum impaired plant growth by entirely different mechanisms. Although both stresses similarly affected plant growth parameters (plant height, hypocotyl diameter, and shoot and root dry matter), infection of B. napus with V. longisporum did not affect any drought-related physiological or molecular genetic plant parameters, including transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency, relative leaf water content, leaf proline content, or the expression of drought-responsive genes. Thus, this study provides comprehensive physiological and molecular genetic evidence explaining the lack of wilt symptoms in B. napus infected with V. longisporum. Likewise, drought tolerance of B. napus was unaffected by V. longisporum, as was the level of disease by drought conditions, thus excluding a concerted action of both stresses in the field. Although it is evident that drought and vascular infection with V. longisporum impair plant growth by different mechanisms, it remains to be determined by which other factors V. longisporum causes crop loss.

  3. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : The ... After 12 h treatment, interaction of extract with MRSA cells resulted in the formation of pit ... Keywords: Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica, Antimicrobial activity, Cellular structure ... human population, veterinary and aquaculture.

  4. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  5. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  6. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  7. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  8. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  9. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  10. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  11. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  12. The Cladosporium fulvum virulence protein Avr2 inhibits host proteases required for basal defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esse, H Peter; Van't Klooster, John W; Bolton, Melvin D; Yadeta, Koste A; van Baarlen, Peter; Boeren, Sjef; Vervoort, Jacques; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2008-07-01

    Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) is a biotrophic fungal pathogen that causes leaf mold of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). During growth in the apoplast, the fungus establishes disease by secreting effector proteins, 10 of which have been characterized. We have previously shown that the Avr2 effector interacts with the apoplastic tomato Cys protease Rcr3, which is required for Cf-2-mediated immunity. We now show that Avr2 is a genuine virulence factor of C. fulvum. Heterologous expression of Avr2 in Arabidopsis thaliana causes enhanced susceptibility toward extracellular fungal pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea and Verticillium dahliae, and microarray analysis showed that Avr2 expression triggers a global transcriptome reflecting pathogen challenge. Cys protease activity profiling showed that Avr2 inhibits multiple extracellular Arabidopsis Cys proteases. In tomato, Avr2 expression caused enhanced susceptibility toward Avr2-defective C. fulvum strains and also toward B. cinerea and V. dahliae. Cys protease activity profiling in tomato revealed that, in this plant also, Avr2 inhibits multiple extracellular Cys proteases, including Rcr3 and its close relative Pip1. Finally, silencing of Avr2 significantly compromised C. fulvum virulence on tomato. We conclude that Avr2 is a genuine virulence factor of C. fulvum that inhibits several Cys proteases required for plant basal defense.

  13. Pseudogenization in pathogenic fungi with different host plants and lifestyles might reflect their evolutionary past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Ate; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Bahkali, Ali H; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2014-02-01

    Pseudogenes are genes with significant homology to functional genes, but contain disruptive mutations (DMs) leading to the production of non- or partially functional proteins. Little is known about pseudogenization in pathogenic fungi with different lifestyles. Here, we report the identification of DMs causing pseudogenes in the genomes of the fungal plant pathogens Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium fulvum, Dothistroma septosporum, Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Verticillium dahliae and Zymoseptoria tritici. In these fungi, we identified 1740 gene models containing 2795 DMs obtained by an alignment-based gene prediction method. The contribution of sequencing errors to DMs was minimized by analyses of resequenced genomes to obtain a refined dataset of 924 gene models containing 1666 true DMs. The frequency of pseudogenes varied from 1% to 5% in the gene catalogues of these fungi, being the highest in the asexually reproducing fungus C. fulvum (4.9%), followed by D. septosporum (2.4%) and V. dahliae (2.1%). The majority of pseudogenes do not represent recent gene duplications, but members of multi-gene families and unitary genes. In general, there was no bias for pseudogenization of specific genes in the six fungi. Single exceptions were those encoding secreted proteins, including proteases, which appeared more frequently pseudogenized in C. fulvum than in D. septosporum. Most pseudogenes present in these two phylogenetically closely related fungi are not shared, suggesting that they are related to adaptation to a different host (tomato versus pine) and lifestyle (biotroph versus hemibiotroph). © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  14. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  15. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  16. Preservação de fungos fitopatogênicos habitantes do solo Storage of soilborne phytopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César J. Bueno

    2006-03-01

    produce resistance structures in face of adverse situations, such as absence of hosts and unfavorable climatic conditions for their survival. The objective of this work was to develop preservation methodologies for resistance structures of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici race 2, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani AG4 HGI, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Verticillium dahliae. The experiment was carried out in a randomized plots design and the method of resistance structures production was specific for each pathogen. Three treatments [room temperature (28±2ºC, of refrigerator (5ºC and of freezer (-20ºC] with two flasks (reps each were assessed for each fungus. During the period of one year, survival and vigor of the pathogens were evaluated in a monthly basis. Pathogenicity tests were performed with the structures of resistance of each fungus that survived in the best treatment: a F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici at refrigerator and freezer temperatures (5.2 and 2.9 x 10³ ufc.g-1 of talc, respectively; b M. phaseolina at refrigerator temperature [100% of survival (S and index 3 of vigor (V] and S. rolfsii at room temperature (74.4% S and 1 V and c S. sclerotiorum and V. dahliae both at freezer temperature (100% S and 3 V. All, but V. dahliae resistance structure, remained pathogenic after one year of storage.

  17. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sapountzis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N, some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  18. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  19. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  20. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  1. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  2. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  3. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...... that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with that of Termitomyces and tested its interaction with Termitomyces. The C-source use of both fungi largely...

  4. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  5. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  6. 转基因抗真菌病害棉花及T-DNA插入突变体的培育%Development of Transgenic Cotton Resistant to Fungal Diseases and of Mutants by T-DNA Insertional Mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xing WANG; Hong-mei CHENG; Shi-rong JIA

    2002-01-01

    @@ Verticillium (V. dahliae Kleb. ) and Fusarium (F. Oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum) wilt are two major fungal diseases in cotton production which cause great crop damage and yield loss world wide. Breeding and application of resistant varieties have effectively controlled Fusarium wilt. However, the Verticillium wiltresistant varieties have not been developed to date since there is no resistant resources in upland cotton that can be used in conventional breeding.

