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Sample records for fungus ganoderma lucidum

  1. Two new triterpenoids from fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhen-Zhu; Yin, Rong-Hua; Chen, He-Ping; Feng, Tao; Li, Zheng-Hui; Dong, Ze-Jun; Cui, Bao-Kai; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Two new triterpenoids, (24E)-9α,11α-epoxy-3β-hydroxylanosta-7,24-dien-26-al (1) and (22Z,24Z)-13-hydroxy-3-oxo-14(13 → 12)abeo-lanosta-8,22,24-trien-26,23-olide (2) were isolated from dried fruiting bodies of fungus Ganoderma lucidum. The structures of these two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 possessed a lanostane skeleton, while compound 2 was based on a rare 14 (13 → 12)abeo-lanostane skeleton with a 26,23-olide moiety. Both of them were evaluated for their antifungal and cytotoxic activities. Neither of them displayed obvious inhibition on Candida albicans and five human cancer cell lines.

  2. Ganoderma lucidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-19

    Nov 19, 2008 ... Levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF and TNF-α were ... Polysaccharides and alcohol have both .... increment of concentration under the stimulation of G. lucidum ... 1998) as PHA is a mitogen that triggers cell division of T-.

  3. Application of ligninolytic potentials of a white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum for degradation of lindane.

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    Kaur, Harsimran; Kapoor, Shammi; Kaur, Gaganjyot

    2016-10-01

    Lindane, a broad-spectrum organochlorine pesticide, has caused a widespread environmental contamination along with other pesticides due to wrong agricultural practices. The high efficiency, sustainability and eco-friendly nature of the bioremediation process provide an edge over traditional physico-chemical remediation for managing pesticide pollution. In the present study, lindane degradation was studied by using a white-rot fungus, Ganoderma lucidum GL-2 strain, grown on rice bran substrate for ligninolytic enzyme induction at 30 °C and pH 5.6 after incorporation of 4 and 40 ppm lindane in liquid as well as solid-state fermentation. The estimation of lindane residue was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. In liquid-state fermentation, 100.13 U/ml laccase, 50.96 U/ml manganese peroxidase and 17.43 U/ml lignin peroxidase enzymes were obtained with a maximum of 75.50 % lindane degradation on the 28th day of incubation period, whereas under the solid-state fermentation system, 156.82 U/g laccase, 80.11 U/g manganese peroxidase and 18.61 U/g lignin peroxidase enzyme activities with 37.50 % lindane degradation were obtained. The lindane incorporation was inhibitory to the production of ligninolytic enzymes and its own degradation but was stimulatory for extracellular protein production. The dialysed crude enzyme extracts of ligninolytic enzymes were though efficient in lindane degradation during in vitro studies, but their efficiencies tend to decrease with an increase in the incubation period. Hence, lindane-degrading capabilities of G. lucidum GL-2 strain make it a potential candidate for managing lindane bioremediation at contaminated sites.

  4. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of pumpkin juice fermentation by the basidiomycetous fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Zhao, Jing; Liu, Wei; Chen, Dong; Zhou, Chunli; Song, Yi; Zhang, Yuyu; Ni, Yuanying; Li, Quanhong

    2015-02-01

    A new protocol for processing of pumpkin juice was set up which included fermentation by the basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum at 28 °C for 7 d. The growth curve of G. lucidum in pumpkin juice was successfully (R(2)  = 0.99) fitted by a 4-parameter logistic model and the ideal highest biomass was estimated to be 4.79 g/L. G. lucidum was found to have a significant acidification effect on pumpkin juice. The lowest pH (4.05 ± 0.05) and highest total titratable acidity (14.31 ± 0.16 mL 0.1 M NaOH/100 mL) were found on the 4th day during fermentation. Sugars in pumpkin juice fermented with G. lucidum showed a significant decrease, especially glucose and fructose. On the contrary, the release of exo-polysaccharides and free amino acids greatly enriched the pumpkin juice. The variation of color index and viscosity also mirrored the above behavior. Based on headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 68 volatile compounds were identified, including 17 esters, 14 alcohols, 13 phenyl compounds, 11 aldehydes, 8 ketones, 3 acids, 1 furan, and 1 benzothiazole. The pumpkin juices fermented for different days were markedly differentiated with principal component analysis and the fermentation process was tentatively divided into 3 periods: the booming (from the 1st to 4th day), steady (from the 5th to 6th day), and decline (the 7th day) period.

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Ma, Haou-Tzong; Hsieh, Jung-Feng; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a promising therapeutic target in diabetes, and G. lucidum proteoglycan can inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Moreover, G. lucidum triterpenoids were shown to have inhibitory activity on aldose reductase and α-glucosidase that can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, a protein Ling Zhi-8 extracted from G. lucidum significantly decreased lymphocyte infiltration and increased the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes most of the research about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and tritrerpenoids from G. lucidum as a guide for future research.

  6. Suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses by pharmacologically potent fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Bhardwaj, Neha; Katyal, Priya; Sharma, Anil K

    2014-01-01

    Acute inflammation is the result of a complex signal transduction pathway that protects and heals our body and is necessary for our good health and normal wellbeing. Whereas, chronic inflammation can be correlated well with the onset of a plethora of autoimmune disorders; rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus and polymyalgia, rheumatic and other diseases like asthma, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disorders, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Also, it has been reported to be associated with the onset of various cancers. An effective anti-inflammatory drug should be able to inhibit the development of chronic inflammation without interfering in normal homeostasis. A number of herbal drugs have been identified in the past that can target inflammatory cytokines. Among these, Ganoderma lucidum: a powerful medicinal mushroom has been found to possess immune-modulating and immune-potentiating capabilities and has been characterized as a wonder herb. This review mainly focuses on the molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action of this mushroom and also sheds light on various patent studies related to its pharmacological action.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in cancer treatment.

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    Sliva, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    The popular edible mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) has been widely used for the general promotion of health and longevity in Asian countries. The dried powder of Ganoderma lucidum was popular as a cancer chemotherapy agent in ancient China. The authors recently demonstrated that Ganoderma lucidum inhibits constitutively active transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and AP-1, which resulted in the inhibition of expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor uPAR. Ganoderma lucidum also suppressed cell adhesion and cell migration of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells, suggesting its potency to reduce tumor invasiveness. Thus, Ganoderma lucidum clearly demonstrates anticancer activity in experiments with cancer cells and has possible therapeutic potential as a dietary supplement for an alternative therapy for breast and prostate cancer. However, because of the availability of Ganoderma lucidum from different sources, it is advisable to test its biologic activity.

  8. Deep insight into the Ganoderma lucidum by comprehensive analysis of its transcriptome.

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    Guo-Jun Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete white rot fungus and is of medicinal importance in China, Japan and other countries in the Asiatic region. To date, much research has been performed in identifying the medicinal ingredients in Ganoderma lucidum. Despite its important therapeutic effects in disease, little is known about Ganoderma lucidum at the genomic level. In order to gain a molecular understanding of this fungus, we utilized Illumina high-throughput technology to sequence and analyze the transcriptome of Ganoderma lucidum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained 6,439,690 and 6,416,670 high-quality reads from the mycelium and fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum, and these were assembled to form 18,892 and 27,408 unigenes, respectively. A similarity search was performed against the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database and a customized database composed of five fungal genomes. 11,098 and 8, 775 unigenes were matched to the NCBI non-redundant nucleotide database and our customized database, respectively. All unigenes were subjected to annotation by Gene Ontology, Eukaryotic Orthologous Group terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. Differentially expressed genes from the Ganoderma lucidum mycelium and fruiting body stage were analyzed, resulting in the identification of 13 unigenes which are involved in the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis pathway. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the expression levels of these unigenes. Ganoderma lucidum was also studied for wood degrading activity and a total of 22 putative FOLymes (fungal oxidative lignin enzymes and 120 CAZymes (carbohydrate-active enzymes were predicted from our Ganoderma lucidum transcriptome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides comprehensive gene expression information on Ganoderma lucidum at the transcriptional level, which will form the foundation for functional genomics studies in this fungus. The use of Illumina sequencing technology has made de

  9. Ganoderma pfeifferi--A European relative of Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Lindequist, Ulrike; Jülich, Wolf-Dieter; Witt, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to well-studied and broadly used Ganoderma species, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma applanatum, knowledge regarding Ganoderma pfeifferi is very limited. Herein is an overview of the phytochemistry, biological activities and possible applications of this mushroom species. In addition to triterpenoids and polysaccharides, G. pfeifferi contains unique sesquiterpenoids and other small molecular weight compounds. Some of these compounds exhibit remarkable antimicrobial activities in vitro and in vivo against multi-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA. Antiviral properties, UV-protection abilities and other activities are also known. Potential issues arising from the conversion of research results into practical applications are discussed.

  10. Two new compounds from Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Wang, Xin-Fang; Yan, Yong-Ming; Wang, Xin-Long; Ma, Xiu-Jing; Fu, Xue-Yan; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Two pairs of new enantiomers, lucidulactones A and B (1 and 2), and two known compounds were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum. Their structures were determined by means of spectroscopic methods. The chiral HPLC was used to separate the ( - )- and (+)-antipodes of the new compounds.

  11. Improving the Fermentation Production of the Individual Key Triterpene Ganoderic Acid Me by the Medicinal Fungus Ganoderma lucidum in Submerged Culture

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    Gao-Qiang Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced ganoderic acid Me (GA-Me, an important anti-tumor triterpene yield was attained with the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology (RSM. Interactions were studied with three variables, viz. glucose, peptone and culture time using a Central Composite Design (CCD. The CCD contains a total of 20 experiments with the first 14 experiments organized in a fractional factorial design, with the experimental trails from 15 to 20 involving the replications of the central points. A polynomial model, describing the relationships between the yield of GA-Me and the three factors in a second-order equation, was developed. The model predicted the maximum GA-Me yield of 11.9 mg·L−1 for glucose, peptone, culture time values of 44.4 g·L−1, 5.0 g·L−1, 437.1 h, respectively, and a maximum GA-Me yield of 12.4 mg·L−1 was obtained in the validation experiment, which represented a 129.6% increase in titre compared to that of the non-optimized conditions. In addition, 11.4 mg·L−1 of GA-Me was obtained in a 30-L agitated fermenter under the optimized conditions, suggesting the submerged culture conditions optimized in the present study were also suitable for GA-Me production on a large scale.

  12. Anti-tumor and immunoregulatory activities of Ganoderma lucidum and its possible mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-binLIN; Hui-naZHANG

    2004-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G lucidum) is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological activities. It has long been used as a folk remedy for promotion of health and longevity in China and other oriental countries. The most attractive character of this kind of medicinal fungus is its immunomodulatory and anti-tumor activities. Large numbers of studies have shown that G lucidum modulate many components of the immune system such as the antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes. The water extract and the polysaccharides fraction of G lucidum exhibited significant anti-tumor effect in several tumor-bearing animals mainly through its immunoenhancing activity. Recent studies also showed that the alcohol extract or the triterpene fraction of G lucidum possessed antitumor effect, which seemed to be related to the cytotoxic activity against tumor cells directly. Preliminary study indicated that antiangiogenic effect may be involved antitumor activity of G lucidum.

  13. Ganoderma lucidum for cancer treatment: we are close but still not there.

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    Cheng, Shujie; Sliva, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for millennia to improve health and promote longevity. The idea of using G. lucidum for cancer treatment is based on numerous laboratory and preclinical studies with cancer and immune cells as well as animal models demonstrating various biological activities in vitro and in vivo. For example, G. lucidum possesses cytotoxic, cytostatic, antimetastatic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulating activities. Limited clinical studies, including case reports and randomized controlled trials, suggest G. lucidum as an alternative adjunct therapy for stimulating the immune system in cancer patients. To confirm the efficacy of G. lucidum in cancer treatment, systematic translational research programs should be started worldwide. In addition, only standardized preclinically evaluated, biologically active G. lucidum extracts should be used in alternative treatments. This approach will lead to the development of standardized G. lucidum preparations with specific chemical fingerprint-associated anticancer activities.

  14. Effect of mushroom-basidiomycetes Ganoderma lucidum on the cognitive function of the brain experimental animals

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    Unzira N. Kapysheva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term use of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum -bazidiomitseta restores and preserves the balance of the nervous processes, reduces anxiety, improves spatial orientation and accelerates the process of securing long-shaped memory in experimental animals. Also receiving Ganoderma improves the general condition of the body, activates the metabolism, but the trend is the manifestation of age-related changes in cognitive functions of the brain persists, although to a lesser degree.

  15. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharide Peptide (GLPP for the Cancer Treatment

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    Imam Rasjidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum mushroom (also known as Ling Zhi in China, Mannetake /Reishi in Japan has been widely used for thousands of years to prevent and treat various diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes mellitus, viral infection, and cancer. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum has been extensively investigated for free radical scavenging activity. Both in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that G. lucidum have anti-tumor effects, which mediated by its immunomodulatory, anti-angiogenesis, and cytotoxic effects. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GLPP which extracted from Ganoderma lucidum mycelium tissue culture, give the best quality of β-D-Glucans bioactive compounds. These biologically active glucans interact with receptors on the surface of immune cells such as macrophage and natural killer cell (NK cell to induce immunomodulatory and tumoricidal effects. However, many studies still need to answer those mechanisms.

  16. Ganoderma Lucidum (Reishi Mushroom) and cancer.

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    Unlu, Ahmet; Nayir, Erdinc; Kirca, Onder; Ozdogan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Having a long historical past in traditional Chinese medicine, Ganoderma Lucidum (G. Lucidum) is a type of mushroom believed to extend life and promote health. Due to the increasing consumption pattern, it has been cultivated and marketed intensively since the 1970s. It is claimed to be effective in the prevention and treatment of many diseases, and in addition, it exerts anticancer properties. Almost all the data on the benefits of G. Lucidum are based on laboratory and preclinical studies. The few clinical studies conducted are questionable. Nevertheless, when the findings obtained from laboratory studies are considered, it turns that G. Lucidum is likely to have some benefits for cancer patients. What is important at this point is to determine the components that will provide these benefits, and use them in drug development, after testing their reliability. In conclusion, it would be the right approach to abstain from using and incentivizing this product, until its benefits and harms are set out clearly, by considering its potential side effects.

  17. Hydrothermal extraction and micronization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum in a one-step process

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    Wahyudiono

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is a mushroom-forming white rot fungus that contains a wide variety of bioactive components (glucans. In this study, G. lucidum was utilized for the extraction of polysaccharides by hot compressed water at a temperature of 160oC and a pressure of 4.0 MPa using a semi-batch system. Under these conditions, thermal softening of G. lucidum occurred, allowing the removal of the polysaccharides protecting other constituents in G. lucidum via hydrolysis. Next, the extract was directly atomized by spray drying to remove the water. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images showed that the particles formed were spherical and dimpled or shriveled with diameters varying from 1 to 6 m. Based on these results it is proposed that this process is applicable to isolate polysaccharides from other types of biomass and may result in advances in extraction technology to obtain plant biomass components.

  18. Characterization of a novel endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Manavalan, Tamilvendan; Manavalan, Arulmani; Thangavelu, Kalaichelvan P; Heese, Klaus

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated the production and characterization of endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum using different lignocellulose biomasses. We purified a novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrolyzing endoglucanase from the white-rot fungus G. lucidum when the medium was supplemented with 1% (w/v) wheat bran. Endoglucanase was purified 12.5-fold via ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-100, and Q-Sepharose column chromatography with a final yield of 15%. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that the endoglucanase had a molecular mass of 64.0 kDa. The optimal activity of purified endoglucanase was at pH 5.0 and 35 °C, though it was stable between pH 4.0-7.0 and temperatures of 30-60 °C. The purified enzyme was specific to CMC as a suitable substrate. The metal ions Hg(2+), Fe(2+), and Cr(2+) inhibited enzyme activity, while Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) enhanced enzyme activity. The endoglucanase showed high activity and stability in the presence of different surfactants and non-polar hydrophobic organic solvents. This endoglucanase is tolerant to high temperature, metal ions, surfactants, and solvents, suggesting that it is appropriate for use in biomass conversion for biofuel production under harsh environmental conditions.

  19. 竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究%Studies of Cultivation Technique on Bamboo Powder Ganoderma Lucidum Planted by Imitating Wild Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴德峰; 涂建生; 叶财旺; 邱思锋; 蒙绍权; 韩娜

    2016-01-01

    采用竹制品下脚料诸如竹粉等作为培养基主要原料,替代木材进行仿野生栽培灵芝,结果表明,仿野生栽培的竹粉灵芝所含的有效成分与纯天然野生灵芝相似,竹粉灵芝仿野生栽培技术研究为灵芝人工栽培节约了大量的林木资源,对于保护自然资源,开发野生灵芝产业有着广阔的前景和意义。%Abstrct:The cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was an fungus planting technology imitating wild condition, which are drawn from bamboo products waste as culture medium to replace wood for producing Ganoderma lucidum. The result showed that effective components of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum was very similar to that of pure natural wild Ganoderma lucidum, which also save a lot of forest resources in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation. There was the wide prospects and important significance in cultivation technique of bamboo powder Ganoderma lucidum, which also opened up a new way in development of wild Ganoderma lucidum industry.

  20. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy

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    Wang, Xin; Chen, Xianliang; Qi, Zeming; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Shengyi

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain unique information of Ganoderma lucidum spores, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to study G. lucidum spores from Anhui Province (A), Liaoning Province (B) and Shangdong Province (C) of China. IR micro-spectra were acquired with high-resolution and well-reproducibility. The IR spectra of G. lucidum spores from different areas were similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of polysaccharide, sterols, proteins, fatty acids, etc. The results of curve fitting indicated the protein secondary structures were dissimilar among the above G. lucidum spores. To identify G. lucidum spores from different areas, the H1078/H1640 value might be a potentially useful factor, furthermore FTIR microspectroscopy could realize this identification efficiently with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. The result indicates FTIR microspectroscopy is an efficient tool for identification of G. lucidum spores from different areas. The result also suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is a potentially useful tool for the study of TCM.

  1. Study on Anti-Allergic Effecst of Ganoderma lucidum Herbal Acupuncture and Ganoderma lucidum Extract

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    Kang Kyung-Hwa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : We studied on anti-allergic effects of Ganoderma lucidum herbal acupuncture(GHA and Ganoderma lucidum extract(GE. Methods : in vivo, Animals were herbal-acupunctured GHA at both B13s three times for 5 days. Then, we investigated compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylatic shock using ICR mice and anti-DNP IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis using Sprague Dawley rat. In vitro, we measured cell viability, b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4 and TNF-a from RBL-2H3 cells, and nitric oxide from Raw264.7 cell after treatment of GE of various concentrations. Results : In vivo, GHA pretreatments at both B13s inhibited compound 48/80-induced active systemic anaphylatic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were inhibited by GHA10 and OP. In vitro, 0.1 ~ 2% GE treatments were not affect on cell viability and inhibited b-hexosaminidase release, IL-4, TNF-a and nitric oxide. Conclusions : These results suggest that GHA and GE may be beneficial in the inhibition of allergic inflammatory response.

  2. Analysis of genetic variation in Ganoderma Lucidum after space flight

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    Qi, Jian-Jun; Ma, Rong-Cai; Chen, Xiang-Dong; Lan, Jin

    A modified CTAB method was used in the extraction of total cellular DNA of Ganoderma lucidum. Four strains Cx, Ch, C3 and C4, and their counterparts, four space flown strains Sx, Xh, S3 and S4, were analysed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) with several primer combinations. Polymorphic bands were detected between Sx and Cx, S3 and C3, respectively. Somatic incompatibility tests further confirmed their heterogeneity. However, no disparity between Sh and Ch, S4 and C4 was detectable. The results suggest that spaceflight may be used to accelerate breeding of Ganoderma lucidum strains for commercial cultivation.

  3. From 2000years of Ganoderma lucidum to recent developments in nutraceuticals.

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    Bishop, Karen S; Kao, Chi H J; Xu, Yuanye; Glucina, Marcus P; Paterson, R Russell M; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-06-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been used for centuries as nutraceuticals to improve health and to treat numerous chronic and infectious diseases. One such mushroom is Ganoderma lucidum, commonly known as Lingzhi, a species revered as a medicinal mushroom for treating assorted diseases and prolonging life. The fungus is found in diverse locations, and this may have contributed to confusion regarding the correct taxonomic classification of the genus Ganoderma. G. lucidum was first used to name a specimen found in England and thereafter was naively applied to a different Ganoderma species found in Asia, commonly known as Chinese Lingzhi. Despite the taxonomic confusion, which has largely been uncorrected, the popularity of Lingzhi has escalated across the globe. The current taxonomic situation is now discussed accurately in this Special Issue on Ganoderma. Today it is a multi-billion dollar industry wherein Lingzhi is cultivated or collected from the wild and consumed as a tea, in alcoholic beverages, and as a nutraceutical to confer numerous health benefits. Consumption of nutraceuticals has grown in popularity, and it is becoming increasingly important that active ingredients be identified and that suppliers make substantiated health claims about their products. The objective of this article is to present a review of G. lucidum over the past 2000 years from prized ancient "herbal" remedy to its use in nutraceuticals and to the establishment of a 2.5 billion $ (US) industry.

  4. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

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    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  5. Mechanisms of the Anticancer Action of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst.: A New Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-Qiang LIU; Ke-Chang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst., a medicinal fungus called "Lingzhi" in China, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine in China for the prevention and treatment of various types of diseases, such as cancer, hepatopathy, arthritis, hypertension, neurasthenia, and chronic hepatitis. It is clear that the anticancer activity of G. lucidum is mainly due to polysaccharides and/or triterpenoids of the fungus. However, until now, the mechanism of the anticancer action of G. lucidum has not been well understood and, previously, the activation of the immune response of the host was widely considered to be the only mechanism by which G. lucidum prevented and/or treated cancer. However, recent studies reviewed in the present paper have shown that the potential mechanisms of anticancer action include not only the activation of the immune response of the host, but also the induction of cell differentiation, the induction of Phase Ⅱ-metabolizing enzymes, the inhibition of angiogenesis, and the inhibition of the expression of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the uPA receptor in cancer cells. To further elucidate the mechanisms of action of G. lucidum, more in vivo tests and randomized controlled clinical trials should be carried out, and the molecular mechanisms should be studied intensively. Additionally, whether the anticancer compounds in G. lucidum act synergistically or independently should be further studied.

  6. The genome of Ganoderma lucidum provides insights into triterpenes biosynthesis and wood degradation [corrected].

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    Dongbo Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi or Ling Zhi is one of the most famous Traditional Chinese Medicines and has been widely used in the treatment of various human diseases in Asia countries. It is also a fungus with strong wood degradation ability with potential in bioenergy production. However, genes, pathways and mechanisms of these functions are still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genome of G. lucidum was sequenced and assembled into a 39.9 megabases (Mb draft genome, which encoded 12,080 protein-coding genes and ∼83% of them were similar to public sequences. We performed comprehensive annotation for G. lucidum genes and made comparisons with genes in other fungi genomes. Genes in the biosynthesis of the main G. lucidum active ingredients, ganoderic acids (GAs, were characterized. Among the GAs synthases, we identified a fusion gene, the N and C terminal of which are homologous to two different enzymes. Moreover, the fusion gene was only found in basidiomycetes. As a white rot fungus with wood degradation ability, abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes and ligninolytic enzymes were identified in the G. lucidum genome and were compared with other fungi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The genome sequence and well annotation of G. lucidum will provide new insights in function analyses including its medicinal mechanism. The characterization of genes in the triterpene biosynthesis and wood degradation will facilitate bio-engineering research in the production of its active ingredients and bioenergy.

  7. Hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-na ZHANG; Zhi-bin LIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) in the normal fasted mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Normal fasted mice were given a single dose of Gl-PS 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg by ip and the serum glucose was measured at 0, 3, and 6 h after administration. Gl-PS 1 00 mg/kg were also given by ip and the serum glucose and insulin levels were measured at 0 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, and 12 h.Pancreatic islets were isolated and incubated with glucose 5.6 mmol/L and different concentration of Gl-PS, the insulin content of islets and insulin release were examined. The islets fluorescent intensity of [Ca2+]i was also studied with a confocal microscope. Verapamil and egtazic acid were used to testify whether the insulin-releasing effect of Gl-PS was mediated by its ability to raise the Ca2+ influx. RESULTS: Gl-PS dose-dependently lowered the serum glucose levels at 3 h and 6 h after administration. Gl-PS 100 mg/kg raised the circulating insulin levels at 1 h after administration. In vitro, Gl-PS had no effect on islets insulin content, but it stimulated the insulin release after incubation with glucose 5.6 mmol/L. Confocal microscope showed that Gl-PS 100 mg/L had the capacity to raise the [Ca2+] i. The insulin-releasing effect of Gl-PS was inhibited by verapamil/egtazic acid. CONCLUSION:Gl-PS possesses the hypoglycemic effect on normal mice; one mechanism is through its insulin-releasing activity due to a facilitation of Ca2+ inflow to the pancreatic β cells.

  8. GANODERMA LUCIDUM IMPROVES PHYSICAL FITNESS IN WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado Mateo, Daniel; Pazzi, Francesco; Domínguez Muñoz, Francisco J; Martín Martínez, Juan Pedro; Olivares, Pedro R; Gusi, Narcis; Adsuar, José C

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: la fibromialgia es una enfermedad crónica caracterizada por dolor crónico general, rigidez, condición física pobre, sueño no reparador y mala calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Ganoderma lucidum es un tipo de hongo que ha demostrado tener diferentes beneficios en diversas poblaciones. La harina de algarrobo (Ceratonia siliqua) es una fuente natural de antioxidantes con potenciales beneficios para la salud. Objetivo: evaluar los efectos sobre la condición física en mujeres con fibromialgia de un tratamiento de seis semanas con Ganoderma lucidum y compararlos con los de un tratamiento con Ceratonia siliqua. Métodos: sesenta y cuatro mujeres con fibromialgia participaron en el estudio. Se hicieron dos grupos, el primer grupo tomó 6 g diarios de Ganoderma lucidum, mientras que el segundo tomó 6 g diarios de Ceratonia siliqua. Se evaluó la condición física mediante diferentes test físicos validados. Resultados: después de seis semanas de tratamiento, Ganoderma lucidum mejoró significativamente la resistencia aeróbica, la flexibilidad del miembro inferior y la velocidad (p fibromialgia, mientras que Ceratonia siliqua parece no ser efectivo para este propósito. Estos resultados pueden indicar que 6 g diarios de Ganoderma lucidum podrían ser un suplemento útil para mejorar la condición física en esta población.

  9. Cardioprotective Activity of Ganoderma lucidum Extract during Total Ischemia and Reperfusion of Isolated Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasukova, T V; Maslov, L N; Arbuzov, A G; Burkova, V N; Inisheva, L I

    2015-04-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Ganoderma lucidum extract were examined in experiments with global ischemia (45 min) and reperfusion (30 min) of isolated and perfused rat heart. The course of preventive administration of the extract in a dose of 400 mg/kg for 15 days diminished necrotic death of cardiomyocytes and reduced reperfusion contracture. Ganoderma lucidum extract demonstrated antioxidant properties. The authors believe that the cardioprotective properties of Ganoderma lucidum extract are largely determined by its antioxidant properties.

  10. Generation and analysis of the expressed sequence tags from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Huang

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is a medicinal mushroom renowned in East Asia for its potential biological effects. To enable a systematic exploration of the genes associated with the various phenotypes of the fungus, the genome consortium of G. lucidum has carried out an expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing project. Using a Sanger sequencing based approach, 47,285 ESTs were obtained from in vitro cultures of G. lucidum mycelium of various durations. These ESTs were further clustered and merged into 7,774 non-redundant expressed loci. The features of these expressed contigs were explored in terms of over-representation, alternative splicing, and natural antisense transcripts. Our results provide an invaluable information resource for exploring the G. lucidum transcriptome and its regulation. Many cases of the genes over-represented in fast-growing dikaryotic mycelium are closely related to growth, such as cell wall and bioactive compound synthesis. In addition, the EST-genome alignments containing putative cassette exons and retained introns were manually curated and then used to make inferences about the predominating splice-site recognition mechanism of G. lucidum. Moreover, a number of putative antisense transcripts have been pinpointed, from which we noticed that two cases are likely to reveal hitherto undiscovered biological pathways. To allow users to access the data and the initial analysis of the results of this project, a dedicated web site has been created at http://csb2.ym.edu.tw/est/.

  11. Computational studies on LiP H isolated from Ganoderma lucidum GD88

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    Parambayil Nayana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a basidiomycete fungus that produces ligninase for the modification of lignin. Lignin peroxidase (LiP is a glycoprotein that acts on the recalcitrant cell wall component lignin. In the present study, the phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 with the partial coding sequence (cds of other LiP isoforms was performed using MEGA6. After determination of the open reading frame, the +3 frame nucleotide sequence was converted to protein using the EMBOSS Transseq and the secondary structure was predicted using the Chou and Fasman Secondary Structure Prediction server (CFSSP. Protein modeling was also performed by SWISS-MODEL. The obtained result shows that the lipH partial cds of Ganoderma lucidum GD88 is homologous to the lipD gene of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The secondary structure prediction result revealed that the percent content of the helix (67 is higher than the percent contents of sheet (53.4 and turns (13.6. According to the generated model, LiP H protein is a homodimer with chains A and B. The heme acts as a ligand and plays a major role in structure stabilization.

  12. Comparison of Extraction Methods of Chitin from Ganoderma lucidum Mushroom Obtained in Submerged Culture

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    Sandra Patricia Ospina Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chitin was isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged cultures mycelium as potential source of chitin under biotechnological processes. The extraction of chitin was carried out through 5 different assays which involved mainly three phases: pulverization of the mushroom, deproteinization of the mycelia with NaOH solution, and a process of decolorization with potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The chitin contents extracted from 9-day mycelia were 413, 339, 87, 78, and 144 mg/g−1 (milligrams of chitin/grams of dry biomass for A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5, respectively. Obtained chitin was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and by thermal analysis (TGA. The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum chitin has similar characteristic of chitin from different fonts. The advantage of the biotechnological processes and the fact that Ganoderma lucidum fungus may be used as a potential raw material for chitin production were demonstrated.

  13. T-2 Toxin Regulated Ganoderma lucidum Induced Cytokine Release

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    Kazem Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi has been used as immunomodulator to stimulate spleen cells proliferation and cytokine expression. It has also been shown that at some level of exposure, T-2 toxin typically act as immunosuppressive agent and can increase disease susceptibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of T-2 toxin on cytokine production by Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum treated-cells. Mice peritoneal macrophages and lymphoid T cells were prepared by usual manner and plated out at 1106 or 1104 cell/well respectively in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS, 50 µg streptomycin and 50U penicillin. Cells were incubated with different concentrations of G. lucidum in the presence or absence of 1 ng mL-­1 T-2 toxin at 37°C and 5% CO2 for 48 h. Cell free medium was removed and used for cytokine assay by ELISA method. The results showed that T-2 toxin in the absence of G.lucidum enhanced IL-2, IFN-γ release compared with control group, but it reduced the production of other cytokines. G. lucidum enhanced the production of IL-1β TNF-α, IL-12, IL-2 and IFN-γ compared with control group, but reduced IL-4 and IL-10 release. T-2 toxin, up regulated the enhancement effect of G. lucidum on IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α, but it down regulated its effect on the production of other cytokines. In conclution our results indicate that T-2 toxin at 1 ng mL-1 may augment the immunomodulating effects of G. lucidum on cytokine release.

  14. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on diabetic nephropathy in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yongHE; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS) on the renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. METHODES: Nine weeks old male C57 BI/6J mice were made diabetes with two or three consecutive intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, 72 h later, hyperglycemic mice with glucose levels higher than glucose 300 mg/dL were used. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into three groups and administrated intragastrically with vehicle or Gl-PS (125 mg/

  15. Haemopoietic cell on radiation protection of the propolis and ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trai, Kaoru; Gu, Yeunhwa; Tanaka, Masashi; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Park, Sangrea; Tanaka, Kenichirou; Tajima, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Suzuki, Ikukatsu [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan); Yamada, Kazuaki [Hoshi Chemical Co, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    the anti-cancer medicine and anti-fungus action are asked to reported medicine reason action 4). Ganoderma lucidum (Gl), a Chinese herb, has been used to promote longevity and maintain vitality in the Orient for a long time (Xiao et al, 1993)

  16. Misconstrued versatility of Ganoderma lucidum: a key player in multi-targeted cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Balraj Singh; Sharma, Prateek; Kumar, Raj; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2016-03-01

    A Basidiomycetes fungus belonging to polypore family of mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum (GL), has been known since a long time for their myriad therapeutic indications. Renowned as an invaluable resource of cardinal mycoconstituents they encompass numerous terpenoids polysaccharides and proteins. Possessing the therapeutically potent lanosteroidal skeleton, terpenoids are upheld for their invariable participation in therapeutically diverse bioactivities. Polysaccharides and proteins exhibiting distinguishable bioactivities provide this oriental mushroom with additional edges over immune function and anti-cancer potential. This review is a concerted effort to throw light upon the therapeutic versatility of the fungus, shadowed by various other natural products. An effort has been made towards conglomerating the mycoconstituents decisive for the many activities portrayed by this fungus. More importantly, this review seeks to fathom the inextricable role played by derivatives in modulating signaling cascades such as downregulation of various mitogenic pathways, inhibiting growth factors, or upregulating certain pathways enhancing cellular integrity.

  17. Functional and structural analyses of a 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guizhi; Li, Qian; Shang, Na; Huang, Jian-Wen; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Liu, Weidong; Zheng, Yingying; Han, Xu; Chen, Yun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Jin, Jian; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a saprotrophic white-rot fungus which contains a rich set of cellulolytic enzymes. Here, we screened an array of potential 1,4-β-endoglucanases from G. lucidum based on the gene annotation library and found that one candidate gene, GlCel5A, exhibits CMC-hydrolyzing activity. The recombinant GlCel5A protein expressed in Pichia pastoris is able to hydrolyze CMC and β-glucan but not xylan and mannan. The enzyme exhibits optimal activity at 60°C and pH 3-4, and retained 50% activity at 80 and 90°C for at least 15 and 10min. The crystal structure of GlCel5A and its complex with cellobiose, solved at 2.7 and 2.86Å resolution, shows a classical (β/α)8 TIM-barrel fold as seen in other members of glycoside hydrolase family 5. The complex structure contains a cellobiose molecule in the +1 and +2 subsites, and reveals the interactions with the positive sites of the enzyme. Collectively, the present work provides the first comprehensive characterization of an endoglucanase from G. lucidum that possesses properties for industrial applications, and strongly encourages further studying in the cellulolytic enzyme system of G. lucidum.

  18. 赤芝菌株的SCAR标记鉴别%Identification of SCAR Molecular Marker Technology among Ganoderma lucidum Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凌华; 洪自同; 程祖锌; 谢宝贵; 郑金贵

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an important medical fungi and has wide varieties. At present, the edible fungus management system is not yet perfect, so it is an urgent need to establish an effective way for rapid identification of Ganoderma lucidum strains to stable strains quality. Based on SRAP ( sequence⁃related amplified polymorphism ) analysis on cultivated strains of Ganoderma lucidum, specific SRAP marker bands belonged to several tested strains were converted into more stable SCAR ( sequence characterized amplified region) markers. Seventeen SCAR markers were obtained and 23 strains were classified into 4 groups using clustering analysis under genetic distance of 0. 63, and among them 19 strains were belonged to one group under the distance value of 0�50. Multiple markers comprehensive identification method for Ganoderma lucidum strains was established through combining usage of 9 SCAR markers, and the tested 23 strains were effectively identified. This showed that SCAR molecular markers could well explain the genetic relationship between Ganoderma lucidum strains, and it was a rapid, stable and accurate method to identify Ganoderma lucidum strains.%赤芝是种重要的药用真菌,品种繁多,由于目前食用菌管理制度不完善,为稳定菌株质量迫切需要建立起快速鉴定赤芝菌株的有效办法。在对赤芝( Ganoderma lucidum)菌株进行SRAP多态性分析基础上,将属于某几个菌株的SRAP特异片段转化为稳定性较高的SCAR标记,共获得17个SCAR标记。聚类分析显示,供试的23个赤芝菌株在遗传距离0.63下分为4类,其中19个菌株在遗传距离0.50下聚成一类。将其中的9个SCAR标记线性组合,建立起赤芝菌株的多标记综合鉴别法,可对供试的23个菌株进行有效鉴别。由此可见,SCAR分子标记能很好地解释赤芝菌株间的亲缘关系,是种快速、稳定、准确鉴别赤芝菌株的方法。

  19. Intraspecific Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Are Revealed by ITS1 Secondary Structure Analysis and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haisheng; Chen, Zhou; Tan, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jing; Yang, Bin; Sun, Junshe

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a typical polypore fungus used for traditional Chinese medical purposes. The taxonomic delimitation of Ganoderma lucidum is still debated. In this study, we sequenced seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Ganoderma lucidum strains and annotated the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 differentiated the strains into three geographic groups. Groups 1–3 were originated from Europe, tropical Asia, and eastern Asia, respectively. While ITS2 could only differentiate the strains into two groups in which Group 2 originated from tropical Asia gathered with Groups 1 and 3 originated from Europe and eastern Asia. By determining the secondary structures of the ITS1 sequences, these three groups exhibited similar structures with a conserved central core and differed helices. While compared to Group 2, Groups 1 and 3 of ITS2 sequences shared similar structures with the difference in helix 4. Large-scale evaluation of ITS1 and ITS2 both exhibited that the majority of subgroups in the same group shared the similar structures. Further Weblogo analysis of ITS1 sequences revealed two main variable regions located in helix 2 in which C/T or A/G substitutions frequently occurred and ITS1 exhibited more nucleotide variances compared to ITS2. ITS1 multi-alignment of seven spawn strains and culture tests indicated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site at position 180 correlated with strain antagonism. The HZ, TK and 203 fusion strains of Ganoderma lucidum had a T at position 180, whereas other strains exhibiting antagonism, including DB, RB, JQ, and YS, had a C. Taken together, compared to ITS2 region, ITS1 region could differentiated Ganoderma lucidum into three geographic originations based on phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction. Besides, a SNP in ITS 1 could delineate Ganoderma lucidum strains at the intraspecific level. These findings will be implemented to improve species quality control in the

  20. Genetic and Metabolic Intraspecific Biodiversity of Ganoderma lucidum

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    Anna Pawlik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen Ganoderma lucidum strains from different geographic regions were identified using ITS region sequencing. Based on the sequences obtained, the genomic relationship between the analyzed strains was determined. All G. lucidum strains were also genetically characterized using the AFLP technique. G. lucidum strains included in the analysis displayed an AFLP profile similarity level in the range from 9.6 to 33.9%. Biolog FF MicroPlates were applied to obtain data on utilization of 95 carbon sources and mitochondrial activity. The analysis allowed comparison of functional diversity of the fungal strains. The substrate utilization profiles for the isolates tested revealed a broad variability within the analyzed G. lucidum species and proved to be a good profiling technology for studying the diversity in fungi. Significant differences have been demonstrated in substrate richness values. Interestingly, the analysis of growth and biomass production also differentiated the strains based on the growth rate on the agar and sawdust substrate. In general, the mycelial growth on the sawdust substrate was more balanced and the fastest fungal growth was observed for GRE3 and FCL192.

  1. [Analysis of fatty composition from different parts of Ganoderma lucidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Jing-jing; Si, Jin-ping; Cao, Long-shu

    2015-07-01

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of Ganoderma lucidum collected from different producing areas, varieties, tissue types and growth periods were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the oil content was 23. 61%-34.17% in different domestic producing areas of China; the oil content of fruiting bodies from major varieties cultured in Zhejiang province were 0.81%-1.87%, wall-unbroken spores were 0.07%-0.24%, wall-broken spores were 27.54%-34.17%, so the oil content of wall-unbroken spores were much higher than fruiting bodies, and wall-breaking treatment would increase the oil extraction rate 150-340 times. G. lucidum spores oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acid composition. oleic acid and linoleic content were 53.26%-58.16% and 10.69%-16.87% respectively. Fatty acid composition ratio of spores and fruiting bodies were significantly different by PLS-DA. Determining the composition of fatty acid, especially the content of oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid, could identify the tissue types of G. lucidum products' sources. In addition, the study result showed that the spores and fruiting bodies collected in the first year contained richer oil and fatty acid than second year's samples from the same variety of G. lucidum.

  2. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice line CBA/Ca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhenkovska, Iryna V; Pidchenko, Vitalii T; Bychkova, Nina G; Bisko, Nina A; Rodnichenko, Angela Y; Kozyko, Natalya O

    2015-09-01

    The article presents the results of the investigation of the effect of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum on T-cell-mediated immunity in normal and immunosuppressed mice CBA/Ca. Delayed-type hypersensitivity assay was used. Experimental immunodeficiency was established with intraperitoneal injection of the immunosuppressant cyclophosphamide at a single dose of 150 mg/kg on the first day of the experiment. Results of the study show that the administration of biomass powder of Ganoderma lucidum in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg orally for 10 days increases the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in normal mice CBA/Ca. Administration of 0.5 mg/kg of biomass powder of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum for 10 days blocked the development of the T-cell-mediated immunosuppression, induced by administration of cyclophosphamide and restored the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in immunosuppressed mice. Key words: fungus Ganoderma lucidum cyclophosphamide immunodeficiency T-cell-mediated immunity delayed-type hypersensitivity.

  3. Development of Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Powder Milk Beverage%破壁灵芝孢子粉乳饮料的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀丽; 贾健辉; 刘玉兵

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a precious traditional Chinese medicine, modern pharmacological and clinical studies have proved that Ganoderma lucidum contained a variety of bioactive substances, which could regulate and enhance the immunity of the human body and prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In recent years, experts have found that the function and effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum entities than is more signiifcant, with the of edible fungus deep processing industry development, the use of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder and milk preparation Ganoderma lucidum healthy milk beverage of agricultural product added value is of great signiifcance. Based on this, the sporoderm broken Ganoderma lucidum spore powder and milk as the main raw material by single factor and orthogonal experiments combined with sensory evaluation method, to determine the optimal formulation of the sporoderm broken Ganoderma lucidum milk beverage for broken Ganoderma lucidum spore powder of 0.2%, 40.0% of milk, soft white sugar 11.0%, compound stabilizers (xanthan gum +CMC-Na) is 1∶3, adding amount of 0.4%.%灵芝是中国传统的珍贵药材,现代药理和临床研究证明:灵芝中含有多种生物活性物质,能够调节和增强人体免疫力,预防心脑血管疾病等。近年来,专家发现灵芝孢子粉的功效与作用比灵芝实体更为显著,随着食用菌深加工产业的发展,利用灵芝孢子粉和牛奶配制灵芝保健乳饮料对增加农产品的附加值有重大意义。基于此,以破壁灵芝孢子粉和牛奶为主要原料,采用单因素和正交试验结合感官评定的方法,确定出破壁灵芝乳饮料的最佳配方为破壁灵芝孢子粉0.2%、牛奶40.0%、绵白糖11.0%,复合稳定剂(黄原胶+CMC-Na)为1∶3,添加量为0.4%。

  4. Cellular and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Daniel

    2004-10-01

    In Asia, a variety of dietary products have been used for centuries as popular remedies to prevent or treat different diseases. A large number of herbs and extracts from medicinal mushrooms are used for the treatment of diseases. Mushrooms such as Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi), Lentinus edodes (Shiitake), Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Hericium erinaceum (Yamabushitake), and Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) have been collected and consumed in China, Korea, and Japan for centuries. Until recently, these mushrooms were largely unknown in the West and were considered 'fungi' without any nutritional value. However, most mushrooms are rich in vitamins, fiber, and amino acids and low in fat, cholesterol, and calories. These mushrooms contain a large variety of biologically active polysaccharides with immunostimulatory properties, which contribute to their anticancer effects. Furthermore, other bioactive substances, including triterpenes, proteins, lipids, cerebrosides, and phenols, have been identified and characterized in medicinal mushrooms. This review summarizes the biological effects of Ganoderma lucidum upon specific signaling molecules and pathways, which are responsible for its therapeutic effects.

  5. Breaking and Characteristics of Ganoderma Lucidum Spores by High Speed Entrifugal Shearing Pulverizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spores of Ganoderma lucidum were ground and broken to ultrafine particles by high speed centrifugal shearing(HSCS) pulverizer. The characteristics of Ganoderma lucidum spores were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR). Ultraviolet-visible pectrophotometer was used to determine the extraction ratio of aqueous solubility polysaccharide between the raw and broken spores. The immunological function on the mice before and after the breaking of spores was investigated. The experimental results show that after being ground, the sporoderm-broken ratio reachs 100%,the original active ingredients of ganoderma lucidum spores do not change, and the extraction ratio of aqueous solubility polysaccharide is greatly increased by 40.08%. The broken spores show much higher immunological activity comparing with original spores of Ganoderma lucidum.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangxin; Zhang, Quiling; Deng, Wen; Li, Yalu; Xing, Guoqing; Shi, Xinjun; Du, Yifeng

    2014-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. These results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions.

  7. Global diversity of the Ganoderma lucidum complex (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales) inferred from morphology and multilocus phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Wei; Cao, Yun; Wu, Sheng-Hua; Vlasák, Josef; Li, De-Wei; Li, Meng-Jie; Dai, Yu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Species of the Ganoderma lucidum complex are used in many types of health products. However, the taxonomy of this complex has long been chaotic, thus limiting its uses. In the present study, 32 collections of the complex from Asia, Europe and North America were analyzed from both morphological and molecular phylogenetic perspectives. The combined dataset, including an outgroup, comprised 33 ITS, 24 tef1α, 24 rpb1 and 21 rpb2 sequences, of which 19 ITS, 20 tef1α, 20 rpb1 and 17 rpb2 sequences were newly generated. A total of 13 species of the complex were recovered in the multilocus phylogeny. These 13 species were not strongly supported as a single monophyletic lineage, and were further grouped into three lineages that cannot be defined by their geographic distributions. Clade A comprised Ganoderma curtisii, Ganoderma flexipes, Ganoderma lingzhi, Ganoderma multipileum, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma sessile, Ganoderma sichuanense and Ganoderma tropicum, Clade B comprised G. lucidum, Ganoderma oregonense and Ganoderma tsugae, and Clade C comprised Ganoderma boninense and Ganoderma zonatum. A dichotomous key to the 13 species is provided, and their key morphological characters from context, pores, cuticle cells and basidiospores are presented in a table. The taxonomic positions of these species are briefly discussed. Noteworthy, the epitypification of G. sichuanense is rejected.

  8. Taxonomic Position and Species Identity of the Cultivated Yeongji 'Ganoderma lucidum' in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, O-Chul; Park, Young-Jin; Kim, Hong-Il; Kong, Won-Sik; Cho, Jae-Han; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum has a long history of use as a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the taxonomy of Ganoderma species remains controversial, since they were initially classified on the basis of their morphological characteristics. Recently, it was proposed that G. lucidum from China be renamed as G. sichuanense or G. lingzhi. In the present study, phylogenetic analysis using the internal transcribed spacer region rDNA sequences of the Ganoderma species indicated that all strains of the Korean 'G. lucidum' clustered into one group together with G. sichuanense and G. lingzhi from China. However, strains from Europe and North American, which were regarded as true G. lucidum, were positioned in a clearly different group. In addition, the average size of the basidiospores from the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains was similar to that of G. lingzhi. Based on these results, we propose that the Korean cultivated Yeongji strains of 'G. lucidum' should be renamed as G. lingzhi.

  9. Impact of Rifampin Induction on the Fermentation Production of Ganoderic Acids by Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    OpenAIRE

    Fahimeh Nojoki; Ashrafalsadat Hatamian-Zarmi; Mohammad Mir-Drikvand; Bahman Ebrahimi-Hosseinzadeh; Zahra-begom Mokhtari-Hosseini; Saeed Kalantari-Dehaghi; Maryam Esmaeilifar

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and Objectives: Ganoderic acids are the most valuable secondary metabolites in Ganoderma lucidum traditional medicinal mushrooms, which have shown antitumor properties in many studies. However, application of ganoderic acids is limited due to low yield production. Recently, it was shown that static liquid culture could be a proven technology for producing ganoderic acids in Ganoderma lucidum, and that applying elicitors could be a potential strategy to improve their production. Ma...

  10. Studies on Ganoderma lucidum III. production of pectolytic enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, L.S.; Tseng, T.C.

    1986-07-01

    Pectolytic enzymes produced by Ganoderma lucidum B in culture and polypropylene bags were investigated. Two pectolytic enzymes, i.e., endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) and endo-pectic methyl trans-eliminase (endo-PMTE) were obtained from crude enzymes of G. lucidum B extract from mycelia polypropylene bags. The endo-PMTE has to optimal pH at 4.5 and 8.0. The enzyme stimulated by Ca/sup + +/ ion and preferred only pectin; the enzyme activity decreased at temperature above 50/sup 0/C. The endo-PMTE a and endo-PMTE b, obtained from polypropylene bag with mycelia of G. lucidum B, were purified by 60-80% ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, DEAE-cellulose ion exchange column chromatography and isoelectric focusing, showing pI at 8.2 and 5.5. Disc gel electrophoresis confirmed two peaks corresponding to endo-PMTE a and b as isoenzymes. Pectolytic enzymes purified by 60-80% ammonium sulfate fraction macerated potato disc and it was more active than the crude enzyme. At pH 4.5, maceration of potato disc by pectolytic enzymes more effective than those at pH 8.0 or 7.0. At pH 8.0, Ca/sup + +/ ion stimulate pectolytic enzyme activities and accelerated maceration.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the well-known medicinal basidiomycetes worldwide. The mitochondrion, referred to as the second genome, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells and participates in critical cellular functions. Elucidating the structure and function of this genome is important to understand completely the genetic contents of G. lucidum. In this study, we assembled the mitochondrial genome of G. lucidum and analyzed the differential expressions of its encoded genes across three developmental stages. The mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 60,630 bp with a GC content of 26.67%. Genome annotation identified genes that encode 15 conserved proteins, 27 tRNAs, small and large rRNAs, four homing endonucleases, and two hypothetical proteins. Except for genes encoding trnW and two hypothetical proteins, all genes were located on the positive strand. For the repeat structure analysis, eight forward, two inverted, and three tandem repeats were detected. A pair of fragments with a total length around 5.5 kb was found in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, which suggests the possible transfer of DNA sequences between two genomes. RNA-Seq data for samples derived from three stages, namely, mycelia, primordia, and fruiting bodies, were mapped to the mitochondrial genome and qualified. The protein-coding genes were expressed higher in mycelia or primordial stages compared with those in the fruiting bodies. The rRNA abundances were significantly higher in all three stages. Two regions were transcribed but did not contain any identified protein or tRNA genes. Furthermore, three RNA-editing sites were detected. Genome synteny analysis showed that significant genome rearrangements occurred in the mitochondrial genomes. This study provides valuable information on the gene contents of the mitochondrial genome and their differential expressions at various developmental stages of G. lucidum. The results contribute to the

  12. Decolorization of dye-containing textile industry effluents using Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 in still cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgher, Muhammad; Noreen, Sadia; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2010-04-01

    A locally isolated white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was used for development of a bioremediation process for original textile industry effluents. Dye-containing effluents of different colors were collected from the Arzoo (maroon), Ayesha (yellow), Ittemad (green), Crescent (navy blue) and Magna (yellowish) textile industries of Faisalabad, Pakistan. G. lucidum IBL-05 was screened for its decolorization potential on all the effluents. Maximum decolorization (49.5 %) was observed in the case of the Arzoo textile industry (ART) effluent (lambda(max) = 515 nm) on the 10th day of incubation. Therefore, the ART effluent was selected for optimization of its decolorization process. Process optimization could improve color removal efficiency of the fungus to 95% within only 2 days, catalyzed by manganese peroxidase (1295 U/mL) as the main enzyme activity at pH 3 and 35 degrees C using 1% starch supplemented Kirk's basal medium. Nitrogen addition inhibited enzyme formation and effluent decolorization. The economics and effectiveness of the process can be improved by further process optimization.

  13. Use of RAPD molecular markers on differentiation of brazilian and chinese Ganoderma lucidum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo do Nascimento Rolim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyze the Brazilian and Chinese strains of Ganoderma lucidum with molecular RAPD markers. A similarity matrix was elaborated and the RAPD profiles of G. lucidum strains were also compared to two other Ganoderma spp: G. applanatum and G. lipsiense in order to produce genetic similarity among the species. Based on the primers used, it was possible to determine that the Brazilian strains and Chinese strain CC-22 are alike. The method and the primers selection showed to be appropriate for the genetic identification of G. lucidum strains, enabling them to be improved and used in research, as well as in the world market.

  14. Optimization of enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chunhua; Tian Zhenle; Zhang Chenju; Yu Xiaobing; Zheng Huihua

    2014-01-01

    In the present work,an enzyme assisted extraction method is used to isolate crude polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum. The isolating effect was optimized with orthographic graph statistic method with three levels and four independent variables. Complex enzyme,extraction temperature,extraction time and ex-traction pH were combined to obtain the best possible combination to get maximum amount of extract and crude polysaccharides yield. The optimum extraction conditions were:complex enzyme amount of 3%(w/v),extrac-tion temperature at 45℃,extraction time of 3 h and extraction pH at 7. Under these conditions,the experimen-tal amount of extract is 8.9%and the yield of crude polysaccharides is 1.1%,which are in close agreement with the value predicted by the model.

  15. Growth of Probiotic Bacteria in Trypticase Phytone Yeast Medium Supplemented with Crude Polysaccharides From Ganoderma lucidum

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    Mohd Hamim, H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a fungus usually used in traditional Chinese medicine. The high value of G. lucidum is related to its polysaccharides content. Crude polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLCP were obtained using hot water extraction method. There is about 0.57 g of GLCP in 1 g crude of G. lucidum. The prebiotic potential of GLCP was tested against probiotic bacteria namely: Bifidobacterium longum BB536, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei Shirota. The prebiotic potentials were studied in 10 mL basal Trypticase Phytone Yeast (abbreviated as bTPY medium (without glucose supplemented with various concentrations of GLCP (abbreviated as bTPYglcp (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. bTPY medium supplemented with glucose (abbreviated as bTPYglu and inulin (abbreviated bTPYinu were used as comparison. Viable cell counts of the bacteria and the pH of the medium were determined during anaerobic incubation period of 0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h at 37 °C. In the presence of carbohydrate source, cultures showed various degree of growth increment. With regards to the growth supporting property: bTPYglu, bTPYglu+glcp, bTPYglcp and bTPYinu were ranked first, second, third and fourth respectively. Interestingly, in bTPYglcp medium, bacterial growth increased with increasing GLCP concentrations when incubated until 24 h. B. longum BB536 was ranked first (10.53 log cfu/mL in term of their growth in this medium. Growth of B. pseudocatenulatum G4 was ranked second with 10.40 log cfu/mL. This study shows that, GLCP could support the growth of the bacteria tested.

  16. Efecto de nutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa del hongo medicinal Ganoderma lucidum

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    Ana María Torres López

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available  Effect of nutrients in the biomass production of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum Título corto: Efecto de nutrientes sobre la producción de G. lucidumResumen El hongo Ganoderma lucidum, en los constituyentes de su biomasa, tiene compuestos con propiedades benéficas para la salud; es por esto que el conocimiento de las condiciones nutricionales adecuadas para su crecimiento permitirá su producción industrial y a bajo costo. En este trabajo se evaluó a nivel de matraz el efecto de la relación C/N, y la presencia de diferentes fuentes de carbono, nitrógeno y micronutrientes sobre la producción de biomasa. Empleando glucosa y peptona como fuentes de carbono y nitrógeno, respectivamente, se encontró una relación C/N óptima de 16,7:1 para la cual la máxima producción de biomasa fue de 25 g/L. Manteniendo esta relación C/N, y sustituyendo la glucosa por lactosa o harina de cebada y la peptona por extracto de levadura, la producción de biomasa se incrementó a 35 g/L. En presencia de harina de cebada la adición al medio de cultivo de sales de Mg y K, y de tiamina, no generó un mayor incremento en la producción de biomasa. La producción de biomasa de G. lucidum se ve favorecida por la presencia en el medio de cultivo de relaciones C/N cercanas a las reportadas conforme a la composición típica de los hongos, así como por la presencia de sustratos complejos como la harina de cebada que le aportan además de la fuente de carbono micronutrientes necesarios para su desarrollo. Palabras clave: harina de cebada, relación C/N, micronutrientes, fuentes de carbono, fuentes de nitrógeno.  AbstractGanoderma lucidum fungus has some biomass components with beneficial health properties. The knowledge about its nutritionals requirements for growing will favor its industrial production at lower cost. In this work, the effect of C/N ratio, the presence of different carbon, nitrogen and micronutrients sources, on fungal biomass

  17. Resolution of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis Following Topical Application of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylam Kurtipek, Gulcan; Ataseven, Arzu; Kurtipek, Ercan; Kucukosmanoglu, İlknur; Toksoz, Mustafa Rasid

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom) has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a herbal remedy for over 2000 years. Studies have shown that G. lucidum has anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties. A review of the literature revealed that there were no studies examining the use of G. lucidum for the treatment of skin diseases. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male patient who used soap enriched with G. lucidum and goat's milk for 3 days in treating annular cutaneous sarcoidosis. The patient showed almost complete regression of the lesions.

  18. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on the quality and functionality of Korean traditional rice wine, yakju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Dae Hyoung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Choi, Shin Yang; Lee, Jong Soo

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a high value Korean traditional rice wine possessing the pharmaceutical functionality of Ganoderma lucidum. The effects of the fruiting body of G. lucidum on the alcohol fermentation of Korean traditional rice wine, yakju, were investigated. Optimal fermentation conditions for the preparation of G. lucidum-yakju consisted of the koji added at 15% and a fermentation period of 15 d at 25 degrees C. The effects of the amount of G. lucidum added on the acceptability and functionality of G. lucidum-yakju were investigated. G. lucidum GL-1 yakju brewed by adding 0.1% G. lucidum into the mash showed the best acceptability and its angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and SOD-like activity were 63% and 42%, respectively, both of which are higher than those of yakju. The high ACE inhibitory activity of G. lucidum GL-1 yakju was found to result from ganoderic acid K in G. lucidum on the basis of physical and spectral data. However, the fibrinolytic activity and antioxidant activity of G. lucidum GL-1 yakju were very low, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity was not determined. From these results, G. lucidum GL-1 yakju may become a new functional Korean traditional rice wine with antihypertensive properties.

  19. 灵芝三萜类化合物抗癌作用机制的研究进展%Mechanisms of anticancer action of triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum: A review of recent researches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高强; 丁重阳; 王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst., a species of higher fungus called "Lingzhi" in China or "Reishi" and "Mannendake" in Japan, has been used in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for prevention and treatment of various kinds of diseases, such as cancer, hepatopathy, arthritis, hypertension, neurasthenia, chronic hepatitis,and gastric ulcer (Yang et al., 2000; Hsieh & Yang 2004; Song et al., 2004).

  20. Genome-wide analysis of simple sequence repeats in the model medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jun; Xu, Haibin; Song, Jingyuan; Xu, Jiang; Zhu, Yingjie; Chen, Shilin

    2013-01-10

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in gene function and genome organization. We identified SSRs in the genome of Ganoderma lucidum and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. We also compared the SSRs in G. lucidum with six other Agaricomycetes genomes: Coprinopsis cinerea, Laccaria bicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Postia placenta, Schizophyllum commune and Serpula lacrymans. Based on our search criteria, the total number of SSRs found ranged from 1206 to 6104 and covered from 0.04% to 0.15% of the fungal genomes. The SSR abundance was not correlated with the genome size, and mono- to tri-nucleotide repeats outnumbered other SSR categories in all of the species examined. In G. lucidum, a repertoire of 2674 SSRs was detected, with mono-nucleotides being the most abundant. SSRs were found in all genomic regions and were more abundant in non-coding regions than coding regions. The highest SSR relative abundance was found in introns (108 SSRs/Mb), followed by intergenic regions (84 SSRs/Mb). A total of 684 SSRs were found in the protein-coding sequences (CDSs) of 588 gene models, with 81.4% of them being tri- or hexa-nucleotides. After scanning for InterPro domains, 280 of these genes were successfully annotated, and 215 of them could be assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) terms. SSRs were also identified in 28 bioactive compound synthesis-related gene models, including one 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR), three polysaccharide biosynthesis genes and 24 cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs). Primers were designed for the identified SSR loci, providing the basis for the future development of SSR markers of this medicinal fungus.

  1. Effect of metal ions on reactive dye decolorization by laccase from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Young-Mo; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-08-30

    In this work, the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and laccase-catalyzed dye decolorization was investigated under in vitro conditions using crude laccase obtained from a white rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Laccase activity was enhanced by metal ions such as Ca(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) at low concentrations (1mM). Increasing the concentration of metal ions except that of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) up to 5mM and above decreased the enzyme activity. Among several heavy metals, Fe(2+) highly inhibited the enzyme activity. Effect of metal ions was tested on decolorization of two reactive dyes, namely Remazol black-B (RB-5) and Remazol brilliant blue R (RBBR) at a concentration of 50 mg l(-1). The presence of heavy metals generally did not exert much influence on the decolorization except Fe(2+). Cu(2+) and Cr(6+) enhanced the decolorization of both dyes. In the presence of 1mM Cu(2+), 94% of RB-5 and 35.5% of RBBR were decolorized during 1h incubation. G. lucidum laccase was able to tolerate mixture of several metal ions. Treatment of simulated reactive dye effluent by laccase showed that the redox mediator system is necessary for effluent decolorization. Syringaldehyde, a natural redox mediator, was very effective than the synthetic mediator 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT). The initial rate of effluent decolorization in presence of syringaldehyde (0.0831 h(-1)) was 5.6 times higher than HBT (0.0152 h(-1)). Although the rate of decolorization was markedly decreased in the effluent containing mixed metal ions, presence of syringaldehyde showed effective decolorization. This study indicates that G. lucidum laccase and natural redox mediator system could be a potential candidate for color removal from reactive dye effluent.

  2. Genome-wide identification and characterization of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqin Li

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a white-rot fungus best-known for its medicinal activities. We have previously sequenced its genome and annotated the protein coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs in G. lucidum genome have not been analyzed. In this study, we have identified and characterized long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNA in G. lucidum systematically. We developed a computational pipeline, which was used to analyze RNA-Seq data derived from G. lucidum samples collected from three developmental stages. A total of 402 lincRNA candidates were identified, with an average length of 609 bp. Analysis of their adjacent protein-coding genes (apcGenes revealed that 46 apcGenes belong to the pathways of triterpenoid biosynthesis and lignin degradation, or families of cytochrome P450, mating type B genes, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. To determine if lincRNAs and these apcGenes have any interactions, the corresponding pairs of lincRNAs and apcGenes were analyzed in detail. We developed a modified 3' RACE method to analyze the transcriptional direction of a transcript. Among the 46 lincRNAs, 37 were found unidirectionally transcribed, and 9 were found bidirectionally transcribed. The expression profiles of 16 of these 37 lincRNAs were found to be highly correlated with those of the apcGenes across the three developmental stages. Among them, 11 are positively correlated (r>0.8 and 5 are negatively correlated (r<-0.8. The co-localization and co-expression of lincRNAs and those apcGenes playing important functions is consistent with the notion that lincRNAs might be important regulators for cellular processes. In summary, this represents the very first study to identify and characterize lincRNAs in the genomes of basidiomycetes. The results obtained here have laid the foundation for study of potential lincRNA-mediated expression regulation of genes in G. lucidum.

