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Sample records for fungicide triadimefon study

  1. The fungicide triadimefon affects beer flavor and composition by influencing Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; An, Jingjing; Chen, Jieying; Bao, Yuming; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Despite the fact that beer is produced on a large scale, the effects of pesticide residues on beer have been rarely investigated. In this study, we used micro-brewing settings to determine the effect of triadimefon on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and beer flavor. The yeast growth in medium was significantly inhibited (45%) at concentrations higher than 5 mg L-1, reaching 80% and 100% inhibition at 10 mg L-1 and 50 mg L-1, respectively. There were significant differences in sensory quality between beer samples fermented with and without triadimefon based on data obtained with an electronic tongue and nose. Such an effect was most likely underlain by changes in yeast fermentation activity, including decreased utilization of maltotriose and most amino acids, reduced production of isobutyl and isoamyl alcohols, and increased ethyl acetate content in the fungicide treated samples. Furthermore, yeast metabolic profiling by phenotype microarray and UPLC/TOF-MS showed that triadimefon caused significant changes in the metabolism of glutathione, phenylalanine and sphingolipids, and in sterol biosynthesis. Thus, triadimefon negatively affects beer sensory qualities by influencing the metabolic activity of S. cerevisiae during fermentation, emphasizing the necessity of stricter control over fungicide residues in brewing by the food industry.

  2. The effect of developmental exposure to the fungicide triadimefon on behavioral sensitization to triadimefon during adulthood

    Reeves, Ruth; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Richfield, Eric K.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2004-01-01

    Triadimefon (TDF) is a triazole fungicide that acts as an indirect dopamine (DA) agonist by binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increasing levels of synaptic DA. Studies in this laboratory have found that repeated dosing with TDF in adult mice leads to the development and robust expression of behavioral sensitization, a response mediated by dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems, and causing long-term changes in dopaminergic function. Few studies have focused on the potential for TDF to be a developmental neurotoxicant. As such, the objective of the present study was to determine whether postnatal exposure to TDF would permanently alter DA systems and thereby influence TDF-induced expression of behavioral sensitization during adulthood. Male C57BL/6 mice were dosed intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 25 mg/kg TDF (TDF25), or oil (veh) from postnatal day (PND) 8 to 21. At 8-9 weeks of age, mice were split into four groups and treated with 75 mg/kg TDF (TDF75) or vehicle twice a week for a total of seven injections, with locomotor activity measured immediately after each injection. After a 2-week withdrawal period, mice were further split into eight groups, and challenged with TDF75 or vehicle to test for the expression of behavioral sensitization. Postnatal TDF exposure attenuated both the induction and expression of TDF-induced vertical but not horizontal sensitization in adults. Postnatal TDF exposure also produced long-term decreases in basal striatal dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels and nucleus accumbens shell DAT binding. These results indicate for the first time that TDF may be considered an environmental risk factor for developmental dopaminergic neurotoxicity

  3. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Stereoselective Metabolism of the 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicide, Triadimefon, in Vertebrate Species

    Questions Agricultural and pharmaceutical 1,2,4-triazole fungicides are potent cytochrome P450 modulators that can disrupt mammalian steroid biosynthesis. Triadimefon [(RS)-1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butan-2-one] is unique with respect to tumorige...

  4. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  5. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  6. Mechanistic Approach to Understanding the Toxicity of the Azole Fungicide Triadimefon to a Nontarget Aquatic Insect and Implications for Exposure Assessment

    We utilized mechanistic and stereoselective based in vitro metabolism assays and sublethal exposures of triadimefon to gain insight into the extent of carbonyl reduction and the toxic mode of action of triadimefon with black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) larvae.

  7. Transcriptional and metabolic flux profiling of triadimefon effects on cultured hepatocytes

    Iyer, Vidya V.; Ovacik, Meric A.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.; Roth, Charles M.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.

    2010-01-01

    Conazoles are a class of azole fungicides used to prevent fungal growth in agriculture, for treatment of fungal infections, and are found to be tumorigenic in rats and/or mice. In this study, cultured primary rat hepatocytes were treated to two different concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 mM) of triadimefon, which is a tumorigenic conazole in rat and mouse liver, on a temporal basis with daily media change. Following treatment, cells were harvested for microarray data ranging from 6 to 72 h. Supernatant was collected daily for three days, and the concentrations of various metabolites in the media and supernatant were quantified. Gene expression changes were most significant following exposure to 0.3 mM triadimefon and were characterized mainly by metabolic pathways related to carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Correspondingly, metabolic network flexibility analysis demonstrated a switch from fatty acid synthesis to fatty acid oxidation in cells exposed to triadimefon. It is likely that fatty acid oxidation is active in order to supply energy required for triadimefon detoxification. In 0.15 mM triadimefon treatment, the hepatocytes are able to detoxify the relatively low concentration of triadimefon with less pronounced changes in hepatic metabolism.

  8. Method for the analysis of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass by solid-phase extraction and in-vial elution.

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Field, J A

    1999-08-01

    Triadimefon, a fungicide, and ethofumesate, an herbicide, are commonly applied to turfgrass in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in foliar residues. A simple and rapid method was developed to determine triadimefon and ethofumesate concentrations from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass. Turfgrass samples were washed, and wash water containing surfactant (a 0.126% solution) was collected for residue analysis. This analytical method utilizes a 25 mm C(8) Empore disk and in-vial elution to quantitatively determine triadimefon and ethofumesate in 170 mL aqueous samples. The analytes were eluted by placing the disk in a 2 mL autosampler vial with 980 microL of ethyl acetate and 20 microL of 2-chlorolepidine, the internal standard, for analysis by GC/MS. The method quantitation limits are 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and 0.59 microg/L for triadimefon. The method detection limits are 0.047 microg/L and 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and triadimefon, respectively. Concentrations of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues from a field study are reported.

  9. Effects of Fungicides on Rat’s Neurosteroid Synthetic Enzymes

    Xiuwei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors may interfere with nervous system’s activity. Fungicides such as tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin have antifungal activities and are used to prevent fungal infections in agricultural plants. In the present study, we studied effects of tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin on rat’s neurosteroidogenic 5α-reductase 1 (5α-Red1, 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD, and retinol dehydrogenase 2 (RDH2. Rat’s 5α-Red1, 3α-HSD, and RDH2 were cloned and expressed in COS-1 cells, and effects of these fungicides on them were measured. Tebuconazole and triadimefon competitively inhibited 5α-Red1, with IC50 values of 8.670 ± 0.771 × 10−6 M and 17.390 ± 0.079 × 10−6 M, respectively, while vinclozolin did not inhibit the enzyme at 100 × 10−6 M. Triadimefon competitively inhibited 3α-HSD, with IC50 value of 26.493 ± 0.076 × 10−6 M. Tebuconazole and vinclozolin weakly inhibited 3α-HSD, with IC50 values about 100 × 10−6 M, while vinclozolin did not inhibit the enzyme even at 100 × 10−6 M. Tebuconazole and triadimefon weakly inhibited RDH2 with IC50 values over 100 × 10−6 M and vinclozolin did not inhibit this enzyme at 100 × 10−6 M. Docking study showed that tebuconazole, triadimefon, and vinclozolin bound to the steroid-binding pocket of 3α-HSD. In conclusion, triadimefon potently inhibited rat’s neurosteroidogenic enzymes, 5α-Red1 and 3α-HSD.

  10. USING CHIRALITY TO INFORM THE METABOLISM OF TRIADIMEFON TO TRIADIMENOL: A CROSS-SPECIES EXAMINATION

    Triadimefon is a systemic agricultural fungicide of the conazole class whose metabolite, triadimenol, provides the majority of the actual fungicidal activity; i.e. inhibition of steroid demethylation. Triadimenol is also registered and used as a fungicide. Both chemicals are ch...

  11. Tissue distribution and metabolism of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers in Chinese lizards (Eremias argus).

    Li, Jitong; Wang, Yinghuan; Li, Wei; Xu, Peng; Guo, Baoyuan; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Triadimefon (TF, S-(+)-TF, R-(-)-TF) and its metabolite triadimenol (TN, TN-A1, A2 and TN-B1, B2) are two systemic fungicides and both of them are chiral pharmaceuticals which are widely used in agricultural industry. Many researches focused on the toxicity effects of triadimefon on mammals, while the ecotoxicological data of tiradimefon on reptiles is limited. In order to understand the toxicity mechanism of triadimefon in reptiles, the current study administrated S-(+)-TF or R-(-)-TF traidimefon (50mg/kg bw ) to Chinese lizards (Eremias argus) respectively, the absorption, distribution of triadimefon and the formation of triadimenol were analysed at different sampling times. The metabolic pathways were demonstrated through relative gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR reaction. During the experiment time, triadimefon was quickly peaked to the maximum concentration within 12h in liver, brain, kidney, and plasma, eliminated slowly. The biotransformation in kidney was the lowest and fat possessed the worst degradation ability among others. The metabolite, triadimenol was detected in blood in 2h and reached to a plateau at about 12h in most organs (fat excepted), while the process of metabolism is stereoselective. The mainly metabolite in R-(-)-TF treated group was TN-B1, and TN-A2 in S-(+)-TF group which showed the selective metabolism to other species caused by environmental conditions, differences in the animal models and concentration of TF. The related gene expression of cyp1a1, cyp3a1 and hsd11β mRNA level in lizards showed different metabolic pathways in the liver and brain. Both P450s enzymes and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase participated in metabolic reaction in liver, while no 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase pathway observed in brain. This diversity in liver and brain may cause different degradation rate and ecotoxicological effect in different organs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alteration of network activity in cortical neurons by triadimefon

    ABSTRACT BODY: Triadimefon (TRI) is a conazole fungicide used to control powdery mildews on crops and as a veterinary and clinical treatment. TRI inhibits transmitter re-uptake at dopaminergic synapses in the central nervous system, and exposure to high levels of TRI causes hyper...

  13. Effects of Conazole Fungicides on Spontaneous Activity in Neural Networks

    Hexaconazole (HEX), Tetraconazole (TET), Fluconazole (FLU), and Triadimefon (TRI) are conazole fungicides, used to control powdery mildews on crops, and as veterinary and clinical treatments. TRI, a demethylation inhibitor, is neurotoxic in vivo, and previous in vitro experiments...

  14. A predictive data-driven framework for endocrine prioritization: a triazole fungicide case study

    Paul Friedman, Katie; Papineni, Sabitha; Marty, M. Sue; Yi, Kun Don; Goetz, Amber K.; Rasoulpour, Reza J.; Kwiatkowski, Pat; Wolf, Douglas C.; Blacker, Ann M.; Peffer, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The US Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) is a tiered screening approach to determine the potential for a chemical to interact with estrogen, androgen, or thyroid hormone systems and/or perturb steroidogenesis. Use of high-throughput screening (HTS) to predict hazard and exposure is shifting the EDSP approach to (1) prioritization of chemicals for further screening; and (2) targeted use of EDSP Tier 1 assays to inform specific data needs. In this work, toxicology data for three triazole fungicides (triadimefon, propiconazole, and myclobutanil) were evaluated, including HTS results, EDSP Tier 1 screening (and other scientifically relevant information), and EPA guideline mammalian toxicology study data. The endocrine-related bioactivity predictions from HTS and information that satisfied the EDSP Tier 1 requirements were qualitatively concordant. Current limitations in the available HTS battery for thyroid and steroidogenesis pathways were mitigated by inclusion of guideline toxicology studies in this analysis. Similar margins (3–5 orders of magnitude) were observed between HTS-predicted human bioactivity and exposure values and between in vivo mammalian bioactivity and EPA chronic human exposure estimates for these products’ registered uses. Combined HTS hazard and human exposure predictions suggest low priority for higher-tiered endocrine testing of these triazoles. Comparison with the mammalian toxicology database indicated that this HTS-based prioritization would have been protective for any potential in vivo effects that form the basis of current risk assessment for these chemicals. This example demonstrates an effective, human health protective roadmap for EDSP evaluation of pesticide active ingredients via prioritization using HTS and guideline toxicology information. PMID:27347635

  15. Estimation of sorption coefficients for fungicides in soil and turfgrass thatch

    Dell, C.J.; Throssell, C.S.; Bischoff, M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    Environmental fates of turf-applied fungicides are not well understood. The role of thatch as a sorptive surface for fungicides has not been evaluated. Thatch may decrease mobility of fungi and decrease their potential to be transported off-site. Batch type sorption studies were conducted to determine sorption coefficients (K{sub f}) for the fungicides triadimefon, [1-(4-chlorophenoxy)-3,3-dimethyl 1-1(1H-1,2,4- triazol-l-g-l) butanone], vinclozolin [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl- 5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione], and chloroneb (1,4-dichloro-2,5-dimethoxybenzone) in thatch and in the underlying soil.

  16. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Oral Toxicity of Agro-Fungicides: Tilt (Propiconazole), Bayleton ...

    Methods: Twelve Nubian goats were used in these experiments; they were grouped into three groups (and one control group) and dosed orally with two fungicides [Propiconazole (100mg/kg/day), Triadimefon (100mg/kg/day)] and their mixture (50:50 mg/kg/day). Animals were closely observed for clinical signs and behavior ...

  18. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  19. Combinations of fungicide and cultural practices influence the incidence and impact of fusiform rust in slash pine plantations

    James D. Haywood; Allan E. Tiarks

    1994-01-01

    Slash pine was grown in central Louisiana under four levels of culture with or without repeated sprayings of the systematic fungicide triadimefon for protection against fusiform rust. The eight treatment combinations were: (1)no fungicide, weed control, or fertilizer; (2)weeded; (3)weeded, applied inorganic fertilizer, and bedded before planting; (4)weeded, bedded,...

  20. Fungicide application practices and personal protective equipment use among orchard farmers in the agricultural health study.

    Hines, C J; Deddens, J A; Coble, J; Alavanja, M C R

    2007-04-01

    Fungicides are routinely applied to deciduous tree fruits for disease management. Seventy-four private orchard applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study participated in the Orchard Fungicide Exposure Study in 2002-2003. During 144 days of observation, information was obtained on chemicals applied and applicator mixing, application, personal protective, and hygiene practices. At least half of the applicators had orchards with orchard applicators.

  1. Percutaneous absorption of triadimefon in the adult and young male and female rat

    Knaak, J.B.; Yee, K.; Ackerman, C.R.; Zweig, G.; Wilson, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The percutaneous absorption of 14 C-phenoxy ring labeled triadimefon was studied in adult and young male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Triadimefon was applied (41.1 to 46.4 micrograms/cm2) in 0.2 ml of acetone to areas comprising 3% of the body surface (7.0 to 14.5 cm2). Thirty-six animals were treated at the initiation of each study. Groups of three animals were subsequently killed at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, and 192 hr after treatment. Skin from the treated area as well as blood, heart, liver, kidneys, remaining carcass, urine, and feces were analyzed for 14 C by scintillation counting techniques. Based on 14 C counts, triadimefon was lost more rapidly from the skin of young animals (t 1/2, 20 to 25 hr) than from the skin of adult animals (t 1/2, 29 to 53 hr). Recovery studies indicated that adult males, adult females, young males, and young females, respectively, absorbed 53, 82, 57, and 52% of the dose. The rest of the dose based on material balance was presumably lost by evaporation. Approximately 2.5 to 3.9% of the dose penetrated the skin in one hour and was available for absorption. The rate of entry triadimefon into blood was 2 to 2.5 times faster for young than that observed in adult animals. Elimination of it from blood was faster in the case of the young animals. Triadimefon was absorbed through the skins of the adult male, adult female, young male, and young female rats, respectively, at rates of 0.20, 0.50, 0.58, and 0.48 micrograms/hr/cm2 of skin

  2. Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish.

    Cao, Chuyan; Wang, Qiangwei; Jiao, Fang; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-09-01

    Butachlor (BTL) and triadimefon (TDF), the widely used herbicide and fungicide, are unavoidable enter into the aquatic environment. However, there were limited study regarding to the joint toxicity of these two pesticides on fish at present. To evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting toxicity and exposed to different concentrations of BTL mixed with TDF. Zebrafish embryo (n=3) were exposed to 0.01 and 0.05 fold of LC50 from the acute joint toxicity test, of which 0.32mg/L (BTL) and 9.41mg/L (TDF) for single or mixture agents (BTL: 0.0064mg/L, 0.032mg/L; TDF: 0.1882mg/L, 0.9410mg/L; co-exposure: 0.0032mg/L BTL+0.0941mg/L TDF, 0.016mg/l BTL+0.4705mg/L TDF) after 10-day post-fertilization. Hatching, malformation, survival rates and thyroid hormones (THs), genes expression involved in HPT-axis of embryos were measured and detected in control and separately/co-exposure treatments. THs contents were evaluated by ELISA kit and the expression levels of genes were determined by RT-PCR. Hatching, malformation and survival rates of embryos exposed to single BTL exhibited no statistically significant difference from the control besides decreased of high concentration in survival rates. Exposure to TDF reduced hatching, survival rate and increased malformation. The combined exposure to BTL and TDF resulted in greater adverse effects on embryonic development. BTL exposure significantly increased free T3 and T4 contents. Elevated free T3 content was also observed in the larvae exposed with single BTL. Co-exposure of the two pesticides caused greater enhanced of T3 and T4 levels. Furthermore, gene data showed BTL up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, tshβ, tg, ttr, dio2, TDF up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, trα, ttr, dio2 and down-regulated trβ gene. The mixture of the two pesticides caused up-regulation mRNA expression of trα, trβ, tg, ttr, dio2. BTL and TDF resulted in adverse effects on zebrafish embryonic development and caused thyroid endocrine disruption

  3. A long term field study of the effect of fungicides penconazole and sulfur on yeasts in the vineyard.

    Cordero-Bueso, Gustavo; Arroyo, Teresa; Valero, Eva

    2014-10-17

    This research deals with how two fungicide treatments against powdery mildew, penconazole as a systematic fungicide and sulfur as an inorganic broad-spectrum fungicide, affect the diversity and density of wine yeasts associated with grape berry surfaces and subsequent spontaneous fermentations. Unlike other studies in this area, this work aims to evaluate this effect on the population dynamics in the environment, the conditions of which are not reproducible in the laboratory. A long term (three year) sampling plan was thus devised. A minimum inhibitory concentration assay was also carried out in the laboratory in order to prove the influence of these antifungals on yeast populations. While both antifungal treatments (penconazole and sulfur) were similarly effective against powdery mildew, each had a very different effect on yeast populations. Penconazole showed the most negative effect on biodiversity in the vineyard and was the fungicide to which the isolated yeasts showed the greatest sensitivity. This study therefore evidences the suitability of treatment with sulfur, in both conventional and organic viticulture, to preserve the yeast population associated with grape berries, in particular the Saccharomyces cerevisiae species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gene expression profiling in the liver of CD-1 mice to characterize the hepatotoxicity of triazole fungicides

    Goetz, Amber K.; Bao, Wenjun; Ren, Hongzu; Schmid, Judith E.; Tully, Douglas B.; Wood, Carmen; Rockett, John C.; Narotsky, Michael G.; Sun, Guobin; Lambert, Guy R.; Thai, S.-F.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Nesnow, Stephen; Dix, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Four triazole fungicides used in agricultural or pharmaceutical applications were examined for hepatotoxic effects in mouse liver. Besides organ weight, histopathology, and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme induction, DNA microarrays were used to generate gene expression profiles and hypotheses on potential mechanisms of action for this class of chemicals. Adult male CD-1 mice were exposed daily for 14 days to fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon at three dose levels by oral gavage. Doses were based on previous studies that resulted in liver hypertrophy or hepatotoxicity. All four triazoles caused hepatocyte hypertrophy, and all except triadimefon increased relative liver/body weight ratios at the middle and high dose levels. CYP enzyme activities were also induced by all four triazoles at the middle and high doses as measured by the dealkylations of four alkoxyresorufins, although some differences in substrate specificity were observed. Consistent with this common histopathology and biochemistry, several CYP and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme (XME) genes were differentially expressed in response to all four (Cyp2d26 and Cyp3a11), or three of the four (Cyp2c40, Cyp2c55, Ces2, Slco1a4) triazoles. Differential expression of numerous other CYP and XME genes discriminated between the various triazoles, consistent with differences in CYP enzyme activities, and indicative of possible differences in mechanisms of hepatotoxicity or dose response. Multiple isoforms of Cyp1a, 2b, 2c, 3a, and other CYP and XME genes regulated by the nuclear receptors constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) were differentially expressed following triazole exposure. Based on these results, we expanded on our original hypothesis that triazole hepatotoxicity was mediated by CYP induction, to include additional XME genes, many of which are modulated by CAR and PXR

  5. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  6. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A new chiral residue analysis method for triazole fungicides in water using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME).

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2013-09-01

    A rapid, simple, reliable, and environment-friendly method for the residue analysis of the enantiomers of four chiral fungicides including hexaconazole, triadimefon, tebuconazole, and penconazole in water samples was developed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) pretreatment followed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-DAD detection. The enantiomers were separated on a Chiralpak IC column by HPLC applying n-hexane or petroleum ether as mobile phase and ethanol or isopropanol as modifier. The influences of mobile phase composition and temperature on the resolution were investigated and most of the enantiomers could be completely separated in 20 min under optimized conditions. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that the separation was enthalpy-driven. The elution orders were detected by both circular dichroism detector (CD) and optical rotatory dispersion detector (ORD). Parameters affecting the DLLME performance for pretreatment of the chiral fungicides residue in water samples, such as the extraction and dispersive solvents and their volume, were studied and optimized. Under the optimum microextraction condition the enrichment factors were over 121 and the linearities were 30-1500 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) over 0.9988 and the recoveries were between 88.7% and 103.7% at the spiking levels of 0.5, 0.25, and 0.05 mg L(-1) (for each enantiomer) with relative standard deviations varying from 1.38% to 6.70% (n = 6) The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 8.5 to 29.0 µg L(-1) (S/N = 3). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Studies on the response of soil microflora to the application of the fungicide fenhexamid

    El Azhari, Najoi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the fungicide fenhexamid (FEX) on the genetic structure of soil bacterial communities using the Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis molecular technique. Using real-time PCR, we also tried to quantify the pcaH sequences which encode...... the dioxygenases involved in the degradation process of a variety of aromatic compounds. Soil taken from a vineyard in the Etna Park (Sicily, Italy) was treated with FEX in the ratio 2 µg g-1 soil every 7 days, the process being repeated four times. The analyses were carried out before treatment and 7 days after...... each further application of FEX. At the same time, the degradation rate was evaluated. The use of FEX determined a variation in the bacterial component of the soil which could be seen in an increase of some microbial strains and the inhibition of others. The pcaH sequence was already present...

  9. The influence of copper-based fungicide use in soils and aquatic sediments. Case study: Aetoliko lagoon, Western Greece

    Avramidis, Pavlos; Barouchas, Pantelis; Dünwald, Thomas; Unkel, Ingmar

    2017-04-01

    In the study area, in order farmers to keep their olive trees healthy, the first measure is to keep their olive trees well-fed that is the best initial defense against diseases. Copper-based fungicides are the most common fungicides to protect olive plantations against diseases such as the olive leaf spot. Pathogens are controlled by farmers with strategically timed disease control programs rely on copper sprays to protect the foliage and fruit from infection Successful disease control depends on even distribution and good retention of the copper over all of the plant surfaces before the disease develops. Artificially added copper has the ability to accumulate in soils and aquatic sediments and can cause adverse effects on flora and fauna in its environment. For the present study soil and aquatic sediments field campaign was carried out in the Aetoliko Lagoon ecosystem which is exclusively dominated by olive orchards. It is for the first time in Greece that soil as well as aquatic sediments samples of one coherent protected aquatic ecosystem were taken and compared. To determine the influence that the usage of copper-based fungicides have on the lagoon and surrounding areas, ten (10) sediment samples from the bottom of the lagoon and twenty five (25) soil samples at the different olive orchards that are bordering the water body were taken. The samples were analyzed for total copper content (total digestion) and extractable copper (DTPA and NH4NO3). Furthermore, soil / sedimentological and geochemical analyses such as pH, grain size, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and calcium carbonate content were carried out. The results show in over 80 % of the orchard soils a critical accumulation of the total amount of copper. In some of the examined soils the value of 140 mg/kg(as set by the European Union as a limit for total copper in farmland) is exceeded by the factors of 2 to 4.5. Copper content in the aquatic sediments is generally lower and varies between 43.85 mg

  10. Occupational use of insecticides, fungicides ~and fumigants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and nultiplc myeloma in the Agricultural Health Study

    Farming and exposure to pesticides have been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma (MM) in previous studies. We evaluated use of insecticides, fungicides and fumigants and risk of NHL, including MM and other NHL sub-types in the Agricultural Health Study, a ...

  11. The species sensivity distribution approach compared to a micrososm study: A case study with the fungicide fluazinam

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Arts, G.H.P.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Boonstra, H.; Roessink, I.; Schroer, A.F.W.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the sensitivity of freshwater organisms (invertebrates and algae) to the fungicide Shirlan® (active ingredient fluazinam) in single-species laboratory tests and in microcosms. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves were constructed by means of acute toxicity data for 14

  12. Annual Fungicide Loadings

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  13. Non-hodgkin lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the agricultural health study.

    Michael C R Alavanja

    Full Text Available Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and multiple myeloma (MM. We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL and MM in a U.S.-based prospective cohort of farmers and commercial pesticide applicators. A total of 523 cases occurred among 54,306 pesticide applicators from enrollment (1993-97 through December 31, 2011 in Iowa, and December 31, 2010 in North Carolina. Information on pesticide use, other agricultural exposures and other factors was obtained from questionnaires at enrollment and at follow-up approximately five years later (1999-2005. Information from questionnaires, monitoring, and the literature were used to create lifetime-days and intensity-weighted lifetime days of pesticide use, taking into account exposure-modifying factors. Poisson and polytomous models were used to calculate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI to evaluate associations between 26 pesticides and NHL and five NHL-subtypes, while adjusting for potential confounding factors. For total NHL, statistically significant positive exposure-response trends were seen with lindane and DDT. Terbufos was associated with total NHL in ever/never comparisons only. In subtype analyses, terbufos and DDT were associated with small cell lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia/marginal cell lymphoma, lindane and diazinon with follicular lymphoma, and permethrin with MM. However, tests of homogeneity did not show significant differences in exposure-response among NHL-subtypes for any pesticide. Because 26 pesticides were evaluated for their association with NHL and its subtypes, some chance finding could have occurred. Our results showed pesticides from different chemical and functional classes were associated with an excess risk of NHL and NHL subtypes, but not all members of any single class of pesticides

  14. Impact of fungicides on weed growth

    Nordmeyer, Henning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study has shown that fungicides influence the growth of weeds. The competition against crops will be substantially reduced. Bioassays in a climate chamber variation in temperature as well as different lightning phases and microplot trials under semi field levels were carried out to investigate the influence of fungicides on weed growth. Selected weed species (Alopecurus myosuroides, Viola arvensis, Galium aparine, Stellaria media, Lamium purpureum have been examined with different dose rates of fungicides (Adexar, Bravo 500, Diamant, Crupozin flüssig. Weed species showed a different sensitivity. There were leaf discoloration, contractions and growth inhibition. In some cases using common practise dose rates of fungicides more than 70% growth inhibition could be estimated 14 days after application in comparison to the untreated control. Effects were much stronger in bioassays than in semi field trials.

  15. Study of fungicidal properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs on trout egg pathogen, Saprolegnia sp.

    Seyed Ali Johari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are known to have bactericidal and fungicidal effects. Since, there is few information available on the interaction of colloidal nanosilver with fish pathogens. Hence, the current study investigated the effects of colloidal AgNPs on the in vitro growth of the fish pathogen Saprolegnia sp.. Before the experiments, various important properties of AgNPs were well-characterized. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was then evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using two-fold serial dilutions of colloidal nanosilver in a glucose yeast extract agar at 22ºC. The growth of Saprolegnia sp. on the AgNPs agar treatments was compared to that of nanosilver-free agar as controls. The results showed that AgNPs have an inhibitory effect on the in vitro growth of the tested fungi. The MIC of AgNPs for Saprolegnia sp. was calculated at 1800 mg/L, which is equal to 0.18 percent. It seems that AgNPs could be a proper replacement for teratogenic and toxic agents, such as malachite green. In addition, the indirect use of AgNPs could be a useful method for providing new antifungal activity in aquaculture systems.

  16. Comparative study of the fungicide Benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures

    Elslahi Randa H.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide Benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB and some fungi. The highest LD50 was recorded for Bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21-240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the LD50 value for Azospirillum braziliense. The results indicate a strong selectivity for Benomyl against Rhizobium meliloti and Penicillium sp. when compared to other microorganisms tested. The highest safety coefficient was recorded for Bacillus circulans followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Rhizobium meliloti, showed the lowest safety coefficient value compared to other bacteria. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Bacillus circulans and Azospirillum braziliense. The slope of the curves for Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium meliloti was steeper than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. In conclusion, Benomyl could be applied without restriction when using inocula based on growth promoting bacteria such as symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium meliloti, non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Azospirillum braziliense or potassium solibilizers (Bacillus circulans, given that the fungicide is applied within the range of the recommended field dose.

  17. Comparative study of the fungicide Benomyl toxicity on some plant growth promoting bacteria and some fungi in pure cultures.

    Elslahi, Randa H; Osman, Awad G; Sherif, Ashraf M; Elhussein, Adil A

    2014-03-01

    Six laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of the fungicide Benomyl on pure cultures of some plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) and some fungi. The highest LD50 was recorded for Bacillus circulans and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide, followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Penicillium sp. was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for the affected microorganisms were in 21-240 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with the LD50 value for Azospirillum braziliense. The results indicate a strong selectivity for Benomyl against Rhizobium meliloti and Penicillium sp. when compared to other microorganisms tested. The highest safety coefficient was recorded for Bacillus circulans followed by Azospirillum braziliense, while Rhizobium meliloti, showed the lowest safety coefficient value compared to other bacteria. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Bacillus circulans and Azospirillum braziliense. The slope of the curves for Bacillus sp. and Rhizobium meliloti was steeper than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. In conclusion, Benomyl could be applied without restriction when using inocula based on growth promoting bacteria such as symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Rhizobium meliloti), non-symbiotic nitrogen fixers (Azospirillum braziliense) or potassium solibilizers (Bacillus circulans), given that the fungicide is applied within the range of the recommended field dose.

  18. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium

  19. Degradation of the fungicide carbendazim in aqueous solutions with UV/TiO2 process: Optimization, kinetics and toxicity studies

    Saien, J.; Khezrianjoo, S.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of UV-photocatalytic process in the presence of TiO 2 particles for the degradation of carbendazim (C 9 H 9 N 3 O 2 ), a fungicide with a high worldwide consumption but considered as a 'priority hazard substance' by the Water Framework Directive of the European Commission (WFDEC). A circulating upflow photo-reactor was employed and the influence of catalyst concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. The results showed that degradation of this fungicide can be conducted in the both processes of only UV-irradiation and UV/TiO 2 ; however, the later provides much better results. Accordingly, a degradation of more than 90% of fungicide was achieved by applying the optimal operational conditions of 70 mg L -1 of catalyst, natural pH of 6.73 and ambient temperature of 25 deg. C after 75 min irradiation. Under these mild conditions, the initial rate of degradation can be described well by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. Toxicological assessments on the obtained samples were also performed by measurement of the mycelium growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum fungus on PDA medium. The results indicate that the kinetics of degradation and toxicity are in reasonably good agreement mainly after 45 min of irradiation; confirming the effectiveness of photocatalytic process

  20. In vitro screening of fungicides and antagonists against Sclerotium ...

    A study was conducted in the microbiology laboratory of Plant Pathology Department, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, during 2010 to 2011 to control Sclerotium rolfsii with fungicides and Trichoderma harzianum. Six fungicides namely Provax-200, Bavistin, Ridomil, Dithane M-45, ...

