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Sample records for fungus mucor racemosus

  1. The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to degrade high concentration of detergent

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    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius to decompose high concentration of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was investigated in this study. Fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at concentration 0.5% during 16 days. The biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, amount of free and total organic acids, and activity of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by analysis of fermentation broth. Simultaneously, biodegradation percentage of anionic surfactant of tested detergent was confirmed by MBAS assay. At the same time, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. Detergent at concentration 0.5% influenced on decreasing of pH value and increasing of redox potential as well as increasing of free and total organic acids. Enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase was reduced by detergent at concentration 0.5%. The fungus was decomposed about 62% of anionic surfactant during 16 day. Due to fungus was produced higher dry weight biomass (53% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  2. Biopolymer production using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as substrate

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    Thaíssa Rodrigues Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated extracellular production of biopolymer using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as a carbon source. Initially employing conical flasks of 500 mL containing 100 mL of cultive medium with 0.18 ± 0.03 g.L–1 of microorganisms, the results showed that the best conditions of the variables studied were: initial concentration of glycerol 50 g.L–1, fermentation time of 96 h, inoculum cultivation time of 120 h, and aeration in two stages–the first 24 hours without aeration and 72 hours fermentation with aeration of 2 vvm and 2 g.L–1 of yeast extract. The experiments conducted in a Biostat B fermenter with a 2.0 L capacity that contained 1.0 L of medium showed production of 16.35 g.L–1 gum formed and 75% glycerol consumption. These conditions produced a biopolymer with the molecular weight and total sugar content of 4.607×106 g.mol–1 (Da and 89.5%, respectively.

  3. In vitro degradation of diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin by use of Mucor racemosus fresen. f. racemosus isolate

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    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Under controlled in vitro conditions the capacity of the Mucor racemosus f. racemosus 1215/09 isolate to degrade type A trichothecenes (diacetoxyscirpenol - DAS and T-2 toxin was observed in the liquid nutritive medium. According to previously performed experiments it was proved that the selected isolate, originating from sunflower meal, had the ability to degrade these fusariotoxins when growing on the modified Vogel’s agar supplemented with crude extracts of DAS and T-2 toxin. In order to determine biodegradation of fusariotoxins, the liquid nutritive medium - SPY (5% sucrose + 0.1% peptone + 0.1% yeast extract, pH 6.2 was simultaneously inoculated with the isolate M. racemosus f. racemosus 1215/09 and: a Fusarium semitectum SL-B (DAS producer or b F. sporotrichioides R-2301 (T-2 toxin producer. The SPY media, inoculated with single fungal isolates, were used as a control of toxin biosynthesis. The cultures were incubated at room temperature (21-26ºC on the rotary shaker (175 rpm. After the 3-5-day incubation, the filtration of liquid cultures and the extraction of fusariotoxins from filtrates with ethyl-acetate were performed. Determinations of DAS and T-2 toxin were done by thin layer chromatography using silica gel G. Depending on the incubation duration, M. racemosus f. racemosus in the mixed culture with F. semitectum degraded from 90.0 to 99.97% of DAS present in the medium (40,000- 120,000 µg l-1, while in the mixed culture with F. sporotrichioides it degraded from 95.0 to 96.7% of T-2 toxin present in the medium (240,000 µg l-1. Sterile filtrates of mixed cultures and single culture of M. racemosus f. racemosus, obtained by passing liquid cultures through the 0.45-µm membrane filter and added to the SPY medium, did not affect degradation of type A trichothecenes that had been biosynthesised by isolates F. semitectum SL-B and F. sporotrichioides R-2301 in the liquid medium.

  4. Immobilization of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631 Lipase with Different Polymer Carriers Produced by Radiation Polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Mostafa, H.; El-Hadi, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631. In an attempt to increase the enzyme stability, the enzyme was immobilized on poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA, radiation cross liked poly (vinyl alcohol/ vinyl pyrrolidone) PVA / PVP and poly (vinyl alcohol/ hydroxyethylmethacrylate) PVA/ HEMA hydrogels. The maximum immobilization yield (31.74 %) was obtained using PVA/ HEMA copolymer. The effect of the immobilization parameters on the enzyme such as the hydroge...

  5. Biotransformation of 20(R)-panaxatriol by Mucor racemosus and the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of some products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangtong; Li, Jie; Yan, Sensen; Lin, Haijun; Wu, Juanjuan; Zhai, Xuguang; Song, Yan; Li, Jianlin

    2017-08-01

    Biocatalysis of 20(R)-panaxatriol (PT) was performed by the fungus Mucor racemosus. Six metabolites (1-6) including five new compounds were obtained, and their structures were elucidated as 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,24β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (2), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,22β-dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (3), 20(R),25-epoxy-23β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,12-trione (4), 20(R),25-epoxy-12β,23α- dihydroxydammaran-3,6-dione (5), and 20(R),25-epoxy-12β-hydroxydammaran-3,6,23-trione (6) by spectroscopic analysis. Pharmacological studies revealed that compounds 2, 3 and 5 exhibited significant antihepatic fibrosis activity, while 4 and 6 showed cytotoxicity against HSC-T6 cells.

  6. Immobilization of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631 Lipase with Different Polymer Carriers Produced by Radiation Polymerization

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    Mostafa, H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipase was partially purified from the culture supernatant of Mucor racemosus NRRL 3631. In an attempt to increase the enzyme stability, the enzyme was immobilized on poly (vinyl alcohol PVA, radiation cross liked poly (vinyl alcohol/ vinyl pyrrolidone PVA / PVP and poly (vinyl alcohol/ hydroxyethylmethacrylate PVA/ HEMA hydrogels. The maximum immobilization yield (31.74 % was obtained using PVA/ HEMA copolymer. The effect of the immobilization parameters on the enzyme such as the hydrogel composition, irradiation dose and the immobilization technique was performed. An optimum radiation dose of 15 kGy and hydrogel composition of 10 % PVA/ HEMA (9.6: 0.4 v/v increased the immobilization yield to 60.3 %. Diffusion phenomena can be markedly increased the enzyme immobilization on the surface of the hydrogel. In this case the retained activity was approximately 81.5 % of that of the free enzyme. The profiles of immobilized enzyme activities at various pH values (4-9 and temperatures (30-80 °C showed an overall higher stability for the immobilized enzyme than that for the free one. The half life values of the immobilized and free enzymes at 60 °C were 3.3 h and 1.73 h, respectively. The immobilized enzyme retained 69.2 % of its initial activity after three cycles.

  7. Biotransformation of an africanane sesquiterpene by the fungus Mucor plumbeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M; Díaz, Carmen E; Amador, Leonardo J; Reina, Matías; López-Rodriguez, Matías; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2017-03-01

    Biotransformation of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one angelate by the fungus Mucor plumbeus afforded as main products 6α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate and 1α,8β-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 8β-angelate, which had been obtained, together with the substrate, from transformed root cultures of Bethencourtia hermosae. This fact shows that the enzyme system involved in these hydroxylations in both organisms, the fungus and the plant, acts with the same regio- and stereospecificity. In addition another twelve derivatives were isolated in the incubation of the substrate, which were identified as the (2'R,3'R)- and (2'S,3'S)-epoxy derivatives of the substrate and of the 6α- and 1α-hydroxy alcohols, the 8β-(2'R,3'R)- and 8β-(2'S,3'S)-epoxyangelate of 8β,15-dihydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one, the hydrolysis product of the substrate, and three isomers of 8β-hydroxy-african-4(5)-en-3-one 2ξ,3ξ-dihydroxy-2-methylbutanoate. The insect antifeedant effects of the pure compounds were tested against chewing and sucking insect species along with their selective cytotoxicity against insect (Sf9) and mammalian (CHO) cell lines.

  8. Effect of phosphate on glucosamine production by ethanolic fungus Mucor indicus.

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    Mohammadi, Marzieh; Zamani, Akram; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the effect of phosphorous compound concentration on the production of glucosamine by Mucor indicus was investigated. Changes in the yield of ethanol, the major metabolite of the fungus, were also followed besides. The alkali insoluble material of the biomass of the fungus mainly contained phosphates and polymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e., chitin and chitosan. Yields of glucosamine (78-113 g/kg dry fungal biomass) and ethanol (200-370 g/kg glucose) were significantly affected by the phosphorous concentration. The results showed that lower concentrations of phosphorous favored the production of glucosamine while higher ethanol as well as biomass yields was obtained at higher concentrations. The best concentration was 0.5 g/l where glucosamine yield was 0.37 g/l (11 % of the biomass). At this phosphate concentration, ethanol and biomass yields were 360 and 76 g/kg glucose, respectively. On average, proteins comprised 51.5 % of the biomass. Glycerol was the second important metabolite during the fermentation by the fungus which appeared at lower yields (20-34 g/kg glucose).

  9. (13)C-metabolic flux analysis of lipid accumulation in the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

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    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Wang, Liping; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2015-12-01

    The oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides is of industrial interest because it can produce high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid γ-linolenic acid. M. circinelloides CBS 277.49 is able to accumulate less than 15% of cell dry weight as lipids, while M. circinelloides WJ11 can accumulate lipid up to 36%. In order to better understand the mechanisms behind the differential lipid accumulation in these two strains, tracer experiments with (13)C-glucose were performed with the growth of M. circinelloides and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection of (13)C-patterns in proteinogenic amino acids was carried out to identify the metabolic network topology and estimate intracellular fluxes. Our results showed that the high oleaginous strain WJ11 had higher flux of pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme, lower flux in tricarboxylic acid cycle, higher flux in glyoxylate cycle and ATP: citrate lyase, together, it might provide more NADPH and substrate acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis.

  10. LC-MS/MS method development for quantitative analysis of acetaminophen uptake by the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis.

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    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Balsano, Evelyn; Kühn, Sandra; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen is a pharmaceutical, frequently found in surface water as a contaminant. Bioremediation, in particular, mycoremediation of acetaminophen is a method to remove this compound from waters. Owing to the lack of quantitative analytical method for acetaminophen in aquatic organisms, the present study aimed to develop a method for the determination of acetaminophen using LC-MS/MS in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. The method was then applied to evaluate the uptake of acetaminophen by M. hiemalis, cultured in pellet morphology. The method was robust, sensitive and reproducible with a lower limit of quantification of 5 pg acetaminophen on column. It was found that M. hiemalis internalize the pharmaceutical, and bioaccumulate it with time. Therefore, M. hiemalis was deemed a suitable candidate for further studies to elucidate its pharmaceutical tolerance and the longevity in mycoremediation applications.

  11. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and germination of sporangiospores from the fungus Mucor.

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    Orlowski, M

    1980-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) metabolism was examined in germinating sporangiospores of Mucor genevensis and Mucor mucedo. Exogenous cAMP prevented normal hyphal development from sporangiospores. Internal pools of cAMP fluctuated profoundly during development. Spherical growth of the spores was characterized by large pools of cAMP whereas germ tube emergence and hyphal elongation were characterized by small pools of cAMP. These observations suggest a possible role for cAMP in sporangiospore germination. Adenylate cyclase activities fluctuated significantly during germination with maximum values attained during spherical growth. In contrast, cAMP phosphodiesterase activities remained constant throughout germination. Internal cAMP levels may therefore be regulated by adjustment of adenylate cyclase activities. The binding of cAMP by soluble cell proteins was measured. cAMP-binding activity changed greatly during germination. Dormant and spherically growing spores possessed the highest activities. Developing hyphae contained the lowest activities. Use of the photoaffinity label, 8-azido-[32P]cAMP, in conjunction with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of a small population of morphogenetic-stage-specific proteins which bind cAMP and may be of regulatory significance to development.

  12. Composition and morphology characterization of exopolymeric substances produced by the PAH-degrading fungus of Mucor mucedo.

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    Jia, Chunyun; Li, Xiaojun; Allinson, Graeme; Liu, Changfeng; Gong, Zongqiang

    2016-05-01

    To explore the role of exopolymeric substances (EPS) in the process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) biodegradation, the characteristics of EPS isolated from a PAH-degrading fungus were investigated firstly by spectrometric determination, microscopic observation, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM), and then the PAH-degrading ability of isolated EPS was evaluated. The EPS compositions and morphology varied significantly with the extraction methods. EPS were mainly composed of proteins, carbohydrate, and humic-like substances, and the cation exchange resin (CER)-extracted EPS were granular while other EPS samples were all powders. Heating was the most effective treatment method, followed by the CER, centrifugation, and ultrasonication methods. However, 3D-EEM data demonstrated that heating treatment makes the mycelia lyse the most. Overall, therefore, the CER was the best EPS extraction method for Mucor mucedo (M. mucedo). The PAH degradation results indicated that 87 % of pyrene and 81 % of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) were removed by M. mucedo over 12 days and 9 % more pyrene and 7 % more B[a]P were reduced after CER-extracted EPS addition of 465 mg l(-1). The investigation of EPS characterization and EPS enhancing PAH biodegradation is the premise for further in-depth exploration of the role of EPS contribution to PAH biodegradation.

  13. Morphological changes of the filamentous fungus Mucor mucedo and inhibition of chitin synthase activity induced by anethole.

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    Yutani, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Yukie; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujita, Ken-ichi

    2011-11-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum with antimicrobial activity relatively weaker than those of well-known antibiotics, and significantly enhances the antifungal activity of polygodial and dodecanol against the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. However, the antifungal mechanism of anethole is unresolved. Anethole demonstrated antifungal activity against the filamentous fungus, Mucor mucedo IFO 7684, accompanied by hyphal morphological changes such as swollen hyphae at the tips. Its minimum growth inhibitory concentration was 0.625 mM. A hyperosmotic condition (1.2 M sorbitol) restricted the induction of morphological changes, while hypoosmotic treatment (distilled water) induced bursting of hyphal tips and leakage of cytoplasmic constituents. Furthermore, anethole dose-dependently inhibited chitin synthase (CHS) activity in permeabilized hyphae in an uncompetitive manner. These results suggest that the morphological changes of M. mucedo could be explained by the fragility of cell walls caused by CHS inhibition.

  14. Electrophoretic karyotypes of some related Mucor species.

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    Nagy, A; Palagyi, Z; Vastag, M; Ferenczy, L; Vágvölgyi, C

    2000-07-01

    Contour clamped homogeneous electric field (CHEF) gel electrophoresis was used to obtain electrophoretic karyotypes from nine Mucor strains representing five different species (M. bainieri, M. circinelloides, M. mucedo, M. plumbeus and M. racemosus). The chromosomal banding patterns revealed high variability among the isolates. The sizes of the DNA in the Mucor chromosomes were estimated to be between 2.5 and 8.7 Mb. The total genome sizes were calculated to be between 30.0 and 44.7 Mb. The applicability of these electrophoretic karyotypes for the investigation of genome structure, for strain identification and for species delimitation is considered.

  15. Enhanced ethanol and glucosamine production from rice husk by NAOH pretreatment and fermentation by fungus Mucor hiemalis

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    Maryam Omidvar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from rice husk by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using Mucor hiemalis was investigated. To reach the maximum ethanol production yield, the most important influencing factors in the pretreatment process, including temperature (0-100°C, NaOH concentration (1-3 M, and the pretreatment time (30-180 min, were optimized using an experimental design by a response surface methodology (RSM. The maximum ethanol production yield of 86.7 % was obtained after fungal cultivation on the husk pretreated with 2.6 M NaOH at 67°C for 150 min. This was higher than the yield of 57.7% obtained using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as control. Furthermore, fermentation using M. hiemalis under the optimum conditions led to the production of a highly valuable fungal biomass, containing 60 g glucosamine (GlcN, 410 g protein, and 160 g fungal oil per each kg of the fungal biomass.

  16. Endogenous short RNAs generated by Dicer 2 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 regulate mRNAs in the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor; Nicolas, Francisco; Moxon, Simon; Haro, Juan de; Calo, Silvia; Torres-Martinez, Santiago; Moulton, Vincent; Ruiz-Vazquez, Rosa; Dalmay, Tamas

    2011-09-01

    Endogenous short RNAs (esRNAs) play diverse roles in eukaryotes and usually are produced from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) by Dicer. esRNAs are grouped into different classes based on biogenesis and function but not all classes are present in all three eukaryotic kingdoms. The esRNA register of fungi is poorly described compared to other eukaryotes and it is not clear what esRNA classes are present in this kingdom and whether they regulate the expression of protein coding genes. However, evidence that some dicer mutant fungi display altered phenotypes suggests that esRNAs play an important role in fungi. Here, we show that the basal fungus Mucor circinelloides produces new classes of esRNAs that map to exons and regulate the expression of many protein coding genes. The largest class of these exonic-siRNAs (ex-siRNAs) are generated by RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase 1 (RdRP1) and dicer-like 2 (DCL2) and target the mRNAs of protein coding genes from which they were produced. Our results expand the range of esRNAs in eukaryotes and reveal a new role for esRNAs in fungi

  17. Asparagus racemosus--an update.

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    Goyal R

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari is recommended in Ayurvedic texts for prevention and treatment of gastric ulcers, dyspepsia and as a galactogogue. A. racemosus has also been used successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioners for nervous disorders, inflammation, liver diseases and certain infectious diseases. However, no scientific proof justifying aforementioned uses of root extract of A. racemosus is available so far. Recently few reports are available demonstrating beneficial effects of alcoholic and water extracts of the root of A. racemosus in some clinical conditions and experimentally induced diseases, e.g. galactogogue effect, antihepatotoxic and immunomodulatory activities. The present article includes the detailed exploration of pharmacological properties of the root extract of A. racemosus reported so far.

  18. Anticandidal Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    B. Uma; Prabhakar, K.; Rajendran, S.

    2009-01-01

    The in vitro anticandidal activity of Asparagus racemosus roots and tubers extract was investigated against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida guillermondii, Candida parapsilosis and Candida stellatoida, which are isolated from vaginal thrush patients. The extract of Asparagus racemosus showed high degree of activity against all the Candida strains. The inhibitory effect of the extract against all the Candida tested was found comparable with that of standard antibio...

  19. 海洋真菌Mucor circinelloides MNP12010102的次级代谢产物研究%Researches on the secondary metabolites of marine-derived fungus Mucor circinelloides MNP 12010102

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿; 冯宇美; 吴祺豪; 周峰; 赵美蓉

    2014-01-01

    研究东海海洋真菌卷枝毛霉Mucor circinelloides MNP12010102的次级代谢产物及其细胞毒活性,采用硅胶、Sephadex LH-20等柱色谱及半制备HPLC方法,从该真菌的发酵液乙酸乙酯萃取相中分离得到7个化合物,通过波谱学手段进行化学结构鉴定,其结果分别为过氧化麦角甾醇(Ⅰ),麦角甾醇(Ⅱ),cyclo-(S-Pro-8-hydroxy-R-Ile)(Ⅲ),cyclo-(S-Pro-S-Leu)(Ⅳ),cyclo-(S-Pro-R-Phe)(Ⅴ),2-(4-hydr oxyphenyl)ethylacetate(Ⅵ),和tyrosol(Ⅶ).其中化合物Ⅰ-Ⅶ均为首次从该属真菌中分离得到,化合物Ⅰ对肿瘤细胞PC-3和PANC-1具有相对较好的抑制活性.

  20. Lipase Induction in Mucor hiemalis

    OpenAIRE

    Akhtar, M. Waheed; Mirza, A. Q.; Chughtai, M. I. D.

    1980-01-01

    The influence on lipase induction in Mucor hiemalis of different types of triglycerides containing mainly oleic acid (olive oil), erucic acid (mustard oil), or saturated fatty acids of 8 to 16 carbons (coconut oil) was studied. The fungus was grown in shake flasks in a fermentation medium containing peptone, minerals, and glucose or one of the oils as the carbon source. Maximum lipase was produced when the initial pH of the fermentation medium was kept at 4.0. Addition of Ca2+ to the medium d...

  1. Celwandpolymeren bij mucor mucedo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1977-01-01

    In dit proefschrift worden enkele aspecten van de structuur, synthese en interacties van celwandpolymeren bij Mucor mucedo beschreven. In het eerste Hoofdstuk worden enkele inleidende beschouwingen gegeven over celwanden en celwandpolymeren. In het bijzonder wordt aandacht besteed aan interacties tu

  2. The mating-related loci sexM and sexP of the zygomycetous fungus Mucor mucedo and their transcriptional regulation by trisporoid pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Jana; Burmester, Anke; Kolbe, Melanie; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2012-04-01

    The putative mating type locus of mucoralean fungi consists of a single high mobility group (HMG)-domain transcription factor gene, sexM or sexP, flanked by genes for an RNA helicase and a triosephosphate transporter. We used degenerate primers derived from the amino acid sequence of the RNA helicase to sequence a fragment of this gene from Mucor mucedo. This fragment was extended by inverse PCR to obtain the complete sequences of the sex loci from both mating types of M. mucedo. The sex loci in M. mucedo reflect the general picture obtained previously for Phycomyces blakesleeanus, presenting a single HMG-domain transcription factor gene, sexM and sexP in the minus and plus mating types, respectively. These are located next to a gene for RNA helicase. Transcriptional analysis by quantitative real-time PCR showed that only transcription of sexM is considerably stimulated by adding trisporoid pheromones, thus mimicking sexual stimulation, whereas sexP is only slightly affected. These differences in regulation between sexM and sexP are supported by the observation that the promoter sequences controlling these genes show no similarities. The protein structures themselves are considerably different. The SexM, but not the SexP protein harbours a nuclear localization sequence. The SexM protein is indeed transported to nuclei. This was shown by means of a GFP fusion construct that was used to study the localization of SexM in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fusion protein is highly enriched in nuclei.

  3. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, C.H.; Cervantes, M.; Springer, D.J.; Boekhout, T.; Ruiz-Vazquez, R.M.; Torres-Martinez, S.R.; Heitman, J.; Lee, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a hetero

  4. Lipase Induction in Mucor hiemalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, M W; Mirza, A Q; Chughtai, M I

    1980-08-01

    The influence on lipase induction in Mucor hiemalis of different types of triglycerides containing mainly oleic acid (olive oil), erucic acid (mustard oil), or saturated fatty acids of 8 to 16 carbons (coconut oil) was studied. The fungus was grown in shake flasks in a fermentation medium containing peptone, minerals, and glucose or one of the oils as the carbon source. Maximum lipase was produced when the initial pH of the fermentation medium was kept at 4.0. Addition of Ca to the medium did not increase lipase production. The optimum pH for activity of both the mycelial and extracellular lipases was found to be 7.0. The fungus produced a significant amount of lipase in the presence of glucose, but the lipase activity increased markedly when olive oil was added to the medium at the beginning of the fermentation. Addition of olive oil at a later stage did not induce as much enzyme. Studies with washed mycelia showed that a greater amount of lipase was released when olive oil was present than when glucose was present. Among the various types of triglycerides used as the carbon source, olive oil was found to be most effective in inducing the lipase. Olive oil and mustard oil fatty acids inhibited the lipase more than those of coconut oil. The lipase induced by a particular type of triglyceride did not seem to be specific for the same triglyceride, nor was it inhibited specifically by it. Irrespective of the triglyceride used in the fermentation medium, the lipase produced was most active against coconut oil triglyceride, and this specificity, as shown by lipase activities in an n-heptane system, was not found to be due to a better emulsification of this oil. The lipase of M. hiemalis can be considered to be both constitutive and inducible.

  5. Growth physiology and dimorphism of Mucor circinelloides (syn. racemosus) during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mcintyre, Mhairi; Breum, J.; Arnau, J.

    2002-01-01

    filamentous fungi under similar growth conditions. High levels of ethanol were observed with all growth conditions. The overriding effector of morphological development was found to be oxygen. In batch cultures it was therefore possible to induce the dimorphic shift by controlling the influent gas atmosphere...... of biomass on glucose (Y-SX) was 0.12 (c-mole basis). A high maximum specific growth rate was obtained when the organism grew as the filamentous form under aerobic conditions (0.25 h(-1)), with a Y-SX of 0.24 (c-mole basis). The maximum specific growth rates achieved are comparable to most industrial....... A specific growth rate of 0.19 h(-1) was maintained during the shift from the yeast to the filamentous form....

  6. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Felicia Megumi; Mena, Ana Elisa Maciel; Marques, Maria Rita; de Lima, Dênis Pires; Beatriz, Adilson

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[6.2.1.02,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1) and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved. PMID:24031400

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

    OpenAIRE

    Javeed Ahmed Wani; Achur, Rajeshwara N.; R. K. NEMA

    2011-01-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphr...

  8. Asparagus racemosus--ethnopharmacological evaluation and conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopana, Nishritha; Saxena, Sanjay

    2007-03-01

    Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Asparagaceae) is an important medicinal plant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Asparagus racemosus is mainly known for its phytoestrogenic properties. With an increasing realization that hormone replacement therapy with synthetic oestrogens is neither as safe nor as effective as previously envisaged, the interest in plant-derived oestrogens has increased tremendously making Asparagus racemosus particularly important. The plant has been shown to aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and in alcohol abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms. In Ayurveda, Asparagus racemosus has been described as a rasayana herb and has been used extensively as an adaptogen to increase the non-specific resistance of organisms against a variety of stresses. Besides use in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery, the plant also has potent antioxidant, immunostimulant, anti-dyspepsia and antitussive effects. Due to its multiple uses, the demand for Asparagus racemosus is constantly on the rise; however, the supply is rather erratic and inadequate. Destructive harvesting, combined with habitat destruction in the form of deforestation has aggravated the problem. The plant is now considered 'endangered' in its natural habitat. Therefore, the need for conservation of this plant is crucial. This article aims to evaluate the biological activities, pharmacological applications and clinical studies of Asparagus racemosus in an attempt to provide a direction for further research. Keeping in mind the fact that it is the active principle that imparts medicinal value to a plant; consistency in quality and quantity needs to be maintained to ensure uniform drug efficacy. Also, deliberate or inadvertent adulteration needs to be dealt with at an early stage. To overcome these prevalent problems, the availability

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Aphrodisiac Activity of Asparagus racemosus

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    Javeed Ahmed Wani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The plant Asparagus racemosus is widely distributed in the Himalayan and sub-Himalayan regions of India. Based on preliminary reports, there is a lot of interest in using the roots of this plant for treating sexual disorders. In this study, the hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening which showed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, glycosides and mucilages. The total extracts were tested for their aphrodisiac activity in experimental rats. The hydro-alcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus root at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male wistar albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. On the other hand, hydro-alcoholic extract at lower dose (200 mg/kg. body weight and aqueous extract (400 mg/kg body weight showed moderate aphrodisiac property. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the extracts of Asparagus racemosus exert significant aphrodisiac activity. Further, detailed studies are needed to know whether in-vivo administration of the extracts is beneficial for patients suffering from sexual disorders.

  10. Characterisation of the Mucor circinelloides regulated promoter gpd1P

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, G.G.; Appel, K.F.; Wolff, A.M.;

    2004-01-01

    The promoter of the Mucor circinelloides gpd1 gene encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1P) was recently cloned and used for the production of recombinant proteins, such as the Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase 1 (GOX). This represents the first example of the application...... of a strong and regulated promoter from this fungus for recombinant protein production. The original 741-bp gpd1P promoter fragment conferred hexose-dependent expression of GOX in M. circinelloides. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in gpd1P-driven expression and to develop improved promoter...... or a 361-bp derivative. Expression levels for the 361-bp derivative were high and comparable, regardless of the carbon source used. This promoter represents a useful derivative for constitutive heterologous gene expression in M. circinelloides....

  11. Sporangiospore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of Mucor circinelloides.

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    Charles H Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucor circinelloides is a zygomycete fungus and an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients, especially transplant recipients and in some cases otherwise healthy individuals. We have discovered a novel example of size dimorphism linked to virulence. M. circinelloides is a heterothallic fungus: (+ sex allele encodes SexP and (- sex allele SexM, both of which are HMG domain protein sex determinants. M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus (Mcl (- mating type isolates produce larger asexual sporangiospores that are more virulent in the wax moth host compared to (+ isolates that produce smaller less virulent sporangiospores. The larger sporangiospores germinate inside and lyse macrophages, whereas the smaller sporangiospores do not. sexMΔ mutants are sterile and still produce larger virulent sporangiospores, suggesting that either the sex locus is not involved in virulence/spore size or the sexP allele plays an inhibitory role. Phylogenetic analysis supports that at least three extant subspecies populate the M. circinelloides complex in nature: Mcl, M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus, and M. circinelloides f. circinelloides (Mcc. Mcc was found to be more prevalent among clinical Mucor isolates, and more virulent than Mcl in a diabetic murine model in contrast to the wax moth host. The M. circinelloides sex locus encodes an HMG domain protein (SexP for plus and SexM for minus mating types flanked by genes encoding triose phosphate transporter (TPT and RNA helicase homologs. The borders of the sex locus between the three subspecies differ: the Mcg sex locus includes the promoters of both the TPT and the RNA helicase genes, whereas the Mcl and Mcc sex locus includes only the TPT gene promoter. Mating between subspecies was restricted compared to mating within subspecies. These findings demonstrate that spore size dimorphism is linked to virulence of M. circinelloides species and that plasticity of the sex locus and adaptations in

  12. Immunotherapeutic modulation of intraperitoneal adhesions by Asparagus racemosus.

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    Rege N

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity, therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions, which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52, compared to that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8. These findings support our hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of post-operative adhesions.

  13. Antibacterial activity of chemical constituents isolated from Asparagus racemosus

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    Muhammad Abdullah Shah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus is a medical extensively used in traditional medicine for various disorders including its use in infectious. So far work has been done to identify its active constituents responsible for antiseptic folk use of this plant. In the current investigation, we have made an effort to identify its chemical constituents that might be partly responsible for antimicrobial properties. Extraction and isolation of plant extract lead to isolation of two nor-lignans and two steroidal triterpenes (compound 1 to 4. All compound showed considerable antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus while no significant activity was observed against S. typhi. This study highlighted the potential of A. racemosus to be further explored as a source of bioactive natural products.

  14. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  15. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari: A review

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    Shashi Alok

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus (A. racemosus belongs to family Liliaceae and commonly known as Satawar, Satamuli, Satavari found at low altitudes throughout India. The dried roots of the plant are used as drug. The roots are said to be tonic and diuretic and galactgogue, the drug has ulcer healing effect probably via strenthening the mucosal resistance or cytoprotection. It has also been identified as one of the drugs to control the symotoms of AIDS. A. racemosus has also been successfully by some Ayurvedic practitioner for nervous disorder, inflammation and certain infectious disease. However, no scintific proof justify aborementioned uses of root extract of A. racemosus is available so far. Recently few reports are available demonstrating beneficial effects of alcoholic and water extract of the roots of A. racemosus in some clinical conditions and experimentally indused disease e.g. galactogougue affects, antihepatotoxic, immunomodulatory effects, immunoadjuvant effect, antilithiatic effect and teratogenicity of A. racemosus. The present artical includes the detailed exploration of pharmacological properties of the root extract of A. racemosus reported so far.

  16. IN VIVO ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ROOTS

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    Suchita Mittal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to appraise the anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus roots belonging to family Liliaceae. Carrageenan is used to induce inflammation and Freund’s Complete Adjuvant is used to induce arthritis. The result of this study revealed that Asparagus racemosus show potent effect on both the condition at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg respectively.

  17. Immunomodulatory potential of shatavarins produced from Asparagus racemosus tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pise, Mashitha Vinod; Rudra, Jaishree Amal; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal properties of Asparagus racemosus (vernacular name: Shatavari) are attributed to its steroidal saponins called shatavarins. This plant is facing the threat of being endangered due to several developmental, seasonal constrains and malpractices involved in its collection and storage. To support its conservation, a tissue culture protocol is standardized which produces 20 fold higher levels of shatavarin. Here we evaluate the bioactivity and immunomodulatory potential of in vitro produced shatavarins from cell cultures of AR using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro produced shatavarin stimulated immune cell proliferation and IgG secretion in a dose dependent manner. It stimulated interleukin (IL)-12 production and inhibited production of IL-6. It also had strong modulatory effects on Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, indicating its potential application for immunotherapies where Th1/Th2 balance is envisaged. Our study demonstrating the bioactivity of tissue cultured AR extracts supports further in vivo evaluation of its immunomodulatory efficacy.

  18. Characterization of the Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The life cycle of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides was studied in a temperature-controlled flow-through cell, which constitutes an ideal tool when following the development of individual cells, with a view to understanding the growth and differentiation processes occurring in and b......Aims: The life cycle of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides was studied in a temperature-controlled flow-through cell, which constitutes an ideal tool when following the development of individual cells, with a view to understanding the growth and differentiation processes occurring...... in and between the different morphological forms of the organism.Methods and Results: Mycelial growth and the transformation of hyphae into chains of arthrospores were characterized by image analysis techniques and described quantitatively. The influence of the nature (glucose and xylose) and concentration...... of the carbon source on specific growth rate and hyphal growth unit length were studied. The organism branched more profusely on xylose than on glucose while the specific growth rates determined were rather similar. Methods were developed to study the yeast-like growth phase of M. circinelloides in the flow...

  19. Biotransformation of a cage-like diels-alder adduct and derivatives by Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch Biotransformação de um aduto de diels-alder cage-like e derivados por Mucor ramosissimus samutsevitsch

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    Felicia Megumi Ito

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the ability for biotransformation of the Diels-Alder adduct tricyclo[6.2.1.0(2,7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-dione (1 and two synthetic derivatives by the saprobe fungus Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Products from oxidation, isomerization and, regioselective and enantioselective reduction were achieved.Neste trabalho avaliou-se a capacidade de biotransformação do aduto de Diels-Alder triciclo[6.2.1.0(2-7]undeca-4,9-dien-3,6-diona (1 e dois derivados sintéticos pelo fungo sapróbio Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch. Produtos de oxidação, isomerização e redução regiosseletiva e enantiosseletiva foram obtidos.

  20. Computed tomographic findings in orbital Mucor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, M.R.; Lippman, S.M.; Grinnell, V.S.; Colman, M.F.; Edwards, J.E. Jr.

    1985-07-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly important infection in immunocompromised patients; knowledge regarding the variability of its clinical manifestations is expanding steadily. The infection is of paranasal sinus origin and may involve the orbit secondarily via freely communicating foramina and venous channels. Death often ensues when the infection spreads either into the cavernous sinus or the central nervous system. Early diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis is crucial for a successful outcome. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning is used to visualize many intraorbital pathologic abnormalities. The patient discussed in this paper had extensive orbital Mucor that appeared minimal on a CT scan. This inability of the scan to reflect the severity of infection prompted a review of the literature describing the use of CT scans for detecting this potentially fatal, opportunistic infection. The search showed that a disparity between scan findings and the severity of the disease is the rule rather than the exception. Recognition of this disparity has significant implications for appropriate diagnosis and management of orbital Mucor.

  1. Genetic evaluation of twenty seed sources of Asparagus racemosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parveen; A Kumar; H.S.Ginwal

    2011-01-01

    A field trial of 20 seed sources of Asparagus racemosus was conducted at the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India to evaluate their performance of different economic traits. Genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV)and phenotypic coefficient of variance (PCV) for number of shoots,shoot height, shoot weight, number of roots, root length, root diameter and root weight were calculated. Maximum genotypic and phenotypic variance was observed in shoot height among the shoot - related traits and root length among the root - related traits. For the shoot height, genotypic variance, phenotypic variance, genotypic coefficient of variance,phenotypic coefficient of variance were 231.80, 3924.80, 61.26 and 1037.32, respectively, where those of the root length were 9.55, 16.80,23.46 and 41.27, respectively. The maximum genetic advance and genetic gain were obtained for shoot height among the shoot-related traits and root length among the root-related traits. Index values were developed for all the seed sources based on the four most important traits, and Panthnagar (Uttrakhand), Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Dehradun (Uttarakhand),Chandigarh (Punjab), Jammu (Jammu and Kashmir) and Solan (Himachal Pradesh), were promising seed sources for root production.

  2. A study Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models

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    Jagannath N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the Antiurolithiatic Activity of ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus in animal models.Materials and Methods: The study includes performing on healthy albino rats of either sex weighing 220 – 270gms and urolithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride water. The parameters studied are serum analysis for Urea, Creatinine, Calcium and Phosphorus, Body Weight of animals included in the study group and Histopathological Study of kidney for the presences crystals.  Results In our study the Ethanolic extract of Asparagus Racemosus with doses of 800mg/kg and 1600mg/kg per orally to rats showed significant reduction in serum urea, creatinine, calcium and phosphorus levels in urolithiatic rats when compared to the positive control rats (Group II. These results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05.Conclusion: Ethanol Extract of Asparagus racemosus has a significant antiurolithiatic activity.

  3. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  4. [Mode of action of terrazoleon Mucor mucedo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyr, H; Casperson, G; Laussmann, B

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that the fungistatic effect of terrazol in Mucor mucedo is induced by a liberation of phospholipases within within the mitochondria and perhaps at other membranes. In isolated mitochondria a rapid formation of lysolecithin can be demonstrated at low concentrations of terrazol. This would explain the lytic symptoms in mitochondria visible by electron microscopy. Lipid peroxidation could not be demonstrated. The only antidots at present known for the growth inhibiting effect of terrazol and on its ultrastructural effects are impure saccharose, which seems to contain an unknown factor, and procain hydrochloride or to a lesser extent lidocain, which are well-known inhibitors of phospholipases. The pathological thickening of the cell wall induced by terazol seems to be an unspecific side effect reflecting a diminished phosphorylating activity of the mitochondria.

  5. Taxonomy and epidemiology Mucor irregularis, agent of chronic cutaneous mucormycosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Dolatabadi, S.; Ran, Y.P.; Gerrits van den Ende, A.H.G.; Shen, Y.N.; Li, C.Y.; Xi, L.Y.; Hao, F.; Zhang, Q.Q.; Li, R.Y.; Hu, Z.M.; Lu, G.; Wang, J.J.; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Klaassen, C.; Meis, J.F.; Hagen, F.; Liu, W.D.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis usually presents as a progressive infection with significant angio-invasion. Mucormycosis due to Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis), however, is exceptional in causing chronic cutaneous infection in immunocompetent humans, ultimately leading to severe mor

  6. Chemical analysis reveals the botanical origin of shatavari products and confirms the absence of alkaloid asparagamine A in Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumeta, Yukie; Maruyama, Takuro; Wakana, Daigo; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Goda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Shatavari-a famous Ayurveda materia medica used mainly as a tonic for women-is distributed in health food products all over the world. The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India identifies the botanical origin of shatavari as the tuberous root of Asparagus racemosus. We recently investigated by DNA analysis the botanical origin of shatavari products on the Japanese market. The results suggested that their botanical origin was Asparagus; however, species identification was difficult. In this study, we analyzed steroidal saponins, including those specific to this plant, in these products and confirmed their origin as A. racemosus. Next, alkaloid analyses of an authentic A. racemosus plant and these products were performed, because several papers have reported the isolation of a pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloid, asparagamine A, from this plant. Our results suggest that neither plant material nor products contained asparagamine A. It has been pointed out that Stemona plants are sometimes mistaken for shatavari, because their tuberous roots have a similar shape to that of A. racemosus, and pyrrolo[1,2-a]azepine alkaloids are thought to be Stemona-specific. These data strongly suggest that A. racemosus does not contain asparagamine A, and that previous isolation of asparagamine A from materials claimed as originating from A. racemosus was likely caused by misidentification of Stemona plants as A. racemosus.

  7. Characterization of the Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübbehüsen, Tina Louise; Nielsen, Jens; Mcintyre, Mhairi

    2003-01-01

    Aims: The life cycle of the dimorphic fungus Mucor circinelloides was studied in a temperature-controlled flow-through cell, which constitutes an ideal tool when following the development of individual cells, with a view to understanding the growth and differentiation processes occurring...... of the carbon source on specific growth rate and hyphal growth unit length were studied. The organism branched more profusely on xylose than on glucose while the specific growth rates determined were rather similar. Methods were developed to study the yeast-like growth phase of M. circinelloides in the flow......-through cell, and combined with fluorescent microscopy which allowed new insights to bud formation. Additionally, numbers and distribution of nuclei in arthrospores, hyphae and yeasts were studied.Conclusions: The results give essential information on the morphological development of the organism...

  8. "Asparagus Racemosus" Enhances Memory and Protects against Amnesia in Rodent Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Rakesh; Sahu, Alakh N.; Muruganandam, A. V.; Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2010-01-01

    "Asparagus Racemosus" (AR) is an Ayurvedic rasayana possessing multiple neuropharmacological activities. The adpatogenic and antidepressant activity of AR is well documented. The present study was undertaken to assess nootropic and anti-amnesic activities of MAR in rats. The Morris water maze (MWM) and elevated plus maze (EPM) models were employed…

  9. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, Sida cordifolia and Levamisole on immunological parameters in experimentally induced mmunosuppressed broilers.

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    Tekade S. H.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In birds treated with Cyclophosphamide @ 150 mg/kg body weight I/V on 21st day of age produced marked immunosuppression. Administration of A. racemosus, Sida cordifolia in combination with Levamisole was the more effective in producing immunomodulatory effect in immunosuppressed birds. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(2.000: 49-50

  10. Characterization and control of Mucor circinelloides spoilage in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2016-07-02

    Consumer confidence in the food industry is severely affected by large-scale spoilage incidents. However, relatively little research exists on spoilage potential of members of the fungal subphylum Mucormycotina (e.g. Mucor), which includes dimorphic spoilage organisms that can switch between a yeast-like and hyphal phase depending on environmental conditions. The presence of Mucor circinelloides in yogurt may not cause spoilage, but growth and subsequent changes in quality (e.g. container bloating) can cause spoilage if not controlled. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on M. circinelloides of pasteurization regimen, natamycin concentrations, and storage temperature in yogurt production, as measured by fungal proliferation and carbon dioxide production. A strain of M. circinelloides isolated from commercially spoiled yogurt showed greater yogurt-spoilage potential than clinical isolates and other industrial strains. D-values and z-values were determined for the spoilage isolate in milk as an evaluation of the fungus' ability to survive pasteurization. Natamycin was added to yogurt at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20ppm (μg/ml) to determine its ability to inhibit M. circinelloides over the course of month-long challenge studies at 4°C, 15°C, and 25°C. Survivors were recovered on acidified PDA and carbon dioxide levels were recorded. The D-values at 54°C, 56°C, and 58°C for hyphae/sporangiospores were (in min) 38.31±0.02, 10.17±0.28, and 1.94±0.53, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 3.09°C. The D-values at 51°C, 53°C, and 55°C for yeast-like cells were (in min) 14.25±0.12, 6.87±1.19, and 2.44±0.35, respectively, which yielded a z-value of 0.34°C. These results indicated that M. circinelloides would not survive fluid milk pasteurization if contamination occurred prior to thermal treatment. CO2 production was only observed when M. circinelloides was incubated under low-oxygen conditions, and occurred only at temperatures above 4

  11. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  12. The hyphal wall of Mucor mucedo. 1. Polyanionic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datema, R; van den Ende, H; Wessels, J G

    1977-11-01

    Treatment of isolated hyphal walls of Mucor mucedo with nitrous acid resulted in the release of two water-soluble polyanions: (a) a glycuronan, containing all the neutral sugars and uronic acid present in the hyphal wall and (b) an inorganic polyphosphate. The glycuronan could also be extracted quantitatively with salt solutions of high ionic strength and partially with a solution of potassium hydroxide. This is presented as evidence that the glycuronan is a genuine constituent of the cell wall, non-covalently bound to glucosamine-containing polymers which are susceptible to depolymerization by nitrous acid. By treatment with acid the glycuronan was partly converted to crystalline poly(glucuronic acid) with the properties of mucoric acid. This strongly suggests that mucoric acid, which can be extracted from the walls of M. mucedo by alkali after acid treatment, is not a genuine wall component but arises by partial acid hydrolysis of the heteropolymeric glycuronan.