  3. A Novel Laccase from Ganoderma Lucidum Capable of Enhancing Enzymatic Degradation of Lignocellulolytic Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention addresses the need for enzymes that can enhance the yield of fermentable sugar from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose biomass, for example sugar cane bagasse, barley straw and wheat straw, such that the use of this biomass can become economically viable. The invention provides methods...... for the hydrolysis of biomass using a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum. Further, the invention provides an enzyme composition comprising a laccase derived from Ganoderma lucidum which may be combined with one or more cellulases, and for its use in enhancing lignocellulose biomass hydrolysis....

  4. Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Ganoderma lucidum Extract Effects on Melanoma and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Barbieri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the most important traditional medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of numerous diseases, including cancer, in Oriental countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-metastatic activities of Ganoderma lucidum extracts in melanoma and triple-negative breast cancer cells. Ganoderma lucidum extracts were prepared by using common organic solvents; MDA-MB 231 and B16-F10 cell lines were adopted as cellular models for triple-negative breast cancer and melanoma and characterized for cell viability, wound-healing assay and measurement of cytokines secreted by cancer cells under pro-inflammatory conditions (incubation with lipopolysaccharide, LPS and pretreatment with Ganoderma lucidum extract at different concentrations. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, how Ganoderma lucidum extracts can significantly inhibit the release of IL-8, IL-6, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in cancer cells under pro-inflammatory condition. Interestingly, Ganoderma lucidum extracts significantly also decrease the viability of both cancer cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with abilities to reduce cell migration over time, which is correlated with a lower release of matrix metalloproteases. Taken together, these results indicate the possible use of Ganoderma lucidum extract for the therapeutic management of melanoma and human triple-negative breast cancer.

  5. Ganoderma lucidum: a source for novel bioactive lectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    U Girjal, Vinay; Neelagund, Shivayogeeswar; Krishnappa, Madappa

    2011-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is known for its high medicinal value, clinically used in treatment for various diseases. We have selected this mushroom for isolation of novel bioactive lectin. The isolation procedure comprised of ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE- cellulose and affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel. Purified lectin was monomer with a molecular mass of 15 kDa, determined by SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration, MALDI-ToF. It showed hemagglutinating activity against both human and animal erythrocytes. The hemagglutination activity was not inhibited by simple sugars but inhibited by glycoproteins. The activity was maximal at pH range 4.0-9.0 and at temperature up to 60° C. The hemagglutination activity was stable even in the presence of 10mM EDTA and other divalent metal cations such as CaCl2, MgCl2, ZnCl2, and MnCl2. Lectin was shown antifungal activity against following pathogens Fusarium oxysporium, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus Niger, Colletotrichum musae, Botrytis cinerea, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton interdigitale, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis.

  6. Genetic engineering of Ganoderma lucidum for the efficient production of ganoderic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that produces ganoderic acids with numerous interesting bioactivities. Genetic engineering is an efficient approach to improve ganoderic acid biosynthesis. However, reliable genetic transformation methods and appropriate genetic manipulation strategies remain underdeveloped and thus should be enhanced. We previously established a homologous genetic transformation method for G. lucidum; we also applied the established method to perform the deregulated overexpression of a homologous 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene in G. lucidum. Engineered strains accumulated more ganoderic acids than wild-type strains. In this report, the genetic transformation systems of G. lucidum are described; current trends are also presented to improve ganoderic acid production through the genetic manipulation of G. lucidum.

  7. A detailed comparative study between chemical and bioactive properties of Ganoderma lucidum from different origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojkovic, D.S.; Barros, L.; Calhelha, R.C.; Glamoclija, J.; Ciric, A.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Sokovic, M.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed comparative study on chemical and bioactive properties of wild and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum from Serbia (GS) and China (GCN) was performed. This species was chosen because of its worldwide use as medicinal mushroom. Higher amounts of sugars were found in GS, while higher amounts of or

  8. Radioprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex. Fr. ) Karst after X-ray irradiation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, H.Y.; Lian, S.L.; Lin, C.C. (Kaohsiung Medical College (Taiwan))

    1990-01-01

    Six to seven week old male mice of ICR strain were exposed to 500 or 650 cGy of X-ray during experiments to determine if Ganoderma lucidum could be a factor in modification of radiation damage. Continuous intraperitoneal injection of the extract from Ganoderma lucidum before or after irradiation of 500 and 650 cGy of X-ray was found to improve the 30-day survival fractions of ICR mice, but wasn't significant by statistical analysis. The administration also enhanced the recoveries of the body weights and increased the recovery of hemograms of irradiated mice from radiation damage by injecting before or after radiation exposure, especially for the treatment of 500 cGy irradiation. The 10-day CFUs was significantly higher for Ganoderma lucidum treated groups than for untreated groups. However, the differences of radioprotective effect between the X-ray irradiated groups with Ganoderma lucidum pretreated and post-treated were not significant (p greater than 0.05).

  9. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovljevic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of polysaccharide extracts of four of the most widely known mushrooms often used in medicinal applications as well as in tea and food, namely Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, were studied. G. applanatum and L edodes extracts wer

  10. Analysis and glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum CG144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Rubel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of glycosyl composition is an essential step to guide future research designs applied in bioactivity. In the same way, the unexplored potential bioactivity of exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum is huge. Therefore, this study investigated the glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum to serve as guide for future studies on bioactivity. Glycosyl content and composition were evaluated by combined GC/MS of the TMS derivatives of the monosaccharide methyl glycosides produced from the sample by acidic methanolysis. Glycosyl composition analysis showed that the dominant carbohydrate component in all samples of exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum CG 144 was glucose (58.1%, mannose (26.6% and galactose (12.5% which can be referred to as heteroglycan. These results suggest that this Ganoderma exopolysaccharide may be a new immunomodulatory agent.

  11. Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.

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    Daniel Sliva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP] and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS] in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

  12. Neuroprotective effect of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injur y in rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxin Zhang; Qiuling Zhang; Wen Deng; Yalu Li; Guoqing Xing; Xianjun Shi; Yifeng Du

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine, which has been shown to have both an-ti-oxidative and anti-inlfammatory effects, and noticeably decreases both the infarct area and neuronal apoptosis of the ischemic cortex. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects and mechanisms of pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum (by intragastric administration) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Our results showed that pretreatment with ganoder-ma lucidum for 3 and 7 days reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus, diminished the content of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus and serum, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis fac-tor-αand interleukin-8 in the hippocampus, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the hippocampus and serum. hTese results suggest that pretreatment with ganoderma lucidum was protective against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury through its anti-oxidative and an-ti-inlfammatory actions.

  13. Lignin-modifying enzymes of the white rot basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D/Souza, T.M.; Merritt, C.S.; Reddy, C.A.

    1999-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, was studied for the production of the lignin-modifying enzymes laccase, manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), and lignin peroxidase (LiP). Laccase levels observed in high-nitrogen shaken cultures were much greater than those seen in low-nitrogen, malt extract, or wool-grown cultures and those reported for most other white rot fungi to date. Laccase production was readily seen in cultures grown with pine or poplar as the sole carbon and energy source. Cultures containing both pine and poplar showed 5- to 10-fold-higher levels of laccase than cultures containing pine or poplar alone. Since syringyl units are structural components important in poplar lignin and other hardwoods but much less so in pine lignin and other softwoods, pine cultures were supplemented with syringic acid, and this resulted in laccase levels comparable to those seen in pine-plus-poplar cultures. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of concentrated extracellular culture fluid from HM cultures showed two laccase activity bands, where as isoelectric focusing revealed five major laccase activity bands with estimated pIs of 3.0, 4.25, 4.5, and 5.1. Low levels of MnP activity were detected in poplar-grown cultures but not in cultures grown with pine, with pine plus syringic acid, or in HN medium. No LiP activity was seen in any of the media tested; however, probing the genomic DNA with the LiP cDNA (CLG4) from the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed distinct hybridization bands suggesting the presence of lip-like sequences in G. lucidum.

  14. CYTOTOXIC ACTION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ON INTERLEUKIN-3 DEPENDENT LYMPHOMA DA-1 CELLS: INVOLVEMENT OF APOPTOSIS PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño, Eva; Pajuelo, Lucía; Ochoa De Eribe Casas, Jon A.; Manjón, José L.; Tejedor, María Cristina; Herráez, Angel; Díez Alonso, Manuel; Diez, José C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aqueous extracts and a semipurified fraction obtained by methanol extraction and column chromatography were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum [Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.; Ganodermataceae Donk] and their effects on interleukin 3-dependent lymphoma cells (DA-1) were studied. Cell viability was reduced by the action of unboiled aqueous extract and by the methanol-extracted column-chromatography semipurified fraction, producing DNA fragmentation in DA-1 cells. Treatmen...

  15. CYTOTOXIC ACTION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM ON INTERLEUKIN-3 DEPENDENT LYMPHOMA DA-1 CELLS: INVOLVEMENT OF APOPTOSIS PROTEINS

    OpenAIRE

    Calviño, Eva; Pajuelo, Lucía; Ochoa De Eribe Casas, Jon A.; Manjón, José L.; Tejedor, María Cristina; Herráez, Angel; Díez Alonso, Manuel; Diez, José C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aqueous extracts and a semipurified fraction obtained by methanol extraction and column chromatography were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum [Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst.; Ganodermataceae Donk] and their effects on interleukin 3-dependent lymphoma cells (DA-1) were studied. Cell viability was reduced by the action of unboiled aqueous extract and by the methanol-extracted column-chromatography semipurified fraction, producing DNA fragmentation in DA-1 cells. Treatmen...

  16. Inkorporasi Kromium oleh Fungi Ganoderma lucidum dengan Limbah Industri Kelapa Sawit Sebagai Substrat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agustin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effective Cr (chromium level for Ganoderma lucidum growth in solid state fermentation of oil palm by-product. Treatments were combination of Cr level (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 25000, and 3000 ppm and fermentation time (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks. The treatments were allocated in a factorial 7x5 of complete randomized design with four replications. Inoculant of G. lucidum was grown in potato dextrosa agar (PDA medium for 10 days and then innoculated to substrate which have been autoclaved and mixed with CrCl3.6H2O. The moisture of substrate was maintained at 65%. Growth media of G. lucidum was diluted with aquades and the supernatant was analysed for its Cr content. The result showed that the addition of Cr up to 3000 ppm into the medium stimulated the G. lucidum growth in all experimental condition. The Cr ions were incorporated into the media and G. lucidum cells during fermentation. Incorporation of chromium by G. lucidum was higher in oil palm by-product substrate with 3000 ppm Cr than the others. It is concluded that Cr can be incorporated into the G. lucidum cells during fermentation. The effective level of Cr for G. lucidum growth was 3000 ppm with efficiency of Cr incorporation 68.23% in 8 weeks fermentation and chromium in protein of fermentation product was 12.01%.

  17. Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr. Karst. – health-promoting properties. A review

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    Siwulski Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the characteristics of the species Ganoderma lucidum in terms of health-promoting properties. This species is rare in Poland, and is subject to strict protection. Reishi is classified as a medicinal mushroom which fruiting bodies are characterized by a content of active substances with diverse positive effects on human health. G. lucidum is particularly rich source of bioactive compounds, which are obtained from fruiting bodies, mycelium and spores of this species. The therapeutic effect of G. lucidum extracts has been demonstrated in many scientific studies. The most important pharmacological and physiological effects include: immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, anti-atherosclerosis, antidiabetic and anti-aging. Reishi has also a beneficial effect on liver cells and the cardiovascular system and protects in case of stomach ulcers. Due to its properties G. lucidum can be used in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases, such as cancer, stroke and heart diseases.

  18. Research Progress of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides%灵芝多糖的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹修文; 杨啟源; 盛家荣

    2014-01-01

    灵芝多糖是灵芝的主要有效成分之一,具有抗肿瘤、免疫调节、降血糖、抗氧化、降血脂与抗衰老作用。因其极具开发利用价值,灵芝多糖已成为近年来的研究热点。本文主要就近年来灵芝多糖的提取、分离纯化、含量测定、结构分析、硒化修饰和生物活性等方面进行了系统阐述。%Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides,one of the main active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum,has the function of antitumor,immune regulation,hypoglycemia,antioxidation,blood lipid-lowering and anti-ageing.With the increasing value in its development and utilization,Ganoder-ma lucidum polysaccharides has become a research hotspot in recent years.The paper systematically summarizes the research on Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides,including the extraction,separation and purification,assay,structural analysis,selenium modification and biological activity,etc.

  19. Application of Chinese Jun-Cao technique for the production of Brazilian Ganoderma lucidum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo do Nascimento Rolim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom traditionally used in China against a wide range of diseases such as cancer and also for its prevention. In this work, commercial Chinese strains G. lucidum were compared to wild Brazilian strains aiming to determine the cultivation potential through the use of Jun-Cao. Six formulations were tested and the strains presented good response to the applied method. In general, the mixture between the grass and wood was well suited for the basidiomycetes, contributing to the preparation of substrates that generated better results in Jun Cao.

  20. A Ribonuclease Isolated from Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Suppressed Autophagy and Triggered Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Xiuli; Liu, Wenlong; Wong, Jack H; Ng, Tzi B

    2016-01-01

    The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) has been consumed in China as a medicine for promoting health and longevity for thousands of years. Due to its paramount and multiple pharmaceutical effects, G. lucidum has received considerable attention from researchers and its chemical constituents as well as their respective functions were gradually unveiled by using modern research methods. Herein, we reported the isolation of a protein (Ganoderma lucidum ribonuclease, GLR) with anti-colorectal cancer activities from G. lucidum. This protein is a 17.4-kDa RNA degrading enzyme (ribonuclease) and was purified by using liquid chromatography procedures. GLR manifested potent anti-proliferative and anti-colony formation activities on HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cells by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase through the regulation of cyclin D1 and P53 expression. GLR was demonstrated to induce cell apoptosis in HCT116 cells by activating unfolded protein response and caspase-9 regulated pathways. Besides, the ability to undergo autophagy which is a stress adaption mechanism to cope with metabolic crisis was significantly suppressed by GLR treatment in HCT116 cells. The activation of apoptosis in GLR-treated HT29 cells was, however, independent of caspase-9 and the suppression of autophagy was also relatively minor. Thus the apoptosis of HT29 cells triggered by GLR was much milder than that in HCT116 cells. Our findings show that the RNase from G. lucidum may be one of the bioactive components that contribute to the anti-colorectal cancer activity of G. lucidum.

  1. Development of liposomal Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide: formulation optimization and evaluation of its immunological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Ma, Xia; Deng, Bihua; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Gao, Zhenzhen; Yu, Yun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the optimizing preparation conditions of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide liposome (GLPL) with response surface methodology (RSM) and the immunological enhancement activity of GLPL. The immunological enhancement activity of GLPL on splenocyte proliferation was measured. The optimum formulation of GLPL, in which the ratio of soybean phospholipid to cholesterol(w/w) of 11:1, the ratio of soybean phospholipid to tween-80 (w/w) of 10.5:1 and ultrasonic time(min) of 11, had higher entrapment efficiency (EE) of 71.43±0.49% with spherical shape and uniform sizes. In addition, GLPL could significantly promote splenocyte proliferation singly or synergistically with PHA and LPS. That indicated that the immunological enhancement of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) was significantly enhanced after encapsulation with the liposome.

  2. Structural Characterization and Chemical Modification of a Glucan from Spores of Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A linear α-D-(1→3)-glucan, named PSG, was obtained from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum. The synthesis of positively and negatively charged polyelectrolytes from PSG was developed. Amine groups and carboxymethyl groups were introduced through nucleophilic substitution with 3-chloropropylamine or chloroacetic acid, respectively. Reaction conditions were varied to obtain insight into the influence of variables on the degree of substitution.

  3. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) Inhibits Cancer Cell Growth and Expression of Key Molecules in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell–cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy...

  4. Ganoderma lucidum stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity by inducing NKG2D/NCR activation and secretion of perforin and granulysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Jung; Chen, Yi-Yuan M; Lu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Martel, Jan; Tsai, Sheng-Hui; Ko, Yun-Fei; Huang, Tsung-Teng; Ojcius, David M; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2014-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom long used in Asia as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Recent studies indicate that G. lucidum activates NK cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this effect has not been studied so far. To address this question, we prepared a water extract of G. lucidum and examined its effect on NK cells. We observed that G. lucidum treatment increases NK cell cytotoxicity by stimulating secretion of perforin and granulysin. The mechanism of activation involves an increased expression of NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), as well as increased phosphorylation of intracellular MAPKs. Our results indicate that G. lucidum induces NK cell cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines by activating NKG2D/NCR receptors and MAPK signaling pathways, which together culminate in exocytosis of perforin and granulysin. These observations provide a cellular and molecular mechanism to account for the reported anticancer effects of G. lucidum extracts in humans.

  5. The Incorporation of Chromium in Rice Straw Fermented with Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agustin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate chromium incorporation by Ganoderma lucidum in rice straw substrate supplemented with chromium chloride. Treatments were combination of Cr level (0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 25000, and 3000 ppm and fermentation time (0, 2, 3, and 4 wk. The treatments were arranged in a factorial 7 x 4 and allocated in completely randomized design with three replications. G. lucidum was grown in potato dextrose agar (PDA medium for 10 days and was inoculated to the substrate which have been sterilized and mixed with CrCl3.6H2O. The moisture of substrate was maintained at 70%. Fiber and protein components of growth media of G. lucidum was determined and analyzed for their Cr content. The finding result showed that addition of Cr up to 3000 ppm into the substrate stimulated the G. lucidum growth. Chromium was incorporated into the fiber and protein components of the growth substrate of G. lucidum during fermentation. Incorporation of Cr into the protein of substrate containing 3000 ppm Cr was highest when fermented for 4 wk. Protein component of substrate contained 9.29% Cr while in NDF and ADF was 27.20% and 10.55% Cr, respectively. It is concluded that Cr was incorporated into the G. lucidum cells during fermentation.

  6. Impact of Rifampin Induction on the Fermentation Production of Ganoderic Acids by Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

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    Fahimeh Nojoki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Ganoderic acids are the most valuable secondary metabolites in Ganoderma lucidum traditional medicinal mushrooms, which have shown antitumor properties in many studies. However, application of ganoderic acids is limited due to low yield production. Recently, it was shown that static liquid culture could be a proven technology for producing ganoderic acids in Ganoderma lucidum, and that applying elicitors could be a potential strategy to improve their production. Materials and Methods: In this work, the effect of rifampin, a cyto-chromes P450 inducer, on production of ganoderic acids was studied, and Response Surface Methodology was applied to optimize the elicitor induction. Then total ganoderic acid in the harvested mycelia was extracted and its absorbency was measured. Results and Conclusion: The results showed an increase in the concen-tration of ganoderic acid in all samples. Moreover, optimum concentration and induction time of rifampin were obtained. The proposed model predicted the maximum ganoderic acid production as 18.6 mg g-1 in which the optimal concentration and time induction obtained were 100 μM and day 9, respectively. This work demonstrated a useful method for the enhanced production of ganoderic acids by Ganoderma lucidum

  7. Related gene expressions in anti-keratinocyte aging induced by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shaoqiong; Liao Wanqing; Yao Zhirong; Wang Zhidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the level of expression of anti skin aging gene of Ganoderma lucidum polysacchayides and clarify its mechanism with anti aging of this ancient Chinese medicine. Methods: HacaT cell of keratinocytes lines were cultured and treated with the polysaccharides. The total RNA was extracted with Trizol reagent and eDNA was synthesized by reverse thanscription. The obtained cDNAs were then fluorescently labeled with cy3 and cy5 respectively and hybridized with gene expressing pedigree cDNA chip. The images were scanned and analyzed with special software. The scan data were analyzed with software and checked by real time PCR. Results: Among total 18 346 human genes, the expression of 103 ones was up-regulated and 378 ones down-regulated. It was demonstrated evidently that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides affected the expression of genes of anti skin aging. Two ways are anastomotic. Conclusion: it is concluded by analysis of function of these up-regulation and down-regulation genes that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides may play an important role in boosting cell growth and against skin aging. It shows that the results of gene array reliable by real time PCR.

  8. Enhancement of tolerance of Ganoderma lucidum to cadmium by nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Yao, Yuan; Zuo, Lei; Shi, Wenjin; Gao, Ni; Xu, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a signaling molecule involved in regulation of diverse physiological processes and stress responses in animals and plants. However, whether NO regulates fungal, particularly edible fungi, response to heavy metal stresses, is unknown. This study investigated the effect of nitric oxide on biological responses of mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Exposure of Ganoderma lucidum to Cd (400 µM) triggered production of H2O2 and O2(-) in the mycelia and further induced lipid peroxidation as well as sharply decrease of fresh biomass. However, such an effect can be reversed by exogenous supply of NO. Mycelia treated with 100 µM SNP accumulated less H2O2, O2(-), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and fresh biomass of this treatment was improved. Treatment with SNP significantly increased activities of antioxidant enzyme (peroxidase and catalase) to resist Cd stress. Meanwhile, NO-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity was closely related to the accumulated proline as well as reduced Cd accumulation. These results suggested that NO plays a crucial role in preventing the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum from Cd toxicity.

  9. The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation for exopolysaccharide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad Wan-Mohtar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 mycelium in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF was studied for exopolysaccharide (EPS production. RBF was optimised for time to replace and volume to replace. G. lucidum mycelium showed the ability to self-immobilise and exhibited high stability for repeated use in RBF with engulfed pellets. Furthermore, the ovoid and starburst-like pellet morphology was disposed to EPS production in the shake flask and bioreactor, respectively. Seven RBF could be carried out in 500 mL flasks, and five repeated batches were performed in a 2 L bioreactor. Under RBF conditions, autolysis of pellet core in the shake flask and shaving off of the outer hairy region in the bioreactor were observed at the later stages of RBF (R4 for the shake flask and R6 for the bioreactor. The proposed strategy showed that the morphology of G. lucidum mycelium can withstand extended fermentation cycles.

  10. Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Filipa S; Lima, Raquel T; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Vasconcelos, M Helena

    2015-09-29

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us) have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS) with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy). Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement.

  11. 灵芝的抗肿瘤作用机制%Anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum karst and its mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志彬

    2000-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum(Leyss.Ex fr.)Karst.(Lingzhi) is a medicinal fungus with a long history in China as a valuable tonic remedy.Modern Pharmacological and clinical investigation demonstrated that Lingzhi had anti-tumor activities.Recently the antitumor effects of extract of Ganoderma lucidum(GLE) and Ganoderma polysaccharides B(GL-B) and its mechanism were investigated.The results demonstrated that GLE and GL-B significantly inhibited growth of implanted sarcoma 180 in vivo.GL-B also promoted anti-tumor activity induced by cyclophosphamide in mice in vivo.GLE and GL-B directly adding to tumor cells-cultured medium neither suppressed sarcoma 180 and HL-60 proliferation nor induced apoptosis of both tumor cells in vitro.However the serum from GLE and GL-B treated mice can suppress S-180 and HL-60 cells proliferation and induced its apoptosis in vitro.Furthermore splenocytes conditioned medium with GL-B (GL-B-S-CM) and peritoneal macrophages conditional medium with GL-B (GL-B-PM-CM) also significantly inhibited HL-60 proliferation and induced its apoptosis in vitro.Further study indicated that GLE and GL-B could promote TNFa production from murine peritoneal macrophages and IFNg production from murine spleen cells in vitro.Finally GLE and GL-B could promote TNFa mRNA expression in murine peritoneal macrophages and IFNg mRNA expression in murine spleen cells.The results suggest that the anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum relates to activating macrophage and spleen cell,then promoting TNFa mRNA expression and IFNg mRNA expression,finally resulting TNFa and IFNg release.

  12. 西藏野生灵芝的质量研究%Quality Research of Tibet Wild Ganoderma Lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怀东; 彭将; 赵辉

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative identification of the tibetan wild Ganoderma Lucidum was carried on. TheResults showed that TLC with Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopoeia contained the same species, no differences in morphology. Quantitative identification of Ganoderma lucidum found wild in Tibet on the polysaccharide content was higher than in the cultivars, a maximum of up to 2 times%对西藏野生灵芝进行定性、定量鉴别.结果表明,西藏野生灵芝在薄层鉴别上与药典收载品种赤芝相同,形态上无差异;通过紫外分光光度法发现西藏野生灵芝在多糖含量上高于栽培品种,最多高迭2倍.

  13. Avaliação da bioatividade do corpo frutífero e esporos de Ganoderma lucidum

    OpenAIRE

    Heleno, Sandrina A.; Tavares, Catarina; Vaz, Josiana A.; Almeida, Gabriela M.; Vasconcelos, M. Helena; Martins, Anabela; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. é uma das espécies de cogumelos mais estudadas do mundo devido às suas propriedades medicinais [1]. Este trabalho descreve a avaliação da capacidade antioxidante in vitro e antiproliferativa em células tumorais do extrato obtido a partir de diferentes partes do cogumelo. Os exemplares de Ganoderma lucidum foram colhidos em Bragança e divididos em duas amostras: corpo frutífero e esporos. A atividade antioxidante dos extratos metanólicos, obtidos a partir d...

  14. The elevation effect on water-soluble polysaccharides and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsih, C.; Apriyana, W.; Nur Hayati, S.; Taufika Rosyida, V.; Hernawan; Dewi Poeloengasih, C.

    2017-02-01

    Water soluble polysaccharide is one of the important phytochemical in Ganoderma lucidum K. Phytochemicals in the plants, microorganisms, and plants were affected by internal and external factors. The objective of the research was to evaluate the effect of elevation on the water-soluble polysaccharides and its DPPH radical scavenging activity. We found that the water-polysaccharides in mushroom from Godean (elevation free radical scavenging activity of Ganoderma lucidum K from Godean (IC50 11.5 ± 0.29 mg/mL) higher than Kaliurang (IC50 14.4 ± 0.27%).

  15. Ganoderma lucidum reduces obesity in mice by modulating the composition of the gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Jung; Lin, Chuan-Sheng; Lu, Chia-Chen; Martel, Jan; Ko, Yun-Fei; Ojcius, David M; Tseng, Shun-Fu; Wu, Tsung-Ru; Chen, Yi-Yuan Margaret; Young, John D; Lai, Hsin-Chih

    2015-06-23

    Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom used in traditional Chinese medicine with putative anti-diabetic effects. Here, we show that a water extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium (WEGL) reduces body weight, inflammation and insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Our data indicate that WEGL not only reverses HFD-induced gut dysbiosis-as indicated by the decreased Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratios and endotoxin-bearing Proteobacteria levels-but also maintains intestinal barrier integrity and reduces metabolic endotoxemia. The anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects are transmissible via horizontal faeces transfer from WEGL-treated mice to HFD-fed mice. We further show that high molecular weight polysaccharides (>300 kDa) isolated from the WEGL extract produce similar anti-obesity and microbiota-modulating effects. Our results indicate that G. lucidum and its high molecular weight polysaccharides may be used as prebiotic agents to prevent gut dysbiosis and obesity-related metabolic disorders in obese individuals.

  16. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalović Ida I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.

  17. Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung Liang; Ho, Chi Tang; Chiang, Been Huang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2011-06-15

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathology of human diseases. Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine. It is reported to have antioxidant functions such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation time on the antioxidative activities of G. lucidum broth filtrate using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium. Inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), DPPH radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic compounds, isoflavones and protocatechuic acid were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Our results showed that black soybean and Astragalus membranaceus improved the antioxidant activity of the G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Protocatechuic acid was identified by LC-MS as the antioxidant compounds whose relative potency of inhibiting LDL oxidation to Trolox is 1.55. Protocatechuic acid showed positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the fermentation broth filtrate while isoflavones did not contribute to antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Ganoderma lucidum spores on the levels of neuropeptide Y and somatostatin in brains of seizure rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kongli Zhu; Ming Lu; Shuqiu Wang; Shiling Zhang; Dixiang Sun

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has revealed that somatostatin can induce epilepsy, and that the levels of neuropeptide Y may increase and become more active in brain areas with epileptic seizures.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on the neuropeptide Y and somatostatin content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal regions of seizure rats induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). Furthermore, to verify any effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on inhibition of epileptic seizures.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized group animal study was performed in August 2007 in the School of Basic Medical Sciences, Jiamusi University (Jiamusi, Heilongjiang, China).MATERIALS: Thirty healthy, male, Wistar rats, aged 12 weeks and weighing 180-220g, were taken as the experimental animals. PTZ (Sigma Company, United States) was used to induce epilepsy. Ganoderma lucidum spores (Leyss, ex Fr variety) were purchased from Jiamusi City Wild Growing Case of the Ganoderma Lucidum (China). Rabbit anti-somatostatin antibodies and secondary antibodies were purchased from Wuhan Boster Company (China). Neuropeptide Y radioimmunoassay kit was purchased from Beijing Furui Biotechnology Company (China).METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, an epilepsy model group and a Ganoderma lucidum spore-treated group. Each group contained 10 animals. Rats in the epilepsy model group were treated with intraperitoneal injections of PTZ and gastric perfusion of physiologic saline, In the Ganoderma lucidum spore-treated group, intraperitoneal injection of PTZ and gastric perfusion of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder were administered. The blank control group was only administered with the physiological saline by intraperitoneal injection and gastric perfusion.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoassay methods were used to observe the changes of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y content in brain tissue of epileptic

  19. WHEAT STRAW CONVERSION BY ENZYMATIC SYSTEM OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM

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    Mirjana Stajic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to resolve the question of whether various nitrogen sources and concentrations affect characteristics of selected G. lucidum ligninolytic enzymes participating in wheat straw fermentation. This is the first study reporting the presence of versatile peroxidase activity in crude extract of G. lucidum culture, as well as isoforms profile of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. NH4NO3 was the optimum nitrogen source for laccase and Mn-dependent peroxidase activity, while peptone was the optimum one for versatile peroxidase activity. Four bands with laccase activity were obtained by native PAGE and IEF separations from medium enriched with inorganic nitrogen source, and only two bands from medium containing organic source. Medium composition was not shown to affect isoenzyme patterns of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases. Four isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and three of versatile peroxidase were obtained on native PAGE. By IEF separation, five isoforms of Mn-dependent peroxidase and only two of versatile peroxidase were observed. The results demonstrated that G. lucidum has potential for mineralization and transformation of various agricultural residues and should take more significant participation in large-scale biotechnological processes.

  20. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. and their role as antimicrobials and antibiotic activity enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwa, A; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Rai, Mahendra K

    2011-01-01

    Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, has been used over the ages as highly medicinal herb in the Orient. Many useful properties of this fungus are still being studied; we report here a new facet of this "elixir of life" as a mycosource for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Treating the extracellular suspension filtrate of the mycelia of G. lucidum with silver nitrate reduces the metal ions to nanoparticles. Optical detection followed by confirmation through spectroscopic analysis suggests that this fungus can be used for the purpose of safe and sure synthesis of silver nanoparticles, demand for which is growing day by day in all fields of human life. LM-20 analysis of these G. lucidum-synthesised nanoparticles reveals the polydispersity and distribution of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10-70 nm with an average size of 45 nm and a concentration of 0.37 x 108 particles/mL. FT-IR spectrum confirms the stability of these nanoparticles due to presence of amide linkages and protein capping. These nanoparticles have shown strong bactericidal activity against test pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and also exhibited their efficiency in enhancing the activity of the synthetic antibiotic tetracycline. The method of synthesising silver nanoparticles and its bactericidal effect discussed here can be used for environment-friendly and economically feasible production for different applications where chemically synthesized nanoparticles cause undesirable effects.

  1. Genoprotective Capacity of Alternatively Cultivated Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), Basidiocarps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Zivkovic, Lada; Vukojevic, Jelena; Bajic, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is traditionally used in Eastern medicine to preserve vitality, promote longevity, and treat disease. It possesses immunomodulatory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and antiaging activities, among others, but one of the most important is its antioxidant property, which is the basis for other effects, because free radicals trigger many diseases. The substrate commonly used for commercial cultivation of G. lucidum is not environmentally friendly nor economically justified, so there is a need to find new alternative substrates. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of substrate composition on the bioactivity of G. lucidum basidiocarps. G. lucidum was cultivated on 2 different substrates: (1) a mixture of wheat straw, grapevine branches, and wheat bran, and (2) wheat straw. Commercial fruiting bodies, cultivated on oak sawdust, were used as the control. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid content were determined spectrophotometrically to define the antioxidative potential of basidiocarp extracts. The comet test was performed to detect the degree of DNA damage in the cells that were exposed to G. lucidum extracts before and after the effect of oxidants. Higher antioxidative potential was observed for the extract of G. lucidum basidiocarps cultivated on wheat straw compared with that from the mixed substrate and especially with commercial ones. The alternatively cultivated basidiocarps also showed stronger antigenotoxic potential compared with commercial ones. The study showed that fruiting bodies produced on wheat straw, one of the most accessible and cheapest crop residues, are more potent antioxidant and antigenotoxic agents than commercially cultivated ones.

  2. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rd in the ginseng extraction residue by fermentation with lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bo Yang; Lu, Ting Jang; Chen, Chia Hui; Wang, Shing Jung; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2013-12-15

    Ginseng and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) both are valuable traditional Chinese medicines and have been extensively utilised in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. However, massive quantity of ginseng residue is produced after extraction of ginseng which still contains a lot of bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The goal of this study was to reuse the American ginseng extraction residue as the fermentation medium of G. lucidum to produce bioactive ginsenoside enriched biotransformation products. The changes of ginsenosides in the fermentation products were analysed during fermentation. Our results showed that after 30 days of fermentation, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, and compound K (CK) significantly increased, especially Rd, while other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1 and Rc) decreased during fermentation. Ginsenoside Rd is the major ginsenoside in the final fermentation product. Furthermore, the biotransformation of ginsenosides was the major reaction in this fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Antitumor Activity of Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Mycelium: in vivo Comparative Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolskaya, L M; Yarina, M S; Avtonomova, A V; Usov, A I; Isakova, E B; Bukchman, V M

    2015-01-01

    Fractions of water soluble and alkali soluble polysaccharides, as well as fucogalactan, a water soluble polysaccharide, and xylomannan, an alkali soluble polysaccharide, were isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum submerged mycelium. When administered orally, the polysaccharides showed antitumor activity in vivo on murine models of solid tumors. Xylomannan and fucogalactan showed the highest antitumor activity. Sensitivity to xylomannan was more pronounced in adenocarcinoma Ca755 as compared to the T-cell lymphocytic leukemia P388. The antitumor activity of the water soluble polysaccharides total fractions from the mycelium and fruiting bodies of the G. lucidum strain was almost identical. The maximum antitumor effect of the mycelium water soluble polysaccharides total fraction was observed with the use of the daily dose of 2 mg/kg.

  4. Effects of Ganodermanondiol, a New Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Woong; Kim, Hong-Il; Kim, Jong-Hyeon; Kwon, O-Chul; Son, Eun-Suk; Lee, Chang-Soo; Park, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a species of the Basidiomycetes class, has been attracting international attention owing to its wide variety of biological activities and great potential as an ingredient in skin care cosmetics including “skin-whitening” products. However, there is little information available on its inhibitory effect against tyrosinase activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical composition of G. lucidum and its inhibitory effects on melanogenesis. We isolated the active compound from G. lucidum using ethanol extraction and ethyl acetate fractionation. In addition, we assayed its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. In this study, we identified a bioactive compound, ganodermanondiol, which inhibits the activity and expression of cellular tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), thereby decreasing melanin production. Furthermore, ganodermanondiol also affected the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathway, which are involved in the melanogenesis of B16F10 melanoma cells. The finding that ganodermanondiol from G. lucidum exerts an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase will contribute to the use of this mushroom in the preparation of skin care products in the future. PMID:27801787

  5. Effects of Ganodermanondiol, a New Melanogenesis Inhibitor from the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woong Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum, a species of the Basidiomycetes class, has been attracting international attention owing to its wide variety of biological activities and great potential as an ingredient in skin care cosmetics including “skin-whitening” products. However, there is little information available on its inhibitory effect against tyrosinase activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical composition of G. lucidum and its inhibitory effects on melanogenesis. We isolated the active compound from G. lucidum using ethanol extraction and ethyl acetate fractionation. In addition, we assayed its inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. In this study, we identified a bioactive compound, ganodermanondiol, which inhibits the activity and expression of cellular tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1, TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF, thereby decreasing melanin production. Furthermore, ganodermanondiol also affected the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent signaling pathway, which are involved in the melanogenesis of B16F10 melanoma cells. The finding that ganodermanondiol from G. lucidum exerts an inhibitory effect on tyrosinase will contribute to the use of this mushroom in the preparation of skin care products in the future.

  6. Research on the Capsule of Ganoderma lucidum and Zizhiphi spinozae Improving the Sleep in Mice

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    Ya-Li Dang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more people are suffering from insomnia with difficulty in initiating or maintaining sleep. Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum and Ziziphi spinosae (Z. Spinosae are conventional herbal drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and they have been used lonely for the treatment of insomnia. In the present study, G. lucidum and Z. spinosae were combined and the active fractions were extracted to make the capsule. Furthermore, their effect on improving sleep in mice was investigated. The functional compositions of the capsule were polysaccharide, total flavone, spinosin and triterpenoid, with the content being 12.08, 1.35, 0.67 and 1.50 g/100 g, respectively. The effect of the capsule on improving sleep in mice was studied. Results showed no effects on the sleep induced directly in mice assessed with the loss-of-righting reflex even at the high dose of 450, 1350 mg/kg/day. However, the capsule significantly decreased sleep latency and increased sleeping time and prolonged sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium at high doses. In conclusion, the capsule of G. lucidum and Z. spinozae combined had the function of improving sleep

  7. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on CIK cells proliferation and cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-lingZHU; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (G/-PS) on proliferation, cytotoxicity and phenotype in cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells as well as anti-tumor activity of CIK cells induced by GI-PS and cytokines on mice bearing tumor in vivo. METHODS: Nonadherent splenocytes were incubated at 1×109/L in complete medium with IFN-γ (1000 U/mL) 24 h before IL-2 (300U/mL) plus anti-CD3 (50ng/mL) and

  8. Ganodermin, an antifungal protein from fruiting bodies of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, T B

    2006-01-01

    A 15-kDa antifungal protein, designated ganodermin, was isolated from the medical mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. The isolation procedure utilized chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel, CM-Sepharose and Superdex 75. Ganodermin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-Sepharose. Ganodermin inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Physalospora piricola with an IC50 value of 15.2 microM, 12.4 microM and 18.1 microM, respectively. It was devoid of hemagglutinating, deoxyribonuclease, ribonuclease and protease inhibitory activities.

  9. Wound healing activity of an aqueous extract of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Asheesh; Kirar, Vandana; Keshri, Gaurav Kr; Gola, Shefali; Yadav, Anju; Negi, Prem Singh; Misra, Kshipra

    2014-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) is popular because of its health-promoting properties. The effects of G. lucidum extract on cancer, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and hepatitis have been reported by many researchers. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of an aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum from the Indian Himalayan region on dermal excision wound in experimental rats. The extract used in the study was found to be rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid contents. The healing efficacy was comparatively assessed with a reference povidone-iodine ointment. The G. lucidum extract showed significant enhanced healing activity, evidenced by an increase in wound contraction, collagen accumulation (hydroxyproline), hexosamine, and total protein contents. Histopathological findings further supported the biochemical indices. The results suggest that aqueous lyophilized extract of G. lucidum possesses significant wound-healing activity.

  10. Identification of Potential Anticancer Activities of Novel Ganoderma lucidum Extracts Using Gene Expression and Pathway Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi H J; Bishop, Karen S; Xu, Yuanye; Han, Dug Yeo; Murray, Pamela M; Marlow, Gareth J; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi) has been used for the general promotion of health in Asia for many centuries. The common method of consumption is to boil lingzhi in water and then drink the liquid. In this study, we examined the potential anticancer activities of G. lucidum submerged in two commonly consumed forms of alcohol in East Asia: malt whiskey and rice wine. The anticancer effect of G. lucidum, using whiskey and rice wine-based extraction methods, has not been previously reported. The growth inhibition of G. lucidum whiskey and rice wine extracts on the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and DU145, was determined. Using Affymetrix gene expression assays, several biologically active pathways associated with the anticancer activities of G. lucidum extracts were identified. Using gene expression analysis (real-time polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]) and protein analysis (Western blotting), we confirmed the expression of key genes and their associated proteins that were initially identified with Affymetrix gene expression analysis.

  11. Antioxidative and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide extracts of the medicinal mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    Partially purified polysaccharides were obtained from four medicinal mushroom species, Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brasiliensis, Phellinus linteus and Ganoderma lucidum by hot water extraction, followed by ethanol precipitation. The four samples contained varying amounts of both a- and ß-glucans as

  12. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in human monocytic leukemia cells: from gene expression to network construction

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    Ou Chern-Han

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a herbal medicine for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have been reported to exhibit immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. In previous studies, F3, the active component of the polysaccharide extract, was found to activate various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α. This gave rise to our investigation on how F3 stimulates immuno-modulating or anti-tumor effects in human leukemia THP-1 cells. Results Here, we integrated time-course DNA microarray analysis, quantitative PCR assays, and bioinformatics methods to study the F3-induced effects in THP-1 cells. Significantly disturbed pathways induced by F3 were identified with statistical analysis on microarray data. The apoptosis induction through the DR3 and DR4/5 death receptors was found to be one of the most significant pathways and play a key role in THP-1 cells after F3 treatment. Based on time-course gene expression measurements of the identified pathway, we reconstructed a plausible regulatory network of the involved genes using reverse-engineering computational approach. Conclusion Our results showed that F3 may induce death receptor ligands to initiate signaling via receptor oligomerization, recruitment of specialized adaptor proteins and activation of caspase cascades.

  13. Development of Ganoderma lucidum Instant Tea%灵芝速溶茶的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑必胜; 李会娜; 曾娟

    2012-01-01

    以灵芝为主要原料,经过浸提浓缩、喷雾干燥等工艺,配以适当辅料调制,研制成热水可溶,溶液透明的灵芝速溶茶.采用单因素正交实验确定灵芝速溶茶的最佳配方为:麦芽糊精25%、CMC 0.15%、麦芽糊精和β-环状糊精的比例12∶1,蔗糖的含量9%.所制得的灵芝速溶茶颗粒细腻呈黄白色,溶解快速且无沉淀,具有灵芝特有的香味.%A healthy Ganoderma lucidum instant tea with appropriate auxiliary materials and characteristics of soluble and clear in hot water was produced after extraction) concentration and spray dry. The optimum formula of Ganoderma lucidum instant tea were determined by single factor and orthogonal experiment method: malt dextrin 25%, CMC 0.15%, malt dextrin and beta cyclodextrins in the ratio of 12:1 and sucrose content 9%.

  14. Total triterpenoids from Ganoderma Lucidum suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Xie, Zi-ping; Huang, Zhan-sen; Li, Hao; Wei, An-yang; Di, Jin-ming; Xiao, Heng-jun; Zhang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Liu-hong; Tao, Xin; Qi, Tao; Chen, Di-ling; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    In this study, one immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell line (BPH) and four human prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, 22Rv1, PC-3, and DU-145) were treated with Ganoderma Lucidum triterpenoids (GLT) at different doses and for different time periods. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were analyzed using flow cytometry and chemical assays. Gene expression and binding to DNA were assessed using real-time PCR and Western blotting. It was found that GLT dose-dependently inhibited prostate cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. GLT-induced apoptosis was due to activation of Caspases-9 and -3 and turning on the downstream apoptotic events. GLT-induced cell cycle arrest (mainly G1 arrest) was due to up-regulation of p21 expression at the early time and down-regulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) and E2F1 expression at the late time. These findings demonstrate that GLT suppresses prostate cancer cell growth by inducing growth arrest and apoptosis, which might suggest that GLT or Ganoderma Lucidum could be used as a potential therapeutic drug for prostate cancer.

  15. Optimization of exopolysaccharides production from a novel strain of Ganoderma lucidum CAU5501 in submerged culture

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    Baojing Yuan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at optimizing the medium of a new Ganoderma lucidum strain CAU5501 to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS and mycelial growth. Firstly, the suitable level of glucose, magnesium, phosphate and C/N ratio was determined by single factor experiment. Subsequently, the optimum concentrations of these medium components were investigated using the orthogonal matrix method. The results indicated that the higher levels of EPS were correlated with the level of cell growth when glucose concentration was studied (data no show. The optimum medium for EPS yield was found to be 70 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 2.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.75 g/l MgSO4·7H2O, and for mycelial growth was 50 g/l glucose, 5 C/N ratio, 1.5 g/l KH2PO4, 0.5 g/l MgSO4·7H2O. When cultivated in the obtained optimal media in 3 L shake flask, compared to the basal medium, the EPS yield increased markedly from 1.003 to 1.723 g/l, and the mycelium formation was also markedly improved from 2.028 to 7.235 g/l. Results obtained in this study are beneficial to further study for enhancing the production of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in large scale commercialized production.

  16. 西藏野生灵芝菌种培养基筛选试验%The screening test of stock culture medium about Tibet wild Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君丽

    2015-01-01

    There are abundant resources for wild Ganoderma lucidum in Tibet,market pros-pects of artificial cultivation Tibet wild Ganoderma lucidum.After collection strain Tibet wild Ganoderma lucidum,the screening test of 4 different mother spawn medium are done and it is of-fer reference for cultivation research about Tibet wild Ganoderma lucidum.%西藏野生灵芝资源丰富,人工栽培西藏野生灵芝市场前景广阔。笔者对采集到的西藏野生灵芝菌株,进行4种不同的母种培养基筛选试验,为下一步西藏野生灵芝栽培研究提供参考。

  17. Methanolic Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Induces Autophagy of AGS Human Gastric Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa S. Reis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most widely studied mushroom species, particularly in what concerns its medicinal properties. Previous studies (including those from some of us have shown some evidence that the methanolic extract of G. lucidum affects cellular autophagy. However, it was not known if it induces autophagy or decreases the autophagic flux. The treatment of a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (AGS with the mushroom extract increased the formation of autophagosomes (vacuoles typical from autophagy. Moreover, the cellular levels of LC3-II were also increased, and the cellular levels of p62 decreased, confirming that the extract affects cellular autophagy. Treating the cells with the extract together with lysossomal protease inhibitors, the cellular levels of LC3-II and p62 increased. The results obtained proved that, in AGS cells, the methanolic extract of G. lucidum causes an induction of autophagy, rather than a reduction in the autophagic flux. To our knowledge, this is the first study proving that statement.

  18. Racemic alkaloids from the fungus Ganoderma cochlear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Long; Dou, Man; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Li-Zhi; Yan, Yong-Ming; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Seven pairs of new alkaloid enantiomers, ganocochlearines C-I (1, 3-8), and three pairs of known alkaloids were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma cochlear. The chemical structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configurations of compounds 1, 3-10 were assigned by ECD calculations. Biological activities of these isolates against renal fibrosis were accessed in rat normal or diseased renal interstitial fibroblast cells. Importantly, the plausible biosynthetic pathway for this class of alkaloids was originally proposed.

  19. Pharmacokinetic Studies of Ganoderic Acids from the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chun-Ru; Ding, Jie; Yang, Yi; Liang, Xin-Yong; Guo, De-An; Yang, Min; Guan, Shu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom that has been widely used in clinical practice and as a dietary supplementa. The triterpenoid ganoderic acids are the main constituents of G. lucidum. To determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics of ganoderic acids, we developed and validated a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to determine simultaneously the concentration of 4 representative ganoderic acids in rat plasma after oral administration of the extract from G. lucidum. Because of the similarity of their chemical structures, the 4 components exhibited similar pharmacokinetic behaviors in some aspects. However, some of the pharmacokinetic parameters and the reabsorption peaks in the plasma concentration-time curves of ganoderic acids B and E after oral administration of the extract were different from those of ganoderic acids D and A because of the metabolic transformation among the ganoderic acids. These results increase our knowledge about the use of G. lucidum.

  20. The anti-cancer components of Ganoderma lucidum possesses cardiovascular protective effect by regulating circular RNA expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Weijiang; Li, Xiangmin; Jiao, Chunwei; Huang, Ren; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    To examine the role of oral Ganoderma spore oil in cardiovascular disease, we used transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice to model pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. Our preliminary results demonstrated a potential cardioprotective role for spore oil extracted from Ganoderma. We found that Ganoderma treatment normalized ejection fraction and corrected the fractional shortening generated by TAC. We also found evidence of reduced left ventricular hypertrophy as assessed by left ventricular end diastolic diameter. Analysis of total RNA expression using cardiac tissue samples from these mice corroborated our findings. We found reduced expression of genes associated with heart failure, including a novel circular RNA circ-Foxo3. Thus our data provides evidence for Ganoderma lucidum as a potential cardioprotective agent, warranting further preclinical exploration. PMID:27713910

  1. Potential of Cultivated Ganoderma lucidum Mushrooms for the Production of Supplements Enriched with Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzymski, Piotr; Mleczek, Mirosław; Niedzielski, Przemysław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an important medicinal mushroom species and there is continuous interest in its bioactive properties. This study evaluated whether it may additionally serve as a nutritional supplement for the trace elements: selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). Mushrooms were cultivated on substrates enriched with 0.1 to 0.8 mM of inorganic Se alone or in combination with Zn and/or Cu. Supplementation increased accumulation of the elements in fruiting bodies regardless of the applied cultivation model. G. lucidum demonstrated the ability to accumulate significant amounts of organic Se, maximally amounting to (i) over 44 mg/kg when the substrate was supplemented only with Se, (ii) over 20 mg/kg in the Se+Cu model, (iii) over 25 mg/kg in the Se+Zn model, and (iv) 15 mg/kg in the Se+Cu+Zn model. The accumulation of Cu and Zn steadily increased with their initial substrate concentrations. Maximum concentrations found after supplementation with 0.8 mM amounted to over 55 mg/kg (Se+Zn) and 52 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Zn, and 29 mg/kg (Se+Cu) and over 31 mg/kg (Se+Cu+Zn) of Cu. The greater the supplemented concentration and number of supplemented elements, the lower the biomass of G. lucidum fruiting bodies. Nevertheless, it still remained high when the substrate was supplemented up to 0.4 mM with each element. These results highlight that G. lucidum can easily incorporate elements from the substrate and that, when biofortified, its dried fruiting bodies may serve as a nutritional source of these essential elements.

  2. Antioxidant activity of polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yongjun; Chen, Tiqiang; Wu, Yanbin; Wu, Jianguo; Wu, Jinzhong

    2015-01-01

    Superfine grinding technology was applied for polysaccharide extraction from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, and response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the effects of processing parameters on polysaccharide extraction yield. Results showed that the maximum yield of G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) was obtained at an optimum condition: extraction time 137 min, extraction temperature 66 ̊C, the ratio of water to material 35 mL/g, and the GLP extracting yield reached 2.44% under this condition. GLP were precipitated into three crude polysaccharides, viz. GLP40, GLP60 and GLP80. The basic characterization of polysaccharides was determined by using HPLC and FT-IR methods. GLP, GLP80, GLP60, and GLP40 were composed of Man, Rib, Glc, Gal and Fuc with the molar ratios of 1.27:0.36:22.89:1.61:0.33, 1.40:0.31:23.02:3.46:0.91, 0.96:0.34:25.76:2.47:0.46, and 2.81:1.42:23.83:1.61:0.33, respectively. The result of FT-IR suggested that the monosaccharide residue of the four polysaccharides was β-pyranoid ring. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these four polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that GLP80 had the best reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging ability and oxygen radical scavenging ability followed by GLP, GLP60 and GLP40. Our results demonstrated that RSM might be a valuable technique for optimizing the efficient extraction of GLP, and G. lucidum could be considered as sources of natural antioxidants and preservatives of food industry. Moreover, polysaccharides, especially GLP80, extracted from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, exhibited promising antioxidant activities.

  3. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum

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    Yanyan Shao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1, 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2, 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3, ganotropic acid (4, 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5 and (3β,7α-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6. (4E,8E-N-d-2′-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7, and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8 were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN. In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE and gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5 and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2, respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel

  4. Structure Identification and Anti-Cancer Pharmacological Prediction of Triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yanyan; Qiao, Liansheng; Wu, Lingfang; Sun, Xuefei; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Chen, Wenjing; Liang, Wenyi; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Lanzhen

    2016-05-21

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, which is a popularly used traditional Chinese medicine for complementary cancer therapy. In the present study, systematic isolation, and in silico pharmacological prediction are implemented to discover potential anti-cancer active GTs from G. lucidum. Nineteen GTs, three steroids, one cerebroside, and one thymidine were isolated from G. lucidum. Six GTs were first isolated from the fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, including 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid methyl ester (1), 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (2), 3β,7β,15α,28-tetrahydroxy-11,23-dioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid (3), ganotropic acid (4), 26-nor-11,23-dioxo-5α-lanost-8-en-3β,7β,15α,25-tetrol (5) and (3β,7α)-dihydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien- 11-one (6). (4E,8E)-N-d-2'-hydroxypalmitoyl-l-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-9-methyl-4,8-spingodienine (7), and stigmasta-7,22-dien-3β,5α,6α-triol (8) were first reported from the genus Ganodema. By using reverse pharmacophoric profiling of the six GTs, thirty potential anti-cancer therapeutic targets were identified and utilized to construct their ingredient-target interaction network. Then nineteen high frequency targets of GTs were selected from thirty potential targets to construct a protein interaction network (PIN). In order to cluster the pharmacological activity of GTs, twelve function modules were identified by molecular complex detection (MCODE) and gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. The results indicated that anti-cancer effect of GTs might be related to histone acetylation and interphase of mitotic cell cycle by regulating general control non-derepressible 5 (GCN5) and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2), respectively. This research mode of extraction, isolation, pharmacological prediction, and PIN analysis might be beneficial to rapidly predict and discover pharmacological activities of novel compounds.

  5. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore on expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, nuclear factor-kappa B, and neuronal apoptosis in the epileptic rat brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Zhao; Shuqiu Wang; Shengchang Zhang; Fafang Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been reported that Ganoderma lucidum spore powder, a very well known Chinese traditional medicine, can affect immunoregulation, free radical scavenging, and anti-hypoxia responses. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and neuronal apoptosis in rats with pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced epilepsy.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A cellular and molecular biology experiment with randomized controlled study design was performed at the Central Laboratory of Basic Medical College of Jiamusi University from June to August 2005.MATERIALS: Thirty healthy, adult, male, Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups (10rats per group): control, epilepsy model, and Ganoderma lucidum spore powder. A sub-eclampsia PTZ dose (35 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to induce epilepsy in the latter two groups. Wild Ganoderma lucidum spore powder (30 g/L) was provided by the wild Ganoderma lucidum plant nursery at Jiamusi,China. lmmunohistochemical detection and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediate dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) kits were purchased from Wuhan Boster Biological Technology Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: Ganoderma lucidum spore powder was intragastrically administered at a dose of 10.0 mL/kg,once a day for 28 days. In the epilepsy and control groups, an equivalent volume of normal saline was intragastrically administered.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: lmmunoreactivity for IGF-1 and NF-κB/P65 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Neuronal apoptosis was detected using TUNEL methods.RESULTS: The hippocampus and cerebral cortex of rats with PTZ-induced epilepsy exhibited a higher number of apoptotic cells at high magnification (x400), compared with the control group. Expression of IGF-1and NF-κB were higher in the epilepsy group, compared with the control group (P < 0.01). In Ganoderma lucidum spore-treated rats, fewer

  6. Distinguishing commercially grown Ganoderma lucidum from Ganoderma lingzhi from Europe and East Asia on the basis of morphology, molecular phylogeny, and triterpenic acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Florian; Cheikh-Ali, Zakaria; Liebisch, Tim; Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Bode, Helge B; Piepenbring, Meike

    2016-07-01

    In China and other countries of East Asia, so-called Ling-zhi or Reishi mushrooms are used in traditional medicine since several centuries. Although the common practice to apply the originally European name 'Ganoderma lucidum' to these fungi has been questioned by several taxonomists, this is still generally done in recent publications and with commercially cultivated strains. In the present study, two commercially sold strains of 'G. lucidum', M9720 and M9724 from the company Mycelia bvba (Belgium), are compared for their fruiting body (basidiocarp) morphology combined with molecular phylogenetic analyses, and for their secondary metabolite profile employing an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESIMS) in combination with a high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). According to basidiocarp morphology, the strain M9720 was identified as G. lucidum s.str. whereas M9724 was determined as Ganoderma lingzhi. In molecular phylogenetic analyses, the M9720 ITS and beta-tubulin sequences grouped with sequences of G. lucidum s.str. from Europe whereas those from M9724 clustered with sequences of G. lingzhi from East Asia. We show that an ethanol extract of ground basidiocarps from G. lucidum (M9720) contains much less triterpenic acids than found in the extract of G. lingzhi (M9724). The high amount of triterpenic acids accounts for the bitter taste of the basidiocarps of G. lingzhi (M9724) and of its ethanol extract. Apparently, triterpenic acids of G. lucidum s.str. are analyzed here for the first time. These results demonstrate the importance of taxonomy for commercial use of fungi.

  7. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of oligosaccharides from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello, Isaac; Campos-Pena, Victoria; Montiel, Elizur; Rodriguez, Veronica; Aguirre-Moreno, Alma; Leon-Rivera, Ismael; Del Rio-Portilla, Federico; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Villeda-Hernandez, Juana

    2013-01-01

    An oligosaccharide fraction isolated from the mycelium of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLOS) was separated by size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical structure of GLOS consists of a disaccharide repeating unit [-4-β-1-Galf(1-6)-O-(β-Glcp)-1-]n (n=3,4). In addition, this study was undertaken to determine the possible anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of GLOS (10-80 mg/kg) on kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. The behavioral alterations and histopathology of hippocampal neurons were studied. Our results show that GLOS inhibited convulsions in rats from KA-induced seizures, reduced the degeneration pattern in the CA3 region of rats, decreased astrocytic reactivity, and reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α induced by KA. These results indicate a potential anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of GLOS.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extracts from Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes versicolor

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    Lukáš Hleba

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the antimicrobial activity of crude methanolic extracts obtained from Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes versicolor were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. epidermis, E. raffinosus, S. cerevisiae and C. albicans were determined by the microbroth dillution method according by EUCAST in 96-well microplates. Microorganisms were obtained from Czech Collection of Microorganisms. Absorbances after and before the experiment were subtracted, converted to binary system and obtained values to Probit analysis were used. Of the two macromycetes extracts tested, not all extracts showed antimicrobial activity in tested MICs range. The highest antimicrobial activity showed the both extracts to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The less antimicrobial effects had the both macromycetes extracts to Staphylococcus epidermis. Antimicrobial activity of macromycetes methanolic crude extracts to others tested microorganisms showed no effect or used concentration could be higher.

  9. Activation effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes on murine peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Huang, Yee; Bo, Ruonan; Zheng, Sisi; Luo, Li; Niu, Yale; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun

    2016-01-01

    The activation of murine peritoneal macrophages by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides liposomes (GLPL) was investigated in vitro. After treatment with GLPL, the changes of the nitric oxide (NO) secretion and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) activity were evaluated. The results showed that NO production and iNOS activity of macrophages were enhanced compared to GLP and BL group. In addition, both the phagocytic activity and levels of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ were enhanced in the peritoneal macrophages of mice by stimulation of GLPL. The expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecule (MHC II) on the surface of peritoneal macrophages significantly increased. These indicated that GLPL could enhance the activation of peritoneal macrophages and their potential for use as a delivery system of GLP.

  10. The effects of Ganoderma lucidum herba pharmacopuncture on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation

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    Chea-woo Lee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum herba pharmacopuncture (GHP on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods : 3T3- L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 2 days in the absence or presence of GHP ranging from 1 and 2%. The effect of GHP on cell proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes was investigated using MTT assay. The effect of GHP on adipogenesis was examined by Oil red O staining and measuring glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH and intracellular triglyceride (TG content. Results : Following results were obtained from the preadipocyte proliferation and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1. We observed no effect of GHP on preadipocyte proliferation. GHP inhibited adipogenesis, the activity of GPDH and accumulation of intracellular TG content. Conclusions : These results suggest that GHP inhibit differentiation of preadipocyte.

  11. Toxicology and immunology of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides in Kunming mice and Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Gao, Xia; Pan, Yaogang; Xu, Nuo; Jia, Le

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the toxicology and immunology of polysaccharides from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (GPs) were investigated. No abnormal clinical-symptoms or deaths and no significant difference in body weight and food in-taking rate were found in Wistar rats during the 30-day feeding administration. No significant differences were found in each hematology value, clinical chemistry value and organ/body weight ratio, either. It had no mutagenicity due to the negative experimental results of Ames test, micronucleus test of polychromatic erythrocyte, sperm abnormality test, and chromosome aberration test in Kunming mice, respectively. The immune experiments indicated that high-dose GPs had immune effects in increasing the degree of toe swelling and enhancing the primary immune response to SRBC (P<0.01). But no-significant influence of GPs on the phagocytic function of mononuclear macrophages (MΦ) could be obtained.

  12. Influence of culture medium growth variables on Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharides structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Irene; Coutinho, João; Bezerra, Rui M; Dias, Albino A; Marques, Guilhermina; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-10-13

    In this work the effect of carbon and nitrogen levels and initial pH of the wheat extract culture medium of submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum on the amount, purity and structural features of exopolysaccharides (EPS) were studied. A low peptone level (1.65 g L(-1)) favored mycelium biomass, EPS purity, but a higher supply of peptone (4.80 g L(-1)) is needed for maximum EPS production. The carbohydrate composition of the EPS and structural features also changed significantly according to the different growing conditions, being observed significant differences in the (1 → 3)/(1 → 4)-Glcp ratio and also on the branching degree of EPS. As the biological activities of EPS are highly dependent on the polysaccharide structural features, this variability can have implications on the EPS biological activities, but can also be used advantageously to produce tailor made polysaccharides with specific applications.

  13. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

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    Sun-Hee Jang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP and the GLP groups were treated daily with injections of normal saline and Ganoderma lucidum extract, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The rats in all groups, except the normal group, were intoxicated for 6 hours by oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg BW. The same volume of distilled water was administered to the rats in the normal group. Two local acupoints were used: Qimen (LR14 and Taechung (LR3. A histopathological analysis was performed, and the liver function and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results: GLP treatment reduced the histological changes due to acute liver injury induced by EtOH and significantly reduced the increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT enzyme; however, it had an insignificant effect in reducing the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST enzyme. It also significantly ameliorated the superoxide dismutase (SOD and the catalase (CAT activities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GLP treatment is effective in protecting against ethanol-induced acute hepatic injury in SD rats by modulating the activities of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and by attenuating oxidative stress.

  14. Development of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) polysaccharides injection formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuji; He, Anle; Liu, Yanhong; Xie, Baogui; Li, Ye; Deng, Youjin; Liu, Xinrui; Liu, Qichao

    2014-01-01

    Biochemical and pharmacological research has demonstrated that Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPS) have significant anticancer, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. To investigate the effect of injecting GLPS into hosts for clinical studies, aqueous polysaccharide extracts from G. lucidum fruit bodies were purified by deproteinization using the Sevage method, anion-exchange chromatography elution (cellulose DEAE-52 chromatography), dialysis, ethanol precipitation, and active carbon and millipore membrane filtration techniques. The purified GLPS were used for injection in mice. Polysaccharide indexes, protein, tannin, heavy metal, arsenic salt, oxalate, potassium ion, resin, pH, ignition residue measurements, evaluation criterion for allergic reactions, and total solids content of the GLPS injection were all performed using the reference methods in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Our results showed that polysaccharide was the key component of injection mixtures. The ignition residue and total solids content in the injection mixture were 1.4% and 2.4%, respectively. The other indices were all within the expected safety ranges. Furthermore, studies from mice functional assays showed that the injection mixture improved the antifatigue capacity of mice without any effect on weight loss/gain. In addition, the injection mixture was safe, which was confirmed by allergy testing in guinea pigs. The development of a GLPS injection offers a novel approach for future medicinal mushroom utilization and holds great commercial promise.