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity among Chinese upland cottons with Fusarium and/or Verticillium wilts resistance by AFLP and SSR markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xingfen; MA Jun; YANG Shuo; ZHANG Guiyin; MA Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    Genetic diversity among 95 Chinese upland cottons with Fusarium and/or Verticillium wilts resistance was estimated using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers.Twenty EcoRI-MseI AFLP and 19 SSR primers with polymorphism were selected to perform the fingerprinting.The results showed that 20 AFLP primer pairs produced a total of 1 480 major bands among 95 genotypes,and 214 were polymorphic bands.The number of total bands per primer pair ranged from 47 to 109,with an average of 74.0.The polymorphism information content (PIC) values for the 20 primer pairs varied from 0.01 (E-ACT/M-CAT) to 0.24 (E-ACA/MCTA),and the average value was 0.09.Nineteen SSR primers generated 89 DNA bands,of which 61 were polymorphic.The total number of alleles per locus varied from 3 to 8,with an average of 4.7.The average PIC value for the SSR amplification products was 0.69.Genetic similarity estimates for the entire data set ranged from 0.978 to 0.998 based on AFLP and SSR bands.It was proved that the close genetic relationship and narrow genetic diversity existed in the tested cultivars.The clustering patterns could not be correlated to the geographic origin,the pedigree and common parentage of the cultivars.

  8. 山西棉田黄萎病菌致病力差异研究%Research on Virulence Difference of Verticillium Wilt in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许爱玲; 段国琪; 张战备; 沈红星; 张开峰; 解广田

    2013-01-01

    In the same piece of cotton field, different resistance transgenic cotton varieties are planted. Using choice function of different resistant cotton varieties to Verticillium wilt bacteria, Vertkillium wilt strains had been gotten from different breed separations; In the greenhouse, using two different obvious disease resistance varieties pathogenic force were measured to determine whether there are different pathogenic force strains in the same piece of cotton field.%在同一块棉田中种植不同抗病性的转基因抗虫棉,利用不同抗性的棉花品种对棉花黄萎病菌的选择作用,从不同品种上分离获得不同的黄萎病菌系,并在温室中采用2个抗病性差异明显的品种对其致病力进行测定,以确定同一块棉田中是否存在不同致病力菌系.结果表明,不同抗病性品种上分离获得的病原菌致病力存在显著差异,同一块棉田中存在各种致病力菌系.

  9. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  10. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in c

  11. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  12. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an associa......Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained...... an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...

  13. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  14. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  15. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  16. DNA dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.The transcription of a genome and the regulation mec

  17. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing host

  18. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  19. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  20. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  1. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  2. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  3. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee.

  4. An Abietane Diterpene and a Sterol from Fungus Phellinus igniarius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new abietane diterpene 12-hydroxy-7-oxo-5, 8, 11, 13-tetraene-18, 6-abietanolide,together with a new natural sterol stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5α, 6α-triol have been isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.

  5. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  6. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.

    The transcription of

  7. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  8. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  9. Morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non-fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

  10. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Mitchell, Jannette; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Carøe, Christian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Poulsen, Michael; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2017-04-01

    This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001-FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2).

  11. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  12. Gaeumannomyces graminis, the take-all fungus and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jacqueline; Ward, Elaine

    2004-07-01

    SUMMARY Take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat worldwide. Many years of intensive research, reflected by the large volume of literature on take-all, has led to a considerable degree of understanding of many aspects of the disease. However, effective and economic control of the disease remains difficult. The application of molecular techniques to study G. graminis and related fungi has resulted in some significant advances, particularly in the development of improved methods for identification and in elucidating the role of the enzyme avenacinase as a pathogenicity determinant in the closely related oat take-all fungus (G. graminis var. avenae). Some progress in identifying other factors that may be involved in determining host range and pathogenicity has been made, despite the difficulties of performing genetic analyses and the lack of a reliable transformation system.

  13. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  14. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  15. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  16. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  17. Fungus-associated asthma: overcoming challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.

  18. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    Full Text Available Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1 kinetin and 250 mg(-1 casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  19. A New Synthetic Amphiploid (AADDAA) between Gossypium hirsutum and G. arboreum Lays the Foundation for Transferring Resistances to Verticillium and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Ting; Yang, Jianwei; Feng, Shouli; Nazeer, Wajad; Zhang, Tianzhen; Zhou, Baoliang

    2015-01-01

    Gossypium arboreum, a cultivated cotton species (2n = 26, AA) native to Asia, possesses invaluable characteristics unavailable in the tetraploid cultivated cotton gene pool, such as resistance to pests and diseases and tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, it is quite difficult to transfer favorable traits into Upland cotton through conventional methods due to the cross-incompatibility of G. hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD) and G. arboreum. Here, we improved an embryo rescue technique to overcome the cross-incompatibility between these two parents for transferring favorable genes from G. arboreum into G. hirsutum. Our results indicate that MSB2K supplemented with 0.5 mg l(-1) kinetin and 250 mg(-1) casein hydrolysate is an efficient initial medium for rescuing early (3 d after pollination) hybrid embryos. Eight putative hybrids were successfully obtained, which were further verified and characterized by cytology, molecular markers and morphological analysis. The putative hybrids were subsequently treated with different concentrations of colchicine solution to double their chromosomes. The results demonstrate that four putative hybrid plants were successfully chromosome-doubled by treatment with 0.1% colchicine for 24 h and become amphiploid, which were confirmed by cytological observation, self-fertilization and backcrossing. Preliminary assessments of resistance at seedling stage indicate that the synthetic amphiploid showed highly resistant to Verticillium and drought. The synthetic amphiploid between G. hirsutum × G. arboreum would lay the foundation for developing G. arboreum-introgressed lines with the uniform genetic background of G. hirsutum acc TM-1, which would greatly enhance and simplify the mining, isolation, characterization, cloning and use of G. arboreum-specific desirable genes in future cotton breeding programs.