  13. Role of Oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil as a surface fungus inhibitor on fermented sausages: evaluation of its effect on microbial and physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves-López, Clemencia; Martin-Sánchez, Ana María; Fuentes-Zaragoza, Evangélica; Viuda-Martos, Manuel; Fernández-López, Juana; Sendra, Esther; Sayas, Estrella; Angel Pérez Alvarez, José

    2012-01-01

    Oregano essential oil (OEO) was evaluated to determine its effect on the growth of natural contaminating molds on the surface of Spanish fermented sausage, the development of the internal microbial population of the sausage, and the physicochemical properties of the sausage. Results indicated a dramatic reduction in the contaminant molds. At the end of ripening, the main endogenous fungal species in control samples were Mucor racemosus (55%), Aspergillus fumigatus (20.6%), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (11.1%), Acremonium strictum (7.9%), and Aspergillus niger (4.7%). In samples treated with OEO, M. racemosus and A. fumigatus were the only species isolated; the treatment was more effective against A. fumigatus than against M. racemosus. The use of OEO to inhibit surface fungi did not affect the sausage drying process, pH, water activity, or color changes during ripening. These parameters change in a typical pattern for fermented dry-cured sausages during ripening. At the end of ripening, OEO-treated sausages had lower hardness and greater chewiness than the control but showed similar textural properties to sausages treated with potassium sorbate.

  14. Lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of Asparagus racemosus in hyperlipidemic rats

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    Rama R. Bhosale

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis is associated with hyperlipidemia which is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, treatment of hyperlipidemia is one of the major approaches to decrease the atherogenic process. Many studies revealed that Asparagus racemosus (AR possesses hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential, but results were not consistent. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of AR root powder in hyperlipidemic rats. Methods: Hyperlipidemia was induced in normal rats by including 0.75 gm% cholesterol and 1.5 gm% bile salt in normal diet and these rats were used for the experiments. Dried root powder of Asparagus racemosus was administered as feed supplement at 5 gm% and 10 gm% dose levels to the hyperlipidemic rats. Plasma lipid profile, malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, catalase and superoxide dismutase were estimated using standard methods. Statistical analysis was done by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Feed supplementation with 5 gm% and 10 gm% Asparagus racemosus resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol, LDL and significant increase in HDL. But there were no significant decrease in triglycerides and VLDL. The feed supplementation increased activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid content increased significantly in both the experimental groups (5 and 10 gm% supplemented groups. But there was no significant change in the concentration of malondialdehyde in these groups. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that addition of Asparagus racemosus root powder at 5 gm% and 10 gm% level as feed supplement reduces the plasma lipid levels and also acts as an antioxidant. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 168-173

  15. Asparagus racemosus ameliorates cisplatin induced toxicities and augments its antileishmanial activity by immunomodulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Heena; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kaur, Sukhbir

    2014-02-01

    Current drugs for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis are inadequate and their efficacies are also compromised due to suppression of immune function associated during the course of infection. To overcome this problem, efforts are needed to develop therapies with effective immunomodulatory agents where decrease of parasitic burden and simultaneous enhancement of adaptive immunity can be achieved. In this study we have evaluated a new therapeutic approach based on combination of Asparagus racemosus, an immunomodulatory drug, in combination with cisplatin against Leishmania donovani infected BALB/c mice. We demonstrate that A. racemosus (650 mg/kg b.wt./day for 15 days, orally) in combination with cisplatin (5 mg/kg b.wt./day for 5 days, intraperitoneally) enhanced the clearance of parasites as determined by Giemsa-stained liver impression smears. Besides having better killing activity, this combination group achieved increased production of disease resolving Th-1 response (IFN-gamma, IL-2), heightened DTH (delayed type hypersensitivity) response and augmented levels of IgG2a. Moreover, A. racemosus in combination with cisplatin not only provided enhanced protective immune response but also resulted in remarkable improved kidney and liver function tests as manifested by normal levels of SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea in blood plasma with normal histological observations as compared to only cisplatin treated L. donovani infected BALB/c mice. Through this study we have ascertained that A. racemosus in combination with cisplatin in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice boosted as well as restored both cellular and humoral immunity. Thus in view of severe immunosuppression in visceral leishmaniasis, a better and effective strategy for optimum efficacy of future antileishmanial drugs would direct not only killing of parasite by the drug, but also simultaneous generation of immunity against the disease. © 2013.

  16. Molecular analysis of the genus Asparagus based on matK sequences and its application to identify A. racemosus, a medicinally phytoestrogenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsom, Teerawat; Waranuch, Neti; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Denduangboripant, Jessada; Sukrong, Suchada

    2012-07-01

    The plant Asparagus racemosus is one of the most widely used sources of phytoestrogens because of its high content of the steroidal saponins, shatavarins I-IV, in roots. The dry root of A. racemosus, known as "Rak-Sam-Sip" in Thai, is one of the most popular herbal medicines, used as an anti-inflammatory, an aphrodisiac and a galactagogue. Recently, the interest in plant-derived estrogens has increased tremendously, making A. racemosus particularly important and a possible target for fraudulent labeling. However, the identification of A. racemosus is generally difficult due to its similar morphology to other Asparagus spp. Thus, accurate authentication of A. racemosus is essential. In this study, 1557-bp nucleotide sequences of the maturase K (matK) gene of eight Asparagus taxa were analyzed. A phylogenetic relationship based on the matK gene was also constructed. Ten polymorphic sites of nucleotide substitutions were found within the matK sequences. A. racemosus showed different nucleotide substitutions to the other species. A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the matK gene was developed to discriminate A. racemosus from others. Only the 650-bp PCR product from A. racemosus could be digested with BssKI into two fragments of 397 and 253-bp while the products of other species remained undigested. Ten commercially crude drugs were analyzed and revealed that eight samples were derived from A. racemosus while two samples of that were not. Thus, the PCR-RFLP analysis of matK gene was shown to be an effective method for authentication of the medicinally phytoestrogenic species, A. racemosus.

  17. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-08-30

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  18. Rhinocerebral Mucor circinelloides infection in immunocompromised patient following yogurt ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Stephen P; Lukaszewicz, Jennifer M; Persad, Kamleish A; Reinhardt, John F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate the cause of this patient's headache and sinus pain in the setting of a unique environmental exposure: the patient ingested yogurt only days before presentation. This particular brand of yogurt caused controversy in early September 2013 when the manufacturer voluntarily recalled all flavors. The yogurt was found to be contaminated with Mucor circinelloides. The recall was triggered by the FDA, after receiving many complaints from consumers affected by temporary gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal cramping, diarrhea, and nausea. This patient was diagnosed with Rhinocerebral mucormycosis through fungal culture of the affected area. He was specifically colonized with Mucor circinelloides, a variant that rarely causes disease in humans. According to a literature review, only eight cases of mucormycosis in adults caused by this strain were documented before 2009.

  19. EFFECT OF FEEDS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF INDIGENOUS COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIRAN KUMAR DIVYA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous cows, on farm level, kept on feeding supplemented with powdered root of Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus Willd.. It was observed that feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed increased percentage milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids significantly without altering quality and natural attributes of milk. Significant residual effect of feeding Shatavari roots supplemented feed was also observed in terms of percentage increase in milk yield, fat, solid not fat (SNF and total solids (TS up to ten days after Shatavari roots supplemented was stopped to cows.

  20. Purification and characterization of a glutathione S-transferase from Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ragaa R; Abu-Shady, Mohamed R; El-Beih, Fawkia M; Abdalla, Abdel-Monem A; Afifi, Ola M

    2005-01-01

    An intracellular glutathione transferase was purified to homogenity from the fungus, Mucor mucedo, using DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange and glutathione affinity chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE revealed that the purified GST is a homodimer with approximate native and subunit molecular mass of 53 kDa and 23.4 kDa, respectively. The enzyme has a pI value of 4.8, a pH optimum at pH 8.0 and apparent activation energy (Ea) of 1.42 kcal mol(-1). The purified GST acts readily on CDNB with almost negligible peroxidase activity and the activity was inhibited by Cibacron Blue (IC50 0.252 microM) and hematin (IC50 3.55 microM). M. mucedo GST displayed a non-Michaelian behavior. At low (0.1-0.3 mM) and high (0.3-2 mM) substrate concentration, Km (GSH) was calculated to be 0.179 and 0.65 mM, whereas Km(CDNB) was 0.531 and 11 mM and k(cat) was 39.8 and 552 s(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed apparent pKa values of 6-6.5 and 8.0.

  1. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation lines using gametocidal chromosomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁建华; 陈佩度; 刘大钧

    2003-01-01

    Specific chromosomes of certain Aegilops species introduced into wheat genome background may often facilitate chromosome breakage and refusion, and finally result in a variety of chromosome restructuring. Such a phenomenon is commonly called gametocidal effect of the chromosomes. The chromosome 2C of Ae. cylindrica is one of such chromosomes. In the present study, scab resistant wheat-L. racemosus addition lines involving chromosomes Lr.2 and Lr.7 were crossed to wheat-Ae. cylindrica disomic addition line Add2C. Then F1 hybrids were subsequently backcrossed with wheat cv "Chinese Spring". BC1 plants with chromosome structural aberration were identified by C-banding. In the self-pollinated progenies of these plants, three translocation lines were developed and characterized by mitotic and meiotic analysis combined with C-banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using biotin-labeled genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probe. Some other putative translocation lines to be further characterized were also found. The practicability and efficiency of the translocation between wheat and alien chromosomes induced by gametocidal chromosomes, as well as the potential use of the developed alien translocation lines were also discussed.

  2. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL AND INVITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF Asparagus racemosus Willd., (Liliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durai Prabakaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus racemosus Willd.(Shatavari is a well known plant in Ayurvedic systems of medicine. ‘Shatavari’ is a reputed classical drug and said to possess therapeutic properties as Rasayana drugs of Ayurveda. The present study is aimed at the development of phytochemical parameters and invitro cytotoxic activity of various extracts of the leaves of Asparagus racemosus plant. The plant material was successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity namely n-Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol in a soxhlet extractor. Preliminary phytochemical tests, fluorescence analysis, thin layer chromatography and high performance thin layer chromatographic studies were carried out for all the extracts. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were screened for invitro cytotoxic activity by MTT assay using EAC (Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma cell line. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of various extracts of the leaves showed the presence of carbohydrates, tannins, phenolic compounds, sterols and flavonoids. The chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant cytotoxic activity when compared to ethanol extract against the above mentioned cancer cell line.

  3. Protective effects of Asparagus racemosus on oxidative damage in isoniazid-induced hepatotoxic rats: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, N; Manian, S

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of Asparagus racemosus against isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Rats (n = 6 per group)were divided into four groups: saline-treated control, saline-treated control with A. racemosus extract (50 mg/kg), isoniazid treatment alone (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.]), and isoniazid-A. racemosus extract (50 mg/kg)administered orally as cotreatment. Animals were treated for 21 days and euthanized 1 h after the last drug administration. Evaluated body weight, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, g-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, hepatic malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1)activity and glutathione (GSH). A. racemosus extract prevented isoniazid-induced hepatotoxicity, indicated by both diagnostic indicators of liver damage, liver functional profile, significantly (p production of free radicals and acts as a scavenger, reducing the free radical generation via inhibition of hepatic CYP2E1 activity, increasing the removal of free radicals through the induction of antioxidant enzymes and improving non-enzymatic thiol antioxidant GSH.

  4. Plasma hormones, metabolites, milk production, and cholesterol levels in Murrah buffaloes fed with Asparagus racemosus in transition and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Mehla, Ram Kumar; Singh, Mahendra

    2012-12-01

    Ten dry and pregnant Murrah buffaloes were selected to investigate the effect of Asparagus racemosus feeding on hormones, metabolites, milk yield, and plasma cholesterol levels. The treatment groups of buffaloes were fed with A. racemosus (shatavari) @ 150 g/day/animal during prepartum and @ 300 g/day/animal during the postpartum period. Blood samples collected on -6, -4, -2-week, day of parturition (0), and +2, +4, and +6-week postpartum were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), prolactin, cortisol, and blood metabolites. Milk samples collected at weekly intervals (+1, +3, +5, and 7 weeks) were analyzed for total milk fat cholesterol. Prepartum plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in treatment group over the control (P < 0.05). Mean plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels varied nonsignificantly between groups. Plasma prolactin and cortisol concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) more in treatment group than in control group. On day of parturition, plasma prolactin, cortisol, LDL, and plasma total cholesterol were higher (P < 0.01) in treatment group buffaloes in comparison to control group. A. racemosus feeding significantly (P < 0.01) increased plasma prolactin, cortisol (P < 0.01), and milk fat cholesterol (P < 0.05) without affecting total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, and NEFA concentrations. The buffaloes of treatment group produced more milk (@ 0.526 kg/animal/day) suggesting thereby that A. racemosus is galactopoietic. It was concluded that feeding of A. racemosus increases plasma prolactin and cortisol and decreased plasma total cholesterol and LDL concentration.

  5. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  6. REVERSAL EFFECT OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILD (LILIACEAE ROOT EXTRACT ON MEMORY DEFICITS OF MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwlayan Vrish Dhwaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of roots of Asparagus racemosus wild (Liliaceae was investigated for its reversal effect on memory deficits in mice. Two doses the extract (75 and 150 mg/kg, i.p. were administered for seven consecutive days. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p., sodium nitrite (75 mg/kg, i.p. were used to induce memory deficits (amnesia. Elevated plus maze (EPM and Morris water maze (MWM were employed to evaluate short and long term memory respectively. Scopolamine and sodium nitrite treatment produced significant impairment of elevated plus maze and Morris water maze performance indicating impairment of memory. The methanolic root extract (150 mg/kg, i.p. significantly (p<0.05 improved EPM and MWM performance of scopolamine and sodium nitrite treated mice. The results indicated potential of the plant in relieving memory deficits.

  7. Specificity of Mucor miehei lipase on methyl ester substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina, M.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid methyl esters constitute a good substrate for the characterization of lipase typospecificity. In the present work, the hydrolytic action of lipase from Mucor miehei was studied. It was demonstrated that this lipase preferentially catalyses the hydrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters with small number of double bonds. It was also found that this lipase shows a specificity in the hydrolysis of fatty acid methyl esters with short aliphatic chain.Los esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos constituyen un buen sustrato para la caracterización de tipos de especificidad de lipasa. En el presente trabajo, se estudió la acción hidrolítica de lipasa de Mucor miehei. Se demostró que esta lipasa cataliza preferencialmente la hidrólisis de esteres metílicos de ácidos grasos con número pequeño de dobles enlaces. Se encontró también que esta lipasa muestra una especificidad en la hidrólisis de ásteres metílicos de ácidos grasos con cadena alifática corta.

  8. Effects of 20 standard amino acids on the growth, total fatty acids production, and γ-linolenic acid yield in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhang, Huaiyuan; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda

    2014-12-01

    Twenty standard amino acids were examined as single nitrogen source on the growth, total fatty acids production, and yield of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) in Mucor circinelloides. Of the amino acids, tyrosine gave the highest biomass and lipid accumulation and thus resulted in a high GLA yield with respective values of 17.8 g/L, 23 % (w/w, dry cell weight, DCW), and 0.81 g/L, which were 36, 25, and 72 % higher than when the fungus was grown with ammonium tartrate. To find out the potential mechanism underlying the increased lipid accumulation of M. circinelloides when grown on tyrosine, the activity of lipogenic enzymes of the fungus during lipid accumulation phase was measured. The enzyme activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and ATP-citrate lyase were up-regulated, while NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase was down-regulated by tyrosine during the lipid accumulation phase of the fungus which suggested that these enzymes may be involved in the increased lipid biosynthesis by tyrosine in this fungus.

  9. A new mercury-accumulating Mucor hiemalis strain EH8 from cold sulfidic spring water biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Enamul; Fritscher, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report about a unique aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalisEH8 that can remove toxic ionic mercury from water by intracellular accumulation and reduction into elemental mercury (Hg(0) ). EH8 was isolated from a microbial biofilm grown in sulfidic-reducing spring water sourced at a Marching's site located downhill from hop cultivation areas with a history of mercury use. A thorough biodiversity survey and mercury-removal function analyses were undertaken in an area of about 200 km(2) in Bavaria (Germany) to find the key biofilm and microbe for mercury removal. After a systematic search using metal removal assays we identified Marching spring's biofilm out of 18 different sulfidic springs' biofilms as the only one that was capable of removing ionic Hg from water. EH8 was selected, due to its molecular biological identification as the key microorganism of this biofilm with the capability of mercury removal, and cultivated as a pure culture on solid and in liquid media to produce germinating sporangiospores. They removed 99% of mercury from water within 10-48 h after initial exposure to Hg(II). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated occurrence of intracellular mercury in germinating sporangiospores exposed to mercury. Not only associated with intracellular components, but mercury was also found to be released and deposited as metallic-shiny nanospheres. Electron-dispersive x-ray analysis of such a nanosphere confirmed presence of mercury by the HgMα peak at 2.195 keV. Thus, a first aquatic eukaryotic microbe has been found that is able to grow even at low temperature under sulfur-reducing conditions with promising performance in mercury removal to safeguard our environment from mercury pollution. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Expression of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase in Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernetics, Árpád; Tóth, Eszter; Farkas, Anita; Nagy, Gábor; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Papp, Tamás

    2015-02-01

    Carotenoids are natural pigments that act as powerful antioxidants and have various beneficial effects on human and animal health. Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina) is a carotenoid producing zygomycetes fungus, which accumulates β-carotene as the main carotenoid but also able to produce the hydroxylated derivatives of β-carotene (i.e. zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin) in low amount. These xanthophylls, together with the ketolated derivatives of β-carotene (such as canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin) have better antioxidant activity than β-carotene. In this study our aim was to modify and enhance the xanthophyll production of the M. circinelloides by expression of heterologous genes responsible for the astaxanthin biosynthesis. The crtS and crtR genes, encoding the cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase and reductase, respectively, of wild-type and astaxanthin overproducing mutant Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous strains were amplified from cDNA and the nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared to each other. Introduction of the crtS on autonomously replicating plasmid in the wild-type M. circinelloides resulted enhanced zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin accumulation and the presence of canthaxanthin, echinenone and astaxanthin in low amount; the β-carotene hydroxylase and ketolase activity of the X. dendrorhous cytochrome-P450 hydroxylase in M. circinelloides was verified. Increased canthaxanthin and echinenone production was observed by expression of the gene in a canthaxanthin producing mutant M. circinelloides. Co-expression of the crtR and crtS genes led to increase in the total carotenoid and slight change in xanthophyll accumulation in comparison with transformants harbouring the single crtS gene.

  11. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  12. Biological activity of trisporoids and trisporoid analogues in Mucor mucedo (-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes; Boland, Wilhelm

    2005-06-01

    In the course of their sexual interactions, zygomycete fungi communicate via an elaborate series of carotene-derived compounds, namely trisporic acid and its biosynthetic progenitors. A novel building-block strategy allowed the systematic generation of structurally modified trisporoids along with putative early biosynthetic precursors for physiological tests. The impact of discrete structural elements was documented by the ability of individual compounds to induce sexually committed hyphae in Mucor mucedo. The activity screening contributed to establish general structure-function relationships for trisporoid action. Most crucial for activity were the dimension of the longer side chain, the polarity of functional groups at C(4) and C(13), and the number of conjugated double bonds in the side chain. The presence of an oxygen substituent at the cyclohexene ring is not essential for function. The overall biological activity apparently results from the combination of the various structural elements.

  13. Hormonal interactions in Mucor mucedo and Blakeslea trispora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Ende, H; Wiechmann, A H; Reyngoud, D J; Hendriks, T

    1970-02-01

    Evidence is presented that progametangia in both the plus and the minus mating types of Mucor mucedo can be induced by one substance, namely (-)-trisporic acid B. A method is described for the determination of the concentration of the sex factors (trisporone, trisporic acid B, trisporic acid C) in mated cultures of Mucorales by polarography. It can be demonstrated that the amount of plus mycelium is limiting for the production of the sex factors in Blakeslea trispora. It is shown that the minus type of this organism is able to synthesize the sex factors when incubated in the filtered medium of a mated culture. Cycloheximide and 5-fluorouracil inhibit strongly the sex factor production in a mated culture of B. trispora at any time. This result suggests that sexual activity comprises the synthesis of proteins which are involved in the production of the sex factors.

  14. [Effect of terrazol on the ultrastructure of Mucor mucedo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, G; Lyr, H

    1975-01-01

    Terrazol, a systemic fungicide showing high specifity to oomycetes, inhibits the apical growth of hyphae and promotes at lower concentrations the thickening of the cell wall in Mucor mucedo. As revealed by ultrastructural analysis, particularly the fine structure of some membrane systems is influenced. In the first place the inner membrane of the mitochondria is attacked leading to a complete lysis of mitochondria. However, the sensitivities within a given population are different. The plasmalemma enlarges, forms several invaginations, partly redraws from the cell wall, but remains intact. Only after an extensive treatment with relatively high concentrations of terrazol the nuclear envelope shows vesicles between the double membranes. The mechanism of action of terrazol is discussed.

  15. Taxonomy and epidemiology of Mucor irregularis, agent of chronic cutaneous mucormycosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, X.L.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Dolatabadi, S.; Ran, Y.P.; van den Ende, A.H.G.G.; Shen, Y.N.; Li, C.Y.; Xi, L.Y.; Hao, F.; Zhang, Q.Q.; Li, R.Y.; Hu, Z.M.; Lu, G.X.; Wang, J.J.; Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Klaassen, C.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hagen, F.; Liu, W.D.; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mucormycosis usually presents as a progressive infection with significant angio-invasion. Mucormycosis due to Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis), however, is exceptional in causing chronic cutaneous infection in immunocompetent humans, ultimately leading to severe mor

  16. [Effect of pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) on the ultrastructure of Mucor mucedo and Phytophthora cactorum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, G; Lyr, H

    1982-01-01

    The effect of PCNB in various concentrations on the ultrastructure of Mucor mucedo and phytophthora cactorum was analyzed after an incubation period of 2 hours. The most striking effect in both fungi was a diffuse lysis of the internal structure of the mitochondria which differs markedly from the lysis induced by etridiazol (terrazol). Moreover an enlargement of the perinuclear space and an increased formation of vacuoles was observed. In Mucor mucedo, but not in Phytophthora cactorum a pathological thickening of the cell wall was observed. Although after 2 hours incubation with PCNB Phytophthora gave similar ultrastructural reactions in the mitochondria as Mucor, in growth experiments on agar dishes this species was 5-10 times less sensitive to PCNB compared to Mucor.

  17. Sialoglycoproteins in morphological distinct stages of Mucor polymorphosporus and their influence on phagocytosis by human blood phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Travassos, Luiz R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2013-10-01

    The possible role of sialic acids in host cells-fungi interaction and their association with glycoproteins were evaluated using a clinical isolate of the dimorphic fungus Mucor polymorphosporus. Lectin-binding assays with spores and yeast cells denoted the presence of surface sialoglycoconjugates containing 2,3- and 2,6-linked sialylglycosyl groups. Western blotting with peroxidase-labeled Limulus polyphemus agglutinin revealed the occurrence of different sialoglycoprotein types in both cell lysates and cell wall protein extracts of mycelia, spores, and yeasts of M. polymorphosporus. Sialic acids contributed to the surface negative charge of spores and yeast forms as evaluated by adherence to a cationic substrate. Sialidase-treated spores were less resistant to phagocytosis by human neutrophils and monocytes from healthy individuals than control (untreated) fungal suspensions. The results suggest that sialic acids are terminal units of various glycoproteins of M. polymorphosporus, contributing to negative charge of yeasts and spore cells and protecting infectious propagules from destruction by host cells.

  18. Sex specificity of hormone synthesis in Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuis, M

    1975-01-01

    Sex specificity is observed in mating types of the fungus Oucor mucedo with respect to the production of 4-hydroxy methltrisporates (plus mating type) and trisporins (minus mating type), and in the conversion of these metabolites to trisporic acids by the mating partner. These compounds induce zygophores on the opposite mating type only.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of liposomes of Asparagus racemosus root extracts prepared by various methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plangsombat, Nathsiree; Rungsardthong, Kanin; Kongkaneramit, Lalana; Waranuch, Neti; Sarisuta, Narong

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus racemosus root extracts (AR) have been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological properties. The aim of the present study was to develop liposomes of AR and to assess their physicochemical characteristics and anti-inflammatory activity in the monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1. Liposomes containing various ratios of AR to lipid and a phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol molar ratio of 7:3 were prepared by thin-film hydration (TF), reverse-phase evaporation (REV) and polyol dilution (PD). The results showed that AR liposomes prepared by TF had a multilamellar structure and a large size, whereas those prepared by REV and PD were oligolamellar in structure, and of a smaller size. The particle sizes and zeta potentials of the liposomes ranged from 196.5 to 456.6 nm and from −4.34 to −18.94 mV, respectively. The AR to lipid ratio was shown to have no significant influence on particle size, while the zeta potential generally increased with increasing AR to lipid ratio. The highest entrapment efficiency values were detected in liposomes with an AR to lipid ratio of 1:5, and for liposomes prepared by TF, REV and PD methods, the entrapment efficiencies were 55.71±2.04, 56.21±3.59 and 67.68±1.37%, respectively. AR was found to exert no toxicity on THP-1 cells. The maximum anti-inflammatory activities of AR and AR liposomes, evaluated in terms of the percentage inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α in THP-1 cells, were ~52% at a concentration of 1 µg/ml. It can be concluded from the present study that AR liposomes have the potential to be used a formulation for topical and/or transdermal drug delivery to provide anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27698785

  20. Asparagus racemosus attenuates anxiety-like behavior in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabadu, Debapriya; Krishnamurthy, Sairam

    2014-05-01

    Asparagus racemosus Linn. (AR) is used worldwide as a medicinal plant. In the present study, the anxiolytic activity of standardized methanolic extract of root of AR (MAR) was evaluated in open-field test (OFT), hole-board, and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests. Rats received oral pretreatment of MAR in the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg daily for 7 days and then were evaluated for the anxiolytic activity in different animal models. Both MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, p.o.) increased the grooming behavior, number of central squares crossed, and time spent in the central area during OFT. Further, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the head-dip and head-dip/sniffing behavior, and decreased sniffing activity in hole-board test. Furthermore, MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased the percentage entries and time spent to open arm in EPM test paradigm. The anxiolytic activity in the experimental models was similar to that of diazepam. MAR (100 and 200 mg/kg) enhanced the level of amygdalar serotonin and norepinephrine. It also increased the expression of 5-HT2A receptors in the amygdala. In another set of experiment, flumazenil attenuated the anxiolytic effect of minimum effective dose of MAR (100 mg/kg) in OFT, hole-board, and EPM tests, indicating GABAA-mediated mechanism. Moreover, the anxiolytic dose of MAR did not show sedative-like effect in OFT and EPM tests compared to diazepam (6 mg/kg, p.o.). Thus, the anxiolytic response of MAR may involve GABA and serotonergic mechanisms. These preclinical data show that AR can be a potential agent for treatment of anxiety disorders.

  1. Alleviation of heavy metal toxicity and phytostimulation of Brassica campestris L. by endophytic Mucor sp. MHR-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Mahwish; Irshad, Muhammad; Rahman, Hazir; Qasim, Muhammad; Afridi, Sahib Gul; Qadir, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar

    2017-08-01

    Heavy metal (HM) pollution is of great concern in countries like Pakistan where a huge proportion of human population is exposed to it. These toxic metals are making their way from water bodies to soil where it not only interferes with plant growth and development but also initiates serious health issues in human consuming the produce of such soils. Bioremediation is one of the most viable and efficient solution for the problem. Purpose of the current study was to isolate endophytic fungi from plants grown on HM contaminated soil and screen them for their ability to tolerate multiple HM including chromium (Cr(6+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)). Out of 27 isolated endophytes, only one strain (MHR-7) was selected for multiple heavy metals tolerance. The strain was identified as Mucor sp. by 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 4 sequence homology. The strain effectively tolerated up to 900µgmL(-1) of these heavy metals showing no remarkable effect on its growth. The adverse effect of the heavy metals, measured as reduction of the fungal growth increased with increasing concentration of the metals. The strain was able to remove 60-87% of heavy metals from broth culture when supplied with 300µgmL(-1) of these metals. A trend of decline in bioremediation potential of the strain was observed with increasing amount of metals. The strain removed metals by biotransformation and/or accumulation of heavy metal in its hyphae. Application of Mucor sp. MHR-7 locked down HM in tis mycelium thereby making them less available to plant root reducing HM uptake and toxicity in mustard. Besides its bioremediation potential, the strain was also able to produce IAA, ACC deaminase and solubilize phosphate making it excellent phytostimulant fungus. It is concluded that MHR-7 is an excellent candidate for use as biofertilizer in fields affected with heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis by immunostimulation with herbal drugs derived from Withania somnifera and Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chauhan, Kalpana; Sachdeva, Heena

    2014-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease targeting tissue macrophages. It is among the most neglected infectious diseases. As available therapeutics for treatment of this disease have many side effects, there is a need for safer alternatives. One of the immunopathological consequences of active visceral leishmaniasis is suppression of protective T-helper (Th)-1 cells and induction of disease-promoting Th-2 cells, and thus the treatment of VL relies on immunomodulation. In the current study, herbal drugs derived as whole-plant extracts of Asparagus racemosus and Withania somnifera were used to treat Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice. Keeping the scenario of immunosuppression during VL in mind, the potential of these drugs in the restoration of murine Th-1-type protective immune responses was evaluated. To investigate the propensity of these drugs to treat VL, liver parasite load, delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and parasite-specific immunoglobulin levels were studied. Various biochemical and haematological tests were also carried out. A positive-control group used the standard drug treatment of sodium stibogluconate. Treatment of infected mice with A. racemosus and W. somnifera in combination at the higher dose of 200 mg (kg body weight)(-1) not only resulted in a successful reduction in parasite load but also generated protective Th1-type immune responses with normalization of biochemical and haematological parameters, suggesting their potential as potent anti-leishmanial agents.

  3. Detection of double-stranded RNA molecules and virus-like particles in different Mucor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágvölgyi, C; Magyar, K; Papp, T; Vastag, M; Ferenczy, L; Hornok, L; Fekete, C

    1998-02-01

    The presence of double-stranded RNA elements was examined in 123 strains representing 18 Mucor species. These genetic elements were found to be present in 6 strains: 1 M. aligarensis, 1 M. hiemalis, 2 M. corticolus, 1 M. mucedo and 1 M. ramannianus. Electrophoretic separation of the nucleic acids revealed 4 different RNA patterns, with 1 to 5 discrete dsRNA bands. The molecular weights corresponding to these bands were 1.42-4.15 x 10(6) D. Using electronmicroscopy, for the first time the presence of virus like particles in Mucor species has been revealed.

  4. Changes in Microbial Load and Flora during Fermentation Yongchuan Mucor-Type Douchi%永川毛霉型豆豉在发酵过程中微生物总量与区系变化规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索化夷; 赵欣; 骞宇; 陈娟; 李键; 张玉; 阚建全

    2015-01-01

    采用巢式聚合酶链式反应配合变性梯度凝胶电泳技术对永川豆豉发酵过程中微生物区系生态演化进行解析.结果表明:永川豆豉在制曲过程中霉菌和细菌呈对数增长,进入后发酵阶段菌落总数快速下降,并保持在较低水平.永川豆豉在制曲前期有多种乳酸菌生长,后期乳酸菌受霉菌增长抑制,种类减少.在后发酵阶段奥德赛芽孢杆菌(Bacillus odysseyi)、乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus oligofermentans)和乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus lindneri)是优势菌群.同时在制曲初期也发现了费格森埃希菌(Escherichia fergusonii)等杂菌生长.永川豆豉制曲阶段优势霉菌是总状毛霉(Mucor racemosus),同时伴有有性根霉(Rhizopus sexualis)、匍枝根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)、大孢联轭霉(Syzygites megalocarpus)、米根霉(Rhizopus oryzae)的生长,后发酵阶段有接合酵母(Zygosaccharomyces sp.)的参与.

  5. Chemo- and Stereoselective Reduction of Polyfunctional Carbonyl Compounds by Mucor rouxii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza P. Mangone

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Several polyfunctional carbonyl compounds, such as α- and β-ketoesters, were chemo- and stereoselectively reduced by Mucor rouxii cultures in water and in organic solvents. Results show that reductions can be carried out in a variety of organic solvents.

  6. Chronic rhino-orbital mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis (Rhizomucor variabilis) in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a chronic case of rhino-orbital zygomycosis caused by Mucor irregularis, formerly known as Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis, a rare mycotic agent in humans. The infection caused progressive destruction of the nasal septum, soft and hard palate, leading to collapse of the nose bridge...

  7. Heterothallic mating in Mucor irregularis and first isolate of the species outside of Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the discovery of heterothallic mating in Mucor irregularis (formerly Rhizomucor variabilis var. variabilis) and it extends the range of this species from Asia to the United States. We report on a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis, involving the forearms of a cotton farmer ...

  8. Identification of a β-glucosidase from the Mucor circinelloides genome by peptide pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuhong, Huang; Busk, Peter Kamp; Grell, Morten Nedergaard

    2014-01-01

    Mucor circinelloides produces plant cell wall degrading enzymes that allow it to grow on complex polysaccharides. Although the genome of M. circinelloides has been sequenced, only few plant cell wall degrading enzymes are annotated in this species. We applied peptide pattern recognition, which...

  9. Effects of Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Asparagus adscendens and Asparagus racemosus on pro-inflammatory cytokine and corticosterone levels produced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanwar, Anubha Singh; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Chlorophytum arundinaceum, Asparagus adscendens and Asparagus racemosus are used in the Indian traditional system of medicine for improving the general state of health and for stress-related immune disorders. The effects of the methanol and aqueous extracts of the tuberous roots of these plants were examined in an experimental mouse model of stress, induced by swimming. The extracts were shown to exert an inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin 1β and tumour necrosis factor α, and on the production of nitric oxide in mouse macrophage cells RAW 264.7 stimulated by lipopolysaccharide in vitro. Similar inhibition was also observed in the production of interleukin 2 in EL 4 lymphoma cells stimulated by concanavalin A. Corticosterone levels in serum and adrenal glands were measured. The findings suggest that these plants may be beneficial in the management of stress and inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 毛霉BFL-5菌株的分离鉴定及染料脱色特性%Isolation, identification and decolorizing characteristics of strain Mucor sp.BFL-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓; 王婷; 刘瑞龙; 赵兵; 李盼盼

    2011-01-01

    To isolate fungus strain with high-efficient decolorizing ability, fungus strains from locally collected rot wood were screened and separated. The fungus strains' 26S rDNA was sequenced by fungi rDNA D1 / D2 area methods. The fungi strain was immobilized by peanut hulls and other materials as carrier, and the immobilized fungi was used to treat simulated dye wastewater containing carmosine B, metanil yellow G, direct blue 5B and direct black 19 dyestuffs. The fungi strain was isolated and identified as Mucor sp. , named as BFL-5. The strain Mucor sp. BFL-5 was immobilized and then used to degrade four types of dyes with degradation over 90% in 12 h. The strain Mucor sp. , BFL-5 was potential for decolorization of dyes effluent.%筛选对染料具有良好脱色能力的真菌.采集当地腐朽树木样品,以染料脱色为目标,筛选、分离真菌菌株;采用真菌26S rDNA D1/D2区域鉴定法对菌种的26S rDNA进行测序.以花生壳等为固定化培养载体,培养得到固定化真菌,用于对含酸性红B,酸性金黄G,直接湖蓝5B,直接耐晒黑G等染料的模拟染料废水脱色实验.初步鉴定其为毛霉属的一种,暂定名为BFL-5;经过固定化真菌12 h反应,以上4种染料的浓度均下降了90%以上.本研究可为染料废水脱色工艺提供新的菌种.

  11. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nimisha; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Pandey, Pallavi; Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2017-02-01

    The study manifests the immunoadjuvant potential of saponin rich fraction from Asparagus racemosus in terms of cellular and humoral immune response that can be exploited against microbial infections. Asparagus racemosus (AR) has been attributed as an adaptogen and rasayana in traditional medication systems for enhancing the host defence mechanism. Spectrophotometric and HPTLC analysis ensured the presence of saponins. The saponin rich fractions were tested for immunoadjuvant property in ovalbumin immunised mice for the humoral response, quantified in terms of prolonged antibody production upto a duration of 56days. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) were estimated for the cellular immune response in LPS stimulated primary murine macrophages. The safety evaluation in terms of cytotoxicity and allergic response has also been evaluated through in-vitro (MTT) and in-vivo (IgE) respectively. ARS significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines, in LPS stimulated murine macrophages with no intrinsic cytotoxicity. The significant increase in IgG production infers the utility of ARS for prolonged humoral response. Further, the antigen specific response of IL-12 at early stage and IgE titres also suggests the generation of cellular immune response and low allergic reaction respectively, as compared to conventional adjuvants. IL-6 and TNF fluctuations in LPS stimulated and non-stimulated macrophages along with IgG and IL-12 also confirmed the Th1/Th2 modulating effect of ARS. The study indicates potential effect of ARS as an adjuvant for the stimulation of cellular immune response in addition to generating a sustained adaptive response without any adverse effects paving way for further validation with pathogenic organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. White Fungus Soup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Ingredients: two pieces of white fungus, a handful of Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts. Directions: 1. Soak the dried fungus in water, remove the roots and then cook. 2. Steep the Chinese wolfberry fruit, dates, dried longan, lotus seeds and peanuts in water for a while.

  13. Mixed Fungal Infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida of Severe Hand Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milana Obradovic-Tomasev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe hand injuries are almost always heavily contaminated and hence wound infections in those patients are frequent. Fungal wound infections are rare in immunocompetent patients. A case of mixed fungal infection (Aspergillus, Mucor, and Candida was documented in a young male patient, with a severe hand injury caused by a corn picker. The diagnosis of fungal infection was confirmed microbiologically and histopathologically. The treatment was conducted with repeated surgical necrectomy and administration of antifungal drugs according to the antimycogram. After ten weeks the patient was successfully cured. The aggressive nature of Mucor and Aspergillus skin infection was described. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are necessary for an early diagnosis and the initiation of the adequate treatment. Early detection, surgical intervention, and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare infection that could potentially lead to loss of limbs or even death.

  14. Optimization of culture media for enhancing gamma-linolenic acid production by Mucor hiemalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mohammadi Nasr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: g-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid in human nutrition. In the present study, production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292 was evaluated in submerged fermentation. Materials and methods: The fermentation variables were chosen according to the fractional factorial design and further optimized via full factorial method. Four significant variables, glucose, peptone, ammonium nitrate and pH were selected for the optimization studies. The design consisted of total 16 runs consisting of runs at two levels for each factor with three replications of the center points. Results: The analysis of variance and three-dimensional response surface plot of effects indicated that variables were regarded to be significant for production of g-linolenic acid by Mucor hiemalis. Results indicated that fermentation at the optimum conditions (100 g/l glucose concentration; 1 g/l peptone; 1 g/l ammonium nitrate, and pH of 4.5 enhanced the g-linolenic acid production up to 709 mg/l. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that higher g-linolenic acid yield can be achieved in a simple medium at high glucose and ammonium nitrate, low peptone concentrations and acidic pH by Mucor hiemalis PTCC 5292. This simple and low cost optimization condition of culture media can be applied for g-linolenic acid production at higher scale for pharmaceutical and nutritional industries. 

  15. Ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) (Family: Asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malaria (Anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Sivakumar, Rajamohan

    2014-04-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extracts of root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. The methanol extract of Asparagus racemosus against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi exerted 100% mortality (zero hatchability) at 375, 300 and 225 ppm, respectively. Control eggs showed 99-100% hatchability. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of root of Asparagus racemosus against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi with the LC50 and LC90 values were 115.13, 97.71 and 90.97 ppm and 210.96, 179.92, and 168.82 ppm, respectively. The adult mortality was observed after 24 h recovery period. The plant crude extracts showed dose-dependent mortality. At higher concentrations, the adult showed restless movement for some times with abnormal wagging and then died. Among the extracts tested, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in

  16. Comparison of Biochemical Activities between High and Low Lipid-Producing Strains of Mucor circinelloides: An Explanation for the High Oleaginicity of Strain WJ11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    Full Text Available The oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides, is one of few fungi that produce high amounts of γ-linolenic acid (GLA; however, it usually only produces <25% lipid. Nevertheless, a new strain (WJ11 isolated in this laboratory can produce lipid up to 36% (w/w cell dry weight (CDW. We have investigated the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in M. circinelloides WJ11 by comparative biochemical analysis with a low lipid-producing strain, M. circinelloides CBS 277.49, which accumulates less than 15% (w/w lipid. M. circinelloides WJ11 produced more cell mass than that of strain CBS 277.49, although with slower glucose consumption. In the lipid accumulation phase, activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in strain WJ11 were greater than in CBS 277.49 by 46% and 17%, respectively, and therefore may provide more NADPH for fatty acid biosynthesis. The activities of NAD+:isocitrate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, however, were 43% and 54%, respectively, lower in WJ11 than in CBS 277.49 and may retard the tricarboxylic acid cycle and thereby provide more substrate for ATP:citrate lyase (ACL to produce acetyl-CoA. Also, the activities of ACL and fatty acid synthase in the high lipid-producing strain, WJ11, were 25% and 56%, respectively, greater than in strain CBS 277.49. These enzymes may therefore cooperatively regulate the fatty acid biosynthesis in these two strains.

  17. Tremella with Edible Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (Meiwei Shuang’er)Remove the tremella and edible fungus roots, clean and drain. Slice green peppers and carrots.Heat some oil in a wok, add tremella, edible fungus, green peppers and carrots, and clear stock, salt and sugar. Simmer for two minutes. Add MSG and pepper, remove to a plate, and serve.Features: Attractively black and white.Taste: Crisp and savory.

  18. Effect of Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils on Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production on Asparagus racemosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Shubhra; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-09-01

    Essential oils extracted from Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro against the toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus, isolated from the tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus, used in preparation of herbal drugs. The essential oils completely inhibited the growth of A. flavus at 750 ppm and also exhibited a broad fungitoxic spectrum against nine additional fungi isolated from the roots. Citrus reticulata and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils completely inhibited aflatoxin B(1) production at 750 and 500 ppm, respectively. During in vivo investigation, the incidence of fungi and aflatoxin B(1) production decreased considerably in essential oil-treated root samples. The findings thus indicate possible exploitation of the essential oils as effective inhibitor of aflatoxin B(1) production and as post-harvest fungitoxicant of traditionally used plant origin for the control of storage fungi. These essential oils may be recommended as plant-based antifungals as well as aflatoxin B(1) suppressors in post-harvest processing of herbal samples.

  19. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium digitat

  20. Extracellular enzyme production by Rhizopus and Mucor species on solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D P; Eribo, B E

    1984-01-01

    Solid media were employed to determine the presence and absence of extracellular enzyme production by two genera of fruit-rot fungi, Rhizopus and Mucor. The results of this investigation revealed that phosphatase was released into the cultural medium by all the fungi examined; however, only R. oryzae, R. tritici, M. mucedo, and M. piriformis showed the possibility of being high producers of the enzyme. Protease, urease, ribonuclease, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, at varying levels of activity, were detected, in the majority of the fungi, in the cultural medium.

  1. Statistical analysis and modeling of pelletized cultivation of Mucor circinelloides for microbial lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chunjie; Wei, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Microbial oil accumulation via oleaginous fungi has some potential benefits because filamentous fungi can form pellets during cell growth and these pellets are easier to harvest from the culture broth than individual cells. This research studied the effect of various culture conditions on the pelletized cell growth of Mucor circinelloides and its lipid accumulation. The results showed that cell pelletization was positively correlated to biomass accumulation; however, pellet size was negatively correlated to the oil content of the fungal biomass, possibly due to the mass transfer barriers generated by the pellet structure. How to control the size of the pellet is the key to the success of the pelletized microbial oil accumulation process.