  1. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate and identify the physical and physiological quality of mahogany seeds that are coated with fertilizer and fungicide. The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of fertilizers. The seeds were evaluated in the laboratory and in a greenhouse.

  2. Comparative assessment of herbicide and fungicide runoff risk: a case study for peanut production in the Southern Atlantic Coastal Plain (USA).

    Potter, Thomas L; Bosch, David D; Strickland, Timothy C

    2014-08-15

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is produced intensively in the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain of the eastern USA. To effectively protect the region's water quality data are needed which quantify runoff of pesticides used to protect these crops. Fungicides are used intensively yet there is little published data which describe their potential for loss in surface runoff. This study compared runoff of a fungicide, tebuconazole (α-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol), and an herbicide, metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide) from 0.2 ha fields in strip (ST), a commonly used conservation-tillage practice, and conventional tillage (CT) near Tifton, GA (USA). Following their first application, metolachlor and tebuconazole were detected at high frequency in runoff. Concentrations and their annual losses increased with application frequency and runoff event timing and frequency with respect to applications, and when fields were positioned at the top of the slope and CT was practiced. Runoff one day after treatment (DAT) contributed to high tebuconazole runoff loss, up to 9.8% of the amount applied on an annual basis. In all cases, metolachlor loss was more than 10 times less even though total application was 45% higher. This was linked to the fact that the one metolachlor application to each crop was in May, one of the region's driest months. In sum, studies showed that fungicide runoff rates may be relatively high and emphasize the need to focus on these products in future studies on peanut and other crops. The study also showed that peanut farmers should be encouraged to use conservation tillage practices like ST which can substantially reduce pesticide runoff. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on ''in vitro''' efficiency of fungicides

    Menten, J.O.M.; Oliveira, G.C.X.

    1984-01-01

    The activity of 60 Co gamma radiation on eight fungicides used in post-harvesting treatment of agricultural products, was studied. Rhizoctonia solani was used in biological test as indicator-fungus. The fungicides were submitted to gamma radiation doses of O (control), 1, 10, 100, 1000 and 10.000 kR, samples of the fungicides were added to the PSA culture media to obtain 0, 1, 10 and 100 ppm concentrations of the active component of each product and of each radiation dose. The ED 50 (concentration of fungicide necessary to cause 50% radial reduction of the fungic mycelium) of each fungicide in the different gamma radiation doses was determined. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Triazole Fungicides Sensitivity of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa in Korean Golf Courses

    Ji Won Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical management of dollar spot in turf may lead to the development of Sclerotinia homoeocarpa populations with reduced fungicide sensitivity. The objective of this study was to investigate resistance of S. homoeocarpa isolates to triazole fungicides and to test cross-resistance among three triazole fungicides. A total of 66 isolates of S. homoeocarpa were collected from 15 golf courses across Korea, and tested via in vitro sensitivity assay against hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole. EC₅₀ values of the isolates to these fungicides were distributed in the range of 0.001–1.1 a. i. μg ml−1. Based on the EC₅₀ values, twelve representative strains were selected as sensitive isolates including control and insensitive isolates with respect to each fungicide. At a concentration of 0.1 a. i. μg ml−1 for all fungicides, the selected strains were distinguished as sensitive or resistant isolates with the mycelial growth inhibition rate of 50% as the criterion. The EC₅₀ values of resistant strains exposed to hexaconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole were 20–50 times, 50–70 times, and 77 times greater, respectively, than that of the control strains. Two isolates of S. homoeocarpa S0–41 and Sh14-2-1 showed sensitivity toward all the fungicides used, while two other isolates Sh7-5-1 and Sh2-1-1 showed resistance to all fungicides. Each isolate showed similar resistance to the three types of triazole fungicides, whereby cross-resistance of isolates was confirmed in the present study; all three triazole fungicide combinations displayed significant correlation coefficients equivalent to or greater than 0.8.

  5. A field study using the fungicide benomyl to investigate the effect of mycorrhizal fungi on plant fitness.

    Carey, Peter D; Fitter, Alastair H; Watkinson, Andrew R

    1992-07-01

    The effect of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) on the fecundity ofVulpia ciliata ssp.ambigua was investigated at two field sites in eastern England by applying the fungicide benomyl to reduce VAM infection. The application of benomyl at the two sites produced very different results. At one site the application of the fungicide reduced the fecundity of plants whereas at the other fecundity was increased. At the first site the reduction in fecundity was linked to a significant reduction in VAM infection on the sprayed plants. The mechanism of the benefit associated with the VAM infection is however unclear: there was no treatment effect on morphology or on phosphorus inflow. At the second site, where fecundity was increased, there was only a negligible amount of VAM infection amongst the unsprayed plants and it is suggested that the increase in fecundity with the application of benomyl may have resulted from a reduction in infection by other, presumably pathogenic, fungi. The value of VAM fungi to the host plant may therefore not be restricted to physiological benefits. They may also provide protection to the plant by competing for space with other species of pathogenic fungi.

  6. Interactive effects of UV-B irradiation and triadimefon on nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in Vigna radiata plants

    Rajendiran, K.; Ramanujam, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Supply of aqueous solution of triadimefon (20 mg/cubic dm) to unstressed green gram plants increased the contents of soluble proteins, amino acids, nitrate and nitrite, and the activity of nitrate reductase in the leaves and nitrate reductase in nodules. The nitrogenase activity in nodules and roots was also increased. Number and fresh mass of nodules and their nitrate and nitrite contents were also higher than those of the controls. In contrast, the UV-B stress (12.2 kJ/square m/d) suppressed nodulation and nitrogen metabolism in leaves and roots in comparison with plants under natural UV-B (10 kJ/square m/d). Triadimefon-treated plants did not show such severe inhibitions after exposure to elevated UV-B. Thus, triadimefon increased their tolerance to UV-B stress

  7. Phytopharmacological studies on the rice diseases. III. Fungitoxicity of the different dust fungicides evaluated by protoplasm coagulation in conidia of Cochliobolus miyabeanus

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1956-01-01

    The modes of reaction of fungal conidia to fungicides (mercury and copper compounds) varied with the concentration of fungicide. At lower fugicide concentrations, restriction of elongation of germ-tubes was noted. At high concentrations, there was no germination accompanied by vacuolation. At the highest concentrations, conidia protoplasm was coagulated.

  8. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μ/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams

  9. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activity of β-Carboline Alkaloids and Their Derivatives

    Zhibin Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of β-Carboline derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their fungicidal activities in this study. Several derivatives electively exhibited fungicidal activities against some fungi. Especially, compound F5 exhibited higher fungicidal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (53.35% than commercial antiviral agent validamycin (36.4%; compound F16 exhibited high fungicidal activity against Oospora citriaurantii ex Persoon (43.28%. Some of the alkaloids and their derivatives (compounds F4 and F25 exhibited broad-spectrum fungicidal activity. Specifically, compound F4 exhibited excellent high broad-spectrum fungicidal activity in vitro, and the curative and protection activities against P. litchi in vivo reached 92.59% and 59.26%, respectively. The new derivative, F4, with optimized physicochemical properties, obviously exhibited higher activities both in vitro and in vivo; therefore, F4 may be used as a new lead structure for the development of fungicidal drugs.

  10. Fungicide contamination reduces beneficial fungi in bee bread based on an area-wide field study in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Yoder, Jay A; Jajack, Andrew J; Rosselot, Andrew E; Smith, Terrance J; Yerke, Mary Clare; Sammataro, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation by fungi converts stored pollen into bee bread that is fed to honey bee larvae, Apis mellifera, so the diversity of fungi in bee bread may be related to its food value. To explore the relationship between fungicide exposure and bee bread fungi, samples of bee bread collected from bee colonies pollinating orchards from 7 locations over 2 years were analyzed for fungicide residues and fungus composition. There were detectable levels of fungicides from regions that were sprayed before bloom. An organic orchard had the highest quantity and variety of fungicides, likely due to the presence of treated orchards within bees' flight range. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Cladosporium (beneficial fungi) were the primary fungal isolates found, regardless of habitat differences. There was some variation in fungal components amongst colonies, even within the same apiary. The variable components were Absidia, Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Bipolaris, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor, Nigrospora, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, and Trichoderma. The number of fungal isolates was reduced as an effect of fungicide contamination. Aspergillus abundance was particularly affected by increased fungicide levels, as indicated by Simpson's diversity index. Bee bread showing fungicide contamination originated from colonies, many of which showed chalkbrood symptoms.

  11. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  12. Study of damages induced by fungicide propiconazole on testicular tissue and process of spermatogenesis and protective effects of selenium in male Sprague Dawley rat

    H Mohsenikouchesfehani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Propiconazole is an herbal fungicide which is used as a tropical and systematic drug for fungal infection and also as an agricultural chemical for protection and preservation of fruits, vegetables and grains. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of fungicides propiconazol and possible protective effects of selenium on testes tissue. Methods: The present expremental trail study was conducted on forty rats which were divided into ten groups of four including control , sham (solvent of propiconazole, distilled water, solvent of selenium (normal saline and seven experimental groups : group 1 received 0.5 mg/kg/day of selenium, groups 2,3,4 received three doses of 10,50,75 mg/kg/day of Propiconazole, and groups 5,6,7 received three doses of 10, 50, 75 mg/kg/day of propiconazole with 0.5 mg/kg/day of selenium toevaluate. The administration was done intrapritoneal for two weeks in an alternatively fashion. After determining the level of LH, FSH, Testosterone, sperm was counted by hemocitometer. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software using ANOVA test. Results: No significant differences was observed in the level of hormones in the experimental groups2-7 compared with the control group, but the number of sertoli cells, spermatogonia , primary spermatocyte , spermatid and sperm decreased significantly in comparison with the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The decrease in numbers of counted sperm indicates that propiconazole has disrupted the production process of these cells and selenium was unable to improve that.

  13. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole.

  14. In-Vitro Evaluation of Fungicides and Fungicide Combinations Against Fusarium Root-Rot Fungal Pathogens of French Beans(Phaseolus Vulgaris L. c v. Monel

    Wagichunge, A.G.R; Owino, P.O; Waudo, S.W; Seif, A.A

    1999-01-01

    Laboratories studies were undertaken to evaluate In-vitro efficacy of captan, thiram, pyrazophos, triforine and metalaxyl + mancozeb fungicides against Fusarium solani (Mart.) Appel and Wollenw fsp. phaseoli (Burk) Synder and Hansen Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht fsp. phaseoli kend and Synder root-rot fungal pathogens of French beans. Five fungicides and four combinations were tested for their antifungal activity. Fungicides treatments significantly (P=0.05) inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination. Fungicides suppressed the growth of F. oxysporum fsp. Phaseoli more than that of F. solani fsp. phaseoli. All fungicides except metalaxyl + mancozeb failed to suppress sporulation of the two fungi In-vitro. In the case of thiram the sporulation capacity of F. oxysporum fsp. phaseoli 3.43 times higher than in the control. Although, no fungicides treatment was seen to inhibitor of all the three measures of fungitoxicity, the ranking of the best three fungicide treatments would be, thiram 50 + captan so > triforine > metalaxyl + mancozeb. The relatively higher inhibitory effect of fungicides on the growth of F. oxysporum Ssp. Phaseoli than that of F. solani fsp. Phaseoli suggested that F. oxysporum Esp. Phaseoli was more sensible to fungicide treatments. Such differences may reflect inherent variations in accessibility of the active toxicants within the fungal systems. The ability attributed to the low growth rate, N depletion temperature and oxygen

  15. Nucleic adaptability of heterokaryons to fungicides in a multinucleate fungus, Sclerotinia homoeocarpa.

    Kessler, Dylan; Sang, Hyunkyu; Bousquet, Amanda; Hulvey, Jonathan P; Garcia, Dawlyn; Rhee, Siyeon; Hoshino, Yoichiro; Yamada, Toshihiko; Jung, Geunhwa

    2018-06-01

    Sclerotinia homoeocarpa is the causal organism of dollar spot in turfgrasses and is a multinucleate fungus with a history of resistance to multiple fungicide classes. Heterokaryosis gives rise to the coexistence of genetically distinct nuclei within a cell, which contributes to genotypic and phenotypic plasticity in multinucleate fungi. We demonstrate that field isolates, resistant to either a demethylation inhibitor or methyl benzimidazole carbamate fungicide, can form heterokaryons with resistance to each fungicide and adaptability to serial combinations of different fungicide concentrations. Field isolates and putative heterokaryons were assayed on fungicide-amended media for in vitro sensitivity. Shifts in fungicide sensitivity and microsatellite genotypes indicated that heterokaryons could adapt to changes in fungicide pressure. Presence of both nuclei in heterokaryons was confirmed by detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the β-tubulin gene, the presence of microsatellite alleles of both field isolates, and the live-cell imaging of two different fluorescently tagged nuclei using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Nucleic adaptability of heterokaryons to fungicides was strongly supported by the visualization of changes in fluorescently labeled nuclei to fungicide pressure. Results from this study suggest that heterokaryosis is a mechanism by which the pathogen adapts to multiple fungicide pressures in the field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterizing the binding interaction of fungicide boscalid with bovine serum albumin (BSA): A spectroscopic study in combination with molecular docking approach.

    Lou, Yan-Yue; Zhou, Kai-Li; Shi, Jie-Hua; Pan, Dong-Qi

    2017-08-01

    Boscalid, a carboxamide fungicide, is used in the treatment of grey mould and powdery mildew, widely applied to a variety of crops and fruits such as rice, wheat, grapes and pears. It will become a potential risk for health due to its widely application and residue in crops and fruits. In this study, the binding interaction between boscalid and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was characterized using steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy (UV), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy, 3D fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and molecular docking to ascertain the store, transport and distribution of boscalid in vivo. The experimental results indicated that the fluorescence of BSA was quenched due to the forming the static boscalid-BSA complex with the binding constant of 4.57×10 3 M -1 at 298 K and boscalid bound on the subdomain III A (site II) of BSA through van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction. The binding process of boscalid with BSA was spontaneous and enthalpy-driven process based on ΔG 0 T|ΔS 0 | over the studied temperature range. Meanwhile, the obvious change in the conformation of boscalid was observed while the slight change in the conformation of BSA when binding boscalid to the BSA, implying that the flexibility of boscalid contributes to increasing the stability of the boscalid-BSA complex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrochemical degradation of triazole fungicides in aqueous solution using TiO2-NTs/SnO2-Sb/PbO2 anode: Experimental and DFT studies

    Han, Weiqing; Zhong, Congqiang; Liang, Linyue; Sun, Yunlong; Guan, Ying; Wang, Lianjun; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    Triazole fungicides (TFs) are toxic and bio-refractory contaminants widely spread in environment. This study investigated electrochemical degradation of TFs in aqueous solution at TiO 2 -NTs/SnO 2 -Sb/PbO 2 anode with particular attention to the effect of molecular structure. Three TFs with triazole ring in one biologically treated water including tricyclazole (TC), 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Tz) and propiconazole (PPC) were selected as the target compounds. Results of bulk electrolysis showed that degradation of all TFs was fit to a pseudo first-order equation. The three compounds were degraded with the following sequence: PPC > TC> Tz in terms of their rates of oxidation. Quantum chemical calculation using the density function theory (DFT) method was combined with experimental results to describe the degradation sequence of TFs. Atom charge was calculated by DFT method and active sites of TFs were identified respectively. Analysis of intermediates by GC-MS and LC-(ESI)-MS/MS showed agreement with calculation results. In addition, the acute toxicity of TC and PPC treated solution significantly decreased after treatment by electrochemical oxidation

  18. Differences Among Commonly Sprayed Orchard Fungicides in Targeting the Beneficial Fungi Associated with Honey Bee Colony and Bee Bread Provisions (In Vitro)

    Our studies evaluated the effects of representative fungicides, boscalid and pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, and chlorothalonil, alone and in combination, on 12 fungi species isolated from bee bread. Chlorothalonil was fungicidal (slowed growth without killing) and was least effective on Aspergillus...

  19. In vitro sensitivity of Fusarium graminearum isolates to fungicides

    Aveline Avozani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Head blight of wheat is a disease of global importance. In Brazil, it can cause damage of up to 27%. As resistant cultivars are not available yet, short-term disease control relies on the use of fungicides. The first step to reach effective management is to identify potent fungicides. In vitro experiments were conducted to determine the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 for mycelial growth or conidial germination, according to the chemical group of fungicides, of five Fusarium graminearum isolates of different origins. The following demethylation inhibitor (DMI fungicides were tested: epoxiconazole, cyproconazole, metconazole, prochloraz, protioconazole and tebuconazole. In addition, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were included in the study, representing Quinone outside inhibitor fungicides (QoI, as well as a tubulin synthesis inhibitor, carbendazim and two ready mixtures, trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole or trifloxistrobin + prothioconazole. DMI's showed lower IC50 values compared to the QoI's. For the five tested isolates, in the overall mean, IC50 considering mycelial growth ranged for DMI's from 0.01 mg/L (metconazole, prochloraz and prothioconazole to 0.12 mg/L (cyproconazole and considering conidial germination for QoI's from 0.21 mg/L (azoxystrobin to 1.33 mg/L (trifloxystrobin. The IC50 for carbendazim was 0.07 mg/L. All tested isolates can be considered sensitive to the studied DMI's, although certain differences in sensitivity could be detected between the isolates originating from one same state.

  20. Radiotracer study of the fate and persistence of organic fungicides used as seed dressing on grain. Part of a coordinated programme of isotopic tracer aided studies of foreign chemical residues in food

    Raghu, K.

    1976-12-01

    Radiotracer-aided studies were made of the fate and persistence of Thiram, used as a seed dresser and Ziram used as a foliar spray and their effects on soil fertility and plant growth. Thiram applied as a seed dresser had no inhibitory effect on (a) seedling height and rhizosphere microflora of barley, (b) soil microflora, (c) nodulation of cowpea plants. The uptake of 35 S radioactivity at 20-day stage was 0.3% of the total applied as 35 S thiram. Thiram as such was not present in barley or maize plants at any of the growth stages up to grain formulation but was converted into DDC-glucoside, DDC-alamine, fungicide X and TTCA. The quantity of these decreased in barley and maize with time and were in negligible amounts at grain stage. The sulphur from thiram found its way into sulphur-containing metabolites like protein, amino acids, sulfolipids, etc. Ziram, a foliar spray fungicide was also converted into DDC-conjugates and the amounts of residue were negligible at harvest time both in rice and groundnut. Thiram degraded more rapidly in unsterilized soils than in sterilized soil, thus indicating biodegradation. The fungicide is more persistent in sandy than in laterite and alluvial soils. Microbial degradation of thiram was shown by comparing persistence of 35 S thiram in sterilized and unsterilized soils. A Pseudomonas sp. isolated from soil was capable of degrading thiram and ziram and DDC-aminobutyric acid was the major polar metabolite. The appearance of similar degradation products with these dialkyl dithiocarbamates indicated that they have some common metabolic pathway

  1. Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests

    Juliet D. Tang; Tina Ciaramitaro; Maria Tomaso-Peterson; Susan V. Diehl

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the toxicity of strobilurin fungicides against wood decay fungi in order to assess their potential to act as a co-biocide for copper-based wood protection. Two strobilurin fungicides, Heritage (50% azoxystrobin active ingredient) and Insignia (20% pyraclostrobin active ingredients), and copper sulfate pentahydrate were tested...

  2. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  4. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot.

  5. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub

    2011-01-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  6. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Lee, Young Jeun; Kim, Dong Sub

    2010-01-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Sixteen antifungal microbes were isolated and 4 antifungal activity enhanced mutants were induced by using radiation. P. lentimorbus WJ5a17 had 41% higher antifungal activity than the wild type. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified

  7. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-01

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot

  8. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Goswami, Arunava; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban; Devakumar, C.; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Subhramanyam, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    Elemental sulfur (S 0 ), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  9. Nanosulfur: A Potent Fungicide Against Food Pathogen, Aspergillus niger

    Choudhury, Samrat Roy; Nair, Kishore K.; Kumar, Rajesh; Gogoi, Robin; Srivastava, Chitra; Gopal, Madhuban; Subhramanyam, B. S.; devakumar, C.; Goswami, Arunava

    2010-10-01

    Elemental sulfur (S0), man's oldest eco-friendly fungicide for curing fungal infections in plants and animals, is registered in India as a non-systemic and contact fungicide. However due to its high volume requirement, Indian agrochemical industry and farmers could not effectively use this product till date. We hypothesize that intelligent nanoscience applications might increase the visibility of nanosulfur in Indian agriculture as a potent and eco-safe fungicide. Sulfur nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized bottom-up via a liquid synthesis method with average particle size in the range of 50-80 nm and the shapes of the NPs were spherical. A comparative study of elemental and nano-sulfur produced has been tested against facultative fungal food pathogen, Aspergillus niger. Results showed that nanosulfur is more efficacious than its elemental form.

  10. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  11. Effectiveness of Fungicide on Soybean Rust in the Southeastern United States: A Meta-Analysis

    Mary Delaney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust (SBR, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, has been of concern to soybean (Glycine max Merrill growers in the southern United States since its introduction in 2004. As this fungus develops, pustules become numerous on the underside of leaves, which then turn yellow and drop prematurely, resulting in fewer pods, and poorly developed seeds. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fungicide use in controlling SBR by conducting a meta-analysis of 61 published and unpublished trials across the southern United States from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed fungicide efficacy based on factors such as specific classes of fungicide, active ingredients, number of fungicide applications, target growth stage upon initial application, level of disease pressure, and year of the study. Fungicides significantly increased yield and 100-seed weight and decreased the severity of SBR. The means of SBR severity, yield, and 100-seed weight in fungicide-treated plants were 9% (95% confidence interval: 2%, 21%, 128% (121%, 135%, and 121% (116%, 128%, respectively, of those calculated in the control plants. By using meta-analysis to analyze fungicide efficacy across multiple field trials, we were able to determine that one application of a strobilurin fungicide when plants were either beginning pod development (R3 or developing seeds (R5 was the most cost-effective approach to controlling SBR and increasing 100-seed weight.

  12. Acute toxicity of Headline® fungicide to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi).

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2016-04-01

    Previous laboratory studies have suggested that pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide formulations are toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, it is unknown if all pyraclostrobin formulations have similar toxicity and if toxicity occurs in different amphibian species. We investigated the acute toxicity of two formulations, Headline(®) fungicide and Headline AMP(®) fungicide, to Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) based on a direct overspray scenario. In addition, we examined body residues of fungicide active ingredients in A. blanchardi following direct exposure to Headline AMP fungicide. Headline fungicide and Headline AMP fungicide had similar toxicity to A. blanchardi with calculated median lethal doses of 2.1 and 1.7 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively, which are similar to the suggested maximum label rate in North American corn (2.2 and 1.52 µg pyraclostrobin/cm(2), respectively). Tissue concentrations of pyraclostrobin were lower than predicted based on full uptake of a direct dose, and did not drop during the first 24 h after exposure. Headline fungicides at corn application rates are acutely toxic to cricket frogs, but acute toxicity in the field will depend on worst-case exposure.

  13. [Effect of five fungicides on growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis].

    Li, Peng-ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Xiu-teng; Zhou, Liane-yun; Shao, Ai-juan; Chen, Mei-lan

    2015-12-01

    In order to obtain the fungicides with minimal impact on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, the effect of five fungicides including polyoxins, jinggangmycins, thiophanate methylate, chlorothalonil and carbendazim on the growth of medicinal plant and efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis were studied. Pot cultured Glycyrrhiza uralensis was treated with different fungicides with the concentration that commonly used in the field. 60 d after treated with fungicides, infection rate, infection density, biomass indexes, photosyn- thetic index and the content of active component were measured. Experimental results showed that carbendazim had the strongest inhibition on mycorrhizal symbiosis effect. Carbendazim significantly inhibited the mycorrhizal infection rate, significantly suppressed the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. Polyoxins showed the lowest inhibiting affection. Polyoxins had no significant effect on mycorrhizal infection rate, the actual photosynthetic efficiency of G. uralensis and the most indicators of biomass. The other three fungicides also had an inhibitory effect on efficiency of mycorrhizal symbiosis, and the inhibition degrees were all between polyoxins's and carbendazim's. The author considered that fungicide's inhibition degree on mycorrhizal effect might be related with the species of fungicides, so the author suggested that the farmer should try to choose bio-fungicides like polyoxins.

  14. Control of sugar beet powdery mildew with strobilurin fungicides

    Karaoglanidis George S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae is a major foliar disease of sugar beet in areas with dry and relatively warm weather conditions throughout the world. In the present study, four fungicides belonging to the relatively new class of strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were evaluated in three different application doses (100, 150 and 200 mg a.i. ha–1 during 2003-2004 for the control of the disease. Among the four strobilurin fungicides tested trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were the most effective with control efficiency values higher than 94% compared to the control treatment even when applied at lower application dose of 100 mg a.i. ha–1. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a poor to modest activity against the disease even when applied at the highest application dose of 200 μg a.i. ha–1. Disease severity, in terms of AUDPC values was significantly correlated to decreased root yield, while no significant correlation existed among disease severity and sugar content of the roots or sucrose yield. In addition, the efficiency of tank mixtures of four strobilurin fungicides applied at 100 μg a.i. ha–1 with two sterol demethylation - inhibiting fungicides (DMIs, difenoconazole and cyproconazole applied at 62.5 and 25 mg a.i. ha–1, respectively, was evaluated. The mixtures of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to the single application of each mixture partner, while the tank mixtures of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to single application of difenoconazole or cyproconazole and similar control efficiency compared to the efficiency obtained by single application of the strobilurin fungicides.

  15. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

    Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at ...

  16. Degradation of the fungicide carbendazim in aqueous solutions with UV/TiO{sub 2} process: Optimization, kinetics and toxicity studies

    Saien, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saien@basu.ac.ir; Khezrianjoo, S. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    An attempt was made to investigate the potential of UV-photocatalytic process in the presence of TiO{sub 2} particles for the degradation of carbendazim (C{sub 9}H{sub 9}N{sub 3}O{sub 2}), a fungicide with a high worldwide consumption but considered as a 'priority hazard substance' by the Water Framework Directive of the European Commission (WFDEC). A circulating upflow photo-reactor was employed and the influence of catalyst concentration, pH and temperature were investigated. The results showed that degradation of this fungicide can be conducted in the both processes of only UV-irradiation and UV/TiO{sub 2}; however, the later provides much better results. Accordingly, a degradation of more than 90% of fungicide was achieved by applying the optimal operational conditions of 70 mg L{sup -1} of catalyst, natural pH of 6.73 and ambient temperature of 25 deg. C after 75 min irradiation. Under these mild conditions, the initial rate of degradation can be described well by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. Toxicological assessments on the obtained samples were also performed by measurement of the mycelium growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum fungus on PDA medium. The results indicate that the kinetics of degradation and toxicity are in reasonably good agreement mainly after 45 min of irradiation; confirming the effectiveness of photocatalytic process.

  17. Assessment of spent mushroom substrate as sorbent of fungicides: influence of sorbent and sorbate properties.

    Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a sorbent of fungicides was evaluated for its possible use in regulating pesticide mobility in the environment. The sorption studies involved four different SMS types in terms of nature and treatment and eight fungicides selected as representative compounds from different chemical groups. Nonlinear sorption isotherms were observed for all SMS-fungicide combinations. The highest sorption was obtained by composted SMS from Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A significant negative and positive correlation was obtained between the K(OC) sorption constants and the polarity index values of sorbents and the K(OW) of fungicides, respectively. The statistic revealed that more than 77% of the variability in the K(OW) could be explained considering these properties jointly. The other properties of both the sorbent (total carbon, dissolved organic carbon, or pH) and the sorbate (water solubility) were nonsignificant. The hysteresis values for cyprodinil (log K(OW)= 4) were for all the sorbents much higher (>3) than for other fungicides. This was consistent with the remaining sorption after desorption considered as an indicator of the sorption efficiency of SMS for fungicides. Changes in the absorption bands of fungicides sorbed by SMS observed by FTIR permitted establishing the interaction mechanism of fungicides with SMS. The findings of this work provide evidence for the potential capacity of SMS as a sorbent of fungicides and the low desorption observed especially for some fungicides, although they suggest that more stabilized or humified organic substrates should be produced to enhance their efficiency in environmental applications. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Profitability of fungicide use decisions among cocoa farmers in south ...

    A decision theoretic approach and regression method were used to analyze the data collected. The results indicated that (i) expected crop loss should be taken into account when deciding on the amount of fungicides to apply in the study area and (ii) the use rate recommended by CRIN could not be used in all situations – it ...

  19. Influence of fungicides on gas exchange of pecan foliage

    There are several fungicide chemistries used for disease control on pecan (Carya illinoinensis), but there is little or no knowledge of subtle short- or long-term side-effects of these chemistries on host physiological processes, including photosynthesis (Pn). This study quantifies the impact of se...

  20. field tolerance of selected varieties to and fungicide efficacy against ...

    ACSS

    and median temperatures of 28°C (Osiru et al.,. 2007), it has the potential ... this study was to evaluate a wide range of sweet ... following each fungicide application to reduce wash-off. ..... specific mode of action (Avenot and Michailides,. 2007 ...

  1. Chronic aquatic effect assessment for the fungicide azoxystrobin

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Belgers, J.D.M.; Zafar, M.I.; Matser, A.M.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Arts, G.H.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined ecological effects of a range of chronic exposure concentrations of the fungicide azoxystrobin in freshwater experimental systems (1270 L outdoor microcosms). Intended and environmentally relevant test concentrations of azoxystrobin were 0, 0.33, 1, 3.3, 10, 33 µg ai/L, kept at

  2. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  3. Suppression of hop looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by the fungicide pyraclostrobin.

    Woods, J L; Gent, D H

    2014-04-01

    The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.