  20. The Impact of Genotyping-by-Sequencing Pipelines on SNP Discovery and Identification of Markers Associated with Verticillium Wilt Resistance in Autotetraploid Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Xi; Zheng, Ping; Bhamidimarri, Suresh; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Main, Dorie

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of alfalfa is a soilborne disease causing severe yield loss in alfalfa. To identify molecular markers associated with VW resistance, we used an integrated framework of genome-wide association study (GWAS) with high-throughput genotyping by sequencing (GBS) to identify loci associated with VW resistance in an F1 full-sib alfalfa population. Phenotyping was performed using manual inoculation of the pathogen to cloned plants of each individual and disease severity was scored using a standard scale. Genotyping was done by GBS, followed by genotype calling using three bioinformatics pipelines including the TASSEL-GBS pipeline (TASSEL), the Universal Network Enabled Analysis Kit (UNEAK), and the haplotype-based FreeBayes pipeline (FreeBayes). The resulting numbers of SNPs, marker density, minor allele frequency (MAF) and heterozygosity were compared among the pipelines. The TASSEL pipeline generated more markers with the highest density and MAF, whereas the highest heterozygosity was obtained by the UNEAK pipeline. The FreeBayes pipeline generated tetraploid genotypes, with the least number of markers. SNP markers generated from each pipeline were used independently for marker-trait association. Markers significantly associated with VW resistance identified by each pipeline were compared. Similar marker loci were found on chromosomes 5, 6, and 7, whereas different loci on chromosome 1, 2, 3, and 4 were identified by different pipelines. Most significant markers were located on chromosome 6 and they were identified by all three pipelines. Of those identified, several loci were linked to known genes whose functions are involved in the plants’ resistance to pathogens. Further investigation on these loci and their linked genes would provide insight into understanding molecular mechanisms of VW resistance in alfalfa. Functional markers closely linked to the resistance loci would be useful for MAS to improve alfalfa cultivars with enhanced resistance

  1. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  2. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fungus ganodermalucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2005-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 20(21)-dehydrolucidenic acid A (1) and methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A (2), and five new 20-hydroxylucidenic acids, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid D(2) (3), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid F (4), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid E(2) (5), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (6), and 20-hydroxylucidenic acid P (7), were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Ganoderma ludicum, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  4. a -Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits the Growth of Fungus Macrophomina phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    PALAVAN-ÜNSAL, Narçin

    2014-01-01

    a -Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific enzyme activated inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus Macrophomina phaseoli (Tassi) Goidanich. Putrescine (Put), when added to the nutrient medium at a concentration of 0.25 mM, decreased the inhibitory effect of DFMO. These results suggest that polyamines (PAs) are essential for the growth of fungi and that DFMO is applicable to the alleviation or prevention of crop losses due to ph...

  5. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The glucoamylase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and was characterized with isoelectric point, pH and temperature optimum of 3.8-4.0, 5.0 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the activation energy is 60.4 kJ/mol, Km is 3.5 mM and kcat is 25.3...

  6. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  7. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  8. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  9. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients.

  10. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  11. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R D; Crippen, Devany

    2004-09-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO collection apparatus, where CO-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 +/- 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive.

  12. Effects of different nitrogen fertilizer on the morphological indexes and physiological characteristics of Dahlia pinnata%不同氮素水平对大丽花形态指标及生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁雪梅; 苑兆和; 冯立娟; 王晓慧; 甄红丽

    2012-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to determine the optimal nitrogen application rates(0,0.15,0.30 and 0.45 g·kg-1) via performance of the morphological indexes and physiological characteristics of Dahlia pinnata.This study indicated that the stem diameter,leaf area,flower diameter,flowering stage and tuber weight of dahlia increased as the nitrogen application rate increased.The application of nitrogen fertilizer significantly increased the chlorophyll,soluble protein and proline contents,and the activities of nitrate reductase,superoxide dismutase,peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT),but significantly reduced the malondialdehyde content of D.pinnata plants,indicating that the application of nitrogen fertilizer enhanced the stability of plasma membrane,restrained the penetration of membrane,and strengthened the protective function of cell membrane of D.pinnata plants.Although the nitrate reductase activity of D.pinnata plants significantly increased as the nitrogen application rates increased,the excessive nitrogen application decreased the leaf area and proline content.These results showed that the moderate application of nitrogen fertilizer benefited the growth of D.pinnata plant,delayed its aging and improved ornamental value,while the excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer inhibited the growth of D.pinnata plant.This study suggested that the rational application of nitrogen fertilizer for pot D.pinnata was 0.30 g·kg-1.%采用盆栽试验,研究了施纯氮0、0.15、0.30和0.45g·kg-1对大丽花(Dahlia pinnata)品种‘深玫红’形态指标及叶片生理特性的影响,以确定大丽花最佳的氮肥用量。结果表明,与不施氮相比,在一定施氮范围内,随施氮量的提高,大丽花茎粗、叶面积、花径、花期及块根质量之增加;叶片中叶绿素、可溶性蛋白和脯氨酸含量显著增加;超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶的活性也显著提高,丙二醛含量显著降低,增

  13. Comparison and Selection of Organization Modes in Edible Fungus Industry of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang; GE; Jilian; HU; Zhijian; GUO

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of edible fungus in the world,and Shandong is the largest producer of edible fungus in China.This study is intended to select suitable organization mode for edible fungus industry of Shandong Province.On the basis of types and characteristics of existing edible fungus production modes in China,it is concluded that Shandong Province should take following measures:(1)giving priority to development of integrated organization mode;(2)steadily promoting park and factory mode in economically developed regions;(3)developing circular agriculture in regions with solid foundation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Finally,it puts forward following recommendations:(1)speeding up construction of standardization and information platform for edible fungus industry;(2)improving quality of personnel engaged in edible fungus industry;(3)bringing into play driving effect of leading enterprises;(4)developing and introducing deep processing enterprises.

  14. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  15. The potential of biological soil disinfestation to manage Fusarium foot and root rot in Asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W.J.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Lamers, J.G.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In a field experiment on an abandoned asparagus field we studied the effect of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) on survival of buried inoculum samples of three test pathogens (Fusarium redolens f.sp. asparagi (FRA), Rhizoctonia tuliparum (RT) and Verticillium dahliae (VD)) and on the Fusarium in

  16. Working with anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of key soil-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been shown to be effective in reducing Verticillium dahliae in soil and to be able to provide marketable fruit yields compatible to fumigation in California strawberry systems. However the effect of ASD on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Cali...

  17. Anaerobic soil disinfestation disease control performance in strawberry as influenced by environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability of the California strawberry industry is challenged by soil-borne diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as a non-fumigant measure for control of these diseases. This ...

  18. Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizosphere : insights gained by combining phylogenetic and functional gene-based analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Rodrigo; Gomes, Newton C. M.; Kroegerrecklenfort, Ellen; Opelt, Katja; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    The Pseudomonas community structure and antagonistic potential in the rhizospheres of strawberry and oilseed rape (host plants of the fungal phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae) were assessed. The use of a new PCR-DGGE system, designed to target Pseudomonas-specific gacA gene fragments in environment

  19. Biologische grondontsmetting bij de teelt van trekheesters: Implementatie van een alternatieve ontsmettingsmerhode in de praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludeking, D.J.W.; Hamelink, R.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Slooten, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is gekeken naar de effectiviteit van de toepassing van het product Herbie7022 op Verticillium dahliae, Meloidogyne incognita en engerlingen van de roestbruine bladsprietkever Serica brunnea. Alle engerlingen van Serica brunnea zijn dood na het spitten en afdekken van het perceel.