  2. Lipid accumulation by pelletized culture of Mucor circinelloides on corn stover hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Cristiano E R; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Bo

    2014-09-01

    Microbial oil accumulated by fungal cells is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and lignocellulosic materials can serve as the carbon source to support the fungal growth. The dilute acid pretreatment of corn stover can effectively break down its lignin structure, and this process generates a hydrolysate containing mostly xylose at very dilute concentration and numerous by-products that may significantly inhibit the cell growth. This study utilized corn stover hydrolysate as the culture media for the growth of Mucor circinelloides. The results showed that Mucor cells formed pellets during the cell growth, which facilitates the cell harvest from dilute solution. The results also showed that the inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and acetic acid could be avoided if their concentration was low. In fact, all these by-products may be assimilated as carbon sources for the fungal growth. The results proved the feasibility to reuse the cultural broth water for acid pretreatment and then use for subsequent cell cultivation. The results will have a direct impact on the overall water usage of the process.

  3. Production and partial characterization of proteases from Mucor hiemalis URM3773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roana Cecília dos Santos Ribeiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study evaluated the proteases production from 11 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Rhizomucor and Absidia. The species were obtained from the Collection of Cultures URM at the Mycology Department-UFPE, Brazil. The best producing species was Mucor hiemalis URM 3773 (1.689 U mL-1. Plackett-Burman design methodology was employed to select the most effective parameter for protease production out of 11 medium components, including: concentration of filtrate soybean, glucose, incubation period, yeast extract, tryptone, pH, aeration, rotation, NH4Cl, MgSO4 and K2HPO4. Filtrated soybean concentration was the significant variable over the response variable, which was the specific protease activity. The crude enzyme extract showed optimal activity in pH 7.5 and at 50ºC. The enzyme was stable within a wide pH range from 5.8 to 8.0, in the phosphate buffer 0.1M and in stable temperature variation of 40-70ºC, for 180 minutes. The ions FeSO4, NaCl, MnCl2, MgCl2 and KCl stimulated the protease activity, whereas ZnCl2 ion inhibited the activity in 2.27%. Iodoacetic acid at 1mM was the proteases inhibitor that presented greater action.The results indicate that the studied enzyme have great potential for industrial application.

  4. Antibacterial action of acetic acid soluble material isolated from Mucor rouxii and its application onto textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Shaaban; Ibrahim, Atef; Okba, Adel; Hamza, Hanafy; Opwis, Klaus; Schollmeyer, Eckhard

    2011-06-01

    Acetic acid soluble material (AcSM) is a chitosan-rich fraction isolated from the fungal cell wall materials. The final step in the traditional production of fungal chitosan is the separation of chitosan from the cell wall AcSM via raising the pH to 9-10 followed by centrifugation. This step results in further undesirable economic and environmental effects. The goal of this paper is to avoid that by investigating the antimicrobial effect of the whole AcSM from Mucor rouxii DSM-1191 cell wall and its application on cotton fabrics. The treated fabrics were characterized through monitoring the textile physical properties and for the antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus. Results showed that Mucor rouxii DSM-1191 has excellent potentials to be used for cell wall AcSM production on industrial scale with a maximum content of 40% in dry mycelia. The obtained results indicated that the physical properties of the treated fabrics, as well as the antibacterial activity, were improved after treatment with fungal AcSM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Mucor miehei lipase to improve functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherey, Laura N; Conforti, Frank D; Eigel, William; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2011-05-01

    Egg yolk contamination of egg whites continues to be a serious problem in the egg industry. The ability of egg whites to form stable and voluminous foams is greatly inhibited by yolk contamination, even at very low levels, between 0.01% and 0.2% w/w yolk in white. Experiments were conducted to determine if Mucor miehei lipase could regenerate the functional properties of yolk-contaminated egg whites. Lipase from M. miehei and colipase from porcine pancreas were added to yolk-contaminated (0.2%, w/w) egg white samples to hydrolyze triglycerides originating from egg yolk. Enzymatic hydrolysis of triacylglycerols was confirmed using thin-layer chromatography. Treatment of yolk-contaminated samples with lipase and colipase yielded significant (P Enzyme-treated yolk-contaminated egg whites were also tested in angel food cakes. Enzyme-treated, yolk-contaminated egg whites performed similarly to non-yolk-contaminated control, and much better than yolk-contaminated sample in angel food cakes. The results show that most negative effects of yolk contamination can be reversed by treatment with Mucor miehei lipase and colipase.

  6. Antibiotic Resistance and Fungus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-02-28

    Dr. David Denning, President of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections and an infectious diseases clinician, discusses antimicrobial resistance and fungus.  Created: 2/28/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/28/2017.

  7. Microorganisms in the rhizosphere of wheat colonized by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednárová, M; Stanĕk, M; Vancura, V; Veselý, D

    1979-01-01

    The population of microorganisms in wheat rhizosphere changed in the presence of the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici causing the take-all of wheat. In the majority of cases when the soil was artificially contaminated by the fungus, both the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and the bacteria/fungi ratio temporarily increased. At the beginning bacteria growing in the presence of NH4+ predominated, later bacteria utilizing organic N-substances prevailed. Pseudomonas fluorescens and the related species colonized the rhizosphere and the soil to a greater extent in the presence of G. graminis. The wheat rhizosphere with G. graminis was found to contain a higher level of the slime-producing bacterium Agrobacterium spp.; this microorganism occurred on hyphal surfaces (in hyphosphere) of both G. graminis growing in soil and Mucor spp. Changes in microbial populations in the wheat rhizosphere during the first stage of colonization by G. graminis can be partly explained by a simultaneous rhizosphere colonization by microorganisms which accompany this fungus in soil. In the period of increase in the number of bacteria in rhizosphere a temporary stimulation of wheat growth was observed.

  8. Mucor miehei's microbial rennin production characteristics in a fed-batch proccess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Sánchez Henao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mucor miehei zygomycete produces an acid protease (EC:3.4.23.10 resembling calf rennet chymosin characteristics. It has been suggested that low glucose concentration levels could be why enzyme synthesis, co-mes to an end even though enzyme production is still great (Escobar and Barnett, 1993, 1995. To overcome this possible limitation, a two stage research process was designed; the relationship between protease production and sugar consumption was studied initially to determine the periods of time when enzyme production is still high and glucose concentration close to zero. The following stage concentrated on developing a glucose fed-batch process during the afore mentioned time periods to observe any increase or decrease in enzyme production. During the batch studies, it was found that maximum enzyme activity (EA was 165 UC/ml for an average glucose consumption rate of 0.1813 g/1 h. Based on the previous.

  9. Production of extracellular proteases by Mucor circinelloides using D-glucose as carbon source / substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Vânia Sousa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, some Mucorales species have been reported as protease producers. The production of extracellular proteases by Mucor circinelloides using glucose as substrate was studied. Experiments were carried out with different D-glucose concentrations (40, 60 and 80 g/L. Biomass, pH and protease activity were determined. Although biomass production had reached best yields for the medium containing D-glucose in a concentration of 80 g/L, the enzymatic production was higher when the substrate concentration was reduced to 40 g/L. The yield factor for product on cell growth and the yield factor for product on carbon substrate were higher when the microorganism grew in medium containing 40 g/L glucose. The kinetics parameters suggest that this strain seems to be promising as an alternative microorganism for protease production.

  10. The hyphal wall of Mucor mucedo. 2. Hexosamine-containing polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datema, R; Wessels, J G; van den Ende, H

    1977-11-01

    Nitrous acid, which specifically depolymerises polymers containing hexosamines with a primary amino group, was used to analyse the hexosamine-containing polymers in the hyphal wall of Mucor mucedo. N-Acetylglucosamine was found to occur in three polymeric fractions. One fraction which was solubilised by HNO2 treatment contained-N-acetylglucosamine interspersed with glucosamine; no homopolymer of glucosamine (chitosan) was detected. Another fraction became HNO2-soluble after treatment with pronase or alkali; this points to the occurrence of a heteropolymer containing N-acetylglucosamine and glucosamine in which some of the glucosamine residues are linked to peptides via their amino groups. The residue remaaining after pronase and HNO* treatment appeared to consist of a homopolymer of N-acetylglucosamine (chitin).

  11. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Okubo, Yuko; Katano, Azusa; Sano, Ayako; Uezato, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Kenzo

    2015-02-01

    Primary cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often lethal severe fungal infection, which usually occurs in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor irregularis in an elderly patient. Seven months after the surgical dissection of the involved skin, cutaneous mucormycosis recurred at the peripheral edge of the skin graft. Shortly subsequent to the administration of liposomal amphotericin B, the remaining skin lesion was excised again. M. irregularis is rarely but increasingly reported as a cause of mucormycosis in immunocompetent individuals, especially in Asian farmers. M. irregularis may be largely disseminated in the soils of Asia and thus the trivial trauma at the time of farm work may be a trigger for the onset. These cases tend to leave severe cosmetic damage even in healthy individuals, although the vital prognosis is not affected. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. Development of Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S(7A) with resistance to wheat scab and its meiotic behavior analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG LinSheng; CHEN PeiDu

    2008-01-01

    Leymus racemosus is highly resistant to wheat scab (Fusarum head bright). The transfer of scab re-sistant gene from L. racemosus to Triticum aestivum is of great significance for broadening the base of wheat resistance. In the present study, the pollen of T. aestivum-L, racemosus monosomic addition linewith scab resistance was treated by irradiation with 1200 R 60Co-γ-rays prior to pollinating to emasculated wheat cv. Mianyang 85-45. Nine plants with a telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S were observed in M1,and one ditelosomic substitution line 7Lr#1S was selected from selfcrossing progenies and confirmed by chromosome C-banding and GISH. Furthermore, a co-dominant EST-SSR marker CINAU 31 was em-ployed to identify this substitution line. A pair of chromosome 7A of common wheat were found to be replaced by a pair of telocentric chromosome 7Lr#1S, and further investigation showed that chromo-some configuration of the substitution line at MI of PMCs after GISH was 17.50(Ⅱ) w + 2.19 (Ⅱ)w +0.42 (Ⅱ)7Lr#1S + 1.08 Ⅰ7Lr#1S + 0.69 Ⅰw. Two telocentric chromosomes paired as a bivalent in 59.7% of PMCs.Abnormal chromosome behaviors of telocentric chromosomes were observed in part of PMCs at ana-phase Ⅰ and telophase Ⅰ, including the moving of two telocentric chromosomes to the same pole, lag-ging and earlier separation of their sister chromatid. All these abnormal behaviors can be grouped into three distinct types of tetrads according to different numbers of 7Lr#1S in their daughter cells and various micronucieus in some tetrads. However, due to the high transmission frequency of the female and male gametes with a 7Lr#1S, 84% of the selfcrossing progeny plants had ditelosomic substitution. The substitution line showed high resistance to wheat scab in a successive two-year test both in the greenhouse and field; hence, the line will be particularly valuable for alien gene mapping, small frag-ment translocation induction and telosomic cytological behavior analysis.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a High Lipid-Producing Strain of Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Comparative Genome Analysis with a Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The genome of a high lipid-producing fungus Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (36% w/w lipid, cell dry weight, CDW) was sequenced and compared with that of the low lipid-producing strain, CBS 277.49 (15% w/w lipid, CDW), which had been sequenced by Joint Genome Institute. The WJ11 genome assembly size was 35.4 Mb with a G+C content of 39.7%. The general features of WJ11 and CBS 277.49 indicated that they have close similarity at the level of gene order and gene identity. Whole genome alignments with MAUVE revealed the presence of numerous blocks of homologous regions and MUMmer analysis showed that the genomes of these two strains were mostly co-linear. The central carbon and lipid metabolism pathways of these two strains were reconstructed and the numbers of genes encoding the enzymes related to lipid accumulation were compared. Many unique genes coding for proteins involved in cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were identified for each strain. In conclusion, our study on the genome sequence of WJ11 and the comparative genomic analysis between WJ11 and CBS 277.49 elucidated the general features of the genome and the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in strain WJ11 at the genomic level. The different numbers of genes and unique genes involved in lipid accumulation may play a role in the high oleaginicity of strain WJ11.

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of a High Lipid-Producing Strain of Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Comparative Genome Analysis with a Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    Full Text Available The genome of a high lipid-producing fungus Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (36% w/w lipid, cell dry weight, CDW was sequenced and compared with that of the low lipid-producing strain, CBS 277.49 (15% w/w lipid, CDW, which had been sequenced by Joint Genome Institute. The WJ11 genome assembly size was 35.4 Mb with a G+C content of 39.7%. The general features of WJ11 and CBS 277.49 indicated that they have close similarity at the level of gene order and gene identity. Whole genome alignments with MAUVE revealed the presence of numerous blocks of homologous regions and MUMmer analysis showed that the genomes of these two strains were mostly co-linear. The central carbon and lipid metabolism pathways of these two strains were reconstructed and the numbers of genes encoding the enzymes related to lipid accumulation were compared. Many unique genes coding for proteins involved in cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were identified for each strain. In conclusion, our study on the genome sequence of WJ11 and the comparative genomic analysis between WJ11 and CBS 277.49 elucidated the general features of the genome and the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in strain WJ11 at the genomic level. The different numbers of genes and unique genes involved in lipid accumulation may play a role in the high oleaginicity of strain WJ11.

  15. Purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Mucor hiemalis f. corticola isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Serdar; Karaoğlu, Sengül Alpay

    2012-10-01

    We have screened 39 microfungi isolates originated from soil in terms of lipolytic activity. Out of all screened, a novel strain of Mucor hiemalis f. corticola was determined to have the highest lipase activity. The extracellular lipase was produced in response to 2% glucose and 2.1% peptone. The lipase was purified 12.63-folds with a final yield of 27.7% through following purification steps; ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, gel filtration column chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed 31% amino-acid identity to a known lipase from Rhizomucor miehei species. The molecular weight of the lipase was determined as 46 kDa using SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration. Optimal pH and temperature of the lipase were determined as 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was observed to be stable at the pH range of 7.0-9.0. Thermostability assays demonstrated that the lipase was stable up to 50°C for 60 min. The lipase was more stable in ethanol and methanol than other organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the activity of the lipase was slightly enhanced by SDS and PMSF. In the presence of p-NPP as substrate, K(m) and V(max) values of the lipase were calculated by Hanes-Woolf plot as 1.327 mM and 91.11 μmol/min, respectively.

  16. Management of a case of Mucor colonization in breast tissue expander seroma pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Atwood

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare and potentially life-threatening opportunistic infection with approximately 500 cases per year in the United States (Spellberg et al., 2005. There are six major presentations, which include rhino-orbital-cerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous, gastrointestinal, disseminated, and uncommon (e.g. osteomyelitis, endocarditis Petrikkos et al. (2012.2 While not a prominent pathogen in immunocompetent patients, immunocompromised patients such as those with prolonged neutropenia, organ and/or bone marrow suppression, and diabetes mellitus are prone to dissemination resulting in rapid death without prompt intervention (Spellberg et al. 2005. With a mortality rate reaching 90% (Spellberg et al. 2005, it is imperative that therapy be initiated rapidly once a diagnosis is made. Successful treatment consists of management of underlying risk factors, surgical debridement, and antifungal therapies (Spellberg et al. 2005. The dilemma whether to pursue extensive debridement presents when the wound is cultured positive but the patient is not systemically ill. We present the first reported case of successful salvage of breast reconstruction with retention of tissue extender and acellular dermal matrix (ADM despite colonization of a recalcitrant seroma pocket by Mucor.

  17. Morphogenesis in Mucor mucedo: mutations affecting gamone response and organ differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtz, T; Jockusch, H

    1978-02-27

    Mutants of Mucor mucedo minus strain that are affected in their trisporic acid (TA) mediated zygophore formation have been isolated. We have found mutants with cold sensitive (cs), with temperature sensitive (ts) and without zygophore formation as well as mutants with unstable zygophores (Zst-). From the appearence of certain pleiotropic phenotypes we deduce a one-dimensional sequence of states of competence of the mycelium to form different organs. TA appears to be a growth substance for zygophores acting on one transient state of competence. The fact that all isolates with lowered response to TA also have a lowered response to the mating type specific TA-precursor P strongly suggests that P has to be converted into TA before inducing zygophore growth. Furthermore, one mutant with lowered sensitivity to TA exhibits an excess zygophore formation in the presence of high TA-concentrations, while high concentrations of P cause a depressed zygophore formation (Fig. 6). Our interpretation of this behaviour is that P acts as an antagonist to TA in the regulation of zygophore growth.

  18. Effects of Plant Growth Hormones on Mucor indicus Growth and Chitosan and Ethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Golkar, Poorandokht; Zamani, Akram

    2015-07-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and kinetin (KIN) on Mucor indicus growth, cell wall composition, and ethanol production. A semi-synthetic medium, supplemented with 0-5 mg/L hormones, was used for the cultivations (at 32 °C for 48 h). By addition of 1 mg/L of each hormone, the biomass and ethanol yields were increased and decreased, respectively. At higher levels, however, an inverse trend was observed. The glucosamine fraction of the cell wall, as a representative for chitosan, followed similar but sharper changes, compared to the biomass. The highest level was 221% higher than that obtained without hormones. The sum of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine (chitin and chitosan) was noticeably enhanced in the presence of the hormones. Increase of chitosan was accompanied by a decrease in the phosphate content, with the lowest phosphate (0.01 g/g cell wall) being obtained when the chitosan was at the maximum (0.45 g/g cell wall). In conclusion, IAA and KIN significantly enhanced the M. indicus growth and chitosan production, while at the same time decreasing the ethanol yield to some extent. This study shows that plant growth hormones have a high potential for the improvement of fungal chitosan production by M. indicus.

  19. Increased Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations Aff ect the Structure of Soil Fungus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidilutė Dirginčiutė-volodkienė

    2011-03-01

    Elevated Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the soil influenced fungus community structure. Some species (Absidia glauca, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Alternaria alternata detected in the control soil community were eliminated, while the abundance of the other species increased. Paecillomyces genus dominated in the soil amended with either of Cu or Zn. P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseum and fungal species from the Clonostachys, Penicillium and Lecanicillium genera were Znresistant. P. lilacinus and plant pathogenic fungi, A. alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Phoma lingam were very abundant in soil amended with Cu salts, followed by some saprotrophic fungi such as Cunninghamella echinulata and Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis. An overall change in the plant (cress, Lepidum sativum; wheat, Ticicum aestivum; lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, and sunflower, Heliannthus annus seed viability was observed in comparison with control. Most deleterious effects on the seed germination were observed in case of zinc, medium – in case of copper, and the least – in case of lead. Zinc salts at used concentrations were unfavorable to both fungus populations and consequently to the seed viability.

  20. Mucor griseocyanus Lipase: Production, Characterization and Study of Some Catalytic Properties of the Immobilised Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janny Coca Armas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the production of extracellular lipase by Mucor griseocyanus 55.1.1 strain on different substrates in order to select the ideal one for lipase synthesis. The carbon sources used were: olive oil, glycerol, coconut oil, sunflower oil, glucose, starch and sucrose. The obtained results indicate that the synthesis of the enzyme was possible in the presence of all substrates. Lipase activities in the range of 0.04 to 0.1 IU/mL were obtained. It was found that the most suitable carbon source for the production of the enzyme was a combination of coconut oil and sucrose at 0.5 and 1.5 % (m/V, respectively, and the level of activity reached under this condition was 0.113 IU/mL. The optimum pH and temperature for enzymatic extract activities were identified in a pH range of 4 to 6 and at a temperature of 60 °C. Enzymatic extract was stable for a period of 5 h in neutral and weakly acidic media (pH=6 at moderate temperatures between 20 and 40 °C. Studies on the catalytic properties (stereoselectivity and enantioselectivity of the immobilized lipase using the esters of methyl phenyl glycinic and (R,S-methyl mandelic acid showed excellent properties of the enzyme compared to commercial lipases tested. M. griseocyanus lipase exhibited a greater stereoselectivity towards the R-isomer of methyl phenyl glycinic acid ester. However, with the esters of methyl mandelic acid, the enzyme showed a certain preference toward the S-isomer and it was hydrolysed 20 times faster than the R-isomer.

  1. Controlling wildlife fungal disease spread: in vitro efficacy of disinfectants against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Mucor amphibiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Rebecca; Philips, Annie; Speare, Rick; Connolly, Joanne; Berger, Lee

    2012-06-13

    Chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and mucormycosis in the platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus and amphibians, are serious fungal diseases affecting these aquatic taxa. In Tasmania, Australia, the fungi that cause these diseases overlap in range along with Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc), an invasive fungal plant pathogen. To identify disinfectants that may be useful to reduce anthropogenic spread of these fungi to uninfected wilderness areas, for example by bush walkers and forestry or fire-fighting operations, we tested 3 disinfectants and a fire-fighting foam against Mucor amphibiorum (Ma) and tested 1 disinfectant and the foam against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Combining the present study with previous work we found Bd was more susceptible to all 4 chemicals than Ma. Phytoclean, a disinfectant used at 2 to 10% for 30 s to control Pc, killed cultures of Bd at 0.075% and Ma at 5%, when also applied for 30 s. The disinfectant F10sc was not effective against Ma at standard exposures, but previous work shows Bd is killed at 0.03% with a 1 min exposure. Path-X is effective against Bd at 0.001% with a 30 s exposure and killed Ma at 1% with a 5 min exposure. Forexpan S, a foam added to water at 0.1 to 1% to control forest fires, killed Bd but not Ma when used at 1% for 2 min. Therefore, Phytoclean and Path-X have broader efficacy, although Path-X has not been trialled against Pc. Interestingly a positive mating strain of Ma (from a platypus) was more resistant to disinfectants than a negative strain (from a frog). Current protocols against Pc that involve high concentrations (10%) of Phytoclean are likely to reduce spread of pathogenic wildlife fungi, which is important for protecting biodiversity.

  2. Correlation between sequence, structure and function for trisporoid processing proteins in the model zygomycete Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Sabrina; Schuster, Stefan; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2013-03-01

    Terpenoids, steroids, carotenoids, phytoenes and other chemically related substance groups fulfill multiple functions in all realms of the organismic world. This analysis focuses on trisporoids that operate as pheromones in the phylogenetically ancient fungal group of mucoralean zygomycetes. Trisporoids serve as pheromones for recognizing complementary mating partners and for inducing the differentiation program towards sexual spore formation. Trisporoids are synthesized by oxidative degradation of β-carotene. Structurally, they are related to retinoids in mammals and abscisic acid in vascular plants. In order to evaluate evolutionary relationships between proteins involved in trisporoid binding and also for checking possibilities to recognize functionally related proteins by sequence and structure comparisons, we compared representative proteins of different origins. Towards this goal, we calculated three-dimensional structures for 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TSP1) and 4-dihydrotrisporin dehydrogenase (TSP2), the two proteins involved in trisporic acid synthesis that have unequivocally been correlated with their catalytic function for the model zygomycete Mucor mucedo. TSP1 is an aldo-keto reductase with a TIM-barrel structure, TSP2 belongs to short-chain dehydrogenases, characterized by a Rossmann fold. Evidently, functional conservation, even implying very similar substrates and identical cosubstrates of enzymes in a single organism, turns out to be essentially independent of basic protein structure. The binding sites for NADP and trisporoid ligands in the proteins were determined by docking studies, revealing those regions affecting substrate specificity. Despite the pronounced differences in amino acid sequence and tertiary structure, the surfaces around the active sites are comparable between TSP1 and TSP2. Two binding regions were identified, one sterically open and a second closed one. In contrast to TSP1, all docking models for TSP2 place the

  3. Rhino-oculo-cerebral aspergillus and mucor co-infections in an immunocompromised patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalidas Rit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis are pathogenic moulds of the mucorales species usually occurring in immunocompromised patients or in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Aspergillosis is the clinical condition caused by Aspergillus species and may cause an invasive disease with high case fatality rate, especially in immunosuppressed patients. A 46-year-old male patient with Type 2 diabetes mellitus with underlying malignancy presented with proptosis of left eye. Combined infections of Mucor and Aspergillus were diagnosed by means of computed tomography (CT scan and biopsy. Treatment with Amphotericin B and Voriconazole was started, the patient died within 3 months, from multi-organ failure.

  4. Isolation and Identification of A Taxol-producing Endophytic Fungus O60B1%产紫杉醇内生真菌O60B1的分离及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 刘博; 徐曼; 敖明章; 付春华; 余龙江; 顾玉成

    2012-01-01

    A taxol-producing endophytic fungus O60B1 was isolated from the inner bark of Taxus x media. It could produce 2.5~3.0 μg taxol per one gram dry weight of mycelium according to determination of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry(MS). The fungus O60B1 was defined as Mucor sp, through morphological observation and 18 S rDNA sequence analysis.%从曼地亚红豆杉(Taxus x media)树皮内表皮中分离得到1株产紫杉醇的内生真菌O60B1,并通过高效液相色谱法(HPLC)和质谱法(MS)分析其发酵产物,其紫杉醇产量为2.5~3.0 μg/g(紫杉醇/菌丝干重),并通过形态学特征和18 S rDNA序列分析,将其初步鉴定为毛霉属(Mucor sp.)真菌.

  5. Potential of chitosan from Mucor rouxxi UCP064 as alternative natural compound to inhibit Listeria monocytogenes Potencial de quitosana de Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 como componente alternativo para inibir Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta A. Bento

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is widely distributed in nature and the infection listeriosis is recognized as a potential threat for human health because of its mortality rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth profile and chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban medium. It was also to assess the anti-L. monocytogenes efficacy of the obtained chitosan. Higher values of biomass of M. rouxxi (16.9 g.L¹ and best yield of chitosan (62 mg.g-1 were found after 48 h of cultivation. Residual glucose and nitrogen in the growth media were 4.1 and 0.02 g.L¹ after 96 h, respectively. Obtained chitosan presented 85 % of degree of deacetylation and 2.60 x 10(4 g.mol-1of viscosimetric molecular weight. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC values of chitosan against L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were, respectively, 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1. At 2.5 and 5.0 mg.mL-1 chitosan caused cidal effect in a maximum time of 4 h. Bacterial count below 2 log cfu.mL-1were found from 2 h onwards and no recovery in bacterial growth was noted in the remainder period. These results show the biotechnological potential of yam bean medium for chitosan production by Mucor rouxxi and support the possible rational use of chitosan from fungi as natural antimicrobial to control L. monocytogenes.Listeria monocytogenes apresentase como um microrganismo amplamente distribuído na natureza, sendo que a infecção listeriose é reconhecida como uma potencial ameaça a saúde humana devido a sua taxa de mortalidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o perfil de crescimento e de produção de quitosana por Mucor rouxxi UCP 064 cultivado em meio jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, bem como avaliar a eficácia anti-L. monocytogenes da quitosana produzida com vistas a uma possível aplicação em alimentos. Os mais elevados valores de biomassa de M. rouxxi (16,9 g.L¹ e o maior rendimento na

  6. Physico-Chemical Characteristics and Functional Properties of Chitin and Chitosan Produced by Mucor circinelloides Using Yam Bean as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Freitas da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production by Mucor circinelloides (UCP 050 grown in yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban medium. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali–acid treatment and structural investigations by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform IR analysis, viscosity and thermal analysis by TG, DTG, and DTA were done. The highest biomass yield (20.7 g/L was obtained at 96 hours. The highest levels of chitosan (64 mg/g and chitin (500 mg/g were produced at 48 and 72 hours, respectively. It was demonstrated that yam bean shows great potential as an economic medium and it is possible to achieve a good yield of chitosan with chemical properties that enable its use in biotechnological applications.

  7. Cloning and characterisation of a glucoamylase gene (GlaM) from dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houghton-Larsen, J.; Pedersen, Per Amstrup

    2003-01-01

    This article reports a novel strategy for the cloning of glucoamylase genes using conserved sequences and semi-nested PCR and its application in cloning the GlaM glucoamylase gene and cDNA from the dimorphic zygomycete Mucor circinelloides. The deduced 609-amino-acid enzyme (including signal....... An alignment of the cloned gene and cDNA sequences showed that the gene contains three introns. The transcriptional start site and the site of polyadenylation were defined by primer extension and 3'RACE, respectively. The atypical Kozak sequence is identical to the one used in R. oryzae in positions -1 to -4....... Northern slot blots revealed that glucoamylase transcription is induced during growth on starch and repressed by glucose. In silico analysis of the 1.9-kb promoter sequence cloned by inverse PCR revealed the presence of several putative regulatory elements, most notably a 19-bp sequence containing six...

  8. Increased Soil Heavy Metal Concentrations Aff ect the Structure of Soil Fungus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidilutė Dirginčiutė-Volodkienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of heavy metals on soil fungi populations and soil fertility incidental to it were studied under laboratory conditions. Metal-amended antroposol type soil samples were incubated for a month at 17°C under natural light regime. Copper, zinc and lead were chosen as the most common industrial pollutants. Each metal was applied either of sulfate, chloride or acetate salt (at concentration varying from 0.4 to 16.14 g kg-1 soil; control – soil without metal amendment. Fungal populations (dilution plate method were investigated and soil phytotoxicity test was performed.Elevated Cu, Zn and Pb concentrations in the soil influenced fungus community structure. Some species (Absidia glauca, Acremonium kiliense, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Alternaria alternata detected in the control soil community were eliminated, while the abundance of the other species increased. Paecillomyces genus dominated in the soil amended with either of Cu or Zn. P. farinosus, P. fumosoroseum and fungal species from the Clonostachys, Penicillium and Lecanicillium genera were Znresistant. P. lilacinus and plant pathogenic fungi, A. alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani and Phoma lingam were very abundant in soil amended with Cu salts, followed by some saprotrophic fungi such as Cunninghamella echinulata and Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis. An overall change in the plant (cress, Lepidum sativum; wheat, Ticicum aestivum; lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus, and sunflower, Heliannthus annus seed viability was observed in comparison with control. Most deleterious effects on the seed germination were observed in case of zinc, medium – in case of copper, and the least – in case of lead. Zinc salts at used concentrations were unfavorable to both fungus populations and consequently to the seed viability.

  9. Study on Gliadin of Leymus racemosus (Lam.) Tzvel of Different Populations%不同居群大赖草醇溶蛋白分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓东; 代培红; 吾买尔夏提·塔汉; 周桂玲

    2016-01-01

    [目的]研究新疆大赖草[Leymus racemosus(Lam.) Tzvel]不同居群种子醇溶蛋白,探讨大赖草种质在居群间和居群内的差异及遗传多样性.[方法]采用酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(A-PAGE)技术对采集到的5个居群间及居群内大赖草种子醇溶蛋白进行遗传多样性研究.[结果]5份居群间材料共分离出19条带纹,只有2条是共有带,多态率为89.47%.居群内共分离出17条谱带,7条为共同带,多态率为58.82%,小于居群间;材料间的Shannon指数范围是0.346 7 ~0.4000,平均值为0.372 7.Nei-Li遗传相似系数(GS)的变异范围为1.583 7 ~1.738 5,平均值1.659 4.相似系数GS值变异范围是0.429~0.733,平均为0.554.进一步聚类分析表明,在GS值为0.62的水平上供试材料可聚成3个大类,生境相似的居群聚为一类,表现出一定的分布规律.[结论]大赖草种子遗传多样性在居群间差异明显,而居群内不明显.醇溶蛋白凝胶电泳可以作为指纹图谱,用于研究同一物种不同居群间及居群内的差异是可行的.

  10. [The effect of cytochalasin A on the composition of subcellular fractions of hyphae in the growth of Mucor mucedo. II. Composition of the cell wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mougith, A A; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R; Rami, J; Touzé-Soulet, J M

    1988-11-01

    Walls of young hyphae of Mucor mucedo L. growing in the presence or absence of cytochalasin A were isolated and their chemical content determined. Cytochalasin A induced modified proportions of various monomers resulting in a reduction of the (neutral sugars + glucuronic acid)/glucosamine ratio. The walls contained less proteins but more chitin-chitosan and phosphate. These modifications are discussed in relation to ultrastructural changes described previously.

  11. Leveraging the attributes of Mucor hiemalis-derived silver nanoparticles for a synergistic broad-spectrum antimicrobial platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafe Aziz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Driven by the need to engineer robust surface coatings for medical devices to prevent infection and sepsis, incorporation of nanoparticles has surfaced as a promising avenue to enhance non-fouling efficacy. Microbial synthesis of such nanoscale metallic structures is of substantive interest as this can offer an eco-friendly, cost-effective and sustainable route for further development. Here we present a Mucor hiemalis-derived fungal route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which display significant antimicrobial properties when tested against six pathological bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and three pathological fungal strains (Candida albicans, oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus. These antimicrobial attributes were comparable to those of established antibiotics (streptomycin, tetracycline, kanamycin and rifampicin and fungicides (amphotericin B, fluconazole and ketoconazole, respectively. Importantly, these nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with the antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth. The blend of antibacterial and antifungal properties, coupled with their intrinsic green and facile synthesis, makes these biogenic nanoparticles particularly attractive for future applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.

  12. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Bhanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification. The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy.

  13. A thermolabile aspartic proteinase from Mucor mucedo DSM 809: gene identification, cloning, and functional expression in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegin, Sirma; Fernandez-Lahore, Marcelo

    2013-06-01

    In this study, the cDNA encoding the aspartic proteinase of Mucor mucedo DSM 809 has been identified by RNA ligased-mediated and oligo-capping rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique. The gene contained an open reading frame of 1,200 bp and encoded for a signal peptide of 21 amino acid residues. Two N-glycosylation sites were observed within the identified sequence. The proteinase gene was cloned into the vector pGAPZαA and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33 for the first time. The protein has been secreted in functionally active form into the culture medium. The expression system does not require any acid activation process. The factors affecting the expression level were optimized in shaking flask cultures. Maximum enzyme production was observed with an initial medium pH of 3.5 at 20 °C and 220 rpm shaking speed utilizing 4 % glucose as a carbon and energy source. The enzyme was purified with cation exchange chromatography and further studies revealed that the enzyme was secreted in glycosylated form. The purified enzyme exhibited remarkable sensitivity to thermal treatment and became completely inactivated after incubation at 55 °C for 10 min. These results indicated that the recombinant proteinase could be considered as a potential rennet candidate for the cheese-making industry.

  14. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w) were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy.

  15. Leveraging the Attributes of Mucor hiemalis-Derived Silver Nanoparticles for a Synergistic Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Nafe; Pandey, Rishikesh; Barman, Ishan; Prasad, Ram

    2016-01-01

    Driven by the need to engineer robust surface coatings for medical devices to prevent infection and sepsis, incorporation of nanoparticles has surfaced as a promising avenue to enhance non-fouling efficacy. Microbial synthesis of such nanoscale metallic structures is of substantive interest as this can offer an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable route for further development. Here we present a Mucor hiemalis-derived fungal route for synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which display significant antimicrobial properties when tested against six pathological bacterial strains (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus) and three pathological fungal strains (Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, and Aspergillus flavus). These antimicrobial attributes were comparable to those of established antibiotics (streptomycin, tetracycline, kanamycin, and rifampicin) and fungicides (amphotericin B, fluconazole, and ketoconazole), respectively. Importantly, these nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with the antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth. The blend of antibacterial and antifungal properties, coupled with their intrinsic “green” and facile synthesis, makes these biogenic nanoparticles particularly attractive for future applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents. PMID:28018316

  16. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  17. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants.......We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...

  18. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  19. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  20. Associations between Fungal Species and Water-Damaged Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Søndergaard, Ib;

    2011-01-01

    melleus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Chaetomium spp., Mucor racemosus, Mucor spinosus, and concrete and other floor-related materials. These results can be used to develop new and resistant building materials and relevant allergen extracts and to help focus research on relevant mycotoxins...

  1. Metabolites from marine fungus Aspergillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Rajmanickam, R.; DeSouza, L.

    Chemical examination of a methanolic extract of the marine fungus, Aspergillus sp., isolated from marine grass environment, yielded a steroid, ergosterol peroxide (1), and a mixture of known glyceride esters (2,3) of unsaturated fatty acids...

  2. U.S. National Fungus Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — The U.S. National Fungus Collections (BPI) are the “Smithsonian for fungi” and are the repository for over one million fungal specimens worldwide - the largest such...

  3. A new macrocyclic trichochecene from soil fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province,a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated.The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  4. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  5. A New Macrocyclic Trichochecene from Soil Fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TaoWANG; YiZHANG; 等

    2002-01-01

    From fermentation broth of soil fungus 254-2 obtained from Yunnan province, a new macrocylic trichochecene was isolated. The structure was determined on the basis of spectroscopie evidences especially the 2-D NMR spectra.

  6. Genomic, proteomic, and biochemical analyses of oleaginous Mucor circinelloides: evaluating its capability in utilizing cellulolytic substrates for lipid production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    Full Text Available Lipid production by oleaginous microorganisms is a promising route to produce raw material for the production of biodiesel. However, most of these organisms must be grown on sugars and agro-industrial wastes because they cannot directly utilize lignocellulosic substrates. We report the first comprehensive investigation of Mucor circinelloides, one of a few oleaginous fungi for which genome sequences are available, for its potential to assimilate cellulose and produce lipids. Our genomic analysis revealed the existence of genes encoding 13 endoglucanases (7 of them secretory, 3 β-D-glucosidases (2 of them secretory and 243 other glycoside hydrolase (GH proteins, but not genes for exoglucanases such as cellobiohydrolases (CBH that are required for breakdown of cellulose to cellobiose. Analysis of the major PAGE gel bands of secretome proteins confirmed expression of two secretory endoglucanases and one β-D-glucosidase, along with a set of accessory cell wall-degrading enzymes and 11 proteins of unknown function. We found that M. circinelloides can grow on CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose, confirming the enzymatic activities of endoglucanases and β-D-glucosidases, respectively. The data suggested that M. circinelloides could be made usable as a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP strain by introducing a CBH (e.g. CBHI into the microorganism. This proposal was validated by our demonstration that M. circinelloides growing on Avicel supplemented with CBHI produced about 33% of the lipid that was generated in glucose medium. Furthermore, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis showed that when growing on pre-saccharified Avicel substrates, it produced a higher proportion of C14 fatty acids, which has an interesting implication in that shorter fatty acid chains have characteristics that are ideal for use in jet fuel. This substrate-specific shift in FAME profile warrants further investigation.

  7. 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from Mucor mucedo, an enzyme of the sexual hormone pathway: purification, and cloning of the corresponding gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czempinski, K; Kruft, V; Wöstemeyer, J; Burmester, A

    1996-09-01

    We have purified the NADP-dependent 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase from the zygomycete Mucor mucedo. The enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of trisporic acid, the sexual hormone of zygomycetes, which induces the first steps of zygophore development. Protein was obtained from the (-) mating type of M. mucedo after induction with trisporic acid, and purified by gel filtration and affinity chromatography steps. On SDS-PAGE a band with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa was ascribed to the enzyme. After transferring onto PVDF membranes the protein was digested with endoprotease Lys-C, and several peptides were sequenced. Oligonucleotides derived from protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic M. mucedo DNA. The PCR fragment was used as probe for isolation of the corresponding cDNA and complete genomic DNA clones. Comparison of protein and DNA sequence data showed that the cloned fragment corresponded to the purified protein. Search for similarity with protein sequences of the Swiss-Prot database revealed a relationship to enzymes belonging to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Southern-blot analysis of genomic DNA with the labelled cloned fragment detected a single-copy gene in both mating types of M. mucedo. PCR with genomic DNA from other zygomycetes gave rise to several fragments. Hybridization analysis with the cloned M. mucedo fragment showed that a fragment of similar length cross-hybridized in Blakeslea trispora (Choanephoraceae) as well as in Parasitella parasitica and Absidia glauca (Mucoraceae). The promoter region of the gene contains DNA elements with similarity to a cAMP-regulated gene of Dictyostelium discoideum.

  8. Mucor hiemalis mediated 14α-hydroxylation on steroids: in vivo and in vitro investigations of 14α-hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolet, Swati P; Haldar, Saikat; Niloferjahan, Siddiqui; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V

    2014-07-01

    Transformation of testosterone and progesterone into synthetically challenging 14α-hydroxy derivatives was achieved by using fungal strain Mucor hiemalis. Prolonged incubation led to the formation of corresponding 6β/7α,14α-dihydroxy metabolites. The position and stereochemistry of newly introduced hydroxyl group was determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses. The time course experiment indicated that fungal strain initiated transformation by hydroxylation at 14α-position followed by at 6β- or 7α-positions. Studies using cell-free extracts suggest that the 14α-hydroxylase activity is NADPH dependent and belongs to the cytochrome P450 family.

  9. Características de la producción de la renina microbiana de mucor miehei en un proceso de alimentación por lote

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    El moho zigomiceto Mucor miehei produce una proteasa de tipo ácido (EC: 3.4.23.10) semejante a la renina o cuajo de ternero. Se ha encontrado que la síntesis de la enzima está parcialmente asociada al crecimiento, y que altas velocidades de consumo de glucosa dan como resultado una mayor producción de la renina microbiana (Escobar and Barnett, 1993, 1995). Durante el proceso de produc-ción de la proteasa se observó que cuando la velocidad de producción de la misma aún es alta, los niveles de ...

  10. Evaluación de la producción de proteasas en dos cepas de Mucor sp. Por fermentación sumergida empleando dos tipos de medio de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Los hongos se caracterizan por su capacidad de producción y secreción de enzimas al medio externo. Las especies del género Mucor son microorganismos importantes en la producción de proteasas. En este trabajo se investigó la producción de estas enzimas con dos cepas (A y B) de Mucor sp utilizando dos medios: Sabouraud-dextrosa y Sabouraud- miel. Se realizaron fermentaciones durante 120 h a temperaturaambiente en un agitador orbital a 110 rpm. Las pruebas cuantitativa y cualitativa indicaron la...

  11. Evaluación de la producción de proteasas en dos cepas de Mucor sp. Por fermentación sumergida empleando dos tipos de medio de cultivo

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Los hongos se caracterizan por su capacidad de producción y secreción de enzimas al medio externo. Las especies del género Mucor son microorganismos importantes en la producción de proteasas. En este trabajo se investigó la producción de estas enzimas con dos cepas (A y B) de Mucor sp utilizando dos medios: Sabouraud-dextrosa y Sabouraud- miel. Se realizaron fermentaciones durante 120 h a temperatura ambiente en un agitador orbital a 110 rpm. Las pruebas cuantitativa y cualitativa indicaro...

  12. Role of malic enzyme during fatty acid synthesis in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Lei; Gu, Zhennan; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2014-01-01

    The generation of NADPH by malic enzyme (ME) was postulated to be a rate-limiting step during fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi, based primarily on the results from research focusing on ME in Mucor circinelloides...

  13. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  14. Open-Ended Experimentation with the Fungus Pilobolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Charles R.; Bland, Charles E.

    This paper describes open-ended experimentation with the fungus Pilobolus for laboratory work by high school students. The fungus structure and reproduction is described and sources of the fungus are suggested. Four areas for investigation are suggested: the effect of a diffuse light source, the effect of a point light source, the effect of light…

  15. UV Breeding by Induced Mutation of Mucor Protease Strain from Sufu%腐乳毛霉蛋白酶菌株紫外线诱变育种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 曹新志; 方春玉; 梁秋菊

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Breeding of Mucor protease strain with high enzyme activity and good high-temperaturre for fermentation experiments or production of sufu.Method: Mucor protease strains were picked out from sufu,its original strain was induced mutation by UV and fostered by temperature control,breeding of excellent mutant strain.Result:One high enzyme vitality and excellent high-temperature mutant strain named SCLG-mucor 16 was selected,the strain can strongly grow at 32℃.Its HE is 1.39,protease vitality is 180.375u/g,which was enhanced by 7.8% and 51.4% more than the original strain respectively.Conclusion: The excellent mutant strain was used for fermentation experiments or production of sufu, it has a certain using value in shortening the fermentation time,enhancing the quality of sufu and extending the season of production.%目的:选育酶活力高、耐热性好的毛霉蛋白酶菌株,用于腐乳发酵实验或生产.方法:从腐乳中分离毛霉蛋白酶菌株.对其出发菌株进行紫外线诱变,并经控温培养,选育优良变株.结果:获得一株酶活力高、耐热性强的优良变株SCIG-毛霉16.该菌株在32℃条件下,生长茂盛,其HE值为1.39、蛋白酶活力为180.375μ/g,分别较出发菌株高出7.8%和51.4%.结论:将此优良变株用于腐乳发酵实验或生产,在缩短发酵时间,提升腐乳质量,延长生产季节等方面具有一定的应用价值.