  15. Optimizing a culture medium for biomass and phenolic compounds production using Ganoderma lucidum

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    Carlos Andrés Zárate-Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at optimizing a culture medium for biomass production and phenolic compounds by using Ganoderma lucidum. The culture was optimized in two stages; a Plackett-Burman design was used in the first one for identifying key components in the medium and a central composite design was used in the second one for optimizing their concentration. Both responses (biomass and phenolic compounds were simultaneously optimized by the latter methodology regarding desirability, and the optimal concentrations obtained were 50.00 g/L sucrose, 13.29 g/L yeast extract and 2.99 g/L olive oil. Maximum biomass production identified in these optimal conditions was 9.5 g/L and that for phenolic compounds was 0.0452 g/L, this being 100% better than that obtained in the media usually used in the laboratory. Similar patterns regarding chemical characterization and biological activity towards Aspergillus sp., from both fruiting body and mycelium-derived secondary metabolites and extracts obtained in the proposed medium were observed. It was shown that such statistical methodologies are useful for optimizing fermentation and, in the specific case of G. lucidum, optimizing processes for its production and its metabolites in submerged culture as an alternative to traditional culture.

  16. Submerged fermentation production and characterization of intracellular triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum using HPLC-ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mei-lin; Yang, Huan-yi; He, Guo-qing

    2015-12-01

    As the main bioactive metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, triterpenoids have various pharmacological effects. In this paper, the nutritional requirements and culture conditions of a submerged culture of G. lucidum were optimized using the response surface methodology; maximum mycelia biomass and intracellular triterpenoid production reached 1.87 g/100 ml and 93.21 mg/100 ml, respectively, for a culture consisting of wort 4.10% (0.041 g/ml) and yeast extract 1.89% (0.0189 g/ml), pH 5.40. For the first time, we established that wort, which is cheap and abundant, can replace the more commonly used glucose as the sole source of carbohydrate. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), 10 major ganoderic acids were tentatively identified based on the predominant fragmentation pathways with the elimination of H2O and CO2, as well as cleavage of the D-ring.

  17. [Effects of cadmium stress on the antioxidative system in Ganoderma lucidum mycelia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Hua; Zhang, Hua; Cui, Yuan-Rong; He, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Qiang

    2008-06-01

    The study on the effects of different concentration (0, 10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 micromol x L(-1)) cadmium (Cd) on the antioxidative system in Ganoderma lucidum mycelia indicated that with increasing concentration of Cd, the fresh mass and the proline, total polysaccharides, and reduced polysaccharides contents of G. lucidum mycelia decreased, but non-protein thiol (NPT) content increased. At 400 micromol x L(-1) of Cd, the NPT content increased dramatically, being 5.7 times higher than control. Within the range of test Cd concentrations, the activities of CAT, GR and POD increased first and decreased then, with the peak at 100 micromol x L(-1) of Cd, while the activities of LOX and SOD increased with increasing Cd concentration, with the maximum at 400 micromol x L(-1) of Cd. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that 100-400 micromol x L(-1) of Cd induced two additional isozymes bands of Mn-SOD, 10-200 micromol x L(-1) of Cd increased the intensity of constitutive isozymes of CAT, POD, SOD and LOX, while 400 micromol x L(-1) of Cd decreased the intensity of isozymes of POD significantly.

  18. Improvement of polysaccharide and triterpenoid production of Ganoderma lucidum through mutagenesis of protoplasts

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    Ren Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a traditional medicinal macrofungus in China, which has two kinds of key bioactive compounds -- polysaccharides and triterpenoids. To improve the polysaccharide and triterpenoid production from G. lucidum, the preparation and regeneration conditions of protoplasts were optimized. This was done by systematic trials with various parameters, and protoplast mutation was subsequently performed. A mycelium that was cultivated for seven days and treated with 0.33 mL of 1% snailase and 0.66 mL of 0.5% cellulase solution for 2.5 h at 30 °C in the presence of osmotic pressure stabilizer mannitol (0.5 mol/L, had the best conditions, in which the resultant protoplasts were 6.40 × 105/mL and the regeneration rate was 6.25%. The resultant protoplasts were subjected to subsequent mutation by lithium chloride or by the combination of lithium chloride and Triton X-100. The highest yields of intracellular polysaccharide and triterpenoid in two mutant strains were 37.50 and 40.81 mg/g, which were increased with 568.45% and 373.43%, respectively, as compared to the original strain. Furthermore, the yields of intracellular polysaccharides and triterpenoids in the second generation and the third generation of the mutants were comparable to that of the first generation, which showed genetic stability of the mutants for the production of polysaccharides and triterpenoids.

  19. Decolorization applicability of sol–gel matrix immobilized manganese peroxidase produced from an indigenous white rot fungal strain Ganoderma lucidum

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Nasir Iqbal, Hafiz; Asgher, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Background An eco-friendly treatment of industrial effluents is a major environmental concern of the modern world in the face of stringent environmental legislations. By keeping in mind the extensive industrial applications of ligninolytic enzymes, this study was performed to purify, and immobilize the manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced from an indigenous strain of Ganoderma lucidum. The present study was also focused on investigating the capability of immobilized MnP for decolorization of d...

  20. Anti-Tumor Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) in Inflammatory Breast Cancer in In Vivo and In Vitro Models

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated w...

  1. Determination of volatile aroma compounds of Ganoderma lucidum by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkın, Hatıra; Kafkas, Ebru; Çakıroğlu, Özgün; Büyükalaca, Saadet

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted at Horticulture Department of Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey during 2010-2011. Fresh sample of Ganoderma lucidum collected from Mersin province of Turkey was used as material. Volatile aroma compounds were performed by Headspace Gas Chromatography (HS-GC/MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, acids, phenol, L-Alanine, d-Alanine, 3Methyl, 2-Butanamine, 2-Propanamine were determined. 1-Octen-3-ol (Alcohol) and 3-methyl butanal (Aldehyde) were identified as major aroma compounds.

  2. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum Promote Cognitive Function and Neural Progenitor Proliferation in Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

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    Shichao Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture. Further mechanistic study revealed that GLP potentiated activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1 and downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK and AKT cascades. Consistently, inhibition of FGFR1 effectively blocked the GLP-promoted NPC proliferation and activation of the downstream cascades. Our findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.•G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP improve cognition in transgenic AD mice•GLP promote neural progenitor proliferation and self-renewal to enhance neurogenesis•GLP potentiate FGFR signalingG. lucidum is a revered medicinal herb for promoting health. Pei and colleagues found that the polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLP promoted neural progenitor proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and ameliorated cognition deficits in transgenic Alzheimer's disease model mice. These findings suggest that GLP could serve as a regenerative therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from a cDNA library of the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum

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    Li Xiwen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little genomic or trancriptomic information on Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi is known. This study aims to discover the transcripts involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis and developmental regulation of G. lucidum using an expressed sequence tag (EST library. Methods A cDNA library was constructed from the G. lucidum fruiting body. Its high-quality ESTs were assembled into unique sequences with contigs and singletons. The unique sequences were annotated according to sequence similarities to genes or proteins available in public databases. The detection of simple sequence repeats (SSRs was preformed by online analysis. Results A total of 1,023 clones were randomly selected from the G. lucidum library and sequenced, yielding 879 high-quality ESTs. These ESTs showed similarities to a diverse range of genes. The sequences encoding squalene epoxidase (SE and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPS were identified in this EST collection. Several candidate genes, such as hydrophobin, MOB2, profilin and PHO84 were detected for the first time in G. lucidum. Thirteen (13 potential SSR-motif microsatellite loci were also identified. Conclusion The present study demonstrates a successful application of EST analysis in the discovery of transcripts involved in the secondary metabolite biosynthesis and the developmental regulation of G. lucidum.

  4. 灵芝中灵芝酸的测定研究%Determination of Ganoderma Lucidum Acid by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙金旭

    2015-01-01

    The HPLC determination method for the determination of Ganoderma lucidum acid was established. The result showed that the maximum standard deviation of cholesterol content was 1.36%under this method for determination and Cholesterol content displayed an excellent linear relationship , the standard curve equation was Y=625.71x+82.857(R=0.998 2). The spike recoveries for cholesterol were between 97.04%and 102.64%, the method was feasibility and accurate for using to determine Ganoderma lucidum acid, the average contents of Ganoderma lucidum acid was 1.03 mg/g by HPLC determination.%利用HPLC法测定灵芝中灵芝酸含量的方法,此方法测定灵芝中灵芝酸含量重复性试验最大标准偏差为1.36%,峰面积与灵芝酸标品线性关系良好,标准曲线方程为Y=625.71x+82.857(R=0.9982),加标回收率在97.04%~102.64%之间,此方法用于灵芝中灵芝酸含量准确、可行;经测定灵芝中灵芝酸为含量1.03 mg/g。

  5. Comparison of the antitumor activity of polysaccharides extracted by boiling water and enzyme assistance from Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chunhua; Zhang Chenju; Tian Zhenle; Zheng Huihua; Yu Xiaobing

    2014-01-01

    Polysaccharides are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of Ganoderma lu-cidum. In this work,polysaccharides were extracted from Ganoderma lucidum with boiling water method and enzyme assisted method. The human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was used to compare the an-titumor effect of the two kinds of extraction with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bro-mide (MTT) test. Both of these two kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides reduced cell viability of can-cer cell HepG2 in a dose and time-dependent manner. At low concentrations,there was no significant difference in the effectiveness of L1 and L2;while at concentrations over 0.8μg/mL,the difference in the effectiveness of L2 in comparison to L1 became significant. At the concentrations of 3.2μg/mL,the cancer cells were almost killed in 2 d.

  6. Structure Determination of β-Glucans from Ganoderma lucidum with Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/ionization (MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Yang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel method that uses matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI mass spectrometry to analyze molecular weight and sequencing of glucan in Ganoderma lucidum is presented. Thus, β-glucan, which was isolated from fruiting bodies of G. lucidum, was measured in a direct and fast way using MALDI mass spectrometry. In addition, tandem mass spectrometry of permethylated glucans of G. lucidum, dextran, curdlan and maltohexaose were also pursued and different fragment patterns were obtained. The G. lucidum glucan structure was determined and this method for linkage analysis of permethylated glucan has been proven feasible.

  7. Probing Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes): a bitter mushroom with amazing health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Priya; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Khajuria, Robinka

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi) is known as a bitter mushroom with remarkable health benefits. The active constituents found in mushrooms include polysaccharides, dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, triterpenoids, peptides and proteins, alcohols and phenols, mineral elements (such as zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, and iron), vitamins, and amino acids. The bioactive components found in the G. lucidum mushroom have numerous health properties to treat diseased conditions such as hepatopathy, chronic hepatitis, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcers, atherosclerosis, leukopenia, diabetes, anorexia, and cancer. In spite of the voluminous literature available, G. lucidum is used mostly as an immune enhancer and a health supplement, not therapeutically. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of G. luidum to attract the scientific community to consider its therapeutic application where it can be worth pursuing.

  8. Pharmacological Properties of Biocompounds from Spores of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Bissoqui, Lucas Yamasaki; Rodrigues, Cristine; Rubel, Rosalia; Sella, Sandra R B R; Leifa, Fan; de Souza Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known representative of mushrooms that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. New discoveries related to this medicinal mushroom and its biological properties are frequently reported. However, only recently have scientists started to pay special attention to G. lucidum spores. This is in part because of the recent development of methods for breaking the spore wall and extracting biocompounds from the spore. Although some research groups are working with G. lucidum spores, data in the literature are still limited, and the methods used have not been systematized. This review therefore describes the main advances in techniques for breaking the spore wall and extracting biocompounds from the spore. In addition, the major active components identified and their biological properties, such as neurological activity and antiaging and cell-protective effects, are investigated because these are of importance for potential drug development.

  9. Research Advances of the Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Effects of Ganoderma lucidum%灵芝的化学成分与药理作用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩建军; 宁娜

    2014-01-01

    灵芝既具有广泛的药理活性又具有食用价值。其化学成分复杂,含有多种对人体有效的物质,药理作用广。通过查阅相关文献,对灵芝的化学成分及其药理作用进行了较全面的综述。为合理开发利用灵芝提供参考。%Ganoderma lucidum was an excellent resource wit pharmacological function and edible value. The chemical components in Ganoderma lucidum were complex and the clinical pharmacological function of Ganoderma lucidum was good, with a few adverse reactions.The process of the studies on chemical component and pharmacological activity of Ganoderma lucidum was summarize to provide the scientific basis for better the utilization of Ganoderma lucidum.

  10. Protection of radiation induced DNA and membrane damages by total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Maurya, D K; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2015-05-25

    The total triterpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum was examined for its potential to prevent γ-radiation induced membrane damage in rat liver mitochondria and microsomes. The effects of total triterpenes on γ-radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in pBR 322 plasmid DNA in vitro and human peripheral blood lymphocytes ex vivo were evaluated. The protective effect of total triterpenes against γ-radiation-induced micronuclei formations in mice bone marrow cells in vivo were also evaluated. The results indicated the significant effectiveness of Ganoderma triterpenes in protecting the DNA and membrane damages consequent to the hazardous effects of radiation. The findings suggest the potential use of Ganoderma triterpenes in radio therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of Mushroom-Basidiomycetes Ganoderma Lucidum on the Cognitive Function of Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unzira Kapysheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the fungus G. Lucidum, thanks to the presence in its composition of a large group of polysaccharides that provide energy and strengthens the immune system, terpenes, and amino acids that affect the operation of almost all human body systems, including the brain blood circulation, it has had a positive effect on the cognitive function of the respondents – it improves memory for numbers on the images, heightened attention and response to an external signal, increased mobility and balance the basic nervous processes in the cerebral cortex.

  12. Exploration of one-step preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent microemulsion%灵芝多组分微乳一步制备方法的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺俊杰; 陈彦; 杜萌; 曹伟; 袁菱; 郑丽燕

    2013-01-01

    To explore one-step method for the preparation of Ganoderma lucidum multicomponent mieroemulsion, according to the dissolution characteristics of triterpenes and polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum, formulation of the mieroemulsion was optimized. The optimal blank mieroemulsion was used as a solvent to sonicate the Ganoderma lucidum powder to prepare the multicomponent mieroemulsion, besides, its physicochemical properties were compared with the mieroemulsion made by conventional method. The results showed that the multicomponent mieroemulsion was characterized as (43.32 ±6.82) nm in size, 0.173 ±0.025 in polydispersity index (PDI) and -(3.98 ±0.82) mV in zeta potential. The contents of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenes and polysaccharides were (5.95 ±0.32) and (7.58 ±0.44) mg·mL-1, respectively. Sonicating Ganoderma lucidum powder by blank mieroemulsion could prepare the multicomponent mieroemulsion. Compared with the conventional method, this method is simple and low cost, which is suitable for industrial production.

  13. Structure and Biochemestry of Laccases from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A.Reddy, PI

    2005-06-30

    G. lucidum is one of the most important and widely distributed ligninolytic white rot fungi from habitats such as forest soils, agricultural soils, and tropical mangrove ecosystems and produce laccases as an important family of lignin modifying enzymes. Biochemically, laccases are blue multi copper oxidases that couple four electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. There is a growing interest in the use of laccases for a variety of industrial applications such as bio-pulping and biobleaching as well as in their ability to detoxify a wide variety of toxic environmental pollutants. These key oxidative enzymes are found in all the three domains of life: Eukaryota. Prokarya, and Archaea. Ganoderma lucidum (strain no.103561) produces laccase with some of the highest activity (17,000 micro katals per mg of protein) reported for any laccases to date. Our results showed that this organism produces at least 11 different isoforms of laccase based on variation in mol. weight and/or PI. Our Studies showed that the presence of copper in the medium yields 15- to 20-fold greater levels of enzyme by G. lucidum. Dialysation of extra cellular fluid of G. lucidum against 10mM sodium tartrate (pH5.5) gave an additional 15 to 17 fold stimulation of activity with an observed specific activity of 17,000 {micro}katals/mg protein. Dialysis against acetate buffer gave five fold increase in activity while dialysis against glycine showed inhibition of activity. Purification by FPLC and preparative gel electrophoresis gave purified fractions that resolved into eleven isoforms as separated by isoelectric focusing, and the PI,s were 4.7, 4.6, 4.5, 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 3.8, 3.7, 3.5, 3.4 and 3.3. Genomic clones of laccase were isolated using G. lucidum DNA as a template and using inverse PCR and forward/reverse primers corresponding to the sequences of the conserved copper binding region in the N-terminal domain of one of the laccases of this organism. Inverse PCR amplication of HindIII digested

  14. Inhibitory activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) on transformed cells by human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Márquez, Eva; Lagunas-Martínez, Alfredo; Bermudez-Morales, Victor H; Burgete-García, Ana I; León-Rivera, Ismael; Montiel-Arcos, Elizur; García-Villa, Enrique; Gariglio, Patricio; Madrid-Marina V, Vicente; Ondarza-Vidaurreta, Raul N

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of the aqueous extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, obtained from three localities (China; and Morelos and Michoacan, Mexico) on cervical cells transformed by human papillomavirus (HeLa and SiHa) and C-33A cancer cells. The cells were plated in DMEM medium supplemented, and were incubated in the presence of different concentrations of G. lucidum for 24 h. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT colorimetric assay and viability by trypan blue assay. Inhibitory dose was determined (IC50) of the three different extracts of G. lucidum in the culture cell lines mentioned above. The apoptosis process was confirmed by nuclear DNA fragmentation and the cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three localities produced inhibition in the proliferation of VPH transformed cells; they also induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A cancer cells. Therefore, it was found that aqueous extracts G. lucidum obtained from three different locations produced inhibitory effect on cancer cells and may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of this disease.

  15. Improved polysaccharide production in a submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum by the heterologous expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Yue, Tong-Hui; Jiang, Lu-Xi; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-10

    Expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (VHb) gene was used to improve polysaccharide production in Ganoderma lucidum. The VHb gene, vgb, under the control of the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter was introduced into G. lucidum. The activity of expressed VHb was confirmed by the observation of VHb specific CO-difference spectrum with a maximal absorption at 419 nm for the transformant. The effects of VHb expression on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and transcription levels of three genes encoding the enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP), and β-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS), were investigated. The maximum IPS content and EPS production in the vgb-bearing G. lucidum were 26.4 mg/100mg dry weight and 0.83 g/L, respectively, which were higher by 30.5% and 88.2% than those of the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of PGM, UGP and GLS were up-regulated by 1.51-, 1.55- and 3.83-fold, respectively, in the vgb-bearing G. lucidum. This work highlights the potential of VHb to enhance G. lucidum polysaccharide production by large scale fermentation.

  16. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  17. Randomized clinical trial of an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Noguchi; Kei Matsuoka; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Katsuro Tomiyasu; Akira Yamada; Kyogo Itoh; Fumiko Konishi; Shoichiro Kumamoto; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum that shows the strongest 5α-reductase inhibitory activity among the extracts of 19 edible and medicinal mushrooms by a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and dose-ranging study in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: In this trial, we randomly assigned 88 men over the age of 49 years who had slight-to-moderate LUTS to 12 weeks of treatment with G. Lucidum extract (6 mg once a day) or placebo. The primary outcome measures were changes in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and variables of uroflowmetry. Secondary outcome measures included changes in prostate size, residual urinary volume after voiding, laboratory values and the reported adverse effects. Results: G. Lucidum was effective and significantly superior to placebo for improving total IPSS with 2.1 points decreasing at the end of treatment (mean difference, -1.18 points; 95% confidence interval, -1.74 to -0.62; P < 0.0001). No changes were observed with respect to quality of life scores, peak urinary flow, mean urinary flow, residual urine, prostate volume, serum prostate-specific antigen or testosterone levels. Overall treatment was well tolerated with no severe adverse effects. Conclusion: The extract of G. Lucidum was well tolerated and improved IPSS scores. These results encouraged a further, large-scale evaluation of phytotherapy for a long duration using the extract of G. Lucidum on men with LUTS.

  18. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rossi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day, in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity. A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO or the overtraining syndrome (OTS. The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes’ serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  19. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress.

  20. Screening of Indian Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes): A UPC2-SQD-MS Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anuja; Srivastava, Mousami; Pal, Mamta; Sharma, Yogesh Kumar; Bhattacharya, Saikat; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Sugadev, Ragumani; Misra, Kshipra

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used for the promotion of health and longevity owing to its various bioactive constituents. Therefore, comprehending metabolomics of different G. lucidum parts could be of paramount importance for investigating their pharmacological properties. Ultra-performance convergence chromatography (UPC2) along with mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technique that has not yet been applied for metabolite profiling of G. lucidum. This study has been undertaken to establish metabolomics of the aqueous extracts of mycelium (GLM), fruiting body (GLF), and their mixture (GLMF) using ultra-performance convergence chromatography single quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPC2-SQD-MS). Aqueous extracts of G. lucidum prepared using an accelerated solvent extraction technique have been characterized for their mycochemical activities in terms of total flavonoid content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging activity, and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power. The UPC2-SQD-MS technique has been used for the first time for metabolite profiling of G. lucidum on a Princeton Diol column (4.6 × 250 mm; 5 µm) using supercritical CO2 (solvent) and 20 mM ammonium acetate in methanol (co-solvent). In the present study, UPC2-SQD-MS was found to be a rapid, efficient, and high-throughput analytical technique, whose coupling to principal component analysis (PCA) and phytochemical evaluation could be used as a powerful tool for elucidating metabolite diversity between mycelium and fruiting body of G. lucidum. PCA showed a clear distinction in the metabolite compositions of the samples. Mycochemical studies revealed that overall GLF possessed better antioxidant properties among the aqueous extracts of G. lucidum.

  1. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

  2. 灵芝质量控制及评价的研究进展%Research progress on quality control and assessment of Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄冬兰; 陈小康; 徐永群; 陈勇; 陈灶鑫

    2012-01-01

    搜集了有关灵芝鉴别、灵芝有效成分的提取和含量测定的研究文献,对灵芝质量控制及质量评价的研究进展进行了综述.结果表明:第一,目前灵芝鉴别的方法比较多,但主要还是采用传统的性状鉴别、显微鉴别和理化鉴别.近年来,随着化学模式识别技术的迅速发展,指纹图谱技术与其相结合已广泛地用于鉴别灵芝.第二,目前灵芝有效成分的提取和含量测定的方法都比较成熟,但主要都是通过测定灵芝中某种成分的含量来评价灵芝的质量的优劣,这不符合中医辨证施治的原则.因此,在评价灵芝的质量时应与其药效相结合,不能仅以其某种成分的含量高低评价其质量.%The references of indentification of Ganoderma lucidum,extraction and determination of the active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum has been collected.And the research progress on quality control and assessment of Ganoderma lucidum has been summarized.The result shows that there were many ways to indentify Ganoderma lucidum present,but the traditional character identification,microscopic identification and physical and chemical identification have been widely used.In recent years,with the rapidly developing of chemical pattern recognition technology,the combination of fingerprint technology with chemical pattern recognition technology has been widely applied in the indentification of Ganoderma lucidum.Furthermore,the methods for extracting and determining of the active ingredients of Ganoderma lucidum are mature,but people mainly assesses its quality only by determining a component in Ganoderma lucidum.It is clear that it does not meet the principles of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation.Consequently,curative effect should be considered when we assess the quality of Ganoderma lucidum,and it should not assess samples' quality only by determining a component.

  3. Establishment of molecular ID in 11 Ganoderma lucidum strains%11个灵芝菌株的分子ID构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张肖雅; 许修宏; 刘华晶

    2013-01-01

    [目的]收集11株灵芝菌种为材料,在分子水平上对其进行分类鉴定,并构建分子ID.[方法]采用ITS和SSR分子标记技术,对11株灵芝进行分子鉴定分析.[结果]通过内转录间隔区(ITS)序列测定分析表明,与GenBank上登录的灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)菌株ITS序列相似度达到99%,在种的水平上证明实验所采用的供试菌株均属灵芝种(Ganoderma lucidum).利用SSR分子标记技术对菌株进行引物扩增,综合多态性条带,用NTSYS软件进行聚类分析,相似度在0.62水平上,1 1个灵芝菌种被分成4个类群,其中GL-2与GL-4各自聚为一类.用ID Analysis 1.0软件进行数据分析表明,用5对SSR引物可将11株灵芝供试菌种完全区分开,并构建其分子身份证.[结论]基于SSR分子标记构建灵芝菌属的分子ID是可行的.%[Objective] Eleven Ganoderma lucidum strains were collected as materials for classifying them at the molecular level and establishing the molecular ID.[Methods] Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used for the molecular identification of eleven Ganoderma lucidum strains.[Results] 99% similarity in ITS sequence between the tested strains and the Ganoderma lucidum registered in GenBank, meaning that the tested strains were Ganoderma lucidum species.The cluster analysis by NTSYS revealed that eleven Ganoderma lucidum strains were divided into four groups at similarity coefficients of 0.62.GL-2 and GL-4 were in two clades respectively.According to fragment size of allele variation, the agarose gel electrophoresis bands were analyzed by the software ID Analysis 1.0.Five primer pairs could be used to identify all the tested strains and accomplish the establishment of molecular ID.[Conclusion] Establishment of molecular ID in Ganoderma lucidum based on SSR were feasibly.

  4. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood Shah; Parveen, Rabea; Mishra, Kshipra; Tulsawani, Rajkumar; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea). Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with high precision and

  5. Determination of nucleosides in Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum by high performance liquid chromatography method

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    Masood Shah Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nucleosides are supportive in the regulation and modulation of various physiological processes in body, they acts as precursors in nucleic acid synthesis, enhance immune response, help in absorption of iron and influence the metabolism of fatty acids. Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum are well-known for its use in traditional medicine of China, Nepal and India. They are rich in nucleosides such as adenine, adenosine, cordycepin, etc. Hence, a simple, economic and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analytical method was proposed for determination of adenine and adenosine for the quality control of plants. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic experiments were conducted on YL9100 HPLC system (South Korea. Reversed-phase chromatography was performed on a C18 column with methanol and dihydrogen phosphate as the mobile phase in isocratic elution method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection was carried out at 254 nm, which gives a sharp peak of adenine and adenosine at a retention time of 6.53 ± 0.02 min and 12.41 ± 0.02, respectively. Results and Discussion: Linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed a good linear relationship between response and concentration in the range of 25–200 µg/mL for adenosine and 100–800 µg/mL for adenine with regression coefficient of 0.999 and 0.996, respectively. The adenine was found 0.16% and 0.71% w/w in G. lucidum and in C. sinensis, respectively, and adenosine was found to be 0.14% w/w in G. lucidum whereas absent in C. sinensis. Conclusion: The developed HPLC method for the quantification of adenosine and adenine can be used for the quality control and standardization of crude drug and for the different herbal formulations, in which adenine and adenosine are present as major constituents. The wide linearity range, sensitivity, accuracy, and simple mobile phase imply the method is suitable for routine quantification of adenosine and adenine with

  6. Prevention of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity by terpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum occurring in Southern Parts of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Thulasi G; John, Mathew; Sara Thomas, Gifty

    2011-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the protective effect of terpenes isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr) P.Karst against nephrotoxicity caused by the cisplatin, in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of cisplatin (16 mg/kg body wt) resulted in significant nephrotoxicity in mice. Serum urea, creatinine and ALP levels were drastically elevated indicating severe nephrotoxicity . The renal antioxidant defense system such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) were depleted by cisplatin injection. The oral administration of terpenes at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight prevented increase in urea, creatinine levels and ALP activity and also maintained the renal antioxidant defense. The Ganoderma terpenes also imparted protection against cisplatin induced renal tissue lipid peroxidation. The results indicated that the total terpenes isolated from G. lucidum possessed significant in vivo antioxidant activity and rendered protection against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The results suggest the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma terpenes to prevent nephrotoxicity caused during chemotherapy using cisplatin.

  7. The Research of Ganoderma Lucidum and the Spore%灵芝及灵芝孢子的研究初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁慧青

    2004-01-01

    灵芝(Ganoderma Lucidum)为我国传统名贵药材,历来被国人称为草木精英.灵芝孢子(G.lucidum spores)是灵芝的生殖细胞,具有灵芝的全部遗传活性物质.对灵芝和灵芝孢子的有效成分及药理作用进行了研究.

  8. A survey on effective constituents of Ganoderma lucidum%灵芝有效成份的研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺丽; 方能虎; 吴旦

    2002-01-01

    @@ 灵芝为灵芝科灵芝属(Ganoderma Karst)真菌,我国现有已知灵芝属真菌66种,分布于国内23个省市,主要有灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)(又名红芝、赤芝),紫芝(G.Japonicum)即中国灵芝,薄盖灵芝(G.Capense),树舌芝(G.Applanatum),云芝(G.Polystictus)等.

  9. Hydrodynamic Shear Stress Affects Cell Growth and Metabolite Production by Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海刚; 钟建江

    2005-01-01

    By investigating the shear effect on submerged cultivation of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Ganoderma lucidum, a relatively high cell concentration of 13.8 g·L-1 by dry mass was obtained in bioreactor at an impeller tip speed (ITS) of 0.51m·s-1. At an ITS of 0.51,1.02 and 1.53m·s-1, a maximal production titer of intracellular polysaccharide was 2.64, 2.20 and 2.28g·L-1 and that of ganoderic acid was 306, 299 and 273g·L-1, respectively. Under these ITSs, the maximal mean projected area of dispersed hypheue was 3.70, 2.54 and 2.13 × 104μm2, and that of pellets was 0.91, 0.67 and 0.55 mm2, respectively. The information obtained is useful for efficient submerged cultivation of mushrooms on a large scale.

  10. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

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    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  11. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum-Ginkgo Wine on Selected Murine Physiological Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jingya; CHEN Han; XIE Dezhong; ZHANG Caijiu; ZHANG Zhicai

    2014-01-01

    Body weights,serum levels of glycosylated protein,total cholesterol,glycerin trilaurate and total antioxidant capacity,and hepatic malondialdehyde,alanine aminotransferase,aspartate aminotransferase and superoxide dismutase levels,were determined in mice administered 2,3,4 and 5 mL/kg·d Ganoderma lucidum-Ginkgo wine (GGW)for 30 days.Mice administered 3 mL/kg·d purified water or 3 mL/kg·d yellow wine for the same period served as negative and positive controls,respectively.Compared with negative controls,ALT and AST levels were significantly higher in mice lavaged with yellow wine or with 5 mL/kg GGW.However,enzyme levels were significantly lower in mice lavaged with 2,3 and 4 mL/kg·d GGW compared with both the positive and negative control groups.Significantly increased SOD activity (compared with negative controls)was recorded only in mice lavaged with 5 mL/kg · d GGW,while significantly lower MDA levels were observed in mice lavaged with GGW compared to both negative and positive control groups.No significant differences in body weight,total cholesterol and glycerin trilaurate levels,total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activity were observed in mice administered 2~4 mL/kg·d GGW.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) inhibits cancer cell growth and expression of key molecules in inflammatory breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Acevedo, Raysa Rosario; Otero-Franqui, Elisa; Cubano, Luis A; Dharmawardhane, Suranganie F

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most lethal and least understood form of advanced breast cancer. Its lethality originates from its nature of invading the lymphatic system and absence of a palpable tumor mass. Different from other metastatic breast cancer cells, IBC cells invade by forming tumor spheroids that retain E-cadherin-based cell-cell adhesions. Herein we describe the potential of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) as an attractive candidate for anti-IBC therapy. Reishi contains biological compounds that are cytotoxic against cancer cells. We report the effects of Reishi on viability, apoptosis, invasion, and its mechanism of action in IBC cells (SUM-149). Results show that Reishi selectively inhibits cancer cell viability although it does not affect the viability of noncancerous mammary epithelial cells. Apoptosis induction is consistent with decreased cell viability. Reishi inhibits cell invasion and disrupts the cell spheroids that are characteristic of the IBC invasive pathology. Reishi decreases the expression of genes involved in cancer cell survival and proliferation (BCL-2, TERT, PDGFB), and invasion and metastasis (MMP-9), whereas it increases the expression of IL8. Reishi reduces BCL-2, BCL-XL, E-cadherin, eIF4G, p120-catenin, and c-Myc protein expression and gelatinase activity. These findings suggest that Reishi is an effective anti-IBC therapeutic.

  13. [Isolation, purification and bioactivities of exopoly saccharides from fermented broth of Ganoderma lucidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Zhang, K

    2000-04-01

    The exopolysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum(GLEP) extracted from the fermentation broth after removing protein by Sevage and protease digestion procedures, were applied to a column of DEAE-cellulose(OH- form), and eluted stepwise with distilled water, sodium hydrogen carbonate (0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L, 0.5 mol/L successively) and 0.1 mol/L sodium hydroxide. Five fractions were obtained, and the main fraction was known as GLEP-I, furthermore subjected to chromatography on a column of SepharoseC1-6B, eluted at a flow rate of 30 mL/(cm2.h), the relative viscosity of sample solution of 1.5. Two fractions, GLEP-IFr1 and GLEP-IFr2 with a ratio of 3.8:1, were obtained. Molecular weight of GLEP-IFr1 and GLEP-IFr2 was estimated to be 38,000 and 22,000 Dalton respectively by Membrane Osmometer. The animal test showed that GLEP-IFr1 could inhibited the growth of Sarcoma 180 tumor in mice. The average inhibition ratio was 57.4% (i.p. 10 mg/kg for 10 days). The result of immunological activity showed that GLEP-IFr1 could significantly improve macrophage cytophagy.

  14. Purification and Characterization of Cyclic AMP-Binding Protein from Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi; KIM Jung-Sik; CHUNG Ki-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Cyclic AMP-binding protein was purified 30 fold from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum by the methods of ammonium sulfate precipitation, DEAE-cellulose, phospho-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration. The molecular mass of the purified protein is 34.5 kDa and 17 kDa by Sephacryl S-100 gel filtration and SDS-ployacrylamide gel electrophoresis, respectively. From these results it is suggested that the protein has a homometric dimmer structure. The pI of the purified protein is pH 8. 2 by native isoelectric focusing gel. The half-life of the protein activity in 10% glycerol at 4 ℃ is 7 d in crude extract, but its half-life is only 3 d under purifying conditions. The optimal conditions of the protein activity are at 1 ℃ and pH 7. 5. Its activity is increased 6 times by 1 mmol/L Zn2+ and is slightly inhibited by cGMP,Cu2+ and Mn2+.

  15. Immunomodulatory of selenium nano-particles decorated by sulfated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yifeng; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we employed a one-step method to prepare selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) decorated by the water-soluble derivative of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (SPS). The SeNPs-SPS complexes were stable, and the diameter of the SeNPs was homogeneous at around 25 nm. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of SeNPs-SPS against murine Raw 264.7 macrophage cells induced by LPS. SeNPs-SPS were found to significantly inhibit LPS-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production against Raw 264.7 macrophages. RT-PCR results reveal the down-regulation of mRNA gene expressions for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1 and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. However, the anti-inflammation cytokine IL-10 was markedly increased. In the NF-κB signal pathway, SeNPs-SPS significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of Iκ-Bα. Similar results were observed for inhibition of the phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase(MAPKs), whereas ERK1/2 MAPK was not apparently affected by SeNPs-SPS. All of these results suggest that SeNPs-SPS complexes have anti-inflammatory potential modulating pro-/anti-inflammation cytokine secretion profiles, and that the mechanism is partially due to inhibition of activations of NF-κB, JNK1/2 and p38 MAPKs.

  16. Effects of fermentation products of Ganoderma lucidum on growth performance and immunocompetence in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Der; Hsieh, Meng-Chen; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lai, Yu-Shen; Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test fermentation, for its products of a Chinese medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, cultured by submerged fermentation for its effect on growth performance and immunocompetence in weanling piglets. In Experiment 1, 72 weanling piglets were allotted to one of four treatments receiving these fermentation products (GLF, expressed as amount of beta-glucans) at 0 (control), 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg feed for 4 weeks. The results showed that at a supplementation level of 50 mg/kg feed, GLF caused the best growth performance, the highest pseudorabies antibody titre, and a decrease of blood glucose level. It was also demonstrated that GLF up-regulated the cell-mediated immune response related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha) expression in different lymphoid tissues. After challenging with porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 (Experiment 2), a supplementation with 50 mg GLF per kg feed also inhibited PCV-2 virus amplification, and ameliorated lymphocyte depletion in different lymphoid tissues. Conclusively, feed supplemented with GLF at 50 mg/kg could be beneficial to counteract the physiological stress in weanling piglets.

  17. Extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides of spent mushroom compost of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianjun; Meng, Guangyuan; Zhai, Guoyin; Yang, Yongheng; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Le

    2016-01-01

    To contribute toward effective exploitation and utilization of spent mushroom compost (SMC) of Ganoderma lucidum (SMC-G), a water-soluble polysaccharide of GPS was extracted, and then two fractions (GPS-1 and GPS-2) were purified from SMC-G. The optimum conditions for GPS extraction were optimized by the central composite design (CCD) and the GPS yield reached 3.84% at a ratio of water to material of 34.5, a precipitation time of 19.82h, and pH of 7.88. Characteristic analysis showed that GPS-1 and GPS-2 were heteropolysaccharides, and had glycosidic structures (OH, CH, CO and COC). Both GPS and its fractions showed potential antioxidant activities by scavenging hydroxyl and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and increasing the reducing power in vitro; and by improving the CAT activities, and lowing the LPO and MDA contents in vivo, respectively. The results provided a reference for the exploitation of SMC-G which would be significant to sustainable development of industry and agriculture, environmental protection and full utilization of resources.

  18. Ganoderma lucidum Protects Dopaminergic Neuron Degeneration through Inhibition of Microglial Activation

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    Ruiping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence has suggested that neuroinflammation participates in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. The emerging evidence has supported that microglia may play key roles in the progressive neurodegeneration in PD and might be a promising therapeutic target. Ganoderma lucidum (GL, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has been shown potential neuroprotective effects in our clinical trials that make us to speculate that it might possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of GL and possible underlying mechanism of action through protecting microglial activation using co-cultures of dopaminergic neurons and microglia. The microglia is activated by LPS and MPP+-treated MES 23.5 cell membranes. Meanwhile, GL extracts significantly prevent the production of microglia-derived proinflammatory and cytotoxic factors [nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interlukin 1β (IL-1β] in a dose-dependent manner and down-regulate the TNF-α and IL-1β expressions on mRNA level as well. In conclusion, our results support that GL may be a promising agent for the treatment of PD through anti-inflammation.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides encapsulated in liposome as an adjuvant to promote Th1-bias immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Xing, Jie; Zheng, Sisi; Bo, Ruonan; Luo, Li; Huang, Yee; Niu, Yale; Li, Zhihua; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo; Wu, Yi

    2016-05-20

    Liposome-based vaccine delivery systems are known to enhance immune responses. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) have been widely studied as immunomodulator and it could be as inducers of strong immune responses. In the research, GLP and ovalbumin (OVA) were encapsulated into liposome as vaccine and inoculated to mice. The magnitude and kinetics of the humoral and cellular immune responses were investigated. The results showed that GLP-OVA-loaded liposomes (GLPL/OVA) could induce more powerful antigen-specific immune responses than each single-component formulation. Mice immunized with GLPL/OVA displayed higher antigen-specific IgG antibodies, better splenocytes proliferation, higher cytokine secretion by splenocytes and significant activation of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells. Thus the GLPL/OVA formulation produced a heightened humoral and cellular immune response, with an overall Th1 bias. Enhanced immune responses elicited by the GLPL/OVA formulation might be attributed to effective activation and mature of DC in draining lymph nodes. Overall, these findings indicate that GLPL have the potential to enhance immune responses as vaccine delivery systems.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a hyperbranched proteoglycan from Ganoderma lucidum for anti-diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Deng; Wang, Linqiang; Chen, Congheng; Hu, Bingwen; Zhou, Ping

    2015-03-01

    Presently, an efficient protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor, named FYGL-n, was isolated from Ganoderma Lucidum and characterized for its structure and bioactivity. Structure and chain conformation of FYGL-n based on both chemical and spectroscopic analysis showed that FYGL-n was a hyperbranched heteropolysaccharide bonded with protein via both serine and threonine residues by O-type glycoside, and showed a sphere observed by AFM. Specifically, monosaccharide composition indicated that FYGL-n consisted of D-arabinose, D-galactose, L-rhamnose and D-glucose in a mole ratio of 0.08:0.21:0.24:0.47, with a molecular mass of 72.9 kDa. The analysis of amino acids in FYGL-n indicated that there were 16 common amino acids, among which aspartic acid, glycine, serine, alanine, glutamic acid and threonine were the dominant components. Also it was demonstrated that FYGL-n could inhibit the PTP1B activity on a competitive mechanism in vitro.

  1. Effects of the polysaccharides extracted from Ganoderma lucidum on chemotherapy-related fatigue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ming-Zi; Lin, Li-Zhu; Lv, Wen-Jiao; Zuo, Qian; Lv, Zhuo; Guan, Jie-Shan; Wang, Shu-Tang; Sun, Ling-Ling; Chen, Han-Rui; Xiao, Zhi-Wei

    2016-10-01

    The weight-loaded swimming capability, tumor growth, survival time and biochemical markers of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) in a chemotherapy-related fatigue mouse model were tested in the present study. The results showed that the middle-dose GLPs (GLP-M) and the high-dose GLPs (GLP-H) could increase the exhausting swimming time, which was observed to decrease in the cisplatin control group(PCG) and the tumor control group (TCG).The GLP-M and the GLP-H had reduced serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-αand interleukin-6, which were up-regulated by cisplatin. Cisplatin and the presence of tumor significantly enhanced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the muscle. Administration of GLPs at a high dose decreased the levels of MDA and up-regulated the SOD activity. The high-dose GLPs+cisplatin group presented a decreased tendency of tumor volume and a lower tumor weight compared with PCG. Moreover, the mice in the GLP-M and GLP-H groups had longer survival times compared with the mice in the TCG and PCG.The levels of creatinine and serum blood urea nitrogen, which are up-regulated by cisplatin, were significantly reduced by GLP-M and GLP-H. Therefore, these results suggest that GLPs might improve chemotherapy-related fatigue via regulation of inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and reduction of nephrotoxicity.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Ganoderma lucidum spores-loaded alginate microspheres by electrospraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Li, Jing-Song; Suen, William; Chang, Ming-Wei; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLSs), popular functional food in preventive medicine, are susceptible to oxidative and acidic degradation during processing, storage and oral administration, resulting in the loss of sensory and nutritional qualities. The main objective of the study was to encapsulate the GLS in order to fully preserve the bioactivity of the ingredients as well as providing controlled and targeted delivery. Electrospraying was applied to prepare GLS-Alginate (GLS/A) micro beads in the current study. The size of GLS/A beads can be tailored by varying the applied voltage and drying processes. pH responsive release profiles of GLS/A beads were revealed from in vitro study in a simulated gastrointestinal environment: no release of GLS encapsulated beads in the simulated gastric fluid (pH of 1.8) was observed; while a rapid, size dependent release was found in the simulated intestinal solution (pH of 7.5). The release from smaller beads (e.g. 600 μm) was 1.5 times faster than that of larger beads (e.g. 2000 μm). In addition, the GLS release from freeze dried beads was almost 3 times faster than those of air and vacuum dried beads in the first 90 min. The present results illustrate the potential to protect GLS by encapsulation using electrospraying to achieve the controlled release of GLS ingredients. This will pave the way to develop effective GLS products with desirable bioactive components for healthcare applications.

  3. Investigation of ice-assisted sonication on the microstructure and chemical quality of Ganoderma lucidum spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ding; Chang, Ming-Wei; Li, Jing-Song; Suen, William; Huang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) are well known for disease treatment and vitality enhancement, and have been shown to contain a variety of bioactive components, such as polysaccharides and triterpenes. However, the resilient bilayer sporoderm structure of GLS restricts the release of bioactive components and limits its complete pharmacological effects. The current study was aimed to improve the quality of GLS by means of a customized sonication technique, particularly, the effect of sonication processing parameters on GLS-breaking efficiencies was investigated. Significant morphological changes, such as cracked, fractured, and disintegrated GLS were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after sonication treatment. The performance for breaking GLS sporoderm was obtained at ultrasonic power density of 23.7 W/cm(2) , duty cycle 100%, and 90-min processing time. Through the combination of sonication in an ice bath, sporoderm breaking efficiency can be further increased from 45% to almost 75%. FTIR analysis revealed an increase in bioactive components of polysaccharide, protein, and fatty acid from the sonication processed GLS when compared to ground spores available commercially. The current results indicated that the ice bath combined sonication method is more effective in delivering GLS ingredients and could be an economic technique for the production of high-quality broken sporoderm GLS.

  4. Distinct Responses of Cytotoxic Ganoderma lucidum Triterpenoids in Human Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Weimei; Wei, Ying; Popovich, David G

    2015-11-01

    The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is well recognized for its effective cancer-preventative and therapeutic properties, while specific components responsible for these anticancer effects are not well studied. Six triterpenoids that are ganolucidic acid E, lucidumol A, ganodermanontriol, 7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z, 15-hydroxy-ganoderic acid S, and ganoderic acid DM were isolated and identified from an extract of the mushroom. All compounds reduced cell growth in three human carcinoma cells (Caco-2, HepG2, and HeLa cells) dose dependently with LC50s from 20.87 to 84.36 μM. Moreover, the six compounds induced apoptosis in HeLa cells with a maximum increase (22%) of sub-G1 accumulations and 43.03% apoptotic cells in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (15-hydroxy-ganoderic acid S treatment). Apoptosis was further confirmed by annexin-V staining. Four of the compounds also caused apoptosis in Caco-2 cells with maximum 9.5% increase of sub-G1 accumulations (7-oxo-ganoderic acid Z treatment) and maximum 29.84% apoptotic cells in TUNEL assay (ganoderic acid DM treatment). Contrarily, none of the compounds induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The different responses of the three cell lines following these treatments indicated that the bioactive properties of these compounds may vary from cells of different sites of origin and are likely acting under diverse regulatory mechanisms.

  5. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass and immunostimulatory effects of fungal polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berovic, Marin; Habijanic, Jozica; Zore, Irena; Wraber, Branka; Hodzar, Damjan; Boh, Bojana; Pohleven, Franc

    2003-06-12

    Original Ganoderma lucidum strain MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian forests was cultivated in a liquid substrate based on potato dextrose and olive oil. The influences of inoculum and oxygen partial pressure in batch and fed batch cultivation in a 10-l laboratory stirred tank reactor were studied. Fungal biomass was found to be oxygen and shear sensible. Using a 17% (wet weight) 6 days old vegetative inoculum, 9.6 g l(-1) of dry biomass in batch cultivation and 15.2 g l(-1) in fed batch process were obtained. Extracellular (9.6 g l(-1)) and intracellular (6.3 g l(-1)) polysaccharide fractions were isolated. Extracellular polysaccharide fraction and four intracellular polysaccharide fractions were obtained. Polysaccharides were further separated by ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. The isolated polysaccharides were mainly beta-D-glucanes. Immunostimulatory effects of isolates were tested on induction of cytokine (tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma)) synthesis in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) isolated from a buffy coat. The TNF-alpha inducing activity is comparable with romurtide, which has been used as a supporting therapy in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  6. Cholesterol-lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum in vitro, ex vivo, and in hamsters and minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajjaj H

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction There has been renewed interest in mushroom medicinal properties. We studied cholesterol lowering properties of Ganoderma lucidum (Gl, a renowned medicinal species. Results Organic fractions containing oxygenated lanosterol derivatives inhibited cholesterol synthesis in T9A4 hepatocytes. In hamsters, 5% Gl did not effect LDL; but decreased total cholesterol (TC 9.8%, and HDL 11.2%. Gl (2.5 and 5% had effects on several fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. Both Gl doses reduced hepatic microsomal ex-vivo HMG-CoA reductase activity. In minipigs, 2.5 Gl decreased TC, LDL- and HDL cholesterol 20, 27, and 18%, respectively (P Conclusions Overall, Gl has potential to reduce LDL cholesterol in vivo through various mechanisms. Next steps are to: fully characterize bioactive components in lipid soluble/insoluble fractions; evaluate bioactivity of isolated fractions; and examine human cholesterol lowering properties. Innovative new cholesterol-lowering foods and medicines containing Gl are envisioned.

  7. Chemical Characterization and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum

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    Zengenni Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP is a biologically active substance reported to possess anti-tumor ability. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of GLP-stimulated apoptosis are still unclear. This study aims to determine the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of GLP on HCT-116 cells. We found that GLP reduced cell viability on HCT-116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which in turn, induced cell apoptosis. The observed apoptosis was characterized by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, S phase population increase, and caspase-3 and -9 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK by SP600125 led to a dramatic decrease of the GLP-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis unveiled that GLP up-regulated the expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. These results demonstrate that apoptosis stimulated by GLP in human colorectal cancer cells is associated with activation of mitochondrial and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways.

  8. 复合型灵芝保健酒的生产工艺研究%Study of a Compound-typed Health Wine Production Process From Ganoderma Lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高清山; 张玉清

    2014-01-01

    This article introduced the medicinal value of the fungus, Ganoderma lucidum and investigated the formula and process of a compound-typed health wine with Ganoderma lucidum as one of the main components. The results showed that on the condition of a 30min extraction time and for the active ingredients of polysaccharide, the best number of extraction is three times and the best extraction temperature is around 85℃. The best dosages of the medicine for 500mL of health wine are given as the following:Ganoderma lucidum 16g, Astragalus 8g, Dangshen 8g, Baizhu 8g, Chinese wolfberry 8g;the best dosage for Erythritol is about 2 percent.%介绍了灵芝的药用价值,研究了复合型灵芝保健酒的配方及工艺流程。结果表明,从有效成分活性多糖来看,每次浸提30min的情况下,最佳浸提次数为3次;最佳浸提温度为85℃左右;灵芝、黄芪等中药的最佳用量为灵芝16g、黄芪8g、党参8g、白术8g、枸杞8g/500mL(酒);赤藓糖醇的最佳用量为2%。

  9. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Qiao, Shuangkui; Xu, Zhenghong; Guan, Feng; Ding, Zhongyang; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Guiyang

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the relationship between monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various culture temperatures and initial pH values. The mole percentages of three major EPS monosaccharides, glucose, galactose and mannose, varied depending on culture conditions and the resulting EPS displayed differing anti-tumor activities. In nine tested enzymes, higher enzyme activities were correlated with higher temperature and lower initial pH. Altered mole percentages of galactose and mannose under various culture conditions were associated with activities of α-phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), respectively, and that of mannose was also associated with phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) activity only under various pH. Our findings suggest that mole percentages of G. lucidum EPS monosaccharides can be manipulated by changes of culture conditions that affect enzyme activities, and that novel fermentation strategies based on this approach may enhance production and biological activity of EPS.

  10. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Constituent Oil from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Reginald Chibueze; Bassey, Essien Eka

    2016-01-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of constituent oil from dried Ganoderma lucidum was carried out. Fresh G. lucidum obtained from its natural environment was thoroughly washed with distilled water and air-dried for 2 weeks and the component oils were extracted and analyzed. Four predominant components identified were pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-ester (retention time [RT] = 19.752 minutes; percentage total = 25.489), 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- (RT = 21.629 minutes and 21.663 minutes; percentage total = 25.054), n-hexadecanoic acid (RT = 20.153 minutes; percentage total = 24.275), and 9-octadecenoic acid (Z)-, methyl ester (RT = 21.297 minutes; percentage total = 13.027). The two minor oils identified were 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, methyl ester, (E,E)- and octadecanoic acid, methyl ester (RT = 21.246 minutes and 21.503 minutes; percentage total = 7.057 and 5.097, respectively).

  11. Intraspecific diversity within Ganoderma lucidum in the production of laccase and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases during plant residues fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonić, Jasmina; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Glamoclija, Jasmina

    2010-09-01

    Comparison of the potential for laccase and Mn-oxidizing peroxidases synthesis by ten strains of Ganoderma lucidum, originating from different worldwide areas, during solid-state fermentation of selected plant raw materials was the aim of this study. The great intraspecific variability in the production of analyzed enzymes as well as the dependence of the enzyme activity on plant raw materials were reported. The strain HAI 957 was the best laccase producer in the presence of corn stem, as a unique carbon source (129.46 U/L). The highest level of Mn-dependent peroxidase activity was noted after wheat straw fermentation by G. lucidum HAI 246 (78.64 U/L), while the maximal versatile peroxidase production (59.72 U/L) was observed in strain HAI 957 in the medium with oak sawdust.

  12. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide exerts anti-tumor activity via MAPK pathways in HL-60 acute leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guohua; Yang, Lei; Zhuang, Yun; Qian, Xifeng; Shen, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo of a polysaccharide obtained from Ganoderma lucidum on HL-60 acute myeloid leukemia cells, and focused on its targeting effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. It was found by the methods such as western blot and flow cytometry (FCM), that G. lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) blocked the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK signaling pathway, simultaneously activated p38 and JNK MAPK pathways, and therefore regulated their downstream genes and proteins, including p53, c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cyclin D1. As a result, cycle arrest and apoptosis of HL-60 cells were induced. Therefore, GLP exerted anti-tumor activity via MAPK pathways in HL-60 acute leukemia cells.

  13. Structure and Biochemestry of Laccases from the Lignin-Degrading Basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.A.Reddy, PI

    2005-06-30

    G. lucidum is one of the most important and widely distributed ligninolytic white rot fungi from habitats such as forest soils, agricultural soils, and tropical mangrove ecosystems and produce laccases as an important family of lignin modifying enzymes. Biochemically, laccases are blue multi copper oxidases that couple four electron reduction of molecular oxygen to water. There is a growing interest in the use of laccases for a variety of industrial applications such as bio-pulping and biobleaching as well as in their ability to detoxify a wide variety of toxic environmental pollutants. These key oxidative enzymes are found in all the three domains of life: Eukaryota. Prokarya, and Archaea. Ganoderma lucidum (strain no.103561) produces laccase with some of the highest activity (17,000 micro katals per mg of protein) reported for any laccases to date. Our results showed that this organism produces at least 11 different isoforms of laccase based on variation in mol. weight and/or PI. Our Studies showed that the presence of copper in the medium yields 15- to 20-fold greater levels of enzyme by G. lucidum. Dialysation of extra cellular fluid of G. lucidum against 10mM sodium tartrate (pH5.5) gave an additional 15 to 17 fold stimulation of activity with an observed specific activity of 17,000 {micro}katals/mg protein. Dialysis against acetate buffer gave five fold increase in activity while dialysis against glycine showed inhibition of activity. Purification by FPLC and preparative gel electrophoresis gave purified fractions that resolved into eleven isoforms as separated by isoelectric focusing, and the PI,s were 4.7, 4.6, 4.5, 4.3, 4.2, 4.1, 3.8, 3.7, 3.5, 3.4 and 3.3. Genomic clones of laccase were isolated using G. lucidum DNA as a template and using inverse PCR and forward/reverse primers corresponding to the sequences of the conserved copper binding region in the N-terminal domain of one of the laccases of this organism. Inverse PCR amplication of HindIII digested

  14. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-01

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  15. Oral Administration of Ganoderma lucidum to Lead-Exposed Rats Protects Erythrocytes against Hemolysis: Implicates to Anti-Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Shahdat; Bhowmick, Sujan; Islam, Saiful; Rozario, Liza; Jahan, Sabrin; Hassan, Mehedi; Sarkar, Marzan; Choudhury, Bazlul Karim; Ahmed, Sohel; Shahjalal, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic oral exposure to lead acetate (PbA) on the sensitivity of RBC to hemolysis and whether the sensitivity could be decreased by feeding the rats with extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three groups of rats, control, PbA-exposed, and G. lucidum (Gl)+PbA, were used. PbA (3 mM) was administered via drinking water and G. lucidum extract by gavage at 300 mg/Kg BW/day for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the rats were killed and washed RBCs were subjected to hemolysis in the presence of Fenton's reagents. Hemolysis was determined by estimating the amount of released hemoglobin. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO) and GSH were determined from RBC membranes and whole RBCs, respectively. The levels of TNFα and LPO also were determined from hepatic tissues. The RBCs of PbA-exposed rats displayed significantly higher sensitivity to hemolysis than those of the Gl+PbA rats. The levels of LPO increased and GSH decreased in the RBCs, with concomitant increases in the levels of hepatic TNFα and LPO in the PbA-exposed rats. The degree of hemolysis was significantly low in the RBCs of Gl+PbA rats, concurrently with amelioration of hepatic parameters. Finally, the study suggests that PbA-induced-hemolysis and related oxidative-toxicity might be minimized by consumption of G. lucidum. PMID:26300947

  16. Oral Administration of Ganoderma lucidum to Lead-Exposed Rats Protects Erythrocytes against Hemolysis: Implicates to Anti-Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdat Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of chronic oral exposure to lead acetate (PbA on the sensitivity of RBC to hemolysis and whether the sensitivity could be decreased by feeding the rats with extract of medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Three groups of rats, control, PbA-exposed, and G. lucidum (Gl+PbA, were used. PbA (3 mM was administered via drinking water and G. lucidum extract by gavage at 300 mg/Kg BW/day for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the rats were killed and washed RBCs were subjected to hemolysis in the presence of Fenton’s reagents. Hemolysis was determined by estimating the amount of released hemoglobin. The levels of lipid peroxide (LPO and GSH were determined from RBC membranes and whole RBCs, respectively. The levels of TNFα and LPO also were determined from hepatic tissues. The RBCs of PbA-exposed rats displayed significantly higher sensitivity to hemolysis than those of the Gl+PbA rats. The levels of LPO increased and GSH decreased in the RBCs, with concomitant increases in the levels of hepatic TNFα and LPO in the PbA-exposed rats. The degree of hemolysis was significantly low in the RBCs of Gl+PbA rats, concurrently with amelioration of hepatic parameters. Finally, the study suggests that PbA-induced-hemolysis and related oxidative-toxicity might be minimized by consumption of G. lucidum.

  17. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-15

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  18. Content determination of polysaccharide in Ganoderma Lucidum Paste%灵芝膏中多糖含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗千古; 吴俊标; 周玖瑶; 余应嘉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method for determination of polysaccharide in Ganoderma Lucidum Paste. Methods: Sulfuric acid-anthrone colorimetry, glucose were as reference standard, measured by spectrophotometer in Ganoderma Lucidum Paste, and studied the determination by the follow aspects: the preparation conditions (petroleum ether extraction, alcohol precipitation time, the number of alcohol precipitation) and the colored condition (wave length, temperature, time). Results: Polysacchatide content of three batches of samples were 2.52%, 2.41%, 2.56%, 2.51%, 2.49%, 2.50% with aRSD of 1.98%. Conclusion: The method could be accurate and effective in the determination of polysaccharide in Ganoderma Lucidum Paste, and simple, stable, reproducible, and can be used to determinate polysaccharides in Ganoderma Lucidum Paste.%目的:确立灵芝膏中多糖含量测定方法.方法:采用硫酸-蒽酮比色法,葡萄糖作对照品,用分光光度计测量灵芝膏中多糖含量;并从制备条件(石油醚萃取与否、醇沉时间、醇沉次数),显色条件(波长、温度、时间)方面对测定方案进行研究.结果:6批灵芝膏中多糖含量为2.52%、2.41%、2.56%、2.51%、2.49%、2.50%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为1.98%.结论:该法能准确有效地测定出灵芝膏中多糖含量,且操作简单、稳定性、重现性好,可用于本制剂多糖含量的检测.

  19. A reproducible analytical system based on the multi-component analysis of triterpene acids in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Juan; Cheng, Chun-Ru; Yao, Shuai; Long, Hua-Li; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A; Li, Yi-Feng; Wang, Qiu-Rong; Cai, Lu-Ying; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Guo, De-An

    2015-06-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and Single Standard for Determination of Multi-Components (SSDMC) are becoming increasingly important for quality control of medicinal herbs; this approach was developed for Ganoderma lucidum. Special attention was necessary for the appropriate selection of markers, for determining the reproducibility of the relative retention times (RRT), and for the accuracy of conversion factors (F). Finally, ten components were determined, with ganoderic acid A serving as single standard. Stable system parameters were established, and with successful resolution of those issues, this analytical method could be used more broadly.

  20. Isolation and Physicochemical Characterization of Laccase from Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1 Isolated from Its Native Habitat in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Jarina; Malla, Rajani

    2016-01-01

    At present, few organisms are known to and capable of naturally producing laccases and white rot fungi are one such group. In the present study, three fungal species, namely, Ganoderma lucidum-CDBT1, Ganoderma japonicum, and Lentinula edodes, isolated from their native habitat in Nepal were screened for laccase production, and G. lucidum-CDBT1 was found to express highest levels of enzyme (day 10 culture media showed 0.92 IU/mg total protein or 92 IU/mL laccase activity with ABTS as substrate). Lignin extracted from rice straw was used in Olga medium for laccase production and isolation from G. lucidum-CDBT1. Presence of lignin (5 g/L) and copper sulfate (30 μM) in the media increased the extracellular laccase content by 111% and 114%, respectively. The laccase enzyme produced by G. lucidum-CDBT1 was fractionated by ammonium sulfate and purified by DEAE Sepharose anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme was found to have a molecular mass of 43 kDa and exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.0 and 30°C. The isolated laccase was thermally stable for up to 70°C for 1 h and exhibited broad pH stability. The kinetic constants, Km, Vmax, and Kcat, determined using 2,2′-azinobis-(-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) as substrate were found to be 110 μM, 36 μmol/min/mg, and 246 min−1, respectively. The isolated thermostable laccase will be used in future experiments for delignification process. PMID:27822471

  1. 两种光度法测定灵芝多糖含量比较%Two Spectrophotometric Methods for Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of the two spectrophotometric methods for the polysaccharide determination of ganoderma lucidum and ganoderma lucidum eatract. Methods The content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide was measured by phenol - sulfuric acid and anthrone - sulfuric acid spectrophotometric methods. Results There were no significant difference between the results of the two methods. The linear relationship of standard solution between 0. 005 mg/ml and 0. 1 mg/ml was good, and correlation coefficient were both above 0. 9994. Conclusion The two methods can be used to determine the content of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide accurately.%目的 比较灵芝及灵芝提取物和相关产品中多糖含量测定2种方法的差异.方法 采用苯酚-硫酸法,蒽酮-硫酸法比色测定灵芝多糖含量.结果 该2种方法测定实验结果基本一致,标准葡聚糖液在0.005~0.1 mg/ml浓度范围内线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.999 4.结论 该2种方法测定结果准确可靠,可用于灵芝多糖的含量测定.

  2. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, María E; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  3. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, María E.; Martínez-Carrera, Daniel; Torres, Nimbe; Sánchez-Tapia, Mónica; Aguilar-López, Miriam; Morales, Porfirio; Sobal, Mercedes; Bernabé, Teodoro; Escudero, Helios; Granados-Portillo, Omar; Tovar, Armando R.