  20. The potential of biological soil disinfestation to manage Fusarium foot and root rot in Asparagus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W.J.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Lamers, J.G.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In a field experiment on an abandoned asparagus field we studied the effect of Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD) on survival of buried inoculum samples of three test pathogens (Fusarium redolens f.sp. asparagi (FRA), Rhizoctonia tuliparum (RT) and Verticillium dahliae (VD)) and on the Fusarium

  1. Biologische grondontsmetting bij de teelt van trekheesters: Implementatie van een alternatieve ontsmettingsmerhode in de praktijk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludeking, D.J.W.; Hamelink, R.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Slooten, van M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is gekeken naar de effectiviteit van de toepassing van het product Herbie7022 op Verticillium dahliae, Meloidogyne incognita en engerlingen van de roestbruine bladsprietkever Serica brunnea. Alle engerlingen van Serica brunnea zijn dood na het spitten en afdekken van het perceel. An

  2. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  3. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  4. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  5. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  6. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  7. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  8. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  9. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  10. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    . Inquilines are usually close relatives of their host and so share ancestral characteristics (Emery’s rule). They are dependent on being fully integrated into their host’s colony throughout their lives in order to reproduce. Most inquiline ants have completely lost their sterile worker caste. Exceptions...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  11. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  12. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  13. 转Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab基因棉与转Cry1Ac+EPSPS基因棉在黄萎病菌压力环境下检测技术和生存竞争能力研究%The Study on Detection Technology and Survival Competitiveness of Transgenic Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab Cotton and Transgenic Cry1Ac+EPSPS Cotton Under the Pressure of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔艳艳; 张兴华; 马艳; 李捷; 杨兆光

    2013-01-01

    旨在研究2种转双价基因棉在棉黄萎病菌压力环境下的生存竞争能力.以‘赣棉杂1号’和‘赣棉11号’为对照,在黄萎病圃检测转Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab基因棉、转Cry1Ac+EPSPS基因棉发病情况、生长和产量竞争能力.2个转双价基因棉抗黄萎病性不显著的强于2个对照;转Cry1Ac+EPSPS基因棉株高、覆盖度增长竞争能力相对较强,转Cry1Ac+ Cry2Ab基因棉相对较弱;转Cry1Ac+EPSPS基因棉的单株成铃和果枝层数较高,增长竞争能力也较强,转Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab基因棉较弱;2个转双价基因棉最后的脱落率与2个对照差异不显著;转Cry1Ac+ EPSPS基因棉籽棉、皮棉产量介于2个对照之间,而转Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab基因棉的产量低于2个对照.转Cry1Ac+Cry2Ab基因棉推广种植可行性相对较差,转Cry1Ac+EPSPS基因棉推广种植可行性一般.

  14. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  15. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans.

  16. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

  17. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance col

  18. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging beh...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-Associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leandro F; Stielow, J Benjamin; de Vries, Michel; Weiss, Vinicius A; Vicente, Vania A; de Hoog, Sybren

    2015-11-19

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here. Copyright © 2015 Moreno et al.

  20. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  1. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  2. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  3. BIO-DEINKING OF ONP AND ITS EFFLUENT TREATMENT BY WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Deqing Zhao; Liping Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Deinking of secondary fiber of ONP and effluent treatment with white rot fungus were studied in this paper. Results showed that white rot fungus exerted significant effect on deinking of ONP and CODcr decrease and degradation of pollutants of deinking effluent.

  4. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  5. Screening of Fungus Antagonists against Six Main Disease Pathogens in Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    28 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of 16 plant species in six different districts in Hunan. As a result of isolation and purification, 122 fungus strains were obtained of which the antagonistic activity was tested against six fungus pathogens in tomato, cotton, cucumber, chilli, rice and rape, and 17 strains were found antagonistic to one or more pathogenic fungi.

  6. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

  7. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  10. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  11. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  12. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  13. A novel thermophilic endoglucanase from a mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuyan; DUAN Xinyuan; LU Xuemei; GAO Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic endoglucanase (EGt) was extracted from a mesophilic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum L19). We invoked conventional kinetic enzyme reactions using the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as substrate. EGt displayed optimal activity at 75℃ when kept running 30 min in the temperature range of 30―85℃. Thermal stability curve measured at 70℃ suggested that its half-life time is 15.1 min. The activity was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ or Mg2+ but inhibited by Pb2+ and Fe3+. Moreover, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification resulted in a complete loss of EGt activity, suggesting that tryptophan residues 5 be involved in the enzyme active site. Amino acid composition analysis demonstrated that EGt contains more proline residues. EGt lacks activity towards p-nitrophenyl cellobiose (pNPC). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EGt is SYRVPAANGFPNP- DASQEKQ, and the gene of EGt was sequenced and analyzed. Extensive sequence alignments failed to show any homology between EGt and any known endoglucanases. This is the first report addressing the thermal adaptation of a cellulolytic enzyme from the mesophilic fungus F. oxysporum. 5be the expression of multiple isoenzyme in an organism helps it adapt to complex living environments.

  14. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.P. Bracarense

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

  15. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  17. Effect and influence factors of sulfur removal in coal with fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE De-wen; JIN Yan; CHAI Li-yuan; HUANG Rui; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    The influence of coal desulfurization by fungus was experimentally studied. The results suggest that fungus can effectively remove inorganic and organic sulfur in coal, and main influences of desulfurization by fungus of pH value, temperature, coal slurry concentration and coal granularity were studied by orthodox experiment and the optimal experimental conditions are′as follows: pH value 6, temperature 45 ℃, coal slurry concentration 10% and coal granularity 100 μm. Under above conditions, fungus car remove up to 44.96% total sulfur and 54. 87% inorganic sulfur within two days, and their desulfurization rates will increase along with time. Compared with sulfolobas, desulphurization by fungus is steady and more effective, and has advantage of high speed.