  16. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  17. Death from Fungus in the Soil

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-17

    Dr. Shira Shafir, Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, discusses her study about fungus found in soil.  Created: 12/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/18/2012.

  18. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  19. Renal fungus ball: a challenging clinical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei Phin; Turba, Ulku C; Deane, Leslie A

    2017-04-28

    We describe a case of renal pelvi-ureteric fungus ball managed with placement of two nephrostomy tubes and amphotericin B irrigation through a nephrostomy tube with the other to free drain. A 46-year-old man with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus was referred to the urology clinic for workup of recurrent urinary tract infection. Urine culture grew Candida albicans. The patient was started on oral fluconazole therapy. Cystoscopy and cystogram revealed a grade 3 left vesicoureteral reflux and right retrograde pyelogram revealed a filling defect in the right renal pelvis extending into the proximal ureter with severe hydroureteronephrosis. Two nephrostomy tubes were placed (mid-pole and lower pole) to ensure that the system was not obstructed. Amphotericin B (50 mg/1000 ml normal saline) irrigation was then instilled through the mid-pole nephrostomy tube at a rate of 30 ml/h with the lower pole nephrostomy tube to free drain. An antegrade nephrostogram was performed after 5 days of amphotericin B instillation, showing complete resolution of the fungus ball. The patient is awaiting definitive minimally invasive management of the distal ureteral narrowing. Renal and pelvi-ureteric fungus ball is a challenging clinical entity. It must be addressed promptly and efficiently to be successful. We describe a minimally invasive approach that was tolerated well and resulted in complete clearance of the fungus ball in a relatively short time frame.

  20. Rock phosphate solubilization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-18

    Jun 18, 2014 ... Despite this, a large proportion (75 to 90%) of fertilizer P .... nitrogen salts such as Urea, KNO3, NaNO3, NH4Cl, NaNO2 (Figure. 2). Phospholytic activity of fungus along with MHB strains without any carbon and nitrogen sources acted as control and .... complexity of CaP chemistry, release of microbial.

  1. Comparative Proteome Analysis between High Lipid-Producing Strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-21

    Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.

  2. [The effect of cytochalasin A on the composition of subcellular fractions of hyphae in the growth of Mucor mucedo L. I. Composition of the plasmalemma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Mougith, A A; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R; Rami, J; Touzé-Soulet, J M

    1988-11-01

    The plasma membrane of young hyphae of Mucor mucedo L. growing in presence or absence of cytochalasine A was isolated by continuous density gradient centrifugation using Percoll at 10% or on discontinuous sucrose density gradient. Isolated membranes were characterized by enzymatic markers and cytochemical reactions, using electron microscopy. Lipid composition and protein content were determined. From the enzymatic point of view, the cytochalasine A induced a decrease (60%) in ATPase activity and with regard to the chemical composition of the membrane, a decrease in sterol content and in the sterol-phospholipid ratio as well as a decrease in protein content and an increase in the proportion of cysteine relative to other amino acids.

  3. 4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway in Mucor mucedo, is constitutively transcribed but its activity is differently regulated in (+) and (-) mating types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimek, Christine; Petzold, Annett; Schultze, Kornelia; Wetzel, Jana; Wolschendorf, Frank; Burmester, Anke; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2005-09-01

    4-Dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase (TDH) converts the (+) mating type sex pheromone 4-dihydromethyltrisporate into methyltrisporate. In Mucor mucedo, this conversion is required only in the (-) mating type. Expression of the TDH encoding TSP1 gene was analyzed qualitatively using reverse-transcribed PCR. TSP1 is constitutively transcribed in the (+) and in the (-) mating type, irrespective of the mating situation. By immunodetection, the translation product is also formed constitutively. In contrast to gene expression, TDH enzyme activity depends on the sexual status of the mycelium. Activity is restricted to the sexually stimulated (-) mating type. Non-stimulated (-), as well as stimulated and non-stimulated (+) mycelia exhibit no activity and do not influence activity in stimulated (-) mycelia. Time course analysis shows strongly increased enzyme activity at 80 min after stimulation. Low activity exists from the onset of stimulation, indicating that additional regulation mechanisms are involved in TDH function.

  4. Anomalous cell wall synthesis in Mucor mucedo (L.) Fres. induced by some fungicides and other compounds related to the problem of dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyr, H; Casperson, G

    1982-01-01

    An anomalous cell wall thickening in Mucor mucedo is induced already within 60-120 min by some fungicides (etridiazol, chloroneb, pentachloronitrobenzene, dicloran, drazoxolon, biphenyl) as well as with a N2-atmosphere or high concentrations of glucose, but not with 2,4-dinitrophenol, chlorinated phenols, dichlofluanid and antimycin A. This effect seems to be identical to the change from the mycelial (M-) to the yeast (Y-) form in dimorphic fungi, which can be achieved by culture conditions as well as by addition of chemicals. The cause seems to be a specific, complex change in the metabolic state. A scheme of regulation is presented which explains most of the experimental results described till now.

  5. Preparation of sn-2 long-chain polyunsaturated monoacylglycerols from fish oil by hydrolysis with a stereospecific lipase from mucor miehei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of sn-2 eicosapentaenoyi glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyi glycerol by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereo-specific immobilised lipase (Lipozyme IM-20 from mucor miehei is described. Monoacylglycerols obtained after the enzymatic hydrolysis were separated by silver nitrate-coated silicic acid column chromatography Both monoacylglycerols can be individually separated in almost pure form by elution from the column with a solvent mixture. The preparation of sn-2 substituted monoacylglycerols from marine origin allows their utilization as substrates for the synthesis of structured long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing triacylglycerols at specific positions.

    Se describe la preparación de sn-2 eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol mediante la hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por lipasa inmovilizada sn-1, sn-3 estereoespecífica (Lipozime IM-20 de mucor miehei. Los monoacilgliceroles obtenidos después de la hidrólisis enzimática se separaron por cromatografía en columna de ácido silícico impregnado de nitrato de plata. Ambos monoacilgliceroles pueden ser individualmente separados en forma casi pura por elución de la columna con una mezcla de solvente. La preparación de sn-2 monoacilgliceroles sustituidos de origen marino permite su utilización como sustratos para la síntesis de triacilgliceroles que contienen ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga en posiciones específicas.

  6. 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the sex hormone pathway of Mucor mucedo: purification, cloning of the corresponding gene, and developmental expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Jana; Scheibner, Olaf; Burmester, Anke; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The NADP-dependent 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase is a (-) mating-type-specific enzyme in the pathway from beta-carotene to trisporic acid. This substance and its isomers and derivatives represent the general system of sexual communication in zygomycetes. The (-) mating type of Mucor mucedo was stimulated by trisporic acid and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Several peptides of the 26-kDa protein, digested with trypsin, were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA. The primary PCR fragment was sequenced and the complete gene, TSP2, was isolated. A labeled TSP2 hybridization probe detects a single-copy gene in the genome of M. mucedo. Northern blot analysis with RNAs from different growth stages reveals that the expression of the gene depends on the developmental stage of the mycelium in both mating types of M. mucedo. At the enzyme level, activity is found exclusively in the (-) mating type. However, renaturation of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels revealed the TSP2 gene product in both mating types. Analyzing the protein sequence places the enzyme in the short chain dehydrogenase superfamily. Thus, it has an evolutionary origin distinct from that of the previously isolated 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, which belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Apart from the TSP2 genes in the three sequenced zygomycetous genomes (Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Mucor circinelloides), the closest relative is the Myxococcus xanthus CsgA gene product, which is also a short chain dehydrogenase, involved in C signaling and fruiting body formation.

  7. 4-Dihydrotrisporin-Dehydrogenase, an Enzyme of the Sex Hormone Pathway of Mucor mucedo: Purification, Cloning of the Corresponding Gene, and Developmental Expression▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Jana; Scheibner, Olaf; Burmester, Anke; Schimek, Christine; Wöstemeyer, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The NADP-dependent 4-dihydrotrisporin-dehydrogenase is a (−) mating-type-specific enzyme in the pathway from β-carotene to trisporic acid. This substance and its isomers and derivatives represent the general system of sexual communication in zygomycetes. The (−) mating type of Mucor mucedo was stimulated by trisporic acid and the enzyme was purified by ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Several peptides of the 26-kDa protein, digested with trypsin, were sequenced by mass spectrometry. Oligonucleotides based on protein sequence data were used for PCR amplification of genomic DNA. The primary PCR fragment was sequenced and the complete gene, TSP2, was isolated. A labeled TSP2 hybridization probe detects a single-copy gene in the genome of M. mucedo. Northern blot analysis with RNAs from different growth stages reveals that the expression of the gene depends on the developmental stage of the mycelium in both mating types of M. mucedo. At the enzyme level, activity is found exclusively in the (−) mating type. However, renaturation of proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing gels revealed the TSP2 gene product in both mating types. Analyzing the protein sequence places the enzyme in the short chain dehydrogenase superfamily. Thus, it has an evolutionary origin distinct from that of the previously isolated 4-dihydromethyltrisporate dehydrogenase, which belongs to the aldo/keto reductase superfamily. Apart from the TSP2 genes in the three sequenced zygomycetous genomes (Phycomyces blakesleeanus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Mucor circinelloides), the closest relative is the Myxococcus xanthus CsgA gene product, which is also a short chain dehydrogenase, involved in C signaling and fruiting body formation. PMID:18931040

  8. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  9. Pulmonary infections by the fungus aspergillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao P

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of respiratory infection by Aspergillus fumigates are described. Species of aspergillus is ubiquitous in nature. Therefore, repeated demonstration of fungus, serological evidence tend radiological findings are essential for diagnosis. Potassium iodide is a useful drug in aspergillus infection of the lung when other drugs are not available. Injection Emetine hydrochloride is promising as a therapeutic agent in pulmonary aspergillosis, where the lung parenchyma is involved.

  10. Antimicrobial constituents from endophytic fungus Fusarium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat Hussain

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of fraction of the fungus Fusarium sp. and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: Six compounds were purified from an fraction of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. using column chromatography and their structures have been confirmed based on 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer, 2D COSY, heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation experiments. The six isolated compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using the agar well diffusion method. Results: Phytochemical investigation of endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. lead to the isolation and identification of the following compounds viz., colletorin B, colletochlorin B, LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B, 4,5-dihydroascochlorin, ascochlorin, and 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin. Colletorin B and colletochlorin B displayed moderate herbicidal, antifungal and antibacterial activities towards Chlorella fusca, Ustilago violacea, Fusarium oxysporum, and Bacillus megaterium. On the other hand LL-Z1272β (llicicolin B showed moderate antifungal activity towards Ustilago violacea and Fusarium oxysporum while 4,5-dihydroascochlorin showed strong antibacterial activity towards Bacillus megaterium. Furthermore, 4,5-dihydrodechloroascochlorin showed very strong antifungal activity towards Eurotium repens. Conclusions: Antimicrobial activities demonstrated by five of the six isolated compounds clearly demonstrate that these fungi extracts and active compounds present a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  11. Marine-derived filamentous fungi and their potential application for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Michel R Z; Rodrigues, Marili V N; da Silva, Manuela; Sette, Lara D

    2011-02-01

    Eight marine-derived fungi that were previously selected for their abilities to decolorize RBBR dye were subjected to pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene degradation. The fungus Aspergillus sclerotiorum CBMAI 849 showed the best performance with regard to pyrene (99.7%) and benzo[a]pyrene (76.6%) depletion after 8 and 16 days, respectively. Substantial amounts of benzo[a]pyrene (>50.0%) depletion were also achieved by Mucor racemosus CBMAI 847. Therefore, these two fungal strains were subjected to metabolism evaluation using the HPLC-DAD-MS technique. The results showed that A. sclerotiorum CBMAI 849 and M. racemosus CBMAI 847 were able to metabolize pyrene to the corresponding pyrenylsulfate and were able to metabolize benzo[a]pyrene to benzo[a]pyrenylsulfate, suggesting that the mechanism of hydroxylation is mediated by a cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase, followed by conjugation with sulfate ions. Because these fungi were adapted to the marine environment, the strains that were used in the present study are considered to be attractive targets for the bioremediation of saline environments, such as ocean and marine sediments that are contaminated by PAHs.

  12. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R. D.; Crippen, Devany

    2004-01-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera gly...

  13. Symbiotic fungi produce laccases potentially involved in phenol degradation in fungus combs of fungus-growing termites in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taprab, Yaovapa; Johjima, Toru; Maeda, Yoshimasa; Moriya, Shigeharu; Trakulnaleamsai, Savitr; Noparatnaraporn, Napavarn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kudo, Toshiaki

    2005-12-01

    Fungus-growing termites efficiently decompose plant litter through their symbiotic relationship with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we investigated phenol-oxidizing enzymes in symbiotic fungi and fungus combs (a substrate used to cultivate symbiotic fungi) from termites belonging to the genera Macrotermes, Odontotermes, and Microtermes in Thailand, because these enzymes are potentially involved in the degradation of phenolic compounds during fungus comb aging. Laccase activity was detected in all the fungus combs examined as well as in the culture supernatants of isolated symbiotic fungi. Conversely, no peroxidase activity was detected in any of the fungus combs or the symbiotic fungal cultures. The laccase cDNA fragments were amplified directly from RNA extracted from fungus combs of five termite species and a fungal isolate using degenerate primers targeting conserved copper binding domains of basidiomycete laccases, resulting in a total of 13 putative laccase cDNA sequences being identified. The full-length sequences of the laccase cDNA and the corresponding gene, lcc1-2, were identified from the fungus comb of Macrotermes gilvus and a Termitomyces strain isolated from the same fungus comb, respectively. Partial purification of laccase from the fungus comb showed that the lcc1-2 gene product was a dominant laccase in the fungus comb. These findings indicate that the symbiotic fungus secretes laccase to the fungus comb. In addition to laccase, we report novel genes that showed a significant similarity with fungal laccases, but the gene product lacked laccase activity. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in symbiotic fungi of all the termite hosts examined.

  14. Metabolites from mangrove endophytic fungus Dothiorella sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUQingyan; WANGJianfeng; HUANGYaojian; ZHENGZhonghui; SONGSiyang; ZHANGYongmin; SUWenjin

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are special woody plant communities in the intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical coasts. They prove to be a natural microorganisms and new metabolites storage. In the study of mangrove endophytic fungi metabolites, four new compounds, Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4, as well as a known octaketide, cytosporone B (5), are isolated from an endophytic fungus, Dothiorella sp., HTF3. They all show cytotoxic activities. The elucidation of these structures is mainly based on 1D/2D NMR and ESI-MS spectral analyses.

  15. Sterols from the Fungus Catathelasma imperiale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG, Sheng-Ping; XU, Jun; YUE, Jian-Min

    2003-01-01

    Eight ergostane-type sterols and three their derivatives (one mono-linoleate and two mono-glucosides) were isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the fungus Catathelasma imperiale. Two of them are novel compounds, namely 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β, 5α-diol-6β-linoleate (1) and 22E, 24R-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5β,6α-triol (5) with an uncommon cisfused A/B ring. Structures of these compounds were demonstrated on the basis of their chemical evidences and spectroscopic methods, especially 2D NMR techniques.

  16. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal cul...

  17. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  18. Genome Sequence of the Pathogenic Fungus Sporothrix schenckii (ATCC 58251).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, Christina A; Rodriguez-Del Valle, Nuri; Perez-Sanchez, Lizaida; Abouelleil, Amr; Goldberg, Jonathan; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W

    2014-05-22

    Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus that grows as a yeast and as mycelia. This species is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, typically a skin infection. We report the genome sequence of S. schenckii, which will facilitate the study of this fungus and of the Sporothrix schenckii group.

  19. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  20. Expanding Distribution of Lethal Amphibian Fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Martel, An; Asselberghs, Johan; Bales, Emma K; Beukema, Wouter; Bletz, Molly C; Dalbeck, Lutz; Goverse, Edo; Kerres, Alexander; Kinet, Thierry; Kirst, Kai; Laudelout, Arnaud; Marin da Fonte, Luis F; Nöllert, Andreas; Ohlhoff, Dagmar; Sabino-Pinto, Joana; Schmidt, Benedikt R; Speybroeck, Jeroen; Spikmans, Frank; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Veith, Michael; Vences, Miguel; Wagner, Norman; Pasmans, Frank; Lötters, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Emerging fungal diseases can drive amphibian species to local extinction. During 2010-2016, we examined 1,921 urodeles in 3 European countries. Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans at new locations and in urodeles of different species expands the known geographic and host range of the fungus and underpins its imminent threat to biodiversity.

  1. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai;

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  2. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, Wietse de; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study,

  3. Fungus-associated bacteriome in charge of their host behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulz-Bohm, Kristin; Tyc, Olaf; Boer, de Wietse; Peereboom, Nils; Debets, Fons; Zaagman, Niels; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Garbeva, Paolina

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial-fungal interactions are widespread in nature and there is a growing number of studies reporting distinct fungus-associated bacteria. However, little is known so far about how shifts in the fungus-associated bacteriome will affect the fungal host’s lifestyle. In the present study, we descri

  4. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leave...

  5. Fermentation Conditions of Pectinase by Mucor mucedo%高大毛霉制取果胶酶发酵条件实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾红燕; 齐鸿雁; 张洪勋

    2002-01-01

    对高大毛霉(Mucor mucedo)制取果胶酶的发酵条件和酶的基本性质进行了研究. 发酵培养基组成为(g/L):小麦麸皮50,葵盘粉30,(NH4)2SO4 30,KH2PO4 2.5,MgSO4-7H2O 0.5,NaNO3 0.2,FeSO4-7H2O 0.01. 在培养温度30oC、初始pH 5.7、转速240 r/min条件下摇瓶培养3 d,酶活力达到275 U/ml. 该酶最适pH为5.0,最适作用温度为40oC,在pH为3.0-7.0范围内稳定.

  6. Early and late trisporoids differentially regulate β-carotene production and gene transcript Levels in the mucoralean fungi Blakeslea trispora and Mucor mucedo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, Yamuna; Richter-Fecken, Mareike; Kaerger, Kerstin; Voigt, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-12-01

    The multistep cleavage of carotenoids in Mucorales during the sexual phase results in a cocktail of trisporic acid (C18) sex pheromones. We hypothesized that the C18 trisporoid intermediates have a specific regulatory function for sex pheromone production and carotenogenesis that varies with genus/species and vegetative and sexual phases of their life cycles. Real-time quantitative PCR kinetics determined for Blakeslea trispora displayed a very high transcript turnover in the gene for carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, tsp3, during the sexual phase. An in vivo enzyme assay and chromatographic analysis led to the identification of β-apo-12'-carotenal as the first apocarotenoid involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis in B. trispora. Supplementation of C18 trisporoids, namely D'orenone, methyl trisporate C, and trisporin C, increased tsp3 transcripts in the plus compared to minus partners. Interestingly, the tsp1 gene, which is involved in trisporic acid biosynthesis, was downregulated compared to tsp3 irrespective of asexual or sexual phase. Only the minus partners of both B. trispora and Mucor mucedo had enhanced β-carotene production after treatment with C20 apocarotenoids, 15 different trisporoids, and their analogues. We conclude that the apocarotenoids and trisporoids influence gene transcription and metabolite production, depending upon the fungal strain, corresponding genus, and developmental phase, representing a "chemical dialect" during sexual communication.

  7. Medical image of the week: fungus ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosen S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 69 year-old Asian woman living in Arizona with a past medical history of nephrotic syndrome on high-dose steroids had worsening pulmonary symptoms. A computed tomography (CT of the chest (Figure 1 showed a 4.7 cm thin walled cavitary lesion in the right middle lobe compatible with mycetoma. She underwent thoracotomy for mycetoma resection. Surgical pathology confirmed an epithelial-lined cavity containing dense mycelia (Figure 2. Given the patient lived in an endemic area; the cavity was thought to be likely due to coccidioidomycosis. However, the mycetoma was of unclear etiology. No spherules were noted on GMS stain and tissue culture was negative. While of unclear clinical significance which fungus colonizes a pre-existing cavity, a Coccidioides PCR was performed and no Coccidioides genes were amplified making a Coccidioides mycetoma very unlikely. Pulmonary mycetoma or “fungus ball” consists of dense fungal elements and amorphous cellular material within a pre-existing pulmonary cavity. Classically ...

  8. Antimicrobial chemical constituents from endophytic fungus Phomasp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidayat Hussain; Siegfried Draeger; Barbara Schulz; Karsten Krohn; Ines Kock; Ahmed Al-Harrasi; Ahmed Al-Rawahi; Ghulam Abbas; Ivan R Green; Afzal Shah; Amin Badshah; Muhammad Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial potential of different extracts of the endophytic fungus Phomasp. and the tentative identification of their active constituents.Methods:The extract and compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity using theAgarWellDiffusionMethod. Four compounds were purified using column chromatography and their structures were assigned using1H and13CNMR spectra,DEPT,2DCOSY,HMQC andHMBC experiments.Results:The ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp. showed good antifungal, antibacterial, and algicidal properties.One new dihydrofuran derivative, named phomafuranol(1), together with three known compounds, phomalacton(2),(3R)-5-hydroxymellein(3) and emodin(4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction ofPhomasp.Preliminary studies indicated that phomalacton(2) displayed strong antibacterial, good antifungal and antialgal activities.Similarly(3R)-5-hydroxymellein (3) and emodin(4) showed good antifungal, antibacterial and algicidal properties.Conclusions:Antimicrobial activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of the endophytic fungusPhomasp. and isolated compounds clearly demonstrate thatPhomasp. and its active compounds represent a great potential for the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Ribonucleic acids in different tea fungus beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In human nutrition, nucleic acids have to be balanced and limited up to 2 g/day because purines are degraded to urate, and excessive production of urate is a cause of gout which primarily affects adult males. Tea fungus beverage is a well known drink with high nutritional value and certain curative effects. Its benefits have been proved in a number of studies but it is still necessary to examine some potential harmful effects of this beverage. The aim of this paper was to investigate content of ribonucleic acids (RNA produced during tea fungus fermentation on a usual substrate sweetened black tea, and on Jerusalem artichoke tubers (J.A.T extract using method by Munro and Fleck (1966. pH, ribonucleic acids and also the production of proteins that affect purity of nucleic acids preparations were monitored. A higher value of RNA has been noticed in J.A.T. beverage (0.57 mg/ml and with observation of usual daily dose of the beverage it is completely safe and useful one.

  10. Assembly of complex plant–fungus networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2014-01-01

    Species in ecological communities build complex webs of interaction. Although revealing the architecture of these networks is fundamental to understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics in nature, it has been difficult to characterize the structure of most species-rich ecological systems. By overcoming this limitation through next-generation sequencing technology, we herein uncover the network architecture of below-ground plant–fungus symbioses, which are ubiquitous to terrestrial ecosystems. The examined symbiotic network of a temperate forest in Japan includes 33 plant species and 387 functionally and phylogenetically diverse fungal taxa, and the overall network architecture differs fundamentally from that of other ecological networks. In contrast to results for other ecological networks and theoretical predictions for symbiotic networks, the plant–fungus network shows moderate or relatively low levels of interaction specialization and modularity and an unusual pattern of ‘nested’ network architecture. These results suggest that species-rich ecological networks are more architecturally diverse than previously recognized. PMID:25327887

  11. New Development Trend of Edible Fungus Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We elaborate support system of edible fungus industry from outlook on ecological economic development, legislation and standardization of variety approval, multiple-function innovation platform of industrial development research, and perfect talent cultivation and education system. Besides, we analyze the development trend of edible fungus industry from competitive advantages, position and role in national food security, industrial development trend driven by internal demand, diversified industrial development model, division of labor within the industry, and expansion of industrial chain. Then, from the point of zoning and planning of edible fungus industry, we put forward suggestions that it should start from modern industrial system and take the industrial cluster development and optimization as guidance. In addition, we present technical innovation direction of industrial development. It is proposed to strengthen propaganda, build industrial cultural atmosphere, and expand social cognition degree of edible fungus industry to promote its redevelopment. Finally, it is expected to promote international influence of edible fungus industry through experts appealing for policy support.

  12. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  13. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  14. SYSTEMIC INFECTION AND RELATED FUNGUS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Rajsekhar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds (British English: moulds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which are separate from plants, animals, and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation. In the present time the microbes are to be seen as disease causing organisms harming the mankind. The harm done by this community cannot be taken lightly as they are also useful in many ways. The above article is an effort to bring out the various fungal issued related to human.

  15. Comparative studies of the secretome of fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, Tore; Grell, Morten Nedergaard; Schiøtt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    Leafcutter ants of the species Acromyrmex echinatior live in symbiosis with the fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. The ants harvest fragments of leaves and carry them to the nest where they place the material on the fungal colony. The fungus secretes a wide array of proteins to degrade the leaves...... into nutrients that the ants can feed on. The focus of this study is to discover, characterize and compare the secreted proteins. In order to do so cDNA libraries are constructed from mRNA extracted from the fungus material. The most efficient technology to screen cDNA libraries selectively for secreted...

  16. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  17. 毛霉型蚕豆豆豉粑工艺研究%Research on the process of broad-bean cake fermented by mucor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗晓妙

    2014-01-01

    该实验以蚕豆为主要原料、毛霉为主要发酵菌种制作豆豉粑,研究生产工艺中的制曲工艺、后发酵工艺、干制工艺等关键技术点,以确定较优的工艺参数。研究结果表明:以1∶1的冷水(室温)将蚕豆浸泡4~5 h,使蚕豆去皮熟化后的水分含量约为40%左右,按原料质量的2%接种毛霉菌液(孢子浓度约为1×105个/mL),混匀后置于25℃培养5 d制曲,制曲过程中每天翻曲,然后用2%的米酒汁润湿成曲,再加入12%的食盐,混匀,捣碎,密闭后置于30℃恒温后熟至少30 d,然后再取出制成薄饼状,置于50℃烘箱中干制8 h左右使水分含量降至30%左右可制得质量上乘的蚕豆豆豉粑。%The formented broad-bean cake was produced with broad-bean as the main material and Mucor as the main fermenting stain. And the Koji-making process,post-fermentation process and drying process were studied in experiment to determine the optimum technologic parameters of Douchiba. The results showed that soaking broad bean in 1∶1 cold water(room temperature)for 4~5 h resulted in moisture content of cooked peeling broad bean being about 40%,then inoculating it with 2%(V/W)of Mucor spore liquid(spore concentration of about 1×105/mL),blending and making koji at 25℃for 5 days. And then koji was sprayed with 2%of rice wine juice to wet the surface,added 12%of salt,blanded,masked to piece and closed at 30℃to after-fermented for at least 30 days. Then taking out to make pancakes and put in 50℃oven for 8 h to cut the moisture content down to around 30%,so the broad bean cake of good quality can be obtained.

  18. Using aquatic fungi for pharmaceutical bioremediation: Uptake of acetaminophen by Mucor hiemalis does not result in an enzymatic oxidative stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterhuizen-Londt, Maranda; Schwartz, Katrin; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The increasing anthropogenic pollution of aquatic environments and fresh water scarcity worldwide have prompted the development of low-cost and effective water treatment alternatives. One example of a highly released anthropogenic xenobiotics is acetaminophen (APAP), which has been detected in surface waters at concentrations as high as 5 μg L(-1). To date, traditional water treatment plants were unable to remove all pharmaceutical xenobiotics and as in the case with APAP, the breakdown products are toxic. Phytoremediation has proved to remove xenobiotics efficiently producing no toxic breakdown products, however, they are often restrained in their application range. Therefore, it was necessary to find alternate remediation tools to extend and complement the application ranges of existing bioremediation techniques. With the success of mycoremediation as well as the adaptability of fungi, Mucor hiemalis was investigated in terms of its APAP uptake capabilities. The investigation included the examination of concentration- and time-dependent uptake studies to examine the effects of each of these parameters independently. Additionally, the extracellular peroxidase activity of M. hiemalis was measured with exposure to APAP to evaluate possible breakdown and the antioxidative stress enzymes, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were assayed to investigate whether APAP caused oxidative stress. The results showed that M. hiemalis was able to internalize between 1 and 2 μg APAP per g dried fungal biomass when exposed to 5, 10, 50 and 100 ng mL(-1) APAP for 24-48 h, but not beyond this time frame. Further, exposure to APAP did not result in elevated extracellular peroxidase activity or oxidative stress. The findings led to the conclusion that M. hiemalis could be integrated in bioremediation systems, for short-term degradation at low concentrations of APAP with effective management. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by

  19. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L.; Sales, Camila V.; de Oliveira, Carlos E. V.; Lopes, Laênia A. A.; da Conceição, Maria L.; Berger, Lúcia R. R.; Stamford, Thayza C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage. PMID:26257717

  20. Biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil by Mucor sp. SF06 and Bacillus sp. SB02 co-immobilized on vermiculite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Dan; LI Pei-jun; FRANK Stagnitti; XIONG Xian-zhe

    2006-01-01

    Two indigenous microorganisms, Bacillus sp. SB02 and Mucor sp. SF06, capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were co-immobilized on vermiculite by physical adsorption and used to degrade benzo[a] pyrane (BaP). The characteristics of BaP degradation by both free and co-immobilized microorganism were then investigated and compared. The removal rate using the immobilized bacterial-ftmgal mixed consortium was higher than that of the freely mobile mixed consortium. 95.3% of BaP was degraded using the co-immobilized system within 42 d, which was remarkably higher than the removal rate of that by the free strains. The optimal amount of inoculated co-immobilized system for BaP degradation was 2%. The immobilized bacterial-ftmgal mixed consortium also showed better water stability than the free strains. Kinetics of BaP biodegradation by co-immobilized SF06 and SB02 were also studied. The results demonstrated that BaP degradation could be well described by a zero-order reaction rate equation when the initial BaP concentration was in the range of 10-200 mg/kg. The scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis showed that the co-immobilized microstructure was suitable for the growth of SF06 and SB02. The mass transmission process of co-immobilized system in soil is discussed. The results demonstrate the potential for employing the bacterial-fungal mixed consortium,co-immobilized on vermiculite, for in situ bioremediation of BaP.

  1. Improvement of heavy metal biosorption by mycelial dead biomasses (Rhizopus arrhizus, Mucor miehei and Penicillium chrysogenum): pH control and cationic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourest, E; Canal, C; Roux, J C

    1994-08-01

    Fungal mycelial by-products from fermentation industries present a considerable affinity for soluble metal ions (e.g. Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, Ag) and could be used in biosorption processes for purification of contaminated effluents. In this work the influence of pH on sorption parameters is characterized by measuring the isotherms of five heavy metals (Ni, Zn, Cd, Ag and Pb) with Rhizopus arrhizus biomass under pH-controlled conditions. The maximum sorption capacity for lead was observed at pH 7.0 (200 mg g-1), while silver uptake was weakly affected. The stability of metal-biosorbent complexes is regularly enhanced by pH neutralization, except for lead. A transition in sorption mechanism was observed above pH 6.0. In addition, comparison of various industrial fungal biomasses (R. arrhizus, Mucor miehei and Penicillium chrysogenum) indicated important variations in zinc-binding and buffering properties (0.24, 0.08 and 0.05 mmol g-1, respectively). Without control, the equilibrium pH (5.8, 3.9 and 4.0) is shown to be related to the initial calcium content of the biosorbent. pH neutralization during metal adsorption increases zinc sorption in all fungi (0.57, 0.52 and 0.33 mmol g-1) but an improvement was also obtained (0.34, 0.33 and 0.10 mmol g-1) by calcium saturation of the biomass before heavy metal accumulation. Breakthrough curves of fixed bed biosorbent columns demonstrated the capacity of the biosorbent process to purify zinc and lead solutions in continuous-flow systems, and confirmed the necessity for cationic activation of the biosorbent before contact with the heavy-metal solution.

  2. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L; Sales, Camila V; de Oliveira, Carlos E V; Lopes, Laênia A A; da Conceição, Maria L; Berger, Lúcia R R; Stamford, Thayza C M

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  3. Specificity in the interaction between an epibiotic clavicipitalean fungus and its convolvulaceous host in a fungus/plant symbiotum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Ulrike; Hellwig, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Ipomoea asarifolia and Turbina corymbosa (Convolvulaceae) are associated with epibiotic clavicipitalean fungi responsible for the presence of ergoline alkaloids in these plants. Experimentally generated plants devoid of these fungi were inoculated with different epibiotic and endophytic fungi resulting in a necrotic or commensal situation. A symbiotum of host plant and its respective fungus was best established by integration of the fungus into the morphological differentiation of the host plant. This led us to suppose that secretory glands on the leaf surface of the host plant may play an essential role in ergoline alkaloid biosynthesis which takes place in the epibiotic fungus. PMID:19704834

  4. Effect of the Extract of Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica CL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : The ... After 12 h treatment, interaction of extract with MRSA cells resulted in the formation of pit ... Keywords: Endophytic fungus, Nigrospora sphaerica, Antimicrobial activity, Cellular structure ... human population, veterinary and aquaculture.

  5. An insect parasitoid carrying an ochratoxin producing fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Fernando E.; Posada, Francisco; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Chaves, Fabio C.; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2006-06-01

    The insect parasitoid Prorops nasuta has been introduced from Africa to many coffee-producing countries in an attempt to control the coffee berry borer. In this paper, we report on the sequencing of the ITS LSU-rDNA and beta-tubulin loci used to identify a fungus isolated from the cuticle of a P. nasuta that emerged from coffee berries infected with the coffee berry borer. The sequences were compared with deposits in GenBank and the fungus was identified as Aspergillus westerdijkiae. The fungus tested positive for ochratoxin A production, with varying levels depending on the media in which it was grown. These results raise the possibility that an insect parasitoid might be disseminating an ochratoxin-producing fungus in coffee plantations.

  6. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...... of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  7. The role of mites in insect-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, R W; Moser, J C

    2014-01-01

    The interactions among insects, mites, and fungi are diverse and complex but poorly understood in most cases. Associations among insects, mites, and fungi span an almost incomprehensible array of ecological interactions and evolutionary histories. Insects and mites often share habitats and resources and thus interact within communities. Many mites and insects rely on fungi for nutrients, and fungi benefit from them with regard to spore dispersal, habitat provision, or nutrient resources. Mites have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity within many insect-fungus systems. Given that mites are understudied but highly abundant, they likely have bigger, more important, and more widespread impacts on communities than previously recognized. We describe mutualistic and antagonistic effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, explore the processes that underpin ecological and evolutionary patterns of these multipartite communities, review well-researched examples of the effects of mites on insect-fungus associations, and discuss approaches for studying mites within insect-fungus communities.

  8. Contributions to the study of Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga PALL

    1966-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper communicates the results of the laboratory experiments concerning the behaviour of the Pseudopeziza trifolii (Bernh. Fuck. fungus that produces the clover brown leaf spot, in different culture mediums. The mycelium of the fungus develops at its best on the peptone-glucose-agar medium. The appearance of pycnides of Sporonema phacidioides Desm. type in vitro, has been reported for the fourth time in Romania especially developing on the potatoe-dextrosis-agar and plum-agar mediums.

  9. Survey reveals the situation of Chinese caterpillar fungus resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following its investigation of aweto (or Chinese caterpillar fungus) resources carried out from May to July 2007 on the Tibetan(or Qinghai-Tibet) Plateau,the central producing area of this precious ingredient for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM),the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)under CAS conducted a further survey from May to July 2008 in the marginal habitats of this fungus.

  10. Biological control of Ascaris suum eggs by Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Frassy, Luiza Neme; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares

    2011-12-01

    Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal nematode parasite of swines. The aim of this study was to observe Pochonia chlamydosporia fungus on biological control of A. suum eggs after fungus passage through swines gastrointestinal tract. Eighteen pigs, previously dewormed, were randomly divided into three groups: group 1, treated with the fungus isolate VC4; group 2, treated with the fungus isolate VC1 and group 3 did not receive fungus (control). In the treated groups, each animal received a 9 g single dose of mycelium mass containing P. chlamydosporia (VC1 or VC4). Thereafter, animal fecal samples were collected at the following intervals: 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h after treatment beginning and these were poured in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar culture medium. Then, 1,000 A. suum eggs were poured into each dish and kept in an incubator at 26 °C and in the dark for 30 days. After this period, approximately 100 eggs were removed from each Petri dish and morphologically analyzed under light microscopy following the ovicidal activity parameters. The higher percentage observed for isolated VC4 eggs destruction was 57.5% (36 h) after fungus administration and for isolate VC1 this percentage was 45.8% (24 h and 72 h) (p > 0.01). P. chlamydosporia remained viable after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of swines, maintaining its ability of destroying A. suum eggs.

  11. Solubilization of diabase and phonolite dust by filamentous fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Andréia Vrba Brandão

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the fungus Aspergillus niger strain CCT4355 in the release of nutrients contained in two types of rock powder (diabase and phonolite by means of in vitro solubilization trials. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 5 x 4 factorial design with three replications. It was evaluated five treatments (phonolite dust + culture medium; phonolite dust + fungus + culture medium; diabase powder + culture medium; diabase powder + fungus + culture medium and fungus + culture medium and four sampling dates (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. Rock dust (0.4% w/v was added to 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks containing 50 mL of liquid culture medium adapted to A. niger. The flasks were incubated at 30°C for 30 days, and analysis of pH (in water, titratable acidity, and concentrations of soluble potassium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and manganese were made. The fungus A. niger was able to produce organic acids that solubilized ions. This result indicates its potential to alter minerals contained in rock dust, with the ability to interact in different ways with the nutrients. A significant increase in the amount of K was found in the treatment with phonolite dust in the presence of the fungus. The strain CCT4355 of A. niger can solubilize minerals contained in these rocks dust.

  12. Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus Escovopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Leaf-cutting ants such as Acromyrmex octospinosus live in obligate symbiosis with fungi of the genus Leucoagaricus, which they grow with harvested leaf material. The symbiotic fungi, in turn, serve as a major food source for the ants. This mutualistic relation is disturbed by the specialized pathogenic fungus Escovopsis sp., which can overcome Leucoagaricus sp. and thus destroy the ant colony. Microbial symbionts of leaf-cutting ants have been suggested to protect the fungus garden against Es...

  13. 航天诱变毛霉ZY-3在腐乳生产中的应用研究%Application of space mutation strain Mucor ZY-3 in sufu production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽; 魏海霞; 汪倩倩; 后来旺; 张宗舟

    2015-01-01

    航天诱变毛霉(Mucor) ZY-3菌株是一株能够耐高温的菌株,产酶适宜温度较高,在38~42℃的条件下ZY-3的生长状况最好,蛋白酶活性达到较高范围.用ZY-3代替原始高大毛霉(Mucor mucedo)菌种接种豆腐坯,结果表明,腐乳发酵阶段抗污染力强、长势好,成品滋味鲜美.毛霉ZY-3生产的腐乳符合商业标准SB/T 10170-2007编乳》的要求,以颜色、风味、特色、固形物含量等作为影响论域的主要因素,进行了产品的模糊综合评价,证明毛霉ZY-3菌株可以用于腐乳生产.

  14. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  15. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  16. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Sapountzis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N, some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2. Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  17. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan;

    2011-01-01

    hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results: We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing...... eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase...... activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication...

  18. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  19. Isolation and identification of iron ore-solubilising fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase Khasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential mineral-solubilising fungi were successfully isolated from the surfaces of iron ore minerals. Four isolates were obtained and identified by molecular and phylogenetic methods as close relatives of three different genera, namely Penicillium (for isolate FO, Alternaria (for isolates SFC2 and KFC1 and Epicoccum (for isolate SFC2B. The use of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO42in phosphate-solubilising experiments confirmed isolate FO as the only phosphate solubiliser among the isolated fungi. The bioleaching capabilities of both the fungus and its spent liquid medium were tested and compared using two types of iron ore materials, conglomerate and shale, from the Sishen Iron Ore Mine as sources of potassium (K and phosphorus (P. The spent liquid medium removed more K (a maximum of 32.94% removal, from conglomerate, than the fungus (a maximum of 21.36% removal, from shale. However, the fungus removed more P (a maximum of 58.33% removal, from conglomerate than the spent liquid medium (a maximum of 29.25% removal, from conglomerate. The results also indicated a potential relationship between the removal of K or P and the production of organic acids by the fungus. A high production of gluconic acid could be related to the ability of the fungus to reduce K and P. Acetic, citric and maleic acids were also produced by the fungus, but in lower quantities. In addition, particle size and iron ore type were also shown to have significant effects on the removal of potassium and phosphorus from the iron ore minerals. We therefore conclude that the spent liquid medium from the fungal isolate FO can potentially be used for biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals.

  20. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  1. Exploring the Potential for Actinobacteria as Defensive Symbionts in Fungus-Growing Termites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Mesquita Nobre, T.; Currie, C.R.; Aanen, D.K.; Poulsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a

  2. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Debets, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway...... that practices a sit-and-wait strategy to survive in the termite nest. Using isolates from three different termite genera to test our hypothesis, we compared Pseudoxylaria’s growth on 40 carbon sources with that of Termitomyces and tested its interaction with Termitomyces. The C-source use of both fungi largely...

  3. Secretory Expression, Purification and Identification of Rennet from Mucor pusillus%微小毛霉凝乳酶的分泌表达、产物纯化及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景会; 李玉秋; 郑丽; 李倬琳; 高岩; 杨贞耐

    2011-01-01

    The rennet from Mucor pusillus is one of the major sources of tnicrobial rennet, but it has some defects compared with the bovine chymosin. Aspartic proteinases from fungi are usually more heat resistant . When these enzymes are used for cheese making, the residue of enzymatic activity after heat treatment (55 ℃) following milk coagulation may still exist and cause proteolysis during cheese storage, bitter taste, softness and lower yield of the cheese products. In order to develop a rennet product with suitable milk clotting properties, the gene of rennet was cloned from Mucor pusillus, and the expression vector pPIC9K/M was constructed. The plasmids of pPIC9K/M was linearized with Sac I , and transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 competent cells. The rennet was secretory expressed in Pichia pastoris successfully , and a strong band at about 46 kD was shown by SDS - PAGE. Activity tests showed that the rennet activity in the culture supernatant was 311.8 U/mL. The purity of recombinant rennet reached 92% with a 51.89% activity recovery.%采用基因工程的方法对微小毛霉(Mucor pusillus)凝乳酶进行分子改造,获得适于乳品工业生产用的凝乳酶,克隆到了微小毛霉凝乳酶基因,构建了酵母表达质粒pPIC9K/M。线性化后电击转入毕赤酵母GS115,在甲醇诱导下进行凝乳酶的初步发酵试验,通过pH反应及酶抑制反应试验证明,重组凝乳酶获得了分泌表达。SDS-PAGE分析表明重组凝乳酶的分子量约为46kD,与理论值(45.3 kD)基本相符,培养基上清液中凝乳酶的活性为311.8 U/mL,纯化的总回收率为51.89%,纯度达到92%。

  4. [Study of water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Dejun; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Min; Xie, Kang; Zhang, Yong

    2005-10-01

    To study water-soluble compounds from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus. The chemical constituents of fungus garden were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. 28 compounds were separated and 11 chemical constituents were identified. The main constituents in water-solubles from fungus garden of Odontotermes formosanus are palmitic acid, linolei acid and oleic aid.

  5. Current Situations of Edible Fungus Production in Lianyungang City and Development Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guan-xi; GE Xiong-can; WEI Liang-zhi

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of characteristics of edible fungus production in Lianyungang City, we analyzed its advantages and disadvantages and put forward suggestions and countermeasures for development of edible fungus industry, mainly including strengthening guidance and leadership of government, introducing professional personnel, and developing the edible fungus industry through science and technology.