    2016-01-01

    Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl) were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM) added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%), LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%), triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%), hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52%) and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%). These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca) and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8), as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of bioactive compounds

  4. Hypocholesterolemic Properties and Prebiotic Effects of Mexican Ganoderma lucidum in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Meneses

    Full Text Available Edible and medicinal mushrooms contain bioactive compounds with promising effects on several cardiovascular risk biomarkers. However, strains of Ganoderma lucidum of Mexican origin have not yet been studied. Standardized extracts of G. lucidum (Gl were given to C57BL/6 mice fed a high-cholesterol diet compared with the drug simvastatin. The effects of the extracts on serum biochemical parameters, liver lipid content, cholesterol metabolism, and the composition of gut microbiota were assessed. Acetylsalicylic acid (10 mM added to the cultivation substrate modulated properties of Gl extracts obtained from mature basidiomata. Compared to the high-cholesterol diet group, the consumption of Gl extracts significantly reduced total serum cholesterol (by 19.2% to 27.1%, LDL-C (by 4.5% to 35.1%, triglyceride concentration (by 16.3% to 46.6%, hepatic cholesterol (by 28.7% to 52% and hepatic triglycerides (by 43.8% to 56.6%. These effects were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes (Hmgcr, Srebp1c, Fasn, and Acaca and genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport (Abcg5 and Abcg8, as well as an increase in Ldlr gene expression in the liver. No significant changes were observed in the gene expression of Srebp2, Abca1 or Cyp7a1. In several cases, Gl-1 or Gl-2 extracts showed better effects on lipid metabolism than the drug simvastatin. A proposed mechanism of action for the reduction in cholesterol levels is mediated by α-glucans and β-glucans from Gl, which promoted decreased absorption of cholesterol in the gut, as well as greater excretion of fecal bile acids and cholesterol. The prebiotic effects of Gl-1 and Gl-2 extracts modulated the composition of gut microbiota and produced an increase in the Lactobacillaceae family and Lactobacillus genus level compared to the control group, high-cholesterol diet group and group supplemented with simvastatin. Mexican genetic resources of Gl represent a new source of

  5. Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture for the Treatment of Acute Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Heung Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the stomach and duodenum. The basic physiopathology of a gastric ulcer results from an imbalance between some endogenous aggressive and cytoprotective factors. This study examined whether Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP would provide protection against acute gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 groups of 8 rats each: normal, control, normal saline (NP and GLP groups. The experimental acute gastric ulcer was induced by using an EtOH/HCl solution and the normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated once with injections of saline and GLP, respectively. Two local acupoints were used: CV12 (中脘 which is the alarm point of the Stomach Meridian, and ST36 (足三里, which is the sea point of the Stomach Meridian. The stomachs from the rats in each group were collected and analyzed for gross appearance and histology. Also, immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1 was performed. Results: Histological observations of the gastric lesions in the control group showed comparatively extensive damage of the gastric mucosa and necrotic lesions had penetrated deeply into the mucosa. The lesions were long, hemorrhagic, and confined to the glandular portions. The lesions were measured microscopically by using the clear depth of penetration into the gastric mucosal surface. The length and the width of the ulcer were measured and the inhibition percentage was calculated. Wound healing of the acute gastric ulcer was promoted by using GLP, and significant alterations of indices in gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was shown by gross appearance, histology and immunohistochemistry staining for BAX, Bcl-2 and TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP administered at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol

  6. Ganoderma Lucidum Pharmacopuncture for Teating Ethanol-induced Chronic Gastric Ulcers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Heung Park

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The stomach is a sensitive digestive organ that is susceptible to exogenous pathogens from the diet. In response to such pathogens, the stomach induces oxidative stress, which might be related to the development of both gastric organic disorders such as gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer, and functional disorders such as functional dyspepsia. This study was accomplished to investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP on chronic gastric ulcers in rats. Methods: The rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: the normal, the control, the normal saline (NP and the GLP groups. In this study, the modified ethanol gastritis model was used. The rats were administrated 56% ethanol orally every other day. The dose of ethanol was 8 g/kg body weight. The normal group received the same amount of normal saline instead of ethanol. The NP and the GLP groups were treated with injection of saline and GLP respectively. The control group received no treatment. Two local acupoints CV12 (中脘 and ST36 (足三里 were used. All laboratory rats underwent treatment for 15 days. On last day, the rats were sacrificed and their stomachs were immediately excised. Results: Ulcers of the gastric mucosa appeared as elongated bands of hemorrhagic lesions parallel to the long axis of the stomach. In the NP and GLP groups, the injuries to the gastric mucosal injuries were not as severe as they were in the control group. Wound healings of the chronic gastric ulcers was promoted by using GLP and significant alterations of the indices in the gastric mucosa were observed. Such protection was demonstrated by gross appearance, histology and immunehistochemistry staining for Bcl-2-associated X (BAX, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 and Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1. Conclusion: These results suggest that GLP at CV12 and ST36 can provide significant protection to the gastric mucosa against an ethanol induced chronic gastric ulcer.

  7. Genome-wide selection of superior reference genes for expression studies in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhichao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Aijia; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Yuanlei; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for the accurate analysis of gene expression. However, high homology among gene families might result in unsuitability of reference genes, which leads to the inaccuracy of qRT-PCR analysis. The release of the Ganoderma lucidum genome has triggered numerous studies to be done on the homology among gene families with the purpose of selecting reliable reference genes. Based on the G. lucdum genome and transcriptome database, 38 candidate reference genes including 28 novel genes were systematically selected and evaluated for qRT-PCR normalization. The result indicated that commonly used polyubiquitin (PUB), beta-actin (BAT), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were unsuitable reference genes because of the high sequence similarity and low primer specificity. According to the evaluation of RefFinder, cyclophilin 5 (CYP5) was ranked as the most stable reference gene for 27 tested samples under all experimental conditions and eighteen mycelial samples. Based on sequence analysis and expression analysis, our study suggested that gene characteristic, primer specificity of high homologous genes, allele-specificity expression of candidate genes and under-evaluation of reference genes influenced the accuracy and sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis. This investigation not only revealed potential factors influencing the unsuitability of reference genes but also selected the superior reference genes from more candidate genes and testing samples than those used in the previous study. Furthermore, our study established a model for reference gene analysis by using the genomic sequence.

  8. Three kinds of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides attenuate DDC-induced chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Koukou; Yu, Min; Hu, Yang; Ren, Guangming; Zang, Tingting; Xu, Xiuhong; Qu, Juanjuan

    2016-03-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammation of pancreas characterized by irreversible morphologic change and dysfunction. Patients with chronic pancreatitis often present with abdominal pain, diarrhoea, jaundice, weight loss and the development of diabetes. Polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum strain S3 (GLPS3) possess antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities. This study was to characterize chemical structures of GLPS3 and determine their effects on diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC)-induced CP in mice. The total sugar content of GLPS3 from fermentation broth (GLPS3-Ⅰ), cultured mycelia (GLPS3-Ⅱ) and fruiting body (GLPS3-Ⅲ) was 90.4%, 92.2% and 91.8% respectively. GLPS3-Ⅰ, GLPS3-Ⅱ and GLPS3-Ⅲ were composed of Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl, Glu:Gal:Ara:Xyl:Man:Rha, and Glu:Gal:Xyl:Man:Rha:Fuc, with molar ratio of 2.82: 1.33: 1.26: 0.87, 5.84: 2.23: 0.72:1.38: 1.40: 0.51 and 5.34: 2.72: 1.14: 1.10: 0.33: 0.38, respectively. The antioxidative activity of GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia in vitro is higher than other two polysaccharides. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were increased while the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were reversely decreased by GLPS3 treatment. Serum amylase (AMS) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) changes indicated the therapeutic effects of GLPS3. Moreover, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) contents were reduced most by GLPS3-Ⅱ. The results revealed that GLPS3 especially GLPS3-Ⅱfrom cultured mycelia were effective for CP therapy and bioactivity difference might be attributed to monosaccharide composition.

  9. Optimization of lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and Lac production from Ganoderma lucidum under solid state fermentation of pineapple leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Hariharan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to isolate ligninase-producing white-rot fungi for use in the extraction of fibre from pineapple leaf agriwaste. Fifteen fungal strains were isolated from dead tree trunks and leaf litter. Ligninolytic enzymes (lignin peroxidase (LiP, manganese peroxidase (MnP, and laccase (Lac, were produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF using pineapple leaves as the substrate. Of the isolated strains, the one showing maximum production of ligninolytic enzymes was identified to be Ganoderma lucidum by 18S ribotyping. Single parameter optimization and response surface methodology of different process variables were carried out for enzyme production. Incubation period, agitation, and Tween-80 were identified to be the most significant variables through Plackett-Burman design. These variables were further optimized by Box-Behnken design. The overall maximum yield of ligninolytic enzymes was achieved by experimental analysis under these optimal conditions. Quantitative lignin analysis of pineapple leaves by Klason lignin method showed significant degradation of lignin by Ganoderma lucidum under SSF.

  10. Secondary metabolites from Ganoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Sabulal; Johnson, Anil John; Govindan, Balaji

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a genus of medicinal mushrooms. This review deals with secondary metabolites isolated from Ganoderma and their biological significance. Phytochemical studies over the last 40years led to the isolation of 431 secondary metabolites from various Ganoderma species. The major secondary compounds isolated are (a) C30 lanostanes (ganoderic acids), (b) C30 lanostanes (aldehydes, alcohols, esters, glycosides, lactones, ketones), (c) C27 lanostanes (lucidenic acids), (d) C27 lanostanes (alcohols, lactones, esters), (e) C24, C25 lanostanes (f) C30 pentacyclic triterpenes, (g) meroterpenoids, (h) farnesyl hydroquinones (meroterpenoids), (i) C15 sesquiterpenoids, (j) steroids, (k) alkaloids, (l) prenyl hydroquinone (m) benzofurans, (n) benzopyran-4-one derivatives and (o) benzenoid derivatives. Ganoderma lucidum is the species extensively studied for its secondary metabolites and biological activities. Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma colossum, Ganoderma sinense, Ganoderma cochlear, Ganoderma tsugae, Ganoderma amboinense, Ganoderma orbiforme, Ganoderma resinaceum, Ganoderma hainanense, Ganoderma concinna, Ganoderma pfeifferi, Ganoderma neo-japonicum, Ganoderma tropicum, Ganoderma australe, Ganoderma carnosum, Ganoderma fornicatum, Ganoderma lipsiense (synonym G. applanatum), Ganoderma mastoporum, Ganoderma theaecolum, Ganoderma boninense, Ganoderma capense and Ganoderma annulare are the other Ganoderma species subjected to phytochemical studies. Further phytochemical studies on Ganoderma could lead to the discovery of hitherto unknown biologically active secondary metabolites.

  11. Active Ingredient Analysis of Tibet Cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum%西藏人工栽培灵芝活性成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶恩铭; 刘涛; 次仁德吉; 宋博文

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the main active ingredient in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum, this article collected the local cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum as the raw materials, used anthrone-sulfuric acid spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, pre-column derivatization RP-HPLC method to analyze the main active ingredient. The results showed that the contents of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum were:1.199g/100g, 1.63%, 8.898g/100g. Compared with national coverage, the active ingredient of cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum is richer, and the acid and triterpenoids content is higher than that in other regions.%为了解西藏人工栽培灵芝的主要活性成分,采集当地栽培的灵芝为原材料,分别采用蒽酮-硫酸分光法、紫外分光光度法、柱前衍生化RP-HPLC方法,分析其主要活性成分。结果表明,西藏人工栽培的灵芝中灵芝多糖、三萜类、氨基酸含量依次为:1.199g/100g、1.63%、8.898g/100g,经与国内报道相比较,西藏人工灵芝活性成分比较丰富,氨基酸和三萜类含量高于其他区域。

  12. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Nerida L; Kiat, Hosen; Bensoussan, Alan; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Chang, Dennis H

    2016-08-11

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ganoderma lucidum for the treatment of hyperglycaemia and other cardiovascular risk components of metabolic syndrome using a prospective, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-four participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome were randomised to one of three intervention groups: Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum with Cordyceps sinensis, or placebo. The dosage was 3 g/day of Ganoderma lucidum, with or without Cordyceps sinensis, for 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure was blood glucose (glycosylated haemoglobin [HbA1c] and fasting plasma glucose [FPG]); a number of secondary outcome measures were also tested. Data from the two intervention groups were combined. The combined intervention had no effect on any of the primary (baseline-adjusted difference in means: HbA1c = 0.13%, 95% CI [-0.35, 0.60], p = 0.60; FPG = 0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI [-0.90, 0.96], p = 0.95) or secondary outcome measures over the course of the 16-week trial, and no overall increased risk of adverse events with either active treatment. Evidence from this randomised clinical trial does not support the use of Ganoderma lucidum for treatment of cardiovascular risk factors in people with diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. This Clinical Trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on November 23, 2006. Trial ID: ACTRN12606000485538 and can be accessed here: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=81705.

  13. RP-HPLC法测定不同部位灵芝中灵芝酸B含量%Determination of ganoderic acid B in different parts of Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁平; 张丹雁; 徐鸿华

    2001-01-01

    目的 测定灵芝中具有苦味的成分灵芝酸B在灵芝中不同部位的含量。方法 采用RP-HPLC法测定灵芝菌盖的表皮层、木栓层、菌柄、孢子粉、菌盖子实体等部位中灵芝酸B的含量。结果 灵芝药材中灵芝酸B主要集中在灵芝的表皮部位,其它部位则较少。结论 为寻找灵芝的有效成分分布规律提供了客观依据。%To explore the distribution of the bitter principle ganoderic acid B in different parts of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst.. Methods Ganoderic acid B in epidermis, phellem, stipe, spore and pileus were determined by RP-HPLC. Results Ganoderic acid B was found to be mainly concentrated in the entire surface of the basidiocarp, other parts contained much less amount. Conclusion Result of the study may provide references for the search of such active principle from this fungus.

  14. Effects of ganoderma lucidum spore oil and ganoderma lucidum extraction spore oil on angiogenesis regulatory factors%灵芝孢子油及灵芝提取物孢子油对乳腺癌血管生成调节因子的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京; 牛苗苗; 杨丽; 范莉莎; 吴莉; 战军; 张宏权

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨灵芝孢子油及灵芝提取物孢子油对人源高恶性乳腺癌血管生成调节因子的作用。方法不同剂量的灵芝孢子油、灵芝提取物孢子油分别刺激体外培养的人源高恶性乳腺癌细胞系MDA-MB-231细胞及MDA-MB-231细胞制作的荷廇小鼠, Western blotting 检测表皮生长因子受体( EGFR )的蛋白表达变化, Real-time PCR检测肿瘤血管生成相关因子EGFR、血管内皮生长因子( VEGF)、基质金属蛋白酶( MMPs)、血小板反应素-1(TSP-1)、血小板衍生因子(PDGF)、成纤维细胞生长因子(FGF)转录水平的基因表达变化。结果灵芝孢子油、灵芝提取物孢子油均可在体内和体外抑制人源高恶性乳腺癌细胞MDA-MB-231的EGFR蛋白表达,且有剂量依赖性;均可在体内和体外抑制VEGF RNA表达,增强血管生成抑制因子TSP-1 RNA表达;灵芝提取物孢子油比灵芝孢子油的作用更为显著。结论灵芝孢子油、灵芝提取物孢子油均有抑制肿瘤血管生成因子表达和促进血管生成抑制因子表达的作用,其中灵芝提取物孢子油比灵芝孢子油的作用更为显著。%Objective To study the role of ganoderma lucidum spore oil and ganoderma lucidum extraction spore oil in neovascularization of human high malignant breast cancer .Methods Human high malignant breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and tumor-bearing nude mice established with MDA-MB-231 were treated with different doses of ganoderma lucidum spore oil and ganoderma lucidum extraction spore oil .Epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR) expression level was examined by Western blotting and the RNA expression levels of neovascularization related molecules such as EGFR , vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), metalloproteinases(MMPs), thrombospondin(TSP-1), platelet derived growth factor( PDGF) , fibroblast growth factor ( FGF) were detected by Real-time PCR.Results Both ganoderma lucidum spore oil and

  15. Research development of the artificial cultivation of Ganoderma Lucidum in China%我国灵芝人工栽培研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯瑞宏; 廖森泰

    2009-01-01

    The present situation of the artificial cultivation of Ganoderma Lucidum in China were reviewed in this paper by refering to the relevant literature in recent years,including cultural materials,cultural technique,nutritional components of Ganoderma Lucidum,and discussed related contents,as well as the current problems of the artificial cultivation of Ganoderma Lucidum,in order to offer reference to the development of the development of Ganoderrna Lucidum industry.%通过查阅近几年国内相关文献,综述了我国灵芝人工栽培的研究现状,包括灵芝的栽培原料、栽培技术及其营养成分等,并对相关内容进行了讨论,同时提出了目前灵芝人工栽培存在的问题,旨在为灵芝产业的发展提供参考.

  16. Development of an expression plasmid and its use in genetic manipulation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuya; Ji, Sen-Lin; He, Yi-Long; Ren, Meng-Fei; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2014-01-01

    We report the construction of a plasmid, pJW-EXP, designed for the expression of homologous and heterologous genes in Ganoderma lucidum. pJW-EXP was generated from the plasmid pMD19-T by inserting the G. lucidum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter, the G. lucidum iron-sulfur protein subunit of succinate dehydrogenase gene terminator and the homologous carboxin-resistance gene as selection marker. This expression plasmid can be efficiently transformed into Ganoderma through polyethylene glycol-mediated protoplast transformation. Southern blot analysis showed that most of the integrated DNA appeared as multiple copies in the genome. The applicability of the constructed plasmid was tested by expression of the truncated G. lucidum 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene that encodes the catalytic domain of HMGR. Overexpression of the truncated HMGR gene, which is a key gene in the biosynthetic pathway of the antitumor compounds, ganoderic acids, increased the transcription of the HMGR gene and enhanced ganoderic acid accumulation. pJW-EXP can serve as a useful tool in the genetic improvement and metabolic engineering of Ganoderma.

  17. Research Progress on the Production of Ganoderma Polysaccharides by Submerged Culture of Ganoderma lucidum%灵芝多糖深层发酵生产研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓梅; 张敏; 杨海龙

    2014-01-01

    灵芝多糖具有调节免疫、抗肿瘤、抗氧化、降血脂、抗辐射、保护肝脏等多种生物活性,但由于野生灵芝很少,固体种植灵芝周期长,深层发酵技术是获取灵芝多糖类化合物的重要手段。本文对国内外灵芝多糖深层发酵生产技术的研究进展进行了综述,并作出展望。%Ganoderma polysaccharides have a wide range of biological activities,such as immuno-modulating, anti-tumor,antioxidant,hypolipidemic,anti -radiation and hepatoprotective activity,etc. However,the wild fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum is rare,and the production of fruiting bodies and spores includes a long cultivation. It is an importantly alternative method to produce Ganoderma polysacchrides by submerged culture of G. lucidum. The progress of Ganoderma polysacchrides production by submerged culture of G. lucidum was reviewed,and further research outlook was put forward in this paper.

  18. Submerged fermentation production and characterization of intracellular triterpenoids from Ganoderma lucidum using HPLC-ESI-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-lin CUI; Huan-yi YANG; Guo-qing HE

    2015-01-01

    As the main bioactive metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, triterpenoids have various pharmacological effects. In this paper, the nutritional requirements and culture conditions of a submerged culture of G. lucidum were optimized using the response surface methodology;maximum mycelia biomass and intracel ular triterpenoid produc-tion reached 1.87 g/100 ml and 93.21 mg/100 ml, respectively, for a culture consisting of wort 4.10%(0.041 g/ml) and yeast extract 1.89%(0.0189 g/ml), pH 5.40. For the first time, we established that wort, which is cheap and abundant, can replace the more commonly used glucose as the sole source of carbohydrate. Using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS), 10 major ganoderic acids were tenta-tively identified based on the predominant fragmentation pathways with the elimination of H2O and CO2, as well as cleavage of the D-ring.%题目:利用液体发酵提高灵芝三萜产量及HPLC-ESI-MS鉴定灵芝菌丝中灵芝酸成分  目的:通过优化液体发酵培养基提高灵芝三萜产量,并对其三萜成分进行初步鉴定。  创新点:麦芽作为啤酒生产原料,含有丰富的糖类及其他营养物质,并且价格低廉,来源广泛。本文首次将麦芽汁作为碳源物质以提高灵芝三萜产量,并对其所含灵芝酸成分进行初步鉴定。  方法:以灵芝菌丝生物量和胞内三萜产量为检测指标,对其液体发酵培养基中的碳(C)源和氮(N)源进行筛选,并利用单因素实验确定其相应浓度,再经响应面法优化液体发酵培养基(C源、N源、pH)(表1)。另一方面,酸碱转化法纯化灵芝三萜提取物后,利用高效液相色谱-电喷雾-质谱(HPLC-ESI-MS)法初步鉴定灵芝所含灵芝酸成分(表2)。  结论:本实验响应面结果显示:当培养基含麦芽汁4.1%,酵母浸出粉1.89%,pH为5.40时,灵芝液体发酵菌丝生物

  19. Antitumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum : Cytotoxicity and Tumor Growth Delay(1)

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    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [Chonju Woosuck Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    1994-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum(G.I.) on the survival of tumor cells in vitro and on the growth of tumors in vivo. Materials and Methods: Dried G.I. was made into powder, extracted with distilled water, filtered and diluted from a maximum concentration of 100 mg/ml in sequence. The cytotoxicity of G.O. in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenicity of SCK tumor cells. For the tumor growth delay study, about 2x10{sup 5} of SCK tumor cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the legs of A/J mice. The first experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G/I. From the first day after tumor inoculation for 10 days. The second experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G.I. either once a day for 10 days or twice a day for 5 days beginning from the 7th day after tumor inoculation. Results: 1. Cytotoxicity in vitro; survival fraction, as judged from the curve, at G.I. concentration of 0.5, 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 mg/ml were 1.0, 0.74{+-}0.03, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, 0.015 and 0.0015, respectively. 2. Tumor growth delay in vivo; a) the time required for the mean tumor volume to grow to 1,000mm{sup 3} was 11 days in the control group and 14 days in the experimental group. b) the time required for tumor volume to increase 4 times was 11 days in the control group while it was 10.5 and 12 days in the groups injected with G.I. once a day and twice a day from the 7th day after tumor inoculation respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of G.I. showed a marked cytotoxicity on the SCK mammary cells in vitro. Tumor growth delay was statistically significant when G.I. injection was started soon after tumor inoculation, but it was not significant when injection was started after the tumors were firmly established.

  20. Ameliorative effect of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Chuan Lin; Wei-Lii Lin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Reishi mushroom,Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE), on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4.Forty Wistar rats were divided randomly into 4 groups:control, CCl4, and two GLE groups. Except for rats in control group, all rats were administered orally with CCl4(20%, 0.2 mL/100 g body weight) twice a week for 8weeks. Rats in GLE groups were treated daily with GLE (1 600 or 600 mg/kg) via gastrogavage throughout the whole experimental period. Liver function parameters,such as ALT, AST, albumin, and albumin/globulin (A/G)ratio, spleen weight and hepatic amounts of protein,malondiladehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) were determined. Histochemical staining of Sirius red was performed. Expression of transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1) 1A and MAT2A mRNA were detected by using RT-PCR.RESULTS: CCl4 caused liver fibrosis, featuring increase in plasma transaminases, hepatic MDA and HP contents,and spleen weight; and decrease in plasma albumin,A/G ratio and hepatic protein level. Compared with CCl4group, GLE (600, 1 600 mg/kg) treatment significantly increased plasma albumin level and A/G ratio (P< 0.05)and reduced the hepatic HP content (P<0.01). GLE (1600 mg/kg) treatment markedly decreased the activities of transaminases (P< 0.05), spleen weight (P< 0.05) and hepatic MDA content (P<0.05); but increased hepatic protein level (P<0.05). Liver histology in the GLE (1600 mg/kg)-treated rats was also improved (P<0.01).RT-PCR analysis showed that GLE treatment decreased the expression of TGF-β1 (P< 0.05-0.001) and changed the expression of MAT1A (P<0.05-0.01) and MAT2A (P< 0.05-0.001).CONCLUSION: Oral administration of GLE significantly reduces CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, probably by exerting a protective effect against hepatocellular necrosis by its free-radical scavenging ability.

  1. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on proliferation and cytotoxicity of cytokine-induced killer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ling ZHU; Zhi-bin LIN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects (and the mechanisms thereof) of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS) on the proliferation and the anti-tumor activity of cytokineinduced killer (CIK) cells, and to make use of CIK cells as a means to investigate the interactions between Gl-PS and cytokines. Methods: CIK cells were prepared by using the standard protocol as a positive control. Experimental groups also underwent the standard protocol, except that Gl-PS (400 mg/L or 100 mg/L) was added and the dose of anti-CD3 and interleukin-2 they received was reduced by 50% and 75%, respectively. For negative controls, Gl- PS in the experimental protocol was replaced with soluble starch or methylcellulose (400 mg/L or 100 mg/L).CIK cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and phenotype weredetermined by using the Trypan blue exclusion method, MTT assay, and flow cytometry. Results: By synergizing cytokines, Gl-PS (400 mg/L or 100 mg/L) could decrease the amount of cytokine in lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and CIK cells culture, but had no significant effect on the proliferation, cytotoxicity, or phenotype of LAK cells, or CIK cells induced by cytokines at higher doses alone, in which CIK cells expanded about 80-fold and the main effectors, CD3+NK1.1+ cells, expanded by more than 15%. The cytotoxicity of CIK cells in experimental groups was 79.3%±4.7%, 76.9%±6.8% versus the positive control 80.7%±6.8% against P815 (P>0.05)and 88.9%±5.5%, 84.7%±7.9% versus the positive control 89.8%±4.5% against YAC-1 (P>0.05). The activity of Gl-PS could mostly be blocked by anti-CR3.Conclusion: Gl-PS was shown to be a promising biological response modifier and immune potentiator. The effect of Gl-PS on CIK cells is possibly mediated primarily through complement receptor type 3.

  2. Antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-zhen CAO; Zhi-bin LIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antitumor and anti-angiogenic activity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide (GLPP). METHODS: Antitumor effect of GLPP was observed in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. At the same time,the effects of GLPP on proliferation of tumor cells and human umbilical cord vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC)were detected by MTT assay in vitro. Subsequently, spleen lymphocytes proliferation of nude mice was stimulated by LPS or ConA. To investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of GLPP, GLPP 80 μg per disc and GLPP-treated serum 10 μL per disc were added to the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) respectively in vivo. RESULTS: GLPP 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg inhibited growth of Sarcoma 180 in BALB/c mice markedly by 35.2 %, 45.2%, and 61.9%,respectively. GLPP which was directly added to the cultured medium did not inhibit PG cell proliferation in vitro;but GLPP-treated serum 50, 100, 200 mg/kg potently inhibited PG cell proliferation by 22.5%, 26.8%, and 30.3 %,respectively; and reduced the xenograft (human lung carcinoma cell PG) in BALB/c nude mice greatly in vivo by 55.5 %, 46.0 %, and 46.8 %, respectively. Lymphocytes proliferation of nude mice could be stimulated by LPS 5 mg/L but not by ConA 2.5 mg/L, indicating that GLPP could not promote the T lymphocyte proliferation and neutral red phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages of nude mice. The CAM assay showed that GLPP and GLPP-treated serum had anti-angiogenic effect. GLPP (1, 10, and 100 mg/L) inhibited HUVEC proliferation in vitro with the inhibitory rate of 9.4 %, 15.6%, and 40.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION: GLPP has antitumor and antiangiogenic activity. The anti-angiogenesis of GLPP may be a new mechanism underlying its anti-tumor effects.

  3. Antiviral effects of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids against enterovirus 71 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Tao, Junyan; Yang, Xiaoping [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Zhuliang [Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650201 (China); Zhang, Li; Liu, Hongsheng [Department of Academy of Sciences, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wu, Kailang [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Wu, Jianguo, E-mail: jwu@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology and College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Triterpenoids GLTA and GLTB display anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity. • The compounds prevent EV71 infection by blocking adsorption of the virus to the cells. • GLTA and GLTB bind to EV71 capsid at the hydrophobic pocket to block EV71 uncoating. • The two compounds significantly inhibit the replication of EV71 viral RNA. • GLTA and GLTB may be used as potential therapeutic agents to treat EV71 infection. - Abstract: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major causative agent for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and fatal neurological and systemic complications in children. However, there is currently no clinical approved antiviral drug available for the prevention and treatment of the viral infection. Here, we evaluated the antiviral activities of two Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids (GLTs), Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3-one,15;26-dihydroxy (GLTA) and Ganoderic acid Y (GLTB), against EV71 infection. The results showed that the two natural compounds display significant anti-EV71 activities without cytotoxicity in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells as evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay. The mechanisms by which the two compounds affect EV71 infection were further elucidated by three action modes using Ribavirin, a common antiviral drug, as a positive control. The results suggested that GLTA and GLTB prevent EV71 infection through interacting with the viral particle to block the adsorption of virus to the cells. In addition, the interactions between EV71 virion and the compounds were predicated by computer molecular docking, which illustrated that GLTA and GLTB may bind to the viral capsid protein at a hydrophobic pocket (F site), and thus may block uncoating of EV71. Moreover, we demonstrated that GLTA and GLTB significantly inhibit the replication of the viral RNA (vRNA) of EV71 replication through blocking EV71 uncoating. Thus, GLTA and GLTB may represent two potential

  4. Decolorization of reactive black 5 catalyzed by laccase from Ganoderma lucidum U-281%Ganoderma lucidum U-281漆酶催化偶氮染料活性黑5脱色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世光; 张焱; 薛正莲; 王洲; 汤明礼

    2012-01-01

    Laccase has an extensive application on the decoloration of textile dyes and waste-dyeing-water treatment. Reactive black 5 (RB5), a representative azo dye, has complex structure and is low-biodegradable. In this paper, laccase produced by Ganoderma lucidum U-281 was used to decolorize RB5. The optimal parameters for RB5 decolorizing catalyzed by laccase from U-281 were seriatim obtained by single factor optimization method. The results were showed as follows: 25mg/L of initial dye concentration, 2.0U/mL of laccase dosage, 40mmol/L of Cu2+ addition and pH 6.0 at 40℃. Under the optimized conditions, 62.34% and more than 90% of RB5 was decolorized in 4 hours and 24 hours respectively.%漆酶在纺织染料脱色及印染废水处理领域有着广阔的应用前景.活性黑5是纺织印染中应用广泛的偶氮类活性染料,结构复杂,生物降解性低.以灵芝菌Ganoderma lucidum U-281所产漆酶对活性黑5进行氧化脱色,采用单因素逐一优化方法得到了U-281漆酶催化活性黑5脱色的工艺参数:染料初始浓度25mg/L、漆酶用量2.0U/mL、铜离子添加量40mmol/L、pH 6.0、40℃.在优化条件下,4h可使RB5脱色62.34%,24h可完成90%以上的脱色效果.

  5. Production of biomass and polysaccharides of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), by submerged cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jozica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Submerged batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation techniques were used for mycelia cultivation and polysaccharide production of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Although most publications use various Asiatic G. lucidum strains, the growth of the strain Ga.l 4 (Biotechnical Faculty Strain Collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia), originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, is much faster. The results between the batch and repeated fed-batch cultivation are compared with the polysaccharide production in batch cultivation. From the aspect of biomass production, the best results were obtained in repeated fed-batch after 44 days, where 12.4 g/L of dry fungal biomass was obtained.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition and in Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activities of Ganoderma lucidum Grown on Germinated Brown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beong Ou Lim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the acetylcholinesterase inhibition and in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of Ganoderma lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR were evaluated. In antioxidant assays in vitro, GLBR was found to have strong metal chelating activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Cell-based antioxidant methods were used, including lipid peroxidation on brain homogenate and AAPH-induced erythrocyte haemolysis. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with GLBR and this significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the mice sera, livers and brains. The amount of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 43.14 mg GAE/g and 13.36 mg CE/g dry mass, respectively. GLBR also exhibited acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. In addition, HPLC analyses of GLBR extract revealed the presence of different phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the remarkable potential of GLBR extract as valuable source of antioxidants which exhibit interesting acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  7. Transcript and metabolite alterations increase ganoderic acid content in Ganoderma lucidum using acetic acid as an inducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ang; Li, Xiong-Biao; Miao, Zhi-Gang; Shi, Liang; Jaing, Ai-Liang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2014-12-01

    Acetic acid at 5-8 mM increased ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in Ganoderma lucidum. After optimization by the response surface methodology, the GA content reached 5.5/100 mg dry weight, an increase of 105% compared with the control. The intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, lanosterol and squalene also increased to 47 and 15.8 μg/g dry weight, respectively, in response to acetic acid. Acetic acid significantly induced transcription levels of sqs, lano, hmgs and cyp51 in the GA biosynthesis pathway. An acetic acid-unregulated acetyl coenzyme A synthase (acs) gene was selected from ten candidate homologous acs genes. The results indicate that acetic acid alters the expression of genes related to acetic acid assimilation and increases GA biosynthesis and the metabolic levels of lanosterol, squalene and GA-a, thereby resulting in GA accumulation.

  8. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP+ and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP+ and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP+ and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP+ and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP+ and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities. PMID:27335703

  9. Ganoderma Lucidum polysaccharides protect against MPP(+) and rotenone-induced apoptosis in primary dopaminergic cell cultures through inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shan-Shan; Cui, Xiao-Lan; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progressive neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) which is responsible for disabling motor abnormalities in more than 6.5 million people worldwide. Polysaccharides are the main active constituents from Ganoderma lucidum which is characterized with anti-oxidant, antitumor and immunostimulant properties. In the present study, primary dopaminergic cell cultures prepared from embryonic mouse mesencephala were used to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) on the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons induced by the neurotoxins methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP(+)) and rotenone. Results revealed that GLP can protect dopamine neurons against MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in primary mesencephalic cultures in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, either with or without neurotoxin treatment, GLP treatment elevated the survival of THir neurons, and increased the length of neurites of dopaminergic neurons. The Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) of GLP was determined to be 199.53 μmol Trolox/g extract, and the decrease of mitochondrial complex I activity induced by MPP(+) and rotenone was elevated by GLP treatment (100, 50, 25 and 12.5 μg/ml) in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP dramatically decreased the relative number of apoptotic cells and increased the declining mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) induced by MPP(+) and rotenone in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, GLP treatment reduced the ROS formation induced by MPP(+) and rotenone at the concentrations of 100, 50 and 25 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. Our study indicates that GLP possesses neuroprotective properties against MPP(+) and rotenone neurotoxicity through suppressing oxidative stress in primary mesencephalic dopaminergic cell culture owning to its antioxidant activities.

  10. Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei; Hirano, Tomoya; Chen, Zhiqing; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide.

  11. 灵芝多糖抗氧化、抗皮肤衰老%Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide prevents oxidation and skin aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李响; 梁杰

    2013-01-01

    背景:研究结果表明,灵芝多糖具有抗病毒、抗肿瘤、提高免疫力、抗氧自由基、抗衰老等生物活性。目的:观察灵芝多糖对 D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠皮肤组织抗氧化能力的生物学效应和延缓皮肤衰老作用。方法:将44只2月龄昆明种小鼠随机分为4组,即正常组、衰老模型组、维生素E组、灵芝多糖组,后3组颈背皮下注射D-半乳糖建立小鼠衰老模型,同时灌胃给予相应药物或生理盐水,42 d后取小鼠背部皮肤作病理切片,观察皮肤组织形态变化,检测表皮、真皮厚度,测定超氧化物歧化酶含量及 CuZn-SODmRNA 在皮肤中的表达水平。结果与结论:维生素E组和灵芝多糖组小鼠表皮、真皮厚度均较衰老模型增加。灵芝多糖组小鼠皮肤超氧化物歧化酶活力明显高于其他组。灵芝多糖组小鼠皮肤Ct值降低显著低于其他组。说明灵芝多糖能增加表皮和真皮厚度,改善皮肤组织结构;提高皮肤组织超氧化物歧化酶水平及CuZn-SOD mRNA的表达。%BACKGROUND:Studies have shown that Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides have biological activities of anti-viral, anti-tumor, enhance immunity, anti-oxidative and anti-aging. OBJECTIVE:To observe the biological effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on the antioxidant capacity of D-galactose induced aging mice skin tissues, and to observe the effect in postponing skin aging. METHODS:Forty-four 2-month-old Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups:normal control group, aging model group, vitamin E group, and Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide group. Rats in the last three groups received subcutaneous injection (nape area) of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide to establish rat aging models, and intragastric administration of corresponding drugs or saline was performed. After 42 days, pathological sections of back skin were obtained to assess the morphological changes of skin tissues, measure

  12. Antioxidant Potential of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Cultivated on Artocarpus heterophyllus Sawdust Substrate in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, P; Lal, Merlin Rajesh; Maheshwari, Uma; Krishnan, Sreeram

    2015-01-01

    The artificial cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum (MTCC1039) using Artocarpus heterophyllus as sawdust substrate was optimized and free radical scavenging activities of the generated fruiting bodies were investigated. The choice of A. heterophyllus as substrate was due to its easy availability in South India. Sawdust supplemented with dextrose medium yielded better spawn hyphae and early fruiting body initiation (15 days). The biological yield obtained was 42.06 ± 2.14 g/packet and the biological efficiency was 8.41 ± 0.48%. Both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fruiting body were analyzed for radical scavenging activity. Methanolic extract showed maximum scavenging activity for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 290 μg/ml) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulphonic acid (IC50 = 580 μg/ml), whereas aqueous extract had better scavenging for ferric reducing antioxidant power (IC50 = 5 μg/ml). Total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in methanolic extract (p < 0.01). A positive correlation existed between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Our results indicated that fruiting bodies of G. lucidum cultivated in sawdust medium possess antioxidant property, which can be exploited for therapeutic application.

  13. Performance Enhancement and Immunity Profile of Broiler Treated Feed Additive Containing Lactic Acid Bacteria and Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sofyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of feed additive containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Ganoderma lucidum (GL on body weight gain (BWG, feed efficiency (FE, performance index (PI, antibody titer (AT against Newcastle disease and histopathology of broilers. Bacteria used were Lactobacillus salivarius and Pediococcus pentosaceus, which were isolated from broiler’s intestine. A number of 195 unsexed day old chicks (Cobb strain were arranged in a completely randomized design and consisted of 5 treatments, each in 3 equal replicates. The treatments were as followed T0: control/without-feed additive, T1: 1% LAB (109 cfu g-1, T2: 1% GL, T3: 1% of LAB 109 cfu g-1 + GL (1:1, T4: commercial antibiotic. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and conti-nued to Duncan’s multiple range test. The results showed that T2, T3, T4 treatments significantly improved (P<0.05 BWG, FE and PI of broilers. Broilers fed T3 had the highest PI, followed by T4, T1, T2 and T0. Broilers fed T3 had the highest AT value followed by T0, T2, T4, and T1. Histopathology profile showed that broiler fed T3 had no lesion on liver and intestine compared to others. The result of this experiment indicated that additive containing 0.25% L. salivarius, 0.25% P. pentosaceus, and 0.5% G. lucidum was able to enhance broiler performance.

  14. Inhibition of migration and induction of apoptosis in LoVo human colon cancer cells by polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zeng-Enni; Yi, You-Jin; Guo, Yu-Tong; Wang, Ren-Cai; Hu, Qiu-Long; Xiong, Xing-Yao

    2015-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs), which were purified from the medicinal herb G. lucidum followed by ethanol precipitation, protein depletion using the Sevage assay, purification using DEAE‑cellulose (DE-52), dialysis and the use of ultrafiltration membranes, are used as an ingredient in traditional anticancer treatments in China. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effects and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of GLPs on LoVo human colon cancer cells. The results demonstrated that the GLP‑mediated anticancer effect in LoVo cells was characterized by cytotoxicity, migration inhibition, enhanced DNA fragmentation, morphological alterations and increased lactate dehydrogenase release. Furthermore, the activation of caspases‑3, ‑8 and ‑9 was involved in GLP‑stimulated apoptosis. Additionally, treatment with GLPs promoted the expression of Fas and caspase‑3 proteins, whilst reducing the expression of cleaved poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase. These data indicate that GLPs demonstrate potential antitumor activity in human colon cancer cells, predominantly through the inhibition of migration and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, activation of the Fas/caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway is involved in the cytotoxicity of GLPs.

  15. Study on Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum in Zhuhai%珠海灵芝栽培基质配方的筛选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长海; 沈汉国; 陈继敏; 潘丽晶; 张妙彬; 黄聪灵; 林淑芬

    2013-01-01

      为筛选出适合珠海地区灵芝栽培的基质配方,采用不同木屑原料、不同配比等进行灵芝优良菌株的栽培研究。研究结果发现,以台湾相思为木屑原料以及木屑与棉籽壳的比例为1:1时,灵芝的菌丝生长、子实体形态特征、产量和有效成分等4项综合性状最优。综合来看,珠海本地的灵芝高产栽培基质配方为:木屑35%,棉籽壳35%,麦麸20%,玉米粉6%,糖1%,石膏1%,碳酸钙1%,磷酸二氢钾1%。此配方含水量60%。%In order to screen the suitable culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum in Zhuhai, four kinds of wood materials and different ratio of wood materials for Ganoderma lucidum cultivation were studied in this paper. The results showed that when cultivation with Taiwan Acacia sawdust and the ratio of wood material: cotton seed shell being 1:1, the comprehensive characters including mycelium growth, fruiting body morphology, yield and active components of Ganoderma lucidum were the best. In general, the optimized culture medium formula for Ganoderma lucidum cultivation in Zhuhai was: wood 35%, cottonseed shell 35%, wheat bran 20%, corn powder 6%, sugar 1%, gypsum 1%, calcium carbonate 1%, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 1%, water 60%.

  16. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the ...

  17. Ganoderma lucidum Field Cultivation of Soil Fungi Identification%灵芝大田栽培土壤真菌的初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友; 徐宏家; 陈永敢

    2013-01-01

    This article through to the Ganoderma lucidum field cultivation soil with coated plate method, extraction and separation of soil fungi were cultured in detection and identification. The results showed that soil of Trichoderma, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Neurospora, Rhizopus, Chaetomium and Gymnoascus subumbrinus in eight species of fungi. According to the fungal growth speed, Ganoderma lucidum in different growth period appeared the species and the colony number, put forward suggestions of prevention of soil fungi cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum. This experiment was to obtain beneficial fungi resources, high yield, high quality and efficient cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum, provide effective help.%通过对灵芝大田栽培土壤采用涂布平板法,提取分离土壤中的真菌进行培养检测及鉴定.结果表明,土壤中共有木霉、青霉、曲霉、毛霉、链孢霉、根霉、毛壳霉、狄氏裸囊菌8种真菌.根据真菌的生长速度,灵芝生长不同时期出现的真菌种类和菌落数量,提出针对灵芝栽培土壤真菌的防治建议.试验既获得有益的真菌资源,又为高产、高质、高效的灵芝栽培提供有效帮助.

  18. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  19. Polysaccharides-Rich Extract of Ganoderma lucidum (M.A. Curtis:Fr. P. Karst Accelerates Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Guat Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (M.A. Curtis:Fr. P. Karst is a popular medicinal mushroom. Scientific reports had shown that the wound healing effects of G. lucidum were partly attributed to its rich polysaccharides. However, little attention has been paid to its potential effects on wounds associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the wound healing activity of the hot aqueous extract of G. lucidum in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The extract of G. lucidum was standardised based on chemical contents (w/w of total polysaccharides (25.1%, ganoderic acid A (0.45%, and adenosine (0.069%. Six groups of six rats were experimentally wounded in the posterior neck region. Intrasite gel was used as a positive control and aqueous cream as the placebo. Topical application with 10% (w/w of mushroom extract-incorporated aqueous cream was more effective than that with Intrasite gel in terms of wound closure. The antioxidant activity in serum of rats treated with aqueous extract of G. lucidum was significantly higher; whereas the oxidative protein products and lipid damage were lower when compared to those of the controls. These findings strongly support the beneficial effects of standardised aqueous extract of G. lucidum in accelerating wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  20. Effects of Superfine Grinding on Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide and Triterpenes%超微粉碎对灵芝中多糖、三萜的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴长辉

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective:To investigate the effects of superfine grinding on ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide and triterpenes by crushing ganoderma lucidum into 300 mesh superfine powder.Methods:The extracting yields of gan-oderma lucidum polysaccharides and ganoderma lucidum triterpenes and HPLC maps were used as the study index-es,and comparison was made on the changes of extracting yields of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and triter-penes and HPLC maps among 10 mesh powder,80 mesh fine powder and 300 mesh superfine powder by UV, HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ELSD.Results:The extracting yield of 300 mesh superfine powder extracted for 30 min was 2.3 times of 10 mesh powder extracted for 90 min,and 1.3 times of 80 mesh powder extracted for 90 min. Using the maps of HPLC-ELSD,the dissolved quantity of the superfine powder of ganoderma lucidum polysaccha-rides did not increase,but the polysaccharides decreased when closing to ten thousand molecular weight. Compar-ing with 10 mesh powder and 80 mesh fine powder of ganoderma lucidum,the extracting yields of ganoderma lu-cidum triterpenes and sterol in 300 mesh superfine powder had no big changes,and no big change was found on the HPLC peak.Conclusion:When ganoderma lucidum was smashed into 300 mesh superfine powder,the extrac-tion rate and dissolution rate of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides increased greatly while there was basically no impact on ganoderma lucidum triterpenes. Superfine grinding can significantly increase the bioavailability of ganoder-ma lucidum.%目的:考察将灵芝粉碎成300目的超微粉,对灵芝中多糖、三萜的影响。方法:选择灵芝主要有效成分灵芝多糖、灵芝三萜的提取得率和液相图谱为考察指标,采用紫外分光光度法(UV)、高效液相色谱-二极管阵列检测器法(HPLC-PDA)、高效液相色谱-蒸发光散射检测器法(HPLC-ELSD),比较10目灵芝粉、80目灵芝细粉与300目超微粉中灵芝多糖、灵芝三萜的提取得

  1. Ganoderma lucidum spore powder modulates Bcl-2 and Bax expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, and improves learning and memory in pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Zhao; Shengchang Zhang; Shuqiu Wang

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on Bax and Bcl-2 expression and neuronal apoptosis in pentylenetetrazole-kindled epileptic rats. Sixty adult rats were randomly divided into a control group, an epileptic group (kindled) and three medication groups ( 150, 300,450 mg/kg given to kindled rats). Bax and Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry and TUNEL labeling show ed that the number of Bax- and TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex decreased significantly in the high-dose medication group, while the number of Bcl-2immunoreactive cells increased. The Morris water maze test showed that high-dose treatment significantly shortened escape latency and increased spatial probe trial performance. Our findings indicate that a high dose of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder upregulates the expressionof antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, inhibits proapoptotic Bax expression, and decreases seizure-induced neuronal apoptosis. Further,Ganoderma lucidum appears to protect against epilepsy-related learning and memory impairments.

  2. 聊城灵芝种植的气象条件适宜性分析%Analysis of Weather Conditions for Ganoderma lucidum Cultivation in Liaocheng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙青然; 赵芬; 郭晓霞; 王丽; 孙瑞英

    2011-01-01

    [目的分析灵芝(Ganoderma Lucidum)对气象条件的要求,并探讨聊城市适宜灵芝种植的气象因子灾害性天气.[方法]根据灵芝对气象条件的要求,通过分析聊城市4~10月的月平均气温和月平均相对湿度;最后针对聊城市每年4~10月发生的灾害性天气提出了防御措施.[结果]在聊城4月下旬比较适宜灵芝种植接种.[结论]该研究可为地方政府部门决策及灵芝的种植者提供参考.%[ Objective ] To investigate the suitable weather conditions for the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum in Liaocheng, and propose the defensive measures against disastrous weather. [ Method ] Monthly average temperature and relative humidity from April to October in Liaocheng have been analyzed in this paper. [ Result] The rational planting period of Ganoderma lucidum in Liaocheng was the last ten-day of April.

  3. Five new compounds from the fungus Ganoderma petchii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei-Feng; Guo, Ping-Xia; Tu, Zheng-Chao; Li, Rong-Tao; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-10-01

    The fungal species of the genus Ganoderma attracted great interest in the last decades. Our recent investigation on Ganoderma petchii afforded five new compounds, (-)-petchioics A and B (1 and 2), petchiates A and B (3 and 4), petchine (5), and a known compound. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were assigned by computational methods. Biological activities of these isolates towards human cancer cells, COX-1/2, and influenza virus were evaluated.

  4. Methanolic soluble fractions of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) extract inhibit neuraminidase activity in Newcastle disease virus (LaSota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Bala U; Sandabe, Umar K; Ogbe, Adamu O; Abdulrahman, Fanna I; El-Yuguda, Abdul-Dahiru

    2014-01-01

    The antineuraminidase activity of different organic soluble fractions of Ganoderma lucidum extract was investigated using inhibition of hemagglutination and elution of chicken erythrocytes by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Fractions of methanol, ethylacetate, and normal butanol (n-butanol) of the G. lucidum were tested against neuraminidase producing NDV as antigen. Different dilutions of the organic soluble fractions inhibited elution of 1% red blood cells by neuraminidase of NDV While the methanolic and n-butanol extracts inhibited neuraminidase activity even at a dilution of 1:16 and that of ethylacetate fraction inhibited even at 1:32 respectively. This finding indicates that G. lucidum has some antineuraminidase activity against NDV and may be exploited in the management of NDV infection.

  5. Naturally occurring medicinal mushroom-derived antimicrobials: a case-study using Lingzhi or Reishi Ganoderma lucidum (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwa, Alka S; Rai, Mahendra K

    2012-01-01

    Antibacterial activity of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, collected from Central India was evaluated against four bacterial pathogens. Ethyl alcohol and water extracts of fruit body powder were tested using the disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It was noted that the aqueous extract inhibited growth of pathogenic bacteria. The combined effect of fruit body extract with synthetic antibiotic discs was found to increase the activity significantly more than the antibiotics alone. The present study is an attempt to assess antibacterial activity of extracts of G. lucidum singly and in combination. The combination of G. lucidum with commercial antibiotics proves that it enhances antibacterial activity.

  6. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase influences polysaccharide synthesis, cell wall components, and hyphal branching in Ganoderma lucidum via regulation of the balance between glucose-1-phosphate and UDP-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Tianxi; Gao, Tan; Miao, Zhigang; Jiang, Ailiang; Shi, Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-09-01

    UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) is a key enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism, but there are few studies on the functions of this enzyme in fungi. The ugp gene of Ganoderma lucidum was cloned, and enzyme kinetic parameters of the UGP recombinant protein were determined in vitro, revealing that this protein was functional and catalyzed the reversible conversion between Glc-1-P and UDP-Glc. ugp silencing by RNA interference resulted in changes in the levels of the intermediate metabolites Glc-1-P and UDP-Glc. The compounds and structure of the cell wall in the silenced strains were also altered compared with those in the wild-type strains. Moreover, the number of hyphal branches was also changed in the silenced strains. To verify the role of UGP in hyphal branching, a ugp-overexpressing strain was constructed. The results showed that the number of hyphal branches was influenced by UGP. The mechanism underlying hyphal branching was further investigated by adding exogenous Glc-1-P. Our results showed that hyphal branching was regulated by a change in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, which was affected by the level of the intermediate metabolite Glc-1-P, in G. lucidum. Our findings indicate the existence of an interaction between carbon metabolism and Ca(2+) signaling in this fungus.

  7. Effect of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum in men with lower urinary tract symptoms: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masanori Noguchi; Kei Matsuoka; Tatsuyuki Kakuma; Katsnro Tomiyasu; Yoshiko Kurita; Hiroko Kukihara; Fumiko Konishi; Shoichiro Kumamoto; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized and dose-ranging study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the extract of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: We enrolled male volunteers (> 50 years) with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS; questions 1-7)≥ 5 and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value < 4 ng/mL. Volunteers were randomized into groups of placebo (n = 12), G. lucidum of 0.6 mg (n = 12), 6 mg (n = 12) or 60 mg (n = 14), administered once daily. Efficacy was measured as a change from baseline in IPSS and the peak urine flow rate (Qmax). Prostate volume and residual urine were estimated by ultrasonography, and blood tests, including PSA levels, were measured at baseline and at the end of the treatment. Results: The overall administration was well tolerated, with no major adverse effects. Statistical significances in the magnitude of changes between the experimental groups were observed at weeks 4 and 8. No changes were observed with respect to Qmax, residual urine, prostate volume or PSA levels. Conclusion: The extract of G. lucidum was well tolerated and an improvement in IPSS was observed. The recommended dose of the extract of G. lucidum is 6 mg in men with LUTS. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 651-658)

  8. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Extracts on the miRNA Profile and Telomerase Activity of the MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Oyku; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan; Kalmis, Erbil; Kayalar, Husniye; Ozkaya, Ali Burak; Atay, Sevcan; Ak, Handan

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal higher Basidiomycetes mushroom that exerts anticancer effects through several different mechanisms. This study investigated the effects of G. lucidum on the telomerase activity and microRNA (miRNA) profiles of MCF-7 cells. According to the cytotoxicity results, the G. lucidum ether extract exhibits the highest cytotoxic potency; therefore it was chosen for the subsequent telomerase activity assay and miRNA profiling. The telomerase activity observed in the cells treated with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration of G. lucidum ether extract (100 µg/mL in dimethyl sulfoxide) was 32.2% lower than that of the control cells treated with 1% dimethyl sulfoxide. Among 1066 miRNAs, the most downregulated miRNA was hsa-miR-27a* (4.469-fold), and the most upregulated miRNA was hsa-miR-1285 (10.462-fold). A database search revealed the predicted miRNAs that target the catalytic subunit of the telomerase enzyme telomerase reverse transcriptase, and only miR-3687 (upregulated 2.153-fold) and miR-1207-5p (upregulated 2.895-fold) were changed by at least 2-fold. The miRNA profile changes demonstrated in this study provide a data set regarding their effects on the pathways that regulate telomerase activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells treated with G. lucidum. These data should aid the development of novel cancer treatment strategies.

  9. Ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum use after breast cancer diagnosis and quality of life: a report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Ping Bao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate associations between quality of life (QOL and use of ginseng and Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum among breast cancer survivors. METHODS: Included in this study were 4,149 women with breast cancer who participated in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study. Ginseng use was assessed at 6-, 18-, and 36-month post-diagnosis surveys; G. lucidum use was assessed at the 6- and 36-month surveys. QOL was evaluated at the 6- and 36-month surveys. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine associations between ginseng and G.lucidum use and QOL assessed at the 36-month survey, with adjustment for potential confounders and baseline QOL. RESULTS: At 6 months post-diagnosis, 14.2% of participants reported regular use of ginseng and 58.8% reported use of G. lucidum. We found no significant associations between ginseng use at 6, 18, and 36 months post-diagnosis and participants' total QOL score or individual scores for psychological, physical, or social well-being. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was positively associated with social well-being (adjusted mean difference: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.86, but was inversely associated with physical well-being (adjusted mean difference: -1.16; 95% CI: -1.86, -0.47 with a dose-response pattern observed for cumulative number of times of use (P for trend <0.001 for both. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that post-diagnosis ginseng use improved the QOL of breast cancer survivors. Post-diagnosis G. lucidum use was associated with better social well-being scores, but poorer physical well-being scores.

  10. Conditions for selective degradation of lignin by the fungus Ganoderma australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, S.; Eyzaguirre, J. (Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Lab. de Bioquimica)

    1992-08-01

    The white-rot fungus Ganoderma australis selectively degrades lignin in the ecosystem 'palo podrido'. Using conditions that simulate those of 'palo podrido' in the laboratory, it was found that low nitrogen content and low O{sub 2} tension stimulate the production of manganese peroxidase and lignin degradation, and depress cellulose degradation and cellulase production. The inverse is found at high nitrogen concentration and high O{sub 2} tension. This agrees with previous results indicating that low O{sub 2} tension and low nitrogen stimulate selective lignin degradation by this fungus. (orig.).

  11. 灵芝孢子粉多糖的PMP-HPLC指纹分析%Analysis of PMP-HPLC Fingerprints of Polysaccharides From Ganoderma lucidum Spores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩豪; 戴军; 陈尚卫; 朱松

    2011-01-01

    Partial acidic hydrolysis coupled PMP-HPLC analysis was applied to indentify and characterize polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum spores from different zones in China.Chromatographic fingerprint of the polysaccharide was built using 15 different sources of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder samples and 19 common peaks were found.The similarity between products from the same zone was much higher than 0.97,while it was lower but still greater than 0.80 when the products originated in different zones.There are quite a lot of differences among Ganoderma lucidum spore and other species spore and between spore and fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum.The similarities and differences may be used as main basis for quality control,identification from different origins and parts of Ganoderma and their adulteration detection.%采用部分酸水解耦合PMP柱前衍生反相高效液相色谱法对15个不同灵芝(赤芝)孢子粉样品中多糖进行检测和指纹表征,研究建立灵芝孢子粉多糖的HPLC指纹图谱。标定了19个共有特征指纹峰,同一产地不同批次产品间的相似度均大于0.97,不同产地产品间的相似度大于0.8;赤芝孢子粉与其他不同部位及不同品种的灵芝类产品的多糖指纹图谱显示出较大的差异。这些相似性和差异可作为灵芝孢子粉产品质量监控、与其他不同部位和不同品种的灵芝类产品的区别鉴定以及灵芝孢子粉的真伪与掺假检测的主要依据之一。

  12. An improved HPLC-DAD method for quantitative comparisons of triterpenes in Ganoderma lucidum and its five related species originating from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Do Thi; Loan, Le Thi; Hung, Tran Manh; Han, Le Vu Ngoc; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Dung, Le Viet; Min, Byung Sun; Nguyen, Nguyen Phuong Dai

    2015-01-09

    An HPLC-DAD method for the quality control of wild and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum (Linhzhi) and related species samples was developed and validated. The quantitative determination of G. lucidum and its related species using 14 triterpene constituents, including nine ganoderma acids (compounds 4-12), four alcohols (compounds 13-16), and one sterol (ergosterol, 17) were reported. The standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 7.5-180 µg/mL. The LOD and LOQ values for the analyses varied from 0.34 to 1.41 µg/mL and from 1.01 to 4.23 µg/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery of each reference compound was found to be from 97.09% to 100.79%, and the RSD (%) was less than 2.35%. The precision and accuracy ranged from 0.81%-3.20% and 95.38%-102.19% for intra-day, and from 0.43%-3.67% and 96.63%-103.09% for inter-day, respectively. The study disclosed in detail significant differences between the quantities of analyzed compounds in different samples. The total triterpenes in wild Linhzhi samples were significantly higher than in cultivated ones. The total constituent contents of the five related Linhzhi samples were considerably lower than that in the G. lucidum specimens, except for G. australe as its constituent content outweighed wild Linhzhi's content by 4:1.

  13. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores intervention on glucose and lipid metabolism gene expression profiles in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhou, Zhongkai; Ren, Xiaochong; Wang, Yuyang; Yang, Rui; Luo, Jinhua; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-05-22

    The fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. However, to the date, there is no detailed study for describing the effect of G. lucidum spores on oxidative stress, blood glucose level and lipid compositions in animal models of type 2 diabetic rats, in particular the effect on the gene expression profiles associated with glucose and lipid metabolisms. G. lucidum spores powder (GLSP) with a shell-broken rate >99.9 % was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8/group). Group 1: Normal control, normal rats with ordinary feed; Group 2: Model control, diabetic rats with ordinary feed without intervention; Group 3: GLSP, diabetic rats with ordinary feed, an intervention group utilizing GLSP of 1 g per day by oral gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Type 2 diabetic rats were obtained by streptozocin (STZ) injection. The changes in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood samples were analyzed after GLSP intervention. Meanwhile, gene expressions associated with the possible molecular mechanism of GLSP regulation were also investigated using a quantitative RT-PCR. The reduction of blood glucose level occurred within the first 2 weeks of GLSP intervention and the lipid synthesis in the diabetic rats of GLSP group was significantly decreased at 4 weeks compared to the model control group. Furthermore, it was also found that GLSP intervention greatly attenuated the level of oxidative stress in the diabetic rats. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed up-regulation of lipid metabolism related genes (Acox1, ACC, Insig-1 and Insig-2) and glycogen synthesis related genes (GS2 and GYG1) in GLSP group compared to model control group. Additionally, there were no significant changes in the expression of other genes, such as SREBP-1, Acly, Fas, Fads1, Gpam, Dgat1, PEPCK and G6PC1. This study might indicate that GLSP consumption could provide a

  14. SOLUTION PROPERTIES OF ANTITUMOR CARBOXYMETHYLATED DERIVATIVES OF α-(1→3)-D-GLUCAN FROM GANODERMA LUCIDUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-na Zhang; Mei Zhang; Jing-hua Chen; Fan-bo Zeng

    2001-01-01

    Fractions of a water insoluble α-(1→3)-D-glucan (GL) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum were carboxymethylated (CM) to obtain water-soluble carboxymethylated derivatives (CM-GL) having a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.38~0.51. Weight-average molecular weight Mw and intrinsic viscosity [η] of the samples CM-GL were measured by gel permeation chromatography combined with laser light scattering (GPC-LLS) and viscometry. The CM-GL exhibits a stiffer chain in aqueous solution at 25℃ than the original glucan. The antitumor activities against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC,5 × 106) of the carboxymethylated derivatives from the α-glucan and curdlan, a β-glucan, are significantly higher than those of the original glucans. The effects of the relatively low molecular weight, expanded chains and better water-solubility of the CM-GL on the enhancement of antitumor activity could not be neglected. The chain stiffness decreased speedily with increase of temperature from 40 to 60℃ or NaOH concentration from 0.1 to 0.4 in the solution, respectively, and the change of the chain stiffness is reversible.

  15. Preferential induction of Th17 cells in vitro and in vivo by Fucogalactan from Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hideyuki; Suzuki, Mayu; Sakaguchi, Ryota; Tani, Ito; Kotani, Hitoshi; Shudo, Norimasa; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2012-05-25

    The mushroom known as Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) has been used as an herbal medicine for tumor treatment and immune system activation. Because its effects on the differentiation of effector T helper cells have not yet been fully understood, we investigated the effects of Reishi and those of its principal ingredient, β-glucan, on the activation of dendritic cells and the differentiation of Th17 cells. Reishi extracts as well as purified β-glucan (Curdran) activated DCs and caused them to produce large amounts of IL-23. β-glucan also enhanced and sustained the transcription of IL-23p19. The MEK-ERK signaling pathway positively regulates IL-23p19 transcription in β-glucan-stimulated DCs. In a mixed leukocyte reaction, Reishi-stimulated DCs preferentially induced Th17 cells. Furthermore, orally-administrated Reishi increased the percentages of Th17 cells and the transcription levels of antimicrobial peptides. Our results show that Reishi and β-glucan activate DCs to produce large amounts of IL-23, which induces Th17 differentiation both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Antimicrobial effect of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) and its main compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirian, Mahdi; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Esfahani, Hamid Reza Monsef; Samadi, Nasrin; Hosseini, Seyed Aboulfazl; Asghari, Ali; Manayi, Azadeh; Mousazadeh, Ali; Asef, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Emran; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are considered one of the richest sources of natural antibiotics, and various species of them inhibit the growth of a wide diversity of microorganisms. Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom. has many pharmacological and biological activities including an antimicrobial effect, although few studies have investigated the antibacterial and antifungal effects of its purified compounds. The chemical structure of the purified compounds from the hexane fraction was elucidated as ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate, ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-yl acetate (isopyrocalciferol acetate), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one, ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-ol, and ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol (ergostrol). In addition, the structure of ganodermadiol was demonstrated after purification from the chloroform fraction. The fractions inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and yeast, with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 6.25 mg/mL, but were ineffective against Gram-negative bacteria in the tested concentrations. The results were comparable for isolated compounds, whereas the mixture of ergosta-7,22-dien-3β-yl acetate and isopyrocalciferol acetate was weakly effective against Escherichia coli (minimum inhibitory concentration, 10 mg/mL). It could be assumed that the antimicrobial effect of crude fractions is the consequence of mixing triterpenoid and steroid compounds.