  4. Evaluation of fungicides and biopesticides for the control of fusarium wilt of tomato

    Akhtar, T.; Iftikhar, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is highly destructive soil borne pathogen in tomato. Current study was carried out to evaluate commercially available fungicides and bio-fungicides in-vitro and in-vivo, for their efficacy against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. Firstly four fungicides were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Three promising fungicides, two biopesticides and Trichoderma harzianum were further applied both in greenhouse and field experiments. During in-vitro studies PDA amended with fungicides with different treatments at the rate 1% almost completely inhibited the growth of Fol with varying degree of success whereas Nativo being the most effective treatment with 98% reduction in growth as compared to control. Nativo significantly reduced the disease incidence (32.75 %) at concentration of 1%. While Poly-beta-hydroxyl-butyric-acid effectively promoted the tomato growth. Maximum reduction in disease (30.14 %) was expressed by Nativo followed by Teagro (25.06 %) under field conditions. Nativo was found to be the most effective fungicide for management of Fol both In vitro and In vivo. Further field evaluations of the fungicides are required. (author)

  5. Terrestrial exposure and effects of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide on amphibians.

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that a pyraclostrobin-containing fungicide (Headline(®) Fungicide--Headline(®) Fungicide and Headline AMP(®) Fungicide are registered trademarks of BASF) is toxic to amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations. However, these studies were performed in a laboratory setting of a worst-case direct exposure in clean media. Interception of spray by the crop canopy and ground cover used by animals for security cover will influence exposure. Thus, risk to amphibians is unclear in an environmentally realistic field environment. We tested exposure and toxicity of Headline AMP(®) Fungicide to amphibians in multiple agricultural habitat scenarios (e.g., within treated crop vs. grassy areas adjacent to crop) and at two rates during routine aerial application. Specifically, we placed Woodhouse's toads (Bufo woodhousii) and Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) in enclosures located within treated and untreated corn (VT stage, approximate height = 3 m), and in the potential drift area (adjacent to treated corn) during aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide at either 731 or 1052 ml/ha (70 and 100 % the maximum application rate in corn, respectively). Mean concentrations of pyraclostrobin measured at ground level were ≤19 % of nominal application rate in all areas. Overall, mean mortality of recovered individuals of both species was ≤15 %, and mortality within Headline AMP Fungicide-treated corn (where risk was anticipated to be highest) was <10 %. It is important to understand that application timing, interception by the crop canopy (which varies both within and between crop systems), and timing of amphibian presence in the crop field influences risk of exposure and effects; however, our results demonstrate that amphibians inhabiting VT stage corn during routine aerial application of Headline AMP Fungicide are at low risk for acute mortality, matching existing laboratory results from acute toxicity studies of

  6. Spread of Botrytis cinerea Strains with Multiple Fungicide Resistance in German Horticulture.

    Rupp, Sabrina; Weber, Roland W S; Rieger, Daniel; Detzel, Peter; Hahn, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a major plant pathogen, causing gray mold rot in a variety of cultures. Repeated fungicide applications are common but have resulted in the development of fungal populations with resistance to one or more fungicides. In this study, we have monitored fungicide resistance frequencies and the occurrence of multiple resistance in Botrytis isolates from raspberries, strawberries, grapes, stone fruits and ornamental flowers in Germany in 2010 to 2015. High frequencies of resistance to all classes of botryticides was common in all cultures, and isolates with multiple fungicide resistance represented a major part of the populations. A monitoring in a raspberry field over six seasons revealed a continuous increase in resistance frequencies and the emergence of multiresistant Botrytis strains. In a cherry orchard and a vineyard, evidence of the immigration of multiresistant strains from the outside was obtained. Inoculation experiments with fungicide-treated leaves in the laboratory and with strawberry plants cultivated in the greenhouse or outdoors revealed a nearly complete loss of fungicide efficacy against multiresistant strains. B. cinerea field strains carrying multiple resistance mutations against all classes of site-specific fungicides were found to show similar fitness as sensitive field strains under laboratory conditions, based on their vegetative growth, reproduction, stress resistance, virulence and competitiveness in mixed infection experiments. Our data indicate an alarming increase in the occurrence of multiresistance in B. cinerea populations from different cultures, which presents a major threat to the chemical control of gray mold.

  7. Population density of Beauveria bassiana in soil under the action of fungicides and native microbial populations

    Flávia Barbosa Soares

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether populations of naturally-occurring soil bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes influence the effect of fungicides on the survival and growth of Beauveria bassiana. The toxicity of methyl thiophanate, pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and copper oxychloride at the recommended doses was analyzed in culture medium and in soil inoculated with fungus at various time points after addition of fungicides. All fungicides completely inhibited the growth and sporulation of B. bassiana in the culture medium. The fungicides were less toxic in soil, emphasizing the action of the microbial populations, which interfered with the toxic effects of these products to the fungus. Actinomycetes had the greatest influence on the entomopathogen, inhibiting it or degrading the fungicides to contribute to the survival and growth of B. bassiana in soil. Native populations of fungi and bacteria had a smaller influence on the population density of B. bassiana and the action of fungicides towards entomopathogen. The toxic effect of the fungicides was greater when added to the soil one hour before or after inoculation than at 48h after inoculation.

  8. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Alejandra Aguilar-Barragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM without applications and Intensive management (IM more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  9. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  10. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L−1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L−1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  11. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  12. Leaching of two fungicides in spent mushroom substrate amended soil: Influence of amendment rate, fungicide ageing and flow condition.

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Sánchez-Martín, María J; Ordax, José M; Marín-Benito, Jesús M; Sonia Rodríguez-Cruz, M

    2017-04-15

    A study has been conducted on the leaching of two fungicides, tebuconazole and cymoxanil, in a soil amended with spent mushroom substrate (SMS), with an evaluation of how different factors influence this process. The objective was based on the potential use of SMS as a biosorbent for immobilizing pesticides in vulnerable soils, and the need to know how it could affect the subsequent transport of these retained compounds. Breakthrough curves (BTCs) for 14 C-fungicides, non-incubated and incubated over 30days, were obtained in columns packed with an unamended soil (S), and this soil amended with SMS at rates of 5% (S+SMS5) and 50% (S+SMS50) under saturated and saturated-unsaturated flows. The highest leaching of tebuconazole (>50% of the total 14 C added) was found in S when a saturated water flow was applied to the column, but the percentage of leached fungicide decreased when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied in both SMS-amended soils. Also a significant decrease in leaching was observed for tebuconazole after incubation in the column, especially in S+SMS50 when both flows were applied. Furthermore, cymoxanil leaching was complete in S and S+SMS when a saturated flow was applied, and maximum peak concentrations were reached at 1pore volume (PV), although BTCs showed peaks with lower concentrations in S+SMS. The amounts of cymoxanil retained only increased in S+SMS when a saturated-unsaturated flow was applied. A more relevant effect of SMS for reducing the leaching of fungicide was observed when cymoxanil was previously incubated in the column, although mineralization was enhanced in this case. These results are of interest for extending SMS application on the control of the leaching of fungicides with different physicochemical characteristics after different ageing times in the soil and water flow conditions applied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  14. Rainfall thresholds as support for timing fungicide applications in the control of potato late blight in Ecuador and Peru

    Kromann, Peter; Taipe, Arturo; Perez, Willmer G.

    2009-01-01

    Accumulated rainfall thresholds were studied in seven field experiments conducted in Ecuador and Peru for their value in timing applications of fungicide to control potato late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans. Fungicide regimes based on accumulated rainfall thresholds ranging from 10 to 70...

  15. Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram

    Osman, Awad G.; Sherif, Ashraf M.; Elhussein, Adil A.; Mohamed, Afrah T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD50 and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD50 values for these microorganisms were in 2–5 orders of magnitude lower in...

  16. Effects of two commonly used fungicides on the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis.

    Vu, Hung T; Keough, Michael J; Long, Sara M; Pettigrove, Vincent J

    2017-03-01

    Fungicides are used widely in agriculture and have been detected in adjacent rivers and wetlands. However, relatively little is known about the potential effects of fungicides on aquatic organisms. The present study investigated the effects of 2 commonly used fungicides, the boscalid fungicide Filan ® and the myclobutanil fungicide Systhane ™ 400 WP, on life history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction) and energy reserves (lipid, protein, and glycogen content) of the amphipod Austrochiltonia subtenuis under laboratory conditions, at concentrations detected in aquatic environments. Amphipods were exposed to 3 concentrations of Filan (1 μg active ingredient [a.i.]/L, 10 μg a.i./L, and 40 μg a.i./L) and Systhane (0.3 μg a.i./L, 3 μg a.i./L, and 30 μg a.i./L) over 56 d. Both fungicides had similar effects on the amphipod at the organism level. Reproduction was the most sensitive endpoint, with offspring produced in controls but none produced in any of the fungicide treatments, and total numbers of gravid females in all fungicide treatments were reduced by up to 95%. Female amphipods were more sensitive than males in terms of growth. Systhane had significant effects on survival at all concentrations, whereas significant effects of Filan on survival were observed only at 10 μg a.i./L and 40 μg a.i./L. The effects of fungicides on energy reserves of the female amphipod were different. Filan significantly reduced amphipod protein content, whereas Systhane significantly reduced the lipid content. The present study demonstrates wide-ranging effects of 2 common fungicides on an ecologically important species that has a key role in trophic transfer and nutrient recycling in aquatic environments. These results emphasize the importance of considering the long-term effects of fungicides in the risk assessment of aquatic ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:720-726. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Assessing the impact of fungicide enostroburin application on bacterial community in wheat phyllosphere.

    Gu, Likun; Bai, Zhihui; Jin, Bo; Hu, Qing; Wang, Huili; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongxun

    2010-01-01

    Fungicides have been used extensively for controlling fungal pathogens of plants. However, little is known regarding the effects that fungicides upon the indigenous bacterial communities within the plant phyllosphere. The aims of this study were to assess the impact of fungicide enostroburin upon bacterial communities in wheat phyllosphere. Culture-independent methodologies of 16S rDNA clone library and 16S rDNA directed polymerase chain reaction with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) were used for monitoring the change of bacterial community. The 16S rDNA clone library and PCR-DGGE analysis both confirmed the microbial community of wheat plant phyllosphere were predominantly of the gamma-Proteobacteria phyla. Results from PCR-DGGE analysis indicated a significant change in bacterial community structure within the phyllosphere following fungicide enostroburin application. Bands sequenced within control cultures were predominantly of Pseudomonas genus, but those bands sequenced in the treated samples were predominantly strains of Pantoea genus and Pseudomonas genus. Of interest was the appearance of two DGGE bands following fungicide treatment, one of which had sequence similarities (98%) to Pantoea sp. which might be a competitor of plant pathogens. This study revealed the wheat phyllosphere bacterial community composition and a shift in the bacterial community following fungicide enostroburin application.

  18. Effects of Fungicide Treatment on Free Amino Acid Concentration and Acrylamide-Forming Potential in Wheat.

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Powers, Stephen J; Halford, Nigel G

    2016-12-28

    Acrylamide forms from free asparagine and reducing sugars during frying, baking, roasting, or high-temperature processing, and cereal products are major contributors to dietary acrylamide intake. Free asparagine concentration is the determining factor for acrylamide-forming potential in cereals, and this study investigated the effect of fungicide application on free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain. Free amino acid concentrations were measured in flour from 47 varieties of wheat grown in a field trial in 2011-2012. The wheat had been supplied with nitrogen and sulfur and treated with growth regulators and fungicides. Acrylamide formation was measured after the flour had been heated at 180 °C for 20 min. Flour was also analyzed from 24 (of the 47) varieties grown in adjacent plots that were treated in identical fashion except that no fungicide was applied, resulting in visible infection by Septoria tritici, yellow rust, and brown rust. Free asparagine concentration in the fungicide-treated wheat ranged from 1.596 to 3.987 mmol kg -1 , with a significant (p fungicide treatment, the increases in acrylamide ranging from 2.7 to 370%. Free aspartic acid concentration also increased, whereas free glutamic acid concentration increased in some varieties but decreased in others, and free proline concentration decreased. The study showed disease control by fungicide application to be an important crop management measure for mitigating the problem of acrylamide formation in wheat products.

  19. In vitro colonial inhibition of an isolate from Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds to fungicide treatments

    Dagoberto Guillén Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of Colletotrichum acutatum antracnosis to seven fungicides. It began with an isolate preserved in the ceparium of the Phytopathology Laboratory of the High School Studies of Xalostoc, Morelos. A completely randomized design was used to evaluate the fungicides benomyl, diphenoconazole, azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, copper oxychloride, fluoxastrobin and captan, at high, medium and low doses, for a total of 22 treatments with six repetitions. Sterile distilled water was applied to the control. The treatments were applied at a rate of 5 mL per plate, which contained PDA medium and a mycelial disc (Ø 5 mm. The inoculated plates were incubated at 24 °C, in 12 hour photoperiod. The colony diameter was measured every 24 hours and the percent inhibition was calculated. A bifactorial variance analysis was performed, according to Fungicide and Dose; and the differences between treatments were detected by the LSD test with 95 % confidence. The diameter of the colony and the percentage of inhibition did not show differences for dose levels, without significant effects for the interaction of both factors, fungicides, and dose. However, all doses of the different fungicides inhibited colony growth compared to the control. The benomyl, difenoconazol and captan fungicides were able to totally reduce the growth of the C. acutatum colony; followed by copper oxychloride, azoxystrobin, fluoxastrobin and trifloxystrobin in decreasing order. Only benomyl, difenoconazol, captan and copper oxychloride achieved more than 50 % inhibition.

  20. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  1. In vitro response of phaeoramularia angolensis to commonly used fungicides in Kenya

    Juma, I.M.; Siboe, M.

    1996-01-01

    The leaf and fruit spot disease of citrus spp. caused by the fungus Phaeoramularia angolensis Kirk is new and epidemic in Kenya, with a 100% crop yield loss. Poor response to fungicide application led to the suspicion that the fungus was resistant to conventional fungicides, hence the difficulties experienced in its control. Therefore the study was carried out to establish wether P.angolensis isolates from Western Kenya were screened for resistance. The following fungicides were used: copper fungicides(Cupric hydroxide 50% WP or kocide 101 and copper oxychloride 50% WP), Mancozeb 70% WP (Dithane M45)and Propineb 80% WPC (Antracol). Mancozeb 70% WP and Propineb were the most effective with LD-5-0 at 0.03 ppm and 0.25 ppm respectively. Copper fungicide LD-5-0 was above 3000 ppm (current manufacturers' recommended dosage is 7,500 ppm and 6,900 ppm for kocide 101 and copper oxychloride respectively). There was no obvious evidence of resistance. The fungi- static characteristics of copper fungicides and the application of wrong dosage and timing could be the reason for the difficulties experienced in the control of the disease. (author) 14 refs., 2 tables, 1 graph

  2. The effect of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on soil microbial communities, enzyme activities and plant growth.

    Baćmaga, Małgorzata; Wyszkowska, Jadwiga; Kucharski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Fungicides are considered to be effective crop protection chemicals in modern agriculture. However, they can also exert toxic effects on non-target organisms, including soil-dwelling microbes. Therefore, the environmental fate of fungicides has to be closely monitored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide on microbial diversity, enzyme activity and resistance, and plant growth. Samples of sandy loam with pH KCl 7.0 were collected for laboratory analyses on experimental days 30, 60 and 90. Falcon 460 EC was applied to soil in the following doses: control (soil without the fungicide), dose recommended by the manufacturer, 30-fold higher than the recommended dose, 150-fold higher than the recommended dose and 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. The observed differences in the values of the colony development index and the eco-physiological index indicate that the mixture of spiroxamine, tebuconazole and triadimenol modified the biological diversity of the analyzed groups of soil microorganisms. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and fungi of the genera Penicillium and Rhizopus were isolated from fungicide-contaminated soil. The tested fungicide inhibited the activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The greatest changes were induced by the highest fungicide dose 300-fold higher than the recommended dose. Dehydrogenases were most resistant to soil contamination. The Phytotoxkit test revealed that the analyzed fungicide inhibits seed germination capacity and root elongation. The results of this study indicate that excessive doses of the Falcon 460 EC fungicide 30-fold higher than the recommended dose to 300-fold higher than the recommended dose) can induce changes in the biological activity of soil. The analyzed microbiological and biochemical parameters are reliable indicators of the fungicide's toxic effects on soil quality.

  3. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Fungicide Efficacy in Peach Rusty Spot Control in Serbia

    Nenad Dolovac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry caused significant yield losses in Serbia.Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. However, because of specific environmental conditions in Serbia, recommended protection method using repeated fungicide treatments, starting from petal fall, did not prove to be efficient and the rate of infection in some susceptible peach cultivars reached 100%. In 2003 and 2004 a field trial was conducted in order to test the efficacy of fungicides (a.i. kresoxim-methyl, flusilazole and sulfur for the efficient control of Rusty Spot epidemics. The trial was carried out under conditions of natural infection on the peach cv. Summerset at the locality of Bela Crkva, Serbia. In the ntreated control plots,high disease incidence was recorded with the percentage of affected fruit surface ranging from 33.5% in the first, up to the 35.4% in the second year of the trail. Among fungicides included in the trial, kresoxim-methyl proved to be the most efficient (90.25% in the first and 91.12% in the second year of the trial, flusilazole exhibited lower efficacy (87.28% and 80.61%, respectively while sulfur was the least efficient 82.33% and 80.30%, respectively. Determination of the most efficient fungicide for the peach rusty spot control in Serbia provides basic nformation for further investigations which will include optimization of treatment terms, as well as additional agro-technical control measures.

  5. EFFICACY OF FUNGICIDES AGAINST CALONECTRIA PAUCIRAMOSA IN POT AZALEA.

    Heungens, K; Pauwels, E

    2015-01-01

    Calonectria (formerly Cylindrocladium) infection of pot azalea (Rhododendron simsii Planch) is an important disease problem in which usually one or two of the four plants per pot show progressing leaf and especially stem lesions, leading to mortality of the respective plant and rendering the pot unmarketable. This may occur in a later stage of the growing season, leading to significant commercial losses. The main objective of this study was to test a range of fungicides for their efficacy against this pathogen. To test the fungicides, a bioassay was first developed in which mycelium and conidiospores of the pathogen were produced on Potato Dextrose Agar, blended in water, and dilutions of the resulting suspension inoculated at the base of 11-week-old cuttings three weeks after they had been trimmed. Disease progression was monitored up to 7 weeks post inoculation and a disease index on a scale of 0 to 3 was established. In the actual efficacy trial, the following fungicides (with corresponding active ingredient(s)) were tested as preventive treatments: Topsin M 70 WG (thiophanate-methyl), Sporgon (prochloraz), Signum (boscalid+pyraclostrobin), Switch (cyprodinyl+fludioxonil), Flint 50WG (trifloxystrobin), Ortiva Top (azoxystrobin+difenoconazole) and Fungaflor (imazalil). Disease expression started after about 2 weeks, increased approximately 1 index level, and leveled off 5 weeks after inoculation. The best control was observed with Sporgon, Ortiva Top and Signum. Switch produced intermediate effects and insufficient control was observed with Topsin, Flint and Fungaflor. These results explain why specific standard fungicide treatments, such as those with Topsin, fail to control the disease, while they can be effective against a different Calonectria species such as C. pseudonaviculata, the cause of boxwood blight.

  6. Method for in vitro screening of aquatic fungicides

    Bailey, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    Methods were developed for in vitro screening of candidate aquatic fungicides for efficacy against Achlya fiagellata, A. racemosa, Saprolegnia hypogyna and S. megasperma. Agar plugs containing fungal hyphae, removed from the edge of actively growing colonies, were placed in the depressions of spot plates containing 1a??0, 10a??0 and 100 mg/I of the candidate compounds for 15 or 60 min. After exposure, the plugs were transferred on to filter papers (0a??45-A?m pore) in a holder, rinsed, and then placed on cornmeal agar medium in tri-petri dishes. The plates were checked for mycelial growth after 48, 96 and 168 h of incubation in a lighted (400-800 A?m) environmental control chamber at 20A?2A?C. Criteria for the acceptance or rejection of candidate aquatic fungicides for further study were based on the antifungal spectrum index (ASI) comparisons between respective compounds and malachite green after 48 h and the concentration level producing complete growth inhibition. Candidate compounds whose ASI was less than 50% that of malachite green after 48 h or did not inhibit growth at levels less than 100 mg/l were rejected. This method provides a base from which in vivo and definitive test regimens can be developed. Preliminary in vitro screening of candidate fungicides reduces the need for costly in vivo tests on compounds that have low antifungal activity.

  7. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  8. Effects of current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the feeding and survival of the key shredder Gammarus fossarum.

    Zubrod, J P; Baudy, P; Schulz, R; Bundschuh, M

    2014-05-01

    Fungicides are frequently applied in agriculture and are subsequently detected in surface waters in total concentrations of up to several tens of micrograms per liter. These concentrations imply potential effects on aquatic communities and fundamental ecosystem functions such as leaf litter breakdown. In this context, the present study investigates sublethal and lethal effects of organic (azoxystrobin, carbendazim, cyprodinil, quinoxyfen, and tebuconazole) and inorganic (three copper (Cu)-based substances and sulfur) current-use fungicides and their mixtures on the key leaf-shredding invertebrate Gammarus fossarum. The feeding activity of fungicide-exposed gammarids was quantified as sublethal endpoint using a static (organic fungicides; 7 d test duration) or a semi-static (inorganic fungicides; 6 d test duration with a water exchange after 3 d) approach (n=30). EC50-values of organic fungicides were generally observed at concentrations resulting in less than 20% mortality, with the exception of carbendazim. With regard to feeding, quinoxyfen was the most toxic organic fungicide, followed by cyprodinil, carbendazim, azoxystrobin, and tebuconazole. Although all tested organic fungicides have dissimilar (intended) modes of action, a mixture experiment revealed a synergistic effect on gammarids' feeding at high concentrations when using "independent action" as the reference model (∼35% deviation between predicted and observed effect). This may be explained by the presence of a synergizing azole fungicide (i.e. tebuconazole) in this mixture. Furthermore, lethal concentrations of all Cu-based fungicides assessed in this study were comparable amongst one another. However, they differed markedly in their effective concentrations when using feeding activity as the endpoint, with Cu-sulfate being most toxic, followed by Cu-hydroxide and Cu-octanoate. In contrast, sulfur neither affected survival nor the feeding activity of gammarids (up to ∼5 mg/L) but reduced Cu

  9. Effect of fungicides on Wyoming big sagebrush seed germination

    Robert D. Cox; Lance H. Kosberg; Nancy L. Shaw; Stuart P. Hardegree

    2011-01-01

    Germination tests of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young [Asteraceae]) seeds often exhibit fungal contamination, but the use of fungicides should be avoided because fungicides may artificially inhibit germination. We tested the effect of seed-applied fungicides on germination of Wyoming big sagebrush at 2 different...

  10. Interactive Role of Fungicides and Plant Growth Regulator (Trinexapac on Seed Yield and Oil Quality of Winter Rapeseed

    Muhammad Ijaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the role of growth regulator trinexapac and fungicides on growth, yield, and quality of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. The experiment was conducted simultaneously at different locations in Germany using two cultivars of rapeseed. Five different fungicides belonging to the triazole and strobilurin groups, as well as a growth regulator trinexapac, were tested in this study. A total of seven combinations of these fungicides and growth regulator trinexapac were applied at two growth stages of rapeseed. These two stages include green floral bud stage (BBCH 53 and the course of pod development stage (BBCH 65. The results showed that plant height and leaf area index were affected significantly by the application of fungicides. Treatments exhibited induced photosynthetic ability and delayed senescence, which improved the morphological characters and yield components of rape plants at both locations. Triazole, in combination with strobilurin, led to the highest seed yield over other treatments at both experimental locations. Significant effects of fungicides on unsaturated fatty acids of rapeseed oil were observed. Fungicides did not cause any apparent variation in the values of free fatty acids and peroxide of rapeseed oil. Results of our study demonstrate that judicious use of fungicides in rapeseed may help to achieve sustainable farming to obtain higher yield and better quality of rapeseed.

  11. Occurrence of boscalid and other selected fungicides in surface water and groundwater in three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Orlando, James L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    To provide an assessment of the occurrence of fungicides in water resources, the US Geological Survey used a newly developed analytical method to measure 33 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in water samples from streams, ponds, and shallow groundwater in areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters and 58% of the groundwater wells sampled. Twelve fungicides were detected including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid, a carboxamide fungicide registered for use in the US in 2003, was detected more frequently than atrazine and metolachlor, two herbicides that are typically the most frequently occurring pesticides in many large-scale water quality studies. Fungicide concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit to approximately 2000 ngL(-1). Currently, limited toxicological data for non-target species exists and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of including fungicides in pesticide monitoring programs, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Is Low Efficacy of Fungicides always a Consequence of Fungicide Resistance Development in Pathogen Populations?

    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of four fungicides with different modes of action (vinclozolin, pyrimethanil, benomyland fenhexamid in control of B. cinerea in raspberry, was investigated in the paper.The trials were conducted at two localities in commercial raspberry plantations. In the caseof unsatisfactory fungicide efficacy, qualitative and/or quantitative test of the susceptibilityof the isolates to particular fungicide was performed, to determine whether the low efficacyis a consequence of resistance development in the pathogen population. At both localities,pyrimethanil and fenhexamid demonstrated the highest efficacy (73.2-89.6%, whilethe efficacy of vinclozolin was statistically significantly lower (48.7-63.4% at both localities.However, qualitative and quantitative test of susceptibility to vinclozolin showed that all theisolates were susceptible to vinclozolin and that the reason for unsatisfactory efficacy shouldbe primarily sought in inadequate fungicide application

  13. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure

    Olivia M. Bernauer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens. Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems.

  14. Multiple resistance of Botrytis cinerea from kiwifruit to SDHIs, QoIs and fungicides of other chemical groups.

    Bardas, George A; Veloukas, Thomas; Koutita, Olga; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2010-09-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. is a high-risk pathogen for fungicide resistance development that has caused resistance problems on many crops throughout the world. This study investigated the fungicide sensitivity profile of isolates from kiwifruits originating from three Greek locations with different fungicide use histories. Sensitivity was measured by in vitro fungitoxicity tests on artificial nutrient media. Seventy-six single-spore isolates were tested for sensitivity to the SDHI fungicide boscalid, the QoI pyraclostrobin, the anilinopyrimidine cyprodinil, the hydroxyanilide fenhexamid, the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil, the dicarboxamide iprodione and the benzimidazole carbendazim. All isolates from Thessaloniki showed resistance to both boscalid and pyraclostrobin, while in the other two locations the fungal population was sensitive to these two fungicides. Sensitive isolates showed EC(50) values to boscalid and pyraclostrobin ranging from 0.9 to 5.2 and from 0.04 to 0.14 mg L(-1) respectively, while the resistant isolates showed EC(50) values higher than 50 mg L(-1) for boscalid and from 16 to > 50 mg L(-1) for pyraclostrobin. All QoI-resistant isolates carried the G143A mutation in cytb. Sensitivity determinations to the remaining fungicides revealed in total eight resistance phenotypes. No isolates were resistant to the fungicides fenhexamid and fludioxonil. This is the first report of B. cinerea field isolates with resistance to both boscalid and pyraclostrobin, and it strongly suggests that there may be a major problem in controlling this important pathogen on kiwifruit. (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice.

    Buckley, Jill; Willingham, Emily; Agras, Koray; Baskin, Laurence S

    2006-02-21

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels. We gave pregnant dams vinclozolin by oral gavage from gestational days 13 through 17. We assessed the fetal genital tubercles from exposed fetuses at E19 to determine location of the urethral opening. After determination of gonadal sex, either genital tubercles were harvested for mRNA quantitation, or urethras were injected with a plastic resin for casting. We analyzed quantified mRNA levels between treated and untreated animals for mRNA levels of estrogen receptors alpha and beta, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor using nonparametric tests or ANOVA. To determine effects on urethral length (males have long urethras compared to females), we measured the lengths of the casts and performed ANOVA analysis on these data. Our morphological results indicated that vinclozolin has morphological effects similar to those of MPA, feminizing males (hypospadias) and masculinizing females (longer urethras). Because these results reflected our MPA results, we investigated the effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the mRNA expression levels of androgen, estrogen alpha and beta, and progesterone receptors. At the molecular level, vinclozolin down-regulated estrogen receptor alpha mRNA in females and up-regulated progesterone receptor mRNA. Vinclozolin-exposed males exhibited up-regulated estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor mRNA, effects we have also seen with exposure to the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl estradiol. The results suggest that

  16. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

    Baskin Laurence S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels. Methods We gave pregnant dams vinclozolin by oral gavage from gestational days 13 through 17. We assessed the fetal genital tubercles from exposed fetuses at E19 to determine location of the urethral opening. After determination of gonadal sex, either genital tubercles were harvested for mRNA quantitation, or urethras were injected with a plastic resin for casting. We analyzed quantified mRNA levels between treated and untreated animals for mRNA levels of estrogen receptors α and β, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor using nonparametric tests or ANOVA. To determine effects on urethral length (males have long urethras compared to females, we measured the lengths of the casts and performed ANOVA analysis on these data. Results Our morphological results indicated that vinclozolin has morphological effects similar to those of MPA, feminizing males (hypospadias and masculinizing females (longer urethras. Because these results reflected our MPA results, we investigated the effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the mRNA expression levels of androgen, estrogen α and β, and progesterone receptors. At the molecular level, vinclozolin down-regulated estrogen receptor α mRNA in females and up-regulated progesterone receptor mRNA. Vinclozolin-exposed males exhibited up-regulated estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor mRNA, effects we have also seen with exposure to the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl

  17. Screening Phytophthora rubi for fungicide resistance

    Preliminary results from the survey for fungicide resistance in Phytophthora were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Phytophthora was isolated from diseased plants in 28 red raspberry fields and tested against mefenoxam, the active ingredient of Ridomil. Most isolates were ident...

  18. Insecticidal and fungicidal compounds from Isatis tinctoria.

    Seifert, K; Unger, W

    1994-01-01

    Tryptanthrin (1), indole-3-acetonitrile (2) and p-coumaric acid methylester (3) were isolated from the aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria L. The compounds show insecticidal and anti-feedant activity against termites (Reticulitermis santonensis), insect preventive and control activity against larvae of the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus) and fungicidal activity against the brown-rot fungus (Coniophora puteana).

  19. SYNTHESIS AND FUNGICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ACETYL ...

    a

    large varieties of new sulfur based crop protection chemicals in development around the world. [14, 15]. Methods ... sulfur fission viz, the resonance – stabilized benzyl (or isomeric tropylium) cation [19]. The elimination of ... two well – established fungicides so as to compare their activities with those of compounds 1(a. – d).

  20. Development of a novel multiplex DNA microarray for Fusarium graminearum and analysis of azole fungicide responses

    Deising Holger B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxigenic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum compromises wheat production worldwide. Azole fungicides play a prominent role in controlling this pathogen. Sequencing of its genome stimulated the development of high-throughput technologies to study mechanisms of coping with fungicide stress and adaptation to fungicides at a previously unprecedented precision. DNA-microarrays have been used to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns and uncovered complex transcriptional responses. A recently developed one-color multiplex array format allowed flexible, effective, and parallel examinations of eight RNA samples. Results We took advantage of the 8 × 15 k Agilent format to design, evaluate, and apply a novel microarray covering the whole F. graminearum genome to analyze transcriptional responses to azole fungicide treatment. Comparative statistical analysis of expression profiles uncovered 1058 genes that were significantly differentially expressed after azole-treatment. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 31 selected genes indicated high conformity to results from the microarray hybridization. Among the 596 genes with significantly increased transcript levels, analyses using GeneOntology and FunCat annotations detected the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway genes as the category most significantly responding, confirming the mode-of-action of azole fungicides. Cyp51A, which is one of the three F. graminearum paralogs of Cyp51 encoding the target of azoles, was the most consistently differentially expressed gene of the entire study. A molecular phylogeny analyzing the relationships of the three CYP51 proteins in the context of 38 fungal genomes belonging to the Pezizomycotina indicated that CYP51C (FGSG_11024 groups with a new clade of CYP51 proteins. The transcriptional profiles for genes encoding ABC transporters and transcription factors suggested several involved in mechanisms alleviating the impact of the fungicide

  1. Occurrence and Environmental Effects of Boscalid and Other Fungicides in Three Targeted Use Areas in the United States

    Reilly, T. J.; Smalling, K. L.; Wilson, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fungicides are typically used to control the outbreak of persistent, historically significant plant diseases like late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans and responsible for the Irish Potato famine of 1846) and newer plant diseases like Asian Soy Rust, both of which are potentially devastating if not controlled. Of the more than 67,000 pesticide products currently registered for use in the United States, over 3,600 are used to combat fungal diseases. Although they are widely used, relatively little is known about the fate and potential secondary effects of fungicides in the aquatic environment. Even less is known about the fate and environmental occurrence of recently registered fungicides including boscalid, which was first registered for use in the US in 2003. Unlike most other pesticides, multiple fungicides are typically applied as a prophylactic crop protectant upwards of ten times per season (depending upon conditions and crop type), but at lower application rates than herbicides or insecticides. This difference in usage increases the likelihood of chronic exposure of aquatic ecosystems to low concentrations of fungicides. Using a newly developed analytical method, the U.S. Geological Survey measured 33 fungicides in surface water and shallow groundwater in three geographic areas of intense fungicide use across the US. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of the crop type and their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters (n=60) and 58% of the groundwater (n=12) samples. Twelve fungicides were detected in surface- and groundwater including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid was the most frequently detected pesticide and has not been previously documented in the aquatic environment. In this study, an average of 44% of the pesticide concentration in a water sample

  2. Resistance of Botrytis cinerea to fungicides controlling gray mold on strawberry in Brazil

    Ueder Pedro Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to the fungicides currently used for its control in Brazil. Isolates of the fungus were collected from different strawberry-producing fields in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo, Brazil. First, a total of 183 isolates were identified at the species level using specific primers for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH gene. The isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA containing the fungicides procymidone, iprodione, and thiophanate-methyl in different concentrations: 0.0 (control, 0.1; 1.0; 10.0; 100.0 and 1,000.0 μg∙mL−1. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition was used to determine the effective concentration of the fungicide that was able to inhibit colony growth by 50% (EC50. Approximately 25.7% of the isolates were resistant to iprodione, 53.0% were resistant to procymidone, and 93.0% were resistant to thiophanate-methyl. Moreover, crossresistance and multiple resistance were verified, with 19.7% of the isolates showing resistance to 3 fungicides simultaneously. This finding explains the ineffectiveness of fungicides application to control gray mold in strawberry fields in Brazil and highlights the need for new strategies to manage this disease in the culture.