  6. The genome sequence of the model ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espagne, Eric; Lespinet, Olivier; Malagnac, Fabienne; Da Silva, Corinne; Jaillon, Olivier; Porcel, Betina M; Couloux, Arnaud; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ségurens, Béatrice; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Grossetete, Sandrine; Khalili, Hamid; Coppin, Evelyne; Déquard-Chablat, Michelle; Picard, Marguerite; Contamine, Véronique; Arnaise, Sylvie; Bourdais, Anne; Berteaux-Lecellier, Véronique; Gautheret, Daniel; de Vries, Ronald P; Battaglia, Evy; Coutinho, Pedro M; Danchin, Etienne Gj; Henrissat, Bernard; Khoury, Riyad El; Sainsard-Chanet, Annie; Boivin, Antoine; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Sellem, Carole H; Debuchy, Robert; Wincker, Patrick; Weissenbach, Jean; Silar, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dung-inhabiting ascomycete fungus Podospora anserina is a model used to study various aspects of eukaryotic and fungal biology, such as ageing, prions and sexual development. RESULTS: We present a 10X draft sequence of P. anserina genome, linked to the sequences of a large expressed

  7. Carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, Benjamin Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated carbon starvation in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger during submerged cultivation in bioreactor batch cultures. The work described in this thesis can be discussed as follows: (I) Establishment of computational resources for omics data analysis and interpretation in c

  8. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    extant savanna species are found in most genera, this moreover suggests that the savanna has repeatedly been colonized by fungus-growing termites. Furthermore, at least four independent "out-of-Africa" migrations into Asia, and at least one independent migration to Madagascar, have occurred. Although...

  9. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an associa......Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained...... an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...

  10. Leucopaxillus lepistoides, a new steppe fungus in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Łuszczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents information on Leucopaxillus lepistoides (Maire Singer, a new species for Poland. This fungus was found in two localities: the neighbourhood of Busko Zdrój and Chęciny (Little Polish Upland, S-Poland. Both localities were in the xerothermic grasslands belonging to the Cirsio-Brachypodion Order, Festuco-Brometea Class.

  11. Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongjie Li; Daniel J. Yelle; Chang Li; Mengyi Yang; Jing Ke; Ruijuan Zhang; Yu Liu; Na Zhu; Shiyou Liang; Xiaochang Mo; John Ralph; Cameron R. Currie; Jianchu Mo

    2017-01-01

    Depolymerizing lignin, the complex phenolic polymer fortifying plant cell walls, is an essential but challenging starting point for the lignocellulosics industries. The variety of ether– and carbon–carbon interunit linkages produced via radical coupling during lignification limit chemical and biological depolymerization efficiency. In an ancient fungus-cultivating...

  12. The development and endophytic nature of the fungus Heteroconium chaetospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Teruyoshi; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2005-11-15

    The root endophytic fungus Heteroconium chaetospira was isolated from roots of Chinese cabbage grown in field soil in Japan. This fungus penetrates through the outer epidermal cells of its host, passes into the inner cortex, and grows throughout the cortical cells, including those of the root tip region, without causing apparent pathogenic symptoms. There are no ultrastructural signs of host resistance responses. H. chaetospira has been recovered from 19 plant species in which there was no disruption of host growth. H. chaetospira has a symbiotic association with Chinese cabbage. The fungus provides nitrogen in exchange for carbon. These associations are beneficial for the inoculated plants, as demonstrated by increased growth rate. When used as a preinoculum, H. chaetospira suppresses the incidence of clubroot and Verticillium yellows when the test plant is post-inoculated with the causal agents of these diseases. H. chaetospira is an effective biocontrol agent against clubroot in Chinese cabbage at a low to moderate soil moisture range and a pathogen resting spore density of 10(5) resting spores per gram of soil in situ. Disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. macricola and Alternaria brassicae on leaves can be suppressed by treatment with H. chaetospira. The fungus persists in the roots and induces systemic resistance to the foliar disease.

  13. Directed Evolution of a Filamentous Fungus for Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi represent the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad-host-range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. One of the most p...

  14. DNA dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.The transcription of a genome and the regulation mec

  15. Rethinking crop-disease management in fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Ant fungus farming has become a prominent model for studying the evolution of mutualistic cooperation, with recent advances in reconstructing the evolutionary origin and elaborations of the symbiosis (1, 2), discovering additional partners and clarifying their interactions (3, 4), and analyzing host

  16. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  17. Controlling fungus on channel catfish eggs with peracetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is much interest in the use of peracetic acid (PAA) to treat pathogens in aquaculture. It is a relatively new compound and is approved for use in Europe, but not in the United States. This study determined the effectiveness of PAA for fungus control on channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus egg...

  18. An entomopathogenic fungus for control of adult African malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Ng'habi, K.R.N.; Kihonda, J.; Takken, W.; Paaijmans, K.P.; Abdulla, S.; Killeen, G.F.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biological control of malaria mosquitoes in Africa has rarely been used in vector control programs. Recent developments in this field show that certain fungi are virulent to adult Anopheles mosquitoes. Practical delivery of an entomopathogenic fungus that infected and killed adult Anopheles gambiae,

  19. Fun Microbiology: How To Measure Growth of a Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James K.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate a simple method for measuring fungus growth by monitoring the effect of temperature on the growth of Trichoderma viride. Among the advantages that this experimental model provides is introducing students to the importance of using the computer as a scientific tool for analyzing and presenting data. (AIM)

  20. OXIDATION OF PERSISTANT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY A WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium degraded DDT [1,1,-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane], 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,4,5,2',-4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, lindane (1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocylohexane), and benzo[a]pyrene t...

  1. A Brazilian social bee must cultivate fungus to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Cristiano; Vollet-Neto, Ayrton; Marsaioli, Anita Jocelyne; Zampieri, Davila; Fontoura, Isabela Cardoso; Luchessi, Augusto Ducati; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2015-11-02

    The nests of social insects provide suitable microenvironments for many microorganisms as they offer stable environmental conditions and a rich source of food [1-4]. Microorganisms in turn may provide several benefits to their hosts, such as nutrients and protection against pathogens [1, 4-6]. Several examples of symbiosis between social insects and microorganisms have been found in ants and termites. These symbioses have driven the evolution of complex behaviors and nest structures associated with the culturing of the symbiotic microorganisms [5, 7, 8]. However, while much is known about these relationships in many species of ants and termites, symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and social bees have been poorly explored [3, 4, 9, 10]. Here, we report the first case of an obligatory relationship between the Brazilian stingless bee Scaptotrigona depilis and a fungus of the genus Monascus (Ascomycotina). Fungal mycelia growing on the provisioned food inside the brood cell are eaten by the larva. Larvae reared in vitro on sterilized larval food supplemented with fungal mycelia had a much higher survival rate (76%) compared to larvae reared under identical conditions but without fungal mycelia (8% survival). The fungus was found to originate from the material from which the brood cells are made. Since the bees recycle and transport this material between nests, fungus would be transferred to newly built cells and also to newly founded nests. This is the first report of a fungus cultivation mutualism in a social bee.

  2. An Abietane Diterpene and a Sterol from Fungus Phellinus igniarius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new abietane diterpene 12-hydroxy-7-oxo-5, 8, 11, 13-tetraene-18, 6-abietanolide,together with a new natural sterol stigmasta-7, 22-diene-3β, 5α, 6α-triol have been isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Phellinus igniarius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques.

  3. Analysis of a Functional Lactate Permease in the Fungus Rhizopus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fungus Rhizopus is frequently used for fermentative production of lactic acid, but little is known about the mechanisms or proteins for transporting this carboxylic acid. Since transport of the lactate anion across the plasma membrane is critical to prevent acidification of the cytoplasm, we ev...

  4. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunnenberg, H.G.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was the isolation and characterization of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from the fungus Aspergillus nidulans, which was a part of a project concerning the regulation of gene expression in this lower eukaryote.

    The transcription of

  5. Endophytic fungus-vascular plant-insect interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, A; Wheatley, W; Popay, A

    2012-06-01

    Insect association with fungi has a long history. Theories dealing with the evolution of insect herbivory indicate that insects used microbes including fungi as their principal food materials before flowering plants evolved. Subtlety and the level of intricacy in the interactions between insects and fungi indicate symbiosis as the predominant ecological pattern. The nature of the symbiotic interaction that occurs between two organisms (the insect and the fungus), may be either mutualistic or parasitic, or between these two extremes. However, the triangular relationship involving three organisms, viz., an insect, a fungus, and a vascular plant is a relationship that is more complicated than what can be described as either mutualism or parasitism, and may represent facets of both. Recent research has revealed such a complex relationship in the vertically transmitted type-I endophytes living within agriculturally important grasses and the pestiferous insects that attack them. The intricacy of the association depends on the endophytic fungus-grass association and the insect present. Secondary compounds produced in the endophytic fungus-grass association can provide grasses with resistance to herbivores resulting in mutualistic relationship between the fungus and the plant that has negative consequences for herbivorous insects. The horizontally transmitted nongrass type-II endophytes are far less well studied and as such their ecological roles are not fully understood. This forum article explores the intricacy of dependence in such complex triangular relationships drawing from well-established examples from the fungi that live as endophytes in vascular plants and how they impact on the biology and evolution of free-living as well as concealed (e.g., gall-inducing, gall-inhabiting) insects. Recent developments with the inoculation of strains of type-I fungal endophytes into grasses and their commercialization are discussed, along with the possible roles the endophytic

  6. Morphophysiological Differences between the Metapleural Glands of Fungus-Growing and Non–Fungus-Growing Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non–fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non–fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non–fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites. PMID:22927993

  7. Morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro Santana; Bueno, Odair Correa; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2012-01-01

    The metapleural gland is an organ exclusive to ants. Its main role is to produce secretions that inhibit the proliferation of different types of pathogens. The aim of the present study was to examine the morphophysiological differences between the metapleural gland of 3 non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini, Myrmicini, and Blepharidattini and that of 5 fungus-growing ants from 2 basal and 3 derived attine genera. The metapleural gland of the non-fungus-growing ants and the basal attine ants has fewer secretory cells than that of the derived attine ants (leaf-cutting ants). In addition, the metapleural gland of the latter had more clusters of secretory cells and sieve plates, indicating a greater storage capacity and demand for secretion in these more advanced farming ants. The glands of the derived attine ants also produced higher levels of polysaccharides and acidic lipids than those of Myrmicini, Blepharidattini, and basal attines. Our results confirm morphophysiological differences between the metapleural glands of the derived attines and those of the basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, suggesting that the metapleural glands of the derived attines (leaf-cutting ants) are more developed in morphology and physiology, with enhanced secretion production (acidic lipids and protein) to protect against the proliferation of unwanted fungi and bacteria in the fungal garden, it is possible that leaf-cutting ants may have evolved more developed metapleural glands in response to stronger pressure from parasites.

  8. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Benjamin H; Mitchell, Jannette; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Carøe, Christian; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Poulsen, Michael; de Fine Licht, Henrik H

    2017-04-01

    This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001-FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2).

  9. Draft genome of the fungus-growing termite pathogenic fungus Ophiocordyceps bispora (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Conlon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents the public availability of genome sequence data and assembled contigs representing the partial draft genome of Ophiocordyceps bispora. As one of the few known pathogens of fungus-farming termites, a draft genome of O. bispora represents the opportunity to further the understanding of disease and resistance in these complex termite societies. With the ongoing attempts to resolve the taxonomy of the Hypocralaean family, more genetic data will also help to shed light on the phylogenetic relationship between sexual and asexual life stages. Next generation sequence data is available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA under accession PRJEB13655; run numbers: ERR1368522, ERR1368523, and ERR1368524. Genome assembly available from ENA under accession numbers: FKNF01000001–FKNF01000302. Gene prediction available as protein fasta, nucleotide fasta and GFF file from Mendeley Data with accession doi:10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2 (http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/r99fd6g3s4.2.

  10. Gaeumannomyces graminis, the take-all fungus and its relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jacqueline; Ward, Elaine

    2004-07-01

    SUMMARY Take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is the most important root disease of wheat worldwide. Many years of intensive research, reflected by the large volume of literature on take-all, has led to a considerable degree of understanding of many aspects of the disease. However, effective and economic control of the disease remains difficult. The application of molecular techniques to study G. graminis and related fungi has resulted in some significant advances, particularly in the development of improved methods for identification and in elucidating the role of the enzyme avenacinase as a pathogenicity determinant in the closely related oat take-all fungus (G. graminis var. avenae). Some progress in identifying other factors that may be involved in determining host range and pathogenicity has been made, despite the difficulties of performing genetic analyses and the lack of a reliable transformation system.

  11. Potential for nitrogen fixation in fungus-growing termite symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix...... atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge...... this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues...

  12. Formulation of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaci Oussama Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two formulations containing culture filtrates and conidial suspensions of the endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum Berk. & M.A. Curtis, isolated previously from stems of Euphorbia bupleuroides subsp. luteola (Kralik Maire, were experimentally tested for their aphicid activity against the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scop. found in Algeria. It was shown that invert emulsions are more effective against aphids, than using aqueous suspensions. This was especially true for formulations containing culture filtrates. The relatively insignificant mortalities obtained by formulations containing conidial suspensions indicated a low infectious potential towards the aphids. The proteolytic activity seemed to be more important than the chitinolytic activity of the fungus against the black bean aphid A. fabae

  13. Secondary metabolite arsenal of an opportunistic pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignell, Elaine; Cairns, Timothy C; Throckmorton, Kurt; Nierman, William C; Keller, Nancy P

    2016-12-05

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a versatile fungus able to successfully exploit diverse environments from mammalian lungs to agricultural waste products. Among its many fitness attributes are dozens of genetic loci containing biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) producing bioactive small molecules (often referred to as secondary metabolites or natural products) that provide growth advantages to the fungus dependent on environment. Here we summarize the current knowledge of these BGCs-18 of which can be named to product-their expression profiles in vivo, and which BGCs may enhance virulence of this opportunistic human pathogen. Furthermore, we find extensive evidence for the presence of many of these BGCs, or similar BGCs, in distantly related genera including the emerging pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome in bats, and suggest such BGCs may be predictive of pathogenic potential in other fungi.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  14. Synthetic dye decolorization capacity of white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichlerová, Ivana; Homolka, Ladislav; Nerud, Frantisek

    2006-11-01

    The ability to decolorize eight chemically different synthetic dyes (Orange G, Amaranth, Orange I, Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), Cu-phthalocyanin, Poly R-478, Malachite Green and Crystal Violet) by the white rot fungus Dichomitus squalens was evaluated on agar plates. The fungus showed high decolorization capacity and was able to decolorize all dyes tested, but not to the same extent. Some of the dyes did not limit the decolorization capacity of the strain tested even at a concentration of 2g/l. The presence of the dyes in solid media reduced the mycelial growth rate of D. squalens; a positive correlation was found between the growth rate and the decolorization ability. Decolorization of Orange G and RBBR was studied also in liquid culture, where both dyes caused an enhancement of ligninolytic enzyme and overall hydrogen peroxide production and a decrease of biomass production. RBBR was removed to a higher extent than Orange G.

  15. Fungus-associated asthma: overcoming challenges in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    With regard to fungal colonization and fungal sensitization, the goals of fungus-associated asthma management are as follows: 1) to survey fungi colonizing the airways of patients repeatedly; 2) to evaluate the tendency of the colonizing fungi to sensitize patients and the influence on clinical manifestations of asthma; 3) to follow disease development to allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis or sinobronchial allergic mycosis; and 4) to determine whether fungal eradication from the airway of patients is beneficial from the viewpoints of future risk factors. Recent developments in molecular biological analyses have facilitated the identification of basidiomycetous fungi that were not previously thought to be of concern in fungal allergy. The total control of fungus-associated asthma will be accomplished by environmental management established from the viewpoint of both the ecology and life cycle of the responsible fungi.

  16. Four Novel Hydropyranoindeno- Derivatives from Marine Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    From the cultured filtrates of fungus Aspergillus versicolor,isolated from marine sponge Xestospongia exigua,four novel secondary metabolites,namely aspergillone 1,aspergillodiol 2, aspergillol 3 and 12-acetyl-aspergillol 4,have been isolated by column chromatographic separation.The structures of all the new compounds are established on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopy in conjugation with MS,UV spectral analysis.The basic structure pattern of those compounds possessed an hydroindenoisopyran nucleus.

  17. Biotransformation of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pothuluri, J.V.; Freeman, J.P.; Evans, F.E.; Cerniglia, C.E. (Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Fluorene, a tricyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is formed during the combustion of fossil fuels and is an important pollutant of aquatic ecosystems where it is highly toxic to fish and algae. Few studies on microbial biodegradation of fluorene have been reported. This investigation describes the metabolism of fluorene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 36112 and the identification of major metabolites. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fungus ganodermalucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2005-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 20(21)-dehydrolucidenic acid A (1) and methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A (2), and five new 20-hydroxylucidenic acids, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid D(2) (3), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid F (4), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid E(2) (5), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (6), and 20-hydroxylucidenic acid P (7), were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Ganoderma ludicum, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  19. a -Difluoromethylornithine Inhibits the Growth of Fungus Macrophomina phaseoli

    OpenAIRE

    PALAVAN-ÜNSAL, Narçin

    2014-01-01

    a -Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific enzyme activated inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus Macrophomina phaseoli (Tassi) Goidanich. Putrescine (Put), when added to the nutrient medium at a concentration of 0.25 mM, decreased the inhibitory effect of DFMO. These results suggest that polyamines (PAs) are essential for the growth of fungi and that DFMO is applicable to the alleviation or prevention of crop losses due to ph...

  20. Identification and characterization of glucoamylase from the fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Thor Seneca; Johnsen, Anders; Josefsen, K.;

    2006-01-01

    The glucoamylase from the thermophilic fungus Thermomyces lanuginosus has a molecular weight of 66 kDa and was characterized with isoelectric point, pH and temperature optimum of 3.8-4.0, 5.0 and 70 °C, respectively. In addition, the activation energy is 60.4 kJ/mol, Km is 3.5 mM and kcat is 25.3...

  1. A New Pyrone Derivative from Fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel pyrone derivative was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture broth of a strain of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. AL031. Its structure was characterized as 7-hydroxy-9-methoxyl-10-methyl-2H, 4aH, 6H, 10bH-pyrano[5, 6-c][2]benzopyran-2, 6-dione by spectroscopic analysis including IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra.

  2. Cytochalasin derivatives from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun La; Wang, Haibo; Park, Ju Hee; Hong, Jongki; Choi, Jae Sue; Im, Dong Soon; Chung, Hae Young; Jung, Jee H

    2015-01-01

    Four new cytochalasin derivatives (1-4), together with proxiphomin (5), were isolated from a jellyfish-derived fungus Phoma sp. The planar structures and relative stereochemistry were established by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration was defined by the modified Mosher's method. The compounds showed moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human solid tumor cell lines (A549, KB, and HCT116).

  3. Symbiotic Fungus of Marine Sponge Axinella sp. Producing Antibacterial Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trianto, A.; Widyaningsih, S.; Radjasa, OK; Pribadi, R.

    2017-02-01

    The emerging of multidrug resistance pathogenic bacteria cause the treatment of the diseaseshave become ineffective. There for, invention of a new drug with novel mode of action is an essential for curing the disease caused by an MDR pathogen. Marine fungi is prolific source of bioactive compound that has not been well explored. This study aim to obtain the marine sponges-associated fungus that producing anti-MDR bacteria substaces. We collected the sponge from Riung water, NTT, Indonesia. The fungus was isolated with affixed method, followed with purification with streak method. The overlay and disk diffusion agar methods were applied for bioactivity test for the isolate and the extract, respectively. Molecular analysis was employed for identification of the isolate. The sponge was identified based on morphological and spicular analysis. The ovelay test showed that the isolate KN15-3 active against the MDR Staphylococcus aureus and Eschericia coli. The extract of the cultured KN15-3 was also inhibited the S. aureus and E. coli with inhibition zone 2.95 mm and 4.13 mm, respectively. Based on the molecular analysis, the fungus was identified as Aspergillus sydowii. While the sponge was identified as Axinella sp.

  4. Biodegradation of polyethylene microplastics by the marine fungus Zalerion maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Ana; Duarte, Kátia; da Costa, João P; Santos, Patrícia S M; Pereira, R; Pereira, M E; Freitas, Ana C; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P

    2017-05-15

    Plastic yearly production has surpassed the 300milliontons mark and recycling has all but failed in constituting a viable solution for the disposal of plastic waste. As these materials continue to accumulate in the environment, namely, in rivers and oceans, in the form of macro-, meso-, micro- and nanoplastics, it becomes of the utmost urgency to find new ways to curtail this environmental threat. Multiple efforts have been made to identify and isolate microorganisms capable of utilizing synthetic polymers and recent results point towards the viability of a solution for this problem based on the biodegradation of plastics resorting to selected microbial strains. Herein, the response of the fungus Zalerion maritimum to different times of exposition to polyethylene (PE) pellets, in a minimum growth medium, was evaluated, based on the quantified mass differences in both the fungus and the microplastic pellets used. Additionally, molecular changes were assessed through attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Results showed that, under the tested conditions, Z. maritimum is capable of utilizing PE, resulting in the decrease, in both mass and size, of the pellets. These results indicate that this naturally occurring fungus may actively contribute to the biodegradation of microplastics, requiring minimum nutrients.

  5. Evolutionary transitions in enzyme activity of ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2010-07-01

    Fungus-growing (attine) ants and their fungal symbionts passed through several evolutionary transitions during their 50 million year old evolutionary history. The basal attine lineages often shifted between two main cultivar clades, whereas the derived higher-attine lineages maintained an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens are targeted primarily toward partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of nondomesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major breakdown of cell walls. The adaptive significance of the lower-attine symbiont shifts remains unclear. One of these shifts was obligate, but digestive advantages remained ambiguous, whereas the other remained facultative despite providing greater digestive efficiency.

  6. Decomposition of Plant Debris by the Nematophagous Fungus ARF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kening; Riggs, R D; Crippen, Devany

    2004-09-01

    In the study of the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes, knowledge of the saprophytic ability of a nematophagous fungus is necessary to understand its establishment and survival in the soil. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if the nematophagous fungus ARF (Arkansas Fungus) shows differential use of plant residues; and (ii) to determine if ARF still existed in the soil of a field in which ARF was found originally and in which the population level of Heterodera glycines had remained very low, despite 15 years of continuous, susceptible soybean. Laboratory studies of the decomposition of wheat straw or soybean root by ARF were conducted in two separate experiments, using a CO collection apparatus, where CO-free air was passed through sterilized cotton to remove the microorganisms in the air and then was passed over the samples, and evolved CO was trapped by KOH. Milligrams of C as CO was used to calculate the percentage decomposition of the plant debris by ARF. Data indicated ARF decomposed 11.7% of total organic carbon of the wheat straw and 20.1% of the soybean roots in 6 weeks. In the field soil study, 21 soil samples were taken randomly from the field. Only 3 months after the infestation of the soil with H. glycines, the percentage of parasitized eggs of H. glycines reached 64 +/- 19%, and ARF was isolated from most parasitized eggs of H. glycines. Research results indicated ARF could use plant residues to survive.

  7. Comparison and Selection of Organization Modes in Edible Fungus Industry of Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxiang; GE; Jilian; HU; Zhijian; GUO

    2013-01-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter of edible fungus in the world,and Shandong is the largest producer of edible fungus in China.This study is intended to select suitable organization mode for edible fungus industry of Shandong Province.On the basis of types and characteristics of existing edible fungus production modes in China,it is concluded that Shandong Province should take following measures:(1)giving priority to development of integrated organization mode;(2)steadily promoting park and factory mode in economically developed regions;(3)developing circular agriculture in regions with solid foundation of agriculture and animal husbandry.Finally,it puts forward following recommendations:(1)speeding up construction of standardization and information platform for edible fungus industry;(2)improving quality of personnel engaged in edible fungus industry;(3)bringing into play driving effect of leading enterprises;(4)developing and introducing deep processing enterprises.

  8. Degradation of Phenanthrene by a chilean white rot fungus Anthracophyllum discolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo, F.; Cuevas, R.; Rubilar, O.; Tortella, G.; Diez, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Anthracophyllum discolor, a white rot fungus of southern Chile, has been an efficient degrader of clorophenols and azo dyes. This fungus produces ligninolytic enzymes being manganese peroxidase (Mn) the major one produced. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of phenanthrene concentration of ligninolytic activity of A. Discolor measured by poly R-478 decolorazation, and to evaluate the potential of this fungus for degrading phenanthrene in liquid media. (Author)

  9. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  10. Isolated fungal promoters and gene transcription terminators and methods of protein and chemical production in a fungus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L; Magnuson, Jon K

    2014-05-27

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  11. Isolated Fungal Promoters and Gene Transcription Terminators and Methods of Protein and Chemical Production in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ziyu; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2008-11-11

    The present invention encompasses isolated gene regulatory elements and gene transcription terminators that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention also encompasses a method of utilizing a fungus for protein or chemical production. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to another molecule comprising a coding region of a gene of interest. The gene regulatory element and gene transcription terminator may temporally and spatially regulate expression of particular genes for optimum production of compounds of interest in a transgenic fungus.

  12. Carbon dioxide sensing in an obligate insect-fungus symbiosis: CO2 preferences of leaf-cutting ants to rear their mutualistic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO2 concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO2 concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO2 preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO2 concentrations, by quantifying number of workers in each chamber and amount of relocated fungus. Leaf-cutting ants used the CO2 concentration as a spatial cue when selecting places for fungus-rearing. A. lundii preferred intermediate CO2 levels, between 1 and 3%, as they would encounter at soil depths where their nest chambers are located. In addition, workers avoided both atmospheric and high CO2 levels as they would occur outside the nest and at deeper soil layers, respectively. In order to prevent fungus desiccation, however, workers relocated fungus to high CO2 levels, which were otherwise avoided. Workers' CO2 preferences for themselves showed no clear-cut pattern. We suggest that workers avoid both atmospheric and high CO2 concentrations not because they are detrimental for themselves, but because of their consequences for the symbiotic partner. Whether the preferred CO2 concentrations are beneficial for symbiont growth remains to be investigated, as well as whether the observed preferences for fungus-rearing influences the ants

  13. 毛霉高产蛋白酶菌株产酶条件的优化%Optimization of the Producing Conditions of Enzyme for Mucor With High Productive Protease Strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 曹新志; 游见明; 刘春明

    2012-01-01

    The article studied the producing conditions of enzyme for Mucor with high productive protease strain that was induced mutation by UV. The purpose was to improve enzyme activity further. The results of single factor experiments and orthogonal tests indicated that the optimal culture medium initial pH value, proportion of bran and soybean meal, ratio of material and water, culture temperature, culture time for this excellent mutant strain to produce protease were 7.0, 7.3,1:1.1, 28℃ 3d. The strain's protease activity was 180.529U/g after optimization, which had increased by 54%.%对经紫外线诱变选育的毛霉高产蛋白酶菌株进行产酶条件优化,使酶活得到进一步提高.单因素试验和正交试验得该优良突变菌株的最优产酶条件为:培养基初始pH 7.0,麸皮豆粕比7∶3,料水比1∶1.1,培养温度28℃,培养时间3d.优化后蛋白酶活力达180.529U/g,比优化前提高了54%.

  14. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Andrade de Prince

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib. B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae, cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties.

  15. Cultivation of tea fungus on malt extract medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Dragoljub D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of application of malt extract as a source of carbohydrate in a medium for tea fungus was investigated. The beverage obtained on such medium was compared with that prepared in a traditional way with sucrose medium. The presence of easily adoptable sugars, glucose and fructose, as dominant in malt medium results in a very effective fermentation, which gives much more sour beverage for the same time and makes it possible to reduce the fermentation period. The obtained beverage has satisfactory sensorial characteristics.

  16. Arsenate resistant Penicillium coffeae: a potential fungus for soil bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargavi, S D; Savitha, J

    2014-03-01

    Bioremediation is an effective method for the treatment of major metal contaminated sites. Fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from different arsenate contaminated areas across India. An isolate, Penicillium coffeae, exhibited resistance to arsenate up to 500 mM. Results indicated that pretreatment of biomass with alkali (NaOH) enhanced the percentage of adsorption to 66.8% as compared to that of live and untreated dead biomass whose adsorption was 22.9% and 60.2% respectively. The physiological parameters evaluated in this study may help pilot studies aimed at bioremediation of arsenate contaminated effluents using arsenate resistant fungus P. coffeae.

  17. Microsatellites from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Wang, Xinwang; Johnson, Denita H; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2009-05-01

    Microsatellite loci were identified from the charcoal rot fungus (Macrophomina phaseolina). Primer pairs for 46 loci were developed, and of these, 13 were optimized and screened using genomic DNA from 55 fungal isolates collected predominantly from two soybean fields in Mississippi. Twelve of the optimized loci were polymorphic and the number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 22. These microsatellites will be useful in population and pathogenicity studies to correspond with development of potential disease-resistant soybean and other susceptible crops. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  18. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    . Inquilines are usually close relatives of their host and so share ancestral characteristics (Emery’s rule). They are dependent on being fully integrated into their host’s colony throughout their lives in order to reproduce. Most inquiline ants have completely lost their sterile worker caste. Exceptions...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  19. A New Cerebroside, Asperiamide A, from Marine Fungus Asperillus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Ming-An; CHEN,Bi-E; KUO,Yueh-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cerebrosides and ceramides[1] have been isolated from a number of marine organisms such as sea stars, sea anemones, gorgonians, sponges, tunicates, dinoflagellates, and green algae. Some cerebroside and ceramides exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor,[2,3] immunostimulatory,[4] antifungal,[5] and antiviral[6] activites. In the search for bioactive components,two water soluble constituents, asperiamide A and adenosine, were isolated from the marine fungus Asperillus sp. The current report describes the structural elucidation of a new compound, aspefiamide A (1) and a known one, adenosine (2).

  20. Two new terpenoids from endophytic fungus Periconia sp. F-31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Han-Lin; Zhang, De-Wu; Li, Li; Xie, Dan; Zou, Jian-Hua; Si, Yi-Kang; Dai, Jungui

    2011-01-01

    Two new terpenoids, (+)-(3S,6S,7R,8S)-periconone A (1) and (-)-(1R,4R,6S,7S)-2-caren-4,8-olide (2), have been isolated from an endophytic fungus Periconia sp., which was collected from the plant Annona muricata. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. In the in vitro assays, the two compounds showed low cytotoxic activities against six human tumor cell lines (HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549, A2780 and MCF-7) with IC(50)>10(-5) M.

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOPORIUM: INVOLVEMENT OF THE LIGNIN DEGRADING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The white-rot fungus Phanrochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organic compounds, including a number of environmentally persistent organopollutants. The unique biodegradative abilities of this fungus appears to be depend...

  2. First unusual case of keratitis in Europe due to the rare fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorin, Josephine; Debourgogne, Anne; Zaïdi, Mohamed; Bazard, Marie-Christine; Machouart, Marie

    2015-05-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae is a fungus utilized worldwide for insect-pest biocontrol. Few M. anisopliae infections have been reported previously. Here, M. anisopliae was isolated from a corneal ulcer in a healthy man. It is the first ocular case in France and Europe of this extremely rare fungus in humans.

  3. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data.

  4. Vertical transmission as the key to the colonization of Madagascar by fungus-growing termites?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nobre, T.; Eggleton, P.; Aanen, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The mutualism between fungus-growing termites (Macrotermitinae) and their mutualistic fungi (Termitomyces) began in Africa. The fungus-growing termites have secondarily colonized Madagascar and only a subset of the genera found in Africa is found on this isolated island. Successful long-distance col

  5. Insect symbioses: a case study of past, present, and future fungus-growing ant research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldera, Eric J; Poulsen, Michael; Suen, Garret

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) engage in an obligate mutualism with fungi they cultivate for food. Although biologists have been fascinated with fungus-growing ants since the resurgence of natural history in the modern era, the early stages of research focused mainly on the foraging beh...

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-Associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leandro F; Stielow, J Benjamin; de Vries, Michel; Weiss, Vinicius A; Vicente, Vania A; de Hoog, Sybren

    2015-11-19

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associated fungus, P. attae, is presented here. Copyright © 2015 Moreno et al.

  7. First localities in Poland of the recently described fungus Cordyceps bifusispora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bujakiewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Two localities of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bifusispora, hitherto not reported from Poland, are characterised by their site conditions and co-occurring macrofungi during the period of the appearance of its stromata. Description of this fungus culture is given and some remarks on the resemblance of its teleomorphs and anamorphs from different collections are discussed.

  8. Mating and Progeny Isolation in The Corn Smut Fungus Ustilago maydis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis (U. maydis) (DC.) Corda, is a semi-obligate plant pathogenic fungus in the phylum Basidiomycota (Alexopoulos, Mims and Blackwell, 1996). The fungus can be easily cultured in its haploid yeast phase on common laboratory media. However, to complete its sexual cy...

  9. Differential response by Melaleuca quinquenervia trees to attack by the rust fungus Puccinia psidii in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca, paperbark tree) is an exotic invasive tree in Florida, Hawaii, and some Caribbean islands. Puccinia psidii (guava rust-fungus) is a Neotropical rust fungus, reported to attack many species in the Myrtaceae and one genus in the Heteropyxidaceae, both members of the...

  10. BIO-DEINKING OF ONP AND ITS EFFLUENT TREATMENT BY WHITE ROT FUNGUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Lin; Chunsheng Pang; Deqing Zhao; Liping Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Deinking of secondary fiber of ONP and effluent treatment with white rot fungus were studied in this paper. Results showed that white rot fungus exerted significant effect on deinking of ONP and CODcr decrease and degradation of pollutants of deinking effluent.

  11. Using copper sulfate to control egg fungus at Keo Fish Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keo Fish Farm is the biggest producer of hybrid striped bass fry in the world. The hatchery manager asked about treatments to control fungus on eggs which occurred fairly often. Our lab has been working on gaining FDA-approval to use copper sulfate to control fungus on catfish eggs, so we were con...

  12. Screening of Fungus Antagonists against Six Main Disease Pathogens in Crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    28 soil samples were collected from the rhizosphere of 16 plant species in six different districts in Hunan. As a result of isolation and purification, 122 fungus strains were obtained of which the antagonistic activity was tested against six fungus pathogens in tomato, cotton, cucumber, chilli, rice and rape, and 17 strains were found antagonistic to one or more pathogenic fungi.

  13. Two novel eremophilane sesquiterpenes from an endophytic Xylariaceous fungus isolated from leaves of Cupressus lusitanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Luciana S.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson, E-mail: edson@dq.ufscar.b [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DQ/UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Two new eremophilane sesquiterpenes, cupressolide A and cupressolide B, along with two known sesquiterpenes, has been characterized from the EtOAc extract of a liquid medium where a Xylariaceous fungus, isolated as an endophytic fungus from health tissues of Cupressus lusitanica leaves, was cultivated. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by analyses of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data. (author)

  14. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND MASS PRODUCTION OF NEMATOPHAGOUS FUNGUS NEMATOCTONUS ROBUSTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh babu S,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The plant parasitic nematodes infect the root tissues of the plant causing root galls that lead to reduced water and mineral uptake in the plant root system. Nematophagous fungus are used as biocontrol for the nematodes. Among those Nematoctonus are one of the species used as bioagent. Nematoctonus species produces an extensive mycelium and capture many nematodes with hour glass shaped adhesive knobs on the hyphae. Nematodes become attached to these adhesive knobs and the cuticle of nematode is penetrated by the infective hyphae. This isolate of Nematoctonus robustus is characterized by hyaline mycelium, dikaryotic in nature containing genetically two different nuclei in each cell, having distinct clamp connection. The fungus has better colonizing ability on natural solid substrates like wheat straw and rice straw. It also show good ability to colonize on different cereal grains and various other waste products like coconut coir and FYM etc. This species is one of the best used for mass production and effective for control of plant parasitic nematodes.

  15. Isolation and Identification of Glucoamylase Producer Fungus from Sago Hampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Asben

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste of sago processing, notably hampas (ela still contains sago starch is waste that has not been utilized optimally yet  and causing pollution. Isolation and identification of glucoamylase producer fungus of sago hampas waste  were aims to obtain isolates that have gluco-amylolytic properties, and to know glucoamylase activity of selected fungus isolates after grown on artificial medium.  Indegeneous isolates that can produced glucoamylase will be use to get sugar hidrolysate from starch of sago hampas waste for bioetanol production. The study was conducted with the following stages: 1Take the sample from the tennis, 2 Isolation and Identification, 3 Characterization (clear zone, and 4 The production of glucoamylase from selected isolates, The results obtained are: 1 Isolation of fungi gluco-amylolytic from 2 sources sago hampas were produced 10 isolates. Ten isolates were divided into 4 genuses: Gliocladium (as dominant isolate, Aspergilus, Rizhopus and Geotrichum. Isolates of Gliocladium KE gaves the largest degradation of starch on PDA-Starch medium (clear zone, and followed by isolates of Aspergillus GA; 2 Production of glucoamylase on sago hampas with modificated Danial medium (1992 gave the highest activity of Gliocladium KE   on the fifth day of incubation, namely: 10.72 U / mL of crude enzyme   from the supernatant of fermentation substrate (S, and 17.16 U / mL for crude enzyme from the extract of isopropanol isolation (E.

  16. The carbon starvation response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellström, Magnus; Shah, Firoz; Johansson, Tomas; Ahrén, Dag; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2015-04-01

    The amounts of carbon allocated to the fungal partner in ectomycorrhizal associations can vary substantially depending on the plant growth and the soil nutrient conditions, and the fungus may frequently be confronted with limitations in carbon. We used chemical analysis and transcriptome profiling to examine the physiological response of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus to carbon starvation during axenic cultivation. Carbon starvation induced a decrease in the biomass. Concomitantly, ammonium, cell wall material (chitin) and proteolytic enzymes were released into the medium, which suggest autolysis. Compared with the transcriptome of actively growing hyphae, about 45% of the transcripts analyzed were differentially regulated during C-starvation. Induced during starvation were transcripts encoding extracellular enzymes such as peptidases, chitinases and laccases. In parallel, transcripts of N-transporters were upregulated, which suggest that some of the released nitrogen compounds were re-assimilated by the mycelium. The observed changes suggest that the carbon starvation response in P. involutus is associated with complex cellular changes that involves autolysis, recycling of intracellular compounds by autophagy and reabsorption of the extracellular released material. The study provides molecular markers that can be used to examine the role of autolysis for the turnover and survival of the ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soils.

  17. No sex in fungus-farming ants or their crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himler, Anna G; Caldera, Eric J; Baer, Boris C; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2009-07-22

    Asexual reproduction imposes evolutionary handicaps on asexual species, rendering them prone to extinction, because asexual reproduction generates novel genotypes and purges deleterious mutations at lower rates than sexual reproduction. Here, we report the first case of complete asexuality in ants, the fungus-growing ant Mycocepurus smithii, where queens reproduce asexually but workers are sterile, which is doubly enigmatic because the clonal colonies of M. smithii also depend on clonal fungi for food. Degenerate female mating anatomy, extensive field and laboratory surveys, and DNA fingerprinting implicate complete asexuality in this widespread ant species. Maternally inherited bacteria (e.g. Wolbachia, Cardinium) and the fungal cultivars can be ruled out as agents inducing asexuality. M. smithii societies of clonal females provide a unique system to test theories of parent-offspring conflict and reproductive policing in social insects. Asexuality of both ant farmer and fungal crop challenges traditional views proposing that sexual farmer ants outpace coevolving sexual crop pathogens, and thus compensate for vulnerabilities of their asexual crops. Either the double asexuality of both farmer and crop may permit the host to fully exploit advantages of asexuality for unknown reasons or frequent switching between crops (symbiont reassociation) generates novel ant-fungus combinations, which may compensate for any evolutionary handicaps of asexuality in M. smithii.

  18. Transformation of Metalaxyl by the Fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Shu-Yen; Freyer, Alan J.; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    1989-01-01

    The fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter was found to transform the fungicide metalaxyl [N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester] in pure culture. After 21 days of incubation in a basal medium amended with 5 μg of metalaxyl per ml, more than 80% of the compound was transformed by the fungus. The transformation rates decreased as the concentrations of metalaxyl increased from 5 to 100 μg/ml. No transformation was observed when the concentration of metalaxyl was higher than 200 μg/ml. Two isomeric metabolites and a mixture of two other isomeric metabolites were isolated from the organic extract of the growth medium and identified as N-(2-methyl-6-hydroxymethylphenyl)-N- and N-(2-hydroxymethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester and N-(3-hydroxy- and N-(5-hydroxy-2,6-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(methoxyacetyl)-alanine methyl ester according to their mass-spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectral characteristics. Benzylic hydroxylation of the methyl side chains and/or aromatic hydroxylation appeared to be the major reactions involved in the metabolism of metalaxyl. PMID:16347836

  19. A novel thermophilic endoglucanase from a mesophilic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shuyan; DUAN Xinyuan; LU Xuemei; GAO Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A novel thermophilic endoglucanase (EGt) was extracted from a mesophilic fungus (Fusarium oxysporum L19). We invoked conventional kinetic enzyme reactions using the sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na) as substrate. EGt displayed optimal activity at 75℃ when kept running 30 min in the temperature range of 30―85℃. Thermal stability curve measured at 70℃ suggested that its half-life time is 15.1 min. The activity was enhanced in the presence of Co2+ or Mg2+ but inhibited by Pb2+ and Fe3+. Moreover, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) modification resulted in a complete loss of EGt activity, suggesting that tryptophan residues 5 be involved in the enzyme active site. Amino acid composition analysis demonstrated that EGt contains more proline residues. EGt lacks activity towards p-nitrophenyl cellobiose (pNPC). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of EGt is SYRVPAANGFPNP- DASQEKQ, and the gene of EGt was sequenced and analyzed. Extensive sequence alignments failed to show any homology between EGt and any known endoglucanases. This is the first report addressing the thermal adaptation of a cellulolytic enzyme from the mesophilic fungus F. oxysporum. 5be the expression of multiple isoenzyme in an organism helps it adapt to complex living environments.

  20. Modulation of antimicrobial metabolites production by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A.P. Bracarense

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosynthesis of active secondary metabolites by fungi occurs as a specific response to the different growing environments. Changes in this environment alter the chemical and biological profiles leading to metabolites diversification and consequently to novel pharmacological applications. In this work, it was studied the influence of three parameters (fermentation length, medium composition and aeration in the biosyntheses of antimicrobial metabolites by the fungus Aspergillus parasiticus in 10 distinct fermentation periods. Metabolism modulation in two culturing media, CYA and YES was evaluated by a 2² full factorial planning (ANOVA and on a 2³ factorial planning, role of aeration, medium composition and carbohydrate concentration were also evaluated. In overall, 120 different extracts were prepared, their HPLC profiles were obtained and the antimicrobial activity against A. flavus, C. albicans, E. coli and S. aureus of all extracts was evaluated by microdilution bioassay. Yield of kojic acid, a fine chemical produced by the fungus A. parasiticus was determined in all extracts. Statistical analyses pointed thirteen conditions able to modulate the production of bioactive metabolites by A. parasiticus. Effect of carbon source in metabolites diversification was significant as shown by the changes in the HPLC profiles of the extracts. Most of the extracts presented inhibition rates higher than that of kojic acid as for the extract obtained after 6 days of fermentation in YES medium under stirring. Kojic acid was not the only metabolite responsible for the activity since some highly active extracts showed to possess low amounts of this compound, as determined by HPLC.

  1. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The response of filamentous fungus Rhizopus nigricans to flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slana, Marko; Zigon, Dušan; Makovec, Tomaž; Lenasi, Helena

    2011-08-01

    The saprophytic fungus Rhizopus nigricans constitutes a serious problem when thriving on gathered crops. The identification of any compounds, especially natural ones, that inhibit fungal growth, may therefore be important. During its life cycle, Rhizopus nigricans encounters many compounds, among them the flavonoids, plant secondary metabolites that are involved in plant defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Although not being a plant pathogen, Rhizopus nigricans may interact with these compounds in the same way as plant pathogens--in response to the fungitoxic effect of flavonoids the fungi transform them into less toxic metabolites. We have studied the interaction of R. nigricans with some flavonoids. Inhibition of hyphal spreading (from 3% to 100%) was observed by 300 μM flavones, flavanones and isoflavones, irrespective of their basic structure, oxidized or reduced C-ring, and orientation of the B-ring. However, a hydrophobic A-ring was important for the toxicity. R. nigricans transformed some of the flavonoids into glucosylated products. Recognition of substrates for glucosylating enzyme(s) did not correlate with their fungitoxic effect but depended exclusively on the presence of a free -OH group in the flavonoid A-ring and of a hydrophobic B-ring. Although the fungus produced glucosyltransferase constitutively, an additional amount of the enzyme was induced by the substrate flavonoid. Moreover, effective detoxification was shown to require the presence of glucose.