  17. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Song, Jinzhu; Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing

    2016-08-01

    In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  18. Cell growth stimulating effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores and their potential application for Chinese hamster ovary K1 cell cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ding; Zhong, Qi; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Jufang

    2016-06-01

    In this work, water-soluble extracts of Ganoderma lucidum spores (Gls), a Chinese medicinal herb that possesses cell growth stimulating function, were found to be an effective growth factor for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell cultivation. The Gls extract was prepared and supplemented to CHO K1 cell culture media with various serum levels. Our results obtained from both the static culture and the spinner-flask suspension culture showed that use of small-amount Gls extract effectively promoted cell growth and suppressed cell apoptosis induced by serum deprivation with normal cell cycle maintained in a low-serum medium. The low-serum medium containing 1 % (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS) and 0.01 % (w/v) Gls extract showed a comparable performance on both cell growth and fusion protein productivity with the conventional CHO culture medium containing 10 % (v/v) FBS and a commercial serum-free medium. This is the first study of the potential of Gls extracts for use as an alternative cell growth factor and nutrient for CHO cells. The findings have presented a new approach to economic cultivation of CHO cells for therapeutic protein production.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum Combined with the EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Erlotinib Synergize to Reduce Inflammatory Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Rios-Fuller, Tiffany J; Feliz-Mosquea, Yismeilin R; Lacourt-Ventura, Mercedes; Leal-Alviarez, Daniel J; Maldonado-Martinez, Gerónimo; Cubano, Luis A; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of resistance to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against EGFR and downstream pathways has increased the necessity to identify agents that may be combined with these therapies to provide a sustained response for breast cancer patients. Here, we investigate the therapeutic potential of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) in breast cancer, focusing on the regulation of the EGFR signaling cascade when treated with the EGFR TKI, Erlotinib. SUM-149, or intrinsic Erlotinib resistant MDA-MB-231 cells, and a successfully developed Erlotinib resistant cell line, rSUM-149 were treated with increasing concentrations of Erlotinib, GLE, or their combination (Erlotinib/GLE) for 72h. Treatment effects were tested on cell viability, cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. To determine tumor progression, severe combined immunodeficient mice were injected with SUM-149 cells and then treated with Erlotinib/GLE or Erlotinib for 13 weeks. We assessed the protein expression of ERK1/2 and AKT in in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that GLE synergizes with Erlotinib to sensitize SUM-149 cells to drug treatment, and overcomes intrinsic and developed Erlotinib resistance. Also, Erlotinib/GLE decreases SUM-149 cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion. GLE increases Erlotinib sensitivity by inactivating AKT and ERK signaling pathways in our models. We conclude that a combinatorial therapeutic approach may be the best way to increase prognosis in breast cancer patients with EGFR overexpressing tumors.

  20. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE of β-d-glucan polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum for prospective scale-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Alzorqi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three levels of three ultrasonic independent variables were optimized to obtain the maximum yield of water-soluble polysaccharides (PS extracted from Ganoderma lucidum using response surface methodology (RSM. Box–Behnken design (BBD was employed to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic variables on the yield of PS. The parameters that were considered for the optimization are ultrasound power (500–700 W, ultrasonic irradiation time (45–65 min and temperature (70–90 °C. The analysis of variance suggested that the response dependent variable of yield of PS could be expressed by a quadratic polynomial model. The optimal theoretical extraction conditions were found to be an ultrasonic power of 590 W, an irradiation time of 58 min and a temperature of 81 °C. Under these conditions the predicted optimal yield was 52.33 mg. Whereas by following the optimized conditions, the yield of PS by experiments was found to be 52.28 mg which is in a very good agreement with the theoretically predicted one. These outcomes indicate the adequacy of quadratic polynomial model to represent the ultrasonic extraction variables within the ranges of investigation for a volume of 0.25 L; and any prospective scale-up may require modifications in the geometry of the extracting vessel due to the non-linear effects of power ultrasound.

  1. Effects of sulfation on the physicochemical and functional properties of a water-insoluble polysaccharide preparation from Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Hengyu; Yao, Wenbing; Gao, Xiangdong; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2010-03-24

    The sulfation of a water-insoluble Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) was successfully carried out with chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine in dimethyl formamide to prepare three sulfated GLP derivatives, named sGLP1, sGLP2, and sGLP3. The chemical structure of the sulfated GLP was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and (13)C NMR analyses. The sGLPs were evaluated for their water solubility, degree of substitution (DS), antioxidant properties, and bile acid-binding capacities. The results showed that sulfation improved the water solubility of GLP and increased its scavenging capacities against hydroxyl and superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging activity, Fe(II) chelating ability, reducing power, and bile acid-binding capacities. It was also observed that the DS may influence the physicochemical and functional properties of sGLPs. For instance, the sulfated GLP with the lowest DS had the greatest bile acid-binding capacity, and the sGLP that had the highest DS showed the lowest bile acid-binding ability under the experimental conditions. The results from this study suggested that sulfation is a possible approach to obtain novel water-soluble derivatives of GLP with improved physicochemical, functional, and biological properties for potential utilization in functional foods or supplemental products.

  2. 甘蔗汁灵芝发酵功能性饮料研制%Sugar cane juice functional beverage produced by submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄清铧; 王庆福; 梁磊; 张柳莲; 康佩姿; 班雯婷

    2015-01-01

    Sugar cane juice was used as raw material to produce function beverage through liquid fermentation by Ganoderma lucidum.In this paper, the fermentation was carried out about 10 days with regulation of pH value, amount of residual sugar and polysaccharide content of fermented liquid.After flavor adjustment, the optimum formula of the function beverage of sugar cane juice from Ganoderma lucidum fermentation was determined through orthogonal test and sensory evaluation method.The optimizing formula of this beverage contained 70% of fermented liquid, 1.0 g/L citric acid, 0.2 g/L xanthan gum, and 0.1 g/L stevia glycoside.This beverage was delicious due to unique aroma of sugarcane and Ganoderma lucidum and was rich in polysaccharide and amino acid.%以甘蔗汁为原料,采用灵芝菌进行发酵,以发酵液pH值、残糖量及多糖含量变化选择发酵终点为10d左右;通过正交试验和感官评价对灵芝发酵甘蔗汁功能性饮料配方进行研究,得出最优饮料配方为:发酵液70%,柠檬酸1.0 g/L,黄原胶0.2 g/L,甜菊糖苷0.1 g/L,该饮料淡黄色,透明清亮,爽滑可口,甘苦适宜,具有甘蔗汁的清香和灵芝独特的香气,且多糖与氨基酸含量丰富.

  3. Enhanced Production of Polysaccharide Through the Overexpression of Homologous Uridine Diphosphate Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Gene in a Submerged Culture of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sen-Lin; Liu, Rui; Ren, Meng-Fei; Li, Huan-Jun; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to improve polysaccharide production by engineering the biosynthetic pathway in Ganoderma lucidum through the overexpression of the homologous UDP glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) gene. The effects of UGP gene overexpression on intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production, and transcription levels of 3 genes encoding the enzymes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis, including phosphoglucomutase (PGM), UGP, and α-1,3-glucan synthase (GLS), were investigated. The maximum IPS content and EPS production in G. lucidum overexpressing the UGP gene were 24.32 mg/100 mg dry weight and 1.66 g/L, respectively, which were higher by 42% and 36% than those of the wild-type strain. The transcription levels of PGM, UGP, and GLS were up-regulated by 1.6, 2.6, and 2.4-fold, respectively, in the engineered strain, suggesting that increased polysaccharide biosynthesis may result from a higher expression of those genes.

  4. Comparative growth characteristics and yield attributes of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) on different substrates in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandaik, Savita; Singh, Rajender; Sharma, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of four forestry byproducts (sawdust of oak, mango, khair, and tuni) and three agricultural residues (paddy straw, wheat straw, and soybean waste) along with four supplements (wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour, and gram powder) on growth characteristics (spawn run and primordial formation) and yield of Ganoderma lucidum. There were significant differences (P=0.05) in yield regardless of substrates and supplements used in experimentation. Among substrates, agriculture residues supported better yield and biological efficiency of G. lucidum compared to forestry byproducts irrespective of the supplements. The highest yield (82.5 g) and biological efficiency (27.5%) were recorded from paddy straw supplemented with wheat bran, which invariably resulted in significantly higher yield compared to the unsupplemented check(s) or other supplements used in this study.

  5. Talk about the chemical components and pharmaceutical action of ganoderma lucidum%谈谈灵芝的化学成分及其药理作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李改艳

    2015-01-01

    灵芝是名贵中药多孔菌科植物赤芝Ganoderma lucidum(Ley-ss.ex Fr.) Karst.或紫芝Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang的干燥子实体.灵芝含有多糖类、三萜类、氨基酸类、生物碱类、核苷类、甾醇类等多种化学成分,多糖类被认为是它的主要有效成分,具有抗肿瘤、保肝、调节免疫、抗衰老等药理作用.

  6. Bioinformatic Identification of Potential MicroRNAs and Their Targets in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Da-Shuai; Li, Chenyang; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Xuchen; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous, noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression at the transcriptional or the post-transcriptional level. Although a large number of miRNAs have been identified in many species, especially model plants and animals, miRNAs in fungi remain largely unknown. In this study, based on a database of expressed sequence tags in Ganoderma lucidum, 89 potential miRNAs were identified using computational methods. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of miRNA-like samples prepared from G. lucidum at different development stages revealed that miRNA-like RNAs were differentially expressed in different stages. Furthermore, a total of 28 potential targets were found based on near-perfect or perfect complementarity between the randomly selected 9 miRNA-like RNAs and the target sequences, and potential targets for G. lucidum miRNA-like RNAs were predicted. Finally, we studied the expression pattern of 4 target genes in 3 different development stages of G. lucidum to further understand the mechanism of interaction between miRNA-like RNAs and their target genes. Our analysis paves the way toward identifying fungal miRNA-like RNAs that might be involved in various physiological and cellular differentiation processes.

  7. A comparative assessment of the potential of polysaccharide production and intracellular sugar composition within Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajić, Mirjana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Maksimović, Vuk; Vukojević, Jelena; Simonić, Jasmina; Zervakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal mushroom species in which polysaccharides are one of the major sources of biological activity. The species was considered as a species-complex due to significant variations in morphological, biochemical, and genetic features among populations with a worldwide distribution. This fact was the basis for setting the aim of this research: to study intraspecific diversity in polysaccharide production and intracellular sugar composition among selected G. lucidum strains. The presence ofintraspecific diversity among 10 G. lucidum strains, from different areas worldwide, was noted. Values of produced mycelia biomass and intracellular polysaccharides were found in wide ranges (3.1 - 28.2 g L(-1) and 20.0 - 53.3 mg g(-1), respectively), while differences in extracellular polysaccharide amounts were minor (0.2 - 1.5 mg mL(-1)). The significant quantitative and qualitative differences in intracellular sugar composition were noted. Glucose was the predominant sugar in almost all strains except one (HAI 447), where sucrose was dominant. The potential of polysaccharide production and intracellular sugar composition could be one more taxonomic criterion for strain characterization within G. lucidum. The differences in intracellular sugar composition and proportions could be reflected in features of produced polysaccharides and also in their biological activities.

  8. Investigation of Requisites for the Optimal Mycelial Growth of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), on Oil Palm Biomass in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer, Surya; Ali, Asgar; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous research has been carried out regarding the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum using different agricultural residues. Nevertheless, large-scale cultivation and the separation of active compounds of G. lucidum are still challenges for local farmers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of oil palm waste fibers such as empty fruit bunch fibers and mesocarp fibers as effective substrates for the growth of G. lucidum mycelia to study the possibility of solid-state cultivation and to determine the optimum conditions necessary for the growth of mycelia of this mushroom on these waste fibers. Various parameters such as temperature, pH, humidity, and carbon and nitrogen compositions required for the optimum growth of mycelia have been determined. Oil palm fibers are a vivid source of lignocellulose, and their availability in Malaysia is high compared to that of sawdust. G. lucidum is a wood-rotting fungi that can easily decay and utilize this lignocellulose biomass, a major agricultural waste in Malaysia.

  9. Teratogenic and toxic effects of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), on zebrafish embryo as model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulay, Rich Milton R; Kalaw, Sofronio P; Reyes, Renato G; Alfonso, Noel F; Eguchi, Fumio

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the teratogenic and toxic effects of Ganoderma lucidum (Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom) extract on zebrafish embryos. Hatchability, malformations, and lethality rate of zebrafish embryos were assessed to provide valuable information regarding the potential teratogenic activity of G. lucidum. Hatching was completed 48 h post treatment application (hpta) at 1% or lower concentrations of extract and embryo water. The hatching rate of embryos treated with 5% or higher concentrations was significantly lower (p> 0.05) than the control. Tail malformation was the most marked morphological abnormality in embryos at 72 hpta, which was obviously caused by 1% extract (55.56% tail malformation) and was observed in all embryos exposed to 5% of extract. Growth retardation was evident in embryos exposed to 5%, 10%, and 20%. However, lethal effect of extract of G. lucidum was dependent on dose and time of exposure. Mortality rates of embryos treated with 5% (44.44%) or higher concentrations of the extract was significantly higher (p > 0.05) than that of the control embryos at 72 hpta. These results suggest that G. lucidum extract has lethal and sub-lethal effects on zebrafish embryos.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Action of Triterpenoids from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes) on α-Amanitin-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huihui; Tang, Shanshan; Huang, Zhaoqin; Zhou, Qian; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2016-01-01

    Most fatal mushroom poisonings are caused by species of the genus Amanita; the amatoxins are responsible for acute liver failure and death in humans. Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of triterpenoids from G. lucidum on liver injury induced by a-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and the mechanisms of action of these triterpenoids, including radical scavenging and antiapoptosis activities. Mice were treated with α-AMA, followed by G. lucidum total triterpenoids or individual triterpenoids, and their hepatoprotective effects were compared with those of the reference drug silibinin (SIL). Treatment with SIL, G. lucidum total triterpenoids, and each of the 5 individual triterpenoids significantly reduced serum alanine aminotransaminase and aspartate ami- notransaminase concentrations and reduced mortality rates 20-40%. Moreover, triterpenoids and SIL significantly enhanced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and reduced malondialdehyde content in livers. Treatment with ganoderic acid C2 significantly inhibited DNA fragmentation and decreased caspase-3, -8, and -9 activities. The results demonstrated that triterpenoids have hepatoprotective effects on α-AMA-induced liver injury and that their hepatoprotective mechanisms may be the result of their antioxidative and radical scavenging activities and their inhibition of apoptosis.

  11. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3-Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Kao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG, in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity.

  12. Comparison of the antitumor activity on spore polysaccharides (G/-SP) and broken spore polysaccharides (Gl-BSP) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-yunWANG; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the antitumor activity of spore polysaccharides (GI-SP) and broken spore polysaccharides (GI-BSP) from spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss ex fr) Karst. METHODS: BALB/c mice were implanted with Sarcoma 180 and administered intragastrically with Gl-SP or G/-BPS (50, 100, 200 mg/kg)respectively for 14 d. At the end of experiment, the tumor were removed and weighted. At the same time, spleens of tumorbearing mice were prepared to observe the effect of Gl-SP and

  13. Evaluación de granos agrícolas para la elaboración artesanal de inoculo de ganoderma lucidum

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Jiménez, Juliana; Romero Arenas, Omar; Tello Salgado, Issac; Rivera Tapia, José A.; Bernal Mendoza, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Los hongos son organismos que se encuentran en todos los biomas y sobre los más variados sustratos. Se estima que se conoce 5% del total de los hongos existentes en el planeta y que están involucrados en la desintegración de la materia orgánica, procesos industriales de fermentación, producción comercial de alimentos y medicamentos, así mismo, en los sistemas agroforestales. Dentro de los hongos medicinales se encuentra, Ganoderma lucidum que ocupa los primeros lugares en China, dado que se l...

  14. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Studies to Estimate Ergosterol Content at Different Developmental Stages of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anna; Kalia, Anu; Sodhi, Harpreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a source of potent nutraceutical products. This study was planned to identify and characterize the role of ergosterol in the developmental process of G. lucidum. Four strains of G. lucidum (GL-I-IV) showed a gradual increase in biomass (from 25.52 to 31.72 g) after 3 weeks of growth in mushroom complete medium broth, with maximum biomass observed for strain GL-III. Upon cultivation of G. lucidum strains on wheat straw supplemented with 5% wheat bran, maximum biological efficiency was recorded for the GL-I strain (31.23%), followed by GL-II (26.73%); the number of fruiting bodies were 927 and 693, each weighing 33.7 and 38.6 g, respectively. The amount of ergosterol in the Ganoderma test strains varied among the strains and at different developmental stages, namely, the vegetative mycelium, spawn run, pinhead, and fruiting body phases. The maximum ergosterol content was produced by the GL-I strain during the vegetative mycelium (4601 p.g/g) and reproductive fruiting body (7009 p.g/g) stages. However, strain GL-IV followed by strain GL-II exhibited maximum ergosterol content in the spawn run stage. The ergosterol content was better for GL-II at the pinhead stage. This report indicates that ergosterol content varies among the test strains. Moreover, it increases with each stage of the cultivation process, that is, from spawn run to pinhead to and fruiting body formation.

  15. Inhibition of quorum sensing in the opportunistic pathogenic bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum by an extract from fruiting bodies of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hu; Liu, Wei; Tian, Baozhen; Liu, Huijun; Ning, Shoujiao

    2011-01-01

    Extracts of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, inhibited quorum sensing in Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. G. lucidum fruiting bodies were milled and extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was dissolved in an appropriate concentration of methanol, sterilized by filtration through a 0.22-μm membrane filter, and added to Ch. Violaceum CV026 cultures, which were used as an indicator to monitor quorum sensing inhibition. Inhibitory activity was measured by quantifying violacein production using a microplate reader. Methanol-soluble compounds extracted from G. lucidum significantly inhibited quorum sensing-controlled behavior in Ch. Violaceum in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that compounds in G. lucidum might be useful to control and handle detrimental infections caused by human, animal, and plant pathogens. Further studies are in progress in our lab to isolate the specific compounds from G. lucidum extract, evaluate them as quorum sensing inhibitors, and analyze their mechanism of action.

  16. Aprovechamiento de residuos agroindustriales del arroz para el cultivo del hongo medicinal Ganoderma lucidum.

    OpenAIRE

    Postemsky, P.; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Devalis, Ricardo; Figlas, Débora; González Matute, Ramiro; Delmastro, Silvia; Curvetto, Néstor; Cubitto, María Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la biodegradación de paja y cascarilla de arroz para la producción de un hongo medicinal con importante valor de mercado: G. lucidum. Seguidamente, y con el fin de incrementar la rentabilidad del proceso, se evaluó la factibilidad del uso del sustrato residual como fuente de enzimas la casas. El análisis de crecimiento se realizó empleando el sistema de fermentación en estado sólido. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron en formulaci...

  17. Study on Optimum Extracting Conditions of Total Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum of Lingdan Capsule by Alkaline Solutions%碱水提取复方灵丹胶囊中灵芝多糖的工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶豆丹; 孟美; 王化宇; 任钰; 张炜煜

    2014-01-01

    试验优选了碱水提取法提取复方灵丹胶囊中灵芝多糖的最佳工艺。以总多糖的含量为考察指标,采用单因素法和正交试验法确定方中灵芝多糖最佳提取工艺。结果最佳提取工艺为加10倍于药材量的水(pH=9)煎煮2次,每次1.0 h。该提取工艺操作简单、稳定可行,适合于产业化生产,并具有良好的应用前景。%To optimize the extraction technology of effective fraction of Ganoderma lucidum. To regard the contents of total polysaccharides as the examinational indicators, to decide the extraction methods by L9 (34) orthogonal test and single factor method for total polysaccharides components of Ganoderma lucidum. The optimal extraction of total polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum is medicinal materials plus 10 times the amount of water (pH=9), extract twice and 1.0 h per time. The optimum extraction technology of total polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum is simple, stable and feasible, suitable for industrial production, and has a good prospect.

  18. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder on astrocyte expression and glutamine synthetase activity in the hippocampal region of epileptic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiling Zhang; Shuqiu Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that astrocyte dysfunction plays a central role in inhibiting epileptic seizures and that regulation of astrocyte function may be a new target for treatment of epilepsy.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder (GLSP) on astrocyte morphology and ghitamine synthetase (GS) activity in the hippocampal region of epileptic rats.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized, controlled animal experiment was performed at the Function Laboratory, College of Basic Medicine, Jiamusi University between October and December 2006.MATERIALS: A total of 30 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomized to three groups (n = 10): control,model, and GLSP. GLSP was sourced from Jiamusi Wild Ganoderma Lucidum Planting Base and prepared to 30 g/L with physiological saline before use. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (10 g/L) was provided by Sigma Company, USA.METHODS: The control group received intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intragastric (i.g.) physiological saline.Following epilepsy induction by i.p. administration of PTZ (35 mg/kg), rats from the model and GLSP groups were ig injected with physiological saline and GLSP (300 mg/kg), respectively. Each compound was administered once per day, for a total of 28 successive days. Epileptic seizure convulsions were graded 0-5. A higher grade indicated more severe epilepsy. Only those rats showing stage 2 or higher convulsions at least 5 times successively were included in further experiments.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Immediately after injection, seizure activity was monitored for 30 minutes to determine the latent period and seizure duration; simultaneously, astrocyte numbers and GS activity in the hippocampal region of rats with epilepsy were detected by immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: All 30 rats were included in the final analysis. On day 28, following PTZ administration epileptic seizures were not found in the control group. In the GLSP group, rats exhibited rhythmic head nodding or facial spasms

  19. Possible involvement of long chain fatty acids in the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi) to its anti-tumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, Masataka; Yamaguchi, Rie; Hide, Izumi; Chen, Zhiqing; Hirai, Yuko; Sugimoto, Akiko; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro

    2008-10-01

    During our isolation of biologically active substances from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Houshi, G. lucidum) guided by the inhibitory activity on HL-60 cell proliferation, NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data indicate the substance contains a mixture of several long chain fatty acids. Hence, in this study, we have examined the inhibitory effects of an ethanolic extract of the spores of G. lucidum as the spore extract, on the proliferation of various human cancer cell lines by comparison with several authentic long chain fatty acids. Of the fatty acids we examined nonadecanoic acid (C19:0) showed the highest inhibitory activity for HL-60 cell proliferation with IC(50) values of 68+/-7 microM followed by heptadecanoic acid (C17:0, 120+/-23 microM), octa- (C18:0, 127+/-4 microM) and hexadecanoic acids (C16:0, 132+/-25 microM), respectively. The corresponding unsaturated fatty acids containing one double bond such as cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1), cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18:1), cis-10-heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) and cis-9-hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) were less effective. The ethanolic extract of spores of G. lucidum were shown by annexin-V FITC/PI double staining to induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells in a similar way to cis-10-nonadecenoic acid (C19:1). These unsaturated fatty acids probably inhibit tumor necrosis factor production induced by lipopolysaccharide in a mouse macrophage preparation. Our results suggest the spores of G. lucidum contain 19-carbon fatty acids as one of the components for characteristics of its physiological effects.

  20. Intervention effects of ganoderma lucidum spores on epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons and expression of neurotrophin-4 and N-cadherin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available Epilepsy can cause cerebral transient dysfunctions. Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has shown some antiepileptic effects in our previous studies. This was the first study of the effects of GLS on cultured primary hippocampal neurons, treated with Mg(2+ free medium. This in vitro model of epileptiform discharge hippocampal neurons allowed us to investigate the anti-epileptic effects and mechanism of GLS activity. Primary hippocampal neurons from <1 day old rats were cultured and their morphologies observed under fluorescence microscope. Neurons were confirmed by immunofluorescent staining of neuron specific enolase (NSE. Sterile method for GLS generation was investigated and serial dilutions of GLS were used to test the maximum non-toxic concentration of GLS on hippocampal neurons. The optimized concentration of GLS of 0.122 mg/ml was identified and used for subsequent analysis. Using the in vitro model, hippocampal neurons were divided into 4 groups for subsequent treatment i control, ii model (incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours, iii GLS group I (incubated with Mg(2+ free medium containing GLS for 3 hours and replaced with normal medium and incubated for 6 hours and iv GLS group II (neurons incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then replaced with a normal medium containing GLS for 6 hours. Neurotrophin-4 and N-Cadherin protein expression were detected using Western blot. The results showed that the number of normal hippocampal neurons increased and the morphologies of hippocampal neurons were well preserved after GLS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of neurotrophin-4 was significantly increased while the expression of N-Cadherin was decreased in the GLS treated group compared with the model group. This data indicates that GLS may protect hippocampal neurons by promoting neurotrophin-4 expression and inhibiting N-Cadherin expression.

  1. Immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohguchi, Michihiro; Kunikata, Toshio; Watanabe, Hikaru; Kudo, Naoki; Shibuya, Takashi; Ishihara, Tatsuya; Iwaki, Kanso; Ikeda, Masao; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Kurimoto, Masashi

    2004-04-01

    The immuno-potentiating effects of the antler-shaped fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum (Rokkaku-Reishi, RR), which has been used as a traditional supplement for human health, were investigated in mice. BALB/c mice were administered orally with RR for 3 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg or 500 mg/kg, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production by splenocytes in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was examined on day 4. The oral administration of 500 mg/kg of RR resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production. Stimulation of splenic adherent cells from these mice with LPS also resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in interleukin-12 (IL-12) production compared with that from the control mice, suggesting that splenic macrophages were activated by RR administration. Furthermore, 500 mg/kg of RR administered for 14 days resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in IFN-gamma production by splenocytes in response to both LPS and concanavalin A (Con A). These results suggest that not only splenic macrophages but also T cells were activated by the long-term treatment with RR in vivo. On the other hand, the production of interleukin-4 (IL-4), which is known as an allergic disease-related cytokine, was not affected by the long-term treatment with RR. Our results suggest that the oral administration of RR resulted in Th1-associated immuno-potentiating activities in vivo.

  2. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function

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    Lau Yu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS, a form of bioactive β-glucan can stimulate the maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. The question of how leukemic cells especially in monocytic lineage respond to GL-PS stimuli remains unclear. Results In this study, we used in vitro culture model with leukemic monocytic cell-lines THP-1 and U937 as monocytic effectors cells for proliferation responses and DCs induction. We treated the THP-1 and U937 cells with purified GL-PS (100 μg/mL or GL-PS with GM-CSF/IL-4. GL-PS alone induced proliferative response on both THP-1 and U937 cells but only THP-1 transformed into typical DC morphology when stimulated with GL-PS plus GM-CSF/IL-4. The transformed THP-1 DCs had significant increase expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86 though not as high as the extent of normal monocyte-derived DCs. They had similar antigen-uptake ability as the normal monocyte-derived DCs positive control. However, their potency in inducing allogeneic T cell proliferation was also less than that of normal monocyte-derived DCs. Conclusion Our findings suggested that GL-PS could induce selected monocytic leukemic cell differentiation into DCs with immuno-stimulatory function. The possible clinical impact of using this commonly used medicinal mushroom in patients with monocytic leukemia (AML-M4 and M5 deserved further investigation.

  3. Regulatory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by dendritic cells in vitro

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    CAOLi-Zhen; LINZhi-Bin

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the regulatory effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides(Gl-PS)on cytotoxicity and mechanism of specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes(CTL)induced by dendritic cells(DC)in vitro during the stage of antigen presentation.METHODS:Cultured murine bone marrow-derived DC were pulsed with P815 tumor cell lysates and co-incubated with or without various concentrations of Gl-PS(0.8,3.2,or 12.8mg/L)at the same time.P815 specific CTL were induced by spleen lymphocytes stimulated with mature DC.Non-adherent cells and culture supernatants were harvested on d 5 for analysis of specific cytotoxicity with lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)activity assay,mRNA expression of IFNγ,granzyme B with RT-PCR assay,and protein expression of IFNγ,granzyme B with ELISA or Western blot assay,respectively,RESULTS:Three concentrations of Gl-PS promoted LDH activities released into culture supernatants(P<0.01).It also increased mRNA expression of IFNγin CTL(Gl-PS 12.8mg/L vs RPMI medium 1640,P<0.05)and granzyme B in CTL(P<0.01).Protein production of IFNγin culture supernatants(P<0.05)and protein expression of granzyme B in CTL(Gl-PS 12.8mg/L vs RPMI medium 1640,P<0.05)were also augmented by Gl-PS,CONCLUSION:Gl-PS is shown to promote the cytotoxicity of specific CTL induced by DC which were pulsed with P815 tumor antigen during the stage of antigen presentation,and the mechanism of cytotoxicity is believed to be going through IFNγ and granzyme B pathways.

  4. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Induce Macrophage-Like Differentiation in Human Leukemia THP-1 Cells via Caspase and p53 Activation

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    Jia-Wei Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation therapy by induction of tumor cells is an important method in the treatment of hematological cancers such as leukemia. Tumor cell differentiation ends cancer cells' immortality, thus stopping cell growth and proliferation. In our previous study, we found that fucose-containing polysaccharide fraction F3 extracted from Ganoderma lucidum can bring about cytokine secretion and cell death in human leukemia THP-1 cells. This prompted us to further investigate on how F3 induces the differentiation in human leukemia cells. We integrated time-course microarray analysis and network modeling to study the F3-induced effects on THP-1 cells. In addition, we determined the differentiation effect using Liu's staining, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT reduction assay, flow cytometer, western blotting and Q-PCR. We also examined the modulation and regulation by F3 during the differentiation process. Dynamic gene expression profiles showed that cell differentiation was induced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, F3-treated THP-1 cells exhibited enhanced macrophage differentiation, as demonstrated by changes in cell adherence, cell cycle arrest, NBT reduction and expression of differentiation markers including CD11b, CD14, CD68, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and myeloperoxidase. In addition, caspase cleavage and p53 activation were found to be significantly enhanced in F3-treated THP-1 cells. We unraveled the role of caspases and p53 in F3-induced THP-1 cells differentiation into macrophages. Our results provide a molecular explanation for the differentiation effect of F3 on human leukemia THP-1 cells and offer a prospect for a potential leukemia differentiation therapy.

  5. Evaluation of polysaccharides content in fruit bodies and their antimicrobial activity of four Ganoderma lucidum (W Curt.: Fr. P. Karst. strains cultivated on different wood type substrates

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    Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative determination of polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies from different sawdust cultivation substrates and their antibacterial activity was done. Thirty six samples were analyzed. Four strains of Ganoderma lucidum (GL01, GL02, GL03 and GL04 were cultivated on the growth substrates of three different sawdust types: birch (Bo, maple (Kl or alder (Ol amended with wheat bran in three different concentrations: 10, 20 and 30% (w/w. Even though the richest in polysaccharides was GL01 strain, the highest yields of the polysaccharides were determined in GL04Kl3 sample and was 112.82 mg/g of dry weight. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharides was determined in vitro using micro-dilution broth method. The panel of eight reference bacterial strains was used. All the polysaccharide samples tested showed the broad spectrum and the moderate antibacterial activity. Micrococcus luteus ATCC 10240 strain was the most sensitive with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration = 0.63 − 1.25 mg/mL.

  6. 赤芝深层培养及营养液研制%Nutritinal Liquid Preparation of Ganoderma lucidum by Submerged Fermentation

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    楼秀芳; 楼锡银; 钟卫鸿

    2001-01-01

    Two kinds of Ganoderma lucidum nutritinal liquid w ere prepared form fermanted beverge and mycilum extracting beverge respectively, while several kinds of medicainal material and flouvoring as compatilibility.Fiv e samples were slected easily out from 27 products which were much more better in colour,smelling,tasting and apperarnce than the others.Then their chemical an d physical target were measured and their sene organ determination was carried o ut by computer program.%分别以赤芝(Ganoderma lucidum)深层发酵液和菌丝体提取液为主料,配伍以几种中药材和调味料,正交方法设计配方,配制两种赤芝营养液。分别从27个样品中初选5个色、香、味、形均较佳的样品,进一步进行理化指标的测定和感观鉴定评分,所获数据通过计算机编程统计分析。获得最佳配方设计。

  7. In vitro and in vivo protective effects of proteoglycan isolated from mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury

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    Xiao-Jun Yang; Jing Liu; Lin-Bai Ye; Fan Yang; Li Ye; Jin-Rong Gao; Zheng-Hui Wu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible mechanism of the protective effects of a bioactive fraction, Ganoderma lucidum proteoglycan (GLPG) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum mycelia, against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.METHODS: A liver injury model was induced by carbon tetrachloride. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay.The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined with an automatic multifunction-biochemical analyzer and the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-α were determined following the instructions of SOD kit and TNF radioimmunoassay kit. Liver sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological evaluation and examined under light microscope.RESULTS: We found that GLPG can alleviate the L-02liver cells injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)through the measurements of ALT and AST activities and the administration of GLPG to L-02 cells did not display any toxicity. Furthermore, histological analysis of mice liver injury induced by CCl4 with or without GLPG pretreatment indicated that GLPG can significantly suppress the toxicity induced by CCl4 in mice liver. We also found that GLPG reduced TNF-α level induced by CCl4 in the plasma of mice, whereas increased SOD activity in the rat serum.CONCLUSION: GLPG has hepatic protective activity against CCl4-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. The possible anti-hepatotoxic mechanisms may be related to the suppression of TNF-α level and the free radical scavenging activity.

  8. An Improved HPLC-DAD Method for Quantitative Comparisons of Triterpenes in Ganoderma lucidum and Its Five Related Species Originating from Vietnam

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    Do Thi Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An HPLC-DAD method for the quality control of wild and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum (Linhzhi and related species samples was developed and validated. The quantitative determination of G. lucidum and its related species using 14 triterpene constituents, including nine ganoderma acids (compounds 4–12, four alcohols (compounds 13–16, and one sterol (ergosterol, 17 were reported. The standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 7.5–180 µg/mL. The LOD and LOQ values for the analyses varied from 0.34 to 1.41 µg/mL and from 1.01 to 4.23 µg/mL, respectively. The percentage recovery of each reference compound was found to be from 97.09% to 100.79%, and the RSD (% was less than 2.35%. The precision and accuracy ranged from 0.81%–3.20% and 95.38%–102.19% for intra-day, and from 0.43%–3.67% and 96.63%–103.09% for inter-day, respectively. The study disclosed in detail significant differences between the quantities of analyzed compounds in different samples. The total triterpenes in wild Linhzhi samples were significantly higher than in cultivated ones. The total constituent contents of the five related Linhzhi samples were considerably lower than that in the G. lucidum specimens, except for G. australe as its constituent content outweighed wild Linhzhi’s content by 4:1.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells

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    Choi, Solip [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nguyen, Van Thu [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Sungwoo [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Byung-Sun [College of Pharmacy, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hyung, E-mail: jhlee36@kangwon.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE{sub 2}, butyl lucidenateD{sub 2} (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effects of selected triterpenes from Ganoderma lucidum are demonstrated. • Heme oxygenase-1 induction is attributable to the anti-inflammatory properties of these

  10. The development and application of a multiple gene co-silencing system using endogenous URA3 as a reporter gene in Ganoderma lucidum.

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    Dashuai Mu

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is one of the most important medicinal mushrooms; however, molecular genetics research on this species has been limited due to a lack of reliable reverse genetic tools. In this study, the endogenous orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (URA3 was cloned as a silencing reporter, and four gene-silencing methods using hairpin, sense, antisense, and dual promoter constructs, were introduced into G. lucidum through a simple electroporation procedure. A comparison and evaluation of silencing efficiency demonstrated that all of the four methods differentially suppressed the expression of URA3. Our data unequivocally indicate that the dual promoter silencing vector yields the highest rate of URA3 silencing compared with other vectors (up to 81.9%. To highlight the advantages of the dual promoter system, we constructed a co-silencing system based on the dual promoter method and succeeded in co-silencing URA3 and laccase in G. lucidum. The reduction of the mRNA levels of the two genes were correlated. Thus, the screening efficiency for RNAi knockdown of multiple genes may be improved by the co-silencing of an endogenous reporter gene. The molecular tools developed in this study should facilitate the isolation of genes and the characterization of the functions of multiple genes in this pharmaceutically important species, and these tools should be highly useful for the study of other basidiomycetes.

  11. Evaluation of anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on clinical isolates of Prevotella intermedia: A pilot study

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    Ranganath N Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the anti-microbial activity of spore powder of Ganoderma lucidum on Prevotella intermedia isolated from subgingival plaque from chronic periodontitis patients. Settings and Design: Written informed consent was obtained from each subject enrolled in the study. The Institutional Ethics Committee granted the ethical clearance for the study. Materials and Methods: This study included 20 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Pooled subgingival plaque samples were collected using sterile curettes from the deepest sites of periodontal pockets. The collected samples were then transported in 1 mL of reduced transport fluid. The organisms were cultured and confirmed. These organisms were then used for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC procedure. Statistical Analysis: Mean of the MIC value obtained was calculated. Results: Thirteen out of the 20 clinical samples were tested that showed sensitivity at various concentrations. Five samples showed sensitivity at all concentrations. Twelve samples showed sensitivity at 8 mcg/ml. Eleven samples showed sensitivity at 4 mcg/ml, 8 samples showed sensitivity at 2 mcg/ml, and 5 samples showed sensitivity even at 1 mcg/ml. Mean MIC value of G. lucidum spore powder for P. intermedia obtained was 3.62 mcg/ml. Conclusion: G. lucidum with its multipotential bioactivity could be used as an anti-microbial, in conjunction with conventional therapy in periodontal disease.

  12. Isolation and analysis of differentially expressed genes during asexual sporulation in liquid static culture of Ganoderma lucidum by suppression subtractive hybridization.

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    Xu, Jun-Wei; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Yi-Ning; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-04-01

    Ganoderma lucidum differentiates in liquid static culture by forming aerial mycelia and asexual spores, and this differentiation process is accompanied by higher production of anti-tumor compounds ganoderic acids. To gain an insight into the molecular events during asexual sporulation of G. lucidum, comparative transcriptome analysis using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technique was performed to identify preferentially expressed genes in liquid static culture vs. in traditional shaking culture. After macroarray analysis of 1920 cDNAs from SSH library, 147 unigenes which exhibited high expression in static culture were identified. Among these sequences, putative translations of 88 unigenes possessed much similarity to known proteins involved in cell organization, signal transduction, cell metabolism, protein biosynthesis and transcription regulation; 13 had significant similarity to hypothetical proteins; the remaining 46 showed little or no similarity to GenBank sequences. RT-qPCR analysis confirmed increases in transcripts of selected genes under liquid static culture condition. The results of this study present the useful application of EST analysis on G. lucidum and provide preliminary indication of gene expression putatively involved in asexual sporulation process.

  13. In Vitro Assessment of Extracts of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Different Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

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    Baig, Mirza Nabeel; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GL-1, GL-2, GL-3, GL-4, GL-5) were collected from different locations within and surrounding Lahore, Pakistan, to study the antifungal potential of their bioactive compounds. After studying morphology, different concentrations of the extracts were prepared in methanol and water using a Soxhlet extractor. Different cultures of fungal pathogens were acquired from the First Fungal Culture Bank of Pakistan, University of the Punjab, Lahore. The antimicrobial potential of 5 G. lucidum samples against 5 fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Alternaria alternata) was observed. The lowest biomass reduction (7%) was observed in 1% and 2% concentrations of a methanolic extract and 6% in the case of a water extract. Major inhibition was observed using higher concentrations of the methanolic extract (3% and 4%). These extracts significantly suppressed fungal biomass up to 38% and 56% in A. niger, 47% in A. flavus, 58% in ,i>Penicillium sp., 46% in A. alternaria, and 45% in F. oxysporum compared with the control. It was concluded from these studies that methanolic extracts of G. lucidum showed better activity against all plant fungal pathogens when compared with the water extracts.

  14. Paddy straw as a substrate for the cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. in India.

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    Veena, S S; Pandey, Meera

    2011-01-01

    Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, is generally cultivated on hardwood logs or sawdust/woodchips based formulations. More than 100 million tonnes of paddy straw is being produced in India per year, and almost 50% of the straw is potentially available for growing mushrooms. In the present study an attempt was made to use paddy straw as a substrate to cultivate G. lucidim. Different proportions of paddy straw were mixed with 0, 22.5%, 45%, and 67.5% sawdust and 10% rice bran. Spawn run period, fruiting initiation period, yield, moisture content, dry recovery, and fruiting body characteristics were recorded and compared. Fructification was observed with all the substrate formulations and they did not show any significant difference in yield. The highest biological efficiency (BE) (29.9%) was observed with the combination sawdust:paddy straw:rice bran 22.5:67.5:10, followed by saw dust:paddy straw:rice bran 45:45:10 with BE 27.3%. The current study demonstrated for the first time that the cultivation of G. lucidum is possible with paddy straw as the base substrate and indicated the enormous potential of paddy straw for the cultivation of G. lucidum.

  15. Production of Basidiomata and Ligninolytic Enzymes by the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes), in Licuri (Syagrus coronata) Wastes in Brazil.

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    de Menezes, Thais Almeida; Bispo, Aline Simoes da Rocha; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza; Kamida, Helio Mitoshi; Goes-Neto, Aristoteles

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a medicinal mushroom with different forms of bioactivity that has been used in popular medicine for centuries. This study aimed to test the application of agricultural wastes (fruit shells, leaves, and bracts) from the endemic Brazilian palm tree Syagrus coronata (licuri) as substrates for the production of G. lucidum basidiomata and ligninolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation. The best culture conditions were the same for all substrates (pH 6.5, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio = 40, and temperature 30°C) and were established from preliminary assays. The yield was not significantly different for bracts (33.53 g/kg) and leaves (37.48 g/kg), nor for the biological efficiency in these same substrates: bracts, 3.35%; leaves, 3.75%. The highest laccase (13.80 U/L) and manganese peroxidase (14.92 U/L) activities were achieved after 14 and 28 days of incubation, respectively, using bracts as the substrate. Licuri residues are then potential substrates to be used in the bioconversion process for mycelia, basidiomata, and ligninolytic enzyme production by G. lucidum.

  16. Yield performance of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), using different waste materials as substrates.

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    Azizi, Majid; Tavana, Maryam; Farsi, Mohammad; Oroojalian, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    In this research the effect of sawdust, malt extract, and wheat bran on yield, biological efficiency (BE), and mycelia growth of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated. Three kinds of sawdust (beech, poplar, and hornbeam) as basal medium were mixed with two levels of wheat bran (5% and 10% w/w) and malt extract (2.5% and 5% w/w) as medium supplement for production of G. lucidum in factorial experiments on the basis of completely randomized design with three replications. The results showed that various kinds of sawdust affect fruiting body yield, BE, and mycelia growth rate significantly. The highest fruiting body yield and BE (102.58 g/kg and 12.89%, respectively) were found using hornbeam sawdust. The beech sawdust promotes the mycelia growth rate more than other sawdust. Analysis of variance showed that there is a significant interaction between the sawdust type and wheat bran, sawdust type and malt extract, and wheat bran and malt extract as far as yield and BE of G. lucidum was concerned. A final comparison of the different formulae indicated that the best combinations for high yield (142.44 g/kg) and BE (18.68%) were obtained in a combination of poplar sawdust with 5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran. The highest mycelia growth rate (10.6 mm/day) was obtained in a combination of beech sawdust with 2.5% malt extract and 10% wheat bran.

  17. Prophylactic use of Ganoderma lucidum extract may inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis replication in a new mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection

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    Chuan eQin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A mouse model of spontaneous latent tuberculosis infection (LTBIthat mimics latent tuberculosis infection in humans is valuable for drug/vaccine development and the study of tuberculosis. However, most LTBI mouse models require interventions, and a spontaneous LTBI mouse model with a low bacterial load is difficult to establish. In this study, mice were IV-inoculated with 100 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, and a persistent LTBI was established with low bacterial loads (0.5~1.5log10 CFU in the lung; <4log10 CFU in the spleen. Histopathological changes in the lung, spleen, and liver were mild during the first 20 weeks post-inoculation. The model was used to demonstrate the comparative effects of prophylactic and therapeutic administration of Ganoderma lucidum extract (spores and spores lipid in preventing H37Rv replication in both lung and spleen. H37Rv was inhibited with prophylactic use of G. lucidum extract relative to that of the untreated control and therapy groups, and observed in the spleen as early as post-inoculation week 3. H37Rv infection in the therapy group was comparable to that of the untreated control mice. No significant mitigation of pathological changes was observed in either the prophylactic or therapeutic groups. Our results suggest that this LTBI model is an efficient means of testing anti-tuberculosis vaccines and drugs. The use of G. lucidum extract prior to M. tuberculosis infection may protect the host against bacterial replication to some extent.

  18. Anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi in inflammatory breast cancer in in vivo and in vitro models.

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    Ivette J Suarez-Arroyo

    Full Text Available The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI, two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated with a multimodal approach that includes non-targeted systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy. Our previous studies demonstrate these selective anti-cancer effects of Reishi, where IBC cell viability and invasion, as well as the expression of key IBC molecules, including eIF4G is compromised. Thus, herein we define the mechanistic effects of Reishi focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway, a regulator of cell survival and growth. The present study demonstrates that Reishi treated IBC SUM-149 cells have reduced expression of mTOR downstream effectors at early treatment times, as we observe reduced eIF4G levels coupled with increased levels of eIF4E bound to 4E-BP, with consequential protein synthesis reduction. Severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with IBC cells treated with Reishi for 13 weeks show reduced tumor growth and weight by ∼50%, and Reishi treated tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin, mTOR, eIF4G, and p70S6K, and activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2. Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses protein synthesis and tumor growth by affecting survival and proliferative signaling pathways that act on translation, suggesting that Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.

  19. Anti-tumor effects of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) in inflammatory breast cancer in in vivo and in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Arroyo, Ivette J; Rosario-Acevedo, Raysa; Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Clemente, Pedro L; Cubano, Luis A; Serrano, Juan; Schneider, Robert J; Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) was tested as a potential therapeutic for Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC) using in vivo and in vitro IBC models. IBC is a lethal and aggressive form of breast cancer that manifests itself without a typical tumor mass. Studies show that IBC tissue biopsies overexpress E-cadherin and the eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), two proteins that are partially responsible for the unique pathological properties of this disease. IBC is treated with a multimodal approach that includes non-targeted systemic chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Because of its non-toxic and selective anti-cancer activity, medicinal mushroom extracts have received attention for their use in cancer therapy. Our previous studies demonstrate these selective anti-cancer effects of Reishi, where IBC cell viability and invasion, as well as the expression of key IBC molecules, including eIF4G is compromised. Thus, herein we define the mechanistic effects of Reishi focusing on the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a regulator of cell survival and growth. The present study demonstrates that Reishi treated IBC SUM-149 cells have reduced expression of mTOR downstream effectors at early treatment times, as we observe reduced eIF4G levels coupled with increased levels of eIF4E bound to 4E-BP, with consequential protein synthesis reduction. Severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with IBC cells treated with Reishi for 13 weeks show reduced tumor growth and weight by ∼50%, and Reishi treated tumors showed reduced expression of E-cadherin, mTOR, eIF4G, and p70S6K, and activity of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). Our results provide evidence that Reishi suppresses protein synthesis and tumor growth by affecting survival and proliferative signaling pathways that act on translation, suggesting that Reishi is a potential natural therapeutic for breast and other cancers.

  20. Study on Intermediate Test of Extraction of Ganoder Lucidum Polysaacchairde from Ganoderma Lucidum%灵芝提取灵芝多糖的中间试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 吕扬

    2010-01-01

    灵芝,作为药物有2000多年的历史,临床和药理研究表明,灵芝具有多种生理活性与药理作用;而灵芝多糖(Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide)是其主要活性成分,具有免疫调节功能和明显抗癌和抗衰老功能.本文就灵芝多糖的超声波工业化生产的工艺进行了中间试验研究.试验结果表明:超声波提取灵芝多糖工艺条件:料液比为:1:18,提取时间1h,提取3次,为工业化生产提供了试验基础.

  1. Evaluation of Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant-, and Anxiolytic-like Effects of an Aqueous Extract from Cultured Mycelia of the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socala, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Grzywnowicz, Krzysztof; Stefaniuk, Dawid; Wlaz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known medicinal mushroom with a long history of use. This study was designed to assess the anticonvulsant potential of an aqueous extract from cultured G. lucidum mycelium in 3 acute seizure models: timed intravenous pentylenetetrazole infusion, maximal electroshock seizure threshold, and 6-Hz-induced psychomotor seizure tests in mice. Moreover, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of G. lucidum were evaluated using the forced swim test and the elevated plus maze test in mice, respectively. No changes in seizure thresholds in the intravenous pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock seizure threshold tests after acute treatment with G. lucidum extract (200-600 mg/kg) was observed. However, the studied extract (100-400 mg/kg) significantly increased the threshold for psychomotor seizures in the 6-Hz seizure test. In the forced swim test, G. lucidum (100-400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the duration of immobility. No anxiolytic-like or sedative effects were reported in mice pretreated with the extract (400-600 mg/kg). G. lucidum extract (50-2400 mg/kg) did not produce toxic effects in the chimney test (motor coordination) or grip-strength test (neuromuscular strength). Further studies are required to explain the neuropharmacological effects of G. lucidum and to identify its active ingredients that may affect seizure threshold, mood, or anxiety.

  2. Hepatoprotective role of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against BCG-induced immune liver injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Liang Zhang; Ye-Hong Wang; Wei Ni; Hui-Ling Teng; Zhi-Bin Lin

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of ganoderma lucidumpolysaccharide (GLP) on the immune liver injuryinduced by BCG infection, and investigate therelationship between degrees of hepatic damage andNO production in mice.METHODS: Immune hepatic injury was markedlyinduced by BCG-pretreatment (125 mg.kg-1, 2-week, iv)or by BCG-pretreatment plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS,125 μg.kg-1, 12-hour, iv) in mice in vivo.Hepatocellulardamage induced by BCG-pretreated plus inflammatorycytokines mixture (CM), which was included TNF-α, IL1β, IFN-γ and LPS in culture medium in vitro.Administration of GLP was performed by oral orincubating with culture medium at immune stimulisimultaneity. Liver damage was determined by activityof alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in serum and inhepatocytes cultured supernatant, by liver weightchanges and histopathological examination. NOproduction in the cultured supematant was determinedby the Griess reaction. Moreover, inducible nitric oxidesynthase (iNOS) protein expression was alsoexaminated by immunohistochemi1cal method.RESULTS: Immune hepatic injury was markedly inducedby BCG or BCG plus inflammatory cytokines in BALB/cmice in vivoand in vitro. Under BCG-stimulated condition,augment of the liver weight and increase of the serum/supernatant ALT level were observed, as well asgranuloma forming and inflammatory cells soakage wereobserved by microscopic analysis within liver tissues.Moreover, NO production was also increased by BCG or/and CH stimuli in the culture supernatant, and a lot ofiNOS positive staining was observed in BCG-prestimulated hepatic sections. Application of GLPsignificantly mitigated hepatic tumefaction, decreasedALT enzyme release and NO production in serum/supernatant, improved the pathological changes ofchronic and acute inflammation induced by BCG-stimuliin mice. Moreover, the immunohistochemical resultshowed that GLP inhibited iNOS protein expression inBCG-immune hepatic damage model.CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that

  3. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhavini Kumari; Prolay Das; Rekha Kumari

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  4. Accelerated processing of solitary and clustered abasic site DNA damage lesions by APE1 in the presence of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Bhavini; DAS, Prolay; Kumari, Rekha

    2016-06-01

    The stimulatory effect of the aqueous extract of G. lucidum, a basidiomycetes class fungus in the APE1-enzyme-mediated processing of solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites DNA damages is presented. Abasic sites are considered the most common type of DNA damage lesions. Our study shows enhanced activity of APE1 in the processing of abasic sites in the presence of the polysaccharides fraction of G. lucidum. Remarkable increase in the amount of single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) from solitary and bistranded clustered abasic sites respectively with APE1 in the presence of the extract was found. This trend is maintained when abasic sites in DNA oligomers are exposed to fibroblast cell extracts in the presence of the extract. While DNA conformational alteration is negligible, APE1 enzyme shows characteristic changes in the alpha helix and beta strand ratio after incubation with G. lucidum extract. The enhanced reactivity of APE1 at the molecular level in the presence of G. lucidium is attributed to this effect. This study potentially amplifies the scope of the use of G. lucidum, which was earlier shown to have only reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging properties with regards to DNA damage inhibition.

  5. Determination of Aliphatic Acid and Ester in Ganoderma lucidum by Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry%气相色谱-飞行时间质谱测定灵芝中脂肪酸(酯)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李前荣; 潘振; 尹浩

    2004-01-01

    The extracts of Ganoderma lucidum capsule powder (A) and natural ganoaerma lucidum (B) have been and analyzed by gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A great quantity of aliphatic acid (ester)Was observed at tR= 18min and tR = 20min, including the unsaturated aliphatic acid which is valuable. The relative content of aliphatic acid in sample A was 49.6%, of which 19.4% was linoleic acid, and those in sample B was 32.6%, of which 7.0% was linoleic acid. The relative content of aliphatic acids in sample A was higher than that in sample B.

  6. Production of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. :Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), biomass and polysaccharides by solid state cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berovic, Marin; Habijanic, Jozica; Boh, Bojana; Wraber, Branka; Petravic-Tominac, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    Solid state cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum biomass, strain BFWS Gal 4, originally isolated from the Slovenian forest, was studied in a horizontal stirred tank reactor. Periodic mixing of N = 80 rpm, 2 min/day was used. Production of fungal polysaccharides and fungal biomass on solid substrate based on beech sawdust, olive oil, and mineral salts was studied. Optimal moisture of the solid matrix was in the range of 80% to 74%. When the moisture content dropped below 57%, the growth of the mycelium and polysaccharide production stopped, but it revived when wet air was applied in further processing. Final concentration of biomass was 0.68 mg/g of solid substrate, while proportions of extracellular and intracellular polysaccharides were 4.5 mg/g and 1.05 mg/g, respectively.

  7. Effect of medium pH and cultivation period on mycelial biomass, polysaccharide, and ligninolytic enzyme production by Ganoderma lucidum from Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukojević Jelena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of initial medium pH on biomass, extracellular and intracellular polysaccharide, and ligninolytic enzyme production by Ganoderma lucidum was investigated at different pH values after 7 and 14 days of cultivation. Maximal production of biomass was recorded at pH 4.5 and 5.0; maximal production of extracellular polysaccharides at pH 7.0 and 3.0; and maximal production of intracellular polysaccharides at pH 7.0 and 5.5. Ligninolytic enzymes were not produced at any pH of the medium. Maximal biomass production was obtained on the 11th day of cultivation; maximal extracellular polysaccharide production on the 7th day; and maximal intracellular polysaccharide production on the 6th and 10th day of cultivation. .

  8. Expression and characteristics of manganese peroxidase from Ganoderma lucidum in Pichia pastoris and its application in the degradation of four dyes and phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Guo, Meng-Yuan; Gao, Yan-Hua; Bai, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Xuan-Wei

    2017-02-23

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) of white rot basidiomycetes, an extracellular heme enzyme, is part of a peroxidase superfamily that is capable of degrading the different phenolic compounds. Ganoderma, a white rot basidiomycete widely distributed worldwide, could secrete lignin-modifying enzymes (LME), including laccase (Lac), lignin peroxidases (LiP) and MnP. After the selection of a G. lucidum strain from five Ganoderma strains, the 1092 bp full-length cDNA of the MnP gene, designated as G. lucidum MnP (GluMnP1), was cloned from the selected strain. We subsequently constructed an eukaryotic expression vector, pAO815:: GlMnP, and transferred it into Pichia pastoris SMD116. Recombinant GluMnP1 (rGluMnP1) was with a yield of 126 mg/L and a molecular weight of approximately 37.72 kDa and a specific enzyme activity of 524.61 U/L. The rGluMnP1 could be capable of the decolorization of four types of dyes and the degradation of phenol. Phenol and its principal degradation products including hydroquinone, pyrocatechol, resorcinol, benzoquinone, were detected successfully in the experiments. The rGluMnP1 could be effectively expressed in Pichia pastoris and with a higher oxidation activity. We infer that, in the initial stages of the reaction, the catechol-mediated cycle should be the principal route of enzymatic degradation of phenol and its oxidation products. This study highlights the potential industrial applications associated with the production of MnP by genetic engineering methods, and the application of industrial wastewater treatment.

  9. Effect of dietary linseed oil and Ganoderma lucidum or olive leaves supplementation on fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Trebušak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of natural antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative stress induced by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in rabbit diets. Forty-eight SIKA rabbits (24 male, 24 female were penned individually and after a 5-d adaptation period divided into 4 homogeneous groups (2.58±0.3 kg. The CONT– group received a diet with 60 g/kg palm fat, while the other 3 groups received a diet with 60 g/kg linseed oil which was either unsupplemented (CONT+ or supplemented with 10 g/kg of Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI or 10 g/kg of olive leaves (OLIVE. Rabbits were euthanised at 102 d of age, 22 d after the start of the experiment. Live weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion rate were recorded. The fatty acid composition of back (M. longissimus dorsi and hind leg muscle (thigh muscle, adipose tissue (abdominal fat and liver were determined. To evaluate the oxidative status of rabbits, the malondialdehyde (MDA concentration in the plasma, liver and both muscles was measured. DNA damage in the leukocytes was measured. Linseed oil addition increased the PUFA ratio and decreased the proportion of saturated fatty acids in all tissues (P<0.001, with no detrimental effect on productive performance of rabbits compared to palm fat. Linseed oil also reduced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in all tissues (P<0.001. However, linseed oil addition increased the oxidative stress by increasing MDA concentrations in the liver and muscles (P<0.001, but did not affect the plasma MDA concentrations and the extent of DNA damage in the blood leukocytes compared to palm fat. Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver Addition of olive leaves tended to decrease the concentration of MDA in the liver compared to CONT+ (P=0.059, with no effect of Ganoderma lucidum.

  10. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka; Salobir, Janez; Pirman, Tatjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) or Olea europaea (olive tree) leaves on oxidative stability of rabbit meat fortified with n-3 fatty acids. Forty-eight slovenska kunka (SIKA) rabbits were divided into four homogeneous groups. The control group (CONT-) received diet with 6% palm fat; other groups received diet with 6% linseed oil and were either unsupplemented (CONT+) or supplemented with 1% of G. lucidum (REISHI) or O. europaea leaves (OLIVE). Rabbits were slaughtered and fatty acid composition, concentration of vitamin E and malondialdehyde (MDA) in back muscle were analyzed. The results showed that linseed oil addition improved fatty acid composition by increasing polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportion, decreasing proportion of saturated fatty acid (SFA) and reducing n-6/n-3 ratio in rabbit meat. Groups that were supplemented with linseed oil had lower content of α-tocopherol and higher content of γ-tocopherol, compared to the CONT- group. The addition of potential antioxidants did not effectively prevent oxidation of rabbit meat.

  11. Modulatory effect of crude aqueous extract of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), on hematological and antioxidant indices in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Adebisi, Kayode E; Eidangbe, George O; Odutuga, Adewale A; Onyeneke, E Chukwu

    2014-01-01

    Hematological and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum were evaluated in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Extract was administered at doses of 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight by an intragastric tube once daily for 14 d starting from the fourth day after parasite inoculation. At the end of treatment period, mice in each group were sacrificed and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analyses. A significant (P<0.05) decrease was observed in serum malondialdehyde content with a corresponding significant (P<0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities in the extract-treated groups compared to the infected but untreated group. The results obtained suggest that crude aqueous extract of G. lucidum fruiting bodies possesses potent antioxidant activity that protects hemoglobin against Plasmodium-induced oxidative damage. These findings seem to justify the use of the plant in traditional African and Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent.

  12. Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher basidiomycetes) on α-amanitin-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Zeng, Jun; Hu, Jinsong; Liao, Qiong; Zhou, Rong; Zhang, Ping; Chen, Zuohong

    2013-01-01

    The Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known traditional medicinal mushroom that has been shown to have obvious hepatoprotective effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum aqueous extracts (GLEs) on liver injury induced by α-amanitin (α-AMA) in mice and to analyze the possible hepatoprotective mechanisms related to radical scavenging activity. Mice were treated with α-AMA prepared from Amanita exitialis and then administrated with GLE after the α-AMA injection. The hepatoprotective activity of the GLE was compared with the reference drug silibinin (SIL). α-AMA induced a significant elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and provoked a significant reduction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and a significant increment of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver homogenate. Treatment with GLE or SIL significantly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased MDA content in liver compared with the α-AMA control group. The histopathological examination of liver sections was consistent with that of biochemical parameters. The results demonstrated that GLE induces hepatoprotective effects on acute liver injury induced by α-AMA; these protective effects may be related in part to the antioxidant properties of GLE.

  13. Isolation, purification, and immunological activities of a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide from the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lina; Luo, Xi; Tang, Qingjiu; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Jingsong

    2013-01-01

    To obtain a low-molecular-weight polysaccharide with immuno-enhancing activity, hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruit bodies was separated by membrane ultrafiltration, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography, and the immunological activities of fractions were assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW 264.7 macrophages. A novel polysaccharide (TB3-2-2) was successfully isolated and purified. TB3-2-2 is a homogeneous polysaccharide, with a relative molecular weight of 5.11 × 103 Da, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography and was composed of galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 2:3 determined by high-performance anion exchange chromatography. TB3-2-2 had a carbohydrate content of 99%, as measured using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. Proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes and the expression level of interleukin-6 was significantly increased by TB3-2-2. Results indicate that the low-molecular-weight polysaccharide with immunological activity in G. lucidum is worthy of further research and development.

  14. Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganoderma lucidum Inhibit the Growth of Lung Cancer: Involvement of the Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yali; Lv, Jing; Li, Kun; Xu, Jing; Li, Mingyan; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng

    2016-10-01

    The sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SBGS) and their extracts exhibited a wide range of biological activities. In the present study, we prepare ethanol/ethanol extract (E/E-SBGS) and ethanol/aqueous extract (E/A-SBGS) from SBGS and examine their antitumor activities against human lung cancer. Our results showed that E/E-SBGS, not E/A-SBGS, inhibited the survival and migration of lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. E/E-SBGS arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase and triggered apoptosis by decreasing the expression and activity of cell cycle regulators, cyclin B1 and cdc2, as well as anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Consequently, colony formation of lung cancer cells was markedly blocked by E/E-SBGS at subtoxic concentrations. Oral administration of both E/E-SBGS and SBGS significantly suppressed tumor volume and tumor weight without gross toxicity in mice. Mechanism study showed that E/E-SBGS dose-dependently suppressed the activation of Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and their downstream molecules S6 kinase and 4E-BP1 in treated tumor cells. Taken together, these results indicate that the ethanol extract of sporoderm-broken spores of G. lucidum suppresses the growth of human lung cancer, at least in part, through inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, suggesting its potential role in cancer treatments.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity on mice of extract of Ganoderma lucidum grown on rice via modulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnat, Md Abul; Pervin, Mehnaz; Cha, Kyu Min; Kim, Si Kwan; Lim, Beong Ou

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom with anti-inflammatory potential. In the present study, the aim was to determine the anti-inflammatory effect and mode of action of G. lucidum grown on germinated brown rice (GLBR) in a mouse model of colitis. It was shown that GLBR suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and decreased the expression of COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs. GLBR also inhibited activation of p38, ERK, JNK, MAPKs, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In a mouse model of colitis, colonic mucosal injury was evaluated using macroscopic, biochemical, and histopathological testing. Disease activity index (DAI), macroscopic score, and histological score significantly decreased upon GLBR treatment. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies indicated that DSS activates nuclear translocation of NF-κB in colon tissue, which is attenuated by GLBR extract. These findings suggest that GLBR is protective against colitis via inhibition of MAPK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation.