  3. Sensitivity of some nitrogen fixers and the target pest Fusarium oxysporum to fungicide thiram.

    Osman, Awad G; Sherif, Ashraf M; Elhussein, Adil A; Mohamed, Afrah T

    2012-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the toxic effects of the fungicide thiram (TMTD) against five nitrogen fixers and the thiram target pest Fusarium oxysporum under laboratory conditions. Nitrogen fixing bacteria Falvobacterium showed the highest values of LD(50) and proved to be the most resistant to the fungicide followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca was the most affected microorganism. LD(50) values for these microorganisms were in 2-5 orders of magnitude lower in comparison with LD(50) value for Fusarium oxysporum. Thiram was most toxic to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum. The lowest toxicity index was recorded for Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium. The slope of the curve for Azomonas, Fusarium oxysporum and Flavobacterium is more steep than that of the other curves, suggesting that even a slight increase of the dose of the fungicide can cause a very strong negative effect. Thiram was more selective to Pseudomonas aurentiaca followed by Azospirillum, Rhizobium meliloti and Azomonas. The lowest selectivity index of the fungicide was recorded for Falvobacterium followed by Fusarium oxysporum. The highest safety coefficient of the fungicide was assigned for Flavobacterium, while Pseudomonas aurentiaca showed the lowest value.

  4. Post-infection activities of fungicides against Cercospora arachidicola of peanut (Arachis hypogaea).

    Johnson, Robert C; Cantonwine, Emily G

    2014-08-01

    Despite strong indirect evidence of post-infection activity by a selection of systemic fungicides against Cercospora arachidicola, the causal organism of early leaf spot of peanut, direct post-infection activities in this pathosystem have yet to be reported in detail. This study was conducted to describe the activities of pyraclostrobin, penthiopyrad and prothioconazole on early leaf spot when each fungicide was applied after pathogen penetration began and throughout the incubation period. Most C. arachidicola penetration events occurred between 3 and 5 days after inoculation (dai), and the mean incubation period was 11.8 dai. Post-infection activities of the systemic fungicides were similar for all dependent variables measured. Systemic fungicides reduced lesion density compared with the non-treated control when applied at 3, 5 and 7 dai, and disease severity was >60% less for leaves treated with a systemic fungicide at all application dates (3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 dai). Pyraclostrobin, penthiopyrad and prothioconazole showed similar systemic mobility within peanut leaves and activities against C. arachidicola, and appear to completely arrest the development of the pathogen at least 2 days post penetration, and limit pathogen colonization even when applications occur after symptom onset. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the fate of current-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central California coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many current-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of current-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.

  6. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  7. Conversion of the fungicide, ziram in rice plants

    Kumarasamy, R.; Raghu, K.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (ziram) is a toliar fungicide used for the control of the blast disease of rice caused by Pyricularia oryzae, and is also used for the control of the plant diseases in crops like groundnut, cotton, etc. Since there is lack of data on the conversion products of this fungicide. This investigation was carried out. The results of the author's recent studies with 35 S-labelled ziram in rice seedlings were reported. The 35 S-Labelled ziram (specific activity 1.5 m Ci/m mole) was sprayed on the rice seedlings of 25 days old. At different intervals of time, the seedlings were removed, washed thoroughly, cut into pieces, and extracted with 80% ethanol. By the method described in ''K. Raghu et al., Origin and fate of chemical residents in food, agriculture and fisheries, I.A.E.A., Vienna, 1975, pp. 137-148,'' the segments corresponding to the standards of dimethyl dithio carbamate-alanine (DDCA), DDC-glucoside (DDCG), thiazolidine-2-thione-4-carbamic acid (TTCA), unidentified divolent fungicide (X), and ziram were cut out and the radioactivity was counted in cocktail D scintillation fluid using an LS-100 Beckmann liquid scintillation counter. It is indeed interesting to note that ziram is converted in plant tissues into dimethyldithiocarbamate derivatives like DDCG, DDCA, TTCA and X within 24 hr after spraying. The amounts of these derivatives varied in the course of sampling up to 8 days after spraying. Further studies are needed as to the quantitative nature of these products, but the present report clearly demonstrates the formation of these conversion products in the rice leaves treated with ziram. (Kobatake, H.)

  8. Phytotoxicity of the combination of some insecticides and fungicides on the ornamental species Petunia sp.

    Renata Bažok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of ornamental plants, it is often necessary to combine plant protection products (PPPs for simultaneous pest control. The use of a combination of PPPs often leads to phytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of the combination of fungicides (azoxystrobin and cyprodinil + fludioxonil and insecticides based on abamectin and thiomethoxam on the ornamental plant Petunia sp. The PPPs are used at recommended and double doses. Based on the damage, phytotoxicity indices were calculated. Petunia plants are sensitive even when PPPs are used in recommended doses. Combinations of the both insecticides with the combined fungicide based on cyprodinil and fludioxinil can be advised to protect petunias only if one applies the recommended doses. All combinations of insecticides with a fungicide based on azoxystrobin should not be applied because there is a serious risk of phytotoxicity.

  9. Simultaneous enantioselective determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Yao, Zhoulin; Li, Xiaoge; Miao, Yelong; Lin, Mei; Xu, Mingfei; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hu

    2015-11-01

    A novel, sensitive, and efficient enantioselective method for the determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil, was developed by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated, and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was redissolved by adding methanol up to a final volume of 1 mL. The analytes of six enantiomers were analyzed on Chiralpak IA-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm) using compressed liquid CO2-mixed 14 % co-solvents, comprising methanol/acetonitrile/isopropanol = 20/20/60 (v/v/v) in the mobile phase at 30 °C, and the total separation time was less than 4 min at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves. The overall mean recoveries for six enantiomers from vegetable oil were 90.1-97.3 %, with relative standard deviations of 0.8-5.4 % intra-day and 2.3-5.0 % inter-day at 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg levels. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for all enantiomers based on five replicate extractions at the lowest fortified level in vegetable oil. Moreover, the absolute configuration of six enantiomers had been determined based on comparisons of the vibrational circular dichroism experimental spectra with the theoretical curve obtained by density functional theory calculations. Application of the proposed method to the 40 authentic vegetable oil samples from local markets suggests its potential use in enantioselective determination of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers. Graphical Abstract Chemical structures and UPC(2)-MS/MS separation chromatograms of triadimefon and triadimenol.

  10. Rust Inhibitor And Fungicide For Cooling Systems

    Adams, James F.; Greer, D. Clay

    1988-01-01

    Mixture of benzotriazole, benzoic acid, and fungicide prevents growth of rust and fungus. Water-based cooling mixture made from readily available materials prevents formation of metallic oxides and growth of fungi in metallic pipes. Coolant remains clear and does not develop thick sludge tending to collect in low points in cooling systems with many commercial rust inhibitors. Coolant compatible with iron, copper, aluminum, and stainless steel. Cannot be used with cadmium or cadmium-plated pipes.

  11. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    , from which four substances such as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside, apigenin-7-glycoside and isochlorogenic acid have been identified. The dominant compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia maritima are α-thujone (41.59 % and camphor (23.56 %. Obviously, the fungicidal properties of plants are conditioned by the quantitative and qualitative content of biologically active substances – ethereal oils, fenolic compounds and other matters. The paper draws attention to the prospects of the further more detailed study of extracts of aromatic plants of the genus Artemisia with the aim of producing antibacterial and antifungal herbal preparations.

  12. Management of Anthracnose in Soybean using Fungicide

    Subash Subedi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on soybean (Glycine max L. Meril were carried out aiming to control anthracnose (pod blight caused by fungus, Colletotrichum truncatum with five treatments represented by different fungicidal sprays against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2012 to 2013. In 2012, the higher Percent Disease Control (PDC and Percent Yield Increase (PYI were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% followed by Mancozeb fungicides. The mean Pod Infection (PI was low in plots treated with SAAF followed by Mancozeb. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2013. The lower Percent Disease Index (PDI was 46.25% and mean PI was 29.67% with higher yield value of 2431.25 kg/ha obtained from the plots sprayed with SAAF then by Mancozeb. The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides, SAAF followed by Mancozeb were effective to control anthracnose or pod blight disease of soybean to increase the yield.

  13. Factors influencing the toxicity of Headline® fungicides to terrestrial stage toads.

    Cusaac, J Patrick W; Mimbs, William H; Belden, Jason B; Smith, Loren M; McMurry, Scott T

    2017-10-01

    Amphibians are susceptible to exposure from contaminants via multiple pathways. Pyraclostrobin fungicides have been shown to be toxic to terrestrial amphibians at environmentally relevant concentrations; however, these studies did not account for factors that may influence exposure and effects, such as fungicide formulation, age of the individual, exposure route, and physiological state of the individual. We examined Headline® and Headline AMP® fungicide toxicity to adult Anaxyrus cognatus and Anaxyrus woodhousii by direct overspray, as well as acute toxicity of Headline AMP to juvenile A. cognatus through direct overspray, previously exposed soils, and diet. We also assessed effects of hydration state on fungicide toxicity in juvenile A. cognatus and sublethal effects of fungicide exposure on prey-orientation ability of juvenile A. cognatus. Neither formulation of Headline caused mortality of adult A. cognatus and A. woodhousii at up to 5 times the maximum label rate in North American corn (1052 and 879 mL formulation/ha for Headline AMP and Headline fungicides, respectively, corresponding to 1.52 and 2.2 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). Exposures of juvenile A. cognatus to Headline AMP via direct overspray and previously exposed soils (2 types) resulted in median lethal rate (LR50) values of 2.4, 3.34, and 3.61 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively. Dietary Headline AMP exposure was not toxic, prey-orientations were not influenced by exposure, and effects were similar between dehydrated and hydrated treatments (LR50 = 2.4 and 2.3 μg pyraclostrobin/cm 2 , respectively). These results, combined with exposure concentrations reported in previous studies, suggest that risk of acute mortality for amphibians in terrestrial environments is low and is dictated by body size and site-specific factors influencing exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2679-2688. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Using Epidemiological Principles to Explain Fungicide Resistance Management Tactics: Why do Mixtures Outperform Alternations?

    Elderfield, James A D; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco J; van den Bosch, Frank; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2018-07-01

    Whether fungicide resistance management is optimized by spraying chemicals with different modes of action as a mixture (i.e., simultaneously) or in alternation (i.e., sequentially) has been studied by experimenters and modelers for decades. However, results have been inconclusive. We use previously parameterized and validated mathematical models of wheat Septoria leaf blotch and grapevine powdery mildew to test which tactic provides better resistance management, using the total yield before resistance causes disease control to become economically ineffective ("lifetime yield") to measure effectiveness. We focus on tactics involving the combination of a low-risk and a high-risk fungicide, and the case in which resistance to the high-risk chemical is complete (i.e., in which there is no partial resistance). Lifetime yield is then optimized by spraying as much low-risk fungicide as is permitted, combined with slightly more high-risk fungicide than needed for acceptable initial disease control, applying these fungicides as a mixture. That mixture rather than alternation gives better performance is invariant to model parameterization and structure, as well as the pathosystem in question. However, if comparison focuses on other metrics, e.g., lifetime yield at full label dose, either mixture or alternation can be optimal. Our work shows how epidemiological principles can explain the evolution of fungicide resistance, and also highlights a theoretical framework to address the question of whether mixture or alternation provides better resistance management. It also demonstrates that precisely how spray tactics are compared must be given careful consideration. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  15. Apyrase inhibitors enhance the ability of diverse fungicides to inhibit the growth of different plant-pathogenic fungi.

    Kumar Tripathy, Manas; Weeraratne, Gayani; Clark, Greg; Roux, Stanley J

    2017-09-01

    A previous study has demonstrated that the treatment of Arabidopsis plants with chemical inhibitors of apyrase enzymes increases their sensitivity to herbicides. In this study, we found that the addition of the same or related apyrase inhibitors could potentiate the ability of different fungicides to inhibit the growth of five different pathogenic fungi in plate growth assays. The growth of all five fungi was partially inhibited by three commonly used fungicides: copper octanoate, myclobutanil and propiconazole. However, when these fungicides were individually tested in combination with any one of four different apyrase inhibitors (AI.1, AI.10, AI.13 or AI.15), their potency to inhibit the growth of five fungal pathogens was increased significantly relative to their application alone. The apyrase inhibitors were most effective in potentiating the ability of copper octanoate to inhibit fungal growth, and least effective in combination with propiconazole. Among the five pathogens assayed, that most sensitive to the fungicide-potentiating effects of the inhibitors was Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Overall, among the 60 treatment combinations tested (five pathogens, four apyrase inhibitors, three fungicides), the addition of apyrase inhibitors increased significantly the sensitivity of fungi to the fungicide treatments in 53 of the combinations. Consistent with their predicted mode of action, inhibitors AI.1, AI.10 and AI.13 each increased the level of propiconazole retained in one of the fungi, suggesting that they could partially block the ability of efflux transporters to remove propiconazole from these fungi. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  16. Evaluating the combined efficacy of polymers with fungicides for protection of museum textiles against fungal deterioration in Egypt.

    Abdel-Kareem, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Fungal deterioration is one of the highest risk factors for damage of historical textile objects in Egypt. This paper represents both a study case about the fungal microflora deteriorating historical textiles in the Egyptian Museum and the Coptic museum in Cairo, and evaluation of the efficacy of several combinations of polymers with fungicides for the reinforcement of textiles and their prevention against fungal deterioration. Both cotton swab technique and biodeteriorated textile part technique were used for isolation of fungi from historical textile objects. The plate method with the manual key was used for identification of fungi. The results show that the most dominant fungi isolated from the tested textile samples belong to Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Penicillium and Trichoderma species. Microbiological testing was used for evaluating the usefulness of the suggested conservation materials (polymers combined with fungicides) in prevention of the fungal deterioration of ancient Egyptian textiles. Textile samples were treated with 4 selected polymers combined with two selected fungicides. Untreated and treated textile samples were deteriorated by 3 selected active fungal strains isolated from ancient Egyptian textiles. This study reports that most of the tested polymers combined with the tested fungicides prevented the fungal deterioration of textiles. Treatment of ancient textiles by suggested polymers combined with the suggested fungicides not only reinforces these textiles, but also prevents fungal deterioration and increases the durability of these textiles. The tested polymers without fungicides reduce the fungal deterioration of textiles but do not prevent it completely.

  17. Grape berry bacterial inhibition by different copper fungicides

    Martins Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper fungicides are widely used in viticulture. Due to its large spectrum of action, copper provides an efficient control over a great number of vine pathogens. Previous studies showed that, high levels of cupric residues can impact grape-berry microbiota, in terms of the size and population structure, reducing the diversity and the abundance. Due to the importance of grape-berry bacterial in crop health, and the potential impact of copper fungicides over the microbiota, we determined Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations for bacterial species isolated from grape berries. We study the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of different copper formulations (copper sulphate (CuSO4 pure, Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4 + Ca(OH2, copper oxide (Cu2O, copper hydroxide (Cu(OH2 over 92 bacterial strains isolated from grape berries in different stages of the ripening process. The results of MIC measurements revealed that the different copper formulations have a variable inhibitory effect and among the different isolates, some species are the most resistant to all copper formulations than others. This study confirm that usage of cupric phytosanitary products should be reasonable independently of the farming system; they also provide evidence of the importance of the choice of which copper formulations are to be used regarding their impact on the grape berry bacterial microbiota.

  18. Sorption-desorption characteristics of benzimidazole based fungicide 2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1h-benzimidazole on physicochemical properties of selected pakistani soils

    Ahmad, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    A batch equilibrium method has been utilized to investigate the sorption-desorption behavior of a versatile cost-effective fungicide2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-benzimidazole) FBNZ on four Pakistani soils geographically distant, from hilly to desert areas. FBNZ is a newly synthesized fungicide prepared in the laboratory and is cost effective than the commercially available fungicides. The adsorption and desorption data were fitted to the Freundlich equation, with values of na = 1, which points to a C-type isotherm. Sorption increases with soil organic carbon content, with greater degree of adsorption for hilly soil and least adsorption on sandy soil of Multan, Punjab. Desorption studies reveal that the adsorbed fungicide are firmly retained by soil particles and present a certain degree of irreversibility. The results indicate that the soil organic matters followed by clay content are the most important soil properties governing the fungicide sorption capacity. (author)

  19. Changes in antioxidants potential, secondary metabolites and plant hormones induced by different fungicides treatment in cotton plants.

    Mohamed, Heba Ibrahim; Akladious, Samia Ageeb

    2017-10-01

    The use of fungicides for an effective control of plant diseases has become crucial in the last decades in the agriculture system. Seeds of cotton plants were treated with systemic and contact fungicides to study the efficiency of seed dressing fungicides in controlling damping off caused by Rhizoctonia solani under greenhouse conditions and its effect on plant growth and metabolism. The results showed that Mon-cut showed the highest efficiency (67.99%) while each of Tondro and Hemixet showed the lowest efficiency (31.99%) in controlling damping off. Rhizolex T, Mon-cut and Tondro fungicides caused significant decrease in plant height, dry weight of plant, phytohormones, photosynthetic pigments, soluble sugars, soluble proteins, total free amino acids but caused significant increases in total phenols, flavonoids, antioxidant enzymes, ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, MDA and hydrogen peroxide as compared with untreated plants. On the other hand, the other fungicides (Maxim, Hemixet and Flosan) increased all the above recorded parameters as compared with untreated plants. Our results indicated that the fungicides application could be a potential tool to increase plant growth, the antioxidative defense mechanisms and decreased infection with plant diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Degradation of three fungicides following application on strawberry and a risk assessment of their toxicity under greenhouse conditions.

    Sun, Caixia; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xinquan; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xueping

    2015-05-01

    The health risk to humans of pesticide application on minor crops, such as strawberry, requires quantification. Here, the dissipation and residual levels of three fungicides (pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole) were studied for strawberry under greenhouse conditions using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry after Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe extraction. This method was validated using blank samples, with all mean recoveries of these three fungicides exceeding 80%. The residues of all three fungicides dissipated following first-order kinetics. The half-lives of pyraclostrobin, myclobutanil, and difenoconazole were 1.69, 3.30, and 3.65 days following one time application and 1.73, 5.78, and 6.30 days following two times applications, respectively. Fungicide residue was determined by comparing the estimated daily intake of the three fungicides against the acceptable daily intake. The results indicate that the potential health risk of the three fungicides was not significant in strawberry when following good agricultural practices (GAP) under greenhouse conditions.

  1. Differences in sensitivity between earthworms and enchytraeids exposed to two commercial fungicides.

    Bart, Sylvain; Laurent, Céline; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mougin, Christian; Pelosi, Céline

    2017-06-01

    The use of pesticides in crop fields may have negative effects on soil Oligochaeta Annelida, i.e., earthworms and enchytraeids, and thus affect soil quality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two commercial fungicide formulations on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus in a natural soil. The fungicides were Cuprafor micro® (copper oxychloride), commonly used in organic farming, and Swing Gold® (epoxiconazole and dimoxystrobin), a synthetic fungicide widely used in conventional farming to protect cereal crops. Laboratory experiments were used to assess the survival, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. No lethal effect was observed following exposure to the copper fungicide for 14 days, even at 5000mgkg -1 of copper, i.e. 650 times the recommended dose (RD). However, a significant decrease in biomass was observed from 50mgkg -1 of copper (6.5 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and at 5000mgkg -1 of copper (650 times the RD) for E. albidus. These sublethal effects suggest that a longer period of exposure would probably have led to lethal effects. The EC50 avoidance for the copper fungicide was estimated to be 51.2mgkg -1 of copper (6.7 times the RD) for A. caliginosa, and 393mgkg -1 of copper (51 times the RD) for E. albidus. For the Swing Gold® fungicide, the estimated LC50 was 7.0 10 -3 mLkg -1 (6.3 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and 12.7 10 -3 mLkg -1 (11.0 times the RD) for E. albidus. No effect on biomass or avoidance was observed at sublethal concentrations of this synthetic fungicide. It was concluded that enchytraeids were less sensitive than earthworms to the two commercial fungicides in terms of mortality, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. Therefore we discuss the different strategies possibly used by the two Oligochaeta species to cope with the presence of the pesticides were discussed, along with the potential consequences on the soil functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  2. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Wanyika, Harrison, E-mail: hwanyika@gmail.com [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Kenya)

    2013-08-15

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  3. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol–gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil

  4. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram

  5. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    The present work aimed at the study of the effects of Artea, a systemic azole fungicide, on durum Wheat (Triticum durum L. cv. GTA dur). Seeds were grown in a medium containing respectively 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of Artea under controlled conditions. Roots of eight-day-old plants were used to determine catalase, ...

  6. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  7. Adsorption, transformation, and bioavailability of the fungicides carbendazim and iprodione in soil, alone and in combination

    Leistra, M.; Matser, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    When studying the effect of mixtures of toxic substances on soil organisms, attention must be paid to peculiarities in exposure to mixtures as opposed to that of single toxicants. The fungicides carbendazim and iprodione compete in the adsorption to soil. The presence of iprodione reduced the

  8. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of false smut of rice caused ...

    Benomyl, Copper Oxychloride, Iprodione, Thiabendazole (TBZ) and Mancozeb were evaluated both in the laboratory and field study in 1994, for the control of false smut of rice caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Tak. in upland rice in Edo State, Nigeria. In the laboratory the fungicides were evaluated at three ...

  9. Effects of oral exposure to fungicides on honey bee nutrition and immunity

    Worker bees fed pollen containing fungicides (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) that are respiratory inhibitors had lower ATP concentrations in thoracic muscle tissue than those fed untreated pollen in both cage and colony studies. Midgut protease activity, used an indicator of consumption, was higher in...

  10. Assessing effects of the fungicide tebuconazole to heterotrophic microbes in aquatic microcosms

    Dimitrov, M.R.; Kosol, Sujitra; Smidt, H.; Brink, van den P.J.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Maltby, L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic ecological risk assessment of fungicides in Europe under Regulation 1107/2009/EC does not currently assess risk to non-target bacteria and fungi. Rather, regulatory acceptable concentrations based on ecotoxicological data obtained from studies with fish, invertebrates and primary producers

  11. Pathogenicity and fungicide sensitivity of the causal agent of ...

    The pathogenicity of the fungus and its cross-infection potential were determined on mango, avocado, papaya and banana fruits. The sensitivity of the pathogen to fungicides was determined by assessing radial mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar (PDA) amended with nine different fungicides (Bendazim, Funguran, ...

  12. Factors influencing activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea.

    Stehmann, C.; Waard, de M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea was investigated in vitro (radial growth on fungicide-amended agar) and in vivo (foliar-sprayed tomato plants and dip-treated grapes). In both tests the benzimidazoles, benomyl and thiabendazole, and the dicarboximides, iprodione and

  13. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  14. Phenotypical and Molecular Characterisation of Fusarium circinatum: Correlation with Virulence and Fungicide Sensitivity

    Martin Mullett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium circinatum, causing pine pitch canker, is one of the most damaging pathogens of Pinus species. This study investigated the use of phenotypical and molecular characteristics to delineate groups in a worldwide collection of isolates. The groups correlated with virulence and fungicide sensitivity, which were tested in a subset of isolates. Virulence tests of twenty isolates on P. radiata, P. sylvestris and P. pinaster demonstrated differences in host susceptibility, with P. radiata most susceptible and P. sylvestris least susceptible. Sensitivity to the fungicides fludioxonil and pyraclostrobin varied considerably between isolates from highly effective (half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 < 0.1 ppm to ineffective (EC50 > 100 ppm. This study demonstrates the potential use of simply acquired phenotypical (cultural, morphological and molecular metrics to gain a preliminary estimate of virulence and sensitivity to certain fungicides. It also highlights the necessity of including a range of isolates in fungicide tests and host susceptibility assays, particularly of relevance to tree breeding programmes.

  15. Meta-analysis of yield response of hybrid field corn to foliar fungicides in the U.S. Corn Belt.

    Paul, P A; Madden, L V; Bradley, C A; Robertson, A E; Munkvold, G P; Shaner, G; Wise, K A; Malvick, D K; Allen, T W; Grybauskas, A; Vincelli, P; Esker, P

    2011-09-01

    The use of foliar fungicides on field corn has increased greatly over the past 5 years in the United States in an attempt to increase yields, despite limited evidence that use of the fungicides is consistently profitable. To assess the value of using fungicides in grain corn production, random-effects meta-analyses were performed on results from foliar fungicide experiments conducted during 2002 to 2009 in 14 states across the United States to determine the mean yield response to the fungicides azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin. For all fungicides, the yield difference between treated and nontreated plots was highly variable among studies. All four fungicides resulted in a significant mean yield increase relative to the nontreated plots (P pyraclostrobin (256 kg/ha), and lowest for azoxystrobin (230 kg/ha). Baseline yield (mean yield in the nontreated plots) had a significant effect on yield for propiconazole + azoxystrobin (P pyraclostrobin, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, and propiconazole + azoxystrobin but not to azoxystrobin. Mean yield difference was generally higher in the lowest yield and higher disease severity categories than in the highest yield and lower disease categories. The probability of failing to recover the fungicide application cost (p(loss)) also was estimated for a range of grain corn prices and application costs. At the 10-year average corn grain price of $0.12/kg ($2.97/bushel) and application costs of $40 to 95/ha, p(loss) for disease severity pyraclostrobin, 0.62 to 0.93 for propiconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.58 to 0.89 for propiconazole + azoxystrobin, and 0.91 to 0.99 for azoxystrobin. When disease severity was >5%, the corresponding probabilities were 0.36 to 95, 0.25 to 0.69, 0.25 to 0.64, and 0.37 to 0.98 for the four fungicides. In conclusion, the high p(loss) values found in most scenarios suggest that the use of these foliar fungicides is unlikely to be profitable when

  16. Protective, curative and eradicative activities of fungicides against grapevine rust

    Francislene Angelotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective, eradicative and curative activities of the fungicides azoxystrobin, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin+metiram, and ciproconazole against grapevine rust, were determined in greenhouse. To evaluate the protective activity, leaves of potted ´Niagara´ (Vitis labrusca vines were artificially inoculated with an urediniospore suspension of Phakopsora euvitis four, eight or forteen days after fungicidal spray; and to evaluate the curative and eradicative activities, leaves were sprayed with fungicides two, four or eight days after inoculation. Disease severity was assessed 14 days after each inoculation. All tested fungicides present excellent preventive activity against grapevine rust; however, tebuconazole and ciproconazole provide better curative activity than azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin+metiram. It was observed also that all tested fungicides significantly reduced the germination of urediniospore produced on sprayed leaves.

  17. POMICS: A Simulation Disease Model for Timing Fungicide Applications in Management of Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits.

    Sapak, Z; Salam, M U; Minchinton, E J; MacManus, G P V; Joyce, D C; Galea, V J

    2017-09-01

    A weather-based simulation model, called Powdery Mildew of Cucurbits Simulation (POMICS), was constructed to predict fungicide application scheduling to manage powdery mildew of cucurbits. The model was developed on the principle that conditions favorable for Podosphaera xanthii, a causal pathogen of this crop disease, generate a number of infection cycles in a single growing season. The model consists of two components that (i) simulate the disease progression of P. xanthii in secondary infection cycles under natural conditions and (ii) predict the disease severity with application of fungicides at any recurrent disease cycles. The underlying environmental factors associated with P. xanthii infection were quantified from laboratory and field studies, and also gathered from literature. The performance of the POMICS model when validated with two datasets of uncontrolled natural infection was good (the mean difference between simulated and observed disease severity on a scale of 0 to 5 was 0.02 and 0.05). In simulations, POMICS was able to predict high- and low-risk disease alerts. Furthermore, the predicted disease severity was responsive to the number of fungicide applications. Such responsiveness indicates that the model has the potential to be used as a tool to guide the scheduling of judicious fungicide applications.

  18. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon.

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Hyun Ji; Kim, Hye Sun; Kwack, Yong-Bum; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  19. Analysis of Fungicide Sensitivity and Genetic Diversity among Colletotrichum Species in Sweet Persimmon

    Geun-Hye Gang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (C. gloeosporioides; Teleomorph: Glomerella cingulata, is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. However, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of C. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to different cultivation strategies were investigated. A total of 150 pathogen isolates were tested in fungicide sensitivity assays. Five of the tested fungicides suppressed mycelial pathogen growth effectively. However, there were significant differences in the sensitivities exhibited by the pathogen isolates examined. Interestingly, the isolates obtained from practical management orchards versus organic cultivation orchards showed no differences in sensitivity to the same fungicide. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analyses were performed to detect internal transcribed spacer regions and the β-tubulin and glutamine synthetase genes of the pathogens examined. Both the glutamine synthetase and β-tubulin genes contained a complex set of polymorphisms. Based on these results, the pathogens isolated from organic cultivation orchards were found to have more diversity than the isolates obtained from the practical management orchards.

  20. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of organosilicon fungicide flusilazole with sulfate and hydroxyl radicals.

    Mercado, D Fabio; Bracco, Larisa L B; Arques, Antonio; Gonzalez, Mónica C; Caregnato, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Flusilazole is an organosilane fungicide used for treatments in agriculture and horticulture for control of diseases. The reaction kinetics and mechanism of flusilazole with sulfate and hydroxyl radicals were studied. The rate constant of the radicals with the fungicide were determined by laser flash photolysis of peroxodisulfate and hydrogen peroxide. The results were 2.0 × 10 9 s -1 M -1 for the reaction of the fungicide with HO and 4.6 × 10 8  s -1  M -1 for the same reaction with SO 4 - radicals. The absorption spectra of organic intermediates detected by laser flash photolysis of S 2 O 8 2- with flusilazole, were identified as α-aminoalkyl and siloxyl radicals and agree very well with those estimated employing the time-dependent density functional theory with explicit account for bulk solvent effects. In the continuous photolysis experiments, performed by photo-Fenton reaction of the fungicide, the main degradation products were: (bis(4-fluorophenyl)-hydroxy-methylsilane) and the non-toxic silicic acid, diethyl bis(trimethylsilyl) ester, in ten and twenty minutes of reaction, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. 