  3. Isolation and characterization of an endo-beta-D-glucuronidase from the fungus Kobayasia nipponica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihashi, H; Yadomae, T; Miyazaki, T

    1984-12-01

    An endo-beta-D-glucuronidase was isolated and characterized from Kobayasia nipponica. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation, CM-Sephadex chromatography, gel filtration with Sephacryl S-200, and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme shows the following properties: optimum pH 5.0, thermal stability below 37 degrees C, pH stability 5-6, optimum temperature 45-55 degrees C, and Km 0.12% for L-idurono-D-glucuronan (protuberic acid (PA), L-IdUA:D-GlcUA = 1:2) from Kobayasia nipponica, 0.19% for PF (L-IdUA:D-GlcUA = 1:3) from Pseudocolus fusiformis, and 0.23% for (1-4)-beta-D-glucuronan(mucoric acid) from Mucor mucedo as determined from Hofstee plots. The molecular weight values estimated by gel filtration through Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-50 and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate were 10,500 and 10,200, respectively. The endo-beta-D-glucuronidase was inactive towards several glycosaminoglycans.

  4. Effect and influence factors of sulfur removal in coal with fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE De-wen; JIN Yan; CHAI Li-yuan; HUANG Rui; PENG Bing; WANG Yun-yan

    2005-01-01

    The influence of coal desulfurization by fungus was experimentally studied. The results suggest that fungus can effectively remove inorganic and organic sulfur in coal, and main influences of desulfurization by fungus of pH value, temperature, coal slurry concentration and coal granularity were studied by orthodox experiment and the optimal experimental conditions are′as follows: pH value 6, temperature 45 ℃, coal slurry concentration 10% and coal granularity 100 μm. Under above conditions, fungus car remove up to 44.96% total sulfur and 54. 87% inorganic sulfur within two days, and their desulfurization rates will increase along with time. Compared with sulfolobas, desulphurization by fungus is steady and more effective, and has advantage of high speed.

  5. Accumulation and chemical states of radiocesium by fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Sakamoto, Fuminori; Kozai, Naofumi; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yu, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    After accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the fall-out radiocesium was deposited on the ground. Filamentous fungus is known to accumulate radiocesium in environment, even though many minerals are involved in soil. These facts suggest that fungus affect the migration behavior of radiocesium in the environment. However, accumulation mechanism of radiocesium by fungus is not understood. In the present study, accumulation and chemical states change of Cs by unicellular fungus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied to elucidate the role of microorganisms in the migration of radiocesium in the environment. Two different experimental conditions were employed; one is the accumulation experiments of radiocesium by S. cerevisiae from the agar medium containing 137Cs and a mineral of zeolite, vermiculite, smectite, mica, or illite. The other is the experiments using stable cesium to examine the chemical states change of Cs. In the former experiment, the cells were grown on membrane filter of 0.45 μm installed on the agar medium. After the grown cells were weighed, radioactivity in the cells was measured by an autoradiography technique. The mineral weight contents were changed from 0.1% to 1% of the medium. In the latter experiment, the cells were grown in the medium containing stable Cs between 1 mM and 10mM. The Cs accumulated cells were analyzed by SEM-EDS and EXAFS. The adsorption experiments of cesium by the cells under resting condition were also conducted to test the effect of cells metabolic activity. Without mineral in the medium, cells of S. cerevisiae accumulated 1.5x103 Bq/g from the medium containing 137Cs of 2.6x102 Bq/g. When mineral was added in the medium, concentration of 137Cs in the cells decreased. The concentration of 137Cs in the cells from the medium containing different minerals were in the following order; smectite, illite, mica > vermiculite > zeolite. This order was nearly the same as the inverse of distribution coefficient of

  6. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  7. Towards an integrated understanding of the consequences of fungus domestication on the fungus-growing termite gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas-Poulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some of the func......Approximately 30 million years ago (MYA), the subfamily of higher termites Macrotermitinae domesticated a fungus, Termitomyces, as the main plant decomposer and food source for the termite host. The origin of fungiculture shifted the composition of the termite gut microbiota, and some...... of the functional implications of this shift have recently been established. I review reports on the composition of the Macrotermitinae gut microbiota, evidence for a subfamily core gut microbiota, and the first insight into functional complementarity between fungal and gut symbionts. In addition, I argue that we...... need to explore the capacities of all members of the symbiotic communities, including better solidifying Termitomyces role(s) in order to understand putative complementary gut bacterial contributions. Approaches that integrate natural history and sequencing data to elucidate symbiont functions...

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the response of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, to the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujor, V C; Peiris, D G; Monti, M; Kang, A S; Clements, M O; Hedger, J N

    2012-04-01

    Investigation of changes in the protein profile of the wood-rot fungus, Schizophyllum commune, when paired against the biocontrol fungus, Trichoderma viride, for 48 h. Variations in protein profile resulting from contact with T. viride were assessed by spot separation using 2 dimensional protein gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-TOF MS/MS protein identification. Contact with T. viride elicited a systematic response in S. commune, characterized by marked increases in proteins involved for transcription and translation (61%) and cell wall/hyphal biogenesis and stabilization (17%), whereas metabolism-associated proteins decreased in amounts (64%). Trichoderma viride, however, exhibited typical mycoparasitic behaviour with increases in the amounts of proteins involved in proteolysis and carbohydrate metabolism. The protein profile of S. commune confronted by T. viride indicates the up-regulation of mechanisms specifically targeted at the mycoparasitic machinery of T. viride, particularly cell wall lysis and antibiosis. The proteomic responses observed in S. commune may occur in natural environments, providing an insight to the mechanism involved in conferring resistance to mycoparasitic attack. This study, therefore, warrants further investigation for the targeted design of more robust biocontrol agents. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Directed evolution of a filamentous fungus for thermotolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyons Thomas J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotic biocatalysts in industrial and chemical applications. Consequently, there is tremendous interest in methodology that can use the power of genetics to develop strains with improved performance. For example, Metarhizium anisopliae is a broad host range entomopathogenic fungus currently under intensive investigation as a biologically based alternative to chemical pesticides. However, it use is limited by the relatively low tolerance of this species to abiotic stresses such as heat, with most strains displaying little to no growth between 35–37°C. In this study, we used a newly developed automated continuous culture method called the Evolugator™, which takes advantage of a natural selection-adaptation strategy, to select for thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae strain 2575 displaying robust growth at 37°C. Results Over a 4 month time course, 22 cycles of growth and dilution were used to select 2 thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae. Both variants displayed robust growth at 36.5°C, whereas only one was able to grow at 37°C. Insect bioassays using Melanoplus sanguinipes (grasshoppers were also performed to determine if thermotolerant variants of M. anisopliae retained entomopathogenicity. Assays confirmed that thermotolerant variants were, indeed, entomopathogenic, albeit with complex alterations in virulence parameters such as lethal dose responses (LD50 and median survival times (ST50. Conclusion We report the experimental evolution of a filamentous fungus via the novel application of a powerful new continuous culture device. This is the first example of using continuous culture to select for complex phenotypes such as thermotolerance. Temperature adapted variants of the insect-pathogenic, filamentous fungus M. anisopliae were isolated and demonstrated to show vigorous growth at a temperature that is inhibitory for the parent strain. Insect virulence assays

  10. Protein profiling of the dimorphic, pathogenic fungus, Penicillium marneffei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rundle William T

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that afflicts immunocompromised individuals having lived or traveled in Southeast Asia. This species is unique in that it is the only dimorphic member of the genus. Dimorphism results from a process, termed phase transition, which is regulated by temperature of incubation. At room temperature, the fungus grows filamentously (mould phase, but at body temperature (37°C, a uninucleate yeast form develops that reproduces by fission. Formation of the yeast phase appears to be a requisite for pathogenicity. To date, no genes have been identified in P. marneffei that strictly induce mould-to-yeast phase conversion. In an effort to help identify potential gene products associated with morphogenesis, protein profiles were generated from the yeast and mould phases of P. marneffei. Results Whole cell proteins from the early stages of mould and yeast development in P. marneffei were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Selected proteins were recovered and sequenced by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. Putative identifications were derived by searching available databases for homologous fungal sequences. Proteins found common to both mould and yeast phases included the signal transduction proteins cyclophilin and a RACK1-like ortholog, as well as those related to general metabolism, energy production, and protection from oxygen radicals. Many of the mould-specific proteins identified possessed similar functions. By comparison, proteins exhibiting increased expression during development of the parasitic yeast phase comprised those involved in heat-shock responses, general metabolism, and cell-wall biosynthesis, as well as a small GTPase that regulates nuclear membrane transport and mitotic processes in fungi. The cognate gene encoding the latter protein, designated RanA, was subsequently cloned and characterized. The P. marneffei RanA protein

  11. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. II. Study of cellular lipids of Mucor circinelloides during growth on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial oil production from fatty materials of animal or plant origin has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. During the process of microbial growth/accumulation of fat reserves, the dominating phenomena that define the composition of endocellular fat are, first, the specific process of incorporation of substrate fatty acids into the microbial cell and, second, the endocellular changes of fatty acids defined by the enzymic capabilities of the microorganism. The fatty acids will either be degraded for growth needs or act as substrate of endocellular biotransformation processes, leading to concentration changes and production of "new" fatty acids which did not previously exist in the substrate.
    The purpose of the present work is to study the endocellular lipids of Mucor circinelloidesCBS 172-27 grown on sunflower oil. The mathematical model, described in part I, was applied in order to investigate the following:
    a. Microorganism specificity in the incorporation of substrate fatty acids.
    b. Microorganism specificity in the degradation of fatty acids present in the reserve fat.
    c. Possibilities of endocellular biotransformations during the microbial growth.
    In conclusion, this work is aimed at developing a quantitative expression of parameters defining the lipid composition of fat reserves. The proposed mathematical model can be used not only for selection of microbial strains having specific enzymic potential but also for substrate selection.

    La producción de aceites microbianos a partir de materiales grasos de origen animal o vegetal ha sido objeto de investigación e interés industrial durante muchos años. En el proceso de crecimiento microbiano/acumulación de reservas grasas, los fenómenos dominantes que definen la composición de grasa endocelular son, primero, el proceso específico de incorporación de ácidos grasos como sustratos en la célula microbiana

  12. 米黑毛霉凝乳酶制备切达干酪的工艺参数优化%Optimization of Preparation Process for Cheddarc Cheese using Chymosin from Mucor miehei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马江; 曹磊; 张忠明; 关明玲; 刘昕; 师希雄; 姚拓; 张卫兵

    2016-01-01

    为确定米黑毛霉凝乳酶制作切达干酪的最佳工艺条件,以感官评分和出品率为响应值,在单因素试验的基础上,采用响应面法对主要工艺参数进行了优化.试验得到的米黑毛霉凝乳酶制作切达干酪的最佳工艺参数为:酶添加量为2900.38SU/L、凝乳pH为6.2、CaCl2添加量为0.04%、凝乳温度为34℃、发酵剂添加量为0.14%;在此条件下,干酪感官评分为(95.2±0.34),试验结果与预测值接近,证明模型拟合程度较好.%In order to determine the optimal processing parameters for hard cheese using chymosin from Mucor miehe, the response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the main technological parameters, using sensory evaluation and yield as response value. The optimal processing parameters was obtained as follows:the addi-tion of chymosin was 2900.38SU/L, the curd pH was 6.2, the addition of CaCl2 was 0.04%, the curd temperature was 34℃,the addition of starter culture was 0.14%. Under these conditions, the sensory score of cheese was (95.2±0.34). The model turned out to be with good fitting degree.

  13. A role for antioxidants in acclimation of marine derived pathogenic fungus (NIOCC 1) to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Chinnarajan; Varatharajan, Govindaswamy R; Rajasabapathy, Raju; Vijayakanth, S; Kumar, Alagu Harish; Meena, Ram M

    2012-09-01

    Salinity tolerance a key factor helps in understanding the ionic homeostasis in general, which is a fundamental cellular phenomenon in all living cells. Here, a marine derived pathogenic fungus was examined for its adaptation under salt stress using antioxidant properties. The aqueous extracts of halophilic fungus exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in all the in vitro tests such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)), Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Assay (HRSA), Metal chelating assay and β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. The antioxidant capacity of marine fungus exposed to high salt condition showed an increase in activity. In addition, the production of intra and extracellular antioxidant enzymes of the fungus at various salt stresses were analyzed and discussed for their possible role in the stress mechanism. The marine derived fungus was identified as Phialosimplex genus, which is associated with infections in dogs. Thus the present study elucidates that the scavenging activity is one of the protective mechanisms developed in the fungus to avoid the deleterious effect of salt stress. In addition, the study also helps in understanding how the pathogenic fungus tackles the oxidative burst i.e. hypersensitivity reaction performed by host to kill the pathogens.

  14. Biosorption of cadmium using the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Barros Júnior

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. An experimental design was also used to determine the values of the under study variables that provided the greatest biosorption efficiency. A technique for biomass recovery was also developed with the objective of determining the capacity of the regenerated biomass to biosorb the metals in solution. This research proved that with a pH of 4.75, a biomass concentration of 0.7 g/L, and a heavy metal concentration varying between 5 and 10 mg/L a biosorption process of biosorption with Aspergillus niger could be successfully used for heavy metal removal from oil field water in the oil industry.

  15. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  16. Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Cusuco National Park, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Padgett-Flohr, Gretchen E; Field, Richard

    2010-11-01

    Amphibian population declines in Honduras have long been attributed to habitat degradation and pollution, but an increasing number of declines are now being observed from within the boundaries of national parks in pristine montane environments. The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in these declines and was recently documented in Honduras from samples collected in Pico Bonito National Park in 2003. This report now confirms Cusuco National Park, a protected cloud forest reserve with reported amphibian declines, to be the second known site of infection for Honduras. B. dendrobatidis infection was detected in 5 amphibian species: Craugastor rostralis, Duellmanohyla soralia, Lithobates maculata, Plectrohyla dasypus, and Ptychohyla hypomykter. D. soralia, P. dasypus, and P. hypomykter are listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have severely fragmented or restricted distributions. Further investigations are necessary to determine whether observed infection levels indicate an active B. dendrobatidis epizootic with the potential to cause further population declines and extinction.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Sporulation in the Filamentous Fungus Ashbya gossypii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wasserstrom, Lisa

    Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually reproduc......Sporulation is a complex developmental program that fungi enter to ensure survival in unfavorable environmental conditions. Many fungal species are able to produce spores sexually through meiosis, which is beneficial since it introduces genetic variability into a population. The sexually......, which is regulated by the pheromone response pathway. Most ascomycetes have been reported to produce meiotic spores, however, a sexual cycle has not yet been identified in the filamentous fungus Ashbya gossypii. The main focus of my doctoral thesis has therefore been to understand the mechanisms behind...

  18. Polyketides from the Halotolerant Fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new polyketides, myrothecol (1 and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-(1- hydroxylethyl-furan-2(5H-one (2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of the halotolerant fungus Myrothecium sp. GS-17 along with three known compounds, 5-hydroxyl-3-[(1S-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methylfuran-2(5H-one (3, 3,5-dimethyl-4- hydroxylmethyl-5-methoxyfuran-2(5H-one (4, and 3,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-5- hydroxyfuran-2(5H-one (5. Compound 1 is the first natural occurring polyketide with a unique furylisobenzofuran skeleton. The structures of these compounds were established via extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D-, 2D-NMR, HRESI-MS, and crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

  19. New Bergamotane Sesquiterpenoids from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Paraconiothyrium brasiliense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Guo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brasilamides K-N (1–4, four new bergamotane sesquiterpenoids; with 4-oxatricyclo (3.3.1.0 2,7nonane (1and 9-oxatricyclo(4.3.0.0 4,7nonane (2–4 skeletons; were isolated from the scale-up fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Paraconiothynium brasiliense Verkley. The previously identified sesquiterpenoids brasilamides A and C (5 and 6 were also reisolated in the current work. The structures of 1–4 were elucidated primarily by interpretation of NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1–3 were deduced by analogy to the co-isolated metabolites 5 and 6; whereas that of C-12 in 4 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. The cytotoxicity of all compounds against a panel of eight human tumor cell lines were assayed.

  20. Molecular Karyotype of the White Rot Fungus Pleurotus ostreatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larraya, Luis M.; Pérez, Gumer; Peñas, María M.; Baars, Johan J. P.; Mikosch, Thomas S. P.; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    1999-01-01

    The white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus is an edible basidiomycete with increasing agricultural and biotechnological importance. Genetic manipulation and breeding of this organism are restricted because of the lack of knowledge about its genomic structure. In this study, we analyzed the genomic constitution of P. ostreatus by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis optimized for the separation of its chromosomes. We have determined that it contains 11 pairs of chromosomes with sizes ranging from 1.4 to 4.7 Mbp. In addition to chromosome separation, the use of single-copy DNA probes allowed us to resolve the ambiguities caused by chromosome comigration. When the two nuclei present in the dikaryon were separated by protoplasting, analysis of their karyotypes revealed length polymorphisms affecting various chromosomes. This is, to our knowledge, the clearest chromosome separation available for this species. PMID:10427028

  1. The invasive chytrid fungus of amphibians paralyzes lymphocyte responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fites, J Scott; Ramsey, Jeremy P; Holden, Whitney M; Collier, Sarah P; Sutherland, Danica M; Reinert, Laura K; Gayek, A Sophia; Dermody, Terence S; Aune, Thomas M; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2013-10-18

    The chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, causes chytridiomycosis and is a major contributor to global amphibian declines. Although amphibians have robust immune defenses, clearance of this pathogen is impaired. Because inhibition of host immunity is a common survival strategy of pathogenic fungi, we hypothesized that B. dendrobatidis evades clearance by inhibiting immune functions. We found that B. dendrobatidis cells and supernatants impaired lymphocyte proliferation and induced apoptosis; however, fungal recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils was not impaired. Fungal inhibitory factors were resistant to heat, acid, and protease. Their production was absent in zoospores and reduced by nikkomycin Z, suggesting that they may be components of the cell wall. Evasion of host immunity may explain why this pathogen has devastated amphibian populations worldwide.

  2. Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune: an emerging pathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashok Kumar; Ashok, Rangaiahgari; Majety, Madhavi; Chitta, Megharaj; Narayen, Nitesh

    2016-07-12

    Fungal keratitis due to Schizophyllum commune is very rare. In this study, we report the clinical and microbiological profile of five patients with fungal keratitis due to S. commune. Direct microscopic examination of corneal scrapings from all five patients showed septate branching hyaline fungal filaments. Similarly, in all five patients Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) plates inoculated with corneal scrapings showed white, cottony colonies on the second day of incubation. Lactophenol cotton blue stained wet preparation of 7-day-old colonies on SDA revealed clamp connections and no spores. The fungus was identified by its characteristic clamp connections, fan-shaped bracket fruiting body with pinkish-grey longitudinally split-radiating gills. The phenotypic identification of one of the five isolates further conformed by ITS sequencing. Treatment outcome was available for two of the five patients; in these two patients, the keratitis resolved with topical natamycin. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Garden sharing and garden stealing in fungus-growing ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M. M.; Mueller, U. G.; Holloway, Alisha K.; Green, Abigail M.; Narozniak, Joanie

    Fungi cultivated by fungus-growing ants (Attini: Formicidae) are passed on between generations by transfer from maternal to offspring nest (vertical transmission within ant species). However, recent phylogenetic analyses revealed that cultivars are occasionally also transferred between attine species. The reasons for such lateral cultivar transfers are unknown. To investigate whether garden loss may induce ants to obtain a replacement cultivar from a neighboring colony (lateral cultivar transfer), pairs of queenright colonies of two Cyphomyrmex species were set up in two conjoined chambers; the garden of one colony was then removed to simulate the total crop loss that occurs naturally when pathogens devastate gardens. Garden-deprived colonies regained cultivars through one of three mechanisms: joining of a neighboring colony and cooperation in a common garden; stealing of a neighbor's garden; or aggressive usurpation of a neighbor's garden. Because pathogens frequently devastate attine gardens under natural conditions, garden joining, stealing and usurpation emerge as critical behavioral adaptations to survive garden catastrophes.

  4. Antimicrobial Aromatic Polyketides from Gorgonian- Associated Fungus, Penicillium commune 518

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊锋; 刘培培; 王义; 王慧; 李静; 庄以彬; 朱伟明

    2012-01-01

    Seven new aromatic polyketides, communols A-G (1-7), were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of Penicillium commune 518, a marine-derived fungus associated with the Gorgonian, Muricella abnormalis. The new structures of 1-7 were determined by spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Among them, communol D (4) was the first example of a naturally occurring aromatic polyketide with a sulfoxide group from marine thngi. Compounds 1, 6, and 7 all showed moderate antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes with MIC values of 4.1/16.4, 6.4/25.8, and 23.8/23.8μmoloL^-1, respectively.

  5. Callistosporium pinicola (Basidiomycota, a fungus species new to Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Halama

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Basidiomata of Callistosporium pinicola were collected in years 2012–2013, on strongly decayed fallen trunks of Picea abies and Abies alba on two remote sites, localized in North-eastern and southern Poland. These localities represent the first records of this fungus in Poland. A full description and illustration of C. pinicola based on Polish specimens are provided and the distinguishing features and delimitation of the species are briefly discussed. The ecology of C. pinicola, its general distribution and threat are also presented. As all specimens of C. pinicola were collected only in recent years we suggest that this species is increasing its distribution in Poland. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that, because of its cryptic nature, C. pinicola has been much overlooked in the past.

  6. Enzymes and bioproducts produced by the ascomycete fungus Paecilomyces variotii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, I; Toledo Marante, F J; Mioso, R

    2015-12-01

    Due its innate ability to produce extracellular enzymes which can provide eco-friendly solutions for a variety of biotechnological applications, Paecilomyces variotii is a potential source of industrial bioproducts. In this review, we report biotechnological records on the biochemistry of different enzymes produced by the fermentation of the P. variotii fungus, including tannases, phytases, cellulases, xylanases, chitinases, amylases and pectinases. Additionally, the main physicochemical properties which can affect the enzymatic reactions of the enzymes involved in the conversion of a huge number of substrates to high-value bioproducts are described. Despite all the background information compiled in this review, more research is required to consolidate the catalytic efficiency of P. variotii, which must be optimized so that it is more accurate and reproducible on a large scale.

  7. A new diketopiperazine heterodimer from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yue-Lan; Zhou, Jin-Chuan; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    One new diketopiperazine heterodimer, asperazine A (1), and eight known compounds, asperazine (2), cyclo(d-Phe-l-Trp) (3), cyclo(l-Trp-l-Trp) (4), 4-(hydroxymethyl)-5,6-dihydro-pyran-2-one (5), walterolactone A (6), and campyrones A-C (7-9), were isolated from an endophytic fungus Aspergillus niger. Their structures were determined unequivocally on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis. This is the first report of the presence of compound 3 as a natural product. Cytotoxicity test against human cancer cell lines PC3, A2780, K562, MBA-MD-231, and NCI-H1688 revealed that compounds 1 and 2 had weak activities.

  8. Disposable diapers biodegradation by the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Turpin-Marion, Sylvie; Delfín-Alcalá, Irma; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia

    2011-08-01

    This research assesses the feasibility of degrading used disposable diapers, an important component (5-15% in weight) of urban solid waste in Mexico, by the activity of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus, also known as oyster mushroom. Disposable diapers contain polyethylene, polypropylene and a super absorbent polymer. Nevertheless, its main component is cellulose, which degrades slowly. P. ostreatus has been utilized extensively to degrade cellulosic materials of agroindustrial sources, using in situ techniques. The practice has been extended to the commercial farming of the mushroom. This degradation capacity was assayed to reduce mass and volume of used disposable diapers. Pilot laboratory assays were performed to estimate the usefulness of the following variables on conditioning of used diapers before they act as substrate for P. ostreatus: (1) permanence vs removal of plastic cover; (2) shredding vs grinding; (3) addition of grape wastes to improve structure, nitrogen and trace elements content. Wheat straw was used as a positive control. After 68 days, decrease of the mass of diapers and productivity of fungus was measured. Weight and volume of degradable materials was reduced up to 90%. Cellulose content was diminished in 50% and lignine content in 47%. The highest efficiency for degradation of cellulosic materials corresponded to the substrates that showed highest biological efficiency, which varied from 0% to 34%. Harvested mushrooms had good appearance and protein content and were free of human disease pathogens. This research indicates that growing P. ostreatus on disposable diapers could be a good alternative for two current problems: reduction of urban solid waste and availability of high protein food sources.

  9. Chemically armed mercenary ants protect fungus-farming societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rachelle M M; Liberti, Joanito; Illum, Anders A; Jones, Tappey H; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2013-09-24

    The ants are extraordinary in having evolved many lineages that exploit closely related ant societies as social parasites, but social parasitism by distantly related ants is rare. Here we document the interaction dynamics among a Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ant host, a permanently associated parasitic guest ant of the genus Megalomyrmex, and a raiding agro-predator of the genus Gnamptogenys. We show experimentally that the guest ants protect their host colonies against agro-predator raids using alkaloid venom that is much more potent than the biting defenses of the host ants. Relatively few guest ants are sufficient to kill raiders that invariably exterminate host nests without a cohabiting guest ant colony. We also show that the odor of guest ants discourages raider scouts from recruiting nestmates to host colonies. Our results imply that Sericomyrmex fungus-growers obtain a net benefit from their costly guest ants behaving as a functional soldier caste to meet lethal threats from agro-predator raiders. The fundamentally different life histories of the agro-predators and guest ants appear to facilitate their coexistence in a negative frequency-dependent manner. Because a guest ant colony is committed for life to a single host colony, the guests would harm their own interests by not defending the host that they continue to exploit. This conditional mutualism is analogous to chronic sickle cell anemia enhancing the resistance to malaria and to episodes in human history when mercenary city defenders offered either net benefits or imposed net costs, depending on the level of threat from invading armies.

  10. Patient satisfaction and treatment outcome of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Chung; Lee, Hong-Shen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Tsai, Yao-Lung

    2011-02-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis is an important clinical problem with diverse manifestations. Although many literatures had found low recurrence rate after surgical treatment of fungus ball rhinosinusitis, patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes (symptom-free and symptom improvement rate, etc.) for fungus ball sinusitis are not yet well established. The purpose of this study is to estimate the patient satisfaction and treatment outcome in patients with fungus ball rhinosinusitis undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Medical records of consecutive patients with diagnosed fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated by FESS between 1995 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. The post-operative improvement in individual symptom was assessed by chart review and telephone visiting. Ninety consecutive patients (21 men and 69 women) were eligible for the study. Six patients (7%) presented bilateral fungus ball rhinosinusitis. Multiple paranasal sinus fungus ball involvements were found in 48 patients (53%). Complete resolution of complaints with respect to nasal discharge, postnasal drip, cough with sputum, nasal bleeding, fetid odor of nose, olfactory dysfunction, nasal obstruction, headache, and facial pain or pressure were described in 74 patients (82%). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 96%. The estimated recurrence rate of fungus ball rhinosinusitis treated with FESS was 3%, with a mean follow-up of 81 months. Treatment protocol of fungus ball rhinosinusitis with FESS and without postoperative antifungal drugs is efficient because of very low recurrence rate, high patient satisfaction, and very high symptom-free rate. Furthermore, the obvious difference of symptom-free rate between fungus ball rhinosinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis highlights the need of further studies to discover the pathophysiology of fungal sinusitis.

  11. Radiologic characteristics of sinonasal fungus ball: an analysis of 119 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Kyubo (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Kim, Jinna (Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Lee, Jeung-Gweon; Kim, Chang-Hoon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)), email: entman@yuhs.ac; Yoon, Joo-Heon (Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Airway Mucus Institute, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Human Natural Defense System, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); BK21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    2011-09-15

    Background. It is important to differentiate sinonasal fungus ball from non-fungal sinusitis and other forms of fungal sinusitis in order to determine the optimal treatment. In particular, a sinonasal fungus ball, a non-invasive fungal sinusitis, can be characterized by radiologic findings before surgery. Purpose. To differentiate a sinonasal fungus ball from other types of sinusitis and determine optimal treatment on the basis of radiologic findings before surgery. Material and Methods. We studied 119 patients with clinically and pathologically proven sinonasal fungus balls. Their condition was evaluated radiologically with contrast-enhanced CT (99 patients), non-contrast CT (18 patients) and/or MRI (17 patients) prior to sinonasal surgery. Results. Calcifications were found in 78 of 116 (67.2%) patients who underwent CT scans for fungus ball. As opposed to non-contrast CT scans, contrast CT scans revealed hyper attenuating fungal ball in 82.8% and enhanced inflamed mucosa in 65.5% of the patients, respectively. On MRI, most sinonasal fungal balls showed iso- or hypointensity on T1-weighted images and marked hypointensity on T2-weighted images. Inflamed mucosal membranes were noted and appeared as hypointense on T1-weighted images (64.7%) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (88.2%). Conclusion. When there are no calcifications visible on the CT scan, a hyper attenuating fungal ball located in the central area of the sinus with mucosal thickening on enhanced CT scans is an important feature of a non-invasive sinonasal fungus ball. On MRI, a sinonasal fungus ball has typical features of a marked hypointense fungus ball with a hyperintense mucosal membrane in T2-weighted images. A contrast-enhanced CT scan or MRI provides sufficient information for the preoperative differentiation of a sinonasal fungus ball from other forms of sinusitis

  12. Maxillary reconstruction and placement of dental implants after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Giacomo; Felisati, Giovanni; Biglioli, Federico; Tintinelli, Roberto; Valassina, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A fungus ball is one of the fungal diseases that can affect the paranasal sinuses. It requires surgical treatment. Because there is only one previously reported case of dental implant placement after treatment of a maxillary sinus fungus ball, the authors here report on a case of a maxillary sinus fungus ball with bone erosion that was treated surgically with a combined endoscopic endonasal and endoral (Caldwell-Luc) approach. One year later, a graft from the ilium was obtained and a sinus elevation was performed to allow the placement of dental implants. Three months later, the dental implants were placed, and they were all osseointegrated at the 9-month follow-up.

  13. Releasing nitrogen from ammoniated lignin by white rot fungus cometabolizes environmental pollutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lu; ZHAO De-qing; ZHOU Xian-tao; QIU Yu-gui; ZHANG Gan

    2003-01-01

    The nitrogen-modified lignocelluloses(NML) produced under oxic ammoniation was metabolized by white rot fungus, NH4+-N was released, NO3--N concentration was decreased and total nitrogen loss was blocked within incubation period. During releasing nitrogen from the metabolism of NML, white rot fungus cometabolized recalcitrant environmental pollutants and showed higher degradation capability. Results indicated that this NML complex colonized by white rot fungus might be effective with economic feasibility when they are applied into the vast field ecosystem, it might stabilize NH4+ nitrogen flux and bioremediate the polluted environmental sites.

  14. Mycoflora of air-conditioners dust from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagy, M M; Gohar, Y M

    1988-01-01

    Using the hair baiting technique, 6 genera and 14 species were collected on Sabouraud's dextrose agar from 37 dust samples from air-conditioners. The most common fungi were Chrysosporium tropicum, C. indicum, C. keratinophilum, Aspergillus flavus followed by Acremonium strictum and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Using the dilution-plate method, 26 genera and 52 species were collected from 37 dust samples on glucose-(23 genera and 45 species) and cellulose-(18 genera and 34 species) Czapek's agar at 28 degrees C. The most prevalent species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Ulocladium atrum, Mucor racemosus and Fusarium solani and A. niger, A. flavus, Trichoderma viride, P. chrysogenum, Ulocladium atrum, Chaetomium globosum, C. spirale, Stachybotrys chartarum and Mucor racemosus on the two media, respectively.

  15. The response of the grape berry moth (Lobesia botrana) to a dietary phytopathogenic fungus (Botrytis cinerea): the significance of fungus sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondy; Corio-Costet

    2000-12-01

    A Tortricidae (Lobesia botrana) has a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, we investigated the growth, survival, fecundity and amount of sterols and steroids in larvae of this vineyard pest reared on artificial diets containing mycelium (3%) or purified sterols (0.01%) of the phytopathogenic fungus. Two principal questions related to the physiological and biochemical basis of this mutualistic relationship were addressed: (1) how the fungus influences growth, survival, fecundity, sterol and steroid contents of the insect and (2) are fungal sterols involved in the biochemical basis of mutualism? The presence of fungus in the diet led to a decrease of total duration of larval development (mean gain 5.1-9.4 days compared to the total duration in control of 42.9 days), an increase in survival (mean gain 50-76.3%) and fecundity (gain of 94-102%). These positive effects of the fungus on the biology and physiology of the insect were directly correlated to the presence of fungal sterols in the diet. Fungal sterols are one of the biochemical basis of the mutualistic relationship between L. botrana and B. cinerea.

  16. Serpula lacrymans, The Dry Rot Fungus and Tolerance Towards Copper-Based Wood Preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Anne Christine Steenkjær; Jensen, Bo; Clausen, Carol;

    2005-01-01

    wood preservatives were the most commonly used preservatives for pressure treatment of wood for building constructions. Because of a suspicion about tolerance toward copper components, a soil block test was undertaken to clarify the effect of two copper based preservatives, copper citrate and ACQ......Serpula lacrymans (Wulfen : Fries) Schröter, the dry rot fungus, is considered the most (Wulfen : Fries) Schröterthe dry rot fungus, is considered the most economically important wood decay fungus in temperate regions of the world i.e. northern Europe, Japan and Australia. Previously copper based......-D, on the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans compared to an alternative non-copper containing wood preservative. The extensive use of copper-based wood preservatives has hastened the need for understanding why some fungi are able to attack copper-treated wood. The copper tolerance of S. lacrymans and other brown...

  17. Peniamidienone and penidilamine, plant growth regulators produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Y; Mizuno, T; Kawano, T; Okada, K; Shimada, A

    2000-04-01

    Peniamidienone and penidilamine were isolated from cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. No. 13 as new plant growth regulators and their structures were established by NMR spectroscopic studies. Peniamidienone showed weak inhibition of lettuce seedling growth.

  18. Investigating the biology of plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Urdiroz, Magdalena; Oses-Ruiz, Miriam; Ryder, Lauren S; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    The rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, is responsible for the most serious disease of rice and is a continuing threat to ensuring global food security. The fungus has also, however, emerged as a model experimental organism for understanding plant infection processes by pathogenic fungi. This is largely due to its amenability to both classical and molecular genetics, coupled with the efforts of a very large international research community. This review, which is based on a plenary presentation at the 28th Fungal Genetics Conference in Asilomar, California in March 2015, describes recent progress in understanding how M. oryzae uses specialised cell called appressoria to bring about plant infection and the underlying biology of this developmental process. We also review how the fungus is then able to proliferate within rice tissue, deploying effector proteins to facilitate its spread by suppressing plant immunity and promoting growth and development of the fungus.

  19. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Anna A.; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-01-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play...... a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets......-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed...

  20. Isolation and characterization of antibacterial compound from a mangrove-endophytic fungus, Penicillium chrysogenum MTCC 5108

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.

    ). Quimica Nova 28: 991-995 21. Marinho AMR, Rodrigues-Filho E, Moitinho MDLR, Santos LS (2005) Biologically active polyketides produced by Penicillium janthinellum isolated as an endophytic fungus from fruits of Melia azedarach. J Brazilian Chem Soc 16...

  1. Enhanced production of laccase by a marine fungus during treatment of colored effluents and synthetic dyes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSouza-Ticlo, D.; Tiwari, R.; Sah, A.K.; Raghukumar, C.

    -degrading enzymes are reported to be the most efficient in decolorizing such effluents. We report here decolorization of all the three effluents by a marine fungal isolate, NIOCC # 2a cultured from decaying mangrove wood. The fungus also decolorized several...

  2. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R

    2009-01-01

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia...

  3. Co-evolution of enzyme function in the attine ant-fungus symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    Introduction: Fungus-growing ants cultivate specialized fungi in the tribe Leucocoprineae (Lepiotaceae: Basidiomycota) inside their nests. The conspicuous leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta build huge nests displacing several cubic meters of soil, whereas lower attine genera such as Cyphomyrmex...... have small nests with a fungus garden the size of a table-tennis ball. Only the leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves as substrate for their fungus gardens, whereas the more basal attine genera use substrates such as dry plant material (leaf litter and small twigs) and also insect...... feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Methods: (1.) We made a literature survey...

  4. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (species

  5. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...... material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial...

  6. Biosorption of copper(II and chromium(VI by modified tea fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćiban Marina B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The tea fungus was found to have good adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions. In this work it was treated with HCl or NaOH at 20°C or 100°C, with the aim to improve its adsorption ability. The sorption of Cu(II and Cr(VI ions from aqueous solutions by raw and treated tea fungus was investigated in the batch mode. The largest quantity of adsorbed Cu(II, of about 55 mg/g, was achieved by tea fungus modified with NaOH at 100°C. For Cr(VI, the largest quantity of adsorbed anions, of about 58 mg/g, was achieved by the adsorbent modified with NaOH at 20°C. It was shown that acid modification of tea fungus biomass was not effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005 i br. TR 31002

  7. RESEARCH ARTICLES : Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyung Hoan Im; ; Trung Kien Nguyen; Jaehyuk Choi; Tae Soo Lee

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  8. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    .... It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07...

  9. Biodegradation of hazardous waste using white rot fungus: Project planning and concept development document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Brouns, T.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1990-11-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been shown to effectively degrade pollutants such as trichlorophenol, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and other halogenated aromatic compounds. These refractory organic compounds and many others have been identified in the tank waste, groundwater and soil of various US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The treatment of these refractory organic compounds has been identified as a high priority for DOE's Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) waste treatment programs. Unlike many bacteria, the white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is capable of degrading these types of refractory organics and may be valuable for the treatment of wastes containing multiple pollutants. The objectives of this project are to identify DOE waste problems amenable to white rot fungus treatment and to develop and demonstrate white rot fungus treatment process for these hazardous organic compounds. 32 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, T.; Middelman, A.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density), fungus (specie

  11. Characterization of salt-adapted secreted lignocellulolytic enzymes from the mangrove fungus Pestalotiopsis sp

    OpenAIRE

    Chevret, Didier; Henrissat, Bernard; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Levasseur, Anthony; Record, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Fungi are important for biomass degradation processes in mangrove forests. Given the presence of sea water in these ecosystems, mangrove fungi are adapted to high salinity. Here we isolate Pestalotiopsis sp. NCi6, a halotolerant and lignocellulolytic mangrove fungus of the order Xylariales. We study its lignocellulolytic enzymes and analyse the effects of salinity on its secretomes. De novo transcriptome sequencing and assembly indicate that this fungus possesses of over 400 putative lignocel...

  12. Exploring the potential for actinobacteria as defensive symbionts in fungus-growing termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Anna A; Nobre, Tânia; Currie, Cameron R; Aanen, Duur K; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In fungus-growing termites, fungi of the subgenus Pseudoxylaria threaten colony health through substrate competition with the termite fungus (Termitomyces). The potential mechanisms with which termites suppress Pseudoxylaria have remained unknown. Here we explore if Actinobacteria potentially play a role as defensive symbionts against Pseudoxylaria in fungus-growing termites. We sampled for Actinobacteria from 30 fungus-growing termite colonies, spanning the three main termite genera and two geographically distant sites. Our isolations yielded 360 Actinobacteria, from which we selected subsets for morphological (288 isolates, grouped in 44 morphotypes) and for 16S rRNA (35 isolates, spanning the majority of morphotypes) characterisation. Actinobacteria were found throughout all sampled nests and colony parts and, phylogenetically, they are interspersed with Actinobacteria from origins other than fungus-growing termites, indicating lack of specificity. Antibiotic-activity screening of 288 isolates against the fungal cultivar and competitor revealed that most of the Actinobacteria-produced molecules with antifungal activity. A more detailed bioassay on 53 isolates, to test the specificity of antibiotics, showed that many Actinobacteria inhibit both Pseudoxylaria and Termitomyces, and that the cultivar fungus generally is more susceptible to inhibition than the competitor. This suggests that either defensive symbionts are not present in the system or that they, if present, represent a subset of the community isolated. If so, the antibiotics must be used in a targeted fashion, being applied to specific areas by the termites. We describe the first discovery of an assembly of antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria occurring in fungus-growing termite nests. However, due to the diversity found, and the lack of both phylogenetic and bioactivity specificity, further work is necessary for a better understanding of the putative role of antibiotic-producing bacteria in the fungus

  13. Microalgae harvesting via co-culture with filamentous fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultom, Sarman Oktovianus

    Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process. For instance, classical harvesting technologies such as chemical addition and mechanical separation are economically prohibiting for biofuel production. Newer approaches to harvest microalgae have been developed in order to decrease costs. Among these new methods, fungal co-pelletization seems to be a promising technology. By co-culturing filamentous fungi with microalgae, it is possible to form pellets, which can easily be separated. In this study, different parameters for the cultivation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger) and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) to efficiently form cell pellets were evaluated under heterotrophic and phototrophic conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose, glycerol and sodium acetate) concentration, pH, initial concentration of fungal spores, initial concentration of microalgal cells, concentration of ionic strength (Calcium and Magnesium) and concentration of salinity (NaCl). In addition, zeta-potential measurements were carried out in order to get a better understanding of the mechanism of attraction. It was found that 2 g/L of glucose, a fungus to microalgae ratio of 1:300, and uncontrolled pH (around 7) are the best culturing conditions for co-pelletization. Under these conditions, it was possible to achieve a high harvesting performance (>90%). In addition, it was observed that most pellets formed in the co-culture were spherical with an average diameter of 3.5 mm and in concentrations of about 5 pellets per mL of culture media. Under phototrophic conditions, co-pelletization required the addition of glucose as organic carbon source to sustain the growth of fungi and to allow the harvesting of microalgae. Zeta-potential measurements indicated that (i) both microalgae and fungi have low zeta-potential values regardless of the pH on the bulk (i.e. <-10 mV) (ii) fungi can have a positive electric charge at low pH (ie. pH=3). These values suggest that it

  14. Deciphering the salinity adaptation mechanism in Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus from mangrove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Anuradha; Singh, Ruchi; Chakdar, Hillol; Kumar, Sudheer; Srivastava, Alok Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Penicilliopsis clavariiformis AP, a rare salt tolerant fungus reported for the first time from India was identified through polyphasic taxonomy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fungus has unique features such as biverticillate penicilli bearing masses of oval to ellipsoidal conidia. The fungus has been characterized for salt tolerance and to understand the relevance of central carbon metabolism in salt stress adaptation. It showed optimal growth at 24 °C and able to tolerate up to 10% (w/v) NaCl. To understand the mechanism of adaptation to high salinity, activities of the key enzymes regulating glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, and tricarboxylic acid cycle were investigated under normal (0% NaCl) and saline stress environment (10% NaCl). The results revealed a re-routing of carbon metabolism away from glycolysis to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), served as a cellular stress-resistance mechanism in fungi under saline environment. The detection and significant expression of fungus genes (Hsp98, Hsp60, HTB, and RHO) under saline stress suggest that these halotolerance conferring genes from the fungus could have a role in fungus protection and adaptation under saline environment. Overall, the present findings indicate that the rearrangement of the metabolic fluxes distribution and stress related genes play an important role in cell survival and adaptation under saline environment.

  15. Starch metabolism in Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of leaf-cutting ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A; Bacci, M; Pagnocca, F C; Bueno, O C; Hebling, M J A

    2006-01-01

    Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the symbiotic fungus of the leaf-cutting ants, degrades starch, this degradation being supposed to occur in the plant material which leafcutters forage to the nests, generating most of the glucose which the ants utilize for food. In the present investigation, we show that laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus produce extracellular alpha-amylase and maltase which degrade starch to glucose, reinforcing that the ants can obtain glucose from starch through the symbiotic fungus. Glucose was found to repress alpha-amylase and, more severely, maltase activity, thus repressing starch degradation by L. gongylophorus, so that we hypothesize that: (1) glucose down-regulation of starch degradation also occurs in the Atta sexdens fungus garden; (2) glucose consumption from the fungus garden by A. sexdens stimulates degradation of starch from plant material by L. gongylophorus, which may represent a mechanism by which leafcutters can control enzyme production by the symbiotic fungus. Since glucose is found in the fungus garden inside the nests, down-regulation of starch degradation by glucose is supposed to occur in the nest and play a part in the control of fungal enzyme production by leafcutters.