  18. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  19. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  20. Effects of different fertilization treatments on soil fertility, verticillium wilt and yield of eggplant%不同肥料对土壤肥力、茄子黄萎病和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅正彬; 席春奕; 杨斌; 郭江洪; 赵开平

    2016-01-01

    Using ‘Huaxiajiaozi’ eggplant as the material, a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different fertilization treatments on soil fertility, microorganism’s community structure, and resistance to verticillium wilt. Compared to the control, treatments adding microbial compound fertilizer or biological organic fertilizer could improve the nutrient structure of soil, optimize the structure of microbial flora, reduce the incidence of eggplant verticillium wilt, and increase the yield. Considering the factors of soil fertility, resistance to disease and yield of eggplant, treatment of 22 kg/667 m2 calcium magnesium phosphate, 8 kg/667 m2 potassium chloride, 100 kg/667 m2 shanxichangxin microbial compound fertilizer, was recommended as the optimal fertilizer combination in planting eggplant.%以‘华夏骄子’茄为试验材料,研究不同施肥处理对土壤营养状况、微生物特性、茄子抗黄萎病和产量的影响。结果表明,与常规施肥相比,其他施肥处理可不同程度地提高土壤养分、优化微生物菌群结构,同时能降低茄子黄萎病的发病率、提高茄子产量。综合考虑土壤、抗病性和产量等因素,推荐最佳施肥方案为钙镁磷肥22 kg/667 m2+氯化钾8 kg/667 m2+山西昌鑫微生物复合肥100 kg/667 m2。

  1. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we...... need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions...

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  4. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  5. 利用AMMI模型对大丽花表型性状稳定性的评判%Judgment on Stability of Dahlia Phenotypic Traits by AMMI Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓慧; 苑兆和; 冯立娟; 丁雪梅; 甄红丽

    2012-01-01

    为研究大丽花表型性状在不同环境下的稳定性,以综合性状优良的9个大丽花品种为试材,对其3 a(2009-2011年)内7个表型性状的稳定性进行分析.结果表明:大丽花叶长、叶柄长和花梗长的基因型作用差异显著,环境作用差异不显著,其他性状指标在品种间和不同的环境作用下均存在显著差异;除株高的环境作用>基因型作用外,叶长、叶宽、叶柄长、花径、花梗长、茎粗的基因型作用>环境作用;利用AMMI模型对部分性状进行分析,叶宽较稳定的品种是争奇斗艳和桔莲;叶柄长较稳定的品种是争奇斗艳和桃红牡丹;花梗长较为稳定的品种是伊妮德和佳人苑.叶宽、叶柄长和花梗长在2009年环境下较稳定,在2010年和2011年环境下稳定性较差.可见,利用AMMI模型能够很好地解释大丽花袁型性状基因型作用、环境作用、基因×环境的交互作用,并能很好地筛选稳定品种及性状.%In order to analyze the stability of dahlia phenotypic traits under different environment, 7 phenotype traits were used to analysed their stability in 3 years(2009 - 2011) with 9 elite dahlia cul-tivars as materials. The results indicated that effects of genotype on leaf length, petiole length and pedicel length were extremely significantly different, but the effects of environment were not significantly different. Other phenotypic traits have significant differences in both effects of genotype and effects of environment. Effects of the genotypes on leaf length, leaf width, petiole length, flower diameter, pedicel length and stem diameter were greater than environment except the effects of environment on plant height. Some traits were analysed by using AMMI model. The result showed that for leaf width,the most stable culti-vars were Bodascious and Pam Howden. The varieties with better stable petiole length included Bodas-cious and Papageno. The cultivars with better stable pedicel

  6. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens.

  7. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  8. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  9. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  10. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually......, which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...

  11. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  12. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brasilamides K-N (1–4, four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 2,7nonane (1and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 4,7nonane (2–4 skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6 were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed.

  13. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  14. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-10-18

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.

  15. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  17. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  18. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  19. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale.

  20. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities.

  1. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources.

  2. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  3. Patient satisfaction and treatment outcome of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Chung; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Tsai, Yao-Lung

    2011-02-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important clinical problem with diverse manifestations. Although many literatures had found low recurrence rate after surgical treatment of fungus ball rhinosinusitis, patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes (symptom-free and symptom improvement rate, etc.) for fungus ball sinusitis are not yet well established. The purpose of this study is to estimate the patient satisfaction and treatment outcome in patients with fungus ball rhinosinusitis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Medical records of consecutive patients with diagnosed fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by FESS between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The post-operative improvement in individual symptom was assessed by chart review and telephone visiting. Ninety consecutive patients (21 men and 69 women) were eligible for the study. Six patients (7%) presented bilateral fungus ball rhinosinusitis. Multiple paranasal sinus fungus ball involvements were found in 48 patients (53%). Complete resolution of complaints with respect to nasal discharge, postnasal drip, cough with sputum, nasal bleeding, fetid odor of nose, olfactory dysfunction, nasal obstruction, headache, and facial pain or pressure were described in 74 patients (82%). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 96%. The estimated recurrence rate of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated with FESS was 3%, with a mean follow-up of 81 months. Treatment protocol of fungus ball rhinosinusitis with FESS and without postoperative antifungal drugs is efficient because of very low recurrence rate, high patient satisfaction, and very high symptom-free rate. Furthermore, the obvious difference of symptom-free rate between fungus ball rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis highlights the need of further studies to discover the pathophysiology of fungal sinusitis.

  4. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-09-15

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  5. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  6. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  7. The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy; Corio-Costet

    2000-12-01

    A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea.

  8. Genetic transformation of cotton with a harpin-encoding gene hpaXoo confers an enhanced defense response against different pathogens through a priming mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Congfeng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum. To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. Results Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34 with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. Conclusions Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the

  9. Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Maldonado-González, María Mercedes; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2011-08-01

    The use of indigenous bacterial root endophytes with biocontrol activity against soil-borne phytopathogens is an environmentally-friendly and ecologically-efficient action within an integrated disease management framework. The earliest steps of olive root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 and Pseudomonas putida PICP2, effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) against Verticillium wilt of olive (Olea europaea L.) caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., are here described. A gnotobiotic study system using in vitro propagated olive plants, differential fluorescent-protein tagging of bacteria, and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis have been successfully used to examine olive roots-Pseudomonas spp. interactions at the single-cell level. In vivo simultaneous visualization of PICF7 and PICP2 cells on/in root tissues enabled to discard competition between the two bacterial strains during root colonization. Results demonstrated that both BCAs are able to endophytically colonized olive root tissues. Moreover, results suggest a pivotal role of root hairs in root colonization by both biocontrol Pseudomonas spp. However, colonization of root hairs appeared to be a highly specific event, and only a very low number of root hairs were effectively colonized by introduced bacteria. Strains PICF7 and PICP2 can simultaneously colonize the same root hair, demonstrating that early colonization of a given root hair by one strain did not hinder subsequent attachment and penetration by the other. Since many environmental factors can affect the number, anatomy, development, and physiology of root hairs, colonization competence and biocontrol effectiveness of BCAs may be greatly influenced by root hair's fitness. Finally, the in vitro study system here reported has shown to be a suitable tool to investigate colonization processes of woody plant roots by microorganisms with biocontrol potential.