  16. The regulation of methyl jasmonate on hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis in Ganoderma lucidum partly via ROS generated by NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang; Gong, Li; Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Ang; Gao, Tan; Zhao, Mingwen

    2015-08-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is one of the best known medicinal basidiomycetes because it produces many pharmacologically active compounds, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was previously reported to induce the biosynthesis of ganoderic acids (GA) in G. lucidum. In this study, we found that MeJA not only increased the amount of GA but also increased the distance between hyphal branches by approximately 1.2-fold. Further analysis showed that MeJA could increase the intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) content by approximately 2.2-2.7-fold. Furthermore, the hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis regulated by MeJA treatment could be abolished by ROS scavengers to a level similar to or lower than that of the control group. These results indicated that the regulation of hyphal branching and GA biosynthesis by MeJA might occur via a ROS signaling pathway. Further analysis revealed that NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays an important role in MeJA-regulated ROS generation. Importantly, our results highlight that NOX functions in signaling cross-talk between ROS and MeJA. In addition, these findings provide an excellent opportunity to identify potential pathways linking ROS networks to MeJA signaling in fungi and suggest that plants and fungi share a conserved signaling-crosstalk mechanism.

  17. Studies on the immuno-modulating and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Chen, Shui-Tein; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Wong, Chi-Huey; Lin, Chun-Hung

    2002-04-01

    A fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction which stimulates spleen cell proliferation and cytokine expression has been identified from the water-soluble extract of Ganoderma lucidum. Proteomic analysis of mouse spleen cells treated with this glycoprotein fraction showed approximately 50% change of the proteome. Further studies on the activities of this glycoprotein fraction through selective proteolysis and glycosidic cleavage indicate that a fucose containing polysaccharide fraction is responsible for stimulating the expression of cytokines, especially IL-1, IL-2 and INF-gamma.

  18. Structure Revision of (22E)-Ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9α,14α- pentol from the Spores of the Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoita, Yasunori; Machida, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Careful reexamination of the published ¹H and ¹³C NMR spectral data of (22E)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9α,14α-pentol (1), isolated from the spores of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, indicates that, in reality, the compound is (22E)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6β,9α,14β-pentol (5).

  19. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  20. Kinetic Model for Exopolysaccharides(EPS)of Ganoderma lucidum in Batch Fermentation%灵芝胞外多糖分批发酵动力学模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国; 陈晓明; 贺新生

    2007-01-01

    利用分批发酵研究了灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)胞外多糖的合成特性,结果表明Ganoderma lucidum多糖合成和菌体生长呈部分生长关联型.菌体干重、胞外多糖分别达到15.56g·L-1、3.02g·L-1,胞外多糖对细胞干重得率系数(Yp/π)为0.19.根据分批发酵试验结果采用Logistic方程、Luedeking-Piret方程和类似Luedeking-Piret方程,得到了描述灵芝生长、胞外多糖以及葡萄糖底物消耗分批发酵动力学模型.同时在初始葡萄糖变化较大范围内,试验数据与模型预测值进行了比较拟合,平均相对误差小于5%,表现出很好的适用性.表明该动力学模型对指导灵芝胞外多糖的发酵生产具有实际意义.

  1. Anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase-1 inducing activities of lanostane triterpenes isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Solip; Nguyen, Van Thu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Suhyun; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Min, Byung-Sun; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2014-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular medicinal mushroom used in traditional medicine for preventing or treating a variety of diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 inducing effects of 12 lanostane triterpenes from G. lucidum in RAW264.7 cells. Of these, seven triterpenes, butyl lucidenateE2, butyl lucidenateD2 (GT-2), butyl lucidenate P, butyl lucidenateQ, Ganoderiol F, methyl ganodenate J and butyl lucidenate N induced HO-1 expression and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abrogated the inhibitory effects of these triterpenes on the production of NO in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, suggesting the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of these triterpenes. We further studied the anti-inflammatory and HO-1 inducing effects of GT-2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, did not suppress GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction; however, LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, blocked GT-2-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. GT-2 increased nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA blocked GT-2-mediated HO-1 induction, suggesting that GT-2 induced HO-1 expression via the PI3K/AKT-Nrf2 pathway. Consistent with the notion that HO-1 has anti-inflammatory properties, GT-2 inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. These findings suggest that HO-1 inducing activities of these lanostane triterpenes may be important in the understanding of a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of G. lucidum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 5种杀菌剂对灵芝菌丝及绿色木霉生长的影响%Effects of 5 fungicides of hypha growth of Ganoderma lucidum and Trichderma viride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍华

    2001-01-01

    研究了5种杀菌剂对灵芝菌丝及绿色木霉生长的影响。结果表明,不同种类杀菌剂和同一杀菌剂不同使用浓度对菌丝生长的影响存在着显著差异。其中可杀得在使用质量浓度为0.538~0.359g.L-1时,既能抑制绿色木霉的生长,又对灵芝菌丝的生长发育无不良影响,可望在灵芝栽培中应用。表4参9%The effects of five fungicides on the hypha growth of Ganodermalucidum and the growth of Trichderma viride were studied.The results showed that the different kinds and treatment concentrations of fungicides on the hypha growth of Ganoderma lucidum and the growth of Trichderma viride had significant difference.It was proved that cupper hydroxide at concentration of 0.538~0.359 g.L-1 had almost no inhibitions on the growth of Ganoderma lucidum and had stronger effects on the growth of Trichderma viride.Therefore,cupper hydroxide could be used in Ganoderma lucidum cultivation.

  3. Production of Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes), containing high levels of α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Yuka; Miyazaki, Minoru; Okita, Noriyasu; Hoshino, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderic acid A and α- and β-D-glucan content were compared among morphologically different basidiocarps of the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Ginkgo leaf-shaped basidiocarps gradually hardened from the base to the pileus and accumulated a higher amount of bioactive components than normal (kidney-shaped) and antler/deer horn-shaped basidiocarps. In the normal G. lucidum stipe, the outer context contained the highest amount of α- and β-D-glucan (approximately 55%) and the highest amount of ganoderic acid A (approximately 0.3%). Ginkgo leaf-shaped G. lucidum had a large area of outer layer and stout outer context, which contributed to their high α- and β-D-glucan and ganoderic acid A content.

  4. Efficacy of Compound of Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus Extracts on Tumor-Bearing Mice Treated by Cyclophosphamide%灵芝黄芪复配物提高环磷酰胺对荷瘤小鼠的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳俊; 廖鲜艳; 翁新楚

    2012-01-01

    研究灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)黄芪(Astragalus)复配物对环磷酰胺(cyclophosphamide,CTX)治疗的荷瘤小鼠肿瘤和免疫功能的影响.建立小鼠S180肉瘤模型,每日灌胃低、中、高剂量的灵芝黄芪复配物,并配合腹腔注射CTX.连续处理小鼠2周后,分析抑瘤效应,测定小鼠脾指数、胸腺指数、外周血白细胞(white blood cell,WBC)数和红细胞(red blood cell,RBC)数等免疫指标.同单CTX治疗组相比,中、高剂量的灵芝黄芪复配物能显著加强CTX对小鼠S180肉瘤的抑制作用(P<0.01),明显改善CTX引起的小鼠胸腺萎缩(P<0.01)和白细胞减少症状(P<0.05,P<0.01).灵芝黄芪复配物对CTX的抑瘤治疗具有明显的增效减毒作用,其效果堪比于单味中药灵芝提取物辅助CTX的抑瘤疗效,可大大降低单味灵芝提取物的治疗成本,经济价值可观.%Effects of the compound of Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus extracts on immunity and tumor of mice treated by cyclophosphamide (CTX) were investigated. The mice were given both compounds of Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus extracts by gavage and CTX by peritoneal injection for two weeks after the mouse model bearing SI80 tumor were produced. Then the anti-tumor effect, the thymus index, spleen index and the amount of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells ( RBCs) were observed and determined. Compared with the CTX group, the middle and high dose group of Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus extracts significantly enhanced the effect of CTX on inhibiting the growth of S180 tumor (P < 0. 01) , and prominently relieve thymic atrophy ( P < 0. 01 ) and leucopenia ( P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01 ) caused by CTX in mice. The compound of Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus extracts showed synergy and attenuation of CTX in tumor therapy. Its efficacy was equivalent to that of single folium Ganoderma lucidum extract, which largely reduced the cost of single folium Ganoderma lucidum extract with a great economical value.

  5. Optimized prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill%鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸成型工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李星; 袁曦

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the feasibility of optimization the prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Poly-saccharide Extract Dropping Pill.METHODS The central composite design and response surface method were used to optimize prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill with PEG 6000 and Poloxamer 188 as combined carrier.And Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill was prepared through melt-ing method.Independent variables were Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract content and Poloxamer 188 con-tent,while dependent variables were weight variable of pills and the dissolution rate of 5,10,60min.Quadratic poly-nomial fit-ting is adopted to estimate the mathematical relationship between independent and dependent varia-bles.Response surfaces were delineated according to the established mathematic models and optimum prescriptions were predicted from there.And confirmatory tests were carried out in the end.RESULTS The best prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract Dropping Pill was that Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharide Extract con-tent was 22%,while Poloxamer 188 content was 40%.Bias between observed and predicted values of all inspection indexes were negligible,indicating the high predictability of the fit models.CONCLUSION The central composite design and r-esponse surface method can be fairly used for optimizating the prescription of Ganoderma Lucidum Poly-saccharide Extract Dropping Pill,and provide new way for further exploration.%目的:探讨鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸处方条件,优化最佳处方。方法运用星点设计-效应面法优选鹿角灵芝中灵芝多糖提取物滴丸处方,以PEG6000和Poloxamer 188为联合载体,采用熔融法制备滴丸,并以主药的质量分数及 Poloxamer 188的质量分数作为考察因素,以丸重差异以及5、10、60min溶出度为评价指标,采用二次多项式拟合建立考察因素与评价指标之间的数学关系,根据所建

  6. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase...... extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13–17 fold higher than...... addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion....

  7. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Terra Agostinho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P, blood cells (BC and insoluble (IF and soluble (SF fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI. Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (pEste estudo avaliou efeitos de um extrato de Ganoderma lucidum (reishi na marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc e na sobrevivência de culturas de Escherichia coli tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Amostras de sangue de ratos Wistar foram tratadas com extrato de reishi, o procedimento de radiomarcação foi realizado, plasma (P, células sangüíneas (CS e frações insolúvel (FI e solúvel (FS de P e CS foram separadas e a radioatividade foi contada para determinação das porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI. Culturas de Escherichia coli AB1157 foram tratadas com cloreto estanoso na presença e ausência do extrato de reishi. Amostras de sangue e culturas bacterianas tratadas com NaCl 0.9% foram usadas como controles. Dados indicaram que o extrato de reishi alterou significativamente (p<0,05 a %ATI de P, CS, FI-P, FS-P, FI-CS e FS-CS, bem como, aumentou a sobrevivência de culturas bacterianas tratadas com cloreto estanoso. Nossos resultados sugerem que o extrato de reishi poderia apresentar ação redox/quelante alterando a marcação de constituintes sangüíneos com 99mTc e protegendo culturas bacterianas contra lesões oxidativas induzidas

  8. Antimicrobial Properties and Cytotoxicity of Sulfated (1,3)-β-D-Glucan from the Mycelium of the Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Young, Louise; Abbott, Gráinne M; Clements, Carol; Harvey, Linda M; McNeil, Brian

    2016-06-28

    Ganoderma lucidum BCCM 31549 has a long established role for its therapeutic activities. In this context, much interest has focused on the possible functions of the (1,3)-β-D-glucan (G) produced by these cultures in a stirred-tank bioreactor and extracted from their underutilized mycelium. In the existing study, we report on the systematic production of G, and its sulfated derivative (GS). The aim of this study was to investigate G and its GS from G. lucidum in terms of their antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity spectrum against human prostate cells (PN2TA) and human caucasian histiocytic lymphoma cells (U937). (1)H NMR for both G and GS compounds showed β-glycosidic linkages and structural similarities when compared with two standards (laminarin and fucoidan). The existence of characteristic absorptions at 1,170 and 867 cm(-1) in the FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) for GS demonstrated the successful sulfation of G. Only GS exhibited antimicrobial activity against a varied range of test bacteria of relevance to foodstuffs and human health. Moreover, both G and GS did not show any cytotoxic effects on PN2TA cells, thus helping demonstrate the safety of these polymers. Moreover, GS showed 40% antiproliferation against cancerous U937 cells at the low concentration (60 μg/ ml) applied in this study compared with G (10%). Together, this demonstrates that sulfation clearly improved the solubility and therapeutic activities of G. The water-soluble GS demonstrates the potential multifunctional effects of these materials in foodstuffs.

  9. 不同金属离子和pH对白腐菌Ganoderma lucidum产漆酶的影响%Effects of Diverse Metal Ions and pH on Laccase Production ofGanoderma Lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞丹; 求璐慧; 杨海龙

    2015-01-01

    在发酵培养基中添加不同浓度金属离子,研究Zn2+,Cu2+,Mn2+,Mg2+和Fe2+等金属离子的浓度和pH对白腐菌Ganoderma lucidum生产漆酶的影响.结果表明:Zn2+、Cu2+和Mn2+对G. lucidum生产漆酶有不同程度促进作用,其中 Cu2+的促进作用最大,Mg2+在高浓度时促进产酶,Fe2+则抑制漆酶的生产;pH为5时最利于漆酶的生产,酶活可达到140000 U/L.%This paper probes into the effects of metal ions with diverse concentration on laccase production in the submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum via addition of Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Mg2+ and Fe2+ respectively in the fermentation media. The results indicate that the laccase production is accelerated at different degrees by the addition of Zn2+, Cu2+and Mn2+, among which Cu2+has the most promoting effect. While, Mg2+ accelerates the laccase production at high concentration, but Fe2+ has inhibitive effect on the laccase production. The effect of pH on the laccase production is also researched. When the pH value is set at 5, the enzyme activity reaches 140, 000 U/L, which is the best for the production of laccase.

  10. Determination of Uridine and Adenosine Content of Ganoderma Lucidum Extract by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定灵芝提取物中尿苷和腺苷含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席桂同

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立一种测定灵芝提取物中尿苷和腺苷含量的高效液相色谱法,测定不同产地灵芝提取物中的尿苷和腺苷的含量。方法:色谱柱:Diamonsil C18(2)(5μm,250 mm ×4.6 mm);流动相:乙腈-0.04 MKH2PO4=9∶91;流速:1 mL·min-1,检测波长:260 nm,柱温:35℃。结果:尿苷和腺苷分别在0.2~50μg·mL-1和0.1~20μg·mL-1范围内,峰面积与浓度的线性关系良好;尿苷和腺苷的平均准确度均在99.91%~102.12%之间;日内、日间精密度 RSD 均小于1.76%,样品回收率均在94.42%~100.50%之间。6个不同产地的灵芝提取物中,以福建灵芝中尿苷含量和吉林灵芝中腺苷含量最高,其他5个产地灵芝中尿苷和腺苷含量差异无统计学意义。结论:该方法特异性强、准确度高、重复性好,可用于测定灵芝提取物中的尿苷和腺苷含量,为灵芝提取物的评价提供参考和依据。%To establish a HPLC method to determine uridine and adenosine content of Ganoderma lucidum extract,and de-termine content of uridine and adenosine in Ganoderma lucidum extract in different habitats.Methods:The chromatographic column was Diamonsil C18(2)(5 μm,250 ×4.6 mm);the mobile phase acetonitrile was -0.04 MKH2PO4=9:91;the flow rate was 1 mL, min-1;the detection wavelength was 260 nm;the column temperature was 35 ℃.Results:The range of uridine and adenosine was re-spectively in 0.2~50 μg·mL-1 and 0.1 ~20 μg·mL-1 ,and the linear relationship between concentration and peak area were good;the average accuracy of uridine and adenosine were both between 99.91 to 1 02.1 2%;day and inter day RSD were less than 1.76%,and sample recovery rate were within 94.42%to1 00.50%.Among the extract of Ganoderma lucidum in the 6 different areas, the highest uridine content contained in Ganoderma lucidum in Fujian and highest adenosine content appeared in Jilin,and there were no statistical differences of

  11. Sucrose fed-batch strategy enhanced biomass, polysaccharide, and ganoderic acids production in fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum 5.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-hua; Liu, Lianliang; Guo, Xiao-feng; Li, Yan-jun; Hou, Bao-chao; Fan, Qiu-ling; Wang, Kai-xiang; Luo, Yingdi; Zhong, Jian-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma, as a Chinese traditional medicine, has multiple bioactivities. However, industrial production was limited due to low yield during Ganoderma fermentation. In this work, sucrose was found to greatly enhance intracellular polysaccharide (IPS) content and specific extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production rate. The mechanism was studied by analyzing the activities of enzymes related to polysaccharide biosynthesis. The results revealed that sucrose regulated the activities of phosphoglucomutase and phosphoglucose isomerase. When glucose and sucrose mixture was used as carbon source, biomass, polysaccharide and ganoderic acids (GAs) production was greatly enhanced. A sucrose fed-batch strategy was developed in 10-L bioreactor, and was scaled up to 300-L bioreactor. The biomass, EPS and IPS production was 25.5, 2.9 and 4.8 g/L, respectively, which was the highest biomass and IPS production in pilot scale. This study provides information for further understanding the regulation mechanism of Ganoderma polysaccharide biosynthesis. It demonstrates that sucrose fed-batch is a useful strategy for enhancing Ganoderma biomass, polysaccharide and GAs production.

  12. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spore Oil on Caspase-3 Activity and the Apoptotic Process in MT-1 Human Breast Cancer Cells%灵芝孢子油对人恶性乳腺癌细胞MT-1半胱天冬酶-3及细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦春伟; 梁慧嘉; 简伟明; 白丽娟; 杨咏善; 张命龙; 谢意珍

    2014-01-01

    探讨灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum )孢子油对人恶性乳腺癌细胞 MT-1凋亡的影响,结果表明:灵芝孢子油对MT-1细胞有明显的抑制作用,且呈浓度依赖,并能增加caspase-3酶的活性。%Ganoderma lucidum spore oil significantly inhibited the proliferation of MT-1 breast cancer cells, promoted cell apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity in a dose dependent manner.

  13. 响应面法优化灵芝子实体三萜提取工艺的研究%Optimization of Extraction Process of Trierponoides Ultrasonic Ganoderma Lucidum by Response Surface Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪文龙; 童斌; 赵格

    2014-01-01

    This passage selects the ganoderma sporophore powder as the sample, through the single factor experiment and the response surface method and process conditions on the extraction of Ganoderma lucidum three terpenes were optimized, the best extraction condition:extracting temperature was 50℃, extraction time 50 min, ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶20, measured from Ganoderma lucidum three extraction rate is about 1.27%.%选用赤灵芝子实体超细粉为样品,通过单因素试验和响应面法结合对灵芝三萜的提取的工艺条件进行优化,获得最佳提取工艺条件:提取温度为50℃,提取时间50 min,料液比为1∶20,测得灵芝三萜提取率为1.27%。

  14. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  15. 灵芝菌丝体深层液体发酵培养基研究%A PROBE INTO MEDIUM FORMULA FOR SUBMERGED CULTURE OF Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 李世敏; 许柏球; 赖国红

    2001-01-01

    探讨了灵芝(Ganoderma Lucidum)菌丝体深层液体培养所需的营养条件.结果表明,最适碳源单糖为葡萄糖,二糖为蔗糖,多糖为玉米粉、小麦面粉、麸皮粉或土豆粉;最适氮源为硫酸铵、黄豆饼粉、花生饼粉或蛋白胨;最佳碳氮比为(23.6~31.1)∶1;K+、Mg\\{2+\\}、P\\{5+\\}、VB1、VB2是菌丝体生长的必需营养成分;碳源、氮源最适浓度组合为玉米粉5%、黄豆饼粉0.5625%、葡萄糖5%、蛋白胨0.5265%、蔗糖5%,按此培养基进行培养,灵芝菌丝体的产量为28.317g/L.

  16. Effect of cost-effective substrates on growth cycle and yield of lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes) from Northwestern Himalaya (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sheetal; Jandaik, Savita; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-01-01

    To find a cost-effective alternative substrate, the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum was grown on sawdusts of sheesham, mango, and poplar. Optimum spawn level was determined by spawning in substrates at various levels (1, 2, 3, and 4%). To determine the effect of supplementation, substrates were supplemented with wheat bran, rice bran and corn flour at different concentrations (10, 20, and 30%). Duration of growth cycle, mushroom yield, and biological efficiency data were recorded. Among substrates, mango sawdust was superior, with 1.5-fold higher yields than poplar sawdust, which was the least suitable. However with respect to fructification, mango sawdust produced the first primordia earlier (21±1 days) compared with the other investigated substrates. 3% spawn level was found to be optimal irrespective of the substrate. Yield and biological efficiency (BE) were maximally enhanced by supplementation with wheat bran, whereas rice bran was the least suitable supplement among those tested. Growth cycle shortened and mushroom yield increased to a maximum at the 20% level of supplements. Mango sawdust in combination with 20% wheat bran, if spawned at the 3% level, resulted in a high yield (BE = 58.57%).

  17. Statistical optimization of polysaccharide production by submerged cultivation of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. MTCC 1039 (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Gurunathan; Sathya, Shree Rajesh K Lakshmi Jai; Jinnah, Riswana Begum; Sahadevan, Renganathan

    2011-01-01

    Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the concentration of four important cultivation media components such as cottonseed oil cake, glucose, NH4Cl, and MgSO4 for maximum medicinal polysaccharide yield by Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum MTCC 1039 in submerged culture. The second-order polynomial model describing the relationship between media components and polysaccharide yield was fitted in coded units of the variables. The higher value of the coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.953) justified an excellent correlation between media components and polysaccharide yield, and the model fitted well with high statistical reliability and significance. The predicted optimum concentration of the media components was 3.0% cottonseed oil cake, 3.0% glucose, 0.15% NH4Cl, and 0.045% MgSO4, with the maximum predicted polysaccharide yield of 819.76 mg/L. The experimental polysaccharide yield at the predicted optimum media components was 854.29 mg/L, which was 4.22% higher than the predicted yield.

  18. The effect of an extract from Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the survival of Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinho, Raquel Terra [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Santos Filho, Sebastiao David; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Missailidis, Sotiris [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry and Analytical Sciences

    2008-12-15

    This study evaluated effects of an aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) and on the survival of cultures of Escherichia coli treated with stannous chloride. Blood samples from Wistar rats were treated with reishi extract, radiolabeling procedure was performed, plasma (P), blood cells (BC) and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions of P and BC were separated. The radioactivity was counted for the determination of the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI). Cultures of Escherichia coli AB1157 were treated with stannous chloride in the presence and absence of reishi extract. Blood samples and bacterial cultures treated with NaCl 0.9% were used as controls. Data indicated that reishi extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of P, BC, IF-P, SF-P, IF-BC and SF-BC, as well as increased the survival of bacterial cultures treated with stannous chloride. Our results suggest that reishi extract could present a redox/chelating action, altering the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc and protecting bacterial cultures against oxidative damage induced by stannous chloride. (author)

  19. A comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometric: Fine classification and untargeted authentication against multiple frauds for Chinese Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Haiyan; Yin, Qiaobo; Xu, Lu; Wang, Weizheng; Chen, Feng; Yang, Tianming

    2017-07-01

    The origins and authenticity against frauds are two essential aspects of food quality. In this work, a comprehensive quality evaluation method by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics were suggested to address the geographical origins and authentication of Chinese Ganoderma lucidum (GL). Classification for 25 groups of GL samples (7 common species from 15 producing areas) was performed using near-infrared spectroscopy and interval-combination One-Versus-One least squares support vector machine (IC-OVO-LS-SVM). Untargeted analysis of 4 adulterants of cheaper mushrooms was performed by one-class partial least squares (OCPLS) modeling for each of the 7 GL species. After outlier diagnosis and comparing the influences of different preprocessing methods and spectral intervals on classification, IC-OVO-LS-SVM with standard normal variate (SNV) spectra obtained a total classification accuracy of 0.9317, an average sensitivity and specificity of 0.9306 and 0.9971, respectively. With SNV or second-order derivative (D2) spectra, OCPLS could detect at least 2% or more doping levels of adulterants for 5 of the 7 GL species and 5% or more doping levels for the other 2 GL species. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using new chemometrics and NIR spectroscopy for fine classification of GL geographical origins and species as well as for untargeted analysis of multiple adulterants.

  20. The reduction of aorta histopathological images through inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation in hypercholesterolemia rattus norvegicus treated with polysaccharide peptide of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Andri Wihastuti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Atherosclerosis is chronic inflammatory process triggered by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress can increase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2level, which induce atherosclerosis through the processes such as formation of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT, foam cells, and atherosclerotic plaque. Antioxidant is needed to control negative effects of oxidative stress. One source of antioxidant, which has potential to be developed, is PsP from Ganoderma lucidum. This study aims to prove the effect of PsP in decreasing H2O2, PVAT, foam cells and atherosclerotic plaque. Materials and Methods: This study was experimental randomized post-test with control group design using 25 Rattus norvegicus Wistar strain rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups (negative control, positive control, and 3 high-fat diet group with PsP dose: 50, 150, 300 mg/kgBW. Measured parameters were H2O2, PVAT, foam cell, and atherosclerotic plaques. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, followed by post hoc test. Results: Mean H2O2 levels, PVAT thickness, foam cell numbers, and atherosclerotic plaque were low in negative control group. ANOVA showed that PsP significantly (P

  1. Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Bacillus Calmette Guérin on Premalignant Urothelial HUC-PC Cells and Its Regulation on Proinflammatory Cytokine Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wai-man Yuen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is conventionally used as an adjuvant immunotherapy to reduce the recurrence of bladder cancer. To address the issues of efficacy and safety, an ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (GLe was evaluated for its interaction with BCG. In a model of premalignant human uroepithelial cells (HUC-PC, GLe exerted immediate cytotoxic effects while BCG showed a delayed response, given that both were immunological active in inducing the secretion of interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1. Synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed when cells were either coincubated with both drugs or firstly preincubated with GLe. Synergism between GLe and BCG was demonstrated to achieve a complete cytostasis in 24 hours, and such effects were progressed in the subsequent 5 days. However, the pretreatment of GLe resulted in suppression of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretions without affecting the cytotoxicity. Given that numerous proinflammatory cytokines are associated with the high side effects toll of BCG, results herein suggested the potential implications of GL to supplement the BCG immunotherapy in bladder cancer, for better efficacy and reducing side effects.

  2. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and attenuate DMBA induced mammary and skin carcinomas in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Nitha, B; Devasagayam, T P A; Janardhanan, K K

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes were evaluated for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-cancer activities. Cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effect of total triterpenes were evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line using MTT assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells by down-regulating the levels of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and also by up-regulating the levels of Bax and caspase-9. Anti-carcinogenicity of total triterpenes was analysed using dimethyl benz [a] anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papilloma and mammary adenocarcinoma in Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats respectively. Topical application of 5mg, 10mg and 20mg total triterpenes reduced the incidence of skin papilloma by 62.5, 37.5 and 12.5% respectively. Incidence of the mammary tumour was also reduced significantly by 33.33, 66.67 and 16.67% in 10, 50 and 100mg/kg b.wt. total triterpenes treated animals respectively. Total triterpenes were also found to reduce the average number of tumours per animal and extended the tumour latency period in both the models. The results indicate the potential cytotoxicity and anti-cancerous activity of total triterpenes, there by opens up a path to the development of a safe and successive chemo preventive agent of natural origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary results of determination of chemical changes on Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes) carried by Shenzhou I spaceship with FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Yew Keong; Chen, Xiangdong; Jamal, Jamia Azdina; Wang, Qiuying; Lan, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflight represents a complex environmental condition. Space mutagenesis breeding has achieved marked results over the years. The objective of this study is to determine the chemical changes in medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum cultivated after spaceflight in 1999. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) correlation spectroscopy were used in analysis. The sample Sx and its control Cx showed the least dissimilarities in one-dimensional FTIR spectra, but absorbance of Sx is twice as high as Cx. Sx presented a clear peak at 1648 cm in 2nd derivative spectra, which could not be detected in the Cx. The 2DIR spectra showed the intensity of Sx in the range 1800-1400 cm-1 for protein is higher than the control. The sample Sx produced some carbohydrate peaks in the area of 889 cm-1 compared with the Cx. The spaceflight set up an extreme condition and caused changes of chemical properties in G. lucidum strain.

  4. Determination of the antioxidant activity and polyphenol contents of wild Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt. Fr.) P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes) from central Himalayan hills of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsin, Mohammed; Negi, P; Ahmed, Z

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of wild strain of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum from Central Himalayan Hills (2000 m MSL) was evaluated, and compared with its in vitro cultured mycelia grown on malt extract broth in the laboratory. Antioxidant activities of both wild and cultivated G. lucidum in terms of IC₅₀ (mg/ mL) were determined against different in vitro radical systems such as DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and hydroxyl radicals, in addition to ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Polyphenol contents were also determined, in order to assess their effects on the antioxidant activity of extracts. All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activity, and maximum scavenging was observed in the case of methanolic extracts of wild G. lucidum with minimum IC50 values 0.953 ± 0.040, 0.690 ± 0.014 and 3.295 ± 0.027 mg/mL, respectively, for DPPH, ABTS, and hydroxyl radicals. The efficacy of wild G. lucidum as a rich source of natural antioxidant was established for nutraceutical development.

  5. 剪切力影响药用蘑菇灵芝的细胞生长和代谢物生产%Hydrodynamic Shear Stress Affects Cell Growth and Metabolite Production by Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚海刚; 钟建江

    2005-01-01

    By investigating the shear effect on submerged cultivation of a traditional Chinese medicinal herb Ganoderma lucidum, a relatively high cell concentration of 13.8g.L-1 by dry mass was obtained in bioreactor at respectively. Under these ITSs, the maximal mean projected area of dispersed hyphae was 3.70, 2.54 and 2.13 ×104μm2, and that of pellets was 0.91, 0.67 and 0.55mm2, respectively. The information obtained is useful for efficient submerged cultivation of mushrooms on a large scale.

  6. Effect of ganoderma lucidum spores on the somatostatin and 5-HT in brain of epilepsy rats%灵芝孢子粉对癫痫大鼠脑组织中SS、5-HT和ATP酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孔利; 张士岭; 王淑秋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of ganoderma lucidum spores on the SS, 5-HT and ATPase, and to explore its anti-epileptic mechanism. Methods Thirty healthy Wistar rats were divided into blank control group, epilepsy model group, ganoderma lucidum spores group, ten in each group. The rats in epilepsy model group were treated by pentylenetetrazol mtraperitoneal injection + intragastnc administration of NS; ganoderma lucidum spores group were treated by pentylenetetrazol intraperitoneal injection + ganoderma lucidum spores; the blank control group were treated by NS intraperitoneal injection + intragastric administration of NS. The brain was cut down and took the brain after 28 days. The contents of SS, 5-HT and ATPase were detected bv immunohistochemical staining and chemical chromatometry method. Results ① The ganoderma lucidum spores group and epileptic model group reached the kindled standard of epilepsy models. ② Immunohistostaining shows; compared with the blank control group, the number of somatostatin immunological reacted positive cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in the epilepsy model group were significantly increased (P<0.0I ) ; compared with the epilepsy model group, the number of somatostatin immunological reacted positive cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in ganoderma lucidum spores group were significantly decreased (P<0.0\\ ) ; ③ The content of 5-HT in hippocampus were significantly decreased in epilepsy model group, and which was different from blank control group (P <0. 01 ) ; the content of 5-HT in hippocampus were significantly increased in ganoderma lucidum spores group, which was different from epilepsy model group (P <0.05). ④ The content of ATPase in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were significantly decreased in the epileptic model group, which was difference from blank control group (P<0.01) ; the content of ATPase in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were significantly increased in the ganoderma lucidum spores group

  7. Study of Ganoderma lucidum spores on pentylenetetrazol activation of hippocampal neurons bax expression%灵芝孢子粉对戊四氮活化海马神经细胞bax表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金波; 王淑秋; 张淑红; 金岳雷; 朱金玲; 刘爽

    2012-01-01

    目的 本实验研究灵芝孢子粉对戊四氮活化大鼠海马神经细胞bax表达变化的影响,进一步探讨灵芝孢子粉的作用机制和癫痫与海马神经细胞凋亡调控基因之间的关系.方法 通过制备癫痫模型和RT-PCR检测正常对照组、癫痫模型组和灵芝孢子粉用药组bax的表达.结果 癫痫模型组和灵芝孢子粉用药组bax的表达较正常对照组(0.17±0.04)均升高;其中癫痫模型组(0.66±0.09)bax的表达水平与对照组(0.17±0.04)比较明显升高(P<0.01),灵芝孢子粉用药组(0.47±0.1)bax的表达水平与癫痫模型组比较明显降低(P<0.01),差异有统计学意义.结论 本研究结果证实,在PTZ点燃癫痫后,模型组和治疗组促凋亡基因bax表达较正常对照组显著升高,表明bax基因在细胞凋亡的调控过程中起到促进作用,而给予灵芝孢子粉治疗后,bax的表达与模型组比较显著降低,提示灵芝孢子粉有效成份能充分作用于脑组织,可以调控bax的表达,借以发挥抗凋亡的神经保护作用.%Objective; This study is Ganoderma lucidum spores on pentylenetetrazol activation of rat hippocampal neurons bax expression changes to further explore the relationship between the action mechanism of the Ganoderma lucidum spores and epilepsy with apoptosis regulatory genes of hippocampal neural. Methods; Through the preparation of the epileptic model and RT — PCR to detect of bax expression in the normal control group, epilepsy model group and Ganoderma spore powder medication group. Results;/ Bax expression in epilepsy model group and Ganoderma lucidum spores medication group were higher than in the normal control group (0. 17 ± 0. 04) ; including bax expression level in epilepsy model group (0. 66 ± 0. 09) was significantly higher than in the control group (0. 17 ± 0.04) (P<0. 01) , bax expression level in Ganoderma spore powder medication group (0.47 ± 0. 1 ) were significantly lower than in epilepsy model group

  8. Anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides by inhibition of intracellular calcium accumulation and stimulation of expression of CaMKII α in epileptic hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Qiu Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanism of the anti-epileptic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP, the changes of intracellular calcium and CaMK II α expression in a model of epileptic neurons were investigated.Primary hippocampal neurons were divided into: 1 Control group, neurons were cultured with Neurobasal medium, for 3 hours; 2 Model group I: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours; 3 Model group II: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with the normal medium for a further 3 hours; 4 GLP group I: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium containing GLP (0.375 mg/ml for 3 hours; 5 GLP group II: neurons were incubated with Mg(2+ free medium for 3 hours then cultured with a normal culture medium containing GLP for a further 3 hours. The CaMK II α protein expression was assessed by Western-blot. Ca(2+ turnover in neurons was assessed using Fluo-3/AM which was added into the replacement medium and Ca(2+ turnover was observed under a laser scanning confocal microscope.The CaMK II α expression in the model groups was less than in the control groups, however, in the GLP groups, it was higher than that observed in the model group. Ca(2+ fluorescence intensity in GLP group I was significantly lower than that in model group I after 30 seconds, while in GLP group II, it was reduced significantly compared to model group II after 5 minutes.GLP may inhibit calcium overload and promote CaMK II α expression to protect epileptic neurons.

  9. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia attenuates the small intestinal injury induced by anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, Naoki; Ishii, Satomi; Myojin, Yuki; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Hayama, Minoru; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (MAK) is able to protect the small intestine against damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. Six-week-old male B6C3F1/Crlj mice were fed a basal diet (MF) alone or with various doses of MAK or Agarics blazei Murrill (AGA) beginning one week before treatment with the anti-cancer drugs. Mice were sacrificed 3.5 days after injection of the anti-cancer drug, the small intestine was removed and tissue specimens were examined for the regeneration of small intestinal crypts. In experiment 1, the number of regenerative crypts after the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intravenously (250 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (250 or 500 mg/kg) was compared after treatment with MAK or AGA. MAK protected against 5FU-induced small intestinal injury whereas AGA did not. In experiment 2, we investigated the protective effect of MAK against small intestinal injury induced by the anti-cancer drugs: UFT (tegafur with uracil; 1,000 mg/kg, orally), cisplatin (CDDP; 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), cyclophosphamide (CPA; 250 mg/kg, orally) and gefitinib (Iressa; 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, orally). UFT and CDDP decreased the number of regenerative crypts, but treatment with MAK attenuated the extent of UFT- or CDDP-induced small intestinal injury. CPA or Iressa plus MAK up-regulated crypt regeneration. The present results indicate that MAK ameliorates the small intestinal injury caused by several anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that MAK is a potential preventive agent against this common adverse effect of chemotherapy.

  10. The water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (Designated as MAK) ameliorates murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, R; Ueno, Y; Tanaka, S; Nagai, K; Onitake, T; Yoshioka, K; Chayama, K

    2011-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum Karst is well known as 'Reishi', a traditional food in China and Japan. It contains a polysaccharide component known to induce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production from murine splenocytes. Moreover, GM-CSF may be a therapeutic agent for Crohn's disease. In this study, we investigated the water-soluble, polysaccharide components of Reishi (designated as MAK) in murine colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). We examined the concentration of GM-CSF in peritoneal macrophage cells (PMs) of C57BL/6 mice during in vitro and in vivo stimulation with MAK. After feeding with chow or MAK for 2 weeks, 2 mg of TNBS/50% ethanol was administered to each mouse. After 3 days of TNBS treatment, intestinal inflammation was evaluated, and mononuclear cells of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and colon were cultured for ELISA. To determine the preventive role of GM-CSF, the mice were pre-treated with or without anti-GM-CSF antibody before TNBS administration. In vitro and in vivo MAK-stimulated PMs produced GM-CSF in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal inflammation by TNBS was improved by feeding with MAK. MLNs of mice treated with TNBS produced IFN-γ, which was inhibited by feeding with MAK. In contrast, MLNs of mice treated with TNBS inhibited GM-CSF production, which was induced by feeding with MAK. The colon organ culture assay also revealed that IFN-γ was decreased and GM-CSF was increased by MAK. The preventive effect was blocked by the neutralization of GM-CSF. We concluded that the induction of GM-CSF by MAK may provide the anti-inflammatory effect.

  11. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1β Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi polysaccharides (EORPs, which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL- 1β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced IL-1β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μg/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1β expression. The level of IL-1β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4−/− mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.

  12. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on IEC-6 cell proliferation, migration and morphology of differentiation benefiting intestinal epithelium healing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Xin; Chen, Li-Hua; Lin, Zhi-Bin; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Yang, Jing; Ma, Jie; Ye, Ting; Li, Wei-Dong

    2011-12-01

    Restoration of epithelial continuity in the intestinal surface after extensive destruction is important since intestinal epithelial cells stand as a boundary between the body's internal and external environment. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum (Gl-PS) may benefit intestinal epithelial wound healing in different aspects, which awaits clarification. To identify potential effects, a non-transformed small-intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-6 cells, was used. Effects on epithelial cell proliferation, migration, morphology of differentiation and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) protein expression, as well as the cellular ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) mRNA and c-Myc mRNA expression, were assessed, respectively, by MTT assay, wound model in vitro, observation under a microscope after hematoxylin and eosin staining, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. It was shown that Gl-PS stimulated IEC-6 cell proliferation and migration significantly in a dose-dependent manner; 10 µg/ml Gl-PS improved the morphology of differentiation in IEC-6 cells. Inefficacy in expression of TGF-β in IEC-6 cells indicated a possible TGF-β independent action of Gl-PS. However, Gl-PS increased ODC mRNA and c-Myc mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, indicating, at least partially possible involvement of ODC and c-Myc gene expression in improvement of intestinal wound healing. These results suggest the potential usefulness of Gl-PS to cure intestinal disorders characterized by injury and ineffective repair of the intestinal mucosa. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Sulfated Modification of Extracellular Polysaccharide from Submerged Fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum%发酵灵芝胞外多糖硫酸化修饰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈洁; 刘昱均; 张珏

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum exhibit low anticancer activity. Sulfation of polysaccharides is an important approach to improve anticancer activity of polysaccharides. In addition, the degree of sulfated substitution (DS) is closely related to its biological activities. In order to understand the relationship between DS and sulfated conditions and obtain the sulfated derivatives with different DS, the sulfuric acid esterification reagent and the relationship between the sulfated reaction conditions and DS were further investigated. The results showed that aminosulfonic acid offered milder reaction conditions than that of chlorosulfonic acid. On the other hand, the addition of urea also gave mild reaction conditions and improved DS.%发酵灵芝胞外多糖表现出微弱的抗肿瘤活性,硫酸化是改善多糖抑癌活性的重要途径,而多糖的硫酸化取代度与其生物活性密切相关。为了了解硫酸化取代度与硫酸化条件之间的关系,以获取不同取代度的产品,对发酵灵芝胞外多糖的硫酸化试剂以及硫酸化反应条件与取代度之间的关系进行了较深入研究。实验结果表明,氨基磺酸比氯磺酸的硫酸化过程更加缓和,尿素的加入也有利于缓和反应条件,提高取代度。

  14. 灵芝与混淆品树舌的鉴别%Identification of Ganodorma Lucidum and Ganoderma Applanatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小霞

    2010-01-01

    @@ 灵芝为多孔菌科真菌赤芝Ganodermalucidum(Leyss.exFr.)Karst.或紫芝Ganoderma sinense Zhao,Xu et Zhang的干燥子实体,具有补气安神、止咳平喘的功效.它是一种药食两用真菌,随着灵芝医疗保健等作用的扩大,其使用量也不断增加.在近年的临床工作中发现一种混淆品,系多孔菌科真菌树舌Ganodermaapplanatum(pers.ex Gray)Pat的干燥子实体[1].

  15. Antimalarial and hepatoprotective effects of crude ethanolic extract of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P.Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes), in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluba, Olarewaju M; Olusola, Augustine O; Fagbohunka, Bamidele S; Onyeneke, E

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the in vivo antimalarial activity (using some biochemical indices) of crude aqueous extracts of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom with well-established medicinal properties. A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei (1 × 107), was inoculated intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice. The test groups were administered G. lucidum extract and chloroquine (CQ, as standard drug), while the control groups were administered the same amount of distilled water by an intragastric tube once daily. The antimalarial activity of the extract was investigated from the suppressive, curative, and prophylactic effects of the extract on parasite growth. Serum aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma glutamine transpeptidase (γ-GT) levels monitored following the 4-day suppressive test were significantly reduced, with a corresponding significant increase in the livers of mice treated with the extract compared with infected untreated mice. The results obtained from this study provide scientific justification in an animal model of malaria that an ethanolic extract of G. lucidum possesses potent antimalarial activity and also could help ameliorate the attendant Plasmodium-induced liver damage due to malarial infection.

  16. Submerged cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum and the effects of its polysaccharides on the production of human cytokines TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habijanic, Jožica; Berovic, Marin; Boh, Bojana; Plankl, Mojca; Wraber, Branka

    2015-01-25

    An original strain of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd, MZKI G97 isolated from Slovenian habitats was grown by a submerged liquid substrate cultivation in a laboratory stirred tank reactor. Five fractions of extracellular and cell-wall polysaccharides were obtained by extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification by ion-exchange, gel and affinity chromatography. The capacity of isolated polysaccharide fractions to induce innate inflammatory cytokines, and to modulate cytokine responses of activated lymphocytes was investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were activated in vitro with polysaccharide fractions, in order to induce innate inflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) 12 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). For the immunomodulation capacity, polysaccharide fractions were cultured with ionomycine and phorbol myristate acetate (IONO+PMA) activated PBMC, and the concentrations of induced IL-2, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 were measured. The results showed that polysaccharides from G. lucidum induced moderate to high amounts of innate inflammatory cytokines. Fungal cell-wall polysaccharides were stronger innate inflammatory cytokines inducers, while extracellular polysaccharides demonstrated a higher capacity to modulate cytokine responses of IONO+PMA induced production of IL-17. The results indicate that G. lucidum polysaccharides enhance Th1 response with high levels of IFN-γ and IL-2, and display low to no impact on IL-4 production. A similar pattern was observed at regulatory cytokine IL-10. All of the polysaccharide fractions tested induced IL-17 production at different concentration levels.

  17. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  18. GANODERMA LUCIDUM - ПРОДУЦЕНТ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИ АКТИВНЫХ ВЕЩЕСТВ

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 茂樹; 池谷, 朋彦; 原, 祐郁; 山本, 恵一; 龍村, 俊樹

    2015-01-01

    Настоящий обзор посвящен лекарственному грибу Ganoderma lucidum, который на протяжении веков использовался в странах Азии для укрепления здоровья, так как он является богатым источником различных биологически активных природных соединений. Этот гриб обладает ценными фармакологическими свойствами - иммуномодулирующими, противовоспалительными, противоопухолевыми, антидиабетическими, антиоксидантными.Ganoderma lucidum is a fungus which has been widely used through the centuries for the general p...

  19. 灵芝多糖对癫痫大鼠脑中谷氨酸转运体的影响%Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on excitatory amino acid transporter in brain of epileptic rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱孔利; 谢莉莉; 刘辉

    2015-01-01

    objective To observe and investigate the influence of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on GLAST, GLT-1 and EAAC1 in the cortex and hippocampus of epileptic rat. Study on the pathogenesis of epilepsy and the mechanism of action of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide. Methods The 32 SD rats were randomly divided into normal control group,epilepsy model group,ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and carbamazepine group,each group of eight. The rats of epilepsy model group,ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides and carbamazepine group made by intraperitoneal injection of pentetrazole(PTZ). After the experiment,get the rats brain tissue quickly. Using im-munohistochemical and colorimetry to detect the index changes of cortex and hippocampus. Results GLAST1,GLT1, EAAC1 in the brain of epileptic rat lower in epilepsy model group than the normal control group:cortex(31. 87 ± 4. 76),( 48. 00 ± 5. 34),(42. 87 ± 4. 01),(52. 12 ± 3. 75),(40. 25 ± 2. 81),(46. 87 ± 3. 04);hippocampus (29. 87 ± 4. 32),(44. 51 ± 4. 81),(36. 50 ± 3. 02),(47. 00 ± 3. 20),(35. 62 ± 3. 42),(42. 12 ± 3. 56);GLAST, GLT-1,EAAC1 in the brain of epileptic rat higher in ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides group and carbamazepine group than the epilepsy model group:cortex(40. 50 ± 4. 47),(31. 87 ± 4. 76),(48. 87 ± 3. 48),(42. 87 ± 4. 01), (43. 87 ± 2. 53),(40. 25 ± 2. 81);hippocampus(37. 75 ± 3. 61),(29. 87 ± 4. 32),( 41. 25 ± 2. 60),(36. 50 ± 3. 02),(39. 50 ± 2. 61),(35. 62 ± 3. 42);GLAST1,GLT1,EAAC1 were no significant differences in ganoderma lu-cidum polysacchairides group and carbamazepine group. Conclusion Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide can in-crease the GLAST,GLT-1 and EAAC1 in the epileptic rats brain tissue,speed up the process of eliminating glutamic acid.%目的:观察和探讨灵芝多糖干预后戊四氮( PTZ)致痫大鼠皮质和海马区兴奋性谷氨酸转运体(EAAT)GLAST(EAAT1)、GLT1(EAAT2)、EAAC1(EAAT3)的变化,进一步研究癫痫的发病机

  20. White-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to decolorize and tolerate the anthraquinone, indigo and triphenylmethane dye with high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ruoying; Ma, Li; He, Feng; Yu, Dong; Fan, Ruozhi; Zhang, Yangming; Long, Zheping; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Yang

    2016-03-01

    The ability of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma sp.En3 to decolorize different kinds of dyes widely applied in the textile and dyeing industry, including the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR), indigo dye indigo carmine and triphenylmethane dye methyl green, was evaluated in this study. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability of decolorizing high concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green. Obvious reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand was observed after decolorization of different dyes. Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong ability to tolerate RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green with high concentrations. High concentrations of RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green could also be efficiently decolorized by the crude enzyme of Ganoderma sp.En3. Different redox mediators such as syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone could enhance the decolorization capability for higher concentration of indigo carmine and methyl green. Different metal ions had little effect on the ability of the crude enzyme to decolorize indigo carmine and methyl green. Our study suggested that Ganoderma sp.En3 had a strong capability for decolorizing and tolerating high concentrations of different types of dyes such as RBBR, indigo carmine and methyl green.

  1. Some tropical species of Ganoderma (Polyporaceae) with pale context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furtado, João Salvador

    1967-01-01

    Five species of Ganoderma Karsten are discussed, which are confined to the tropics and characterized by the presence of a light-colored context, but which are devoid of the laccate upper surface of the pileus typical of the species of the Ganoderma lucidum-group. Ganoderma neurosporum J. Furtado is

  2. Evaluation of the Potential Use of Agricultural and Forestial Waste in Spawn Production of Medicinal Mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tavana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spawn quality plays an important role in successful production of medicinal mushrooms. In this study, firstly, to determine the optimum temperature for mycelia growth of G. lucidum, four basal media, including seeds of wheat, barley, millet and Abies sp. wood chip were studied separately at 25±1˚C and 29±1˚C. In the second section, in order to achieve suitable the mycelia growth, barley, wheat and millet seeds were mixed with different ratios of agriculture waste including wheat bran (10, 20 and 30% dry weight and millet peel (20, 40 and 60% dry weight and also Abies sp wood chips (20, 30, 50 and 60% dry weight as forestial waste. In the final section, several forestial waste including sawdusts (Platanus orientalis, Acer sp, Robinia peseudoacacia, Ailanthus altissima, Fagus orientals, Alnus subcordata and Populas alba were used as medium for spawn production. In the first experiment, a higher mycelia growth rate (8.92 mm/day was obtained by applying wheat seed at 29±1˚C. In the second experiment, the results showed that higher mycelia growth rate was obtained by using wheat with 10% wheat bran (9.66 mm/day. In the final section of spawn production, R. peseudoacacia sawdust (C/N=25.84 was generated higher growth rate (9.36 mm/day. Also, using supplements containing nitrogen (N such as sawdust and bran, encourage mycelium growth and with increasing C/N ratios more than 61.3 decreased growth rate due to reduce N amount.

  3. Immuno-modulatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysacharide on human monocytoid dendritic cells pulsed with Der p 1 allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Shih-Yen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysaccharide (PS-G can rapidly and effectively promote the activation and maturation of immature dendritic cells (DCs, suggesting that PS-G possesses the capacity to regulate immune responses. This study aimed to clarify the immunologic effect of PS-G on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MD-DCs from asthmatic children allergic to house dust mites. The MD-DCs were stimulated for 24 h with the related allergen, Der p 1, in the presence or absence of PS-G. Cell surface markers and phagocytic capacity were assessed by FACS analysis, and key polarizing cytokines (IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10 were quantified. The subsequent regulatory effect of pulsed MD-DCs on naïve T cells was evaluated by determining the T-cell cytokine profile. Results PS-G induced the maturation of MD-DCs and decreased phagocytic capacity, even if pulsed with Der p 1. After incubation with PS-G and Der p 1, MD-DCs produced higher amounts of IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL10 than Der p 1-pulsed DCs. Furthermore, type 1 helper T (Th1 cell cytokine (INF-γ production was highly increased when naïve autologous T cells were co-cultured with Der p 1-pulsed MD-DCs. Naïve T cells stimulated by MD-DCs pulsed with Der p 1 failed to produce proliferation of T-cells, whereas the addition of PS-G to Der p 1 induced a significant proliferation of T-cells similar to that observed with PS-G alone. Conclusion The presence of PS-G in an allergen pulse promoted allergic MD-DCs to produce IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-6, IL-23, and IL-10, and exerted an effect on shifting the immune balance towards Th1 in children with allergic asthma.

  4. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Yang, Jeng-Je; Chuang, Wen-I; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-08-11

    Bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum mainly include polysaccharides (PS-G) and immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8). These components may have diverse regulatory functions in the immune system. However, the PS-G preparations from different procedures still contained partial LZ-8 residue, indicating that the specific target and regulating function of PS-G and LZ-8 were not fully understood. In the present study, PS-G was subjected to 15% TCA for removing proteins and the LZ-8 detection using anti-LZ-8 monoclonal antibodies showed a remarkable 89.7% protein reduction of the deproteinized PS-G (dpPS-G). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expressed recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) without glycosylation was generated and then compared with dpPS-G in the induction toward murine primary macrophage and T lymphocytic cells. The peritoneal macrophages from TLR4-deficient and wild type mice revealed that TLR4 was a putative receptor of dpPS-G, mediating the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 cytokine production and CD86, MHC II expression on macrophages, while rLZ-8 enhanced the production of IL-1beta, IL-12p70, CD86, and MHC II expression by another obscure route. rLZ-8-treated macrophages enhanced the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, whereas dpPS-G treatment did not enhance the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2. Furthermore, although the direct rLZ-8-treatment conduced dramatic CD154, CD44 expression on CD3(+) T cells and increased IL-2, IFN-gamma secretion on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the dpPS-G was incapable of priming CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells unitarily. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity.

  5. 响应面法优化Ganoderma lucidum产漆酶种子培养基%Optimization of the seed medium for laccase-producing strain Ganoderma lucidum by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵世光; 钱森和; 张焱; 蔡为荣; 王陶

    2012-01-01

    Targeting on mycelial biomass,response surface methodology(RSM) was applied to study the seeding medium components of UIM281,a Ganoderma lucidum strain producing laccase. Firstly,the categories and concentration scales of carbon source,nitrogen sources and inorganic salt affecting the growth of UIM281 mycelium were confirmed by single factor experiments. Based on this result, Box-Behnken design was used to optimize significant factors affecting mycelial biomass. Finally,the second-order equation model for mycelial biomass of UIM281 was established and seeding medium suitable to mycelial proliferation was obtained. The results showed when VB1 was prior designated 0.1g/L,the optimal composing for seeding medium was as following; 18.0g/L of corn fiour,12.3g/L of soybean powder,1.8g/L of MgSO4.7H20. When cultivated at 28℃ and 150r/min for 6d,24.18g/L of biomass was obtained,which provided the excellent inoculum for the laccase fermentation.%以菌丝体生物量为指标,采用响应面法对产漆酶的灵芝菌UIM281的种子培养基组成进行了研究。首先采用单因素实验确定影响UIM281菌丝体生长的碳源、氮源及无机盐的种类和浓度范围。在此基础上,应用Box-Behnken设计对影响菌丝体生物量的显著因素进行优化,最终建立了以菌丝体生物量为响应值的二次回归方程模型,获得了最适的菌丝体增殖种子培养基。结果表明,在VB10.1g/L的条件下最佳种子培养基组成为:玉米粉18.0g/L,豆饼粉12.3g/L,MgSO4·7H2O 1.8g/L,在28℃,150r/min条件下振荡培养6d后,可获得24.18g/L菌丝体,可为漆酶发酵培养提供质优量大的接种体。

  6. The effect of ganoderma lucidum spores on NO and NOS in the brain tissue of epilepsy rat after pentetrazole-evoked seizures%灵芝孢子粉对戊四氮致痫大鼠脑组织NO和NOS的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟群; 张明亮; 于海波; 李晶; 王显钢; 王淑秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究灵芝孢子粉对癫痫大鼠脑组织NO和NOS含量的影响.方法 随机将雄性健康Wistar大鼠分为灵芝孢子粉组(灵芝孢子粉灌胃)、癫痫组(腹腔注射戊四氮,1.0 ml生理盐水灌胃)和正常对照组(1.0 ml生理盐水灌胃).实验结束后迅速取脑组织匀浆,用比色法测定各组大鼠脑组织NO和NOS含量.结果 与癫痫组相比,灵芝孢子粉组脑组织NO和NOS含量显著降低 (P<0.05).结论 癫痫能导致脑组织大量的NO与NOS表达,灵芝孢子粉能够抑制癫痫大鼠脑组织NO与NOS的表达,对癫痫大鼠脑组织具有保护作用.%Objective To study the influence o f ganoderma lucidum spores on NO and NOS contents in rats brain tissue with epilepsy. Methods Healthy Wistar male rats were divided randomly into 3 groups. Pentetrazole was injected peritoneally in ganoderma lucidum spores group and experimental epilepsy group. Physiological saline of the same volume was injected peritoneally in normal contrast group. Ganoderma lucidum spores group was given ganoderma lucidum spores by intragastric administration at the same time;experimental epilepsy and normal contrast group were given physiological saline by intragastric administration. All intragastric volume was 1.0 ml. Rat's brains tissue were taken out rapidly when the experiment was finished and homogenated, NO and NOS contents in brain tissue was measured by chromatometry. Results Compared with epilepsy group, NO and NOS contents of brain tissue in ganoderma lucidum spores group reduced obviously (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions Epilepsy can result in a great deal of expression of NO and NOS in brain tissue. Ganoderma lucidum spores can restrain the expression of NO and NOS in brain tissue and has protection effect on brain tissue of epilepsy rats.

  7. Antihyperglycemic, insulin-sensitivity and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of Ganoderma lucidum, a dietary mushroom, on alloxan- and glucocorticoid-induced diabetic Long-Evans rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum is a well-known and popular edible mushroom eaten as vegetables all over the world. It has been used as alternative medicine for long years in China, Korea, Japan, Malaysia, and in eastern Russia. It is reported to exhibit a number of medicinal properties including antitumor, antioxidant, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and hypoglycemic activities due to the presence of bioactive polysaccharide. Glucocorticoids, prescribed for the treatment of arthritis to protect inflammation and reduce pain, can induce hyperglycemia or aggravate the hyperglycemic condition reaching to very high glucose levels in diabetic patients. However, no report has been published for its activity on glucocorticoid-induced diabetes. Objective: To investigate the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on alloxan- and glucocorticoid- induced diabetes in Long-Evans rats. Methods: Alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg was intraperitoneally administered to Long-Evans rats as a single dose. The same volume of normal saline was injected to control rats. Three days after alloxan injection, rats with plasma glucose levels higher than 12 mmoL /L were considered as diabetic and they were included in the study. Reishi mushroom was collected from the Mushroom Development Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, where it was identified by a Taxonomist. Petroleum ether extract (PEE Methanol extract (ME were prepared by maceration and distillation techniques. The extracts were orally administered once in a day at doses of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg, respectively for 7 days. Metformin (150 mg/kg was orally administered as a standard antidiabetic drug. Glucose levels were measured at 0 and 7th days of treatment. The rats were allowed to rest for 1 week without treatment. The animals were again injected with dexamethasone (2 mg/kg through intra-muscular route for 3 days and glucose levels were monitored regularly. Rats were

  8. Khz (fusion product of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) induces apoptosis in human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells, accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species, activation of caspase 3, and increased intracellular Ca²⁺.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Kim, Ju Sung; Kim, Zoo Haye; Huang, Ren Bin; Chae, Young Lye; Wang, Ren Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Khz (a fusion mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia) is isolated from ganoderic acid and P. umbellatus and it exerts antiproliferative effects against malignant cells. However, no previous study has reported the inhibitory effects of Khz on the growth of human colon cancer cells. In the present study, we found that Khz suppressed cell division and induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. Khz cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Khz reduced cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential levels and it also induced disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential and increased calcium concentration and reactive oxygen species generation. Khz increased caspase 3, PARP, caspase 7, and caspase 9 levels, but reduced Bcl-2 protein levels. Flow cytometry showed that the percentage of HCT116 cells in the sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle increased in response to Khz treatment.

  9. Research on Quality Control Technology of Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Powder during Storage and Transportation Process%灵芝孢子粉贮运环节品质控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾; 陈纯; 林婕

    2016-01-01

    In order to establish the technical standards and ensure the quality during storage and transportation of ganoderma lucidum spores powder, the moisture content, acid value, peroxide value and the content of polysaccharide were measured periodically to study the effect of different packaging methods, packaging materials, storage and transportation temperatures on the quality of ganoderma lucidum spore powder. The results show that, it can effectively prevent oxidative rancidity and moisture absorption in caking and other problems, when the reishi shell-broken spores powder was transported and stored at−18 oC in vacuum-packed bags with aluminum foil and the reishi shell-remained spores powder was transported and stored at 5 oC in plastic vacuum packaging.%为建立灵芝孢子粉在贮运环节的技术标准,使其在贮藏及运输过程中保证其品质质量,本文通过对灵芝孢子粉水分含量、酸价、过氧化值和粗多糖含量的指标定期测定,研究包装方式、包装材料、贮运环境温度对其品质的影响。结果表明,破壁灵芝孢子粉用铝箔袋真空包装在环境温度-18 oC下贮藏运输,不破壁灵芝孢子粉用透明塑料真空包装在环境温度5 oC下贮藏运输,可以有效地防止其在贮运过程中的氧化酸败、吸潮结块等品质下降情况。

  10. Simple and Reproducible Two-Stage Agitation Speed Control Strategy for Enhanced Triterpene Production by Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119 (Higher Basidiomycetes) Based on Submerged Liquid Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Feng, Na; Yang, Yan; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Jingsong; Jia, Wei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Triterpenes are important anticancer agents produced by batch submerged liquid fermentation, with the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum ACCC G0119, which was investigated under various dissolved oxygen levels by varying agitation speeds. Three kinetic parameters were analyzed: specific mycelial growth rate (μsmg), specific glucose consumption rate (qsgc), and specific triterpene production rate (qstp). High concentration, yield, and productivity of triterpenes were achieved by developing a simple and reproducible two-stage agitation speed control strategy. At the first 40 h, agitation speed was controlled at 150 rpm to obtain the quickest peak qstp for triterpene production, subsequently agitation speed was controlled at 100 rpm to maintain high qstp for high triterpene accumulation. The maximum concentration of triterpenes reached 0.086 g/l with the yield of 6.072 g/kg and the productivity of 6.532 × 10-4 g/(l·h), which were 39.61%, 36.48%, and 49.22%, respectively, better than the best results controlled by fixed agitation speeds. Conceivably, such a triterpene fermentation production strategy would be useful for industrial large-scale production of triterpenes with G. lucidum.

  11. Detection of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in Ganoderma neo-japonicum

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Woo-Sik; Park, Ha-Na; Cho, Doo-Hyun; Yoo, Young-Bok; Park, Seung-Chun

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Ganoderma to produce extracellular enzymes, including β-glucosidase, cellulase, avicelase, pectinase, xylanase, protease, amylase, and ligninase was tested in chromogenic media. β-glucosidase showed the highest activity, among the eight tested enzymes. In particular, Ganoderma neo-japonicum showed significantly stronger activity for β-glucosidase than that of the other enzymes. Two Ganoderma lucidum isolates showed moderate activity for avicelase; however, Ganoderma neo-japonic...