  2. Fungicides efficiency on wheat diseases control in response to the application with different spray nozzles

    Felipe Rafael Garcés Fiallos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of fungicides to leaf control diseases of wheat, when applied to different models of spray nozzles. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replicates of factorial (4 x 3+1. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The fungicides used were: Opera® (pyraclostrobin+epoxiconazole 0.75 L.ha-1 , Opera® 0.75 L.ha-1 +Folicur® (tebuconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® (azoxystrobin+cyproconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 , Priori Xtra® 0.3 L.ha-1 +Tilt® (propiconazole 0.3 L.ha-1 . These fungicides were applied with three models of spray nozzles jet planes: XR 11 001 (fine drop, AIRMIX 11,001 (average drop and AVI 11,001 (coarse drop. We evaluated the incidence and severity (damage per plant leaf of yellow spot (Drechslera tritici-repentis, spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana, leaf rust (Puccinia triticina and grain yield (kg.ha-1 culture. The results show that the application of fungicides for control of leaf diseases in wheat resulted in increases in grain yield, and yield higher values were observed with the application of Opera®, using the XR 11001.

  3. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each......) were examined in the Hershberger assay. In the second study, pregnant Wistar rats were dosed with propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole or ketoconazole (50 mg/kg/day each) from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD 21. Caesarian sections were performed on dams at GD 21. Tebuconazole and propiconazole...... demonstrated no antiandrogenic effects at doses between 50 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day in the Hershberger assay. In the in utero exposure toxicity study, ketoconazole, a pharmaceutical to treat human fungal infections, decreased anogenital distance and reduced testicular testosterone levels, demonstrating...

  4. Thrombin-induced rabbit platelet microbicidal protein is fungicidal in vitro.

    Yeaman, M R; Ibrahim, A S; Edwards, J E; Bayer, A S; Ghannoum, M A

    1993-03-01

    Platelet microbicidal protein (PMP) is released from platelets in response to thrombin stimulation. PMP is known to possess in vitro bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and viridans group streptococci. To determine whether PMP is active against other intravascular pathogens, we evaluated its potential fungicidal activity against strains of Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans. Anionic resin adsorption and gel electrophoresis confirmed that the fungicidal activity of PMP resided in a small (approximately 8.5-kDa), cationic protein, identical to previous studies of PMP-induced bacterial killing (M.R. Yeaman, S.M. Puentes, D.C. Norman, and A.S. Bayer, Infect. Immun. 60:1202-1209, 1992). When assayed over a 180-min period in vitro, the susceptibilities of these fungi to PMP varied considerably. Generally, Candida albicans strains (mean survival, 33.5% +/- 6.9% [n = 6]) as well as isolates of Candida glabrata (mean survival, 50.8% +/- 2.9% [n = 2]) were the most susceptible to killing by PMP, while Candida guillermondii and Candida parapsilosis were relatively resistant to PMP-induced killing. Compared with C. albicans, C. neoformans was relatively resistant to the fungicidal activity of PMP, with a mean survival among the isolates studied of 77.4% +/- 12.4% (n = 6). Against C. albicans, PMP-induced fungicidal activity was time dependent (range, 0 to 180 min), PMP concentration dependent (range, 10 to 150 U/ml), and inversely related to the fungal inoculum (range, 5 x 10(3) to 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml). Scanning electron microscopy of PMP-exposed C. albicans and C. neoformans cells revealed extensive surface damage and collapse, suggesting that the site of PMP fungicidal action may directly or indirectly involve the fungal cell envelope.

  5. FUNGICIDES IN SECOND HARVEST CORN: CERCOSPORIOSE CONTROL AND BLOTCH, PRODUCTIVITY, ECONOMIC RETURN AND GRAIN QUALITY

    P. Rezende

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a eficiência de The aim of this study was evaluate efficacy fungicides to control cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis and helminthosporium leaf blight (Exserohilumturcicum, productivity, economic returns and quality of grain of corn culture of second crop in Farm Bandeirantes at Feliz Natal/MT. The treatments evaluated were: pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol (0,7 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+protioconazol (0,3L ha-1, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol(0,3 L ha-1, azoxystrobina (0,25 L ha-1, trifloxistrobina+ciproconazol (0,2 L ha-1 and control. Theapplicationof products occurred when corn was with 55 days, with a high propelled sprayer. The experimental design was a randomized block, with 6 treatments and 3 replications. The severity of each disease was visually determined through periodic analyses and ten plants were marked in each repetition, which were evaluated during the entire crop cycle. The data of severity obtained were used to calculate the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC. It was also obtained the production per ha, the economic return (R$ ha-1 and physiological quality of grain was evaluated by germination tests and accelerated aging of the grains. All treatments had significant difference compared to the control sample in controlling cercospora leaf spot about the control of helminthosporiumleat blight, the fungicides trifloxystrobin+prothioconazol and trifloxystrobin+cyproconazol were not efficient, and the fungicides pyraclostrobina+epoxiconazol, azoxystrobina, azoxistrobina+cyproconazol were efficient. The treatments that had major production are from the group of triazoles+strobilurine and the fungicide pyraclostrobin+epoxyconazol showed greater economic viability. Not were differences among fungicides, and neither of the treatments compared to control, in germination and accelerated aging tests, showing that the grains have good quality characteristics

  6. Design, synthesis, and fungicidal activities of imino diacid analogs of valine amide fungicides.

    Sun, Man; Yang, Hui-Hui; Tian, Lei; Li, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2015-12-15

    The novel imino diacid analogs of valine amides were synthesized via several steps, including the protection, amidation, deprotection, and amino alkylation of valine, with the resulting structures confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR and HRMS. Bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activity. Notably, isopropyl 2-((1-((1-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl)amino)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)propanoate 5i displayed significant levels of control, at 50%, against Erysiphe graminis at 3.9μM as well as a level of potency very similar to the reference azoxystrobin, which gave 60% activity at this concentration. The present work demonstrates that imino diacid analogs of valine amides could be potentially useful key compounds for the development of novel fungicides against wheat powdery mildew. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Action of mercury as a soil fungicide

    Booer, J R

    1951-01-01

    Metallic mercury and mercury compounds in the soil retard the growth of plants. The development of mosses and lichens is inhibited, and experimental evidence shows that the growth of toadstools on turf and the activity of ascomycetes is retarded by mercury. In vitro, mercury has no fungicidal action but the rate of growth of hyphae is reduced by mercury vapour. The lack of fungicial properties of mercury and its good performance in controlling certain soil-borne diseases are reconciled by assuming that a differential retardation disturbs the relationships necessary for infection. This assumption is supported by diagrams which treat the rates of growth of the parasite and the host as population characteristics normally distributed. 21 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Aggregative stability of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates

    Grishina, Anna; Korolev, Evgeniy

    2018-03-01

    Currently, there is a strong need of high performance multi functional materials in high-rise construction. Obviously, such materials should be characterized by high strength; but for interior rooms biosafety is important as well. The promising direction to obtain both high strength and maintain biosafety in buildings and structures is to manage the structure of mineral binders by means of fungicidal nanomodifier based on zinc hydrosilicates. In the present work the aggregative stability of colloidal solutions of zinc hydrosilicates after one year of storage was studied. It has been established that the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to prepare the precursor of zinc hydrosilicates has a significant effect on the long-term aggregative stability: as the concentration of iron (III) hydroxide increases, the resistance of the fungicidal nanomodifier increases. It was found that, despite the minimal concentration of nano-sized zinc hydrosilicates (0.028%), the colloidal solution possesses a low long-term aggregative stability; while in the initial period (not less than 14 days) the colloidal solution of the nanomodifier is aggregatively stable. It is shown that when the ratio in the colloidal solution of the amount of the substance CH3COOH / SiO2 = 0.43 is reached, an increase in the polymerization rate is observed, which is the main cause of low aggregative stability. Colloidal solutions containing zinc hydrosilicates synthesized at a concentration of iron (III) hydroxide used to produce a precursor equal to 0.7% have a long-term aggregative stability and do not significantly change the reduced particle. Such compositions are to be expediently used for the nanomodifying of building composites in order to control their structure formation and to create conditions that impede the development of various mycelial fungi.

  9. Enzymatic basis for fungicide removal by Elodea canadensis.

    Dosnon-Olette, Rachel; Schröder, Peter; Bartha, Bernadett; Aziz, Aziz; Couderchet, Michel; Eullaffroy, Philippe

    2011-07-01

    Plants can absorb a diversity of natural and man-made toxic compounds for which they have developed diverse detoxification mechanisms. Plants are able to metabolize and detoxify a wide array of xenobiotics by oxidation, sugar conjugation, glutathione conjugation, and more complex reactions. In this study, detoxification mechanisms of dimethomorph, a fungicide currently found in aquatic media were investigated in Elodea canadensis. Cytochrome P450 (P450) activity was measured by an oxygen biosensor system, glucosyltransferases (GTs) by HPLC, glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) were assayed spectrophotometrically. Incubation of Elodea with dimethomorph induced an increase of the P450 activity. GST activity was not stimulated by dimethomorph suggesting that GST does not participate in dimethomorph detoxification. In plants exposed to dimethomorph, comparable responses were observed for GST and APOX activities showing that the GST was more likely to play a role in response to oxidative stress. Preincubation with dimethomorph induced a high activity of O- and N-GT, it is therefore likely that both enzymes participate in the phase II (conjugation) of dimethomorph detoxification process. For the first time in aquatic plants, P450 activity was shown to be induced by a fungicide suggesting a role in the metabolization of dimethomorph. Moreover, our finding is the first evidence of dimethomorph and isoproturon activation of cytochrome P450 multienzyme family in an aquatic plant, i.e., Elodea (isoproturon was taken here as a reference molecule). The detoxification of dimetomorph seems to proceed via hydroxylation, and subsequent glucosylation, and might yield soluble as well as cell wall bound residues.

  10. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Freeborn, Danielle L.; McDaniel, Katherine L.; Moser, Virginia C.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED 30 or an ED 50 –ED 80 change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system

  11. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  12. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  13. Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology?

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Rossi, Federica; Bacchetta, Renato; Prati, Mariangela; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2011-06-01

    The use of nonmammal models in teratological studies is a matter of debate and seems to be justified if the embryotoxic mechanism involves conserved processes. Published data on mammals and Xenopus laevis suggest that azoles are teratogenic by altering the endogenous concentration of retinoic acid (RA). The expression of some genes (Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2) controlled by retinoic acid is downregulated in rat embryos exposed at the phylotypic stage to the triazole triadimefon (FON). In order to propose X. laevis as a model for gene-based comparative teratology, this work evaluates the expression of Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2 in FON-exposed X. laevis embryos. Embryos, exposed to a high concentration level (500 µM) of FON from stage 13 till 17, were examined at stages 17, 27, and 47. Stage 17 and 27 embryos were processed to perform quantitative RT-PCR. The developmental rate was never affected by FON at any considered stage. FON-exposed stage 47 larvae showed the typical craniofacial malformations. A significant downregulation of Gsc was observed in FON-exposed stage 17 embryos. Shh, Ptch-1, Msx2 showed a high fluctuation of expression both in control and in FON-exposed samples both at stages 17 and 27. The downregulation of Gsc mimics the effects of FON on rat embryos, showing for this gene a common effect of FON in the two vertebrate classes. The high fluctuation observed in the gene expression of the other genes, however, suggests that X. laevis at this stage has limited utility for gene-based comparative teratology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Coating with fungicide and different doses of fertilizer in vinhatico ...

    Lucas

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... The treatments were: seed coating with sand + lime + fungicide with different doses of .... The index was calculated based on the formula of Maguire (1962). ..... Ludwig EJ, Nunes UR, Mertz LM, Silva JR, Nunes SCP (2014).

  15. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  16. Biological activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea

    Stehmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., the causal agent of grey mould, is one of the most ubiquitous plant pathogens. The fungus is of high economic importance in various major crops and during transport and storage of agricultural products. Protectant fungicides such as chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, folpet or thiram are widely used for disease control. Since their introduction in the 1960S/1970s, systemic fungicides such as the benzimidazoles or dicarboximides have bee...

  17. Synthesis, herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal evaluation of 3-(dichlorophenyl)- isocoumarins and (±)-3-(dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins

    Qadeer, Ghulam; Rama, Nasim Hasan; Fan, Zhi-Jin; Liu, Bin; Liu, Xiu-Feng

    2007-01-01

    This is the first report showing that 3-(dichlorophenyl)isocoumarins and (±)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. 3-Dichlorophenylisocoumarins were synthesized by condensation of homophthalic acid with dichlorobenzoyl chlorides. The alkaline hydrolysis of these isocoumarins afforded keto acids. Racemic 3-(Dichlorophenyl)-3,4-dihydroisocoumarins were obtained by reduction of keto acids to racemic hydroxy acids, followed by cyclodehydration using acetic anhydride. The herbicidal, fungicidal and insecticidal activities of the synthesized compounds have been evaluated. Some of the synthesized compounds show excellent herbicidal and fungicidal activities but none of the synthesized compounds presented any insecticidal effects on the test insects. The findings of this study suggest that isocoumarins and related compounds may serve as lead compounds towards the design of bioactive herbicides and fungicides. (author)

  18. Identification of Multiple Cryptococcal Fungicidal Drug Targets by Combined Gene Dosing and Drug Affinity Responsive Target Stability Screening

    Yoon-Dong Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic fungus that is responsible for up to half a million cases of meningitis globally, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Common fungistatic drugs, such as fluconazole, are less toxic for patients but have low efficacy for initial therapy of the disease. Effective therapy against the disease is provided by the fungicidal drug amphotericin B; however, due to its high toxicity and the difficulty in administering its intravenous formulation, it is imperative to find new therapies targeting the fungus. The antiparasitic drug bithionol has been recently identified as having potent fungicidal activity. In this study, we used a combined gene dosing and drug affinity responsive target stability (GD-DARTS screen as well as protein modeling to identify a common drug binding site of bithionol within multiple NAD-dependent dehydrogenase drug targets. This combination genetic and proteomic method thus provides a powerful method for identifying novel fungicidal drug targets for further development.

  19. Interactions between crop biomass and development of foliar diseases in winter wheat and the potential to graduate the fungicide dose according to crop biomass

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    dose. The study was carried out investigating fungicide dose response controlling foliar diseases in winter wheat at three biomass densities obtained growing the crop at three nitrogen levels and using variable seed rates. Further the field experiments included three fungicide dose rates at each...... biomass level, an untreated control, and 75%, 50% and 33% of the recommended fungicide dose rate and the experiments were replicated for three years. Crop biomass had a significant influence on occurrence of septoria and yellow rust with greater disease severity at increasing crop biomass. In two of three...... years, the interaction of crop biomass and fungicide dose rate had a significant influence on disease severity indicating a biomassdependent dose response. The interaction occurred in the two years with high yield potential in combination with severe disease attack. If the variation in crop density...

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of fungicides applied to creeping bentgrass.

    Hockemeyer, Kurt R; Latin, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Turf managers often rely on fungicides to limit damage caused by root diseases. Because fungicides are applied to aboveground surfaces and do not move basipetally, they are effective against root pathogens only when fungitoxic concentrations migrate to the rhizosphere. This research focused on the distribution of modern fungicides in verdure, thatch, sand, and roots of creeping bentgrass [ L. var. (Huds.) Farw.] maintained as a putting green. The fungicides azoxystrobin (methyl (E)-2-[2-[6-(2-cyanophenoxy)pyrimidin-4-yloxy]phenyl]-3-methoxyacrylate), propiconazole (1,2,4-triazole, 1-((2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl), pyraclostrobin (carbamic acid, [2-[[[1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]oxy]methyl]phenyl]methoxy-,methyl ester), and thiophanate-methyl (dimethyl 4,'4-o-phenylenebis[3-thioallophanate]) were applied to replicate field plots in a water volume of 815 L ha. Plots were sampled at 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 d after application by extracting cores measuring 1.9 cm in diameter by 3.8 cm deep. Cores were separated into verdure/thatch, sand, and roots before quantitative determination (liquid chromatography, triple quadrupole mass spectrometry) of fungicide residues. Fungicide residues in verdure/thatch declined steadily with time and support previously reported results describing fungicide depletion. Fungicides were detected in roots and sand within 5 h of application at very low (1-15 mg kg) concentrations and remained at low levels throughout the sampling period. Fungicides differed with respect to amounts recovered per turfgrass component. Azoxystrobin and propiconazole were associated with roots for the duration of the experiment, but pyraclostrobin was nearly undetectable. Near-zero levels of all fungicides were detected in the sand component. Half-life values in the verdure/thatch component ranged from 2.3 to 18.9 d. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of

  1. Sensitivity of Septoria pyricola isolates to carbendazim, DMI and QoI based fungicides and to boscalid, in Greece

    Athanassios Christos PAPPAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of 36 Septoria pyricola single spore isolates, obtained from isolated pear orchards, to carbendazim, bitertanol, flusilazole, myclobutanil, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin and boscalid, was studied in vitro. Spore suspensions were point-inoculated on media amended with various concentrations of fungicides and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs of the fungicides was determined. Most isolates were highly resistant to carbendazim, forming colonies even at concentrations of 100 mg L-1 of the fungicide. A few isolates failed to form colonies with carbendazim concentrations of 0.1 and 10 mg L-1; these isolates were designated carbendazim-sensitive and moderately carbendazim-resistant respectively.The MIC of DMI fungicides was up to 1 mg L-1 with some isolates, and the mean MICs of bitertanol, flusilazole and myclobutanil were 0.133±0.036, 0.075±0.044 and 0.230±0.038 mg L-1 respectively. The MIC of the QoI fungicides was up to 0.1 mg L-1 with most isolates, but some isolates were 100-fold less sensitive to azoxystrobin. The mean MICs of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were 0.177±0.040, 0.075±0.035, 0.067±0.063, and 0.073±0.065 mg L-1 respectively. Overall, the MIC of boscalid was 1 mg L-1, and the mean MIC was 0.111±0.044 mg L-1. The ED50 values of representative isolates are also presented, as determined by colony formation with dispersed spore inoculation on a medium amended with fungicides. The results show that the benzimidazoles are ineffective against S. pyricola isolates in Greece and suggest that the future effectiveness of the DMIs is at risk.

  2. Enhanced ethanol production, volatile compound biosynthesis and fungicide removal during growth of a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain on enriched pasteurized grape musts

    Sarris, Dimitris; Kotseridis, Yorgos; Galiotou-Panayotou, Maria; Papanikolaou, Seraphim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Athens (Greece); Linga, Maria [Oinognosia, Wine analysis and consulting, Kiato (Greece)

    2009-02-15

    The kinetic behavior of a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, grown on pasteurized grape musts enriched with industrial sugars, was studied after the addition of various concentrations [0.0 (reference), 0.4 and 2.4 mg/L] of the fungicide quinoxyfen to the medium. Batch-flask cultures were carried out. Significant quantities of biomass (10.0{+-}0.8 g/L) were produced regardless of quinoxyfen addition to the medium; therefore, the addition of the fungicide did not seriously inhibit biomass production. Ethanol was synthesized in very high quantities in all trials (highest concentrations 106.4-119.2 g/L). A slight decrease of ethanol production in terms of both absolute value and conversion yield of ethanol produced per sugar consumed was, however, observed when the quinoxyfen concentration was increased. The addition of quinoxyfen led to significantly lower ethylic ester levels, which also pertains to the acetates analyzed in this study. Fusel alcohol synthesis seemed to be activated when 0.4 mg/L quinoxyfen was added, but at 2.4 mg/L of added fungicide, no statistically significant differences were observed compared with the control trial. Volatile acid levels did not present a uniform trend in relation with the added fungicide. Finally, the fermentation was accompanied by a significant reduction of the fungicide concentration (79-82 wt% fungicide removal). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primany producers and microbes

    Ronghua, Lin; Buijse-Bogdan, L.L.; Rocha Dimitrov, M.; Dohmen, P.; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, L.; Roessink, I.; Sinkeldam, J.A.; Smidt, H.; Wijngaarden, van, R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints we...

  4. Temporal analysis and fungicide management strategies to control mango anthracnose epidemics in Guerrero, Mexico

    Monteon Ojeda, Abraham; Mora Aguilera, José Antonio; Villegas Monter, Ángel; Nava Diaz, Cristian; Hernández Castro, Elías; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Hernández Morales, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The temporal progress of anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) epidemics was studied in mango (Mangifera indica) orchards treated with fungicides from different chemical groups, mode of action, and application sequences in two regions of contrasting climates (sub-humid and dry tropics) in Guerrero, Mexico. Full flowering, initial setting, and 8-15mm Ø fruits were identified as critical stages for infection. Epidemics started 20-26 days after swollen buds, and maximum severity was attai...

  5. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  6. Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz

    Laier, Peter; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Boberg, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) ...... acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  7. Contamination of apple orchard soils and fruit trees with copper-based fungicides: sampling aspects.

    Wang, Quanying; Liu, Jingshuang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Accumulations of copper in orchard soils and fruit trees due to the application of Cu-based fungicides have become research hotspots. However, information about the sampling strategies, which can affect the accuracy of the following research results, is lacking. This study aimed to determine some sampling considerations when Cu accumulations in the soils and fruit trees of apple orchards are studied. The study was conducted in three apple orchards from different sites. Each orchard included two different histories of Cu-based fungicides usage, varying from 3 to 28 years. Soil samples were collected from different locations varying with the distances from tree trunk to the canopy drip line. Fruits and leaves from the middle heights of tree canopy at two locations (outer canopy and inner canopy) were collected. The variation in total soil Cu concentrations between orchards was much greater than the variation within orchards. Total soil Cu concentrations had a tendency to increase with the increasing history of Cu-based fungicides usage. Moreover, total soil Cu concentrations had the lowest values at the canopy drip line, while the highest values were found at the half distances between the trunk and the canopy drip line. Additionally, Cu concentrations of leaves and fruits from the outer parts of the canopy were significantly higher than from the inner parts. Depending on the findings of this study, not only the between-orchard variation but also the within-orchard variation should be taken into consideration when conducting future soil and tree samplings in apple orchards.

  8. Evaluation of fungicidal and fungistatic activity of plant essential oils towards plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungi

    Zia BANIHASHEMI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available   The contact and vapor effects of essential oils from different plants were studied in vitro for fungicidal and fungistatic activity towards different Basidiomycete, Ascomycete, Zygomycete and Oomycete taxa. Of nine essential oils tested, most were fungicidal at very low concentrations to most of the fungi. Hyphae were more sensitive than spores to the formulations. The essential oils citral, β-citronellol, geraniol and oil of lavender, at 1 μL mL-1 medium or 12 μL L-1 of air, inhibited growth and germination in the fungal species examined. Different species of fungal genera reacted differently to the formulations. Some of the formulations were fungistatic to spore germination.

  9. Translocation and metabolism of the fungicide Metalaxyl in rangpur lime seedlings

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radioisotopos)

    1984-08-01

    The application of /sup 14/C-metalaxyl to leaves of two and six month-old Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb.) seedlings is studied. In a basal foliar application, 85% of the fungicide remained in the applied leaves, though translocation was verified to upper leaves, stems and roots. When metalaxyl was applied in upper leaves only traces of radiocarbon were detected in roots and stems. After 30 days in the two-and six-month old plants, 70% of the radiocarbon corresponded to the applied fungicide Metalaxyl was degraded in leave tissues to N-(2-methoxyacetil)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alanine and two others unidentified metabolites. Polar compounds were also detected. Only 1.5% of the radiocarbon was detected as bound residue, not extracted by the acetone extraction.

  10. Translocation and metabolism of the fungicide Metalaxyl in rangpur lime seedlings

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1984-01-01

    The application of 14 C-metalaxyl to leaves of two and six month-old Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia Osb.) seedlings is studied. In a basal foliar application, 85% of the fungicide remained in the applied leaves, though translocation was verified to upper leaves, stems and roots. When metalaxyl was applied in upper leaves only traces of radiocarbon were detected in roots and stems. After 30 days in the two-and six-month old plants, 70% of the radiocarbon corresponded to the applied fungicide Metalaxyl was degraded in leave tissues to N-(2-methoxyacetil)-N-(2,6-xylyl)-DL-alanine and two others unidentified metabolites. Polar compounds were also detected. Only 1.5% of the radiocarbon was detected as bound residue, not extracted by the acetone extraction. (Author) [pt

  11. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum. Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after treatments with pyraclostrobin alone. A combination of pyraclostrobin with streptomycin reduced disease by over 90% that of the control plants. The preventive control of the pyraclostrobin against bacterial spot was required application 1-3 days before pathogen inoculation. Our findings suggest that the fungicide pyraclostrobin can be used with a chemical pesticide to control bacterial leaf spot diseases in pepper.

  12. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types.

    Komárek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastný, Vladislav; Száková, Jirina; Kubová, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balík, Jirí

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO(4)+Ca(OH)(2)) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH)(2).CuCl(2)), and from Cu(NO(3))(2) in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH)(2), Cu(2)(OH)(3)NO(3), CuCO(3)/Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  13. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    Komarek, Michael, E-mail: komarek@af.czu.cz [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Vanek, Ales [Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Chrastny, Vladislav [Department of Applied Chemistry, University of South Bohemia, Studentska 13, 370 05, Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Drahota, Petr [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Mineral Resources, Charles University Prague, Albertov 6, 128 43, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Balik, Jiri [Department of Agro-Environmental Chemistry and Plant Nutrition, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, 165 21, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-30

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO{sub 4} + Ca(OH){sub 2}) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH){sub 2}.CuCl{sub 2}), and from Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH){sub 2}, Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}NO{sub 3}, CuCO{sub 3}/Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3} and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  14. Retention of copper originating from different fungicides in contrasting soil types

    Komarek, Michael; Vanek, Ales; Chrastny, Vladislav; Szakova, Jirina; Kubova, Karolina; Drahota, Petr; Balik, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    This work described the retention of Cu from two different commonly used pesticides, the Bordeaux mixture (CuSO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 ) and Cu-oxychloride (3Cu(OH) 2 .CuCl 2 ), and from Cu(NO 3 ) 2 in contrasting soil types (Leptosol, Chernozem, Cambisol). Thermodynamic modeling showed that Cu speciation was similar in all fungicide solutions. However, the retention of Cu differed with the fungicide used (maximum retention from the Bordeaux mixture) which indicates that different retention processes occurred in the studied soils. The suggested mechanisms include: specific and non-specific adsorption (especially on soil organic matter), precipitation of newly formed phases, such as CuO, Cu(OH) 2 , Cu 2 (OH) 3 NO 3 , CuCO 3 /Cu 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 and in the case of the Bordeaux mixture, precipitation of various Cu-hydroxysulfates. These phases were identified by the speciation model. The retention of fungicide-derived Cu in the studied soil types followed well the Freundlich isotherm and was directly controlled by the chemical form of Cu. This fact should be taken into account for both environmental and practical applications.

  15. Effect of Fungicide Applications on Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Growth and Yield

    Dan D. Fromme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in the upper Texas Gulf Coast and in central Louisiana during the 2013 through 2015 growing seasons to evaluate the effects of fungicides on grain sorghum growth and development when disease pressure was low or nonexistent. Azoxystrobin and flutriafol at 1.0 L/ha and pyraclostrobin at 0.78 L/ha were applied to the plants of two grain sorghum hybrids (DKS 54-00, DKS 53-67 at 25% bloom and compared with the nontreated check for leaf chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and plant lodging during the growing season as well as grain mold, test weight, yield, and nitrogen and protein content of the harvested grain. The application of a fungicide had no effect on any of the variables tested with grain sorghum hybrid responses noted. DKS 53-67 produced higher yield, greater test weight, higher percent protein, and N than DKS 54-00. Results of this study indicate that the application of a fungicide when little or no disease is present does not promote overall plant health or increase yield.

  16. Assessment of Total Risk on Non-Target Organisms in Fungicide Application for Agricultural Sustainability

    Ali Musa Bozdogan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, in 2010, the amount of pesticide (active ingredient; a.i. used in agriculture was about 23,000 metric tons, of which approximately 32% was fungicides. In 2012, 14 a.i. were used for fungus control in wheat cultivation areas in Adana province, Turkey. These a.i. were: azoxystrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, epoxiconazole, fluquinconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, prothioconazole, pyraclostrobin, spiroxamine, tebuconazole, thiophanate-methyl, triadimenol, and trifloxystrobin. In this study, the potential risk of a.i. on non-target organisms in fungicide application of wheat cultivation was assessed by The Pesticide Occupational and Environmental Risk (POCER indicators. In this study, the highest human health risk was for fluquinconazole (Exceedence Factor (EF 1.798 for human health, whereas the fungicide with the highest environmental risk was propiconazole (EF 2.000 for the environment. For non-target organisms, the highest potential risk was determined for propiconazole when applied at 0.1250 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 2.897. The lowest total risk was for azoxystrobin when applied at  0.0650 kg a.i. ha-1 (EF 0.625.

  17. Soybean (Glycine max L. Response to Fungicides in the Absence of Disease Pressure

    W. James Grichar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted during the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons along the Texas Upper Gulf Coast region to study the effects of fungicides on soybean disease development and to evaluate the response of four soybean cultivars to prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin and pyraclostrobin. In neither year did any soybean diseases develop enough to be an issue. Only NKS 51-T8 responded to a fungicide treatment in 2010 while HBK 5025 responded in 2011. Prothioconazole plus trifloxystrobin increased NKS 51-T8 yield by 23% in 2010 while in 2011 the yield of HBK 5025 was increased 14% over the unsprayed check. No yield response was noted with pyraclostrobin on any soybean cultivar. Only prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to either NKS 51-T8 or DP5335 in 2010 resulted in a net increase in dollars per hectare over the unsprayed check of the respective cultivar. In 2011, under extremely dry conditions, all fungicides with the exception of prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin applied to HBK 5025 resulted in a net decrease in returns over the unsprayed check.

  18. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  19. The presence of bromuconazole fungicide pollutant in organic waste anaerobic fermentation

    Hariyadi, H. R.

    2017-03-01

    The presence of bromuconazole fungicide pollutant in organic waste anaerobic fermentation was carried out as well as the influence phenol and benzoate, and biodegradation of bromuconazole. Bromuconazole is a fungicide effective against Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes and fungi imperfecti in cereals, grapes, top fruits and vegetables. It is also effective against Alternaria and Fusarium sp. The remaining fungicide in leaves might contaminates landfill. One month of organic waste added with bromuconazole was anaerobically incubated in 500 mL bottles at 30°C without shaking in dark room. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector and a 100 RP 185μm Lichrosphere column was used to determine bromuconazole concentration. Methane content was determined by Gas Chromatography (GC) method equipped with a flame ionization detector and a metal column packed with 5% neopentyl glycol sebacate and 1% H3PO4 on Chromosorb W-AW (mesh 80-100). After incubation for 225 days, bromuconazole of 200 mg/L inhibited the production of methane (99.5 mM) significantly, but did not inhibit the production of volatile fatty acids. The addition of 100 mg/L phenol or 146 mg/L benzoate increased the production of methane, 143 mM and 135.2 mM, respectively compared with control (121.8 mM). In anaerobic conditions, the presence of toxic pollutants such as fungicide bromuconazole in landfills sites may cause further problems with the accumulation of volatile fatty acids in leachate. Further study to determine the threshold, the presence of bromconazole in low concentration (less than 200 mg/L) on the methane production is recommended.