  10. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...

  11. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  12. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  13. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets......-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed...

  14. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a mangrove-endophytic fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.

    ). Quimica Nova 28: 991-995 21. Marinho AMR, Rodrigues-Filho E, Moitinho MDLR, Santos LS (2005) Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach. J Brazilian Chem Soc 16...

  15. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    -degrading enzymes are reported to be the most efficient in decolorizing such effluents. We report here decolorization of all the three effluents by a marine fungal isolate, NIOCC # 2a cultured from decaying mangrove wood. The fungus also decolorized several...

  16. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...

  17. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex...... have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey...

  18. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  19. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...... material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial...

  20. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  1. RESEARCH ARTICLES : Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyung Hoan Im; ; Trung Kien Nguyen; Jaehyuk Choi; Tae Soo Lee

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  2. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  3. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (specie

  5. Verticillium wilt of Fraxinus excelsior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Research on ash wilt disease, a common disease of Fraxinus excelsior L. in young forest and landscape plantings in several parts of the Netherlands, is described. By means of a survey for pathogenic fungi in affected trees, inoculation and

  6. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocel...

  7. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  8. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  9. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

  10. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  11. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  12. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  13. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  14. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-06-23

    Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

  15. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  16. Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Li-hong LIN; Hai-hua HUANG; Hai-yan XU; Da-fang ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of indomethacin, the first of the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, by filamentous fungus and to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of indomethacin. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C blakesleeana AS 3.153, C blakesleeana AS 3.910 and C echinulata AS 3.2004) were screened for their ability to catalyze the biotransformation of indomethacin. Indomethacin was partially metabolized by five strains of Cunninghamella, and C blakesleeana AS 3.910 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MSn and NMR spectra. These three metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Results: After 120 h of incubation with C blakesleeana AS 3.910, approximately 87.4% of indomethacin was metabolized to three metabolites: O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI, M1, 67.2%), Af-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DBI, M2,13.3%) and O-desmethyl-AT-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI, M3, 6.9%). Three phase I metabolites of indomethacin produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were identical to those obtained in humans. Conclusion: C blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of indomethacin.

  17. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  18. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  19. Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakes-leeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MA; Hai-hua HUANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Yu-ming SUN; Li-hong LIN; Da-fang ZHONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of metoprolol, a β1-cardioselective adrenoceptor antagonist, by filamentous fungus, and to compare the parallels between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C echinulata AS 3.2004, C blakesleeana AS 3.153 and AS 3.910) were screened for the ability to transform metoprolol. The metabolites of metoprolol produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.153 were separated and assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). The major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and the structures were identified by a combination of LC/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: Metoprolol was transformed to 7 metabolites; 2 were identified as new metabolites and 5 were known metabolites in mammals. Conclusion: The microbial transformation of metoprolol was similar to the metabolism in mammals. The fungi belonging to Cunninghamella species could be used as complementary models for predicting in vivo metabolism and producing quantities of metabolite references for drugs like metoprolol.

  20. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  1. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

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    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  2. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

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    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  3. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  4. Characterization of transposable elements in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS, long terminal repeats (LTRs and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis 1 represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2 contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3 provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  5. Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Diane J.; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2005-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets. PMID:16151112

  6. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

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    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  7. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka; Kaur, Loveleen

    2017-05-01

    Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

  8. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  9. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

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    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  10. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Song Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1 with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2, along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9 were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs = 11.79–23.66 μM, and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM, showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM, and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM.

  11. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  12. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.

  13. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-08-27

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management.

  14. The Fusarium oxysporum effector Six6 contributes to virulence and suppresses I-2-mediated cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehns, F; Houterman, P M; Ichou, F Ait; Michielse, C B; Hijdra, M; Cornelissen, B J C; Rep, M; Takken, F L W

    2014-04-01

    Plant pathogens secrete effectors to manipulate their host and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Upon infection, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici secretes numerous small proteins into the xylem sap (Six proteins). Most Six proteins are unique to F. oxysporum, but Six6 is an exception; a homolog is also present in two Colletotrichum spp. SIX6 expression was found to require living host cells and a knockout of SIX6 in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici compromised virulence, classifying it as a genuine effector. Heterologous expression of SIX6 did not affect growth of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves or susceptibility of Arabidopsis thaliana toward Verticillium dahliae, Pseudomonas syringae, or F. oxysporum, suggesting a specific function for F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Six6 in the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici- tomato pathosystem. Remarkably, Six6 was found to specifically suppress I-2-mediated cell death (I2CD) upon transient expression in N. benthamiana, whereas it did not compromise the activity of other cell-death-inducing genes. Still, this I2CD suppressing activity of Six6 does not allow the fungus to overcome I-2 resistance in tomato, suggesting that I-2-mediated resistance is independent from cell death.

  15. Diversity and antimicrobial properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from rhizosphere of olive trees and desert truffles of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fhoula, Imene; Najjari, Afef; Turki, Yousra; Jaballah, Sana; Boudabous, Abdelatif; Ouzari, Hadda

    2013-01-01

    A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota.

  16. Diversity and Antimicrobial Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Olive Trees and Desert Truffles of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imene Fhoula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 119 lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated, by culture-dependant method, from rhizosphere samples of olive trees and desert truffles and evaluated for different biotechnological properties. Using the variability of the intergenic spacer 16S-23S and 16S rRNA gene sequences, the isolates were identified as the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Weissella, and Enterococcus. All the strains showed proteolytic activity with variable rates 42% were EPS producers, while only 10% showed the ability to grow in 9% NaCl. In addition, a low rate of antibiotic resistance was detected among rhizospheric enterococci. Furthermore, a strong antibacterial activity against plant and/or pathogenic bacteria of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas savastanoi, the food-borne Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes was recorded. Antifungal activity evaluation showed that Botrytis cinerea was the most inhibited fungus followed by Penicillium expansum, Verticillium dahliae, and Aspergillus niger. Most of the active strains belonged to the genera Enterococcus and Weissella. This study led to suggest that environmental-derived LAB strains could be selected for technological application to control pathogenic bacteria and to protect food safety from postharvest deleterious microbiota.