  12. Chromosome-level genome map provides insights into diverse defense mechanisms in the medicinal fungus Ganoderma sinense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingjie; Xu, Jiang; Sun, Chao; Zhou, Shiguo; Xu, Haibin; Nelson, David R; Qian, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Luo, Hongmei; Xiang, Li; Li, Ying; Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Wang, Lizhi; Lu, Shanfa; Hayward, Alice; Sun, Wei; Li, Xiwen; Schwartz, David C; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Shilin

    2015-06-05

    Fungi have evolved powerful genomic and chemical defense systems to protect themselves against genetic destabilization and other organisms. However, the precise molecular basis involved in fungal defense remain largely unknown in Basidiomycetes. Here the complete genome sequence, as well as DNA methylation patterns and small RNA transcriptomes, was analyzed to provide a holistic overview of secondary metabolism and defense processes in the model medicinal fungus, Ganoderma sinense. We reported the 48.96 Mb genome sequence of G. sinense, consisting of 12 chromosomes and encoding 15,688 genes. More than thirty gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, as well as a large array of genes responsible for their transport and regulation were highlighted. In addition, components of genome defense mechanisms, namely repeat-induced point mutation (RIP), DNA methylation and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, were revealed in G. sinense. Systematic bioinformatic investigation of the genome and methylome suggested that RIP and DNA methylation combinatorially maintain G. sinense genome stability by inactivating invasive genetic material and transposable elements. The elucidation of the G. sinense genome and epigenome provides an unparalleled opportunity to advance our understanding of secondary metabolism and fungal defense mechanisms.

  13. [Study on the identification of ganoderma by multi-steps infrared macro-fingerprint method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-kang; Huang, Dong-lan; Sun, Su-qin; Cao, Jia-jia; Wang, Shao-ling

    2010-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, ganoderma atrum, ganderma tsugae Murr. and ganoderma lipsiense can be discriminated and identified by using multi-steps infrared macro-fingerprint method. The 1D-1R spectra, based on the peaks intensity at 1153 and 1078 cm(-1), which are the fingerprint characteristic peaks of glucoside compounds, show that the content of glucoside compounds of them was in the order of: ganoderma lucidum>ganoderma atrum>ganderma tsugae Murr. >ganoderma lipsiense. Generally, the second derivative IR spectra can clearly enhance the spectra resolution. In the range of 1600-1720 cm(-1), the position and sharpness of characteristics peaks were very different, and it's proved that amino acid peptide compounds of them were different. In the 2D-IR spectra, four of them have the same autopeak at 1100 cm(-1), which is the autopeaks of glucoside, but the number of autopeaks of ganoderma lucidum was 4 and its strongest autopeak was 1040 cm(-1), while 5 autopeaks, 4 autopeaks and 5 autopeaks were for ganoderma atrum, ganderma tsugae Murr. and ganoderma lipsiense respectively, and their strongest autopeaks were 1040, 1139, 1140 and 1134 cm(-1) respectively. The multi-steps infrared maro-fingerprint identification testified that the contents of glucoside compounds and amino acid peptide compounds in these four kinds of ganoderma are different. It's proved that multi-steps infrared maro-fingerprint method can be used to analyze and distinguish ganoderma lucidum, ganoderma atrum, ganderma tsugae Murr. and ganoderma lipsiense.

  14. 灵芝-白灵菇酸奶配方的优化及其营养成分分析%Optimization of Formula of the Ganoderma lucidum-Pleurotus Yogurt by Response Surface Methodology and Nutrient Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李靖; 陈伟; 程芳; 刘锦绣

    2012-01-01

    根据响应曲面法的Box-Behnken试验原理,在单因素实验基础上,设计4因素3水平的响应面实验,对灵芝-白灵菇酸奶的配方进行优化,并测定优化后其产品的乳酸菌数、营养成分和风味物质含量。得到灵芝-白灵菇酸奶的配方:嗜热链球菌与嗜酸乳杆菌的接种比例为1.17∶1,灵芝与白灵菇发酵液的添加比例为2.24∶1,添加量为20%,CMC添加量为0.21%,发酵温度为41℃。添加真菌发酵液的酸奶,其乳酸菌数达到108CFU/mL,显著高于对照酸奶107CFU/mL;酸度和持水力也有所提高,蛋白质降解更充分,氨基酸、胞外多糖含量显著高于对照酸奶,乙醛和丁二酮的含量均高于对照酸奶。%Based on the principle of Box-Behnken design,response surface methodology(RSM) was applied for the optimization of the formula of Ganoderma lucidum-Pleurotus yogurt.Four factors and three levels of response surface experiments were designed according to the single factor experiment.The result showed that the optimal formula of the yogurt were obtained as follows: the inoculation ratio of Str to Lac was 1.17∶ 1,additive proportion of zymotic fluid of Ganoderma lucidum to Pleurotus was 2.24∶ 1 and accounted for 20%,amount of CMC was 0.21%,fermentation temperature was 41℃.Under these optimal conditions,the Ganoderma lucidum-Pleurotus yogurt with superior quality was obtained.In the yogurt with the submerged culture filtrate of fungal,the count of lactic acid bacteria was up to 108 cfu/mL,which was significantly higher than the control yogurt(107 CFU/mL).The acidity and WHC also were increased.Protein was degraded more fully.The content of amino acids was increased significantly.The content of polysaccharide was significantly higher than that in the control yogurt.The levels of Butanedione and acetaldehyde were higher than those in the control yogurt.

  15. 灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的克隆及超量表达对三萜合成的影响%Cloning of a sterol 14α-demethylase gene and the effects of over-expression of the gene on biological synthesis of triterpenes in Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方星; 师亮; 徐颖洁; 赵明文

    2011-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum has been used for centuries to cure various human diseases in our country, and triterpenoids are the most important pharmacologically active constituents of the fungus. Sterol 14a-demethylase (CYP51) is one of the key enzymes involved in the biological synthesis processes of triterpenes. Degenerate primers were designed according to conservative sites of protein sequences from related species and a specific DNA fragment was obtained, then full length of Gl-cyp51 was obtained using traditional methods. Genomic DNA was 1,981bp and cDNA was 1,635bp. The ORF encoded a 544-amino acid polypeptide with a theoretical pI of 6.36 and a theoretical molecular mass of 61.99kDa. The Gl-cyp51 complete cDNA was ligated to the plasmid pG1-GPD. By successful Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation to G. lucidum, we realized Gl-cyp51 over expression transforments. We found that the transcript level of Gl-cyp51 was over expressed and triterpenes production was mcrased. Further more, the transcript level of genes (Gl-aact, Gl-hmgr and Gl-ls) involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenes were also increased.%灵芝Ganoderma lucidum是我国传统的药用真菌,三萜类物质是灵芝的主要生物活性成分,甾醇14α-脱甲基酶是三萜合成途径中的关键酶.根据已报道其他物种甾醇14α-脱甲基酶的氨基酸保守序列设计简并引物,获得灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶特异基因片段,并进一步获得灵芝甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的全长DNA和cDNA序列.其中DNA序列长1,981bp,cDNA序列长1,635bp.结构基因编码蛋白包含544个氨基酸,分子量为61.99kDa,等电点为6.36.将甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因的cDNA序列克隆剑灵芝超量表达载体pGl-GPD中,利用农杆菌介导的转化法实现了甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因在灵芝内的超量表达.转化子的甾醇14α-脱甲基酶基因在转录水平表达量增加,三萜含量增加.进一步研究发现,三萜合成途径的关键酶基因Gl-aact

  16. Chronic Treatment with a Water-Soluble Extract from the Culture Medium of Ganoderma lucidum Mycelia Prevents Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Hypoxia/Ischemia-Induced Injury of Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyan Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been known to increase systemic oxidative stress by chronic hyperglycemia and visceral obesity and aggravate cerebral ischemic injury. On the basis of our previous study regarding a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum mycelia (designed as MAK, which exerts antioxidative and neuroprotective effects, the present study was conducted to evaluate the preventive effects of MAK on apoptosis and necroptosis (a programmed necrosis induced by hypoxia/ischemia (H/I in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. H/I was induced by a combination of unilateral common carotid artery ligation with hypoxia (8% O2 for 20 min and subsequent reoxygenation. Pretreatment with MAK (1 g/kg, p.o. for a week significantly reduced H/I-induced neurological deficits and brain infarction volume assessed at 24 h of reoxygenation. Histochemical analysis showed that MAK significantly suppressed superoxide production, neuronal cell death, and vacuolation in the ischemic penumbra, which was accompanied by a decrease in the numbers of TUNEL- or cleaved caspase-3-positive cells. Furthermore, MAK decreased the expression of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 mRNA and protein, a key molecule for necroptosis. These results suggest that MAK confers resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic cell death and relieves H/I-induced cerebral ischemic injury in type 2 diabetic mice.

  17. Optimization of the Yield of Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Higher Basidiomycetes), Cultivated on a Sunflower Seed Hull Substrate Produced in Argentina: Effect of Olive Oil and Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegain, Maximiliano A; Cubitto, Maria Amelia; Curvetto, Nestor Raul

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower seed hulls were used as the main component of a solid substrate for the cultivation of the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. This study evaluated the effects of supplementing the substrate with olive oil and copper (II) on the mushroom production (MP) parameters and fruiting body total triterpenoid content. The addition of 1.5% olive oil increased total MP by 21.7% (dry basis) in 3 flushes. Copper (60 ppm) increased the daily productivity of the first flush (MP per day) by both reducing the time needed to harvest the crop and increasing the MP. However, the MP at the second and third flushes was reduced. When both supplements were combined, the MP at the first flush was 43% higher than with control treatment. No significant change in mushroom total triterpenoid content was observed by the addition of supplements to the substrate. An increase of 145-155% in the mushroom copper content was obtained by the addition of 60 ppm copper to the substrate. It is thus recommended to use substrate formulations containing both olive oil and copper (II) and harvest just the first flush.

  18. Effects of Exogenous Salicylic Acid on Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis and the Expression of Key Genes in the Ganoderic Acid Biosynthesis Pathway in the Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-Fei; Wu, Chen-Gao; Dang, Zhi-Hao; Shi, Liang; Jiang, Ai-Liang; Ren, Ang; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate herein that salicylic acid (SA) can enhance ganoderic acid (GA) accumulation in the lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Following treatment with different concentrations of SA, the GA content was increased 22.72% to 43.04% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA at different times, the GA content was improved 10.21% to 35.24% compared with the control group. By choosing the optimum point based on response surface methodology, the GA content could be increased up to 229.03 μg/100 mg, which was improved 66.38% compared with the control group. When the fungi were treated with 200 μmol/L SA, the transcription levels of key genes in the GA biosynthesis pathway-squalene (SQ) synthase (sqs), lanosterol (Lano; osc), and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (hmgr)-were improved 119.6-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold, respectively. In addition, following treatment with 100 μmol/L SA, the levels of Lano and SQ, which are intermediate metabolites of GA biosynthesis, were increased 2.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively. These results indicate that SA can regulate the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and increases the metabolic levels of Lano and SQ, thereby resulting in the accumulation of GA.

  19. The cloning, characterization, and functional analysis of a gene encoding an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase involved in triterpene biosynthesis in the Lingzhi or reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng-Li; Shi, Liang; Yao, Jian; Ren, Ang; Zhou, Chao; Mu, Da-Shuai; Zhao, Ming-Wen

    2013-01-01

    An isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IDI) gene, GlIDI, was isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, which produces triterpenes through the mevalonate pathway. The open reading frame of GlIDI encodes a 252 amino acid polypeptide with a theoretical molecular mass of 28.71 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 5.36. GlIDI is highly homologous to other fungal IDIs and contains conserved active residues and nudix motifs shared by the IDI protein family. The color complementation assay indicated that GlIDI can accelerate the accumulation of β-carotene and confirmed that the cloned complementary DNA encoded a functional GlIDI protein. Gene expression analysis showed that the GlIDI transcription level was relatively low in the mycelia and reached a relatively high level in the mushroom primordia. In addition, its expression level could be up-regulated by 254 µM methyl jasmonate. Our results suggest that this enzyme may play an important role in triterpene biosynthesis.

  20. Production of biomass, polysaccharides, and ganoderic acid using non-conventional carbon sources under submerged culture of the Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.)P. Karst. (higher Basidiomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Paola; Rojas, Diego; Atehortúa, Lucía

    2012-01-01

    The effect of different non-conventional carbon sources was studied in the submerged culture of Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, for simultaneous production of mycelial biomass, bioactive ganoderic acid, and polysaccharides, in less time, using non-conventional carbon sources to minimize the high costs of current culture media. The optimal medium composition was defined as (g/L): 50 of barley flour, 0.2 of KH2PO4, 0.1 of MgSO4ⁱ7H2O, and 1 NH4Cl. Cultivated under this complex culture medium, the mycelial biomass production was 23.49 ± 0.37 g/L; the extracellular polysaccharides production was 2.72 ± 0.11 g/L; the intracellular polysaccharides production was 2.22 ± 0.06 g/L; the ganoderic acids production was 299.67 ± 11.63 mg/L. One liter of culture medium developed in this project was priced at USD $ 0.11 if barley flour is used as carbon source or $ 0.13 with oat flour in order to get a good amount of products of interest.

  1. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  2. Effects of Medium Formulae and Cultivating Ways on Yield and Quality of Ganoderma lucidum%培养基配方与栽培方式对灵芝产量和质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋冬花

    2001-01-01

    研究了培养基配方、栽培方式、复合肥含量等因素对灵芝菌丝生长和子实体发育的影响.结果表明:母种菌丝在PDA加ρ=200 g*L-1的树枝煎汁或加ρ=5 g*L-1的酵母膏等培养基中生长最好;产量在以棉籽壳为主料的培养料中最高,栽培方式应选袋栽,复合肥以w=1%~2%为宜.%The effects of medium formulae,cultivating way,content of compound manure on the hypha growth and fruitbody development of Ganoderma lucidum were studied. The results showed that the mother mycelium grew faster and stronger in PDA plus ρ=200 g*L-1 twig extract or plus ρ=5 g*L-1 yeast extract than did in PDA. The highest yield could be gained in culture material of cotton seed shell. Bag-cultivation was better than that of bottle. The optimum mass percentage of compound manure were about 1%~2%.

  3. Khz (fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia induces apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels and activating JNK and NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Khz is a compound derived from the fusion of Ganoderma lucidum and Polyporus umbellatus mycelia that inhibits the growth of cancer cells. The results of the present study show that Khz induced apoptosis preferentially in transformed cells and had only minimal effects on non-transformed cells. Furthermore, Khz induced apoptosis by increasing the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i and activating JNK to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS via NADPH oxidase and the mitochondria. Khz-induced apoptosis was caspase-dependent and occurred via a mitochondrial pathway. ROS generation by NADPH oxidase was critical for Khz-induced apoptosis, and although mitochondrial ROS production was also required, it appeared to occur secondary to ROS generation by NADPH oxidase. Activation of NADPH oxidase was demonstrated by the translocation of regulatory subunits p47(phox and p67(phox to the cell membrane and was necessary for ROS generation by Khz. Khz triggered a rapid and sustained increase in [Ca(2+](i, which activated JNK. JNK plays a key role in the activation of NADPH oxidase because inhibition of its expression or activity abrogated membrane translocation of the p47(phox and p67(phox subunits and ROS generation. In summary, these data indicate that Khz preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, and the signaling mechanisms involve an increase in [Ca(2+](i, JNK activation, and ROS generation via NADPH oxidase and mitochondria.

  4. Extraction and determination of ganoderic acid and total flavonoids in the wild and planted Ganoderma lucidum%野生与种植灵芝中灵芝酸和总黄酮的提取及其含量测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李承范

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderic acid and total flavonoids in the wild and planted Ganoderma lucidum are extracted by reflux method and determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy.Ganoderic acid in the wild and planted Ganoderma lucidum is 0.366% and 0.871%,respectively.Relative standard deviation (RSD)(%)(n=4)is 1.07% and 0.81%,the average recovery is 99.65%.Total flavonoids in the wild and planted Ganoderma lucidum is 0.507% and 0.551%,RSD(%)(n=4)is 1.31% and 1.10%,the average recovery is 99.39%.%采用回流的方法从野生及种植灵芝中提取灵芝酸和总黄酮,用紫外分光光度法测定其含量.测得野生及种植灵芝中灵芝酸含量分别为0.366%和0.871%,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=4)分别为1.07%和0.81%,平均回收率为99.65%;野生及种植灵芝中总黄酮含量分别为0.507%和0.551%,RSD(n=4)分别为1.31%和1.10%,平均回收率为99.39%.

  5. Accessing biological actions of Ganoderma secondary metabolites by in silico profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Kaserer, Teresa; Pfluger, Florian; Mair, Christina E; Langer, Thierry; Schuster, Daniela; Rollinger, Judith M

    2015-06-01

    The species complex around the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum Karst. (Ganodermataceae) is widely known in traditional medicines, as well as in modern applications such as functional food or nutraceuticals. A considerable number of publications reflects its abundance and variety in biological actions either provoked by primary metabolites, such as polysaccharides, or secondary metabolites, such as lanostane-type triterpenes. However, due to this remarkable amount of information, a rationalization of the individual Ganoderma constituents to biological actions on a molecular level is quite challenging. To overcome this issue, a database was generated containing meta-information, i.e., chemical structures and biological actions of hitherto identified Ganoderma constituents (279). This was followed by a computational approach subjecting this 3D multi-conformational molecular dataset to in silico parallel screening against an in-house collection of validated structure- and ligand-based 3D pharmacophore models. The predictive power of the evaluated in silico tools and hints from traditional application fields served as criteria for the model selection. Thus, the focus was laid on representative druggable targets in the field of viral infections (5) and diseases related to the metabolic syndrome (22). The results obtained from this in silico approach were compared to bioactivity data available from the literature. 89 and 197 Ganoderma compounds were predicted as ligands of at least one of the selected pharmacological targets in the antiviral and the metabolic syndrome screening, respectively. Among them only a minority of individual compounds (around 10%) has ever been investigated on these targets or for the associated biological activity. Accordingly, this study discloses putative ligand target interactions for a plethora of Ganoderma constituents in the empirically manifested field of viral diseases and metabolic syndrome which serve as a basis for future

  6. Accessing biological actions of Ganoderma secondary metabolites by in silico profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Kaserer, Teresa; Pfluger, Florian; Mair, Christina E.; Langer, Thierry; Schuster, Daniela; Rollinger, Judith M.

    2016-01-01

    The species complex around the medicinal fungus Ganoderma lucidum Karst. (Ganodermataceae) is widely known in traditional medicines as well as in modern applications such as functional food or nutraceuticals. A considerable number of publications reflects its abundance and variety in biological actions either provoked by primary metabolites such as polysaccharides or secondary metabolites such as lanostane-type triterpenes. However, due to this remarkable amount of information, a rationalization of the individual Ganoderma constituents to biological actions on a molecular level is quite challenging. To overcome this issue, a database was generated containing meta-information, i.e. chemical structures and biological actions of hitherto identified Ganoderma constituents (279). This was followed by a computational approach subjecting this 3D multi-conformational molecular dataset to in silico parallel screening against an in-house collection of validated structure- and ligand-based 3D pharmacophore models. The predictive power of the evaluated in silico tools and hints from traditional application fields served as criteria for the model selection. Thus, we focused on representative druggable targets in the field of viral infections (5) and diseases related to the metabolic syndrome (22). The results obtained from this in silico approach were compared to bioactivity data available from the literature to distinguish between true and false positives or negatives. 89 and 197 Ganoderma compounds were predicted as ligands of at least one of the selected pharmacological targets in the antiviral and the metabolic syndrome screening, respectively. Among them only a minority of individual compounds (around 10%) has ever been investigated on these targets or for the associated biological activity. Accordingly, this study discloses putative ligand target interactions for a plethora of Ganoderma constituents in the empirically manifested field of viral diseases and metabolic

  7. Computational Analysis and Low-Scale Constitutive Expression of Laccases Synthetic Genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A.; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZαA-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and α-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates

  8. Computational analysis and low-scale constitutive expression of laccases synthetic genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Hoyos, Claudia M; Morales-Álvarez, Edwin David; Poveda-Cuevas, Sergio Alejandro; Reyes-Guzmán, Edwin Alfredo; Poutou-Piñales, Raúl A; Reyes-Montaño, Edgar Antonio; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura Marina; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio; Cardozo-Bernal, Ángela M

    2015-01-01

    Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZαA-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and α-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range of substrates

  9. Computational analysis and low-scale constitutive expression of laccases synthetic genes GlLCC1 from Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B from Pleurotus ostreatus in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Rivera-Hoyos

    Full Text Available Lacasses are multicopper oxidases that can catalyze aromatic and non-aromatic compounds concomitantly with reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Fungal laccases have generated a growing interest due to their biotechnological potential applications, such as lignocellulosic material delignification, biopulping and biobleaching, wastewater treatment, and transformation of toxic organic pollutants. In this work we selected fungal genes encoding for laccase enzymes GlLCC1 in Ganoderma lucidum and POXA 1B in Pleurotus ostreatus. These genes were optimized for codon use, GC content, and regions generating secondary structures. Laccase proposed computational models, and their interaction with ABTS [2, 2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] substrate was evaluated by molecular docking. Synthetic genes were cloned under the control of Pichia pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP constitutive promoter. P. pastoris X-33 was transformed with pGAPZαA-LaccGluc-Stop and pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop constructs. Optimization reduced GC content by 47 and 49% for LaccGluc-Stop and LaccPost-Stop genes, respectively. A codon adaptation index of 0.84 was obtained for both genes. 3D structure analysis using SuperPose revealed LaccGluc-Stop is similar to the laccase crystallographic structure 1GYC of Trametes versicolor. Interaction analysis of the 3D models validated through ABTS, demonstrated higher substrate affinity for LaccPost-Stop, in agreement with our experimental results with enzymatic activities of 451.08 ± 6.46 UL-1 compared to activities of 0.13 ± 0.028 UL-1 for LaccGluc-Stop. This study demonstrated that G. lucidum GlLCC1 and P. ostreatus POXA 1B gene optimization resulted in constitutive gene expression under GAP promoter and α-factor leader in P. pastoris. These are important findings in light of recombinant enzyme expression system utility for environmentally friendly designed expression systems, because of the wide range

  10. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively.

  11. Medicinal mushroom Lingzhi or Reishi, Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst., beta-glucan induces Toll-like receptors and fails to induce inflammatory cytokines in NF-kappaB inhibitor-treated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Sainkhuu; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Ha Won

    2011-01-01

    Beta-Glucan of medicinal Lingzhi or Reishi mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum (BGG), possesses immunostimulatory and anti-tumor activities. Innate immune cells are activated by the binding of beta-glucan to the dectin-1 receptor. The present study investigated the immunostimulating activities of BGG, including binding to dectin-1, secretion of cytokines and reactive oxygen species, and induction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry were used for the cytokine and TLR analyses. A mouse inflammation antibody array was used for protein-level cytokine analysis. BGG bound to dectin-1 and induced RAW264.7 cell secretion of several cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interleukin (IL)-6, regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The secretion of these cytokines was further increased by the addition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). BGG also induced both nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Treatment with an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) reduced the induction of IL-1, IL-6, and iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. Expressions of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 were increased by BGG treatment, and addition of LPS induced further induction of TLR4 and TLR6. Our result indicates that BGG induces macrophage secretion of inflammatory cytokines, which can be potentiated by the presence of LPS, likely by binding to dectin-1 and TLR-2/6 receptors, which activate NF-kappaB and prompt the secretion of cytokines.

  12. Preparation of Ganoderma lucidum granule with the fermented substrate of Pueraria ohwi%以葛根为基质的灵芝发酵颗粒冲剂的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐淏; 李士强; 张东升; 王红连; 匡群

    2011-01-01

    It was reported that processing technology for a granule on fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum with Pueraria ohwi.The results showed that the best conditions of fermentation as follows:inoculum 6%,liquid volum 160mL(in each 500mL flask),stirring speed 150r/min and fermentation period 3days;Good quality and tasteful granule could be obtained by adopting raw material ration of concentrated mycelium extract,isoflavones of Pueraria ohwi,maltodextrin,sugar and citric acid at 2:12:50:40:0.4,after deployment,granulation,drying,sterilization and other processes.%研究以葛根为添加基质的灵芝发酵颗粒冲剂的加工工艺。正交实验结果表明:葛根添加量为6%时,灵芝最佳发酵条件为:转速150r/min、装液量160mL(500mL三角瓶)、接种量10%,发酵周期3d;以发酵菌体提取物、葛根异黄酮、麦芽糊精、蔗糖及柠檬酸等为原料,复配重量比为2:12:50:40:0.4,经调配、造粒、干燥、灭菌等工艺,制成气味、口感适宜的保健颗粒冲剂。

  13. 赤芝孢子粉中一个葡聚糖的分离纯化与结构鉴定%Isolation and Structural Determination of a Glucan from the Spores of Ganoderma lucidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍幸峰; 方积年

    2001-01-01

    A water soluble, (1→6)-branched, (1→4) linked D-glucan (LB-B1),[α]21D=+174.2° (c 0.87, H2O), was obtained from a hot-water extract of the sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst by HPSEC, with 0.001 mol/L sodium hydroxide as the eluant, the molecular weight (Mw) of LB-B1 was estimated to be 9.3×103. From the results of total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, acetolysis and 1D, 2D-NMR experimentation, it was concluded that LB-B1 was composed of repeating units with the following structure:%从破壁的赤芝(Ganodermalucidum(Fr.)Karst)孢子粉中分离纯化到一个水溶性的、以1,4连接的D-葡萄糖为主链、在6位接1,6连接葡萄糖的α-D-葡聚糖。高效分子排阻色谱测定,重均分子量为9.3×103,[α]21D=+174.2°(c0.87,H2O)。通过糖组成分析,甲基化反应,乙酰解及一维和二维核磁等光谱解析,确定其结构如下:

  14. 灵芝三萜类化合物对AD衰老模型大鼠学习记忆能力和脑能量代谢的影响%Protective Effects and Mechanism of Ganoderma Lucidum Triterpenoids on Learning and Memory Function of Alzheimer Disease Model Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥; 罗俊; 黄能慧; 张小毅

    2012-01-01

    探讨了灵芝三萜类化合物(Ganoderma Lucidum Triterpenoids,GLT)对阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer disease,AD)的防治作用及作用机制,为临床新药的开发和应用提供参考依据.结果表明AD自然衰老模型大鼠Morris水迷宫检测显示学习记忆障碍,脑组织Na+ -K+ -AT-Pase活力降低,GLT灌胃2月后,学习记忆成绩明显提高,Na+-K+-ATPase活力增加.提示GLT能提高AD自然衰老模型大鼠的学习记忆能力,其作用可能与改善脑内能量代谢有关.%In order to elucidate the protective effects and mechanism of Ganoderma Lucidum Triterpenoids (GLT) on Alzheimer Disease model animals, two different groups rats was divided, it was found that the model animals exhibited the worse ability in learning and memory and a lower Na+ - K+ - ATPase activity . The addition of GLT significantly improved the a-bove indexes(P<0. 05). GLT can protect AD model animals, GLT improved the learning and memory dysfunction in aging model rats, the following mechanism may be improving energy metabolism in brain.

  15. Characterization of polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. using saccharide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ding-Tao; Xie, Jing; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Li, Shao-Ping

    2013-09-12

    Polysaccharides from Ganoderma spp. and their adulterants were firstly investigated and compared using saccharide mapping, enzymatic (endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase and pectinase) digestion followed by polysaccharide analysis using carbohydrate gel electrophoresis analysis. The results showed that both 1,3-β-D-glucosidic and 1,4-α-D-galactosiduronic linkages were existed in Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense), and the similarity of polysaccharides from G. lucidum and G. sinense was high, which may contribute to rational use of Lingzhi. Different species of Ganoderma and their adulterants can be differentiated based on the saccharide mapping, which is helpful to well understand the structural characters of polysaccharides from different species of Ganoderma and to improve the quality control of polysaccharides in Lingzhi.

  16. Doğadan Toplanan ve Portakal Kütüğünde Yetiştirilen Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst Mantar Türünün Bazı Kimyasal İçeriklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Turfan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis P. Karst (Reishi mantarı tıbbi mantar türlerinden biridir. Mantarların kimyasal içerikleri, yetişme ortamlarının fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerine bağlı olarak önemli değişiklik göstermektedir. Bu çalışmada; doğadan toplanan ve portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen Ganoderma lucidum mantarlarının toplam çözünür protein, toplam çözünür karbonhidrat (glikoz, fruktoz ve sakkaroz ve bazı element (P, K, Mg, Mn, S, Fe, Ca ve Na içerikleri araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre, portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen G. lucidum mantarlarının toplam protein, glikoz, fruktoz, sakkaroz ve nişasta miktarları, doğadan toplanan G. lucidum mantarlarına göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Fosfor, demir, sodyum, potasyum ve sülfür içerikleri portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen mantarlarda daha yüksek iken, kalsiyum, magnezyum, manganez ve çinko değerlerinin doğadan toplananlara göre daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Bu sonuçlara göre, portakal kütüğünde yetiştirilen G. lucidum mantarı örneklerinin, doğadan toplananlara göre daha yüksek besin değerlerine sahip olduğu söylenebilir.

  17. Toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining function of fungal fermentative products in Tripterygium wilfordii by Ganoderma lucidum bi-direction solid fermentation%灵芝双向发酵雷公藤的解毒持效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小梅; 贺婧; 罗闳丹; 苏明声; 张普照; 庄毅

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究灵芝双向发酵对雷公藤的解毒持效作用.方法 运用双向发酵工程的原理和方法 获得灵雷菌质(G30),用常规急性毒性试验,免疫学试验、自身免疫疾病动物模型试验等进行G30的毒性和药效学研究.结果 G30的LD_(50)较雷公藤生药组显著提高,并且能抑制小鼠T、B淋巴细胞的增殖和血清溶血素的分泌;G30降低阿霉素诱导的肾炎大鼠的24 h尿蛋白量,同时改善肾炎大鼠的多项生化指标,且对各脏器的毒性要小于雷公藤生药;G30缓解佐剂性类风湿关节炎大鼠的足肿胀度,并改善大鼠的生存状况.结论 灵芝与雷公藤构成发酵组合所产灵雷菌质G30毒性降低并仍然保持免疫抑制作用,对佐剂性类风湿关节炎及阿霉素诱导的大鼠肾炎均有一定的治疗作用.显示双向发酵对雷公藤解毒持效是一条可行的途径.%Objective To survey the toxicity-reducing and efficacy-maintaining function of fungal fermentative products in Tripterygium wilfordii by Ganoderma lucidum bi-direction solid fermentation.Methods Bi-direction solid fermentation engineering was applied and Linglei fungal substance(G30)was obtained.Its toxicity and pharmacodynamics were detected with regular acute toxicity test,immunological test,and tests on autoimmune disease animal pattern.Results LD_(50) of G30 was higher than that of crude drug.G30 had the inhibiting effect on proliferation of both T and B lymphoeytes and could decrease the production of hemolysin in mice.G30 could decrease 24 h urine protein of nephritis model of rats caused by Adriamycin.and it had less toxicity on organs than T. wilfordii.G30 could alleviate foot swelling of rheumatoid arthritis model.Conclusion Linglei fungal substance is obtained from the fermentative composition of G.lucidum fungal and T.wilfordii.It shows lOW toxicity and effects of immunosuppression and also has some therapeutic effects on the model of autoimmune diseases

  18. 蜂花粉、蜂蜜为基质灵芝液体发酵饮料的研制%Development of aGanoderma lucidum fermented liquid beverage using bee pollen and honey as culture medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张政; 付彦青; 陈超; 赵风云

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prepare a nutritious fermentation edible fungi beverage by using the raw mate-rials composed of three traditional health foods, includingGanoderma lucidum, rape bee pollen (mainly nitro-gen), and rape honey (mainly carbon), and to solvent the problem encountered with cell wall brokenMethods The fermentation broth was mixed with citric acid, sucrose and stabilizer, then the beverage product was pre-pared after filtration, canning, sterilization. Meanwhile, the nutrients and broken-wall ratios were detected in fermentation broth, and each indexes of production were determined.Results The best recipes of production were determined as follows: 35% fermentation liquid, 14% cane sugar, 0.26% citric acid, and 0.15% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC). The nutritious liquid contained polysaccharides (25.74 mg/mL), proteins (0.79 mg/mL), which was fermented rape pollen and honey by G. lucidum, and the broken-wall ratio of rape pollens was 72.94% in the fermentation liquid.Conclusion The edible fungi beverage had a nice taste, and was rich in nutrients in line with relevant national standard.%目的:以灵芝(菌种)、油菜蜂花粉(主要氮源)、油菜蜂蜜(主要碳源)三种传统保健食品作为原料,制备一种营养丰富的发酵型食用菌饮料,并解决蜂花粉深加工时破壁难的问题。方法将发酵液与柠檬酸、蔗糖和稳定剂进行调配,经抽滤、罐装、杀菌制得饮料成品,同时对发酵液中的营养成分和花粉破壁率及饮料中的各项指标进行检测。结果发酵饮料的最佳配方为:发酵液35%,蔗糖14%,柠檬酸0.26%,羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)的添加量为0.15%。发酵液中多糖的含量为25.74 mg/mL,蛋白质的含量为0.79 mg/mL,花粉破壁率为72.94%。结论本研究制得的食用菌饮料,天然美味,营养丰富,符合国家的相关标准。

  19. 灵芝孢子油中脂溶性维生素含量及其体外抗氧化活性研究%Lipid- soluble vitamin content and antioxidant activity of Ganoderma lucidum spores oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈体强; 吴岩斌; 毛方华; 吴建国; 王宏雨

    2012-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum spores oil was collected from the separator (at 8 MPa, 45 t ) by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction at 30 MPa and 40 ℃ , with 25 L/h of C02 flux for 2. 0 h, and the averaged yield was 24. 35% while the extract rate reached to 95.08% . High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the content of vitamin D2, D3and E in the spores oil were 15. 13, 14. 68 μg/g and 7. 15 μg/g. The spores oil had positive antioxidant activity in vitro, which were mostly related to the tested samples concentrations. When the concentration of spores oil was 800 μg/mL, its scavenging ability on DPPH radical and superoxide radical were 89. 1% and 41. 3% , which were near to the degree of BHT and rutin, respectively; its scavenging effect on ABTS free radical was not obvious.%采用超临界CO2流体萃取灵芝孢子油,在压力30 MPa和温度40℃条件下进行萃取(CO2流量25 L/h,时间2.0h),在8 MPa和45℃条件下进行分离,灵芝孢子油的平均得率为24.35%,提取率达95.08%.高效液相色谱分析结果表明:灵芝孢子油中的脂溶性维生素D2、维生素D3、维生素E的含量分别为15.13、14.68、7.15 μg/g.体外抗氧化活性检测结果表明:灵芝孢子油具有较强的DPPH自由基和超氧阴离子自由基清除能力,并且呈明显的剂量效应关系;当样品质量浓度达800 μg/mL时,对DPPH自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的清除率可达89.1%和41.3%,较接近于抗氧化剂BHT和芦丁;但对ABTS自由基的清除作用较弱.

  20. Protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on injury of macrophages induced by reactive oxygen species%灵芝多糖肽对氧自由基损伤巨噬细胞的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游育红; 林志彬

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To study the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide (GLPP) on the mice perito-neal macrophages injured by reactive oxygen species (ROS), derived from tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH) invitro and in vivo. METHODS: Mice peritoneal macrophages were injured by ROS, derived from tBOOH. Thesurvival rate of macrophages was measured by MTT assay, and the morphological changes of macrophages wereobserved under light and electron microscopes. RESULTS: GLPP (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, ip for 5 d) could inhibit thefoam cell formation and necrosis of macrophages. The survival rate of macrophages was increased. GLPP (3.125,12.5, 50, 200 mg/L) given to the cultured macrophages brought the same protective effects. Under the electronmicroscope it was found that GLPP (100 mg/kg, ip, for 5 d) could protect the organelle such as mitochondriaagainst injury by tBOOH. CONCLUSION: GLPP had significant scavenging ROS and antioxidant effects.%目的:研究灵芝多糖肽(GLPP)在离体和整体水平对氧自由基(ROS)(tBOOH为氧化剂)损伤巨噬细胞的保护作用.方法:以tBOOH为氧化剂损伤小鼠腹腔巨噬细胞,以MTT法分析小鼠巨噬细胞存活率,在光镜和电子显微镜下观察细胞的形态改变.结果:GLPP50,100,200 mg/kg腹腔注射5天,能抑制巨噬细胞膜样变性和坏死,细胞存活率提高.在培养的巨噬细胞中加入GLPP 3.125,12.5,50,200 mg/L,产生相似的保护作用.电镜观察发现,GLPP(100mg/kg)腹腔注射5天可保护细胞器如线粒体免受tBOOH的损伤.结论:GLPP有显著的清除氧自由基和抗氧化作用.

  1. 灵芝多糖益生菌酸奶抗衰老的研究%Study on the anti-senile effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides probiotic yogurt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李广富; 陈伟; 李听听; 卢中一

    2015-01-01

    To explore the anti-senile effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP)Probiotic Yogurt,D-galactose induced aging mice were fed with Probiotic Yogurt containing different proportion of GLP.Viscera index,SOD,CAT,GSH-Px activities and MDA contents in serum and tissue samples were measured.The results showed that SOD,CAT and GSH-Px activity were significantly increased and MDA content decreased in serum and tissue of male mice fed with GLP Probiotic Yogurt,while the high dose group [1 200 mg/(kg · d)] had the optimal results.Compared with the aging model group,in the group of male mice fed with 1 200 mg/(kg · d) of the GLP Probiotic Yogurt,SOD activities in serum,liver and brain were respectively increased by 20.34%,8.39%,48.95%,GSH-Px activities in serum and liver were respectively increased by 38.45%,39.67%,MDA contents in serum,liver and brain tissue were respectively reduced by 38.37%,43.97%,38.39%,CAT activities in the brain,liver and kidney were respectively increased by 60.02%,55.29%,37.73%.Compared with the yogurt group,SOD activities of the high dose group were respectively increased by 8.39%,1.58%,25.13%.Their GSH-Px activities wererespectively increased by 38.45% and 39.67%.MDA contents were reduced by 43.97%,30.96%,and 18.91%,respectively.CAT activities were increased by 55.29%,32.07% and 26.64%.In conclusion,the synergy of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) and probiotic yogurt could have a potential anti-aging function.%对D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠分别灌胃添加不同含量灵芝多糖的益生菌酸奶,测定各组处理小鼠脏器指数,血清及不同组织中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PX)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性指标,研究添加灵芝多糖的益生菌酸奶对D-半乳糖致衰老小鼠抗衰老作用的效果.结果表明:添加灵芝多糖的益生菌酸奶可显著提高衰老模型小鼠血清及不同

  2. Comparison of the effects of polysaccharides from wood-cultured and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum on murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation in vitro%段木栽培及袋栽灵芝多糖对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹立珍; 林志彬

    2003-01-01

    目的比较段木栽培灵芝多糖(wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-WC) 及袋栽灵芝多糖(bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Gl-PS-BC)对体外培养小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖活性的影响,探讨袋栽灵芝多糖替代段木栽培灵芝多糖的可能性. 方法检测两种灵芝多糖对混合淋巴细胞培养(MLC)反应的影响;观察对刀豆蛋白A (Con A)、细菌脂多糖(LPS)诱导淋巴细胞增殖的影响以及对环孢素A (CsA)、丝裂霉素C(Mit C)、足叶乙苷(VP-16) 等抑制MLC反应的影响.结果当质量浓度为0.2~12.8 mg*L-1时,两种灵芝多糖均可促进MLC反应,增强Con A或LPS诱导的淋巴细胞增殖,并拮抗CsA, Mit C或VP-16对MLC反应的抑制作用.未发现两种多糖之间有显著性差异.结论 Gl-PS-WC及Gl-PS-BC对体外培养脾淋巴细胞的增殖活性有类似作用.%Aim To compare the influences of wood-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-WC) and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS-BC) on the proliferation activities of murine spleen lymphocytes in vitro, and investigate whether Gl-PS-BC can be substituted for Gl-PS-WC. Methods Mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) reaction, lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A, 1 mg*L-1) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg*L-1), MLC reactions inhibited by immunosuppressive drugs, cyclosporine A (CsA, 0.1 mg*L-1), mitomycin (Mit C, 0.1 mg*L-1), or antitumor drug, etoposide (VP-16, 0.1 mg*L-1), were detected in the presence or absence of Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC in the concentration range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1. Results Two kinds of polysaccharides were shown to promote MLC in the range of 0.2-12.8 mg*L-1, increase lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS and antagonize the inhibitory effects of CsA, Mit C or VP-16 on MLC. No significant difference was observed between these two kinds of polysaccharides in selected concentrations. Conclusion Gl-PS-WC and Gl-PS-BC showed similar effects

  3. 灵芝的生物活性组分及其抑制人体外周血淋巴细胞繁殖的研究%Biologically Active Components of Ganoderma lucidum and Its Antiproliferation Action on the Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shim Mi Ja; Kim Ha Won; Kim Byong Kak

    2004-01-01

    传统药用灵芝主要是用来医治肝病,肾炎,高血压,高血脂,关节炎,神经衰落,失眠,支气管炎,哮喘,胃溃疡,动脉硬化和糖尿病等.另外,灵芝的一些组分还有一些新发现的功效,如对肝细胞瘤的细胞毒害作用,抑制血小板的凝聚作用,消除紧张,降低胆固醇,阻止组胺的释放和抗艾滋病毒等.尽管在这种真菌中发现了很多中活性物质,如多糖、蛋白质、矿物质和甾醇等,但三萜系化合物是主要的活性成分.在过去的30年中发现120多种三萜系化合物,有必要对这些物质的活性及其结果作出总结.根据羊毛甾烷类三萜系化合物的结构和它们已知的生物学和药学功效可以分为10个类型,本文就此做了一些阐述.有关灵芝促进人体免疫能力的报道还不多.为了阐明灵芝的免疫抑制力的机制,自子实体中的萃取的甲醇抽取物可以分成6个组分,并把它们逐个加到人体血液外围单核细胞(PBMCs)中,发现在无粘附性细胞中,它们可以在细胞繁殖和生长时捕获细胞,但在粘附性的细胞上活性较差,用氯仿萃取物的活性更强,这种活性物质进一步硅胶柱纯化后,可分为7个亚组分.它们当中,GLE1,具有最高的迁移值(Rf值),在一定浓度下可以抑制细胞繁殖,该组分也可以抑制人体异源的淋巴细胞培养物(MLS).用ELISA检测培养液上清液中分泌的白细胞素-2(IL-2),可以发现GLE1组分可以抑制白细胞素IL-2的分泌,几乎完全阻断了IL-2的分泌.因此,GLE1也许可以发展成为一种灵芝调节剂.%The traditional medicinal efficacies of Ganoderma lucidum are treatments of hepatopathy, nephritis, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, arthritis, neurasthenia, insomnia, bronchitis, asthma, gastric ulcer, arteriosclerosis and diabetes. Some of these efficacies, such as cytotoxicity on hepatoma cell, inhibition of platelet aggregation, antihypertension, hypocholesterolemic activity, inhibition of

  4. Effect of Compound Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Oil Soft Capsule on Antifatigue and Immunopotentiation%复方灵芝孢子精油软胶囊抗疲劳增强免疫力作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍蕾蕾; 杨帆; 陈海飞; 卞俊; 唐大海

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究复方灵芝孢子精油软胶囊抗疲劳、增强免疫力的药理作用。方法将昆明种小鼠随机分为5组,分别为复方灵芝孢子精油软胶囊(FFLZB)低、中、高[385,770,1540 mg/(kg·d)]剂量组、对照药红参醇提物组、空白对照组,灌胃给药14 d后考察各组小鼠爬杆时间及爬杆后血清肌酸激酶(CK)、三磷酸腺苷(ATP)水平,同时采用免疫脏器指数法、碳粒廓清法、足趾增厚法测定迟发型变态反应(DTH),考察FFLZB对小鼠免疫功能的影响。结果高、中、低剂量FFLZB能不同程度地延长小鼠爬杆时间,高、中剂量能显著提高小鼠爬杆后血清ATP水平,仅低剂量能使爬杆后的小鼠血清CK酶水平显著提高;与空白对照组相比,FFLZB高、中、低3个剂量能不同程度地抑制小鼠免疫器官脏器指数的下降,提高碳粒廓清指数水平及24,48 b迟发型变态反应程度。结论复方灵芝孢子精油软胶囊具有抗疲劳及增强免疫力作用,是一种有效的抗疲劳复方中药制剂。%Objective To researcb tbe pbarmacological effect of antifatigue and immunopotentiation of Compound Ganoderma Lucidum Spore Oil Soft Capsule. Methods Kunming mice were radomly devided into five groups:tbe low,middle and bigb FFLZB doses groups [ 385,770,1 540 mg/ ( kg·d)] ,control red gingseng etbanol extract group and blank control group. Tbe pole-climbing time,serum cre-atinine kinase(CK)and adenosine tripbospbate(ATP)contents on 14 d after medication gavage were detected. At tbe same time tbe immune organ index metbod,cleaning carbon particle metbod and digits tbickening metbod were adopted to detect delayed type bep-ersensitivity(DTH)for investigating tbe influence of CGOC on mice′s immune function. Results Tbe bigb,middle and low doses FFLZB groups could prolong tbe pole-climbing time in different degrees,tbe middle and bigb doses groups could significantly increase tbe serum

  5. Chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Heleno, Sandrina A; Reis, Filipa S; Stojkovic, Dejan; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Sokovic, Marina

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma genus comprises one of the most commonly studied species worldwide, Ganoderma lucidum. However, other Ganoderma species have been also reported as important sources of bioactive compounds. Polysaccharides are important contributors to the medicinal properties reported for Ganoderma species, as demonstrated by the numerous publications, including reviews, on this matter. Yet, what are the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides that have bioactivity? In the present manuscript, the chemical features of Ganoderma polysaccharides with reported antioxidant, antitumor and antimicrobial activities (the most studied worldwide) are analyzed in detail. The composition of sugars (homo- versus hetero-glucans and other polysaccharides), type of glycosidic linkages, branching patterns, and linkage to proteins are discussed. Methods for extraction, isolation and identification are evaluated and, finally, the bioactivity of polysaccharidic extracts and purified compounds are discussed. The integration of data allows deduction of structure-activity relationships and gives clues to the chemical aspects involved in Ganoderma bioactivity.

  6. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores on cytochrome C, mitochondrial Ca2+, HSP70 and BDNF in brain of epilepsy rats%灵芝孢子粉对癫痫大鼠脑组织细胞色素C、线粒体钙、HSP70和BDNF的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑秋; 王淑湘; 李晓捷; 姜志梅; 秦晓玉; 韩玉泽; 刘蕾; 刘君星; 王芳芳; 梁衍峰

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究灵芝孢子粉对癫痫大鼠脑组织超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、丙二醛(MDA)、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、细胞色素C、热休克蛋白70(HSP70)、线粒体Ca2+和脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)的影响,探讨灵芝孢子粉对癫痫大鼠脑细胞的保护作用机制.方法:用亚惊厥剂量的戊四氮(PTZ)复制癫痫慢性模型,采用火焰原子吸收法测定脑组织线粒体Ca2+的含量,分光光度计比色法测定SOD的活性、MDA和细胞色素C含量,免疫组织化学方法检测HSP70和BDNF的表达情况.结果:与癫痫模型组相比,灵芝孢子粉组线粒体内细胞色素C、线粒体Ca2+的含量和HSP70的表达显著增高,而胞浆内细胞色素C含量则明显降低;脑组织SOD和T-AOC的活性明显增加,而MDA含量明显降低.大脑皮质和海马区BDNF阳性细胞数癫痫模型组明显高于正常对照组 (P<0.05);灵芝孢子粉组皮质和海马区BDNF阳性神经元数目进一步增多,与癫痫模型组相比,差异显著(P<0.05).结论:灵芝孢子粉能明显降低癫痫发作对脑细胞线粒体造成的损伤,其作用机制可能是通过清除自由基、增强脑组织的抗氧化能力,从而减轻自由基对线粒体膜的损伤作用,恢复线粒体的能量代谢,减轻脑细胞的损伤与凋亡.%AIM : To investigate the effects of Ganoderma lucidum spores on superoxide dismutase( SOD ),malondialdehyde( MDA ),total antioxidative capacity( T - AOC ), cytochrome C, heat - shock protein 70 ( HSP70 ), mitochondrial Ca2+ and hrain - derived neurotrophic factor( BDNF ) in the brain tissues of epilepsy rats.METHODS : The rat hronic epilepsy model was hy intraperitoneal injection of pentetrazole( PTZ ) at a subconvulsant dose ( 32 mg/kg ).Flame atomic absorption method was used to detect the content of mitochondrial Ca2 + , and spectrophotometer colorimetry was used to measure SOD activity,MDA content,T - AOC and cytochrome C levels in rat brain tissues.HSP70 and BDNF were de termined

  7. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  8. Construction and Expression of Lactococcus lactis Expression Vector of lz-8 Gene from Ganoderma lucidum and Study of Its Immunological Characteristics%灵芝lz-8基因乳酸菌表达载体的构建与表达及免疫特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宁宁; 陈萍; 孙鑫泽; 张雪; 刘琼

    2013-01-01

    Cloning and prokaryotic expression of Iz-8 gene from Ganoderma lucidum were conducted.Its physiological activity was tested through animals.The primers were designed according to the DNA sequence of lz-8 gene published in GenBank.The whole DNA from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum was purified.The lz-8 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the food-grade expression vector pNZ-8149 of Lactic acid bacteria.The recombinant plasmid was constructed and transferred into L.lactis NZ3900.After being induced by Nisin at 30 ℃ for 3 h,the recombinant protein was analysed by SDS-PAGE.The mice were fed with the bacterial suspension of NZ3900/pNZ8149-Iz-8 and their immune indexes such as carbon clearance index were tested.Results:A 330 bp lz-8 gene fragment was obtained.The prokaryotic recombined plasmid pNZ8149-Iz-8 was constructed.The NZ3900 transformed recombined plasmid pNZ8149-Iz-8 expressed LZ-8.Bacterial suspension of NZ3900/pNZ8149-Iz-8 had noticeable effects on the immune indexes in mice.The construction of the genetic engineering strain NZ3900/pNZ8149-Iz-8 had some effects on immune function in mice.%克隆灵芝Iz-8基因并进行原核表达,通过动物试验检测其生理活性.根据GenBank公布的Iz-8基因的DNA序列设计引物,从灵芝菌丝中提取灵芝总DNA,PCR扩增k-8基因并连接到乳酸菌食品级表达载体pNZ8149,转化乳酸乳球菌NZ3900,于30℃Nisin诱导3h,SDS-PAGE进行蛋白表达分析.将工程菌菌悬液给小鼠灌胃,对其碳廓清试验等免疫指标进行检测.结果表明:扩增到的Iz-8基因序列全长330 bp,构建了原核表达载体pNZ8149-Iz-8,LZ-8蛋白在NZ3900中得到表达.NZ3900/pNZ8149-Iz-8菌悬液对小鼠各项免疫指标有明显的调节作用.

  9. 顶空气相色谱-质谱联用法分析灵芝发酵物中的挥发性物质%Head-space gas chromatographic analysis for the volatile flavor compounds from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘高强; 王晓玲

    2007-01-01

    采用顶空-气相色谱-质谱联用法对灵芝发酵物的风味物质进行了定性和定量测定.结果表明,灵芝发酵物中至少含有31种风味物质.对其中21种主要成分进行了鉴定,这些物质大多是酮类、醇类和内酯类化合物.所有物质中4,5-二氢-3,5-二甲基-2-呋喃酮的含量最高,达64.12%.此外,3-戊烯-2-酮和戊基乙烯基原醇是已知的食品香料成分.结果有助于初步理解灵芝发酵物产生清淡香味的原因.%The volatile flavor from Ganoderma lucidum submerged-cultured broth was investigated by head-space gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). More than thirty different volatile flavor compounds from the broth were detected, and twenty-one compounds were identified, which were mainly ketones, alcohols and lactones. Among all the compounds detected in the broth, the compound with its characteristic retention peaks at 22.41min was 4,5-dihydro-3,5-dimethyl-2-furanone, and its content was 64.12% of the total content of all the volatile flavor compounds. In addition, 3-penten-2-one and amyl vinyl carbinol with their characteristic retention peaks at 9.78min and 18.10min, respectively, were the known food spice substances.The results were useful to preliminarily understand the mechanism of light aroma emitted from the submerged-cultured broth of G. lucidum.

  10. Experimental Study on the Prevention of Exercise-induced Immunodeficiency Disease Taishan Ganoderma lucidum for Improving High-intensity Training Athletes%泰山赤灵芝对提高运动员大强度训练中的免疫机能预防运动性疾病的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维珂; 黄文建; 崔长松; 张丛丛

    2014-01-01

    Experimental study of Taishan Ganoderma lucidum oral CUBA events through intermittent periods of high intensity training in athletes taking.The result showsthat Taishan Ganoderma can not only improve the body’ s cellular immune athletes and humoral immunity.It can effectively prevent the athletes during training at high in-tensity by the decline of immune function and increase the risk of infection of the disease,reduce sports injuries. At the same time,it improves the efficiency of training.Training can be effectively monitored by detecting the change of various types of indicators of Ig immunoglobulin in body fluid athletes.%通过对CUBA赛事间歇中运动员大强度训练期间服用泰山赤灵芝口服液的实验研究,表明泰山赤灵芝不仅能提高运动员机体的细胞免疫,增强体液免疫,而且能有效的防止运动员在高强度训练期间由机体免疫机能的下降而增加受感染疾病的风险、降低运动损伤;在提高训练效率的同时,可以通过运动员体液中免疫球蛋白中的各类Ig的检测指标的变化有效地监控训练。

  11. Effects of bean dregs powder on the production of ligninolytic enzyme system in the fermentation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum%豆渣对平菇和灵芝发酵产生木质素酶系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴义祥; 柯丽霞; 吴青; 邓江涛

    2011-01-01

    研究了不同浓度的豆渣(1%~5%)对平菇和灵芝固态发酵油菜秸秆产生木质素降解酶系的影响.结果表明:与对照(无豆渣)相比,浓度为3%、4%的豆渣显著提高平菇产生的锰过氧化物酶(MnP)和木质素过氧化物酶(LiP)活性;漆酶(Lac)的活性也在豆渣浓度为2%~4%时得到显著提高.灵芝发酵基质中,3%的豆渣显著提高了MnP和LiP的活性;浓度为3%~5%的豆渣也可显著提高灵芝发酵基质中Lac的活性,其中豆渣浓度为3%时,平菇与灵芝单菌发酵中Lac的活性都达到峰值,分别为对照的2.3倍、1.67倍.%Effects of bean dregs powder at different concentrations (1% ~ 5% ) on the production of ligninolytic enzyme system of Pleurotus ostreatus and Ganoderma lucidum in the fermentations of rape straw solid-state medium were studied. The results showed that ,compared to the control( without bean dregs powder) , the manganese peroxidase( MnP) and lignin peroxidase( LiP) activities of P. ostreatus were increased significantly when the concentrations of bean dregs powder were 3% and 4% , 2% ~4% bean dregs powder increased significantly the activity of laccase ( Lac) . 3% bean dregs powder increased significantly the activities of MnP and LiP of G.lucidum, the activity of Lac was increased significantly when the concentrations of bean dregs powder were 3% ~ 5% . Under the single-strain fermentation of P. ostreatus and G. lucidum , the activity of Lac was highest when the concentration of bean dregs powder was 3% , which was 2. 3 , 1. 67 times the control respectively.

  12. Effects of Selenium Presence in Mycelia of Ganoderma species (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Their Medicinal Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanović, Ivan; Stajić, Mirjana; Stanojković, Tatjana; Knežević, Aleksandar; Vukojević, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to research the antifungal, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential of Ganoderma applanatum and Ganoderma lucidum mycelial extracts as well as the possible effect of Se enrichment on these activities. Both Se-enriched and nonenriched extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum showed fungi static activity, while a fungicidal effect was not noted. The extracts exhibited significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil radical scavenging capacity, while the effect of Se on this potential was stimulatory in G. applanatum (1.3%-33.9% without Se and 3.1%-67.1% in Se enrichment) and inhibitory in G. lucidum (1.4%-71.6% and 1.3%-48.6% without and with Se, respectively). Only phenols in G. applanatum and phenols and flavonoids in G. lucidum were holders of antioxidant activity. Cytotoxic activity against both HeLa and LS174 cell lines was very low in comparison with cis-diamminedichloroplatinum.

  13. Comparison of Polysaccharides from Two Species of Ganoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Tang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense, known as Lingzhi in Chinese, are commonly used Chinese medicines with excellent beneficial health effects. Triterpenes and polysaccharides are usually considered as their main active components. However, the content of triterpenes differs significantly between the two species of Ganoderma. To date, a careful comparison of polysaccharides from the two species of Ganoderma has not been performed. In this study, polysaccharides from fruiting bodies of two species of Lingzhi collected from different regions of China were analyzed and compared based on HPSEC-ELSD and HPSEC-MALLS-RI analyses, as well as enzymatic digestion and HPTLC of acid hydrolysates. The results indicated that both the HPSEC-ELSD profiles and the molecular weights of the polysaccharides were similar. Enzymatic digestion showed that polyshaccharides from all samples of Lingzhi could be hydrolyzed by pectinase and dextranase. HPTLC profiles of their TFA hydrolysates colored with different reagents and their monosaccharides composition were also similar.

  14. A comparative study on immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from two official species of Ganoderma (Lingzhi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lan-Zhen; Xie, Jing; Lv, Guang-Ping; Hu, De-Jun; Zhao, Jing; Duan, Jin-Ao; Li, Shao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Two Ganoderma species, G. lucidum and G. sinense, are listed as Lingzhi in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and they are considered to have the same therapeutic effects. Polysaccharides were the main immunomodulatory and anticancer components in Ganoderma. In this study, the chemical characters and the effects of polysaccharides from G. lucidum (GLPS) and G. sinense (GSPS) on macrophage functions were investigated and compared. Chemical studies showed that GLPS and GSPS were different, displaying various molecular weight distribution and ratio of monosaccharide components. In vitro pharmacological studies showed that both GLPS and GSPS had potent effects on macrophage functions, such as promoting macrophage phagocytosis, increasing their release of nitric oxide and cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Generally, GLPS was more powerful than GSPS. This study is helpful to elucidate the active components and pharmacological variation between the 2 Ganoderma species. The structure-activity relationship of polysaccharides from Ganoderma needs further study.

  15. Effect of combination of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide and metformin on AGEs and CTGF of cardiac muscle in type 2 diabetic rats and the mechanism%灵芝多糖联合二甲双胍对2型糖尿病大鼠心肌AGEs及CTGF的影响及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔进; 窦志华; 吴锋; 孟国梁; 陈惠; 郑惠华

    2014-01-01

    Aim To study the effects of ganoderma lu-cidum polysaccharides and metformin on myocardial fi-brosis of type 2 diabetic rats and its mechanism. Methods SD rats were fed with high fat diet for 4 weeks, and then were injected with streptozotocin (30mg·kg-1 ) to replicate type 2 diabetic model. The diabetic rats were randomized into normal control group,diabetes group, ganoderma lucidum polysaccha-rides group ( 600 mg · kg-1 ) , metformin group ( 600 mg·kg-1 ) , and combination group( ganoderma lucid-um polysaccharides 300 mg·kg-1 +metformin 300 mg ·kg-1 ) . After 12 weeks’ treatment,the levels of fast-ing serum glucose were determined and the extent of myocardial fibrosis was observed by Picro-sirius red staining. The contents of AGEs in serum were deter-mined by fluorescence spectrophotometer. The activities of CAT and GSH-Px in myocardium were detected. Im-munohistochemical method and Western blot were used to detect myocardial tissue AGEs and CTGF protein ex-pression. Results Combination group could repress patho-proceeding of myocardial fibrosis efficiently, im-prove the activity of CAT and GSH-Px in myocardium and lower the concentration of AGEs in serum, as well as reduce the expression of AGEs and CTGF in myo-cardium. Conclusions Ganoderma lucidum polysac-charides and metformin could prevent myocardial fibro-sis. The possible mechanism may be related to repress-ing oxidative stress of myocardium, lowering serum AGEs and down regulating AGEs and CTGF of myocar-dium.%目的:探讨灵芝多糖联合二甲双胍对2型糖尿病大鼠心肌纤维化的预防作用及其作用机制。方法 SD大鼠高脂饮食喂养4周后,腹腔注射链脲佐菌素(STZ)30 mg·kg-1建立2型糖尿病(type 2 diabetes mellitus,T2DM)模型。成模后将大鼠随机分为正常对照组、模型组、灵芝多糖组(灵芝多糖600 mg·kg-1)、二甲双胍组(二甲双胍600 mg·kg-1)及联合用药组(灵芝多糖300 mg · kg-1+二甲双胍300 mg · kg-1)。药物治疗12

  16. 灵芝粗多糖对二乙基亚硝胺诱导的小鼠肝脏组织形态及原癌基因和抑癌基因的影响%Effects ofGanoderma lucidum Crude Polysaccharide on Liver Tissue Morphology,and Expression of Proto-oncogene and Tumor Suppressor Gene mRNA, in Diethylnitrosamine-treated Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯嫣; 王家东; 冯翠萍; 常明昌; 程红艳; 孟俊龙

    2014-01-01

    Sixty healthy,four week-old,mice were randomly divided into six groups (female∶male=1∶1 )as follows;normal control,diethylnitrosamine (DEN)model group,Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GP) group,and low (DEN + 50 mg/kg·d),median (DEN+100 mg/kg·d)and high (DEN+200 mg/kg·d)GP dose groups.After 45 days,liver tissue morphology was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining,and proto-oncogene (ras and H-myc)and tumor suppressor gene (p53 and Rb1)mRNA expression levels were determined using fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR ). Our data demonstrated that GP had the protective function on liver cells of DEN-treated mice,and inhibited to a limited extent the occurrence or development of cancer by regulating the expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.%采用苏木精-伊红染色法(hematoxylin-eosin staining )和实时荧光定量 PCR(real-time PCR,RT-PCR)法,研究灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)粗多糖对二乙基亚硝胺(diethylnitrosamine,DEN)诱导的小鼠肝脏组织形态以及原癌基因H-ras和myc 和抑癌基因P53、Rb1 mRNA的影响,结果表明:灵芝粗多糖对 DEN 引起的小鼠肝脏损伤具有缓解作用,并可以抑制原癌基因的表达、提高抑癌基因的表达。

  17. A Comprehensive Review of the Structure Elucidation and Biological Activity of Triterpenoids from Ganoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Xia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have been reported to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antimicrobial and blood fat reducing effects. To date, 316 GTs have been found and their similar chemical structures have proved difficult to elucidate. This paper compiles 316 naturally occurring triterpenes from Ganoderma based on the literature published through January 2013 along with their structures, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data.

  18. A comprehensive review of the structure elucidation and biological activity of triterpenoids from Ganoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qing; Zhang, Huazheng; Sun, Xuefei; Zhao, Haijuan; Wu, Lingfang; Zhu, Dan; Yang, Guanghui; Shao, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Mao, Xin; Zhang, Lanzhen; She, Gaimei

    2014-10-30

    Ganoderma triterpenes (GTs) are the major secondary metabolites of Ganoderma lucidum, a traditional Chinese medicine, popularly used for complementary cancer therapy. GTs are lanostane-tetracyclic triterpenes. They have been reported to possess anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antimicrobial and blood fat reducing effects. To date, 316 GTs have been found and their similar chemical structures have proved difficult to elucidate. This paper compiles 316 naturally occurring triterpenes from Ganoderma based on the literature published through January 2013 along with their structures, physiological activities and 13C-NMR spectral data.