  16. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel E Moller

    Full Text Available The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus degrades cellulose have hampered our understanding of the selection forces that induced large scale herbivory and of the ensuing ecological footprint of these ants. Here we use a recently established technique, based on polysaccharide microarrays probed with antibodies and carbohydrate binding modules, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste material that the ants remove from their fungus garden. These results demonstrate that biomass entering leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens is only partially utilized and explain why disproportionally large amounts of plant material are needed to sustain colony growth. They also explain why substantial communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated with fungus-farming in ants.

  17. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toki, Wataru; Takahashi, Yukiko; Togashi, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae) transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  18. Fungal garden making inside bamboos by a non-social fungus-growing beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available In fungus-growing mutualism, it is indispensable for host animals to establish gardens of the symbiotic fungus as rapidly as possible. How to establish fungal gardens has been well-documented in social fungus-farming insects, whereas poorly documented in non-social fungus-farming insects. Here we report that the non-social, fungus-growing lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae transmits the symbiotic yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus from the ovipositor-associated mycangium into bamboo internode cavities and disperses the yeast in the cavities to make gardens. Microbial isolation and cryo-scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that W. anomalus was constantly located on the posterior ends of eggs, where larvae came out, and on the inner openings of oviposition holes. Direct observation of oviposition behavior inside internodes revealed that the distal parts of ovipositors showed a peristaltic movement when they were in contact with the posterior ends of eggs. Rearing experiments showed that W. anomalus was spread much more rapidly and widely on culture media and internodes in the presence of the larvae than in the absence. These results suggest that the ovipositors play a critical role in vertical transmission of W. anomalus and that the larvae contribute actively to the garden establishment, providing a novel case of fungal garden founding in non-social insect-fungus mutualism.

  19. Specific, non-nutritional association between an ascomycete fungus and Allomerus plant-ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-González, Mario X; Malé, Pierre-Jean G; Leroy, Céline; Dejean, Alain; Gryta, Hervé; Jargeat, Patricia; Quilichini, Angélique; Orivel, Jérôme

    2011-06-23

    Ant-fungus associations are well known from attine ants, whose nutrition is based on a symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi. Otherwise, only a few non-nutritional ant-fungus associations have been recorded to date. Here we focus on one of these associations involving Allomerus plant-ants that build galleried structures on their myrmecophytic hosts in order to ambush prey. We show that this association is not opportunistic because the ants select from a monophyletic group of closely related fungal haplotypes of an ascomycete species from the order Chaetothyriales that consistently grows on and has been isolated from the galleries. Both the ants' behaviour and an analysis of the genetic population structure of the ants and the fungus argue for host specificity in this interaction. The ants' behaviour reveals a major investment in manipulating, growing and cleaning the fungus. A molecular analysis of the fungus demonstrates the widespread occurrence of one haplotype and many other haplotypes with a lower occurrence, as well as significant variation in the presence of these fungal haplotypes between areas and ant species. Altogether, these results suggest that such an interaction might represent an as-yet undescribed type of specific association between ants and fungus in which the ants cultivate fungal mycelia to strengthen their hunting galleries.

  20. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  1. Biotransformation of indomethacin by the fungus Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG; Li-hong LIN; Hai-hua HUANG; Hai-yan XU; Da-fang ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of indomethacin, the first of the newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, by filamentous fungus and to compare the similarities between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism of indomethacin. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C blakesleeana AS 3.153, C blakesleeana AS 3.910 and C echinulata AS 3.2004) were screened for their ability to catalyze the biotransformation of indomethacin. Indomethacin was partially metabolized by five strains of Cunninghamella, and C blakesleeana AS 3.910 was selected for further investigation. Three metabolites produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were isolated using semi-preparative HPLC, and their structures were identified by a combination analysis of LC/MSn and NMR spectra. These three metabolites were separated and quantitatively assayed by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Results: After 120 h of incubation with C blakesleeana AS 3.910, approximately 87.4% of indomethacin was metabolized to three metabolites: O-desmethylindomethacin (DMI, M1, 67.2%), Af-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DBI, M2,13.3%) and O-desmethyl-AT-deschlorobenzoylindomethacin (DMBI, M3, 6.9%). Three phase I metabolites of indomethacin produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.910 were identical to those obtained in humans. Conclusion: C blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of indomethacin.

  2. Pulmonary echinococcal cyst with a filamentous fungus co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P; Dixit, A K; Tanwar, A; Mahajan, N C

    2013-09-01

    Fungal infections are known to colonize the pre-existing lung cavities formed as a result of diseases like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, bronchiectasis and cavitatary neoplasia, mostly encountered in immunocompromised patients. Pulmonary echinococcal cysts have been reported coexistent with cryptococcosis and other saprophytic mycosis, but the coexistence of aspergillosis and echinococcal cyst is extremely rare and occasionally been reported in English literature. Active invasion and proliferation of the fungi in the laminated ectocyst of the echinococcal cyst is very unusual. We report a case of 60 years old immunocompetent female, presented with cough, chest pain and shortness of breath. The chest X-ray showed a large thick walled cavity in the lower and mid zone of right lung with positive water lily sign. Surgical enucleation of the echinococcal cyst revealed aspergilloma involving the cavity with massive invasion of laminated ectocyst by filamentous fungus, morphologically resembling an Aspergillus species and was further treated with Itraconazole for 3 months. This unique coexistence of active pulmonary echinococcosis and aspergillosis is being reported because of its rarity and clinical importance for its management.

  3. Identification of naphthalene metabolism by white rot fungus Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Teh, Zee Chuang; Rubiyatno; Zubir, Meor Mohd Fikri Ahmad; Khudhair, Ameer Badr; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim Mohd; Salim, Mohd Razman; Hidayat, Topik

    2013-10-01

    The use of biomaterials or microorganisms in PAHs degradation had presented an eye-catching performance. Pleurotus eryngii is a white rot fungus, which is easily isolated from the decayed woods in the tropical rain forest, used to determine the capability to utilize naphthalene, a two-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as source of carbon and energy. In the meantime, biotransformation of naphthalene to intermediates and other by-products during degradation was investigated in this study. Pleurotus eryngii had been incubated in liquid medium formulated with naphthalene for 14 days. The presence of metabolites of naphthalene suggests that Pleurotus eryngii begin the ring cleavage by dioxygenation on C1 and C4 position to give 1,4-naphthaquinone. 1,4-Naphthaquinone was further degraded to benzoic acid, where the proposed terepthalic acid is absent in the cultured extract. Further degradation of benzoic acid by Pleurotus eryngii shows the existence of catechol as a result of the combination of decarboxylation and hydroxylation process. Unfortunately, phthalic acid was not detected in this study. Several enzymes, including manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase are enzymes responsible for naphthalene degradation. Reduction of naphthalene and the presence of metabolites in liquid medium showed the ability of Pleurotus eryngii to utilize naphthalene as carbon source instead of a limited glucose amount.

  4. Biotransformation of metoprolol by the fungus Cunninghamella blakes-leeana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin MA; Hai-hua HUANG; Xiao-yan CHEN; Yu-ming SUN; Li-hong LIN; Da-fang ZHONG

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the biotransformation of metoprolol, a β1-cardioselective adrenoceptor antagonist, by filamentous fungus, and to compare the parallels between microbial transformation and mammalian metabolism. Methods: Five strains of Cunninghamella (C elegans AS 3.156, C elegans AS 3.2028, C echinulata AS 3.2004, C blakesleeana AS 3.153 and AS 3.910) were screened for the ability to transform metoprolol. The metabolites of metoprolol produced by C blakesleeana AS 3.153 were separated and assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSn). The major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and the structures were identified by a combination of LC/MSn and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: Metoprolol was transformed to 7 metabolites; 2 were identified as new metabolites and 5 were known metabolites in mammals. Conclusion: The microbial transformation of metoprolol was similar to the metabolism in mammals. The fungi belonging to Cunninghamella species could be used as complementary models for predicting in vivo metabolism and producing quantities of metabolite references for drugs like metoprolol.

  5. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  6. Five New Cytotoxic Metabolites from the Marine Fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jian Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungus Neosartorya pseudofischeri was isolated from Acanthaster planci from the South China Sea. In a preliminary bioactivity screening, the crude methanol extract of the fungal mycelia showed significant inhibitory activity against the Sf9 cell line from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Five novel compounds, including 5-olefin phenylpyropene A (1, 13-dehydroxylpyripyropene A (4, deacetylsesquiterpene (7, 5-formyl-6-hydroxy-8-isopropyl-2- naphthoic acid (9 and 6,8-dihydroxy-3-((1E,3E-penta-1,3-dien-1-ylisochroman-1-one (10, together with eleven known compounds, phenylpyropene A (2 and C (3, pyripyropene A (5, 7-deacetylpyripyropene A (6, (1S,2R,4aR,5R,8R,8aR-1,8a-dihydroxy-2-acetoxy-3,8-dimethyl-5- (prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,4a, 5,6,7,8,8a-octahydronaphthalene (8, isochaetominine C (11, trichodermamide A (12, indolyl-3-acetic acid methyl ester (13, 1-acetyl-β-carboline (14, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-hydroxyl-2-methyl-l,3,4-trioxopyrazino[l,2-a]-indole (15 and fumiquinazoline F (16, were obtained. The structures of these compounds were determined mainly by MS and NMR data. The absolute configuration of 9 was assigned by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Compounds 1–11 and 15 showed significant cytotoxicity against the Sf9 cells from S. frugiperda.

  7. Eosinophils in fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit eGhosh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is frequently caused and/or exacerbated by sensitization to fungal allergens, which are ubiquitous in many indoor and outdoor environments. Severe asthma with fungal sensitization is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial constriction in response to an inhaled allergen that is worsened by environmental exposure to airborne fungi and which leads to a disease course that is often very difficult to treat with standard asthma therapies. As a result of complex interactions among inflammatory cells, structural cells, and the intercellular matrix of the allergic lung, patients with sensitization to fungal allergens may experience a greater degree of airway wall remodeling and progressive, accumulated pulmonary dysfunction as part of the disease sequela. From their development in the bone marrow to their recruitment to the lung via chemokine and cytokine networks, eosinophils form an important component of the inflammatory milieu that is associated with this syndrome. Eosinophils are recognized as complex multi-factorial leukocytes with diverse functions in the context of allergic fungal asthma. In this review, we will consider recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are associated with eosinophil development and migration to the allergic lung in response to fungal inhalation, along with the eosinophil’s function in the immune response to and the immunopathology attributed to fungus-associated allergic pulmonary disease.

  8. Characterization of Transposable Elements in the Ectomycorrhizal Fungus Laccaria bicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Le Tacon, F [UMR, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2012-01-01

    Background: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs) in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TEspecific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. Methodology/Principal Findings: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS), long terminal repeats (LTRs) and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD) element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. Conclusions: This analysis 1) represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2) contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3) provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  9. Characterization of transposable elements in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria bicolor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Labbé

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The publicly available Laccaria bicolor genome sequence has provided a considerable genomic resource allowing systematic identification of transposable elements (TEs in this symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungus. Using a TE-specific annotation pipeline we have characterized and analyzed TEs in the L. bicolor S238N-H82 genome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TEs occupy 24% of the 60 Mb L. bicolor genome and represent 25,787 full-length and partial copy elements distributed within 171 families. The most abundant elements were the Copia-like. TEs are not randomly distributed across the genome, but are tightly nested or clustered. The majority of TEs exhibits signs of ancient transposition except some intact copies of terminal inverted repeats (TIRS, long terminal repeats (LTRs and a large retrotransposon derivative (LARD element. There were three main periods of TE expansion in L. bicolor: the first from 57 to 10 Mya, the second from 5 to 1 Mya and the most recent from 0.5 Mya ago until now. LTR retrotransposons are closely related to retrotransposons found in another basidiomycete, Coprinopsis cinerea. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis 1 represents an initial characterization of TEs in the L. bicolor genome, 2 contributes to improve genome annotation and a greater understanding of the role TEs played in genome organization and evolution and 3 provides a valuable resource for future research on the genome evolution within the Laccaria genus.

  10. Adhesion of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to Substrata†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Diane J.; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2005-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana produces at least three distinct single-cell propagules, aerial conidia, vegetative cells termed blastospores, and submerged conidia, which can be isolated from agar plates, from rich broth liquid cultures, and under nutrient limitation conditions in submerged cultures, respectively. Fluorescently labeled fungal cells were used to quantify the kinetics of adhesion of these cell types to surfaces having various hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties. Aerial conidia adhered poorly to weakly polar surfaces and rapidly to both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces but could be readily washed off the latter surfaces. In contrast, blastospores bound poorly to hydrophobic surfaces, forming small aggregates, bound rapidly to hydrophilic surfaces, and required a longer incubation time to bind to weakly polar surfaces than to hydrophilic surfaces. Submerged conidia displayed the broadest binding specificity, adhering to hydrophobic, weakly polar, and hydrophilic surfaces. The adhesion of the B. bassiana cell types also differed in sensitivity to glycosidase and protease treatments, pH, and addition of various carbohydrate competitors and detergents. The outer cell wall layer of aerial conidia contained sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, trifluoroacetic acid-soluble proteins (presumably hydrophobins) that were not present on either blastospores or submerged conidia. The variations in the cell surface properties leading to the different adhesion qualities of B. bassiana aerial conidia, blastospores, and submerged conidia could lead to rational design decisions for improving the efficacy and possibly the specificity of entomopathogenic fungi for host targets. PMID:16151112

  11. Biosynthesis of vanillin by the fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus MIP 95001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Moro Villela Pacheco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin (a substance popularly known as vanilla flavor is one of the most widely used compounds, mainly by food and pharmaceutical industries. This substance can be obtained from the orchid Vanilla planifolia, but this is costly and time consuming. Thus, other methods for obtaining vanillin have been studied. Within this context, the aim of this work was to study the biosynthesis of vanillin by three strains of Pycnoporus sanguineus through the use of vanillic acid as a precursor. The strains were cultured in Petri dishes with a potato dextrose agar medium. Fragments of the media with the fungus were then inoculated in Erlenmeyer flasks with a liquid medium of potato broth and 0.3 g.L-1 of vanillic acid. The flasks remained in a shaker for eight days at 28°C and 120 rpm. Samples were withdrawn once a day (0.8 mL.day-1 for analysis of vanillin, glucose, total phenols, total proteins, and laccase. The results showed that only the MIP 95001 strain promoted the biosynthesis of vanillin. The highest concentration of vanillin was detected on the fourth day of cultivation (8.75 mg.dL-1. The results illustrate the ability to biosynthesize vanillin using Pycnoporus sanguineus (MIP 95001, which suggests a possible route for the biotechnological production of this flavor.

  12. Biodegradation of ciprofloxacin by white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka; Kaur, Loveleen

    2017-05-01

    Unrestricted and reckless use of antibiotics has resulted in their accumulation in environment. This, in turn, has led to the emergence of multiple drug-resistant microbes. The present study focuses on degradation of ciprofloxacin (CIP) by an edible white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. Effect of CIP was determined on radial growth and biomass of P. ostreatus. Titrimetric and spectrophotometric assays were carried out to assess the degrading potential of P. ostreatus towards CIP. It was found that CIP has a stimulatory effect on growth and enzyme activity of P. ostreatus. Maximum enzyme (glucanase, ligninases, laccase) production was observed at the highest concentration of CIP (500 ppm). Antibiotic degradation of about 68.8, 94.25 and 91.34% was estimated after 14 days of incubation at 500 ppm CIP using Titrimetric, Indigo carmine and Methyl orange assay, respectively. Degradation of CIP was further validated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological analysis. HPLC analysis revealed 95.07% degradation while microbiological test also exhibited a decreased antimicrobial activity of degraded products against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study wherein P. ostreatus was used for the degradation of ciprofloxacin.

  13. Fungus mediated biosynthesis and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. S.; Palani, N. S.; Krishnamoorthi, S. R.; Thirumal, V.; Ilangovan, R.

    2013-06-01

    Recently nanomaterials have been synthesized through biological approach due to its biocompatibility, inexpensive, eco friendly and it offers easiest experimental protocol and so on. ZnO can be potentially used in various applications. This present study reports the fungus mediated extra-cellular bio synthesis of ZnO nanorods using Fusarium Solani. The dried powder was calcined at 350°C for 1 hour in air. The thermal property of the as synthesized ZnO nanopowder was analyzed through Thermo gravimetric /Differential Thermo gravimetric (TGA / DTG) analysis. The structural and morphological properties of the calcined ZnO nanopowder were studied by XRD and SEM analysis respectively. X ray diffraction result revealed that a peak located at 2θ = 36.2° with (101) plane confirms the presence of Zinc oxide with Hexagonal crystal system. The morphology of the calcined ZnO powder was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and it clearly indicates the presence of ZnO nanorods. The diameter of the nanorods is in the range of 60 to 95 nm.

  14. Cytotoxic effects of Oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

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    Rmaesha eA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to MDCK kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in-vitro. Also to know the possible in-vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 uM to 200 µM. After 24 hrs of post exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of ROS generation and high levels of MDA, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induced glutathione hydroxylase production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosprin concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (SOD1 and CAT expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress

  15. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

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    Song Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1 with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2, along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9 were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs = 11.79–23.66 μM, and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM, showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM, and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM.

  16. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  17. Genes involved in virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero-Jiménez, Claudio A; Wiegers, Harm; Zwaan, Bas J; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; van Kan, Jan A L

    2016-01-01

    Pest insects cause severe damage to global crop production and pose a threat to human health by transmitting diseases. Traditionally, chemical pesticides (insecticides) have been used to control such pests and have proven to be effective only for a limited amount of time because of the rapid spread of genetic insecticide resistance. The basis of this resistance is mostly caused by (co)dominant mutations in single genes, which explains why insecticide use alone is an unsustainable solution. Therefore, robust solutions for insect pest control need to be sought in alternative methods such as biological control agents for which single-gene resistance is less likely to evolve. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has shown potential as a biological control agent of insects, and insight into the mechanisms of virulence is essential to show the robustness of its use. With the recent availability of the whole genome sequence of B. bassiana, progress in understanding the genetics that constitute virulence toward insects can be made more quickly. In this review we divide the infection process into distinct steps and provide an overview of what is currently known about genes and mechanisms influencing virulence in B. bassiana. We also discuss the need for novel strategies and experimental methods to better understand the infection mechanisms deployed by entomopathogenic fungi. Such knowledge can help improve biocontrol agents, not only by selecting the most virulent genotypes, but also by selecting the genotypes that use combinations of virulence mechanisms for which resistance in the insect host is least likely to develop.

  18. Structural analysis of fungus-derived FAD glucose dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Sakai, Genki; Mori, Kazushige; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Kamitori, Shigehiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-08-27

    We report the first three-dimensional structure of fungus-derived glucose dehydrogenase using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as the cofactor. This is currently the most advanced and popular enzyme used in glucose sensor strips manufactured for glycemic control by diabetic patients. We prepared recombinant nonglycosylated FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) derived from Aspergillus flavus (AfGDH) and obtained the X-ray structures of the binary complex of enzyme and reduced FAD at a resolution of 1.78 Å and the ternary complex with reduced FAD and D-glucono-1,5-lactone (LGC) at a resolution of 1.57 Å. The overall structure is similar to that of fungal glucose oxidases (GOxs) reported till date. The ternary complex with reduced FAD and LGC revealed the residues recognizing the substrate. His505 and His548 were subjected for site-directed mutagenesis studies, and these two residues were revealed to form the catalytic pair, as those conserved in GOxs. The absence of residues that recognize the sixth hydroxyl group of the glucose of AfGDH, and the presence of significant cavity around the active site may account for this enzyme activity toward xylose. The structural information will contribute to the further engineering of FADGDH for use in more reliable and economical biosensing technology for diabetes management.

  19. Analysis on blast fungus-responsive characters of a flavonoid phytoalexin sakuranetin; accumulation in infected rice leaves, antifungal activity and detoxification by fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Morifumi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro; Seo, Shigemi; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Iwai, Takayoshi; Ohashi, Yuko

    2014-08-04

    To understand the role of the rice flavonoid phytoalexin (PA) sakuranetin for blast resistance, the fungus-responsive characteristics were studied. Young rice leaves in a resistant line exhibited hypersensitive reaction (HR) within 3 days post inoculation (dpi) of a spore suspension, and an increase in sakuranetin was detected at 3 dpi, increasing to 4-fold at 4 dpi. In the susceptible line, increased sakuranetin was detected at 4 dpi, but not at 3 dpi, by which a large fungus mass has accumulated without HR. Induced expression of a PA biosynthesis gene OsNOMT for naringenin 7-O-methyltransferase was found before accumulation of sakuranetin in both cultivars. The antifungal activity of sakuranetin was considerably higher than that of the major rice diterpenoid PA momilactone A in vitro and in vivo under similar experimental conditions. The decrease and detoxification of sakuranetin were detected in both solid and liquid mycelium cultures, and they took place slower than those of momilactone A. Estimated local concentration of sakuranetin at HR lesions was thought to be effective for fungus restriction, while that at enlarged lesions in susceptible rice was insufficient. These results indicate possible involvement of sakuranetin in blast resistance and its specific relation to blast fungus.

  20. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. I. Lipid accumulation during growth of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available    The accumulation of lipids In microorganisms cultivated In growth media having as sole carbon and energy source vegetable or animal fat has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. Interestingly, the accumulated fat often has a composition and structure much different from that of the fat present In the substrate.
       The present work describes a mathematical approach to the accumulation of fat by oleaginous microorganisms growing on medium containing vegetable oil as carbon source. A mathematical model, correlating the accumulation of reserve fat with the growth of microbial population and the available quantity of exocellular fat, is proposed. This model is verified by experimental data taken by cultivation of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on sunflower oil.
       The proposed model is described by the equation: XL = XLo + Lo(1-e-k2.t– (lnx-lnxo/k1    where XL(mg/l the concentration of reserve lipids at time t(h, XLo(mg/l the concentration of lipid reserves at time t=o, Lo(mg/l the initial concentration of exocellular fat (a t=o, X(mg/l the concentration of fat-free biomass at a given time t and Xo the concentration of fat-free biomass at time t=o; k1 and k2 constants.

       Durante muchos años la acumulación de lípidos en microorganismos desarrollados en medio de cultivo, tomando como única fuente de carbono y energía grasas vegetales o animales, ha sido objeto de investigación e Interés industrial.    Interesadamente, la grasa acumulada tiene a menudo una composición y estructura muy diferente de la que tiene la grasa presente en el sustrato.    El presente trabajo describe una aproximación matemática a la acumulaci

  1. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  2. Slope aspect influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Rong; Bai, Shulan; Bai, Yv E; Wang, Jugang

    2017-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis plays an important role in ecosystem functioning, particularly in fragile environments. Little is known, however, about how AM fungus community composition responds to slope aspect. Our objective was to compare the AM fungus communities between sunny and shady slopes and to detect factors that influenced the distributions of AM fungi in arid ecosystems of the Daqingshan Mountains, Inner Mongolia, North China. AM fungus communities were evaluated based on small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSUs) using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. AM fungus community composition differed significantly between slope aspects, and sunny slopes had significantly higher AM fungus diversity and richness as well as spore density, total root colonization, arbuscule abundance, vesicle abundance, and hyphal colonization than shady slopes. Structural equation modeling (SEM) illustrated that the effects of slope aspect on AM fungus richness likely were mediated by available phosphorus, soil organic carbon, plant cover, and plant diversity. Available phosphorus was the principal factor that influenced AM fungus species richness, and soil organic carbon was the principal factor influencing spore density and total root colonization, suggesting that these factors especially might be responsible for differences between the AM fungus communities of different slope aspects. These findings elucidate the influence of slope aspect on AM fungus communities and may inform use of AM fungi in protection and restoration of vegetation with different slope aspects in arid ecosystems.

  3. Genetic variability in Asparagus racemosus (Willd.) from Madhya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... 1Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology, M.P. Council of Science and Technology Vigyan Bhawan, Nehru Nagar, ... most common uses of the technique for scientific and .... RAPD data analysis and scoring .... polymorphic DNA variation among remnant big bluestem.

  4. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Hong Keat; Toh, Yue Fen; Yew, Su Mei; Na, Shiang Ling; Tan, Yung-Chie; Chong, Pei-Sin; Khoo, Jia-Shiun; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng

    2017-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008). The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp) genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10) CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591. PMID:28149676

  5. Host Specialization in the Charcoal Rot Fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Suh, S O; Schneider, R W; Russin, J S

    2001-02-01

    ABSTRACT To investigate host specialization in Macrophomina phaseolina, the fungus was isolated from soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton root tissue and soil from fields cropped continuously to these species for 15 years in St. Joseph, LA. Chlorate phenotype of each isolate was determined after growing on a minimal medium containing 120 mM potassium chlorate. Consistent differences in chlorate sensitivity were detected among isolates from different hosts and from soil versus root. To further explore genetic differentiation among fungal isolates from each host, these isolates were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. No variations were observed among isolates in restriction patterns of DNA fragments amplified by polymerase chain reaction covering the internal transcribed spacer region, 5.8S rRNA and part of 25S rRNA, suggesting that M. phaseolina constitutes a single species. Ten random primers were used to amplify the total DNA of 45 isolates, and banding patterns resulting from RAPD analysis were compared with the neighbor-joining method. Isolates from a given host were genetically similar to each other but distinctly different from those from other hosts. Chlorate-sensitive isolates were distinct from chlorate-resistant isolates within a given host. In greenhouse tests, soybean, sorghum, corn, and cotton were grown separately in soil infested with individual isolates of M. phaseolina that were chosen based on their host of origin and chlorate phenotype. Root colonization and plant weight were measured after harvesting. More colonization of corn roots occurred when corn was grown in soil containing corn isolates compared with isolates from other hosts. However, there was no host specialization in isolates from soybean, sorghum, or cotton. More root colonization in soybean occurred with chlorate-sensitive than with chlorate-resistant isolates.

  6. Infection of Psoroptes mites with the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A J; Wall, R

    2001-01-01

    The astigmatid mite, Psoroptes ovis (Hering) (Acari: Psoroptidae), is an obligatory ectoparasite that causes psoroptic mange in a range of domesticated animals, particularly sheep, where the clinical disease is known as sheep scab. A series of laboratory assays were used to assess the use of the fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) as a biocontrol agent for P. ovis derived from rabbits (syn. P. cuniculi). The immersion of mites in a suspension of conidia of M. anisopliae resulted in the acquisition of fatal infections. The number of mites which developed infections increased significantly with the increasing concentration of the conidial suspension to which they were exposed; 77% of mites developed infections when exposed to the highest concentration used (1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1)). Controls developed no fungal infections. Mites allowed simply to walk across a surface which had been treated with a suspension of conidia also acquired fungal infections; the number infected was again related to the concentration of conidia present. After contact for 24 h with a surface treated with 1 x 10(8) conidia ml(-1), 73% of the mites became infected. To determine whether dead infected mites could act as sources of infection, infected cadavers were placed in chambers with live uninfected mites. The uninfected mites acquired fatal infections from the cadavers; a higher ratio of infected cadavers to uninfected mites resulted in greater transmission of infection. The time after death of the infected cadaver was also an important factor influencing the number infected, 5-day-old cadavers were the most infective and 18-day-old cadavers the least infective. The results indicate that M. anisopliae is a good candidate control agent for Psoroptes mites.

  7. Trade-offs in an ant-plant-fungus mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orivel, Jérôme; Malé, Pierre-Jean; Lauth, Jérémie; Roux, Olivier; Petitclerc, Frédéric; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2017-03-15

    Species engaged in multiple, simultaneous mutualisms are subject to trade-offs in their mutualistic investment if the traits involved in each interaction are overlapping, which can lead to conflicts and affect the longevity of these associations. We investigate this issue via a tripartite mutualism involving an ant plant, two competing ant species and a fungus the ants cultivate to build galleries under the stems of their host plant to capture insect prey. The use of the galleries represents an innovative prey capture strategy compared with the more typical strategy of foraging on leaves. However, because of a limited worker force in their colonies, the prey capture behaviour of the ants results in a trade-off between plant protection (i.e. the ants patrol the foliage and attack intruders including herbivores) and ambushing prey in the galleries, which has a cascading effect on the fitness of all of the partners. The quantification of partners' traits and effects showed that the two ant species differed in their mutualistic investment. Less investment in the galleries (i.e. in fungal cultivation) translated into more benefits for the plant in terms of less herbivory and higher growth rates and vice versa. However, the greater vegetative growth of the plants did not produce a positive fitness effect for the better mutualistic ant species in terms of colony size and production of sexuals nor was the mutualist compensated by the wider dispersal of its queens. As a consequence, although the better ant mutualist is the one that provides more benefits to its host plant, its lower host-plant exploitation does not give this ant species a competitive advantage. The local coexistence of the ant species is thus fleeting and should eventually lead to the exclusion of the less competitive species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Genomic insight into pathogenicity of dematiaceous fungus Corynespora cassiicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Keat Looi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is a common plant pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in a broad range of crop, and it heavily affect rubber trees in Malaysia (Hsueh, 2011; Nghia et al., 2008. The isolation of UM 591 from a patient’s contact lens indicates the pathogenic potential of this dematiaceous fungus in human. However, the underlying factors that contribute to the opportunistic cross-infection have not been fully studied. We employed genome sequencing and gene homology annotations in attempt to identify these factors in UM 591 using data obtained from publicly available bioinformatics databases. The assembly size of UM 591 genome is 41.8 Mbp, and a total of 13,531 (≥99 bp genes have been predicted. UM 591 is enriched with genes that encode for glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, auxiliary activity enzymes and cell wall degrading enzymes. Virulent genes comprising of CAZymes, peptidases, and hypervirulence-associated cutinases were found to be present in the fungal genome. Comparative analysis result shows that UM 591 possesses higher number of carbohydrate esterases family 10 (CE10 CAZymes compared to other species of fungi in this study, and these enzymes hydrolyses wide range of carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate substrates. Putative melanin, siderophore, ent-kaurene, and lycopene biosynthesis gene clusters are predicted, and these gene clusters denote that UM 591 are capable of protecting itself from the UV and chemical stresses, allowing it to adapt to different environment. Putative sterigmatocystin, HC-toxin, cercosporin, and gliotoxin biosynthesis gene cluster are predicted. This finding have highlighted the necrotrophic and invasive nature of UM 591.

  9. Genome characterization of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.

  10. yeast transformation of Mucor circinelloides Tieghe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-02

    May 2, 2006 ... messengers in signal transduction and consequent yeast induction. Whereas thallic .... part of the structural component of regulatory proteins, protein kinase C (PKC, .... the 0.25 mM Zn2+- level separated into two subsets, with.

  11. Sporangiospore - Yeast Transformation of Mucor circinelloides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    2012-02-16

    Feb 16, 2012 ... vesicular conidial chains were a recurrent feature when ... centration differential between the inner and outer media. This gave rise to transmembrane- ... tials and ion currents through the intracellular membrane. Since K+ has ...

  12. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Burnum, Kristin E; Scott, Jarrod J; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G; Adams, Sandra M; Barry, Kerrie W; Nicora, Carrie D; Piehowski, Paul D; Purvine, Samuel O; Starrett, Gabriel J; Goodwin, Lynne A; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S; Currie, Cameron R

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on large quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic techniques, we characterize the bacterial diversity and physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes associated with lignocellulose degradation and diverse biosynthetic pathways, suggesting that they play a role in nutrient cycling by converting the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants into B-vitamins, amino acids and other cellular components. Our metaproteomic analysis confirms that bacterial glycosyl hydrolases and proteins with putative biosynthetic functions are produced in both field-collected and laboratory-reared colonies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are specialized fungus-bacteria communities that convert plant material into energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities in the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  13. Combining microtomy and confocal laser scanning microscopy for structural analyses of plant-fungus associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Magnus; Grolig, Franz; Haueisen, Janine; Imhof, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    The serious problem of extended tissue thickness in the analysis of plant-fungus associations was overcome using a new method that combines physical and optical sectioning of the resin-embedded sample by microtomy and confocal microscopy. Improved tissue infiltration of the fungal-specific, high molecular weight fluorescent probe wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 633 resulted in high fungus-specific fluorescence even in deeper tissue sections. If autofluorescence was insufficient, additional counterstaining with Calcofluor White M2R or propidium iodide was applied in order to visualise the host plant tissues. Alternatively, the non-specific fluorochrome acid fuchsine was used for rapid staining of both, the plant and the fungal cells. The intricate spatial arrangements of the plant and fungal cells were preserved by immobilization in the hydrophilic resin Unicryl™. Microtomy was used to section the resin-embedded roots or leaves until the desired plane was reached. The data sets generated by confocal laser scanning microscopy of the remaining resin stubs allowed the precise spatial reconstruction of complex structures in the plant-fungus associations of interest. This approach was successfully tested on tissues from ectomycorrhiza (Betula pendula), arbuscular mycorrhiza (Galium aparine; Polygala paniculata, Polygala rupestris), ericoid mycorrhiza (Calluna vulgaris), orchid mycorrhiza (Limodorum abortivum, Serapias parviflora) and on one leaf-fungus association (Zymoseptoria tritici on Triticum aestivum). The method provides an efficient visualisation protocol applicable with a wide range of plant-fungus symbioses.

  14. Metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into bacterial communities in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum, Kristin E.; Scott, Jarrod J.; Suen, Garret; Tringe, Susannah G.; Adams, Sandra M.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Starrett, Gabriel J.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2012-09-01

    Herbivores gain access to nutrients stored in plant biomass largely by harnessing the metabolic activities of microbes. Leaf-cutter ants of the genus Atta are a hallmark example; these dominant Neotropical herbivores cultivate symbiotic fungus gardens on massive quantities of fresh plant forage. As the external digestive system of the ants, fungus gardens facilitate the production and sustenance of millions of workers in mature Atta colonies. Here we use metagenomic, and metaproteomic techniques to characterize the bacterial diversity and overall physiological potential of fungus gardens from two species of Atta. Our analysis of over 1.2 Gbp of community metagenomic sequence and three 16S pyrotag libraries reveals that, in addition to harboring the dominant fungal crop, these ecosystems contain abundant populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including the genera Enterobacter, Pantoea, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, and Escherichia. We show that these bacterial communities possess genes commonly associated with lignocellulose degradation, and likely participate in the processing of plant biomass. Additionally, we demonstrate that bacteria in these environments encode a diverse suite of biosynthetic pathways, and that they may enrich the nitrogen-poor forage of the ants with B-vitamins, amino acids, and proteins. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that fungus gardens are highly-specialized fungus-bacteria communities that efficiently convert plant material into usable energy for their ant hosts. Together with recent investigations into the microbial symbionts of vertebrates, our work underscores the importance of microbial communities to the ecology and evolution of herbivorous metazoans.

  15. Appressorium formation in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis requires a G2 cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Sónia; Pérez-Martín, José

    2015-01-01

    Many of the most important plant diseases are caused by fungal pathogens that form specialized cell structures to breach the leaf surface as well as to proliferate inside the plant. To initiate pathogenic development, the fungus responds to a set of inductive cues. Some of them are of extracellular nature (environmental signals) while others respond to intracellular conditions (developmental signals). These signals have to be integrated into a single response that has as a major outcome changes in the morphogenesis of the fungus. The cell cycle regulation is pivotal during these cellular differentiations, and we hypothesized that cell cycle regulation would be likely to provide control points for infection development by fungal pathogens. Although efforts have been done in various fungal systems, there is still limited information available regarding the relationship of these processes with the induction of the virulence programs. Hence, the role of fungal cell cycle regulators -which are wide conserved elements- as true virulence factors, has yet to be defined. Here we discuss the recent finding that the formation of the appressorium, a structure required for plant penetration, in the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis seems to be incompatible with an active cell cycle and, therefore genetic circuits evolved in this fungus to arrest the cell cycle during the growth of this fungus on plant surface, before the appressorium-mediated penetration into the plant tissue.

  16. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quesada-Moraga

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae, endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing. The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  17. The nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium and its nematicidal activity on Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Araújo, Jackson Victor; Lima, Walter dos Santos; de Queiroz, José Humberto

    2015-01-01

    The dog acts as a reservoir and environmental disseminator of potentially zoonotic parasites. The objective of this work was to study the fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium regarding its nematicidal potential in laboratory trials and its proteolytic profile. The in vitro test was carried out through two assays (A and B). In assay A, conidia of the fungus N34a were added in positive coprocultures for Angiostrongylus vasorum. In assay B, crude extract (treated group) and distilled water (control group) were added to coprocultures. Next, the proteolytic profile of crude extract of the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium (NF34a) was revealed by performing a zymogram. There was a reduction (p<0.01) in the averages of larvae recovered from the treated groups (conidia and crude extract) in relation to control groups. The zymogram suggested that the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium produces a protease of approximately 40 kDa. The results of this work confirm that the conidia as well as the crude extract of the fungus M. thaumasium may be used to control A. vasorum L1. The proteolytic profile suggested the presence of one protease (Mt1) of approximately 40 kDa that in the future may be used in biological control of L1 of this nematode. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of growing media and their constituents on fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila (Lintner) adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAYMOND A. CLOYD; AMY DICKINSON; RICHARD A. LARSON; KAREN A.MARLEY

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the attractiveness of two growing media,commonly utilized in greenhouses, to fungus gnat, Bradysia sp. nr. coprophila adults. The constituents of the most attractive growing medium tested were determined by gas chromatography analysis using a steam-distillation procedure. We found that fungus gnat adults were more attracted to the growing medium, SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix,which contains composted bark, than to another growing medium (Sunshine LC1 Mix) and their components when tested in a series of laboratory experiments using multiple-choice experimental arenas. A higher percentage of fungus gnat adults were attracted to moist SB300(92%)than SB300 growing medium that had been oven dried (8%). In addition,fungus gnat adults preferred SB300 although they had been reared on Sunshine LC1 Mix.When comparing the SB300 fresh from the bag to growing medium that had been pasteurized and moistened with water, gas chromatographic-mass spectroscopic data showed there were declines in several terpenoid constituents as well as an increase in fatty acids and cyclosulfur.The results of this study indicate that B. sp. nr. coprophila adults prefer certain growing media, which may assist greenhouse producers in managing fungus gnats in crop production systems.

  19. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Eric L; Aylward, Frank O; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Nicora, Carrie D; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O; Lipton, Mary S; Smith, Richard D; Currie, Cameron R; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics that feed on fungus gardens cultivated on fresh foliar biomass. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metabolomic and metaproteomic techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous characterization of lignocellulases produced by the fungal cultivar of the ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metabolomic experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in fungus gardens. These results provide new insights into microbial community-level processes that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  20. Production of secondary metabolite E2.2 from Phaleria macrocarpa endophytic fungus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beatrix Trikurnia Gasong; Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate new endophytic fungus from Phaleria macrocarpa (P. macrocarpa) that is able to produce E2.2 compound. Methods: Endophytic fungi were isolated from P. macrocarpa. Morphological and molecular identification was done to determine the species of the endophytic fungus. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the ability of this fungus to produce E2.2 compound and to quantify the total yield of E2.2 from fungal fermen-tation. Fermentation process was optimized by observing suitable medium, pH and length of fermentation process. Phloroglucinol and gallic acid addition were examined to determine the effect of each compound on E2.2 production. Results: One endophytic fungus was successfully isolated from P. macrocarpa plant. Morphological and molecular identification showed that it was a Colletotrichum gloeo-sporioides which belonged to Glomerellaceae family. This fungus showed highest pro-duction of E2.2 when incubated in potato dextrose broth with initial pH value of the medium at 5, and was incubated for 15 days. Phloroglucinol was found to better enhance E2.2 production. Conclusions: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides found in P. macrocarpa plant is prom-ising as a potential alternative source of E2.2.

  1. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  2. Transgenic assessment of CFP-mediated cercosporin export and resistance in a cercosporin-sensitive fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Robert G; Rose, Mark S; Eweida, Mohamed; Callahan, Terrence M

    2002-04-01

    Cercosporin is a toxic polyketide produced by many phytopathogenic members of the fungal genus Cercospora. Cercospora species, themselves, exhibit the highest level of self-resistance to this almost universally toxic photosensitizer. Although the mechanism of cercosporin self-resistance is multi-faceted, partial resistance does appear to be provided by the encoded product of CFP ( cercosporin facilitator protein), a gene recently isolated from the pathogen of soybean, C. kikuchii. CFP has significant similarity to the major facilitator superfamily of integral membrane transport proteins. We expressed CFP in the cercosporin non-producing, cercosporin-sensitive fungus, Cochliobolus heterostrophus, in order to assess the transport activity of CFP and the contribution of CFP to cercosporin resistance in a fungal species free of endogenous toxin production. Expression of the CFP transgene in this fungus results in increased resistance to cercosporin due, apparently, to its export out of the fungus.

  3. The dynamics of plant cell-wall polysaccharide decomposition in leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, Isabel Eva; de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Harholt, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    communities of microbial and invertebrate symbionts have evolved associations with the dump material from leaf-cutting ant nests, to exploit decomposition niches that the ant garden-fungus does not utilize. Our approach thus provides detailed insight into the nutritional benefits and shortcomings associated......The degradation of live plant biomass in fungus gardens of leaf-cutting ants is poorly characterised but fundamental for understanding the mutual advantages and efficiency of this obligate nutritional symbiosis. Controversies about the extent to which the garden-symbiont Leucocoprinus gongylophorus......, to map the occurrence of cell wall polymers in consecutive sections of the fungus garden of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We show that pectin, xyloglucan and some xylan epitopes are degraded, whereas more highly substituted xylan and cellulose epitopes remain as residuals in the waste...

  4. Potential for Nitrogen Fixation in the Fungus-Growing Termite Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapountzis, Panagiotis; de Verges, Jane; Rousk, Kathrin; Cilliers, Magdeleen; Vorster, Barend J; Poulsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Termites host a gut microbiota of diverse and essential symbionts that enable specialization on dead plant material; an abundant, but nutritionally imbalanced food source. To supplement the severe shortage of dietary nitrogen (N), some termite species make use of diazotrophic bacteria to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N2). Fungus-growing termites (subfamily Macrotermitinae) host a fungal exosymbiont (genus Termitomyces) that provides digestive services and the main food source for the termites. This has been thought to obviate the need for N2-fixation by bacterial symbionts. Here, we challenge this notion by performing acetylene reduction assays of live colony material to show that N2 fixation is present in two major genera (Macrotermes and Odontotermes) of fungus-growing termites. We compare and discuss fixation rates in relation to those obtained from other termites, and suggest avenues of research that may lead to a better understanding of N2 fixation in fungus-growing and other termites.

  5. Interactions between hyphosphere-associated bacteria and the fungus Cladosporium herbarum on aquatic leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschien, Christiane; Rode, Georg; Böckelmann, Uta; Götz, Peter; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2009-10-01

    We investigated microbial interactions of aquatic bacteria associated with hyphae (the hyphosphere) of freshwater fungi on leaf litter. Bacteria were isolated directly from the hyphae of fungi from sedimented leaves of a small stream in the National Park "Lower Oder," Germany. To investigate interactions, bacteria and fungi were pairwise co-cultivated on leaf-extract medium and in microcosms loaded with leaves. The performance of fungi and bacteria was monitored by measuring growth, enzyme production, and respiration of mono- and co-cultures. Growth inhibition of the fungus Cladosporium herbarum by Ralstonia pickettii was detected on leaf extract agar plates. In microcosms, the presence of Chryseobacterium sp. lowered the exocellulase, endocellulase, and cellobiase activity of the fungus. Additionally, the conversion of leaf material into microbial biomass was retarded in co-cultures. The respiration of the fungus was uninfluenced by the presence of the bacterium.