  17. Diversity and antagonistic potential of bacteria associated with bryophytes from nutrient-poor habitats of the Baltic Sea Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opelt, Katja; Berg, Gabriele

    2004-11-01

    Very little is known about the interaction of bryophytes with bacteria. Therefore, we analyzed bacteria associated with three bryophyte species, Tortula ruralis, Aulacomnium palustre, and Sphagnum rubellum, which represent typical moss species of three nutrient-poor plant communities at the southern Baltic Sea coast in Germany. By use of two cultivation-independent techniques, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the 16S ribosomal DNA, a high degree of moss specificity was found for associated bacterial communities. This specificity could be further evidenced by a cultivation-dependent approach for the following parameters: (i) plate counts of bacteria on R2A medium, (ii) proportion of antagonistic isolates, (iii) antagonistic activity as well as spectrum against pathogens, and (iv) diversity and richness of antagonistic isolates. The proportion of isolates with antagonistic activity against the pathogenic model fungus Verticillium dahliae was highest for S. rubellum (31%), followed by A. palustre (17%) and T. ruralis (5%). A high percentage (99%) of moss-associated antagonistic bacteria produced antifungal compounds. The high recovery of antagonistic isolates strongly suggests that bryophytes represent an ecological niche which harbors a diverse and hitherto largely uncharacterized microbial population with yet unknown and untapped potential biotechnological applications, e.g., for biological control of plant pathogens.

  18. Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2014-08-04

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  19. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  20. Slope aspect influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Bai, Yv E; Wang, Jugang

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. AM fungus community composition differed significantly between slope aspects, and sunny slopes had significantly higher AM fungus diversity and richness as well as spore density, total root colonization, arbuscule abundance, vesicle abundance, and hyphal colonization than shady slopes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) illustrated that the effects of slope aspect on AM fungus richness likely were mediated by available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, plant cover, and plant diversity. Available phosphorus was the principal factor that influenced AM fungus species richness, and soil organic carbon was the principal factor influencing spore density and total root colonization, suggesting that these factors especially might be responsible for differences between the AM fungus communities of different slope aspects. These findings elucidate the influence of slope aspect on AM fungus communities and may inform use of AM fungi in protection and restoration of vegetation with different slope aspects in arid ecosystems.

  1. Idelntification and fermentation condition for Verticillium lecanii with high nematicidal activity%高杀线活性蜡蚧轮枝菌鉴定与发酵条件优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳; 段玉玺; 陈立杰

    2009-01-01

    通过室内试验,筛选得到1株具有高杀线活性的菌株Snef69,其发酵液的60%稀释液对南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)J2的校正致死率达到91.27%.通过ITS及形态学鉴定,并测定了不同发酵条件下Snef69菌株对南方根结线虫的毒力作用效果,结果表明该菌株为蜡蚧轮枝菌(Verticillium lecanii),随着发酵液浓度的增加,杀线活性增强,当发酵条件中碳源为麦芽糖、氮源为NaNO3、发酵天数为6~7 d、pH值=6时杀线虫效果最明显.

  2. 枯草芽孢杆菌植入棉苗体内拮抗黄萎病研究%The Studies of Bacillus Subtilis Implanted in Cotton Breedings to Antagonize Verticillium Wilt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王谧; 王维东; 范玉刚

    2011-01-01

    在棉花无土育苗基质中植入枯草芽孢杆菌,使其优先占领生态位,而拮抗黄萎病。结果表明:枯草芽孢杆菌CD102菌液稀释后植入灭菌基质,能在短期内增殖和持续繁殖;采用浸种、浇灌、针刺和喷雾的方法处理基质培育的棉苗,CD102均能不同程度定植其中;带CD102的基质培育棉苗,移栽大田后对黄萎病具有较好防治效果。%Bacillus subtilis CD102 was implanted to cotton seedling substrate,It had priority to occupy ecological niche and antagonized the infection of Verticillium Wilt.Results showed that: the bacillus subtilis CD102 was implanted to sterilized substrate and proliferated rapidly and continuously;It was all implanted to cotton seedling raised by substance,which accomplished by all methods including seed-soaking,pouring,acupuncture and spraying.Cotton seedlings raised by substrate with CD102 had good antagonistic effect to Vertillium Wilt after transplanting to field.

  3. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  4. Host Specialization in the Charcoal Rot Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Suh, S O; Schneider, R W; Russin, J S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate host specialization in Macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in St. Joseph, LA. Chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mM potassium chlorate. Consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. To further explore genetic differentiation among fungal isolates from each host, these isolates were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. phaseolina constitutes a single species. Ten random primers were used to amplify the total DNA of 45 isolates, and banding patterns resulting from RAPD analysis were compared with the neighbor-joining method. Isolates from a given host were genetically similar to each other but distinctly different from those from other hosts. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were distinct from chlorate-resistant isolates within a given host. In greenhouse tests, soybean, sorghum, corn, and cotton were grown separately in soil infested with individual isolates of M. phaseolina that were chosen based on their host of origin and chlorate phenotype. Root colonization and plant weight were measured after harvesting. More colonization of corn roots occurred when corn was grown in soil containing corn isolates compared with isolates from other hosts. However, there was no host specialization in isolates from soybean, sorghum, or cotton. More root colonization in soybean occurred with chlorate-sensitive than with chlorate-resistant isolates.

  5. Infection of Psoroptes mites with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Wall, R

    2001-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligatory ectoparasite that causes psoroptic mange in a range of domesticated animals, particularly sheep, where the clinical disease is known as sheep scab. A series of laboratory assays were used to assess the use of the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a biocontrol agent for P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. P. cuniculi). The immersion of mites in a suspension of conidia of M. anisopliae resulted in the acquisition of fatal infections. The number of mites which developed infections increased significantly with the increasing concentration of the conidial suspension to which they were exposed; 77% of mites developed infections when exposed to the highest concentration used (1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). Controls developed no fungal infections. Mites allowed simply to walk across a surface which had been treated with a suspension of conidia also acquired fungal infections; the number infected was again related to the concentration of conidia present. After contact for 24 h with a surface treated with 1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1), 73% of the mites became infected. To determine whether dead infected mites could act as sources of infection, infected cadavers were placed in chambers with live uninfected mites. The uninfected mites acquired fatal infections from the cadavers; a higher ratio of infected cadavers to uninfected mites resulted in greater transmission of infection. The time after death of the infected cadaver was also an important factor influencing the number infected, 5-day-old cadavers were the most infective and 18-day-old cadavers the least infective. The results indicate that M. anisopliae is a good candidate control agent for Psoroptes mites.