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of widely cultivated Ganoderma in China based on the mitochondrial V4-V6 region of SSU rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X W; Su, K Q; Zhang, Y M

    2015-02-02

    Ganoderma mushroom is one of the most prescribed traditional medicines and has been used for centuries, particularly in China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In this study, different strains of Ganoderma spp and the genetic relationships of the closely related strains were identified and investigated based on the V4-V6 region of mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA of the Ganoderma species. The sizes of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA regions from different Ganoderma species showed 2 types of sequences, 2.0 or 0.5 kb. A phylogenetic tree was constructed, which revealed a high level of genetic diversity in Ganoderma species. Ganoderma lucidum G05 and G. eupense G09 strains were clustered into a G. resinaceum group. Ganoderma spp G29 and G22 strains were clustered into a G. lucidum group. However, Ganoderma spp G19, G20, and G21 strains were clustered into a single group, the G. lucidum AF214475, G. sinense, G. strum G17, G. strum G36, and G. sinense G10 strains contained an intron and were clustered into other groups.

  20. Effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide on the expression and function of p-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells%灵芝多糖肽对Caco-2细胞上P糖蛋白功能、表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴芬; 成日华; 李焕德

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究灵芝多糖肽(ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide,GLPP)对Caco-2细胞P糖蛋白(P-gp)功能和表达的影响.方法 用流式细胞仪测定Caco-2细胞中P-gp底物罗丹明123和抗体的荧光强度,分析药物对P-gp功能和表达的影响.双向跨膜转运实验考查GLPP对罗丹明123转运的影响.结果 10、20、50、100μg·mL-1的GLPP均抑制了Rh-123的外排,其外排分别降低了8%、16%、19%、33%,具有浓度依赖性.高、中浓度的GLPP(50、100 μg·mL-1)对Rh-123的双向转运有一定的抑制,外排率(ER)较阴性对照组降低了15%、18%.细胞与药物作用72 h后,细胞抗体荧光强度降低,P-gp的表达降低.结论 GLPP对P-gp的活性有一定的抑制作用,能在较短的时间内增加细胞内Rh-123的蓄积,抑制Rh-123的双向转运.长期使用GLPP可抑制P-gp的表达.%Objective To determine the effect of ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides peptide (GLPP) on the expression and function of p-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cells. Methods The effect of GLPP on P-glycoprotein function and expression in Caco-2 cells was analyzed by rhodanmine-123 and antibody assay. Flowcytometry was used to determine the intracel-lular Rhodanmine-123 concentration and antibody concentration. The effect of GLPP on the transportation of rhodanmine-123 was detected by Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Results Compared with that of the controls, the efflux quantity of rhodamnine-123 was reduced by 8%, 16%, 19% and 33%. When treated with GLPP at 10, 20, 50 and 100 μg · mL-1 . The inhibitive effect of GLPP was concentration-dependent. Rhodanmine-123 bidirectional transport showed that the efflux rate of rhodanmine-123 was reduced by 15% and 18% when treated with GLPP at 50 and 100 μg · mL-1. The P-gp protein level was decreased after 72 h incubation. Conclusion GLPP is an inhibitor of P-gp which can inhibit the function of P-gp in 1 h and decrease the expression of P-gp after 72 h incubation with Caco-2 cells

  1. Antihepatoma and Liver Protective Potentials of Ganoderma Lucidum (靈芝 Ling Zhi Fermented in a Medium Containing Black Soybean (黑豆 Hēi Dòu and Astragalus Membranaceus (生黃耆 Shēng Huáng Qí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yuan Su

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The antihepatoma activity and liver protective function of the fermentation products (5 L fermenator of Ganoderma lucidum (GL; 靈芝 Ling Zhi cultivated in a medium containing black soybean (BS; 黑豆 Hēi Dòu and Astragalus membranaceus (AM; 生黃耆 Shēng Huáng Qí at different fermentation temperatures were investigated in this study. Hep 3B cells pretreated with lovastatin were used to study the antihepatoma activity, and possible active components were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced primary rat hepatocyte injury was further used to evaluate the liver protective activity of the fermentation products. While all the GL broth filtrates do not inhibit the growth of Hep 3B cells, the ethanolic extract from GL-2 mycelia (GL-2-mE, cultivated in the medium containing BS (50 g/L and AM (20 g/L at 24 °C for 11 days showed the best antihepatoma activity (IC50 26.6 μg/mL than the other ethanolic extracts from GL mycelia, GL fruiting body, BS, and AM did. The antihepatoma activities were correlated with some unknown active components in these samples. Furthermore, GL-2-mE (100 μg/mL without harmful effect on the growth of normal primary rat hepatocytes significantly maintained cell viability, reduced lactate dehydrogenase leakage, lowered lipid peroxidation, and increased glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities in the CCl4-induced damaged primary rat hepatocytes.

  2. Species of Genus Ganoderma (Agaricomycetes) Fermentation Broth: A Novel Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Kosanic, Marijana; Stajić, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena; Ranković, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    The bioactivity of Ganoderma lucidum basidiocarps has been well documented, but there are no data on the medicinal properties of its submerged cultivation broth nor on the other species of the genus Ganoderma. Thus the aim of this study was to test the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fermentation broth obtained after submerged cultivation of G. applanatum, G. carnosum, and G. lucidum. DPPH· scavenging ability, total phenols, and flavonoid contents were measured to determine the antioxidative potential of Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates, whereas their antimicrobial potential was studied using the microdilution method. DPPH· scavenging activity of G. lucidum fermentation filtrates was significantly higher than that of G. applanatum and G. carnosum, with the maximum (39.67%) obtained from strain BEOFB 432. This filtrate also contained the highest concentrations of phenols (134.89 μg gallic acid equivalents/mL) and flavonoids (42.20 μg quercetin equivalent/mL). High correlations between the activity and phenol content in the extracts showed that these compounds were active components of the antioxidative activity. G. lucidum strain BEOFB 432 was the most effective antibacterial agent, whereas strain BEOFB 434 has proven to be the most effective antifungal agent. The study showed that Ganoderma spp. fermentation filtrates are novel potent antioxidative and antimicrobial agents that could be obtained more quickly and cheaper than basidiocarps.

  3. Effects of Schisandra chinensis Turcz. and Schisandra chinensis Turcz.Compatible with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge Ganoderma lucidum and Bupleurum chinense DC on Chronic liver Injuries%五味子及其与丹参 灵芝 柴胡配伍对慢性肝损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜春; 田卫斌; 李剑锋; 刘明义

    2001-01-01

    目的 观察五味子和五味子与丹参、柴胡、灵芝配伍对慢性肝损伤的治疗作用。方法 采用四氯化碳(CCl4)和D-氨基半乳糖(D-GlaN)多次注射造成两种慢性肝损伤模型,给予同一剂量的药物,测定血清谷丙转氨酶(ALT)、胆碱酯酶(CHE)、肝匀浆ALT、CHE、谷胱苷肽(GSH)、丙二醛(MDA)和碱性磷酸酶(ALP),HE染色观察肝组织形态学。结果 五味子对CCl4慢性肝损伤所致的血清与匀浆ALT显著降低(P<0.01),CHE升高(P<0.01),ALP与MDA下降(P<0.01)。五味子+丹参对慢性肝损伤酶的作用与五味子相似,组织形态学结果与生化结果基本一致。五味子+柴胡与五味子+灵芝的作用弱于前者,但病理组织形态学结果不支持二者的治疗作用。对D-GlaN所致慢性肝损伤五味子能加强枯否细胞的吞噬功能,增加蛋白合成,消除MDA对细胞的损伤,改善细胞代谢。五味子+丹参的生化结果与组织形态学结果显示其治疗作用强于五味子,对纤维组织增生的抑制作用是其特点。五味子+灵芝虽有降ALT和升高CHE作用(P<0.05,P<0.01),但对匀浆CHE无效,而组织形态学显示受损的肝细胞无改善。五味子+柴胡对酶的作用较差,组织形态学显示受损的肝细胞无明显改善。结论 五味子对两种慢性肝损伤有较好的治疗作用,五味子与丹参配伍的作用强于五味子,对纤维组织增生有明显抑制作用是其特点。%Aim To investigate the effect treatment of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) and Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) compatible with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge,Ganoderma lucidum and Bupleurum chinense DC resprectively on Chronic liver injuries in mice.Methods Both chronic liver injuries models were used by injection each the tetrachloromethane(CCl4) and D-Galactosamine for more times in mice. The mice were administrated the drug in the same dosage,then the activities of alanine aminotransferase

  4. Ligninolytic Activity of Ganoderma strains on Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYPUK ARTININGSIH

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Lignin is a phenylpropanoid polymers with only few carbon bonds might be hydrolized. Due to its complexity, lignin is particularly difficult to decompose. Ganoderma is one of white rot fungi capable of lignin degradation. The ligninolytic of several species Ganoderma growing under different carbon sources was studied under controlled conditions which P. chrysosporium was used as standard comparison.Three types of ligninolytic, namely LiP, MnP, and laccase were assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Ratio between clear zone and diameter of fungal colony was used for measuring specific activity qualitatively.Four sspecies of Ganoderma showed positive ligninolytic qualitatively that G. lucidum KT2-32 gave the highest ligninolytic. Activity of LiP and MnP in different carbon sources was consistently resulted by G. lucidum KT2-32, while the highest activity of laccase was shown by G. ochrolaccatum SA2-14. Medium of Indulin AT affected production of protein extracellular and induced ligninolytic. Glucose, BMC, and pine sawdust did not affect the activity of ligninolytic. The specific activity of Ganoderma species was found to be higher than the one of P. chrysosporium.

  5. 碳氮源对灵芝液体发酵胞外糖肽产量的影响%Effect of carbon and nitrogen source on exopolysaccharide peptides production of Ganoderma lucidum in submerged culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁保京; 张日俊

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to discover high efficient and economical raw materials for commercial production of G.lucidum exopolysaccharide peptides(EPSP) in submerged culture.Twelve different souces(six carbon and six nitrogen sources) were used individually in 250 mL shake flask.The optimal carbon source was cornmeal for both EPSP production((2.664±0.801) g/L) and cell growth((4.559±0.150) g/L),the best nitrogen source was urea for EPSP production((0.636±0.040) g/L),and the most favorable nitrogen source was soybean powder for cell growth((2.222±0.256) g/L).Subsequently,the most advantageous combination in EPSP yield was cornmeal+soybean powder,which resulted in up to(4.366±0.434) g/L.The result of this study would be beneficial to industrial production of EPSP from G.lucidum.%为寻找适合灵芝胞外糖肽(EPSP)液体深层发酵工艺商业化生产的经济高效的培养基原料,在摇瓶水平上比较研究了不同类型的碳源和氮源(各6种)对灵芝胞外糖肽(EPSP)产量的影响。试验表明:玉米粉是最适合灵芝EPSP生产((2.664±0.801)g/L)和菌丝生长((4.559±0.150)g/L)的碳源;尿素是最适合灵芝EPSP生产((0.636±0.040)g/L)的氮源,豆粕粉则是最适合灵芝菌丝生长的氮源((2.222±0.256)g/L);玉米粉与豆粕粉组合是最适合灵芝EPSP生产((4.366±0.434)g/L)的碳氮源组合。本研究结果可为灵芝EPSP液体深层发酵工艺的工业化生产提供科学指导。

  6. Biochemical characterization and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different Ganoderma collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Buffalini, Michele; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Iotti, Mirco; Badalyan, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular and biochemical characterization and to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of four Ganoderma isolates belonging to Ganoderma lucidum (Gl-4, Gl-5) and Ganoderma resinaceum (F-1, F-2) species. The molecular identification was performed by ITS and IGS sequence analyses and the biochemical characterization by enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts was compared by three different methods and their flavonoid contents were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antiproliferative effect on U937 cells was determined by MTT assay. The studied mycelia differ both in the enzymatic activities and protein content. The highest content in total phenol and the highest antioxidant activity for DPPH free radical scavenging and chelating activity on Fe(2+) were observed with the Gl-4 isolate of G. lucidum. The presence of quercetin, rutin, myricetin, and morin as major flavonoids with effective antioxidant activity was detected. The ethanolic extracts from mycelia of G. lucidum isolates possess a substantial antiproliferative activity against U937 cells in contrast to G. resinaceum in which the antiproliferative effects were insignificant. This study provides a comparison between G. lucidum and G. resinaceum mycelial strains, and shows that G. resinaceum could be utilized to obtain several bioactive compounds.

  7. Potential of Submergedly Cultivated Mycelia of Ganoderma spp. as Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćilerdžić, Jasmina; Stajic, Mirjana; Vukojevic, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the antiradical and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) potentials of ethanol mycelial extracts of selected Ganoderma species and strains and to define interand intraspecies diversity among Ganoderma species and strains. Ganoderma lucidum strains were good DPPH• scavengers (neutralizing up to 57.12% radicals), contrary to G. applanatum (20.35%) and G. carnosum (17.04%). High correlations between the activities and contents of total phenols in the extracts showed that these compounds were carriers of the activity. Results obtained by both discdiffusion and microdilution methods indicated that the extract of G. lucidum BEOFB 433 was the most potent antibacterial agent that inhibited growth of almost all bacterial species at a concentration of 1.0 mg/mL. Salmonella typhimurium was the most sensitive species to the mycelium extracts. Extracts of G. lucidum BEOFB 431 and BEOFB 434 showed the best antifungal activity since in concentration of 0.5 mg/mL inhibited the growth of Aspergillus glaucus (BEOFB 431) and the growth of A. glaucus and Trichoderma viride (BEOFB 434). Extracts of G. applanatum and G. lucidum BEOFB 431 had the strongest fungicidal effects, with lethal outcomes for A. glaucus and T. viride, respectively, being noted at a concentration of 1.17 mg/mL. Aspergillus niger was proved as the most resistant species.

  8. Study on genetic relationship among some commercial strains of Ganoderma%灵芝生产用种的亲缘关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明文; 陈明杰; 王南; 梁婉琪; 尚晓冬; 王晨光; 曹哲民; 张大兵; 潘迎捷

    2003-01-01

    利用RAPD技术对生产中常用的灵芝属8个菌株的亲缘关系进行了分析.根据UPGMA构建的树状图表明:8个菌株在较低的相似水平上可以分成3个明显不同的组:第1组包括黑芝(Ganoderma atrum)、松杉灵芝(Ganoderma tsug-ae)、圆芝(Ganoderma rotundatum)、灵芝0770(Ganoderma lucidum 0770)和韩国灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum HG);第2组包括密纹灵芝(Ganoderma crebrostriatum)和紫灵芝(Ganoderma sinense);第3组为树舌灵芝(Ganoderma applana-tum).这一结果与经典分类结果基本相符,表明RAPD技术可以用来区分生产中一些常用的灵芝种,同时说明灵芝生产用种之间遗传差异较大,可能是造成灵芝产品研究比较混乱的重要原因.

  9. Effects of Ganoderma sterols (GS) on hepatic cytochrome P450 in BCG-induced immunological hepatic injury in BALB/c mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XinWANG; DanLI; Guo-liangZHANG; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate effects of Ganoderma sterols (GS) isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss ex fr) Karst on hepatic cytochrome P450 in BCG-induced immunological hepatic injury in BALB/c mice and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Immunological liver injury was induced by one intravenous injection of BCG (125 mg/kg) in BALB/c mice. One week later, successiveintragastric administration of GS (20, 40, 80 mg/kg, per day) and

  10. 灵芝孢子提取物对Lactacystin致PC12细胞损伤的保护作用%PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM SPORE EXTRACT ON LACTACYSTIN INDUCED PC12 CELLS DAMAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红; 王芳; 刘湧; 王建东

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨灵芝孢子提取物对Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞损伤的保护作用.[方法]体外培养PC12细胞,建立Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞损伤的模型,观察细胞形态,用CCK-8法检测细胞活力,annexinV-FITC/PI流式细胞法检测细胞调亡.[结果]用不同浓度的灵芝孢子提取物处理PC12细胞时,细胞存活率与对照几乎一致,并未表现出细胞毒性.经20 μmol/L的Lactacystin处理24h后,PC12细胞活力比对照组降低,仅为对照组的63.2%.模型组经不同浓度的是芝孢子提取物预处理后,细胞活力明显提高,其保护作用随浓度升高而升高.Lactacystin诱导PC12细胞凋亡,处理24h后细胞凋亡率为48.86%,经灵芝孢子提取物处理后,细胞凋亡率明显降低.[结论]Lactacystin 能诱PC12细胞凋亡,灵芝孢子提取物能对Lactacystin致PC12细胞损伤有一定的保护作用.%[Objective] To investigate the effect of Ganodenna lucidum spore extract (GLS extract) on PC12 cells damage iduced by Lactacystin. [Methods] The toxicity model was established by treating PC12 cells with Lactacystin in vitro. Observed the morphological changes of cells by microscope. Cell viability was assayed with CCk-8 method. The cell apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) method. [Results] After being treated with different concentrations of GLS extract, the viability of PC12 cells as same as the cell control group tested by CCK-8 assay. After being treated with Lactacystin (20? Mol/L) for 24 h, the viability of PC12 cells depressed and the viable cells was only 63.2% when compared with cell control group. Pretreated with GLS extract at different concentrations, the cell viabilities were all increased significantly. The protective effect on cells increased with its concentration increased. Lactacystin induced apoptosis in PC12 cells, and the apoptotic rate was 48.86% after 24 h of treatment Pretreated with GLS extract, the cell apoptotic rates reduced. [Conclusion] Lactacystin

  11. Comparison of two officinal Chinese pharmacopoeia species of Ganoderma based on chemical research with multiple technologies and chemometrics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Juan; Wu, Wan-Ying; Hou, Jin-Jun; Long, Hua-Li; Yao, Shuai; Yang, Zhou; Cai, Lu-Ying; Yang, Min; Jiang, Bao-Hong; Liu, Xuan; Cheng, Chun-Ru; Li, Yi-Feng; Guo, De-An

    2012-01-27

    To investigate the chemical differences between Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Chizhi) and Ganoderma sinense (G. sinense, Zizhi). Thirty two batches of commercial Ganoderma samples were collected, including 20 batches of G. lucidum and 12 batches of G. sinense cultivated in different geographical regions. Chemical substances in aqueous extract and alcoholic extract, mainly polysaccharides and triterpenes respectively, were investigated. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out with a high performance liquid chromatography with an variable wavelength detector. Meanwhile, analysis of triterpenes were performed on an ultraviolet spectrophotometer, an ultra performance liquid chromatography and a rapid resolution liquid chromatograph combined with an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer. Chromatograms and spectra for all batches and reference standards of main components were obtained and used for direct comparison. Further discussion was made on the basis of the result of principal component analysis (PCA). Significant difference of triterpenes was shown between G. lucidum and G. sinense. In 20 batches of G. lucidum, 12 main components, including eight ganoderic acids and four ganoderenic acids were identified and ten of them were quantitatively determined, with the total content from 0.249% to 0.690%. However, none of those triterpenes was found in either batch of G. sinense. As for constituents of polysaccharides, seven monosaccharides were identified and four main components among them were quantitatively determined. Difference of polysaccharides was not directly observed, but latent information was revealed by PCA and the discrimination became feasible. G. lucidum and G. sinense were chemically different, which might result in pharmacological distinction. Preparations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) from Ganoderma should make accurate specification on the origin of species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 灵芝免疫调节蛋白(Lz-8)在毕赤酵母中的表达及其免疫活性鉴定%Ganoderma lucidum immunomodulatory protein(Lz-8) expressed in Pichia pastoris and the identification of immunocompetence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁重阳; 张淑芹; 刘志屹; 孙非

    2009-01-01

    Fungi immunoregulatory proteins family is effective in immunological regulation and anti-tumor. We used Pichia pastoris expression system for recombinant expression of Lz-8, an immunomodulatory protein isolated from fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. The Gs115 (mut+) strains of P. Pastoris was used as host cells. PCR and sequencing of DNA showed that Lz-8 cDNA was successfully integrated into the P. Pastoris genome. Electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE), matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry(MALDI-TOF-MS) and immunological techniques were used to identify recombinant Lz-8 (rLz-8). Lz-8 expressed in Escherichia coli, the Pichia system requires further optimization to obtain more active fungi immunomodulatory protein. Lz-8 was expressed in P. Pastoris successfully, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS-PAGE gave a single band with an apparent Mr=14 000 D. MALDI-TOF-MS also showed that molecular weight of rLz-8 was 12 722 D. Aggregation was observed from sheep red blood cells in the presence of purified rLz-8 within the concentration range of 12.5-50 μg/mL. However, no aggregation was seen at concentration greater than 50 μg/mL for any type of human red blood cell.dose at 0.5 mg/kg of rLz-8 induced macrophage cytophagocytesis, and set interferon as control at 0.5 mg/kg. These results suggested that active and stable rLz-8 was obtained in P. Pastoris expression system.%真菌免疫调节蛋白家族(Fungi immunoregulacory proteins,FIPs)各成员所具有的免疫调节和抗肿瘤活性已被广泛研究.本研究利用毕赤酵母表达系统对其成员Lz-8进行了重组表达.以毕赤酵母突变株GS115为表达宿主细胞,PCR和DNA测序结果均显示Lz-8的cDNA已被成功地整合入酵母基因组.聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)、激光解析飞行时间质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)和免疫学实验均被用于重组表达蛋白的检测.实验结果表明Lz-8在毕赤酵母表达系

  13. Effect of cultivation conditions on ligninolytic enzyme production by Ganoderma carnosum

    OpenAIRE

    Simonić Jasmina Lj.; Vukojević Jelena B.; Stajić Mirjana M.; Glamočlija Jasmina M.

    2009-01-01

    Ganoderma carnosum has been found in Europe only, at coniferous trees and it is difficult to distinguish it morphologically from G. lucidum. Since G. carnosum has not been studied biochemically yet, the aim of this study was to analyse its ability to produce Mn-dependent peroxidase (MnP), versatile peroxidase (VP) and laccase (Lac) under conditions of solid-state fermentation of selected plant raw materials as carbon sources, in the presence of different nitrogen concentrations in the medium....

  14. A flow-injection mass spectrometry fingerprinting scaffold for feature selection and quantitation of Cordyceps and Ganoderma extracts in beverage: a predictive artificial neural network modelling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flow-injection mass spectrometry (FI/MS) represents a powerful analytical tool for the quality assessment of herbal formula in dietary supplements. In this study, we described a scaffold (proof-of-concept) adapted from spectroscopy to quantify Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum in a popular Cordyceps sinensis /Ganoderma lucidum -enriched health beverage by utilizing flow-injection/mass spectrometry/artificial neural network (FI/MS/ANN) model fingerprinting method with feature selection capability. Equal proportion of 0.1% formic acid and methanol (v/v) were used to convert extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum into their respective ions under positive MS polarity condition. No chromatographic separation was performed. The principal m/z values of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum were identified as: 104.2, 116.2, 120.2, 175.2, 236.3, 248.3, 266.3, 366.6 and 498.6; 439.7, 469.7, 511.7, 551.6, 623.6, 637.7 and 653.6, respectively. ANN models representing Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum were individually trained and validated using three independent sets of matrix-free and matrix-matched calibration curves at concentration levels of 2, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 400 μg mL-1. Five repeat analyses provided a total of 180 spectra for herbal extracts of Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum. Root-mean-square-deviation (RMSE) were highly satisfactory at <4% for both training and validation models. Correlation coefficient (r2) values of between 0.9994 and 0.9997 were reported. Matrix blanks comprised of complex mixture of Lingzhi fermentation solution and collagen. Recovery assessment was performed over two days using six sets of matrix blank (n = 6) spiked at three concentration levels of approximately 83, 166 and 333 mg kg-1. Extraction using acetonitrile provided good overall recovery range of 92-118%. A quantitation limit of 0.2 mg L-1 was reported for both Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum. Intra-day and inter-day RMSE

  15. The adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide for Newcastle disease vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui

    2014-04-01

    The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-γ mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator.

  16. Rapid detection of Ganoderma lucidum and assessment of inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Integrated disease management (IDM) and fungicide tridemorph treated .... primers are 5' – TTG ACT GGG TTG TAG CTG – 3' (forward ... palms were infected, while the rest were free from .... mechanisms individually or more than one of them acting ... In this present investigation, integrated approach with.

  17. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum Spent Mushroom Substrate Extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1College of Life Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 2National ... animal production and performance has become .... Table 1: Some baseline parametersof the tested dairy cows before experiment ... Different small letters represent that was significant at 5 % level. ..... and funded by the Projects of National.

  18. Effect of Combined Ganoderma lucidum Polysacchrides (GLP) and Fluorouracil on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma HCT-116 Cells%灵芝多糖联合5-FU对人结肠癌HCT-116细胞增殖及凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁曾恩妮; 易有金; 郭雨桐; 王仁才; 熊兴耀

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysacchrides (GLP) combined with fluorouracil treatment on the proliferation and apoptosis of human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells in vitro. Methods: The inhibitory effects of both drugs on the proliferation of HCT- 116 cells were measured by using MTT assay. The combinatorial index method was used to analyze their synergistic inhibitory effect. Observations of morphological changes were carried out with Hoechst33258 fluprescemce staining. The impact of GLP on cell cycle and apoptosis rate of HCT-116 cells was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). Results: GLP and 5-FU treatment alone suppressed the proliferation of HCT-116 cells. GLP treatment (〉659 μg/mL) in combination with 5-FU (〉 1.6 μg/mL) revealed an obvious synergistic effect on the proliferation of HCT-116 cells (CI〈 1) which exhibited a significant difference when compared with 5-FU treatment alone (P 〈 0.01 ) in a time-dependent manner. After trealments for 48 h, the cells showed typical apoptosis characteristics. The apoptotic HCT-116 cells were 36.14% after GLP (5 mg/mL) combined with 5-FU (50 μg/mL) treatment for 24 h, which was higher than that obtained from 5-FU treatment alone (26.07%). The apoptotic HCT-116 cells induced by 1.25 mg/mL GLP combined with 12.5 μg/mL 5-FU, 2.5 mg/mL GLP combined with 25 μg/mL 5-FU, and 5 mg/mL GLP combined with 50 μg/mL 5-FU for 48 h were 20.95%, 32.87% and 30.01%, respectively, showing an increase compared with 5-FU (50 μg/mL) treatment alone (14.51%). The anresled cell cycle in combinatorial treatment group was observed at Sphase Conclusion:GLP at higher concentration combined with 5-FU cans ynergistically suppress the proliferation of human colon cancer HCT-116 cells,and enhanced apoptosis and cell arrest in HCT-116 cells.%目的:探讨灵芝多糖(GLP)联合5.氟尿嘧啶(5-FU)对人结肠癌HCT-116细胞增殖抑制及凋亡的影响。方法:采用MTT法测定单独和联用GLP与5

  19. Development of RAPD-SCAR markers for different Ganoderma species authentication by improved RAPD amplification and molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J J; Mei, Z Q; Tania, M; Yang, L Q; Cheng, J L; Khan, M A

    2015-05-25

    The sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) is a valuable molecular technique for the genetic identification of any species. This method is mainly derived from the molecular cloning of the amplified DNA fragments achieved from the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). In this study, we collected DNA from 10 species of Ganoderma mushroom and amplified the DNA using an improved RAPD technique. The amplified fragments were then cloned into a T-vector, and positive clones were screened, indentified, and sequenced for the development of SCAR markers. After designing PCR primers and optimizing PCR conditions, 4 SCAR markers, named LZ1-4, LZ2-2, LZ8-2, and LZ9-15, were developed, which were specific to Ganoderma gibbosum (LZ1-4 and LZ8-2), Ganoderma sinense (LZ2-2 and LZ8-2), Ganoderma tropicum (LZ8-2), and Ganoderma lucidum HG (LZ9-15). These 4 novel SCAR markers were deposited into GenBank with the accession Nos. KM391935, KM391936, KM391937, and KM391938, respectively. Thus, in this study we developed specific SCAR markers for the identification and authentication of different Ganoderma species.

  20. Toleransi Tanaman Peneduh Polyalthia longifolia dan Pterocarpus indicus terhadap Ganoderma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Muslimah Widyastuti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of Urban Trees Polyalthia longifolia and Pterocarpus indicus to Infection of  the red root rot fungus Ganoderma sp. Urban trees on the Gadjah Mada University (UGM area play an important role in increasing environmental qualities as well as in supporting the teaching and learning processes. However, red root rot disease caused by Basidiomycete Ganoderma sp. has severely infected some existing urban trees. This experiment was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Polyalthia longifolia (glodokan and Pterocarpus indicus (angsana to the infection of Ganoderma sp. Identification of infected trees was performed in UGM area. Further steps were carried out to achieve those objectives : (1 isolation of Ganoderma spp. and testing of Koch’s postulate and (2 examination of the susceptibility of  P. longifolia and P. indicus to infection of Ganoderma sp. The susceptibility test of P. longifolia and P. indicus to Ganoderma sp. indicated that P. longifolia was more resistant to fungal pathogen infection than that of P. indicus. Based on this experiment, it can be concluded that P. longifolia is a species that is more suitable than P. indicus.  P. longifolia should be planted on the areas that have been infested with inocula of Ganoderma sp..

  1. Impact of ganoderma lucidum tea on fatigue, hypoxia and content of liver nucleic acid in aged mice%灵芝茶对老年小鼠抗疲劳、抗缺氧能力及肝脏核酸含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莉; 高涵; 宋娟; 杨宏艳; 王玉春; 王淑英

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ganoderma lucidum tea (GL tea), as a healthy drink, only has protective effect on the chemical injured liver in rat at present, and there is also report of its regulative effect on blood sugar in mice. However, there is very little report on the effect of anti-fatigue and anti-hypoxia.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the health protective effect of GL tea as well as its impact in prolonging life through animal trial.DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTLNG and PARTICIPANTS: Aged(17- 18 months old) Kunming mice with a body mass from 40 g to 45 g were obtained from the Experimental Animal Center of Qiqihar Medical College. Study was conducted in the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Biochemistry of Qiqihar Medical College.drinking, mice swam with load and the swimming time was compared with functional hypoxic bottle designed for mouse. Mice in control group( n = 20)drank cold boiled water while mice in study group( n = 20) drank GL tea,and mice in model control group( n = 20) drank cold boiled water as well. 30minutes before test, 0. 2 mg/kg of isoprenaline was injected into abdominal GL tea group( n = 20) and cold boiled water control group( n = 20) drank GL tea and cold boiled water respectively, and liver nucleic acid content was assayed after 8 weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Load swimming time, oxygen consumption rate in hypoxia bottle, contents of liver RNA and DNA.RESULTS: The load swimming time of GL tea group[ (42.38 ± 12.6) minutes]was longer than that[ (34. 9 ± 19.4) minutes] of control group with significant difference( t = 3. 187, P< 0.01 ); the oxygen consumption rate of GL tea group[(0. 055 ±0. 009) mL/(minute per g)] was higher than that [ (0.043±0.007) mL/(minute per kg)] of control group with significant difference( t = 2. 307, P < 0.05), and there was also significant difference compared with that [(0.024±0.006) mL/(minute per kg)] of model group(t=4.015, P < 0.001); the liver RNA content of GL tea group [ (30.93 ± 1.26) mg

  2. Genome analysis of medicinal Ganoderma spp. with plant-pathogenic and saprotrophic life-styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kües, Ursula; Nelson, David R; Liu, Chang; Yu, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Jianqin; Wang, Xin-Cun; Sun, Hui

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma is a fungal genus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family and Polyporales order. Plant-pathogenic species in this genus can cause severe diseases (stem, butt, and root rot) in economically important trees and perennial crops, especially in tropical countries. Ganoderma species are white rot fungi and have ecological importance in the breakdown of woody plants for nutrient mobilization. They possess effective machineries of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes useful for bioenergy production and bioremediation. In addition, the genus contains many important species that produce pharmacologically active compounds used in health food and medicine. With the rapid adoption of next-generation DNA sequencing technologies, whole genome sequencing and systematic transcriptome analyses become affordable approaches to identify an organism's genes. In the last few years, numerous projects have been initiated to identify the genetic contents of several Ganoderma species, particularly in different strains of Ganoderma lucidum. In November 2013, eleven whole genome sequencing projects for Ganoderma species were registered in international databases, three of which were already completed with genomes being assembled to high quality. In addition to the nuclear genome, two mitochondrial genomes for Ganoderma species have also been reported. Complementing genome analysis, four transcriptome studies on various developmental stages of Ganoderma species have been performed. Information obtained from these studies has laid the foundation for the identification of genes involved in biological pathways that are critical for understanding the biology of Ganoderma, such as the mechanism of pathogenesis, the biosynthesis of active components, life cycle and cellular development, etc. With abundant genetic information becoming available, a few centralized resources have been established to disseminate the knowledge and integrate relevant data to support comparative genomic analyses of

  3. Analysis of global components in Ganoderma using liquid chromatography system with multiple columns and detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengming; Zhao, Jing; Li, Deqiang; Hu, Dejun; Li, Shaoping

    2012-10-01

    In present study, a multiple columns and detectors liquid chromatography system for analysis of global components in traditional Chinese medicines was developed. The liquid chromatography system was consist of three columns, including size exclusion chromatography column, hydrophilic interaction chromatography column, and reversed phase chromatography column, and three detectors, such as diode array detector, evaporative light scattering detector, and mass spectrometry detector, based on column switching technique. The developed multiple columns and detectors liquid chromatography system was successfully applied to the analysis of global components, including macromolecular (polysaccharides), high (nucleosides and sugars)-, and low (triterpenes)-polarity small molecular compounds in Ganoderma, a well-known Chinese medicinal mushroom. As a result, one macromolecular chromatographic peak was found in two Ganoderma species, 19 components were identified in Ganoderma lucidum (two sugars, three nucleosides, and 14 triterpenes), and four components (two sugars and two nucleosides) were identified in Ganoderma sinense. The developed multiple columns and detectors liquid chromatography system was helpful to understand comprehensive chemical characters in TCMs.

  4. The Immunoregulatory Function of Ganoderma Iucidum Spores Oil%灵芝孢子油免疫调节作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽; 黄远英; 殷光玲

    2013-01-01

    The immunoregulation effect of Ganoderma lucidum spores oil on mice was studied by administrating the rats with Ganoderma lucidum spores oil for 30 days consecutively with the dose of 333, 667 and 1000 mg/(kg·bw). Immunological indexes were measured. Proliferation and transformation of spleen lymphocytes in the mice were increased and delayed anaphylactic reaction was intensified. The number of antibody-producing cells and the level of serum hemolysin and the activity of NK cells enhanced. Ganoderma lucidum spores oil can strengthen the immunofunction of mice.%研究灵芝孢子油对小鼠免疫功能的调节作用.分别以333、667、1000 mg/(kg·bw)剂量的灵芝孢子油对小鼠连续灌胃3(后,测定各项免疫指标.灵芝孢子油能促进小鼠淋巴细胞增殖转化作用及小鼠迟发型变态反应,提高小鼠的抗体生成细胞和血清溶素水平,并显著提高NK细胞的活性.灵芝孢子油具有增强免疫力功能的作用.

  5. Content of Polysaccharides in Ganoderma spp.During the Process of Artificial Culture%灵芝制种过程多糖含量变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永敢; 陈光宙; 袁学军; 陈忠荫; 林应耀; 林炽贤

    2011-01-01

    灵芝是一类具有较高药用价值的腐生型真菌.本研究选取4株灵芝真菌,进行人工制种,并测定其不同阶段的多糖含量.结果表明,Ganoderma atrum Hz2、Ganoderma lucidum Hz5、Ganoderma sinense Hz1三株灵芝真菌在制种过程中多糖含量呈递减的趋势,而菌株Ganoderma neojaponicum Wzs1二级种在制种过程中多糖含量最多为1.75%;4株菌株中Hz2制种完成后多糖含量最大为0.88%.以上结果反应了灵芝多糖的含量随着制种的进行而逐渐减少,此外黑芝Ganoderma atrum的人工栽培品种相比其它3种灵芝具有较高的药用价值.

  6. Triterpenoid acids from sporophore of Ganoderma lucidum and their inhibition on proliferatin of SKBR3 human breast cancer cells%赤芝子实体中三萜酸类成分及其抗人乳腺癌SKBR3细胞增殖活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董虹玲; 赵娜夏; 商倩; 夏广萍; 白秀秀; 邵泽艳; 韩英梅

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究赤芝Ganoderma lucidum子实体中三萜酸类成分及其抗肿瘤活性.方法 用硅胶柱色谱、反相ODS柱色谱、反相HPLC等方法分离得到13个化合物,利用波谱学方法鉴定它们的化学结构,并进一步确定各化合物对乳腺癌SKBR3细胞的生物活性.结果 分离得到13个三萜酸类的化合物,分别鉴定为灵芝烯酸C(1)、灵芝酸C2 (2)、灵赤酸A(3)、灵芝酸G(4)、灵芝烯酸B(5)、灵芝酸B(6)、灵芝酸H(7)、灵芝烯酸A(8)、灵芝酸Ⅰ(9)、灵芝酸A (10)、灵芝烯酸K (11)、灵芝烯酸D(12)、灵芝酸D(13).化合物6在20 μmol/L浓度下对人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3的抑制率为40.3%.结论 化合物11是首次从该植物中分离得到的,化合物6对人乳腺癌细胞SK-BR-3显示了一定的抑制活性,其他化合物在该浓度下未显示活性.

  7. Morpho-physiological diversity between Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W. Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. and G. carnosum pat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilerdzic, Jasmina; Vukojevic, Jelena; Stajic, Mirjana; Hadzic, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Two weakly differentiated taxa, Ganoderma lucidum and G. carnosum, were compared in their sufficient morphological and physiological features. The obtained results showed that dimensions of basidiospores and pileocystidia were insignificantly different, while pore shape and dimensions have shown greater diversity with average diameter of 138.46 μm in G. carnosum and 238.34 μm in G. lucidum. Mycelial growth rate was higher in G. lucidum (8.39 mm day-1) than in G. carnosum (6.02 mm day-1). G. lucidum was also a slightly better producer of biomass and extracellular polysaccharides (28.16 g L-1 and 1.42 mg mL-1, respectively) than G. carnosum (23.68 g L-1 and 0.35 mg mL-1, respectively). However, a higher amount of synthesized intracellular polysaccharides was noted in G. carnosum than in G. lucidum (40.00 mg g-1 and 30.00 mg g-1 of dry biomass, respectively). Higher activity levels of Mn-oxidizing peroxidases were obtained in G. carnosum, while G. lucidum was a better laccase producer. In G. carnosum, corn stem/NH₄NO₃ medium with nitrogen concentration of 20 mM was the optimum for Mn-dependent peroxidase production (88.00 U L-1), while the highest versatile peroxidase activity was detected in the medium with grapevine sawdust and 10 mM of nitrogen (80.80 U L-1). Wheat straw was the best carbon source for laccase synthesis in G. lucidum (55.75 U L-1).

  8. Meroterpenoid enantiomers from Ganoderma sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-Wen; Luo, Qi; Cheng, Yong-Xian; Wang, Shu-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Zizhines A-F (1-6), six pairs of new meroterpenoid enantiomers and a known meroterpenoid (7) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sinensis. The structures and absolute configurations of the new substances were assigned by spectroscopic and computational methods. All the compounds apart from 7 were evaluated for their inhibition on extracellular matrix component (fibronectin) generation by using TGF-β1-induced rat kidney tubular epithelial cells. Although none of them was found to be active in these cells, the present findings add new facets for the chemistry of Ganoderma.

  9. Solid-substrate fermentation of wheat grains by mycelia of indigenous species of the genus Ganoderma (higher Basidiomycetes) to enhance the antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sarasvathy; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Kuppusamy, Umah Rani; Tan, Yee Shin

    2014-01-01

    Species of the genus Ganoderma are a cosmopolitan wood decaying white rot fungi, which has been used by the Asians for therapeutic purposes for centuries. In the present study, solid-substrate fermentation (SSF) of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) was carried out with indigenous Ganoderma australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum (KUM61076) selected based on ethnomycological knowledge. G. lucidum (VITA GL) (a commercial strain) was also included in the study. Antioxidant activities of the crude ethanol and aqueous extracts of the fermented and unfermented wheat grains were investigated by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, and lipid peroxidation assay. Among the six mycelia extracts tested, the ethanol extract from wheat fermented with KUM61076 mycelia showed the most potent antioxidant activities, whereas the ethanol extract of wheat grains fermented with KUM60813 mycelia has a good potential in protecting frying oils against oxidation. Total phenolic content (TPC) in the ethanol extracts were higher than that in the aqueous extract. The wheat grains fermented with G. australe (KUM60813) and G. neo-japonicum KUM61076 have greater antioxidant potential compared to the commercially available G. lucidum (VITA GL). The antioxidant activities of the mycelia extracts had a positive correlation with their phenolic contents. Thus phenolic compounds may play a vital role in the antioxidant activities of the selected Ganoderma spp.

  10. Anti-Staphylococcal and wound healing activities of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra formulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani - Ameri

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Topical antimicrobial therapy is one of the most important methods of wound care. In this investigation, we evaluated topical gel preparations of Ganoderma praelongum and Glycyrrhiza glabra aqueous extracts alone and in combination for antimicrobial and wound healing activities in MRSA - infected excision and incision wound models in mice. Gel formulations containing 0.3% G. praelongum, 2.5% G. glabra and combination of the two were prepared and tested for their influence on wound infection, wound contraction and epithelization phases of wound healing. Mupirocin ointment was applied as a standard treatment antibiotic. Results indicated that all three gel formulations promoted wound healing in both models by influencing wound contraction and epithelization phases. Examination of wounds at the end of our study period revealed that wounds treated with G. praelongum and G. glabra gel  formulations (combination gel showed considerable contraction and epithelization as compared to the gel base – treated group (negative control. Assumption could be made that this wound promotion is due to the anti – Staphylococcal activity of Ganoderma and wound healing activity of G. glabra.   Industrial relevance: Medicine using fungal metabolites is now recognized. A mushroom that has gained worldwide attention is Ganoderma lucidum and has been used to treat a wide spectrum of ailments including fungal and bacterial infections for long periods of time throughout history of ancient traditional medicine. Previous reports indicate that ganoderma lucidum mycelia are usually prescribed in the form of soup, syrup, tea, tablets, capsules, tincture or bolus or injected as a solution of powdered spores. In this study, the combination gel containing aqueous extracts of G. praelongum and G. glabra effectively inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and promoted wound healing in mice. Further phytochemical studies are needed to

  11. Comparison of Different Protein Extraction Methods for Gel-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ganoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jameel R; Saidi, Noor Baity; Usuldin, Siti Rokhiyah Ahmad; Hussin, Siti Nahdatul Isnaini Said; Yusoff, Noornabeela Md; Idris, Abu Seman

    2016-04-01

    Ganoderma species are a group of fungi that have the ability to degrade lignin polymers and cause severe diseases such as stem and root rot and can infect economically important plants and perennial crops such as oil palm, especially in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Unfortunately, very little is known about the complex interplay between oil palm and Ganoderma in the pathogenesis of the diseases. Proteomic technologies are simple yet powerful tools in comparing protein profile and have been widely used to study plant-fungus interaction. A critical step to perform a good proteome research is to establish a method that gives the best quality and a wide coverage of total proteins. Despite the availability of various protein extraction protocols from pathogenic fungi in the literature, no single extraction method was found suitable for all types of pathogenic fungi. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for 2-DE gel analysis of Ganoderma spp., three previously reported protein extraction protocols were compared: trichloroacetic acid, sucrose and phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol. The third method was found to give the most reproducible gels and highest protein concentration. Using the later method, a total of 10 protein spots (5 from each species) were successfully identified. Hence, the results from this study propose phenol/ammonium acetate in methanol as the most effective protein extraction method for 2-DE proteomic studies of Ganoderma spp.

  12. Nail Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems, a weakened immune system or, in children, Down syndrome A severe case of nail fungus can be ... possibly effective in treating nail fungus, but more study is needed. ... and file down thickened areas. Wear socks that absorb sweat. Fabrics ...

  13. Involvement of metabolites in early defense mechanism of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) against Ganoderma disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusaibah, S A; Siti Nor Akmar, A; Idris, A S; Sariah, M; Mohamad Pauzi, Z

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the mechanism of interaction between the oil palm and its key pathogen, Ganoderma spp. is crucial as the disease caused by this fungal pathogen leads to a major loss of revenue in leading palm oil producing countries in Southeast Asia. Here in this study, we assess the morphological and biochemical changes in Ganoderma disease infected oil palm seedling roots in both resistant and susceptible progenies. Rubber woodblocks fully colonized by G. boninense were applied as a source of inoculum to artificially infect the roots of resistant and susceptible oil palm progenies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure an array of plant metabolites in 100 resistant and susceptible oil palm seedling roots treated with pathogenic Ganoderma boninense fungus. Statistical effects, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify key-Ganoderma disease associated metabolic agitations in both resistant and susceptible oil palm root tissues. Ganoderma disease related defense shifts were characterized based on (i) increased antifungal activity in crude extracts, (ii) increased lipid levels, beta- and gamma-sitosterol particularly in the resistant progeny, (iii) detection of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds, benzo [h] quinoline, pyridine, pyrimidine (iv) elevation in antioxidants, alpha- and beta-tocopherol (iv) degraded cortical cell wall layers, possibly resulting from fungal hydrolytic enzyme activity needed for initial penetration. The present study suggested that plant metabolites mainly lipids and heterocyclic aromatic organic metabolites could be potentially involved in early oil palm defense mechanism against G. boninense infection, which may also highlight biomarkers for disease detection, treatment, development of resistant variety and monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxygenated lanostane-type triterpenoids from the fungus ganodermalucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Tagata, Masaaki; Ukiya, Motohiko; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2005-04-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 20(21)-dehydrolucidenic acid A (1) and methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A (2), and five new 20-hydroxylucidenic acids, 20-hydroxylucidenic acid D(2) (3), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid F (4), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid E(2) (5), 20-hydroxylucidenic acid N (6), and 20-hydroxylucidenic acid P (7), were isolated from the fruiting body of the fungus Ganoderma ludicum, and their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods.

  15. Triterpenoids and an alkamide from Ganoderma tsugae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Maitraie, Dravidum; Huang, A-Mei; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma tsugae is a medicinal mushroom. In a continual study on the bioactive constituents of this fungus, a new lanostanoid, 3β-acetoxy-16α-hydroxy-24ξ-methyl-5α-lanosta-8,25-dien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid F (1) and a novel palmitamide, N-(3'α,4'β-dihydroxy-2'β-(hydroxymethyl)-1'β-(cyclobutyl)palmitamide (2) were isolated and characterized from the fruit bodies of G. tsugae, and three novel seco-lanostanoids, 3,4-seco-8α,9α-epoxy-5α-lanosta-21-oic acid 3,4 lactone (5), 3,4-seco-5β-lanosta-7,9(11),4(29)-trien-3,21-dioic acid-3-methyl ester (6), 3,4-seco-5β-lanosta-7,9(11),4(29)-trien-3,21-dioic acid (7), and a known compound, 3-oxo-5α-lanosta-8-en-21-oic acid (4) were prepared from 3. The structures of new compounds, 1, 2, 5-7 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1 and 4 showed inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) with an IC50 values of 313.3 ± 80.0 and 43.9 ± 29.9 μM, respectively when 7 exhibited potent inhibitory effect on superoxide anion generation in rat neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)/cytochalasin B (CB) with an IC50 values of 1.3 ± 0.2 μM. Compounds 4-7 showed weak cytotoxic activities against PC3 cells. These results indicated that 4 and 7 may be used as cancer chemopreventive agents.

  16. Screening of Ganoderma strains with high polysaccharides and ganoderic acid contents and optimization of the fermentation medium by statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-hua; Duan, Ying-yi; Qian, Yong-qing; Guo, Xiao-feng; Li, Yan-jun; Jin, Shi-he; Zhou, Zhong-Xin; Shan, Sheng-yan; Wang, Chun-ru; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Yuguo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Polysaccharides and ganoderic acids (GAs) are the major bioactive constituents of Ganoderma species. However, the commercialization of their production was limited by low yield in the submerged culture of Ganoderma despite improvement made in recent years. In this work, twelve Ganoderma strains were screened to efficiently produce polysaccharides and GAs, and Ganoderma lucidum 5.26 (GL 5.26) that had been never reported in fermentation process was found to be most efficient among the tested stains. Then, the fermentation medium was optimized for GL 5.26 by statistical method. Firstly, glucose and yeast extract were found to be the optimum carbon source and nitrogen source according to the single-factor tests. Ferric sulfate was found to have significant effect on GL 5.26 biomass production according to the results of Plackett-Burman design. The concentrations of glucose, yeast extract and ferric sulfate were further optimized by response surface methodology. The optimum medium composition was 55 g/L of glucose, 14 g/L of yeast extract, 0.3 g/L of ferric acid, with other medium components unchanged. The optimized medium was testified in the 10-L bioreactor, and the production of biomass, IPS, total GAs and GA-T enhanced by 85, 27, 49 and 93 %, respectively, compared to the initial medium. The fermentation process was scaled up to 300-L bioreactor; it showed good IPS (3.6 g/L) and GAs (670 mg/L) production. The biomass was 23.9 g/L in 300-L bioreactor, which was the highest biomass production in pilot scale. According to this study, the strain GL 5.26 showed good fermentation property by optimizing the medium. It might be a candidate industrial strain by further process optimization and scale-up study.

  17. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Sen; Tsai, Yow-Fu; Lin, Steven; Lin, Chia-Ching; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Lin, Chun-Hung; Wong, Chi-Huey

    2004-11-01

    We describe here the isolation of Reishi polysaccharides for the study of their effect on cytokine expression in mouse splenocytes. A fraction (F3) has been shown to activate the expression of IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, G-CSF, and M-CSF, and from this three subfractions have been prepared where F3G1 activates IL-1, IL-12, TNF-alpha, and G-CSF, F3G2 activates all the cytokines as F3 does, and F3G3 activates only IL-1 and TNF-alpha. Together with previous studies, the mode of action on macrophages has been proposed where F3 binds to TLR4 receptor and activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 to induce IL-1 expression.

  18. Role of the Nasogastric Tube and Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Huang, Youyi; Radha Krishna, Lalit; Puvanendran, Rukshini

    2016-04-01

    Decision-making on behalf of an incapacitated patient at the end of life is a complex process, particularly in family-centric societies. The situation is more complex when attempts are made to accommodate Eastern concepts of end-of-life care with more conventional Western approaches. In this case report of an incapacitated 74-year-old Singaporean man of Malay descent with relapsed Stage 4 diffuse large B cell lymphoma who was without an established lasting power of attorney, we highlight the difficult deliberations that ensue when the patient's family, acting as his proxy, elected to administer lingzhi through his nasogastric tube (NGT). Focusing on the questions pertaining to end-of-life decision-making in Asia, we consider the issues surrounding the use of NGT and lingzhi in palliative care (PC) and the implementation of NGT for administering lingzhi in a PC setting, particularly in light of a dearth of data on such treatment measures among PC patients.

  19. 海南栽培灵芝与野生灵芝的总糖含量比较%Comparison on Total Saccharide between Cultivated and Wild Ganoderma Collected from Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫峥嵘; 陈光英; 黄爱华; 陈萍; 陈喜蓉

    2012-01-01

    比较栽培灵芝与野生灵芝中总糖的含量。以葡萄糖为标准品,5%苯酚和浓硫酸为显色剂,采用分光光度法在490nm波长处测定样品的吸光度。栽培海南赤芝的总糖含量为1.59%,栽培信州赤芝的总糖含量为1.93%,野生海南赤芝的总糖含量为2.19%,野生黄边灵芝的总糖含量为1.49%,野生海南灵芝的总糖含量为1.37%。栽培海南赤芝和栽培信州赤芝的总糖含量高于野生黄边灵芝及野生海南灵芝,但低于野生海南赤芝。%Compared the total saccharide between cultivated and wild Ganoderma collected from Hainan. The content of total saccharide between some cultivated and wild Ganoderma collected from Hainan were determined by spectrophotometric method at 490 nm, with glucose as the reference, 5% phenol-sulphuric acid as color developer. Total saccharide in cultivated G.lucidum of Hainan was 1.59%, total saccharide in cultivated G. lucidum of Shinshu was 1.93%, total saccharide in wild G.lucidum of Hainan was 2.19%, total saccharide in wild G.luteomarginatum was 1.49%, and total saccharide in wild G.hainanense was 1.37%. The content of total saccharide of cultivated G.lucidum of Hainan and cultivated G.lucidum of Shinshu was higher than that of wild G. luteomarginatum and wild G.hainanense, but smaller than that of wild G.lucidum of Hainan.

  20. Fungus Amongus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  1. Lanostane triterpenoids from Ganoderma hainanense J. D. Zhao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, XingRong; Liu, JieQing; Xia, JianJun; Wang, CuiFang; Li, XuYang; Deng, YuanYuan; Bao, NiMan; Zhang, ZhiRun; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma hainanense resulted in isolation of fourteen lanostane triterpenoids, including nine ganoderma acids and five ganoderma alcohols, together with five known compounds. Structural elucidation was determined using extensive spectroscopic technologies, Mosher's method and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Three of the compounds showed inhibitory activities against HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values of 15.0-40.0 μM.

  2. Optimization of Vacuum-Microwave Radiation Pretreatment on Extraction of Ganoderma Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new process of vacuum-microwave (VM radiation pretreatment for extracting polysaccharides from the Ganoderma lucidum was proposed, and the parameters were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM. The orthogonal-central composite design scheme was used and the responsive surfaces methodology of three factors and five levels was adopted, and the factors influencing the technological parameters and its interaction terms were analyzed and regressed. The optimal parameters were obtained as follows: the infiltration time of 70 min, microwave power density of 11.2 W/g, and VM irradiation time of 180 s. In consequence, the extraction yield was up to 1.775% when VM radiation was conducted in advance. Compared to the traditional hot-water extraction method, VM pretreatment can shorten the extraction time by more than a half, and the polysaccharide extraction yield was increased by 48.1%. It holds significant potential for further investigation, development, and application.

  3. Dynamics of ligninolytic enzyme production in Ganoderma applanatum depending on cultivation type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćilerdžić Jasmina Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma applanatum belongs to the group of white-rot fungi, due to a well-developed ligninolytic enzyme system. White-rot fungi have attracted great scientific attention in recent years, especially with respect to their enzymatic potential for the bioremediation of persistent pollutants. Contrary to G. lucidum, which medicinal properties, as well as ligninolytic enzyme system have been extensively studied, enzymatic system of G. applanatum has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the dynamics of laccase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase activity during submerged and solid state cultivation on two selected plant raw materials. Enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically after 7, 10 and 14 days of cultivation. The peak of laccase activity (220.14 Ul-1 was noted after 14 days of submerged wheat straw fermentation. Maximum level of Mn-dependent peroxidase (110.91 Ul-1 and versatile peroxidase (116.20 Ul-1 activity was obtained in the medium with oak sawdust after 14 days of submerged cultivation.

  4. 板栗苞壳周年栽培食用菌试验%Year-round Cultivation of Edible Fungus with the Chestnut Spiny Involucre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃宝山; 吴康董; 黄春凤

    2015-01-01

    以板栗(Castanea mollissima)苞壳为主要原料,进行灵芝(Ganoderma lucidum)、秀珍菇(Pleurotus geesteranus)和平菇(Pleurotus ostreatus)周年栽培试验.结果表明,3种食用菌的菌丝体长势良好,生物学效率、总产值和毛利率均较高;灵芝—秀珍菇—平菇是食用菌周年化栽培比较理想的品种搭配模式.

  5. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chia-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chu-Ying; Zhuang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Yu, Yao-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2014-01-09

    The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-γ in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-γ production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors.

  6. Immunomodulation of bone marrow macrophages by GLIS, a proteoglycan fraction from Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidium (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Tang, Qingjiu; Zhang, Jingsong; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Pan, Ying-Jie

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of GLIS (Lingzhi or Reishi medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum immunomodulating substance) on macrophages has been investigated as part of ongoing research into the anticancer properties of this mushroom. Proliferation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) was enhanced by GLIS in a dose-dependent manner. Microscopic examination revealed that numerous GLIS-treated BMMs were enlarged and formed pseudopodia. Exposure of BMMs to GLIS resulted in significant increases in NO production, induction of cellular respiratory burst activity, and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, IL-18, and TNF-α gene expression and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 secretion. Our data indicate that GLIS activates the immune system by modulating cytokine production.

  7. OPTIMIZATION OF REACTIVE BLUE 19 DECOLORIZATION BY GANODERMA SP. USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1M. Mohammadian Fazli, *1A. R. Mesdaghinia, 1K. Naddafi, 1S. Nasseri , 1M. Yunesian, 2M. Mazaheri Assadi, 3S. Rezaie, 4H. Hamzehei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are extensively used in different industries. Dyes have adverse impacts such as visual effects, chemical oxygen demand, toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. White rot fungi, due to extracellular enzyme system, are capable to degrade dyes and various xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to optimize decolorization of reactive blue 19 (RB19 dye using Ganoderma sp. fungus. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was used to study the effect of independent variables, namely glycerol concentration (15, 20 and 25 g/L, temperature (27, 30 and 33 oC and pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5 on color removal efficiency in aqueous solution. From RSM-generated model, the optimum conditions for RB19 decolorization were identified to be at temperature of 27oC, glycerol concentration of 19.14 mg/L and pH=6.3. At the optimum conditions, predicted decolorization was 95.3 percent. The confirmatory experiments were conducted and confirmed the results by 94.89% color removal. Thus, this statistical approach enabled to improve reactive blue 19 decolorization process by Ganoderma sp. up to 1.27 times higher than non-optimized conditions.

  8. Lanostane Triterpenes from the Tibetan Medicinal Mushroom Ganoderma leucocontextum and Their Inhibitory Effects on HMG-CoA Reductase and α-Glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Bao, Li; Xiong, Weiping; Ma, Ke; Han, Junjie; Wang, Wenzhao; Yin, Wenbing; Liu, Hongwei

    2015-08-28

    Sixteen new lanostane triterpenes, ganoleucoins A-P (1-16), together with 10 known tripterpenes (17-26), were isolated from the cultivated fruiting bodies of Ganoderma leucocontextum, a new member of the Ganoderma lucidum complex. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation. The inhibitory effects of 1-26 on HMG-CoA reductase and α-glucosidase were tested in vitro. Compounds 1, 3, 6, 10-14, 17, 18, 23, 25, and 26 showed much stronger inhibitory activity against HMG-CoA reductase than the positive control atorvastatin. Compounds 13, 14, and 16 presented potent inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase from yeast with IC₅₀ values of 13.6, 2.5, and 5.9 μM, respectively. In addition, the cytotoxicity of 1-26 was evaluated against the K562 and PC-3 cell lines by the MTT assay. Compounds 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 16, 18, and 25 exhibited cytotoxicity against K562 cells with IC₅₀ values in the range 10-20 μM. Paclitaxel was used as the positive control with an IC₅₀ value of 0.9 μM. This is the first report of secondary metabolites from this medicinal mushroom.

  9. An Efficient PEG/CaCl₂-Mediated Transformation Approach for the Medicinal Fungus Wolfiporia cocos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiao; Wei, Wei; Zhao, Juan; Song, Jia; Peng, Fang; Zhang, Shaopeng; Zheng, Yonglian; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    Sclerotia of Wolfiporia cocos are of medicinal and culinary value. The genes and molecular mechanisms involved in W. cocos sclerotial formation are poorly investigated because of the lack of a suitable and reproducible transformation system for W. cocos. In this study, a PEG/ CaCl₂-mediated genetic transformation system for W. cocos was developed. The promoter Pgpd from Ganoderma lucidum effectively drove expression of the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene in W. cocos, and approximately 30 transformants were obtained per 10 μg DNA when the protoplast suspension density was 10(6) protoplasts/ml. However, no transformants were obtained under the regulation of the PtrpC promoter from Aspergillus nidulans.

  10. 灵芝孢子油对免疫低下模型小鼠的免疫调节作用%Immunoregulatory function of Ganoderma spore oil in immunocompromised mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易有金; 胡瞬; 熊兴耀; 刘东波; 钟英丽; 易传祝

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ganoderma lucidum as a Chinese traditional medicine has been used as a medicine and food for a very long time . Ganoderma spore oil , a sort of lipin extracted from Ganoderma spore ( the reproductive organs of Ganoderma lucidum) , is rich in ganodenic acid , unsaturated fatty acid , Reishi polysaccharides and so forth . The reports on immunoregulation and antioxidation of Ganoderma spore oil are few at present . Cyclophosphamide ( CPA) is a common antineoplastic agent which can cause immunodepression . In order to reduce clinically immunocompromised side effects caused by CPA , the immune‐deficient mouse model was established to study the immunoregulation effect of Ganoderma spore oil on immunocompromised mice . Ganoderma spore oil was given to hypo‐immune model induced by injecting Kunming mice with CPA . The mice were randomly divided into nomal control group , model control group , Ganoderma spore oil group . Ganoderma spore oil group accepted 0 .01 mL/g of 150 mg/kg Ganoderma spore oil for 30 d . Normal control group and model control group were given corn oil of 0 .01 mL/g for 30 d . Model control group and Ganoderma spore oil group were given 40 mg/kg CPA once a day for 1 , 3 , 5 , 17 ,19 ,21 d respectively , to establish immune‐deficient mouse model . Nomal control group was injected subcutaneously with normal saline . The spleen and thymus index , lymphocyte transformation and delayed‐type hypersensitivity (DT H) , hemolysin antibody level and hemolysin content , natural killer ( NK) cell activity were measured at the 30th day . The results showed that compared with normal control group , the measured parameters were low for model control group . However , the related parameters for Ganoderma spore oil group were higher than model control group and the difference was obvious ( P< 0 .05) , indicating that the Ganoderma spore oil could increase the spleen index , thymus index , lymphocyte transformation and DT H level , and improve the content

  11. Antioxidant farnesylated hydroquinones from Ganoderma capense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xingrong; Li, Lei; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Guolei; Li, Zhongrong; Qiu, Minghua

    2016-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma capense led to isolation of eight aromatic meroterpenoids (1-8). Ganocapensins A and B (1, 2) possessed a thirteen-membered and a fourteen-membered ether rings, respectively. The structures of new isolates including absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic technologies and Mosher's method. All isolated compounds showed significant antioxidant effects with IC50 values ranging from 6.00±0.11 to 8.20±0.30μg/ml in the DPPH radical scavenging assay.

  12. Ligninolytic enzymes from Ganoderma spp: current status and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan-Wei; Cong, Wei-Ran; Su, Kai-Qi; Zhang, Yong-Ming

    2013-11-01

    White-rot fungal species belonging to Ganoderma have long been used as medicinal mushrooms in many Asian countries. In recent years, however, attention is not just being paid to their pharmacological properties, but to their other potentially valuable features as well, including their secretion of enzymes which decompose lignin. The current literature regarding lignin-modifying enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, their potential uses, and the components, structures and processes of lignocellulose degradation are discussed. The ligninolytic enzymes from the genus Ganoderma, as well as the number of additional enzymes that participate in lignin degradation, are summarized; further, the potential applications of these enzymes are analyzed and probed in this article. This review will provide insight on