  20. Joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculants in the treatment of soybean seeds

    Yara Cristiane Buhl Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interference of the joint application of pesticides with seed inoculation on the survival of Bradyrhizobium has been reported in the last years. So, the objective of this study was to evaluate the joint use of fungicides, insecticides and inoculant in the treatment of soybean seeds on various parameters of Bradyrhizobium nodulation in soybean as well as on crop productivity parameters. The experiment was conducted during the 2013/2014 crop in the experimental field of the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso - Campo Novo do Parecis Campus. The seeds of TMG 133 RR variety were sown in pots. It was used a randomized block design in a 4 x 4 + 1 factorial, four fungicides (1: fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M, 2: carboxine + thiram, 3: difeconazole and 4: carbendazim + thiram, four insecticides (1: fipronil 250 SC, 2: thiamethoxam, 3: imidacloprid + thiodicarpe and 4: imodacloprid 600 FC and an inoculant (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080, common to all treatments, with three replications. The experiment was not repeated. The joint application of fungicide and insecticide with inoculant does not affect nodulation, foliar N content and vegetative growth of the plants as well as the masses of grains per plant and 100-grain mass. The use of the carbendazim + thiram mixed with fipronil and carbendazim + thiram mixed with imidacloprid provides less number of pods per plant and grains per plant, reflecting in reductions in the production of soybean grains. In this way, the fungicide carbendazim + thiram, regardless of the combined applied insecticide, is the most harmful to Bradyrhizobium spp.

  1. Toxicity evaluation of new agricultural fungicides in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Regueiro, Jorge; Olguín, Nair; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Suñol, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    Fungicides are crucial for food protection as well as for the production of crops of suitable quality and quantity to provide a viable economic return. Like other pesticides, fungicides are widely sprayed on agricultural land, especially in wine-growing areas, from where they can move-off after application. Furthermore, residues of these agrochemicals can remain on crops after harvest and even after some food processing operations, being a major exposure pathway. Although a relatively low toxicity has been claimed for this kind of compounds, information about their neurotoxicity is still scarce. In the present study, nine fungicides recently approved for agricultural uses in the EU - ametoctradin, boscalid, cyazofamid, dimethomorph, fenhexamid, kresoxim-methyl, mepanipyrim, metrafenone and pyraclostrobin - have been evaluated for their toxicity in primary cultured mouse cortical neurons. Exposure to 0.1-100µM for 7 days in vitro resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in the MTT cell viability assay. Strobilurin fungicides kresoxim-methyl (KR) and pyraclostrobin (PY) were the most neurotoxic compounds (lethal concentration 50 were in the low micromolar and nanomolar levels, respectively) causing a rapid raise in intracellular calcium [Ca(2+)]i and strong depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. KR- and PY-induced cell death was reversed by the calcium channels blockers MK-801 and verapamil, suggesting that calcium entry through NMDA receptors and voltage-operated calcium channels are involved in KR- and PY-induced neurotoxicity. These results highlight the need for further evaluation of their neurotoxic effects in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  3. Fungicide sensitivity of Trichoderma spp. from Agaricus bisporus farms in Serbia.

    Kosanović, Dejana; Potočnik, Ivana; Vukojević, Jelena; Stajić, Mirjana; Rekanović, Emil; Stepanović, Miloš; Todorović, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould disease, induce great losses in Agaricus bisporus farms. Fungicides are widely used to control mushroom diseases although green mould control is encumbered with difficulties. The aims of this study were, therefore, to research in vitro toxicity of several commercial fungicides to Trichoderma isolates originating from Serbian and Bosnia-Herzegovina farms, and to evaluate the effects of pH and light on their growth. The majority of isolates demonstrated optimal growth at pH 5.0, and the rest at pH 6.0. A few isolates also grew well at pH 7. The weakest mycelial growth was noted at pH 8.0-9.0. Generally, light had an inhibitory effect on the growth of tested isolates. The isolates showed the highest susceptibility to chlorothalonil and carbendazim (ED50 less than 1 mg L(-1)), and were less sensitive to iprodione (ED50 ranged 0.84-6.72 mg L(-1)), weakly resistant to thiophanate-methyl (ED50 = 3.75-24.13 mg L(-1)), and resistant to trifloxystrobin (ED50 = 10.25-178.23 mg L(-1)). Considering the toxicity of fungicides to A. bisporus, carbendazim showed the best selective toxicity (0.02), iprodione and chlorothalonil moderate (0.16), and thiophanate-methyl the lowest (1.24), while trifloxystrobin toxicity to A. bisporus was not tested because of its inefficiency against Trichoderma isolates.

  4. Effect of foliar fertilizer and fungicidal protection against leaf spot diseases on winter wheat

    Agnieszka Mączyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in the seasons 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 in Plant Protection Institute, Sooenicowice Branch to assess the influence of foliar fertilizers such as Ekolist PK 1, Ekolist Mg, Mikrosol Z and Urea on healthiness of winter wheat. Foliar fertilizers were mixed with fungicides. The fungicides were applied at full or half recommended doses. The effect of the disease on wheat leaves was evaluated three times in each vegetation season. Remaining green leaf area (GLA of leaves was also determined. GLA of the leaves F-1 was not significantly different for each combination with different fertilization and different levels of chemical treatment. The application of foliar fertilizer only had no effect on green leaf area (GLA. The results indicate that foliar fertilization of all experimental plots improved leaf condition and therefore halted the development of wheat leaf diseases. The increases of 1000 grain mass and yield was high for each plot where a fertilizer and a full or half dose of a fungicide was applied. Foliar fertilizing with no chemical control had no proven effect on studied parameters.

  5. Detachment of sprayed colloidal copper oxychloride-metalaxyl fungicides by a shallow water flow.

    Pose-Juan, Eva; Paradelo-Pérez, Marcos; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Simal-Gándara, Jesus; López-Periago, José E

    2009-06-01

    Flow shear stress induced by rainfall promotes the loss of the pesticides sprayed on crops. Some of the factors influencing the losses of colloidal-size particulate fungicides are quantified by using a rotating shear system model. With this device it was possible to analyse the flow shear influencing washoff of a commercial fungicide formulation based on a copper oxychloride-metalaxyl mixture that was sprayed on a polypropylene surface. A factor plan with four variables, i.e. water speed and volume (both variables determining flow boundary stress in the shear device), formulation dosage and drying temperature, was set up to monitor colloid detachment. This experimental design, together with sorption experiments of metalaxyl on copper oxychloride, and the study of the dynamics of metalaxyl and copper oxychloride washoff, made it possible to prove that metalaxyl washoff from a polypropylene surface is controlled by transport in solution, whereas that of copper oxychloride occurs by particle detachment and transport of particles. Average losses for metalaxyl and copper oxychloride were, respectively, 29 and 50% of the quantity applied at the usual recommended dosage for crops. The key factors affecting losses were flow shear and the applied dosage. Empirical models using these factors provided good estimates of the percentage of fungicide loss. From the factor analysis, the main mechanism for metalaxyl loss induced by a shallow water flow is solubilisation, whereas copper loss is controlled by erosion of copper oxychloride particles.

  6. Use of electroencephalography (EEG) to assess CNS changes produced by pesticides with different modes of action: Effects of permethrin, deltamethrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, carbaryl, and triadimefon

    Freeborn, Danielle L., E-mail: Freeborn.danielle@epa.gov; McDaniel, Katherine L., E-mail: McDaniel.kathy@epa.gov; Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov; Herr, David W., E-mail: Herr.david@epa.gov

    2015-01-15

    The electroencephalogram (EEG) is an apical measure, capable of detecting changes in brain neuronal activity produced by internal or external stimuli. We assessed whether pesticides with different modes of action produced different changes in the EEG of adult male Long–Evans rats. The EEG was recorded using two montages (visual cortex referenced to the cerebellum and to the frontal cortex) in unrestrained rats at the time of peak behavioral effects. Pesticides included: permethrin and deltamethrin (Type I and Type II pyrethroids; 2 h), fipronil (single and repeated doses; phenylpyrazole; 6 h), imidacloprid (neonicotinoid; 2 h), carbaryl (carbamate; 0.5 h), and triadimefon (triazole; 1 h), using dosages that produced approximately an ED{sub 30} or an ED{sub 50}–ED{sub 80} change in motor activity. Permethrin (43, 100 mg/kg) increased amplitudes or areas (delta, alpha, or gamma bands) in the EEG. Deltamethrin (2.5, 5.5 mg/kg) reduced the amplitudes or areas of the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands, but the changes were not dose-related. A single treatment with fipronil (25, 50 mg/kg, but not 5, 10 mg/kg) decreased gamma band area. Additional changes in the delta, theta, and gamma bands were observed when fipronil (5, 10 mg/kg) was administered for 14 days. Imidacloprid (50, 100 mg/kg) did not alter the EEG. Carbaryl (10, 50 mg/kg) decreased theta area, and decreased delta and increased beta frequency. Triadimefon (75, 150 mg/kg) produced minimal changes in the EEG. The results show that the EEG is affected differently by approximately equipotent doses of pesticides with different modes of action. - Highlights: • Pesticides with different modes of action have different effects on in vivo rodent EEG. • The EEG was also changed differently after single vs. repeated treatment with fipronil. • The data suggest that EEG may be used as an apical measure for detecting chemical effects on the central nervous system.

  7. Effect of cultural practices and fungicide treatments on the severity of Phytophthora root rot of blueberries grown in Mississippi

    Phytophthora root rot is an important disease of blueberries, especially those grown in areas with poor drainage. Reliable cultural and chemical management strategies are needed for control of this disease. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of cultural practices and fungicide treat...

  8. Preliminary Essay on the Effect of Foliar Treatment with the Fungicide Triadimenol on Barley Culture Infected by Scald

    Nasraoui, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the foliar treatment by the fungicide triadimenol against barley scald. Results have shown that two or three triadimenol treatments have practically stopped the infection evolution. The disease have slightly extended with only one treatment. Moreover, other assessment showed that one, two or three triadimenol treatments were significantly associated to the same increase in the yield.

  9. Fungicidal Effects of Plasma and Radio-Wave Pre-treatments on Seeds of Grain Crops and Legumes

    Filatova, Irina; Azharonok, Viktor; Shik, Alexander; Antoniuk, Alexandra; Terletskaya, Natalia

    An influence of RF plasma and RF electromagnetic field pre-treatments on level of fungal infection of some important agricultural plants has been studied. It is shown that pre-sowing plasma and radio-wave seeds treatments contribute to their germination enhancement and plant productivity improvement owing to stimulative and fungicidal effect of plasma and RF electromagnetic field irradiation.

  10. Investigations of fungicide exposure and pollen type on bee health: Insights from in vitro-reared solitary bees

    Although solitary bees provide crucial pollination services for wild and managed crops, this species-rich group has been largely overlooked in pesticide regulation studies. The risk of exposure to fungicide residues is likely to be especially high if the spray occurs on, or near host plants while th...

  11. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    dose. In spring barley the economically optimum input can vary from 0-2 treatments with a total fungicide use equivalent to 0.25 to 0.5 times the recommended dose. Applying reducing rates should never result in significant inferior control and economical yield losses. A recent review concluded......, the pathogen, disease pressure and timing of treatments. Certain diseases are known to require higher input (40- 75% rates) for achieving satisfactory control – this is the case for Septoria leaf blight, Rhynchosporium net blotch and Fusarium head blight, whereas most rust diseases generally have been found...... on well-established disease attack. Rates also have to be adjusted according to canopy structures. Early timing on a small canopy requires less fungicide than a full canopy around heading. The knowledge gathered concerning fungicide rates has led to great focus on the importance of optimizing timing...

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L.; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-α release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay

  13. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  14. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  15. The influence of fungicides on the growth of Trichoderma asperellum.

    De Schutter, B; Aerts, R; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    Numbers of strains of Trichoderma asperellum are known as biological control agents of certain root pathogens of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). The restricted use of fungicides is sometimes useful in combination with these biological control agents. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the growth of T. asperellum in the presence of fungicides as Previcur (active substance propamocarb) and Sumico (with the active substance carbendazim and diethofencarb). The influence of these fungicides was first examined in laboratory conditions. The fungus was brought on a potato dextrose agar where the fungicides Previcur, Sumico and carbendazim were added in a concentration of 0.1x, 1x and 10x the recommended dose. The growth of T. asperellum was totally inhibited by the three Sumico and carbendazim concentrations. T. asperellum knew a small but significant decrease of growth when the 10x dose of Previcur was added. Afterwards the influence of these fungicides on the fungus was tested in field conditions in the greenhouse. The fungus was applied to the roots of the tomato plant, which was grown on a rockwool medium. Previcur and Sumico were submitted to the plants using the normal procedure. The results of the tests showed that in field conditions there was no effect of the fungicide treatment on the presence of the fungus, although the laboratory tests showed the opposite for Sumico. To explain this contradiction two other experiments were conducted to follow the migration of the Sumico after treatment. A residue analysis showed that the highest concentration of Sumico was detected in the rockwool medium, and some residues were found in the drain water and the stems. Even with a 100x recommended dose of Sumico the fungus was still present the day after the treatment.

  16. Method validation for strobilurin fungicides in cereals and fruit

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit

    2001-01-01

    Strobilurins are a new class of fungicides that are active against a broad spectrum of fungi. In the present work a GC method for analysis of strobilurin fungicides was validated. The method was based on extraction with ethyl acetate/cyclohexane, clean-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC......) and determination of the content by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture (EC-), nitrogen/phosphorous (NP-), and mass spectrometric (MS-) detection. Three strobilurins, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were validated on three matrices, wheat, apple and grapes. The validation was based...

  17. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  18. Herbicidal and Fungicidal Activities of Lactones in Kava (Piper methysticum).

    Xuan, T D; Elzaawely, A A; Fukuta, M; Tawata, S

    2006-02-08

    This is the first report showing that kava lactones are plant and plant fungus growth inhibitors. Aqueous extract of kava roots showed high allelopathic potential and strongly suppressed germination and growth of lettuce, radish, barnyardgrass, and monochoria. Nine kava lactones were detected using GC-MS including desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, hydroxykavain, yagonin, 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxyyagonin, methysticin, dihydromethysticin, and 11-hydroxy-12-methoxydihydrokavain. Quantities of desmethoxyyagonin, kavain, 7,8-dihydrokavain, yagonin, methysticin, and dihydromethysticin detected were 4.3, 6.9, 18.6, 5.7, 1.4, and 5.4 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. These six major lactones in kava roots showed great herbicidal and antifungal activities. Growth of lettuce and barnyardgrass were significantly inhibited at 1-10 ppm, and four plant fungi including Colletotrichum gloeosporides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Trichoderma viride were significantly inhibited at 10-50 ppm. The biological activities of kava lactones were characterized by different double-bond linkage patterns in positions 5,6 and 7,8. The findings of this study suggest that kava lactones may be useful for the development of bioactive herbicides and fungicides.

  19. Hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish culture

    Dawson, V.K.; Rach, J.J.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    1994-01-01

    Antifungal agents are needed to maintain healthy stocks of fish in the intensive culture systems currently employed in fish hatcheries. Malachite green has been the most widely used antifungal agent; however, its potential for producing teratology in animals and fish precludes further use in fish culture. Preliminary studies at the National Fisheries Research Center, La Crosse, WI, USA (La Crosse Center) indicate that hydrogen peroxide is effective for control of Saprolegnia sp. fungus on incubating eggs of rainbow trout. It is also effective against a wide variety of other organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, viruses, and spores, and has been proposed as a treatment for sea lice on salmon. Hydrogen peroxide and its primary decomposition products, oxygen and water, are not systemic poisons and are considered environmentally compatible. In response to a petition from the La Crosse Center, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently classified hydrogen peroxide as a 'low regulatory priority' when used for control of fungus on fish and fish eggs. Preliminary tests conducted at the La Crosse Center suggest that prophylactic treatments of 250 to 500 ppm (based on 100% active ingredient) for 15 minutes every other day will inhibit fungal infections on healthy rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. This treatment regime also seems to inhibit fungal development and increase hatching success among infected eggs. Efficacy and safety of hydrogen peroxide as a fungicide for fish are currently being evaluated.

  20. Mode of action of the phenylpyrrole fungicide fenpiclonil in Fusarium sulphureum

    Jespers, A.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. Most modem fungicides were discovered by random synthesis and empirical optimization of lead structures. In general, these fungicides have specific modes of action and meet modem enviromnental

  1. Synthesis, Fungicidal Activity and Mode of Action of 4-Phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-aminopyrimidines against Botrytis cinerea

    Chunhui Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Anilinopyrimidines are the main chemical agents for management of Botrytis cinerea. However, the drug resistance in fungi against this kind of compounds is very serious. To explore new potential fungicides against B. cinerea, a series of 4-phenyl-6-trifluoromethyl-2-amino-pyrimidine compounds (compounds III-1 to III-22 were synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1H-NMR, IR and MS. Most of these compounds possessed excellent fungicidal activity. The compounds III-3 and III-13 showed higher fungicidal activity than the positive control pyrimethanil on fructose gelatin agar (FGA, and compound III-3 on potato dextrose agar (PDA indicated high activity compared to the positive control cyprodinil. In vivo greenhouse results indicated that the activity of compounds III-3, III-8, and III-11 was significantly higher than that of the fungicide pyrimethanil. Scanning electron micrography (SEM and transmission electron micrography (TEM were applied to illustrate the mechanism of title compounds against B. cinerea. The title compounds, especially those containing a fluorine atom at the ortho-position on the benzene ring, could maintain the antifungal activity against B. cinerea, but their mechanism of action is different from that of cyprodinil. The present study lays a good foundation for us to find more efficient reagents against B. cinerea.

  2. The benefits of combining elemental sulfur with a DMI fungicide to control Monilinia fructicola isolates resistant to propiconazole.

    Holb, Imre J; Schnabel, Guido

    2008-02-01

    Management of demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide resistance in Monilinia fructicola (G. Winter) Honey is a priority in peach orchards of the southeastern United States, but DMI fungicides are still an important component of antiresistance strategies in view of the few effective alternatives. The goal of this study was to investigate potential benefits of a sulfur/propiconazole mixture for the control of propiconazole-resistant isolates. The mixture provided the best control for propiconazole-resistant isolates, regardless of protective or curative application timings, or the presence or absence of fruit injury. Propiconazole-resistant isolates developed disease on detached fruit after protective or curative applications of propiconazole or its mixture with sulfur, but protective applications of the mixture significantly reduced (P = 0.05) disease symptoms compared with the individual compounds. Additive to slightly synergistic effects were observed for the mixture in protective treatments of peaches inoculated with propiconazole-resistant isolates. The results suggest that the addition of elemental sulfur to a DMI fungicide is likely to be a relatively inexpensive means to improve brown rot control in peach production areas where reduced sensitivity to DMI fungicides is suspected but has not led to noticeable control failure.

  3. A turn-on supramolecular fluorescent probe for sensing benzimidazole fungicides and its application in living cell imaging

    Tang, Qing; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Tao; Wang, Cheng-Hui; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Qingdi; Wei, Gang

    2018-02-01

    A cucurbit[8]uril-based turn-on supramolecular fluorescent probe between cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8]) and pyronine Y (PyY) (designated 2PyY@Q[8]) in acidic aqueous solution showed a remarkable fluorescence 'turn-on' response to benzimidazole fungicides such as thiabendazole, fuberidazole and carbendazim. The 2PyY@Q[8] fluorescent probe can be used to detect benzimidazole fungicides with high sensitivity and selectivity with a detection limit of 10- 8 mol/L. A good linear relationship of emission intensity at 580 nm for benzimidazole fungicides at concentrations of 0.4-5.0 μmol/L was observed. The proposed sensing mechanism was investigated using 1H NMR spectroscopy combined with density functional theory calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The cell imaging study showed that the 2PyY@Q[8] complex could be used to image benzimidazole fungicide in prostate cancer (PC3) cells, which may help to elucidate relevant biological processes at the molecular level.

  4. Metallothionein induction, antioxidative responses, glycogen and growth changes in Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaete) exposed to the fungicide, fenhexamid

    Mosleh, Yahia Y.; Paris-Palacios, Severine; Couderchet, Michel; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie; Vernet, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid (0.1, 1, and 10 mg L -1 ) on growth, oxidative stress, protein, glycogen, and metallothionein (MT) contents in Tubifex tubifex after an exposure of 2, 4, and 7 days. In addition, residues of the fungicide were followed in water and in the worms. In water, fenhexamid concentration decreased slowly (maximum - 2±0.03% after 2 days for 1 mg L -1 ). In the worms, it increased after 4 days and decreased thereafter, confirming that the worms were exposed to the fungicide and not to a degradation product. LC 50 values were between 95.22±5.36 and 32.11±1.8 mg L -1 depending on exposure time. Exposure to fenhexamid had a negative effect on T. tubifex growth (maximum effect -12.2±0.8% after 7 days with 10 mg L -1 ) demonstrating the toxic effect of the pesticide. This growth rate decrease was accompanied by a reduction in protein and glycogen contents. The activity of catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR) increased in response to the fungicide demonstrating an oxidative stress in the worms. In contrast glutathion-S-transferase activity (GST) decreased. Exposure to fenhexamid also induced synthesis of MT (maximum +78±8% after 2 days for 10 mg L -1 ). The specificity of MT concentration increase in response to metals is discussed. - Exposure to the fungicide fenhexamid increased metallothionein levels in Tubifex tubifex

  5. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Derek R Artz

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid, and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata, cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  6. Effects of Fungicide and Adjuvant Sprays on Nesting Behavior in Two Managed Solitary Bees, Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata.

    Artz, Derek R; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of empirical evidence showing that wild and managed bees are negatively impacted by various pesticides that are applied in agroecosystems around the world. The lethal and sublethal effects of two widely used fungicides and one adjuvant were assessed in cage studies in California on blue orchard bees, Osmia lignaria, and in cage studies in Utah on alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata. The fungicides tested were Rovral 4F (iprodione) and Pristine (mixture of pyraclostrobin + boscalid), and the adjuvant tested was N-90, a non-ionic wetting agent (90% polyethoxylated nonylphenol) added to certain tank mixtures of fungicides to improve the distribution and contact of sprays to plants. In separate trials, we erected screened cages and released 20 paint-marked females plus 30-50 males per cage to document the behavior of nesting bees under treated and control conditions. For all females in each cage, we recorded pollen-collecting trip times, nest substrate-collecting trip times (i.e., mud for O. lignaria and cut leaf pieces for M. rotundata), cell production rate, and the number of attempts each female made to enter her own or to enter other nest entrances upon returning from a foraging trip. No lethal effects of treatments were observed on adults, nor were there effects on time spent foraging for pollen and nest substrates and on cell production rate. However, Rovral 4F, Pristine, and N-90 disrupted the nest recognition abilities of O. lignaria females. Pristine, N-90, and Pristine + N-90 disrupted nest recognition ability of M. rotundata females. Electroantennogram responses of antennae of O. lignaria females maintained in the laboratory did not differ significantly between the fungicide-exposed and control bees. Our results provide the first empirical evidence that two commonly used fungicides and a non-ionic adjuvant can disrupt nest recognition in two managed solitary bee species.

  7. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10−6 M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. PMID:22289359

  8. Fungicide sensitivity in the wild rice pathogen Bipolaris oryzae

    In recent years the occurrence of fungal brown spot, caused by Bipolaris oryzae has increased in cultivated wild rice (Zizania palustris) paddies in spite of the use of fungicides. To implement an efficient integrated disease management system, we are exploring whether field isolates have developed ...

  9. Systemic fungicidal activity of 1,4-oxathiin derivatives.

    Schmeling, B V; Kulka, M

    1966-04-29

    Treatment of pinto bean and barley seed with 1,4-oxathiin derivatives gave disease control by systemic fungicidal action of such pathogenic fungi as Uromyces phaseoli and Ustilago nuda. The two chemicals, D735 and F461, were highly specific and selective against the pathogens without injury of the hosts.

  10. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    SERVER

    2007-06-04

    Jun 4, 2007 ... Botrytis cinerea (Besri and Diatta, 1985; Hmouni et al.,. 1996). It is very likely that the repetitive uses of these systemic fungicides and their persistence during long periods of conservation (Ben Arie, 1975; Prusky, 1985) have led to considerable selective pressure on both species. Moreover, the single site ...

  11. Biological activity of triazole fungicides towards Botrytis cinerea

    Stehmann, C.

    1995-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., the causal agent of grey mould, is one of the most ubiquitous plant pathogens. The fungus is of high economic importance in various major crops and during transport and storage of agricultural products. Protectant fungicides such as

  12. Feasible Management of Southern Corn Leaf Blight via Induction of Systemic Resistance by Bacillus cereus C1L in Combination with Reduced Use of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides

    Yi-Ru Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dithiocarbamate fungicides such as maneb and mancozeb are widely used nonsystemic protectant fungicides to control various plant fungal diseases. Dithiocarbamate fungicides should be frequently applied to achieve optimal efficacy of disease control and avoid either decline in effectiveness or wash-off from leaf surface. Dithiocarbamates are of low resistance risk but have the potential to cause human neurological diseases. The objective of this study was to develop a strategy to effectively control plant disease with reduced use of dithiocarbamtes. Southern corn leaf blight was the model pathosystem for the investigation. When corn plants were drench-treated with Bacillus cereus C1L, a rhizobacterium able to induce systemic resistance in corn plants against southern leaf blight, frequency of spraying dithiocarbamate fungicides could be decreased. The treatment of B. cereus C1L was able to protect maize from southern leaf blight while residues of dithiocarbamates on leaf surface were too low to provide sufficient protection. On the other hand, frequent sprays of mancozeb slightly but significantly reduced growth of corn plants under natural conditions. In contrast, application of B. cereus C1L can significantly promote growth of corn plants whether sprayed with mancozeb or not. Our results provide the information that plant disease can be well controlled by rhizobacteria-mediated induced systemic resistance in combination with reduced but appropriate application of dithiocarbamate fungicides just before a heavy infection period. An appropriate use of rhizobacteria can enhance plant growth and help plants overcome negative effects caused by dithiocarbamates.

  13. The influence of particle size and AgNO3 concentration in the ionic exchange process on the fungicidal action of antimicrobial glass

    Mendes, E.; Piletti, R.; Barichello, T.; Oliveira, C.M.; Kniess, C.T.; Angioletto, E.; Riella, H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial materials have long been used as an effective means of reducing the risks posed to humans by fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms. These materials are essential in environments where cleanliness, comfort and hygiene are the predominate concerns. This work presents preliminary results for the development of a fungicidal vitreous material that is produced by the incorporation of a silver ionic specimen through ionic exchange reactions. Silver ions were incorporated into powdered glass via ionic exchange in an ionic medium containing silver species with different concentrations of AgNO 3 . The fungicidal efficiency of the samples was studied as a function of the AgNO 3 concentration and the particle size of the glass using the agar diffusion test for the microbiological analysis of the fungus species Candida albicans. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results showed that the fungicidal effect was dependent on the AgNO 3 concentration in the ionic exchange medium but was not dependent on the particle size of the glass. - Highlights: ► The fungicidal powder glass presents high potential for application as polymeric additive and others application in the medical area. ► The fungicidal effect was dependent on AgNO3 concentration, but was not dependent on the particle size of the glass. ► The XRD results show that the ionic exchange process promotes the formation of silver crystalline phases with cubic cells.

  14. Evaluations of Insecticides and Fungicides for Reducing Attack Rates of a new invasive ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea Sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Infested Landscape Trees in California.

    Eatough Jones, Michele; Kabashima, John; Eskalen, Akif; Dimson, Monica; Mayorquin, Joey S; Carrillo, Joseph D; Hanlon, Christopher C; Paine, Timothy D

    2017-08-01

    A recently discovered ambrosia beetle with the proposed common name of polyphagous shot hole borer (Euwallacea sp., Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is reported to attack >200 host tree species in southern California, including many important native and urban landscape trees. This invasive beetle, along with its associated fungi, causes branch dieback and tree mortality in a large variety of tree species including sycamore (Platanus racemosa Nutt.). Due to the severity of the impact of this Euwallacea sp., short-term management tools must include chemical control options for the arboriculture industry and private landowners to protect trees. We examined the effectiveness of insecticides, fungicides, and insecticide-fungicide combinations for controlling continued Euwallacea sp. attacks on previously infested sycamore trees which were monitored for 6 mo after treatment. Pesticide combinations were generally more effective than single pesticide treatments. The combination of a systemic insecticide (emamectin benzoate), a contact insecticide (bifenthrin), and a fungicide (metconazole) provided some level of control when applied on moderate and heavily infested trees. The biological fungicide Bacillus subtilis provided short-term control. There was no difference in the performance of the three triazole fungicides (propiconazole, tebuconazole, and metconazole) included in this study. Although no pesticide combination provided substantial control over time, pesticide treatments may be more effective when trees are treated during early stages of attack by this ambrosia beetle. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Kojima, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kojima@iph.pref.hokkaido.jp [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Takeuchi, Shinji [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Matsuda, Tadashi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10{sup −6} M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. ► Five azole-type fungicides act as RORα/γ inverse agonists. ► These fungicides

  16. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10 −6 M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. ► Five azole-type fungicides act as RORα/γ inverse agonists. ► These fungicides suppress

  17. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose......Fungicide treatments are common control strategies used to manage fungal pathogens in agricultural fields, however, effects of treatments on the composition of total fungal communities, including non-target fungi, in the phyllosphere is not well known. Yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) is a common...

  18. Modeling ecotoxicity impacts in vineyard production: Addressing spatial differentiation for copper fungicides

    Peña, Nancy; Antón, Assumpció; Kamilaris, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Application of plant protection products (PPP) is a fundamental practice for viticulture. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has proved to be a useful tool to assess the environmental performance of agricultural production, where including toxicity-related impacts for PPP use is still associated...... with methodological limitations, especially for inorganic (i.e. metal-based) pesticides. Downy mildew is one of the most severe diseases for vineyard production. For disease control, copper-based fungicides are the most effective and used PPP in both conventional and organic viticulture. This study aims to improve...

  19. Sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi (soybean rust) isolates to fungicides and the reduction of fungal sporulation based on fungicide and timing of application

    Soybean rust is a damaging foliar fungal disease of soybean in many soybean-growing areas throughout the world. Strategies to manage soybean rust include the use of foliar fungicides. Fungicides types, the rate of product application, and the number and timing of applications are critical components...

  20. Effects of fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides on the fate of 14C-parathion and 14C-fonofos in soils and crops

    Lichtenstein, E.P.; Ferris, I.; Liang, T.T.; Koeppe, M.

    1983-01-01

    The fate of 14 C-parathion and 14 C-fonofos in soil is significantly affected by the presence of organic and inorganic fertilizers, fungicides and herbicides, possibly via the effect of soil microflora. Soil microorganisms are responsible for the oxidative as well as the reductive degradation of the insecticide. Using 14 carbon, the authors studied the effects of selected fungicides (benlate, captafol and manzate) herbicides (2,4-D parathion) and fertilizers ((NH 4 ) 6 SO 4 , KNO 3 , urea) on pesticides in Cromberry soils. Results of the study stress the importance of investigating the environmental fate of a particular pesticide in relation to the presence of the agricultural chemicals

  1. Non-target impact of fungicide tetraconazole on microbial communities in soils with different agricultural management.