  6. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  8. Genome characterization of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Volatile Components Extracted from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Four Plants Growing in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Boughalleb

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile components extracted from the leaves, stems and flowers of Lantana camara, Malvaviscus arboreus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis cv. red flowers and white flowers were tested against the fungi Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae, F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Pythium ultimum, Rhizoctonia solani and Verticillium dahliae. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was found with volatile components extracted from the stems and the flowers. Complete inhibition was achieved against V. dahliae. The weakest effect was against P. ultimum. Volatile components extracted from the leaves were not effective.

  10. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  11. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses.

  12. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  13. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue.

  14. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  15. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of growing media and their constituents on fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYMOND A. CLOYD; AMY DICKINSON; RICHARD A. LARSON; KAREN A.MARLEY

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two growing media,commonly utilized in greenhouses, to fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila adults. The constituents of the most attractive growing medium tested were determined by gas chromatography analysis using a steam-distillation procedure. We found that fungus gnat adults were more attracted to the growing medium, SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix,which contains composted bark, than to another growing medium (Sunshine LC1 Mix) and their components when tested in a series of laboratory experiments using multiple-choice experimental arenas. A higher percentage of fungus gnat adults were attracted to moist SB300(92%)than SB300 growing medium that had been oven dried (8%). In addition,fungus gnat adults preferred SB300 although they had been reared on Sunshine LC1 Mix.When comparing the SB300 fresh from the bag to growing medium that had been pasteurized and moistened with water, gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic data showed there were declines in several terpenoid constituents as well as an increase in fatty acids and cyclosulfur.The results of this study indicate that B. sp. nr. coprophila adults prefer certain growing media, which may assist greenhouse producers in managing fungus gnats in crop production systems.

  17. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  18. Production of secondary metabolite E2.2 from Phaleria macrocarpa endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate new endophytic fungus from Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) that is able to produce E2.2 compound. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from P. macrocarpa. Morphological and molecular identification was done to determine the species of the endophytic fungus. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the ability of this fungus to produce E2.2 compound and to quantify the total yield of E2.2 from fungal fermen-tation. Fermentation process was optimized by observing suitable medium, pH and length of fermentation process. Phloroglucinol and gallic acid addition were examined to determine the effect of each compound on E2.2 production. Results: One endophytic fungus was successfully isolated from P. macrocarpa plant. Morphological and molecular identification showed that it was a Colletotrichum gloeo-sporioides which belonged to Glomerellaceae family. This fungus showed highest pro-duction of E2.2 when incubated in potato dextrose broth with initial pH value of the medium at 5, and was incubated for 15 days. Phloroglucinol was found to better enhance E2.2 production. Conclusions: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides found in P. macrocarpa plant is prom-ising as a potential alternative source of E2.2.

  19. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  20. Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

    2002-04-01

    Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus.

  1. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  2. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  3. Interactions between hyphosphere-associated bacteria and the fungus Cladosporium herbarum on aquatic leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschien, Christiane; Rode, Georg; Böckelmann, Uta; Götz, Peter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    We investigated microbial interactions of aquatic bacteria associated with hyphae (the hyphosphere) of freshwater fungi on leaf litter. Bacteria were isolated directly from the hyphae of fungi from sedimented leaves of a small stream in the National Park "Lower Oder," Germany. To investigate interactions, bacteria and fungi were pairwise co-cultivated on leaf-extract medium and in microcosms loaded with leaves. The performance of fungi and bacteria was monitored by measuring growth, enzyme production, and respiration of mono- and co-cultures. Growth inhibition of the fungus Cladosporium herbarum by Ralstonia pickettii was detected on leaf extract agar plates. In microcosms, the presence of Chryseobacterium sp. lowered the exocellulase, endocellulase, and cellobiase activity of the fungus. Additionally, the conversion of leaf material into microbial biomass was retarded in co-cultures. The respiration of the fungus was uninfluenced by the presence of the bacterium.

  4. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  5. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  6. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  7. ldentification and Control Methods of Eggplant Southern Blight, Damp-ing-off, Root Rot, Verticil-lium Wilt and Fusarium Wilt%茄子白绢病、猝倒病、根腐病、黄萎病和枯萎病的识别与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高焕; 郑丹丹

    2012-01-01

    介绍了茄子白绢病、猝倒病、根腐病、黄萎病和枯萎病的危害症状、发病特点,并从农业措施、化学防治等方面总结了各病害的综合防治方法。%The symptom and disease characteristics of eggplant southern blight, damping-off, root rot, verticillium wilt and fusarium wilt were introduced. Then the integrated control methods were put forward, which contained measures of agricultural control, chemical control and so on.

  8. 浅析菌袋出口对食用菌产业的影响%Analysis on the Influence of Edible Fungus Bag Expo~ation on Edible Fungus Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美玲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The increasing of edible fungus bag exportation promoted the standardized production of edible fungus industry in China, anti avoided the trade barrier in edible fungus exportation. However, the problems it brought also should not be ignored, such as the material shortage of edible fungus, the, species barrier and the obsh'uetion of edible fungus product expurtation.%菌袋出口量的增加不仅提升了中国食用菌产业的标准化生产,而且规避了各国对食用菌出口的贸易壁垒;但其所带来的问题也是不容忽视的,如食用菌原料的短缺、物种壁垒、食用菌制品出口受阻等。

  9. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  10. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (pcontrol animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (pcontrol animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (pcontrol group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (pcontrol group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling cyathostomin in the tropical region of southeastern Brazil.

  11. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  12. Temperature modulates the secretome of the phytopathogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Félix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures.The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields.Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. Lasiodiplodia theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9ºC-39ºC. Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown.Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae – an environmental strain CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90.We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25ºC, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30ºC and 37ºC.Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic and cellulolytic activities at 25ºC and 37ºC were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25ºC, 30ºC and 37ºC were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases. The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain

  13. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Kooij, P.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kuyper, T.W.; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that prac

  14. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death an...

  15. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from...

  16. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

  17. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  18. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  19. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The d

  20. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.