  6. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  7. Comparative mitochondrial genomics toward exploring molecular markers in the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Hao, Ai-Jing; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie

    2017-01-10

    Cordyceps militaris is a fungus used for developing health food, but knowledge about its intraspecific differentiation is limited due to lack of efficient markers. Herein, we assembled the mitochondrial genomes of eight C. militaris strains and performed a comparative mitochondrial genomic analysis together with three previously reported mitochondrial genomes of the fungus. Sizes of the 11 mitochondrial genomes varied from 26.5 to 33.9 kb mainly due to variable intron contents (from two to eight introns per strain). Nucleotide variability varied according to different regions with non-coding regions showing higher variation frequency than coding regions. Recombination events were identified between some locus pairs but seemed not to contribute greatly to genetic variations of the fungus. Based on nucleotide diversity fluctuations across the alignment of all mitochondrial genomes, molecular markers with the potential to be used for future typing studies were determined.

  8. A case of fungus ball type pansinusitis caused by Schizophillum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Mehdi; Mohammadi Ardehali, Mojtaba; Moazeni, Maryam; Jamal Hashemi, Seyed; Fallahi, Ali Akbar; Ehteram, Hassan; Rezaie, Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Schizophillum commune has been increasingly reported from allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) as well as fungus ball, brain abscess and several cases of maxillary or allergic fungal sinusitis. In the present study, we reported a case of fungus ball type pansinusitis from a 32-year-old woman in Iran. According to computed tomography (CT) scan, fungus ball type pan-sinusitis was likely to be the first diagnosis. Mycological examination revealed hyaline hyphae with small projection and also clamp connection structures on PDA medium. To identify the obtained isolate properly, molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region was performed and indicated that the causing agent of the infection is surely Schizophillum commune. The patient completely recovered after surgical endoscopic operation and consequent post-operation MRI revealed clearance of sinuses.

  9. 浅析菌袋出口对食用菌产业的影响%Analysis on the Influence of Edible Fungus Bag Expo~ation on Edible Fungus Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美玲

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The increasing of edible fungus bag exportation promoted the standardized production of edible fungus industry in China, anti avoided the trade barrier in edible fungus exportation. However, the problems it brought also should not be ignored, such as the material shortage of edible fungus, the, species barrier and the obsh'uetion of edible fungus product expurtation.%菌袋出口量的增加不仅提升了中国食用菌产业的标准化生产,而且规避了各国对食用菌出口的贸易壁垒;但其所带来的问题也是不容忽视的,如食用菌原料的短缺、物种壁垒、食用菌制品出口受阻等。

  10. Fungus symbionts colonizing the galleries of the ambrosia beetle Platypus quercivorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Okada, Gen; Takeuchi, Yuko; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2011-07-01

    Isolations were made to determine the fungal symbionts colonizing Platypus quercivorus beetle galleries of dead or dying Quercus laurifolia, Castanopsis cuspidata, Quercus serrata, Quercus crispula, and Quercus robur. For these studies, logs from oak wilt-killed trees were collected from Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. Fungi were isolated from the: (1) entrances of beetle galleries, (2) vertical galleries, (3) lateral galleries, and (4) the larval cradle of P. quercivorus in each host tree. Among the fungus colonies which appeared on YM agar plates, 1,219 were isolated as the representative isolates for fungus species inhabiting in the galleries based on their cultural characteristics. The validity of the visual classification of the fungus colonies was checked and if necessary properly corrected using microsatellite-primed PCR fingerprints. The nucleotide sequence of the D1/D2 region of the large subunit nuclear rRNA gene detected 38 fungus species (104 strains) of which three species, i.e., Candida sp. 3, Candida kashinagacola (both yeasts), and the filamentous fungus Raffaelea quercivora were isolated from all the tree species. The two yeasts were most prevalent in the interior of galleries, regardless of host tree species, suggesting their close association with the beetle. A culture-independent method, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis was also used to characterize the fungus flora of beetle galleries. T-RFLP patterns showed that yeast species belonging to the genus Ambrosiozyma frequently occurred on the gallery walls along with the two Candida species. Ours is the first report showing the specific fungi inhabiting the galleries of a platypodid ambrosia beetle.

  11. Biological control of cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) with nematophagous fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium in tropical southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavela, Alexandre de Oliveira; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fábio Ribeiro; Silva, André Ricardo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Giovanni Ribeiro

    2011-01-10

    Horses are hosts to a wide variety of helminthes; the most important are the cyathostomin, or small strongyles. The viability of a fungal formulation (pellets) using the nematode-trapping fungus Monacrosporium thaumasium was assessed in biological control of horse cyathostomin. Two groups (fungus-treated and control) consisted of six mares in each group, crossbred (ages of 2.5 and 3.5 years), were placed in pastures of Cynodon sp. naturally infected with horse cyathostomin larvae. In the treated group, each animal received 1g/10 kg body weight (0.2g/10 kg live weight of fungus) of pellets of sodium alginate matrix containing the fungus M. thaumasium orally, twice a week for 6 months. In the control group, animals received (1g/10 kg body weight) of pellets without fungus. The egg count per gram of feces showed difference (pcontrol animals during all months of the experiment. The EPG percentage decrease were 87.5%, 89.7%, 68.3%, 58.7%, 52.5% and 35.2% during June, July, August, September, October and November, respectively. In faecal cultures, there was difference (pcontrol animals during all the experiment month, with percentage reduction of 67.5%, 61.4% and 31.8% in September, October and November, respectively. Difference (pcontrol group with a reduction of 60.9% and between 0-20 and 0-40 cm from the faecal pat reduction (pcontrol group pasture. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the average weight gains in both animal groups. The treatment of horses with pellets containing the nematophagous fungus M. thaumasium can be effective in controlling cyathostomin in the tropical region of southeastern Brazil.

  12. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Almakarem Amal S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g, two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g, and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g. Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt

  13. Temperature modulates the secretome of the phytopathogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Félix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. Little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. Current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures.The exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. The impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can induce different levels of virulence in new hosts, allowing massive losses in agricultural and health fields.Lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus responsible for a number of diseases in various plants. It has also been described as an opportunist pathogen in humans, causing infections with different levels of severity. Lasiodiplodia theobromae has a high capacity of adaptation to different environments, such as woody plants, moist argillaceous soils or even humans, being able to grow and infect hosts in a wide range of temperatures (9ºC-39ºC. Nonetheless, the effect of an increase of temperature, as predicted in climate change models, on L. theobromae is unknown.Here we explore the effect of temperature on two strains of L. theobromae – an environmental strain CAA019, and a clinical strain, CBS339.90.We show that both strains are cytotoxic to mammalian cells but while the environmental strain is cytotoxic mainly at 25ºC, the clinical strain is cytotoxic mainly at 30ºC and 37ºC.Extracellular gelatinolytic, xylanolytic, amylolytic and cellulolytic activities at 25ºC and 37ºC were characterized by zymography and the secretome of both strains grown at 25ºC, 30ºC and 37ºC were characterized by electrophoresis and by Orbitrap LC-MS/MS. More than 75% of the proteins were identified, mostly enzymes (glycosyl hydrolases and proteases. The strains showed different protein profiles, which were affected by growth temperature. Also, strain

  14. Pseudoxylaria as stowaway of the fungus-growing termite nest: Interaction asymmetry between Pseudoxylaria, Termitomyces and free-living relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Kooij, P.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Kuyper, T.W.; Aanen, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Though inconspicuous in healthy nests, Pseudoxylaria species are almost always present and overgrow deteriorating fungus-growing termite gardens. Whether these fungi are detrimental to the fungus-garden, benign, or even beneficial is unclear. We hypothesize that Pseudoxylaria is a stowaway that prac

  15. Transcriptome of an entomophthoralean fungus (Pandora formicae) shows molecular machinery adjusted for successful host exploitation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Małagocka, Joanna; Grell, Morten N.; Lange, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    Pandora formicae is an obligate entomopathogenic fungus from the phylum Entomophthoromycota, known to infect only ants from the genus Formica. In the final stages of infection, the fungus induces the so-called summit disease syndrome, manipulating the host to climb up vegetation prior to death an...

  16. Bacterial communities in termite fungus combs are comprised of consistent gut deposits and contributions from the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria; Hansen, Lars H.; Sørensen, Søren Johannes;

    2016-01-01

    time. These shifts did not appear to be due to changes in the taxa present, but rather due to differences in the relative abundances of primarily gut-derived bacteria within fungus combs. This indicates that fungus comb microbiotas are largely termite species-specific due to major contributions from...

  17. Complete Genome of Enterobacteriaceae Bacterium Strain FGI 57, a Strain Associated with Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Frank O; Tremmel, Daniel M; Bruce, David C; Chain, Patrick; Chen, Amy; Walston Davenport, Karen; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff S; Han, James; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia N; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Markowitz, Victor; Mavrommatis, Kostas; Nolan, Matt; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Pitluck, Sam; Deshpande, Shweta; Goodwin, Lynne; Woyke, Tanja; Currie, Cameron R

    2013-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae bacterium strain FGI 57 was isolated from a fungus garden of the leaf-cutter ant Atta colombica. Analysis of its single 4.76-Mbp chromosome will shed light on community dynamics and plant biomass degradation in ant fungus gardens.

  18. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  19. Fingerprints of a forest fungus: Swiss needle cast, carbon isotopes, carbohydrates, and growth in Douglas-fir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea Watts; Frederick Meinzer; Brandy J. Saffell

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast is caused by a fungus native to the Pacific Northwest. Its host is Douglas-fir, an iconic evergreen tree in the region. The fungus does not kill its host, but it adversely affects the tree's growth. The fungal fruiting bodies block the stomata, small openings on the underside of the needle where carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases are...

  20. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The d

  1. Decolorization of reactive brilliant red K-2BP by white rot fungus under sterile and non-sterile conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2006-01-01

    Almost all the studies both domestic and international using white rot fungus for dye wastewater treatment are performed under sterile conditions. However, it is obviously unpractical that wastewater with dyes is treated under sterile conditions. A feasible study was made for using white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade reactive brilliant red K-2BP dye under non-sterile conditions. The results showed that there was no decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition if white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile condition, and the decolorization was always near to 0% during decolorizing test for 3 d; in the meantime, a lot of yeast funguses were found in liquid medium when white rot fungus was incubated under non-sterile conditions; however, if white rot fungus was incubated under sterile condition firstly, its decolorization was above 90% under non-sterile condition, which was similar to that of sterile condition. So we point out that the treating process for wastewater with dyes should be divided into two stages. The first stage is that white rot fungus should be incubated under sterile conditions, and the second stage is that reactive brilliant red K-2BP is decolorized under non-sterile conditions. The method not only save the operation cost which decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under sterile condition, but also provide the feasibility for using white rot fungus to degrade wastewater with dyes under non-sterile conditions.

  2. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ∼39 million years ago, very early in the ∼55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (∼12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture.

  3. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  4. Molecular characterization of a saline-soluble lectin from a parasitic fungus: Extensive sequence similarities between fungal lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosén, S.; Kata, M.; Persson, Y.; Lipniunas, P.H.; Wikström, M.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Brink, J.M. van den; Rask, L.; Hedén, L.O.; Tunlid, A.

    1996-01-01

    It has been proposed that the interactions between several parasite and pathogenic fungi and their hosts are mediated by soluble lectins present in the fungus. We have cloned and analyzed a gene encoding such a lectin (AOL) from the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora (deuteromycete). The

  5. Speciation despite globally overlapping distributions in Penicillium chrysogenum: the population genetics of Alexander Fleming’s lucky fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eighty years ago, Alexander Fleming described the antibiotic effects of a fungus that had contaminated his bacterial culture, kick starting the antimicrobial revolution. The fungus was later ascribed to a globally distributed asexual species, Penicillium chrysogenum. Recently, the species has been...

  6. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol

  7. Direct ethanol production from starch, wheat bran and rice straw by the white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Nitta, Yasuyuki; Maekawa, Nitaro; Yanase, Hideshi

    2011-01-01

    The white rot fungus Trametes hirsuta produced ethanol from a variety of hexoses: glucose, mannose, cellobiose and maltose, with yields of 0.49. 0.48, 0.47 and 0.47 g/g of ethanol per sugar utilized, respectively. In addition, this fungus showed relatively favorable xylose consumption and ethanol pr

  8. The research of using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize different mediums for edible fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guozhu, Li; Zhenqian, Guan; Hengshou, Zhao

    1993-10-01

    The present experiment has been carried out by using different dosage of Co—60 γ ray for radiation sterilization of five kinds of cultural materials of edible fungus, The results indicated that sterilization dosage of sawdust is 22 kGy. that of cotton—seed shell and the rest are 26 kGy. We conclude that using Co-60 γ ray to sterilize the cultura 1 materials of edible fungus is a secure and saving labor and energy new method which could sterilize thoroughly.

  9. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  10. Degradation of the plant defence hormone salicylic acid by the biotrophic fungus Ustilago maydis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Franziska; Ajami-Rashidi, Ziba; Doehlemann, Gunther; Kahmann, Regine; Djamei, Armin

    2013-07-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant defence hormone which plays an important role in local and systemic defence responses against biotrophic pathogens like the smut fungus Ustilago maydis. Here we identified Shy1, a cytoplasmic U. maydis salicylate hydroxylase which has orthologues in the closely related smuts Ustilago hordei and Sporisorium reilianum. shy1 is transcriptionally induced during the biotrophic stages of development but not required for virulence during seedling infection. Shy1 activity is needed for growth on plates with SA as a sole carbon source. The trigger for shy1 transcriptional induction is SA, suggesting the possibility of a SA sensing mechanism in this fungus.

  11. A new eremophilane-type sesquiterpene from the phytopatogen fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Sphaeropsidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Fatima M.; Oliveira, Maria da Conceicao F. de; Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Lemos, Telma L.G.; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Mattos, Marcos C. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail: mcfo@ufc.br; Mafezoli, Jair [Universidade de Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia; Viana, Francisco M.P.; Ferreira, Viviane M. [EMBRAPA Agroindustria Tropical, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Lab. de Fitopatologia; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sa Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The phytopatogenic fungus Lasiodiplodia theobromae, isolated from guava, was cultivated in rice for 32 days at room temperature. Extraction with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}:MeOH (3:7), followed by chromatography fractionation of the extract provided ergosterol. From the fungus culture in Czapeck medium for 40 days at room temperature, were isolated isocoumarin cis-4-hydroxymeleine and an eremophilane-type sesquiterpene. The latter compound is being reported for the first time in the literature. Also, this is the first time that an eremophilane sesquiterpene is described for Lasiodiplodia genus. (author)

  12. Laboratory evaluation of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for controlling Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Ownag, A; Pourseyed, S H; Mardani, K

    2008-06-01

    The pathogenicity of three strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae on different life stages of Dermanyssus gallinae was evaluated in the laboratory. All the strains tested were virulent to D. gallinae but pathogenicity varied among the strains. Strain V245 induced a higher mortality rate using different concentrations than other two strains. The estimated median lethal concentration of different strains of M. anisopliae against D. gallinae varied depending on the exposure time of D. gallinae to M. anisopliae. It was concluded that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae on different life stages of D. gallinae was concentration and time dependent.

  13. A comparative study of exocrine gland chemistry in Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Rachelle Martha Marie; Jones, Tappey H.; Jeter, Andrew W.

    2012-01-01

    Ants possess many exocrine glands that produce a variety of compounds important for chemical communication. Fungus-growing ants, a tribe of over 230 species within the subfamily Myrmicinae, are unique among ants because they cultivate fungus gardens inside their nests as food. Here the chemistry...... possess many derived characteristics such as extensive leaf-cutting behavior and massive colony sizes, effectively making them major herbivores in many Neotropical habitats. This is the first comparison of the chemistry of eight Trachymyrmex and one Sericomyrmex species in a phylogenetic context. Most...

  14. Biscogniauxone, a New Isopyrrolonaphthoquinone Compound from the Fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea Isolated from Deep-Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The properties and the production of new metabolites from the fungal strain LF657 isolated from the Herodotes Deep (2800 m depth in the Mediterranean Sea are reported in this study. The new isolate was identified as Biscogniauxia mediterranea based on ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and 28S rRNA gene sequences. A new isopyrrolonaphthoquinone with inhibitory activity against glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β was isolated from this fungus. This is the first report of this class of compounds from a fungus isolated from a deep-sea sediment, as well as from a Biscogniauxia species.

  15. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  16. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivens, Aniek B.F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing...... and transmission of symbionts. Symbiont transmission is vertical by default, and both the ants and resident fungus actively protect the fungal monoculture growing in their nest against secondary introductions of genetically dissimilar symbionts from other colonies. An earlier study showed that mixtures of major...

  17. Towards a better understanding of the evolution of specialized parasites of fungus-growing ant crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yek, Sze Huei; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fungus-growing ants have interacted and partly coevolved with specialised microfungal parasites of the genus Escovopsis since the origin of ant fungiculture about 50 million years ago. Here, we review the recent progress in understanding the patterns of specificity of this ant-parasite association...... questions of (co)adaptation and evolutionary history. Using the same scheme, we identify future research questions that are likely to be particularly illuminating for understanding the ecology and evolution of Escovopsis parasitism of the cultivar maintained by fungus-growing ants...

  18. A new guaiane mannoside from a Eutypa-like fungus isolated from Murraya paniculata in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Afonso D.L.; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Antonia Q.L.; Henrique-Silva, Flavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Genetica e Evolucao; Pereira, Jose O. [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias

    2008-07-01

    A Eutypa-like fungus was isolated from the stems of Murraya paniculata. The fungus was cultivated in liquid medium and produced the new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (1R,4S,5S,7R,10R)- 10-hydroxyguaianol 10-O-beta-mannopyranoside and the 3-hydroxy-5-phenylmethyl-(3S,5R)- tetrahydrofuran-2-one, a diastereomer of harzialactone A, obtained for the first time from a natural source. The structures of these metabolites were elucidated based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. (author)

  19. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp. in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond A. Cloyd

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp. are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  20. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Sterflinger

    Full Text Available The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  1. Nothing special in the specialist? Draft genome sequence of Cryomyces antarcticus, the most extremophilic fungus from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija; Pandey, Ram Vinay; Blasi, Barbara; Kriegner, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The draft genome of the Antarctic endemic fungus Cryomyces antarcticus is presented. This rock inhabiting, microcolonial fungus is extremely stress tolerant and it is a model organism for exobiology and studies on stress resistance in Eukaryots. Since this fungus is a specialist in the most extreme environment of the Earth, the analysis of its genome is of important value for the understanding of fungal genome evolution and stress adaptation. A comparison with Neurospora crassa as well as with other microcolonial fungi shows that the fungus has a genome size of 24 Mbp, which is the average in the fungal kingdom. Although sexual reproduction was never observed in this fungus, 34 mating genes are present with protein homologs in the classes Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. The first analysis of the draft genome did not reveal any significant deviations of this genome from comparative species and mesophilic hyphomycetes.

  2. Modification of Prenylated Stilbenoids in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Seedlings by the Same Fungi That Elicited Them: The Fungus Strikes Back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Slager, Mathijs; Helmink, Bianca; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2015-10-28

    Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were compared for inducing the production of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings. The fungus was applied at two different time points: directly after soaking (day 1) or after 2 days of germination (day 3). Aspergillus- and Rhizopus-elicited peanut seedlings accumulated an array of prenylated stilbenoids, with overlap in compounds induced, but also with compounds specific to the fungal treatment. The differences were confirmed to be due to modification of prenylated stilbenoids by the fungus itself. Each fungus appeared to deploy different strategies for modification. The content of prenylated stilbenoids modified by fungi accounted for around 8% to 49% (w/w) of total stilbenoids. The contents of modified prenylated stilbenoids were higher when the fungus was applied on day 1 instead of day 3. Altogether, type of fungus and time point of inoculation appeared to be crucial parameters for optimizing accumulation of prenylated stilbenoids in peanut seedlings.

  3. Nest Enlargement in Leaf-Cutting Ants: Relocated Brood and Fungus Trigger the Excavation of New Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  4. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Roces, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density-dependent digging behavior

  5. Nest enlargement in leaf-cutting ants: relocated brood and fungus trigger the excavation of new chambers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Römer

    Full Text Available During colony growth, leaf-cutting ants enlarge their nests by excavating tunnels and chambers housing their fungus gardens and brood. Workers are expected to excavate new nest chambers at locations across the soil profile that offer suitable environmental conditions for brood and fungus rearing. It is an open question whether new chambers are excavated in advance, or will emerge around brood or fungus initially relocated to a suitable site in a previously-excavated tunnel. In the laboratory, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the excavation of new nest chambers in the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundi. Specifically, we asked whether workers relocate brood and fungus to suitable nest locations, and to what extent the relocated items trigger the excavation of a nest chamber and influence its shape. When brood and fungus were exposed to unfavorable environmental conditions, either low temperatures or low humidity, both were relocated, but ants clearly preferred to relocate the brood first. Workers relocated fungus to places containing brood, demonstrating that subsequent fungus relocation spatially follows the brood deposition. In addition, more ants aggregated at sites containing brood. When presented with a choice between two otherwise identical digging sites, but one containing brood, ants' excavation activity was higher at this site, and the shape of the excavated cavity was more rounded and chamber-like. The presence of fungus also led to the excavation of rounder shapes, with higher excavation activity at the site that also contained brood. We argue that during colony growth, workers preferentially relocate brood to suitable locations along a tunnel, and that relocated brood spatially guides fungus relocation and leads to increased digging activity around them. We suggest that nest chambers are not excavated in advance, but emerge through a self-organized process resulting from the aggregation of workers and their density

  6. Co-evolutionary patterns and diversification of ant-fungus associations in the asexual fungus-farming ant Mycocepurus smithii in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, K; Fernández-Marín, H; Ishak, H D; Sen, R; Linksvayer, T A; Mueller, U G

    2013-06-01

    Partner fidelity through vertical symbiont transmission is thought to be the primary mechanism stabilizing cooperation in the mutualism between fungus-farming (attine) ants and their cultivated fungal symbionts. An alternate or additional mechanism could be adaptive partner or symbiont choice mediating horizontal cultivar transmission or de novo domestication of free-living fungi. Using microsatellite genotyping for the attine ant Mycocepurus smithii and ITS rDNA sequencing for fungal cultivars, we provide the first detailed population genetic analysis of local ant-fungus associations to test for the relative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission in a single attine species. M. smithii is the only known asexual attine ant, and it is furthermore exceptional because it cultivates a far greater cultivar diversity than any other attine ant. Cultivar switching could permit the ants to re-acquire cultivars after garden loss, to purge inferior cultivars that are locally mal-adapted or that accumulated deleterious mutations under long-term asexuality. Compared to other attine ants, symbiont choice and local adaptation of ant-fungus combinations may play a more important role than partner-fidelity feedback in the co-evolutionary process of M. smithii and its fungal symbionts.

  7. [Misting-fountain-alveolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschel, D; Sennekamp, J; Schurz, C; Müller-Wening, D

    2004-09-01

    A 22-year-old woman developed recurrent episodes of fever, cough and dyspnea after repeated exposure to a misting fountain at home. A diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was made by detection of serum antibodies against the fountain water, by culture of Bacillus subtilis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor mucedo, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the water, and by detection of specific IgG antibodies against Bacillus subtilis and the Mucores. The diagnosis was confirmed by a restrictive lung function pattern, and a highly increased total cell count with a lymphocytosis of 39 % in the bronchoalveolar lavage. An inhalation challenge with the misting fountain resulted in a positive reaction. Because this humidifier system has recently become widespread at home, clinicians should be aware of this specific type of EAA which may be called "misting fountain alveolitis".

  8. Biological pretreatment of corn stover with white-rot fungus for improved enzymatic hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass by white-rot fungus can represent a low-cost and eco-friendly alternative to harsh physical, chemical or physico-chemical pretreatment methods to facilitate enzymatic hydrolysis. However, fungal pretreatment can cause carbohydrate loss and it is, th...

  9. Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Shi, Xiang-Yu; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers.

  10. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale.

  11. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  12. Two New Cerebrosides and Anthraquinone Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zu-Jian; OUYANG Ming-An; SU Ren-Kuan; KUO Yueh-Hsiung

    2008-01-01

    Two new cerebrosides, asperiamide B (1) and C (2), and two known aflatoxins, averufin and nidurufin, have been isolated from a Quanzhou marine fungus Aspergillus niger (MF-16), and the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical means. Among the compounds 5 and 6 showed moderate activities in inhibiting multiplication of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

  13. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, D. S.; Basavaraja, S.; Deshpande, R.; Mahesh, D. Bedre; Prabhakar, B. K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) employing the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides. The extracellular solution of C. cladosporioides was used for the reduction of AgNO(3) solution to AgNP. The present study includes time dependent

  14. The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of detergent and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Violeta D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential application of fungus Trichoderma harzianum Rifai in biodegradation of commercial detergent (MERIX, Henkel, Serbia was in the focus of this study. The fungus was isolated from wastewater samples of the Rasina River, downstream where the industrial wastewaters of factory Henkel (Krusevac, Serbia discharge into river. The fungus was cultivated in liquid growth medium by Czapek with addition of detergent at a concentration of 0.3% during 16 days. Analysis of fermentation broth evaluated the chemical and biochemical changes of pH, redox potential, activity of alkaline and acid invertase as well as activity of alkaline protease. In addition, the influence of detergent on fungal growth and total dry weight biomass was determined. At the same time, detergent disappearance in terms of methylene blue active substances in the medium was measured. The detergent at a concentration of 0.3% influenced significant decrease of pH value and increase of redox potential. The detergent showed inhibitory effect on acid invertase activity and stimulatory effect on alkaline invertase and protease activity. The fungus decomposed about 74.24% of tested detergent during 16 days, but total dry weight biomass reduced about 20% in relation to control. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43004

  15. Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Suhail; Bose, Chinchu; Banerji, Ashok; Nair, Bipin G; Chattoo, Bharat B

    2016-01-01

    Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent.

  16. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    1999-01-01

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  17. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  18. A New Eudesmane Sesquiterpene from Nigrospora oryzae, an Endophytic Fungus of Aquilaria sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli Li

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, 11 -hydroxy capitulatin B (1 , along with a known related sesquiterpene, capitulatin B (2, was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora oryzae A8 from Aquilaria sinensis, the only plant resource for agarwood production in China. This research demonstrates that the endophytic fungi from A. sinensis might play a role in the formation of agarwood.

  19. Phellinstatin, a new inhibitor of enoyl-ACP reductase produced by the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Young; Kwon, Yun-Ju; Sohn, Mi-Jin; Seok, Soon-Ja; Kim, Won-Gon

    2011-03-15

    A new trimeric hispidin derivative, phellinstatin, was isolated from a culture broth of the medicinal fungus Phellinus linteus and its structure was established by various spectral analysis. Phellinstatin strongly inhibited Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-ACP reductase with an IC(50) of 6 μM and also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and MRSA.

  20. The glutathione response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus thermomyces lanuginosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friborg Jepsen, Helene; Posci, Istvan; Jensen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of glutathione in response to salt stress in the thermophilic fungus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, the biomass and the intracellular pool of protein and the glutathione + glutathione disulphid (GSH + GSSG) was measured for four days in a medium with NaCl or KCl added ...

  1. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Fine Licht, de H.H.; Mitchell, J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-Lefevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divide

  2. Presumptive horizontal symbiont transmission in the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fine Licht, de H.H.; Boomsma, J.J.; Aanen, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    All colonies of the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis studied so far are associated with a single genetically variable lineage of Termitomyces symbionts. Such limited genetic variation of symbionts and the absence of sexual fruiting bodies (mushrooms) on M. natalensis mounds would be com

  3. Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Ros, V.I.D.; Licht, H.H.D.; Mitchel, J.; de Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Rouland-LeFevre, C.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divid

  4. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.A.; Ros, V.I.D.; Beer, de Z.W.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hartog, E.; Kuyper, T.W.; Laessoe, T.; Slippers, B.; Aanen, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of the

  5. Strategies for durable resistance to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly all cultivars of Vitis vinifera are highly susceptible to the grapevine powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator. Grape breeders around the world are working to introgress resistance from wild Vitis. Of the widely-used introgressions, most involve dominant, race-specific resistance phenotype...

  6. Identifying the Transition between Single and Multiple Mating of Queens in Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Murakami, Takahiro; Schultz, Ted R.

    2002-01-01

    Obligate mating of females (queens) with multiple males has evolved only rarely in social Hymenoptera (ants, social bees, social wasps) and for reasons that are fundamentally different from those underlying multiple mating in other animals. The monophyletic tribe of ('attine') fungus-growing ants...

  7. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  8. Antimicrobial defense shows an abrupt evolutionary transition in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William O H; Pagliarini, Roberta; Madsen, Henning Bang

    2008-01-01

    exception to this rule because they are a key first-line defense that are fixed in size in adults. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the size of the gland reservoir across the fungus-growing ants (tribe Attini). Most attines have singly mated queens, but in two derived genera, the leaf-cutting ants...

  9. Aspiperidine oxide, a piperidine N-oxide from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus indologenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lene Maj; Kildgaard, Sara; Jaspars, Marcel;

    2015-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite, aspiperidine oxide, was isolated from the filamentous fungus, Aspergillus indologenus. The structure of aspiperidine oxide was determined from extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis supported by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The structure revealed a rare...

  10. Identifying the core microbial community in the gut of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otan, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram; Nobre, Tânia

    2014-01-01

    with specific termite genus-level ecological niches. Finally, we show that gut communities of fungus-growing termites are similar to cockroaches, both at the bacterial phylum level and in a comparison of the core Macrotermitinae taxa abundances with representative cockroach, lower termite, and higher non...

  11. Two New Alkaloids from a Marine-derived Fungus Neosartorya fischeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of EtOAc extract from the fermentation broth of the fungus Neosartorya fischeri led to the isolation of two novel alkaloids and one known compound with antitumor activity against HL-60 cell lines. Their structures were elucidated mainly by NMR and HR-TOF-MS, as well as on comparison with the reported data.

  12. Unintentional ingestion of Cordyceps fungus-infected cicada nymphs causing ibotenic acid poisoning in Southern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Uyen Vy; Mendez Rojas, Bomar; Kirby, Ralph

    2017-09-01

    Cordyceps fungus found in infected cicada nymphs ("cicada flowers") is utilized in traditional Chinese medicine. Cordyceps fungus toxicity in humans has not been previously reported. We report 60 cases of apparent Cordyceps poisoning in Southern Vietnam. We retrospectively collected demographic and clinical data from the medical records (21 cases) and by telephone interview (39 cases) of patients admitted to seven hospitals in Southern Vietnam following ingestion of cicada flowers between 2008 and 2015. We also determined the species of Cordyceps present in the cicada flowers and performed a partial chemical analysis of the fungus. Sixty cases of toxic effects following ingestion of cicada flowers were documented. Symptom onset occurred within 60 minutes following ingestion. Symptoms included dizziness, vomiting, salivation, mydriasis, jaw stiffness, urinary retention, seizures, agitated delirium, hallucinations, somnolence and coma. None of the patients suffered liver or kidney injury. There was one fatality. The Cordyceps fungus involved in these poisoning was identified as Ophiocordyceps heteropoda. The presence of ibotenic acid was confirmed, but musimol and muscarine were absent. Cicada infected with Ophiocordyceps heteropoda in Vietnam contain ibotenic acid and are associated with a clinical syndrome consistent with its effects.

  13. Laccase detoxification mediates the nutritional alliance between leaf-cutting ants and fungus-garden symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik; Schiøtt, Morten; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2013-01-01

    on the leaf pulp that the ants add to their gardens. This accurate deposition ensures that laccase activity is highest where new leaf material enters the fungus garden, but where fungal mycelium is too sparse to produce extracellular enzymes in sufficient quantities to detoxify phenolic compounds...

  14. Bacterium induces cryptic meroterpenoid pathway in the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia C; Scherlach, Kirstin; Schroeckh, Volker; Horn, Fabian; Nietzsche, Sandor; Brakhage, Axel A; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-05-27

    Stimulating encounter: The intimate, physical interaction between the soil-derived bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus and the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus led to the activation of an otherwise silent polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster coding for an unusual prenylated polyphenol (fumicycline A). The meroterpenoid pathway is regulated by a pathway-specific activator gene as well as by epigenetic factors.

  15. A Rare Case of Intracavitary Fungus Ball (Aspergilloma in the Old Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majzoobi MM

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pulmonary fungus ball is a rare complication in pre-existing pulmonary cavitary lesions, due to some chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis, lung abscess and sarcoidosis. Fungus ball is mostly caused by aspergillus. In many patients, fungus ball is asymptomatic, but in a significant number of them it can develop cough and hemoptysis, which may be massive and fatal. The cornerstone of assessment is chest imaging, along with sputum culture or aspergillus antibody in patient's serum. The purpose of this report is increment in attention to this complication in patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Case Presentation: The patient was a 23-year-old woman with chief complaint of fever, cough and hemoptysis, who was hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Ward of Farshchian Sina hospital in March 2016. She had a history of anti-TB therapy from two years before. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL were negative for cytology and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but cultures of both samples were positive for Aspergillus niger. Her lung contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT scan revealed the presence of a fungus ball inside the upper lobe cavity of right lung. After lobectomy, fungal mass was confirmed by histopathology. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary complaints (especially hemoptysis and history of cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis, the differential diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, lung abscess, reactivation of tuberculosis and lung cancer as well as fungal infections should be considered.

  16. Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor

  17. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  18. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which produc

  19. Ethanol Production from Various Sugars and Cellulosic Biomass by White Rot Fungus Lenzites betulinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-03-01

    Lenzites betulinus, known as gilled polypore belongs to Basidiomycota was isolated from fruiting body on broadleaf dead trees. It was found that the mycelia of white rot fungus Lenzites betulinus IUM 5468 produced ethanol from various sugars, including glucose, mannose, galactose, and cellobiose with a yield of 0.38, 0.26, 0.07, and 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed, respectively. This fungus relatively exhibited a good ethanol production from xylose at 0.26 g of ethanol per gram of sugar consumed. However, the ethanol conversion rate of arabinose was relatively low (at 0.07 g of ethanol per gram sugar). L. betulinus was capable of producing ethanol directly from rice straw and corn stalks at 0.22 g and 0.16 g of ethanol per gram of substrates, respectively, when this fungus was cultured in a basal medium containing 20 g/L rice straw or corn stalks. These results indicate that L. betulinus can produce ethanol efficiently from glucose, mannose, and cellobiose and produce ethanol very poorly from galactose and arabinose. Therefore, it is suggested that this fungus can ferment ethanol from various sugars and hydrolyze cellulosic materials to sugars and convert them to ethanol simultaneously.

  20. Convergent coevolution in the domestication of coral mushrooms by fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkacsi, A B; Pan, J J; Villesen, Palle

    2004-01-01

    of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each functional group are members of monophyletic groups. However, there is one outstanding exception in the fungus-growing ant system, the unidentified cultivar grown only by ants in the Apterostigma pilosum group. We classify this cultivar in the coral...

  1. Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, D. S.; Basavaraja, S.; Deshpande, R.; Mahesh, D. Bedre; Prabhakar, B. K.; Venkataraman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) employing the fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides. The extracellular solution of C. cladosporioides was used for the reduction of AgNO(3) solution to AgNP. The present study includes time dependent

  2. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-growing termites live in obligate mutualistic symbiosis with species of the basidiomycete genus Termitomyces, which are cultivated on a substrate of dead plant material. When the termite colony dies, or when nest material is incubated without termites in the laboratory, fruiting bodies of ...

  3. Optimization of manganese peroxidase production by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mester, T.; Field, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP) is the most ubiquitous peroxidase produced by white rot fungi. MnP is known to be involved in lignin degradation, biobleaching and in the oxidation of hazardous organopollutants. Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 is a nitrogen-unregulated white rot fungus which

  4. Screening and characterization of a high taxol producing fungus by protoplast mutagenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Kai; Sun Qingshen; Zhang Yanjun; Ping Wenxiang; Jin Tao; Zhou Dongpo

    2009-01-01

    The preparation, regeneration and mutagenesis of the taxol-producing fungus UV40-19 protoplasts were discussed in the experiment. Totally 42 strains displayed hygromycin resistance. Six strains were found to be positive mutants when screened on plate containing 90μg/mL hygromycin. One hereditarily stable strain UN05-6 was obtained, which raised the taxol yield from (376.38±8.41)μg/L to (493.12±11.36)μg/L. The optimal conditions for the preparation, regeneration and mutagenesis of the taxol producing fungus UV40-19 were as follows: 1)enzymolysis in a solution containing 3% lywallzyme, 4% snailase, 1% lysozyme and 3% cellulose at 30℃ water bath, pH5.5~6.0 for 5h; 2) The prepared protoplasts were regenerated by using bilayer plate culturing method; 3)To mutagenize the fungus UV40-19, the protoplast suspension was treated with 0.8mg/mL NTG for 15min, followed by UV irradiation (30W, 30cm distance)for 40s under magnetic stirring. The purified products of the fungus UN05-6 fermented extracts have significant inhibitive effects on SMMC-7721 cell.

  5. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  6. Heterogeneous occupancy and density estimates of the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in waters of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Chestnut; Chauncey Anderson; Radu Popa; Andrew R. Blaustein; Mary Voytek; Deanna H. Olson; Julie. Kirshtein

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity losses are occurring worldwide due to a combination of stressors. For example, by one estimate, 40% of amphibian species are vulnerable to extinction, and disease is one threat to amphibian populations. The emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the aquatic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a contributor to amphibian declines...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Sorghum Grain Mold Fungus Epicoccum sorghinum, a Producer of Tenuazonic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rodrigo C.; Davenport, Karen W.; Hovde, Blake; Silva, Danielle; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Correa, Benedito

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The facultative plant pathogen Epicoccum sorghinum is associated with grain mold of sorghum and produces the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid. This fungus can have serious economic impact on sorghum production. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of E. sorghinum (USPMTOX48). PMID:28126937

  8. Caste-specific symbiont policing by workers of Acromyrmex fungus-growing ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivens, Aniek B. F.; Nash, David R.; Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between leaf-cutting ants and their fungus garden mutualists is ideal for studying the evolutionary stability of interspecific cooperation. Although the mutualism has a long history of diffuse coevolution, there is ample potential for conflicts between the partners over the mixing

  9. Solubilization of animal bonechar by a filamentous fungus employed in solid state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolay, Vassilev; Medina, A.; Gilberto, Mendes; Antonia, Galvez; Vanessa, Martos; Maria, Vassileva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Experts are concerned by the scarcity of rock phosphate and the vulnerability of the modern agricultural systems which is highly dependent on the existing fertilizer industry based exclusively of this natural, finite, non-renewable resource. In this work, the filamentous fungus Aspergillus

  10. Characteristics of uranium biosorption from aqueous solutions on fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsong; Liu, Jun; Tu, Hong; Li, Feize; Li, Xiyang; Yang, Jijun; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Sun, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Uranium(VI) biosorption from aqueous solutions was investigated in batch studies by using fungus Pleurotus ostreatus biomass. The optimal biosorption conditions were examined by investigating the reaction time, biomass dosage, pH, temperature, and uranium initial concentration. The interaction between fungus biomass and uranium was confirmed using Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Results exhibited that the maximum biosorption capacity of uranium on P. ostreatus was 19.95 ± 1.17 mg/g at pH 4.0. Carboxylic, amine, as well as hydroxyl groups were involved in uranium biosorption according to FT-IR analysis. The pseudo-second-order model properly evaluated the U(VI) biosorption on fungus P. ostreatus biomass. The Langmuir equation provided better fitting in comparison with Freundlich isotherm models. The obtained thermodynamic parameters suggested that biosorption is feasible, endothermic, and spontaneous. SEM-EDX and XPS were additionally conducted to comprehend the biosorption process that could be described as a complex process involving several mechanisms of physical adsorption, chemisorptions, and ion exchange. Results obtained from this work indicated that fungus P. ostreatus biomass can be used as potential biosorbent to eliminate uranium or other radionuclides from aqueous solutions.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Ant-associated Fungus Phialophora attae (CBS 131958)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoog, S.

    2015-01-01

    The black yeast Phialophora attae was isolated from the cuticle of tropical ant gynes. The ant-fungus association is sustained due to symbiotic evolutionary adaptations that allow fungal assimilation and tolerance of toxic compounds produced by the ant. The genome sequence of the first ant-associate

  12. Plasticizers increase adhesion of the deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans to polyvinyl chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, JS; Van der Mei, HC; Nixon, M; Eastwood, IM; Greenhalgh, M; Read, SJ; Robson, GD; Handley, PS

    Initial adhesion of fungi to plasticized polyvinyl chloride (pPVC) may determine subsequent colonization and biodeterioration processes. The deteriogenic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was used to investigate the physicochemical nature of adhesion to both unplasticized PVC (uPVC) and pPVC containing

  13. Genetic and Molecular Characterization of a Cryptochrome from the Filamentous Fungus Neurospora crassa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehlich, Allan C.; Chen, Chen-Hui; Belden, William J.; Madeti, Cornelia; Roenneberg, Till; Merrow, Martha; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    In plants and animals, cryptochromes function as either photoreceptors or circadian clock components. We have examined the cryptochrome from the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa and demonstrate that Neurospora cry encodes a DASH-type cryptochrome that appears capable of binding flavin adenine

  14. Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, W.; Folman, L.B.; Klein Gunnewiek, P.J.A.; Svensson, T.; Bastviken, D.; Oberg, G.; Del Rio, J.C.; Boddy, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced a

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations,

  16. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity.

  17. Isolation and identification of nematode-antagonistic compounds from the fungus Aspergillus candidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of the fungus Aspergillus candidus was tested for production of nematicidal compounds. Adults of the nematode Ditylenchus destructor were completely inactive after 24 hr exposure to soy medium in which A. candidus was cultured. Column, thin layer and preparative chromatographies, and spec...

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.

    1998-01-01

    Outline of this thesis
    In this thesis the conditions for optimal PAH oxidation by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 were evaluated. In Chapter 2, culture conditions like aeration and cosubstrate concentrations, whic

  19. A New Cytotoxic Compound from Penicillium auratiogriseum, Symbiotic or Epiphytic Fungus of Sponge Mycale plumose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A new compound, (S)-2, 4-dihydroxy-1-butyl (4-hydroxy) benzoate (1), and a known compound, fructigenines A (2), were isolated from fungus Penicillium auratiogriseum derived from sponge Mycale plumose, by bioassay-guided fractionation. Their structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Both compounds showed cytotoxic activity against tsFT210 cells.

  20. [Screening and identification of an endophytic fungus from Atractylodes lancea which utilizes volatile oil selectively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Fu-yan; Ren, Cheng-gang; Dai, Chuan-chao

    2012-10-01

    In order to transform main active ingredient of volatile oil, endophytic fungi were screened from the root of Atractylodes lancea. Transformation method was used in vitro. The changes of volatile oil were traced by gas chromatography. One endophytic fungus (strain ALG-13) which could uitilize volatile oil selectively was screened. Single factor experiment were conducted for exploring the effects of various factors that including kinds of carbon source, speed, liquid volume, pH and concentration of plant tissue on degradation by this strain. Subsequently, the main affecting factors carbon source, speed, pH and liquid volume were optimized using orthogonal array design. Results showed that endophytic fungus ALG-13 selectively used the volatile oil, change the relative percentage of the main components of volatile oil, Atractylon and Atractydin were increased, While, beta-eudesmol and Atractylol decreased. After selectively degradation by fungus, volatile oil components percentage were closer to the geo-herbs. Strain ALG-13 was identified as Bionectria ochroleuca according to its morphological characteristics and systematic analysis of ITS sequence. The optimal conditions were as follows: sucrose used as carbon source, rotating speed was 200 r x min(-1), initial pH for medium was 4.5, 50 mL liquid was added in 250 mL flask. The endophytic fungus ALG-13 could degrade the volatile oil selectively, which was benefit for forming geoherbs A. lancea volatile oil composition.