    Sułowicz, Sławomir; Cycoń, Mariusz; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-08-01

    Effect of the fungicide tetraconazole on microbial community in silt loam soils from orchard with long history of triazole application and from grassland with no known history of fungicide usage was investigated. Triazole tetraconazole that had never been used on these soils before was applied at the field rate and at tenfold the FR. Response of microbial communities to tetraconazole was investigated during 28-day laboratory experiment by determination of changes in their biomass and structure (phospholipid fatty acids method-PLFA), activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis-FDA) as well as changes in genetic (DGGE) and functional (Biolog) diversity. Obtained results indicated that the response of soil microorganisms to tetraconazole depended on the management of the soils. DGGE patterns revealed that both dosages of fungicide affected the structure of bacterial community and the impact on genetic diversity and richness was more prominent in orchard soil. Values of stress indices-the saturated/monounsaturated PLFAs ratio and the cyclo/monounsaturated precursors ratio, were almost twice as high and the Gram-negative/Gram-positive ratio was significantly lower in the orchard soil compared with the grassland soil. Results of principal component analysis of PLFA and Biolog profiles revealed significant impact of tetraconazole in orchard soil on day 28, whereas changes in these profiles obtained for grassland soil were insignificant or transient. Obtained results indicated that orchards soil seems to be more vulnerable to tetraconazole application compared to grassland soil. History of pesticide application and agricultural management should be taken into account in assessing of environmental impact of studied pesticides.

  2. Effects of fungicides and biofungicides on population density and community structure of soil oribatid mites.

    Al-Assiuty, Abdel-Naieem I M; Khalil, Mohamed A; Ismail, Abdel-Wahab A; van Straalen, Nico M; Ageba, Mohamed F

    2014-01-01

    To compare the side-effects of chemical versus biofungicides on non-target organisms in agricultural soil, a study of population structure, spatial distribution and fecundity of oribatid mites, a diverse and species-rich group of microarthropods indicative of decomposer activity in soil was done. Plots laid out in agricultural fields of a research station in Egypt, were cultivated with cucumber and treated with two chemical fungicides: Ridomil Plus 50% wp (active ingredients=metalaxyl and copper oxychloride) and Dithane M-45 (active ingredient=mancozeb), and two biofungicides: Plant Guard (containing the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum) and Polyversum (containing the fungi-parasitic oomycete Pythium oligandrum). All treatments were done using both low-volume and high-volume spraying techniques to check whether any effects were dependent on the method of application. Oribatid mite communities were assessed from soil core samples collected during the growing season. Total abundance of oribatids was not different across the plots, but some species decreased in number, while one species increased. Species diversity and community equitability decreased with the application of chemical and biofungicides especially when using high-volume spraying. In control plots most oribatid species showed a significant degree of aggregation, which tended to decrease under fungicide treatment. Ridomil Plus, Plant Guard and Polyversum had a negative effect on the gravid/ungravid ratio of some species. Egg number averaged over the whole adult population was not directly related to the application of chemical and biofungicides but it showed a species-specific relationship with population density. In general biofungicides had a smaller effect on population size and community structure of oribatid mite species than chemical fungicides. The results indicate that biofungicides may be the preferred option when aiming to prevent side-effects on sensitive groups among the species

  3. Relationship of Resistance to Benzimidazole Fungicides with Mutation of β-Tubulin Gene in Venturia nashicola

    Yeonsoo Kwak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pear scab caused by Venturia nashicola has been reported as an important disease of pear resulting in lowering the quality of pear fruits. In this study, it was conducted to investigate the relationship between resistance of V. nashicola and mutation of β-tubulin gene and the fungicide resistance in field isolate group in benzimidazole fungicides. Responce of V. nashicola to carbendazim could be classified into 3 groups as sensitive that does not grow at all on PDA amended with 0.16 μg/ml of carbendazim, low resistance that could not grow in 4.0 μg/ml medium, and high resistance that can grow even at 100 μg/ml. Thirty isolates of V. nashicola collected from 3 regions as Wonju, Naju, and Okcheon were highly resistant to carbendazim. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of β-tubulin gene of V. nashicola showed that there was no difference in the nucleotide sequence between the sensitive and the low-resistant isolate, but GAG at codon 198 (glutamic acid was replaced with GCG (alanine in the high-resistant isolate. Among 10 isolates obtained from the Okcheon, 5 isolates showed the substitution of glycine for glutamic acid, which were resistant to carbendazim, but more sensitive to the mixture of carbendazim and diethofencarb than others. Through these results, all isolates of V. nashicola isolated in pear orchard were found to be resistant to benzimidazoles. Also, mutants E198A and E198G at β-tubulin were found to be important mechanisms of V. nashicola resistance against benzimidazole fungicides.

  4. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  5. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  6. CONTROL OF BAGRAS (Eucalyptus deglupta DAMPING-OFF BY FUNGICIDES

    EMILIO O. ANINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected fungicides were tested to control damp ing-off affecting bagras seedlings in the Central Nursery of the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP, Surigao del Sur, Philippines. The fungicides, at three concentrations each, were applie d once before seed sowing to control pre-emergence damping-off and applied again after germination to cont rol post-emergence damping-off. Ajax detergent (2g/l H2O, Benlate (0.5 g/1 H2O, Brassicol (1.5 gv'l H 2O, and Fungitox (1.0 g/1 H2O provided the best level of control against the disease. Ajax detergent is the most practical among the best chemicals because it is cheap, locally available, not a heal th hazard, and less polluting.

  7. The toxicity of the fungicide Propiconazole to soil flagellates

    Ekelund, Flemming; Westergaard, Kamma; Søe, Dorthe

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of the ergosterol-inhibiting fungicide, propiconazole {1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorphenyl) - 4 - propyl - 1,3 - dioxolan - 2 - yl]methyl] - 1H - 1,2,4 triazole; Tilt}, on mixed natural populations of bacterivorous and fungivorous flagellates in soil and on single species...... of bacterivorous flagellates in liquid culture. The fungicide affected a mixed natural population of fungivorous flagellates less than the population of bacterivorous flagellates. Our results indicated that the effects of propiconazole on flagellates are direct toxic effects and not effects mediated via their food....... All tested types of flagellates were significantly harmed when exposed to the concentration of propiconazole normally applied to agricultural fields (625¿mg l-1). However, when exposed to the concentration of propiconazole which we expect in the soil water phase after application (ca. 0.6¿mg l-1...

  8. The Effect of Fungicide Residues and Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen on Fermentation Kinetics and H2S Production during Cider Fermentation

    Boudreau IV, Thomas Francis

    2016-01-01

    The Virginia cider industry has grown rapidly in the past decade, and demands research-based recommendations for cider fermentation. This study evaluated relationships between the unique chemistry of apples and production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cider fermentations. Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and composition and residual fungicides influence H2S production by yeast during fermentation, but these factors have to date only been studied in wine grape fermentations. This ...

  9. Radioisotopes and fungicide research- present status and future prospects

    Chatrath, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The developments in pesticides and radioisotopes fields were so near to each other that at a very early stage in this history, both became linked together and their usefulness was recognised for faster development. The purpose of this communication is to illustrate the present status these techniques in fungicide research by drawing suitable examples and also to bring out the directions in which future research will be going with the aid of these tools. 72 refs

  10. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  11. Effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs on twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), hop aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and their natural enemies in hop yards.

    Gent, D H; James, D G; Wright, L C; Brooks, D J; Barbour, J D; Dreves, A J; Fisher, G C; Walton, V M

    2009-02-01

    Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological control strategies for spider mites and hop aphid is the extensive use of fungicides for management of hop powdery mildew, Podosphaera macularis (Wallr.:Fr.) U. Braun & S. Takamatsu. Field studies conducted in experimental plots in Oregon and Washington in 2005 and 2006 quantified the effects of powdery mildew fungicide programs (i.e., sulfur, paraffinic oil, and synthetic fungicides) on arthropod pests and natural enemies on hop. Fungicide treatment significantly affected spider mite populations in all four studies. Multiple applications of sulfur fungicides applied before burr development resulted in 1.4-3.3-fold greater spider mite populations during summer. Near the cessation of the sulfur applications, or after a lag of 20-30 d, spider mite populations increased significantly faster on sulfur treated plants compared with water-treated plants in three of four experiments. The effect of paraffinic oil on spider mites was varied, leading to exacerbation of spider mites in Oregon and Washington in 2005, suppression of mites in Oregon in 2006, and no significant effect compared with water in Washington in 2006. Significant relative treatment effects for cone damage due to spider mite feeding were detected in Oregon in 2005 in plots treated with sulfur and paraffinic oil compared with water and synthetic fungicides. Mean populations of hop aphids were similar among treatments in Oregon, although sulfur treatment suppressed hop aphid populations in Washington in 2005 and 2006. Populations of individual predacious insect species and cumulative abundance of macropredators were not consistently suppressed or stimulated by treatments in all trials. However, predatory mite

  12. Mutants of Venturia ineaqualis (Cook) Wint. apple scar resistant to fungicides

    Bedianashvili, Ts.V.; D'yakov, Yu.T.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of apple scab resistant to zineb and bayleton fungicides have been obtained upon action of UV irradiation and nitrosome-thylurea. Using tetrade analysis, two zineb resistence genes have been found. The mutations are pleiotropic and lead to increase in resistance to other fungicides, decrease in growth rate on artificial media, increase in spore size, sporulation, and aggressiveness, decrease in competitiveness at in vitro growth. The resistance is supposed to be determined by decrease in membrane permeability for fungicides

  13. Adsorption and leaching of novel fungicide pyraoxystrobin on soils by 14C tracing method.

    Liu, Xunyue; Wu, Huiming; Hu, Tingting; Chen, Xia; Ding, Xingcheng

    2018-01-19

    Pyraoxystrobin, (E)-2-(2-((3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yloxy)methyl)phenyl)-3-methoxyacrylate, is a newly developed strobilurin fungicide with high antifungal efficiency. It has high potential to enter soil environments that might subsequently impact surface and groundwater. Therefore, 14 C-labeled pyraoxystrobin was used as a tracer to study the adsorption/desorption and migration behavior of this compound under laboratory conditions in three typical agricultural soils. The adsorption isotherms conformed with the Freundlich equation. Single factor analysis showed that organic matter content was the most important factor influencing the adsorption. The highest adsorption level was measured in soil with low pH and high organic carbon content. Once adsorbed, only 2.54 to 6.41% of the adsorbed compound could be desorbed. In addition, the mobility results from thin-layer chromatography and column leaching studies showed that it might be safe to use pyraoxystrobin as a fungicide without causing groundwater pollution from both runoff and leaching, which might be attributed to its strong hydrophobicity. High organic matter content enhanced pyraoxystrobin adsorption and desorption because of the rule of similarity (lipid solubility). In the column leaching study, 95.02% (minimum value) of the applied 14 C remained within the upper 4.0-cm layer after 60 days.

  14. Occurrence of fungicides and other pesticides in surface water, groundwater, and sediment from three targeted-use areas in the United States, 2009

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Boehlke, Adam; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Surface-water, groundwater, and suspended- and bedsediment samples were collected in three targeted-use areas in the United States where potatoes were grown during 2009 and analyzed for an extensive suite of fungicides and other pesticides by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Fungicides were detected in all environmental matrices sampled during the study. The most frequently detected fungicides were azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin. Other pesticides that were detected frequently included amino phosphonic acid (AMPA), atrazine, metolaclor, and the organochlorine insecticide p,p’-DDT and its degradates p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE. A greater number of pesticides were detected in surface water relative to the other environmental matrices sampled, and at least one pesticide was detected in 62 of the 63 surfacewater samples. The greatest numbers of pesticides and the maximum observed concentrations for most pesticides were measured in surface-water samples from Idaho. In eight surface- water samples (six from Idaho and two from Wisconsin), concentrations of bifenthrin, metolachlor, or malathion exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater aquatic-life benchmarks for chronic toxicity to invertebrates. Thirteen pesticides, including seven fungicides, were detected in groundwater samples. Shallow groundwater samples collected beneath recently harvested potato fields contained more pesticides and had higher concentrations of pesticides than samples collected from other groundwater sources sampled during the study. Generally, pesticide concentrations were lower in groundwater samples than in surfacewater or sediment samples, with the exception of the fungicide boscalid, which was found to have its highest concentration in a shallow groundwater sample collected in Wisconsin. Thirteen pesticides, including four fungicides, were detected in suspended-sediment samples. The most

  15. Synthesis of (Hexaconazole-Zinc/Aluminum-Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite) Fungicide Nanodelivery System for Controlling Ganoderma Disease in Oil Palm.

    Mustafa, Isshadiba F; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Saifullah, Bullo; Idris, Abu Seman; Hilmi, Nur Hailini Z; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2018-01-31

    A fungicide, hexaconazole was successfully intercalated into the intergalleries of zinc/aluminum-layered double hydroxide (ZALDH) using the ion-exchange method. Due to the intercalation of hexaconazole, the basal spacing of the ZALDH was increased from 8.7 Å in ZALDH to 29.4 Å in hexaconazole-intercalated ZALDH (HZALDH). The intercalation of hexaconazole into the interlayer of the nanocomposite was confirmed using the Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) study. This supramolecular chemistry intercalation process enhanced the thermal stability of the hexaconazole moiety. The fungicide loading was estimated to be 51.8%. The nanodelivery system also shows better inhibition toward the Ganoderma boninense growth than the counterpart, free hexaconazole. The results from this work have a great potential to be further explored for combating basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm plantation.

  16. In vivo sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In in vivo experiments the sensitivity of 18 isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi from several regions of Brazil to IDM fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole and an IQE (pyraclostrobin were evaluated. The assessments were based on leaflet uredia density. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 and sensitivity reduction factor were determined for all fungicide x strain interactions. Tebuconazole sensitivity reduction was detected for most fungus isolates. In contrast, there was no fungicide shift in sensitivity of the fungus to pyraclostrobin. We conclude that the control failure of soybean rust found in some farms is due to the reduced sensitivity of the fungus to the IDM fungicide and that it remains sensitive to pyraclostrobin.

  17. Phytotoxicity: An Overview of the Physiological Responses of Plants Exposed to Fungicides

    Maria Celeste Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of fungicides in agriculture for fungi diseases control has become crucial. Fungicide research has produced a diverse range of products with novel modes of action. However, the extensive use of these compounds in the agriculture system raises public concern because of the harmful potential of such substances in the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but little is known about the impact of these compounds on the photosynthetic apparatus. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature considering different classes of fungicides and their effects on plant physiology, with particular emphasis on photosynthesis.

  18. [Benzimidazole and its derivatives--from fungicides to designer drugs. A new occupational and environmental hazards].

    Lutz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Benzimidazole and benzimidazole derivatives play an important role in controlling various fungal pathogens. The benzimidazoles are also used to treat nematode and trematode infections in humans and animals. It acts by binding to the microtubules and stopping hyphal growth. It also binds to the spindle microtubules and blocks nuclear division. The most popular fungicide is carbendazim. The fungicide is used to control plant diseases in cereals and fruits. Laboratory studies have shown that carbendazim cause infertility and destroy the testicles of laboratory animals. Other benzimidazole derivatives are used as a preservative in paint, textile, papermaking, leather industry, and warehousing practices, as well as a preservative of fruits. Occupational exposure to benzimidazole may occur through inhalation and dermal contact with those compounds at workplaces where benzimidazole is used or produced. Some of the benzimidazoles are common environmental pollutants. They are often found in food and fruit products. Some of the benzimidazoles, like a astemizole or esomeprazole have found applications in diverse therapeutical areas. Despite of the clear advantages afforded by the use of benzimidazole derivatives, they share a danger potential. The most hazardous, however, are new illegally synthesed psychoactive drugs known as designer drugs. Some of them, like nitazene, etonitazene or clonitazene belong to benzimidazole derivatives. Laboratory animal studies revealed that etonitazene produced very similar effects in central nervous system as those observed after morphine administration. Considering etonitazene's properties, it seems reasonable to expected that long-term exposure to other benzimidazole derivatives may result in drug abuse and development of drug dependence.

  19. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  20. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum ) in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Gálvez, Laura; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; García, Marta; Iglesias, Concepción; Palmero, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors), iprodione (dicar-boximide), and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors) were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC50 values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage. PMID:27721688

  1. The interactive effect of fungicide residues and yeast assimilable nitrogen on fermentation kinetics and hydrogen sulfide production during cider fermentation.

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide residues on fruit may adversely affect yeast during cider fermentation, leading to sluggish or stuck fermentation or the production of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), which is an undesirable aroma compound. This phenomenon has been studied in grape fermentation but not in apple fermentation. Low nitrogen availability, which is characteristic of apples, may further exacerbate the effects of fungicides on yeast during fermentation. The present study explored the effects of three fungicides: elemental sulfur (S 0 ) (known to result in increased H 2 S in wine); fenbuconazole (used in orchards but not vineyards); and fludioxonil (used in post-harvest storage of apples). Only S 0 led to increased H 2 S production. Fenbuconazole (≥0.2 mg L -1 ) resulted in a decreased fermentation rate and increased residual sugar. An interactive effect of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentration and fenbuconazole was observed such that increasing the YAN concentration alleviated the negative effects of fenbuconazole on fermentation kinetics. Cidermakers should be aware that residual fenbuconazole (as low as 0.2 mg L -1 ) in apple juice may lead to stuck fermentation, especially when the YAN concentration is below 250 mg L -1 . These results indicate that fermentation problems attributed to low YAN may be caused or exacerbated by additional factors such as fungicide residues, which have a greater impact on fermentation performance under low YAN conditions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The effect of the fungicide captan on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wine fermentation

    Scariot Fernando J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides, particularly those used during grape maturation, as captan, can affect the natural yeast population of grapes, and can reach grape must affecting wine fermentation. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of captan on the viability and fermentative behavior of S. cerevisiae. S. cerevisiae (BY4741 on exponential phase was treated with captan (0 to 40 μM for different periods, and their cell viability analyzed. Cell membrane integrity, thiols concentration, and reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was determined. The fermentation experiments were conducted in synthetic must using wine yeast strain Y904. The results showed that under aerobic conditions, 20 μM of captan reduce 90% of yeast viability in 6 hours. Captan treated cells exhibited alteration of membrane integrity, reduction of thiol compounds and increase in intracellular ROS concentration, suggesting a necrotic and pro-oxidant activity of the fungicide. Fermentative experiments showed that concentrations above 2.5 μM captan completely inhibited fermentation, while a dose dependent fermentation delay associated with the reduction of yeast viability was detected in sub-inhibitory concentrations. Petit mutants increase was also observed. In conclusion, the captan induces yeast necrotic cell death on both aerobic and anaerobic conditions causing fermentation delay and/or sucking fermentations.

  3. New hosts of Myrothecium spp. in Brazil and a preliminary in vitro assay of fungicides

    A.M. Quezado Duval

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Myrothecium roridum and M. verrucaria are two plant pathogenic species causing foliar spots in a large number of cultivated plants. This paper aims to study the causal agents of foliar spots in vegetable crops (sweet pepper, tomato and cucumber, ornamental plants (Spathiphyllum wallisii, Solidago canadensis, Anthurium andreanum, Dieffenbachia amoena and a solanaceous weed plant (Nicandra physaloides. Most of the isolates were identified as M. roridum; only the isolate 'Myr-02' from S. canadensis was identified as M. verrucaria. All the isolates were pathogenic to their original plant hosts and also to some other plants. Some fungicides were tested in vitro against an isolate of M. roridum and the mycelial growth recorded after seven days. Fungicides with quartenary ammonium, tebuconazole and copper were highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of M. roridum. This paper confirms the first record of M. roridum causing leaf spots in sweet pepper, tomato, Spathiphyllum, Anthurium, Dieffenbachia and N. physaloides in Brazil. We also report M. roridum as causal agent of cucumber fruit rot and M. verrucaria as a pathogen of tango plants.

  4. New hosts of Myrothecium SPP. In brazil and a preliminary In Vitro assay of fungicides.

    Quezado Duval, A M; Henz, G P; Paz-Lima, M L; Medeiros, A R; Miranda, B E C; Pfenning, L H; Reis, A

    2010-01-01

    Myrothecium roridum and M. verrucaria are two plant pathogenic species causing foliar spots in a large number of cultivated plants. This paper aims to study the causal agents of foliar spots in vegetable crops (sweet pepper, tomato, cucumber), ornamental plants (Spathiphyllum, Solidago canadensis, Anthurium, Dieffenbachia) and a solanaceous weed plant (Nicandra physalodes). Most of the isolates were identified as M. roridum; only the isolate 'Myr-02' from S. canadensis was identified as M. verrucaria. All the isolates were pathogenic to their original plant hosts and also to some other plants. Some fungicides were tested in vitro against an isolate of M. roridum and the mycelial growth recorded after seven days. Fungicides with quartenary ammonium, Tebuconzole and copper were highly effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of M. roridum. This paper confirms the first record of M. roridum causing leaf spots in sweet pepper, tomato, Spathiphyllum, Anthurium, Dieffenbachia and N. physalodes. We also report M. roridum as causal agent of cucumber fruit rot and also M. verrucaria in tango plants.

  5. Fungicides and Application Timing for Control of Early Leafspot, Southern Blight, and Sclerotinia Blight of Peanut

    W. James Grichar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in south Texas near Yoakum and from 2008 to 2011 in central Texas near Stephenville to evaluate various fungicides for foliar and soilborne disease control as well as peanut yield response under irrigation. Control of Sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia minor Jagger with penthiopyrad at 1.78 L/ha was comparable to fluazinam or boscalid; however, the 1.2 L/ha dose of penthiopyrad did not provide consistent control. Peanut yield was reduced with the lower penthiopyrad dose when compared with boscalid, fluazinam, or the high dose of penthiopyrad. Control of early leaf spot, caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori or southern blight, caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., with penthiopyrad in a systems approach was comparable with propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and resulted in disease control that was higher than the nontreated control. Peanut yield was also comparable with the penthiopyrad, propiconazole, prothioconazole, or pyraclostrobin systems and reflects the ability of the newer fungicides to control multiple diseases found in Texas peanut production.

  6. Time-dependent sorption of two novel fungicides in soils within a regulatory framework.

    Gulkowska, Anna; Buerge, Ignaz J; Poiger, Thomas; Kasteel, Roy

    2016-12-01

    Convincing experimental evidence suggests increased sorption of pesticides on soil over time, which, so far, has not been considered in the regulatory assessment of leaching to groundwater. Recently, Beulke and van Beinum (2012) proposed a guidance on how to conduct, analyse and use time-dependent sorption studies in pesticide registration. The applicability of the recommended experimental set-up and fitting procedure was examined for two fungicides, penflufen and fluxapyroxad, in four soils during a 170 day incubation experiment. The apparent distribution coefficient increased by a factor of 2.5-4.5 for penflufen and by a factor of 2.5-2.8 for fluxapyroxad. The recommended two-site, one-rate sorption model adequately described measurements of total mass and liquid phase concentration in the calcium chloride suspension and the calculated apparent distribution coefficient, passing all prescribed quality criteria for model fit and parameter reliability. The guidance is technically mature regarding the experimental set-up and parameterisation of the sorption model for the two moderately mobile and relatively persistent fungicides under investigation. These parameters can be used for transport modelling in soil, thereby recognising the existence of the experimentally observed, but in the regulatory leaching assessment of pesticides not yet routinely considered phenomenon of time-dependent sorption. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Adsorption and desorption characteristic of benzimidazole based fungicide carbendazim in pakistani soils

    Ahmad, K.S.; Rashid, N.; Tazaiyen, S.; Nazar, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    A versatile cost-effective Benzimidazole based fungicide, Carbendazim (methyl 1H-benzimidazole-2 carboxylate ) has been utilized to investigate its sorption-desorption behaviour on physicochemical properties of geographical soils, ranging from hilly to desert areas of Pakistan, via batch equilibrium method. The data obtained in all tests showed that adsorption co-efficient isotherm for Carbendazim in four tested soil were well fitted the freundlich equation. Distribution co-efficient (K d ) parameters are low (3.59 to 11.60 ml micro g/sup -1/) indicating low adsorption. It was observed that Carbendazim showed a relatively greater degree of adsorption on soil samples (Soil 4) that were collected from northern hilly areas Ayubia, Khyber Pakhton khaw (KPK) (Silt loam) i.e.11.60 ml mu g/sup -1/ and least adsorption on sandy Soil of Multan Punjab(Soil 2). While other two soils 1 were collected from Murree region, a boarder of Punjab and KPK mountain area and Soil 3 from Tarnol, Islamabad. Desorption studies reveal that the adsorbed fungicide is firmly retained by soil particles and their adsorption are almost irreversible. The results indicate that soil organic matter (SOM) and appropriate pH also play key role in sorption capacity. (author)

  8. Fitness, Competitive Ability, and Mutation Stability of Isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry Resistant to QoI Fungicides.

    Forcelini, Bruna B; Rebello, Carolina S; Wang, Nan-Yi; Peres, Natalia A

    2018-04-01

    Quinone-outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides are used to manage anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum acutatum. However, selection for resistance to QoI fungicides was first reported in 2013 in Florida and, subsequently, in strawberry nurseries and production areas across the United States and Canada. C. acutatum resistance to QoIs is associated with the G143A point mutation in the cytochrome b gene. This mutation is known to be associated with field resistance even at high rates of QoI. In this study, we investigated the relative fitness and competitive ability of QoI-resistant and -sensitive C. acutatum isolates. A fitness comparison did not indicate any difference between resistant and sensitive isolates in aggressiveness, spore production, and mycelial growth at different temperatures. Additionally, in the absence of selection pressure, resistant and sensitive isolates were equally competitive. Cultivation of QoI-resistant and QoI-sensitive isolates for four culture cycles in vitro in the absence of azoxystrobin showed that QoI resistance was stable. The observed lack of fitness penalties and stability of the G143A mutation in QoI-resistant C. acutatum populations suggest that the interruption and further reintroduction of QoI fungicides might not be an option for strawberry nurseries and fruit production areas. Further investigation of alternative chemical and nonchemical C. acutatum control practices, in addition to the integration of multisite fungicides, is needed to reduce the occurrence and distribution of QoI-resistant populations in strawberry fields.

  9. Photodegradation of multiclass fungicides in the aquatic environment and determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Celeiro, Maria; Facorro, Rocio; Dagnac, Thierry; Vilar, Vítor J P; Llompart, Maria

    2017-08-01

    The photodegradation behaviour for nine widespread fungicides (benalaxyl, cyprodinil, dimethomorph, fenhexamide, iprovalicarb, kresoxim-methyl, metalaxyl, myclobutanil and tebuconazole) was evaluated in different types of water. Two different systems, direct UV photolysis and UVC/H 2 O 2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), were applied for the photodegradation tests. For the monitoring of the target compound degradation, a method based on direct injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Several fungicide photodegradation by-products were tentatively identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) as well. For the photolysis studies, the efficiency of different types of radiation, UVC (λ = 254 nm) and UVA (λ = 365 nm), was compared. UVC photolysis provided the highest removal with a complete degradation for fenhexamide and kresoxim-methyl, and percentages between 48 and 78% for the other compounds, excluding iprovalicarb and myclobutanil with removals <35%, after 30 min of irradiation. Besides, the photodegradation tests were performed with different initial concentrations of fungicides, and the efficiency of two photoreactor systems was compared. In all cases, the kinetics followed pseudo-first order, and the half-life times could also be calculated. The addition of H 2 O 2 under UVC light allowed an improvement of the reaction kinetics, especially for the most recalcitrant fungicides, obtaining in all cases removals higher than 82% in less than 6 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the suitability of the proposed systems, both UVC photolysis and UVC/H 2 O 2 system were tested in different real water matrices (wastewater, tap water, swimming pool water and river water), showing that the UVC/H 2 O 2 system had the highest removal efficiency in less than 6 min, for all water samples.

  10. Identification of QoI fungicide-resistant genotypes of the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in Algeria

    Nora ALLIOUI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Septoria tritici blotch caused by Zymoseptoria tritici is currently one of the most damaging diseases on bread and durum wheat crops worldwide. A total of 120 monoconidial isolates of this fungus were sampled in 2012 from five distinct geographical locations of Algeria (Guelma, Annaba, Constantine, Skikda and Oran and assessed for resistance to Quinone outside Inhibitors (QoI, a widely used class of fungicides for the control of fungal diseases of wheat. Resistance was screened using a mismatch PCR assay that identified the G143A mitochondrial cytochrome b substitution associated with QoI resistance. The isolates were QoI-sensitive, since all possessed the G143 wild-type allele, except for three isolates (two from Guelma and one from Annaba, which had fungicide resistance and possessed the A143 resistant allele. QoI resistance was confirmed phenotypically using a microplate bioassay in which the resistant isolates displayed high levels of half-maximal inhibitory azoxystrobin concentrations (IC50s when compared to sensitive reference isolates. Genetic fingerprinting of all isolates with microsatellite markers revealed that the three resistant isolates were distinct haplotypes, and were are not genetically distinguishable from the sensitive isolates. This study highlights QoI-resistant genotypes of Z. tritici in Algeria for the first time, and proposes a management strategy for QoI fungicide application to prevent further spread of resistance across the country or to other areas of Northern Africa.

  11. Assessing the potential effects of fungicides on nontarget gut fungi (trichomycetes) and their associated larval black fly hosts

    Wilson, Emma R.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Gray, Elmer; Bond, Laura; Steele, Lance; Kandel, Prasanna; Chamberlin, Alison; Gause, Justin; Reynolds, Nicole; Robertson, Ian; Novak, Stephen; Feris, Kevin; White, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    Fungicides are moderately hydrophobic and have been detected in water and sediment, particularly in agricultural watersheds, but typically are not included in routine water quality monitoring efforts. This is despite their widespread use and frequent application to combat fungal pathogens. Although the efficacy of these compounds on fungal pathogens is well documented, little is known about their effects on nontarget fungi. This pilot study, a field survey in southwestern Idaho from April to December 2010 on four streams with varying pesticide inputs (two agricultural and two reference sites), was conducted to assess nontarget impact of fungicides on gut fungi, or trichomycetes. Tissues of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae), hosts of gut fungi, were analyzed for pesticide accumulation. Fungicides were detected in hosts from streams within agricultural watersheds but were not detected in hosts from reference streams. Gut fungi from agricultural sites exhibited decreased percent infestation, density and sporulation within the gut, and black fly tissues had elevated pesticide concentrations. Differences observed between the sites demonstrate a potential effect on this symbiotic system. Future research is needed to parse out the details of the complex biotic and abiotic relationships; however, these preliminary results indicate that impacts to nontarget organisms could have far-reaching consequences within aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides in rice paddy fields

    ALANA C.D. WANDSCHEER

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.

  13. Richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides in rice paddy fields.

    Wandscheer, Alana C D; Marchesan, Enio; Santos, Sandro; Zanella, Renato; Silva, Marília F; Londero, Guilherme P; Donato, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.

  14. An evaluation of some fungicides in the management of fruit and leaf ...

    Four fungicide treatments viz Ben late (Benomyl), Cupravit (Copper oxychloride), Dithane M45 (Mancozeb), and. Ben late alternated with Dithane M45 were applied to control P!laeoramularia angolensi~ In a block of the variety. "Valencia" in the citrus orchard at Kiige, Uganda. No fungicide was applied to the control.

  15. Effectiveness of fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir shoots from infection by Phytophthora ramorum

    G.A. Chastagner; E.M. Hansen; K.L. Riley; W. Sutton

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of 20 systemic and contact fungicides in protecting Douglas-fir seedlings from infection by Phytophthora ramorum was determined. Some systemic products were applied about a week prior to bud break, while most treatments were applied just after bud break. In addition to the fungicides, two surfactants were included in the post-bud...

  16. The effect of using a fungicide along with bactericide in the main ...

    quarternized compounds), and a fungicide (2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothiazole based) commonly used in Turkish leather industry were chosen. The bactericides were added into the main soaking float with and without different concentrations of fungicide. In each trial, liquor samples were taken at the end of the main ...

  17. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female-offspring. Besides, ......, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties....

  18. Evaluating Headline fungicide on alfalfa production and sensitivity of pathogens to pyraclostrobin

    Headline fungicide was recently registered for management of foliar diseases on alfalfa. The effect of disease control on yield, forage quality, and potential return on investment for fungicide application was determined for field experiments conducted at five locations in 2012, three in Wisconsin a...

  19. Abundance, genetic diversity and sensitivity to demethylation inhibitor fungicides of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates from organic substrates with special emphasis on compost.

    Santoro, Karin; Matić, Slavica; Gisi, Ulrich; Spadaro, Davide; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria L

    2017-12-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a widespread fungus that colonizes dead organic substrates but it can also cause fatal human diseases. Aspergilloses are treated with demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicides; however, resistant isolates appeared recently in the medical and also environmental area. The present study aims at molecular characterizing and quantifying A. fumigatus in major environmental habitats and determining its sensitivity to medical and agricultural DMI fungicides. A. fumigatus was isolated only rarely from soil and meadow/forest organic matter but high concentrations (10 3 to 10 7  cfu/g) were detected in substrates subjected to elevated temperatures, such as compost and silage. High genetic diversity of A. fumigatus from compost was found based on SSR markers, distinguishing among fungal isolates even when coming from the same substrate sample, while subclustering was observed based on mutations in cyp51A gene. Several cyp51A amino acid substitutions were found in 15 isolates, although all isolates were fully sensitive to the tested DMI fungicides, with exception of one isolate in combination with one fungicide. This study suggests that the tested A. fumigatus isolates collected in Italy, Spain and Hungary from the fungus' major living habitats (compost) and commercial growing substrates are not potential carriers for DMI resistance in the environment. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  1. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites

    Milica Petrović

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Undecylenic acid (UA, known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida. Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate (PMMA as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached and planktonic (free-floating Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3–12%. We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA. Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida. Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90 was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA.

  2. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites

    Petrović, Milica; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2018-01-01

    Undecylenic acid (UA), known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida. Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached) and planktonic (free-floating) Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3–12%). We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA). Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida. Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA. PMID:29316713

  3. Fungicidal PMMA-Undecylenic Acid Composites.

    Petrović, Milica; Bonvin, Debora; Hofmann, Heinrich; Mionić Ebersold, Marijana

    2018-01-08

    Undecylenic acid (UA), known as antifungal agent, still cannot be used to efficiently modify commercial dental materials in such a way that this affects Candida . Actually, issues with Candida infections and fungal resistance compromise the use of Poly(methyl-methacrylate) (PMMA) as dental material. The challenge remains to turn PMMA into an antifugal material, which can ideally affect both sessile (attached) and planktonic (free-floating) Candida cells. We aimed to tackle this challenge by designing PMMA-UA composites with different UA concentrations (3-12%). We studied their physico-chemical properties, the antifungal effect on Candida and the cytotoxicity toward human cells. We found that UA changes the PMMA surface into a more hydrophilic one. Mainly, as-preparation composites with ≥6% UA reduced sessile Candida for >90%. After six days, the composites were still efficiently reducing the sessile Candida cells (for ~70% for composites with ≥6% UA). Similar results were recorded for planktonic Candida . Moreover, the inhibition zone increased along with the UA concentration. The antifungal effect of UA was also examined at the surface of an UA-loaded agar and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC90) was below the lowest-studied 0.0125% UA. Furthermore, the embedded filamentation test after 24 h and 48 h showed complete inhibition of the Candida growth at 0.4% UA.

  4. Design, Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Some Novel Pyrazole Derivatives

    Xue-Ru Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover new compounds with good fungicidal activities, 32 pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and their fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Valsa mali Miyabe et Yamada, Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank Donk, Fusarium oxysporum (S-chl f.sp. cucumerinum Owen, and Fusarium graminearum Schw were tested. The bioassay results indicated that most of the derivatives exhibited considerable antifungal activities, especially compound 26 containing a p-trifluoromethyl- phenyl moiety showed the highest activity, with EC50 values of 2.432, 2.182, 1.787, 1.638, 6.986, and 6.043 μg/mL against B. cinerea, R. solani, V. mali, T. cucumeris, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, respectively. Moreover, the activities of compounds such as compounds 27–32 were enhanced by introducing isothiocyanate and carboxamide moieties to the 5-position of the pyrazole ring.

  5. Botrytis cinerea Control and the Problem of Fungicide Resistance

    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, greatly affects fruit, grapevine, vegetable and ornamental crops production. It is a common causal agent of diseases in plants grown in protected areas, as well as fruit decay during storage and transport. The fungusinvades almost all parts of the plant in all developmental stages, and the symptoms are usually described as grey mould, grey mildew, brown rot and seedling blight. The paper reviews the current knowledge on control possibilities of this necrotrophic pathogen. Theattention is particularly paid to the mode of action of novel fungicides and to the problem of resistance. It is pointed out that by limiting the number of treatments in the growing season, avoiding the use of only one fungicide with a high risk for resistance development,appropriate application rate and timing, using mixtures of pesticides with different modes of action, as well as by alternative use of pesticides from different resistance groups, a longterm preservation of pesticide efficacy is provided.

  6. Selective effects of two systemic fungicides on soil fungi.

    Abdel-Fattah, H M; Abdel-Kader, M I; Hamida, S

    1982-08-20

    BAS 317 00F was not toxic to the total count of fungi after 2 days but was regularly significantly toxic at the three doses after 5, 20 and 40 days and toxic at the low and the high doses after 80 days. In the agar medium, it was toxic to the counts of total fungi. Aspergillus, A. terreus, Rhizopus oryzae and Mucor racemosus at the high dose. Only the mycelial growth of Trichoderma viride which was significantly inhibited by the three doses when this fungicide was added to the liquid medium. Polyram-Combi induced two effects on the total population of soil fungi. One inhibitory and this was demonstrated almost regularly after 2, 10 and 40 days and the other stimulatory after 80 days of treatment with the low and the high doses. In the agar medium, this fungicide was very toxic to total fungi and to almost all fungal genera and species at the three doses. Several fungi could survive the high dose. In liquid medium, the test fungi showed variable degree of sensitivity and the most sensitive was Gliocladium roseum which was completely eradicated by the three doses.

  7. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  8. Combination of Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase and a membrane-affecting fungicide on control of Alternaria leaf spot in transgenic broccoli plants.

    Mora, A; Earle, E D

    2001-04-01

    Progeny from transgenic broccoli (cv. Green Comet) expressing a Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene were used to assess the interaction between endochitinase and the fungicide Bayleton in the control of Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro assays have shown synergistic effects of endochitinase and fungicides on fungal pathogens. Our study examined the in planta effects of endochitinase and Bayleton, individually and in combination. Two month old transgenic and non-transgenic plants were sprayed with ED50 levels of Bayleton and/or inoculated with an A. brassicicola spore suspension. Disease levels in non-sprayed transgenic plants were not statistically different from sprayed transgenic plants nor from sprayed non-transgenic controls. Thus endochitinase-transgenic plants alone provided a significant reduction of disease severity, comparable to the protection by fungicide on non-transgenic plants. Comparison of the expected additive and observed effects revealed no synergism between endochitinase and Bayleton (at ED50 level), and usually less than an additive effect. Some transgenic lines sprayed with fungicide at doses higher than ED50 showed resistance similar to the non-sprayed transgenic lines, again suggesting no synergistic effect. Lack of synergism may be due to incomplete digestion of the cell wall by endochitinase, so that the effect of Bayleton at the cell membrane is not enhanced.

  9. Impact of non-selective fungicides on the growth and production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus ochraceus and A. carbonarius in barley-based medium.

    Mateo, Eva M; Valle-Algarra, F M; Mateo-Castro, R; Jimenez, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the non-selective fungicides mancozeb, copper oxychloride, and sulfur on the growth and capability for producing ochratoxin A (OTA) of ochratoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus carbonarius and A. ochraceus in barley-based medium. Lag phases and growth rates were determined for each fungicide at different doses, at 15°C and 25°C and at 0.97 a(w). Mancozeb at 40 mg l(-1 )inhibited fungal growth and provided lag phases >24 days at 10-20 mg l(-1) and 15°C. OTA was observed only at 25°C and doses Sulfur was inhibitory or provided large lag phases at 5-8 g l(-1) (at 15°C) while at 25°C growth took place even at 8 g l(-1), although OTA levels were low or undetectable. The antifungal activity decreased in the order mancozeb > copper oxychloride > sulfur, and was lower at 25°C than at 15°C. OTA accumulation was affected by the type of fungicide, dose, temperature and time. The efficacy of these fungicides on the growth of A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus and OTA production in barley-based medium is assessed for the first time.

  10. A mini-bag technique for evaluation of fungicide effects on Trichoderma spp in mushroom compost.

    Abosriwil, Salem O; Clancy, Kevin J

    2004-04-01

    in the 5-litre compost bags as in the 1-litre bags, but colonisation by Th1 and Tk was more apparent in the 5-litre bags. The in vivo mini-bag evaluations using wheat grain Trichoderma inoculum and needle stab re-isolation procedures proved an efficient method for studying colonisation and screening for effectiveness of fungicides applied to mushroom compost or spawn.

  11. Consequences of co-applying insecticides and fungicides for managing Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

    Nault, Brian A; Hsu, Cynthia L; Hoepting, Christine A

    2013-07-01

    Insecticides and fungicides are commonly co-applied in a tank mix to protect onions from onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, and foliar pathogens. Co-applications reduce production costs, but past research shows that an insecticide's performance can be reduced when co-applied with a fungicide. An evaluation was made of the effects of co-applying spinetoram, abamectin and spirotetramat with commonly used fungicides, with and without the addition of a penetrating surfactant, on onion thrips control in onion fields. Co-applications of insecticides with chlorothalonil fungicides reduced thrips control by 25-48% compared with control levels provided by the insecticides alone in three of five trials. Inclusion of a penetrating surfactant at recommended rates with the insecticide and chlorothalonil fungicide did not consistently overcome this problem. Co-applications of insecticides with other fungicides did not interfere with thrips control. Co-applications of pesticides targeting multiple organisms should be examined closely to ensure that control of each organism is not compromised. To manage onion thrips in onion most effectively, insecticides should be applied with a penetrating surfactant, and should be applied separately from chlorothalonil fungicides. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida

    Ingrid Carolina Corredor Perilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - <61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (<23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.

  13. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre [Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  14. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC 25 and EC 50 . Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of pyrethroids and

  15. Leaching and sorption of neonicotinoid insecticides and fungicides from seed coatings

    Smalling, Kelly; Hladik, Michelle; Sanders, Corey; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2018-01-01

    Seed coatings are a treatment used on a variety of crops to improve production and offer protection against pests and fungal outbreaks. The leaching of the active ingredients associated with the seed coatings and the sorption to soil was evaluated under laboratory conditions using commercially available corn and soybean seeds to study the fate and transport of these pesticides under controlled conditions. The active ingredients (AI) included one neonicotinoid insecticide (thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, metalaxyl, sedaxane thiabendazole). An aqueous leaching experiment was conducted with treated corn and soybean seeds. Leaching potential was a function of solubility and seed type. The leaching of fludioxonil, was dependent on seed type with a shorter time to equilibrium on the corn compared to the soybean seeds. Sorption experiments with the treated seeds and a solution of the AIs were conducted using three different soil types. Sorption behavior was a function of soil organic matter as well as seed type. For most AIs, a negative relationship was observed between the aqueous concentration and the log Koc. Sorption to all soils tested was limited for the hydrophilic pesticides thiamethoxam and metalaxyl. However, partitioning for the more hydrophobic fungicides was dependent on both seed type and soil properties. The mobility of fludioxonil in the sorption experiment varied by seed type indicating that the adjuvants associated with the seed coating could potentially play a role in the environmental fate of fludioxonil. This is the first study to assess, under laboratory conditions, the fate of pesticides associated with seed coatings using commercially available treated seeds. This information can be used to understand how alterations in agricultural practices (e.g., increasing use of seed treatments) can impact the exposure (concentration and duration) and potential effects of these chemicals to aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

  16. POLYMER RESIDUE BASED HYDROPHOBIC-FUNGICIDAL ADDITIVE AND PLASTER DRY MIX BASED ON IT

    Chikichev Artur Andreevich

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of study is the effect of additives on the structure formation of cement. Improvement of the re-sistance to aggressive media of materials for wet rooms. Objective is to develop a scientifically grounded composition of a plaster dry construction mix with increased water resistance and funginertness, with the use of locally available materials and man-made waste.The study was carried out by standard methods of research using XRF and DTA. The hydrophobic fungicidal additive based on the polymer residue of turpentine production and fly ash with the ratio by weight ZU: PO = 1.15: 1 was developed. It has been established that while adding the de-veloped additive in an amount of 2.5 % of the mass of cement, the rate of hydration of cement minerals and resistibility of the sand-cement mortar decrease in early strength with medium workability concrete mix. This creates conditions for the formation of a dense structure with increased resistance to aggressive envi-ronments.Using new hydrophobic fungicidal additive, a dry plaster mortar for wet rooms has been developed. It has increased water resistance values corresponding to the W8 grade and funginertness especially with respect to A. Niger, the pathogen and widespread decomposer.The additive is effective; it is developed on the basis of industrial wastes and recycled materials. Its use in the composition of materials with increased requirements for watertightness and biostability makes it pos-sible to reduce their cost and environmental stress, to increase the efficiency of the use of natural re-sources. The use of the developed plaster mixture will increase the resistance of walls of wet rooms to aggressive environments.

  17. The effect of coarse-droplet spraying with double flat fan air induction nozzle and spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted for the purpose of improving the application of fungicides against potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB in processing tomato. The usability of coarse spray quality with double flat fan air induction IDKT12003 nozzle and the impact of fixed and variable spray volume and adjuvants during alternate application of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil were analysed on the basis of plant infestation and fungicide residues. The variable spray volume was calculated based on the number of leaves on a plant. The study was conducted during three vegetation seasons. Spraying of plants with significantly flattened canopies during the peak of the fructification season using an IDKT12003 nozzle was as effective as in the case of fine spraying performed with an XR11003 nozzle and facilitated the increase of fungicides residue. In the case of plants with high-spreading canopy at the beginning of fructification, XR11003 nozzle favoured the reduction of PLB infestation. Both spray volume adjustment systems enabled the same level of protection of tomato against PLB, which could result from alternate application of systemic and contact fungicides. Polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyltrisiloxane adjuvant, which causes siginificant increase in wetting and droplet spreading, facilitated the reduction of tomato PLB infestation during the application of fungicides using an IDKT12003 nozzle.

  18. Insecticidal, Repellent and Fungicidal Properties of Novel Trifluoromethylphenyl Amides

    2013-01-01

    inhibition even at the higher concentration of 30.0 lM. Captan is an excellent fungicide with a multisite mode of action that is ap- plied to crops such as...trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 lL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti...adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 lg/cm2 for the Oregon- R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 lg/cm2

  19. Sertraline demonstrates fungicidal activity in vitro for Coccidioides immitis

    Simon Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity in endemic areas. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is an AIDS defining condition and treatment often requires lifelong antifungal therapy. Sertraline, a widely used serotonin-reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant, has demonstrated activity against Candida and Cryptococcus sp. both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate if sertraline has activity against Coccidioides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of sertraline for four clinical isolates of C. immitis were determined. Sertraline was observed to have an MIC range of 4–8 µg/ml and MFC also of 4–8 µg/ml for Coccidioides. These MIC and MFC results for C. immitis are similar to those reported for Cryptococcus sp. suggesting sertraline may potentially have utility for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis.

  20. Fungicide application and phosphorus uptake by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi into field-grown peas

    Schweiger, P.F.; Spliid, N.H.; Jakobsen, I.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of two commercial fungicide formulations on phosphorus (P) uptake into peas via hyphae of a native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal community was examined in the field. The fungicides contained carbendazim or a mixture of propiconazole and fenpropimorph as their active ingredients...... from overall P uptake, Fungicides were added to the soil inside the HCs at concentrations assumed to reflect their concentration in the surrounding soil. At two harvests, plant growth, total P and P-32 uptake as well as root length density and AM root colonisation were measured. Length of hyphae inside...

  1. Field efficacy of different fungicide mixtures in control of net blotch on barley

    Stepanović Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven fungicide mixtures (epoxiconazol + metconazole, boscalid + epoxiconazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, prothioconazole + tebuconazole, picoxistrobin + cyproconazole, azoxystrobin + cyproconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol were evaluated for control of net blotch of barley caused by Drechslera teres, as well as yield losses, over the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons. Two applications of the fungicide combination pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole at the rate of 1.0 l ha-1 were the most effective treatment in controlling the disease and improving yield in both experimental years. Treatments with the fungicide mixtures epoxiconazol + metconazole and spiroxamine + tebuconazole + triadimenol showed the least effectiveness in disease control, as well as yield increase.

  2. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  3. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Paro, Rita; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Buccione, Roberto; Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio; Canipari, Rita; Cecconi, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  4. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  5. Bioengineered silver nanoparticles using Curvularia pallescens and its fungicidal activity against Cladosporium fulvum

    Abdallah M. Elgorban

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms based biosynthesis of nanomaterials has triggered significant attention, due to their great potential as vast source of the production of biocompatible nanoparticles (NPs. Such biosynthesized functional nanomaterials can be used for various biomedical applications. The present study investigates the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs using the fungus Curvularia pallescens (C. pallescens which is isolated from cereals. The C. pallescens cell filtrate was used for the reduction of AgNO3 to Ag NPs. To the best of our knowledge C. pallescens is utilized first time for the preparation of Ag NPs. Several alkaloids and proteins present in the phytopathogenic fungus C. pallescens were mainly responsible for the formation of highly crystalline Ag NPs. The as-synthesized Ag NPs were characterized by using UV–Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The TEM micrographs have revealed that spherical shaped Ag NPs with polydisperse in size were obtained. These results have clearly suggested that the biomolecules secreted by C. pallescens are mainly responsible for the formation and stabilization of nanoparticles. Furthermore, the antifungal activity of the as-prepared Ag NPs was tested against Cladosporium fulvum, which is the major cause of a serious plant disease, known as tomato leaf mold. The synthesized Ag NPs displayed excellent fungicidal activity against the tested fungal pathogen. The extreme zone of reduction occurred at 50 μL, whereas, an increase in the reduction activity is observed with increasing the concentration of Ag NPs. These encouraging results can be further exploited by employing the as synthesized Ag NPs against various pathogenic fungi in order to ascertain their spectrum of fungicidal activity.

  6. Effects of agricultural fungicides on microorganisms associated with floral nectar: susceptibility assays and field experiments.

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Pozo, María I; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides have become an inseparable element of agricultural intensification. While the direct impact of pesticides on non-target organisms, such as pollinators, has recently received much attention, less consideration has been given to the microorganisms that are associated with them. Specialist yeasts and bacteria are known to commonly inhabit floral nectar and change its chemical characteristics in numerous ways, possibly influencing pollinator attraction. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessi, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Candida bombi to six widely used agricultural fungicides (prothioconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram). Next, a commercial antifungal mixture containing tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin was applied to natural populations of the plant Linaria vulgaris and the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of nectar-inhabiting yeasts and bacteria was compared between treated and untreated plants. The results showed that prothioconazole and tebuconazole were highly toxic to nectar yeasts, inhibiting their growth at concentrations varying between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. Azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram on the other hand exhibited considerably lower toxicity, inhibiting yeast growth at concentrations between 1 and 32 mg/L or in many cases not inhibiting microbial growth at all. The application of the antifungal mixture in natural plant populations resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence and abundance of yeasts in individual flowers, but this did not translate into noticeable changes in bacterial incidence and abundance. Yeast and bacterial species richness and distribution did not also differ between treated and untreated plants. We conclude that the application of fungicides may have negative effects on the abundance of nectar yeasts in floral nectar. The consequences of these effects on plant pollination processes in agricultural

  7. Anethole potentiates dodecanol's fungicidal activity by reducing PDR5 expression in budding yeast.

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Ishikura, Takayuki; Jono, Yui; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ogita, Akira; Kubo, Isao; Tanaka, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    trans-Anethole (anethole), a major component of anise oil, has a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a weaker antimicrobial potency than other available antibiotics. When combined with polygodial, nagilactone E, and n-dodecanol, anethole has been shown to exhibit synergistic antifungal activity against a budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and a human opportunistic pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. However, the mechanism underlying this synergistic effect of anethole has not been characterized. We studied this mechanism using dodecanol-treated S. cerevisiae cells and focusing on genes related to multidrug efflux. Although dodecanol transiently reduced the number of colony forming units, this recovered to levels similar to those of untreated cells with continued incubation beyond 24h. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed overexpression of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter gene, PDR5, in addition to a slight increase in PDR11, PDR12, and PDR15 transcriptions in dodecanol-treated cells. In the presence of anethole, these effects were attenuated and the fungicidal activity of dodecanol was extended. Dodecanol showed longer lasting fungicidal activity against a Δpdr5. In addition, Δpdr3 and Δlge1, lack transcription factors of PDR5 and PDR3, were partly and completely susceptible to dodecanol, respectively. Furthermore, combination of anethole with fluconazole was also found to exhibit synergy on C. albicans. These results indicated that although anethole reduced the transcription of several transporters, PDR5 expression was particularly relevant to dodecanol efflux. Anethole is expected to be a promising candidate drug for the inhibition of efflux by reducing the transcription of several ABC transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  9. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  10. Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    Effects of Artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and the respiratory activity of durum wheat ( Triticum durum L .). ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Root respiratory activity was also determined using a polarographic method ...

  11. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin

  12. Efficacy of Strobilurin-related and Multi-site Fungicide Mixtures Against Apple Scab

    Emil Rekanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of several fungicide mixtures in controlling Venturia inaequalis in apple was evaluated in field trials. The efficacies of Flint Plus (trifloxystrobin + captan and Tercel (pyraclostrobin+ dithianon in comparison with standard fungicides Zato 50-WG (trifloxystrobin and Stroby + Delan (kresoxim-methyl + dithianon were tested in the localities Mihajlovac, Radmilovac and Landol in 2004 and 2005. Both tested fungicides exhibited high efficacy in controlling apple scab. There were significant differencies in the efficacies of Flint Plus (91.3-98.5% and Zato 50-WG (68.2% and 78.4%; and Tercel (88.7-93.5% and Stroby + Delan (77.9% and 82.1%. Our experiments showed that the investigated fungicide mixtures arehighly effective against V. inaqeulais, even under high disease pressure.

  13. Changes in metabolic activities of Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and Rhizoctonia solani in response to Dithan A-40 fungicide.

    Zaki, M M; Mahmoud, S A; Hamed, A S; Sahab, A F

    1979-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations of Dithan A-40 fungicide on the metabolic activities of the wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae and the root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani was studied. All toxicant concentrations reduced energy generation, total phosphorus and nitrogen content of both fungi. In addition, the toxicant caused a shift in free amino acids pool. As a result of these changes, the mycelium dry weight of both fungi was greatly reduced. R. solani was more sensitive to the toxic effect of Dithan A-40 than F. oxysporum.

  14. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Amaradasa, B Sajeewa; Everhart, Sydney E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment, and

  15. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    B Sajeewa Amaradasa

    Full Text Available Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor, iprodione (unclear mode of action, thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors. Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each. Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001. Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the

  16. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Amaradasa, B. Sajeewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50–100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment

  17. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Resumé: Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female-offspring. B......-offspring. Besides, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties...

  18. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Sankar Boxi, Siddhartha; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-02-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag-S and disulfide bonds (R-S-S-R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated •OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling.

  19. Ag doped hollow TiO2 nanoparticles as an effective green fungicide against Fusarium solani and Venturia inaequalis phytopathogens

    Boxi, Siddhartha Sankar; Mukherjee, Khushi; Paria, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Chemical-based pesticides are widely used in agriculture to protect crops from insect infestation and diseases. However, the excessive use of highly toxic pesticides causes several human health (neurological, tumor, cancer) and environmental problems. Therefore nanoparticle-based green pesticides have become of special importance in recent years. The antifungal activities of pure and Ag doped (solid and hollow) TiO 2 nanoparticles are studied against two potent phytopathogens, Fusarium solani (which causes Fusarium wilt disease in potato, tomato, etc) and Venturia inaequalis (which causes apple scab disease) and it is found that hollow nanoparticles are more effective than the other two. The antifungal activities of the nanoparticles were further enhanced against these two phytopathogens under visible light exposure. The fungicidal effect of the nanoparticles depends on different parameters, such as particle concentration and the intensity of visible light. The minimum inhibitory dose of the nanoparticles for V. inaequalis and F. solani are 0.75 and 0.43 mg/plate. The presence of Ag as a dopant helps in the formation of stable Ag–S and disulfide bonds (R–S–S–R) in cellular protein, which leads to cell damage. During photocatalysis generated • OH radicals loosen the cell wall structure and this finally leads to cell death. The mechanisms of the fungicidal effect of nanoparticles against these two phytopathogens are supported by biuret and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride analyses and field emission electron microscopy. Apart from the fungicidal effect, at a very low dose (0.015 mg/plate) the nanoparticles are successful in arresting production of toxic napthoquinone pigment for F. solani which is related to the fungal pathogenecity. The nanoparticles are found to be effective in protecting potatoes affected by F. solani or other fungi from spoiling. (paper)

  20. Comparative efficacy of different fungicides against fusarium wilt of chickpea (cicer arietinum l.)

    Maitlo, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the most serious and widespread disease of chickpea, causing a 100% loss under favorable conditions. Fourteen fungicides were evaluated against wilt pathogen In vitro with five different concentrations ranging from 1-10000 ppm. Among these only Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl was found as the most effective at all used concentrations. Other fungicides like Aliette, Nativo, Hombre-excel and Dividend star were found to be moderately effective. Whereas, remaining fungicides were ineffective against the targeted pathogen. Generally, a positive co-relation was observed between increasing concentrations of the tested fungicides and inhibition of Foc. Based on In vitro results Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Aliette, Dividend-star, Hombre-excel, Score and Nativo were selected for pot and field experiments. The higher concentrations of the few fungicides completely inhibited the pathogen as well as found to be phytotoxic and suppressed the plant growth while lower concentrations promoted the growth of chickpea plants. On over all bases, the Carbendazim and Thiophanate-methyl, followed by Aliette and Nativo were more effective in reducing the impact of pathogen as well as enhancing the plant growth in greenhouse experiment. Under field conditions, all fungicides except Score remarkably decreased the disease development and subsequently increased the plant growth as well as grain yield as compared to untreated plants. (author)

  1. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  2. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin.

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-09-15

    Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose-response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC25 and EC50. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Our evaluation provides an appropriate "proof of concept", but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides.

    Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent

  4. Modeling the influence of raindrop size on the wash-off losses of copper-based fungicides sprayed on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves.

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Paradelo, Marcos; Rodríguez-Salgado, Isabel; Fernández-Calviño, David; López-Periago, José Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    Modeling the pesticide wash-off by raindrops is important for predicting pesticide losses and the subsequent transport of pesticides to soil and in soil run-off. Three foliar-applied copper-based fungicide formulations, specifically the Bordeaux mixture (BM), copper oxychloride (CO), and a mixture of copper oxychloride and propylene glycol (CO-PG), were tested on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaves using a laboratory raindrop simulator. The losses in the wash-off were quantified as both copper in-solution loss and copper as particles detached by the raindrops. The efficiency of the raindrop impact on the wash-off was modeled using a stochastic model based on the pesticide release by raindrops. In addition, the influence of the raindrop size, drop falling height, and fungicide dose was analyzed using a full factorial experimental design. The average losses per dose after 14 mm of dripped water for a crop with a leaf area index equal to 1 were 0.08 kg Cu ha(-1) (BM), 0.3 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO) and 0.47 kg Cu ha(-1) (CO-PG). The stochastic model was able to simulate the time course of the wash-off losses and to estimate the losses of both Cu in solution and as particles by the raindrop impacts. For the Cu-oxychloride fungicides, the majority of the Cu was lost as particles that detached from the potato leaves. The percentage of Cu lost increased with the decreasing raindrop size in the three fungicides for the same amount of dripped water. This result suggested that the impact energy is not a limiting factor in the particle detachment rate of high doses. The dosage of the fungicide was the most influential factor in the losses of Cu for the three formulations studied. The results allowed us to quantify the factors that should be considered when estimating the losses by the wash-off of copper-based fungicides and the inputs of copper to the soil by raindrop wash-off.

  5. Fate and activity of fungal BCAs delivered to strawberry flowers and their potential for integration with fungicides

    Jensen, Birgit; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a serious strawberry disease. Yield loss is prevented by repeated fungicide treatments during flowering which increases the risk of pesticide residues in berries. Fruit lesions are typically initiated from B. cinerea infected stamens or from dead infected......) the interaction between BCAs and B. cinerea on strawberry flowers, 2) the sensitivity of BCAs to strawberry fungicides, and 3) the effect of combined BCA+fungicide treatment on BCAs and on the indigenous mycobiota....

  6. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  7. Photoreduction of chlorothalonil fungicide on plant leaf models.

    Monadjemi, S; El Roz, M; Richard, C; Ter Halle, A

    2011-11-15

    Photodegradation is seldom considered at the surface of vegetation after crop spraying. Chlorothalonil, a broad-spectrum foliar fungicide with a very widespread use worldwide, was considered. To represent the waxy upper layer of leaves, tests were performed within thin paraffin wax films or in n-heptane. Laser flash photolysis together with steady-state irradiation in n-heptane allowed the determination of the photodegradation mechanisms Chlorothalonil ability to produce singlet oxygen was measured; noteworthy its efficiency is close to 100%. Additionally, chlorothalonil photodegradation mainly proceeds through reductive dechlorination. In these hydrophobic media, a radical mechanism was evidenced. Photochemical tests on wax films under simulated solar light show that formulated chlorothalonil is more reactive than pure chlorothalonil. The field-extrapolated half-life of photolysis on vegetation was estimated to 5.3 days. This value was compared to the half-lives of penetration and volatilization available in the literature. It appears that chlorothalonil dissipation from crops is ruled by both photodegradation and penetration. The relative importance of the two paths probably depends on meteorological factors and on physicochemical characteristics of the crop leaf cuticle.

  8. Effects of triazole fungicides on androgenic disruption and CYP3A4 enzyme activity.

    Lv, Xuan; Pan, Liumeng; Wang, Jiaying; Lu, Liping; Yan, Weilin; Zhu, Yanye; Xu, Yiwen; Guo, Ming; Zhuang, Shulin

    2017-03-01

    Triazole fungicides are widely used as broad-spectrum fungicides, non-steroidal antiestrogens and for various industrial applications. Their residues have been frequently detected in multiple environmental and human matrices. The increasingly reported toxicity incidents have led triazole fungicides as emerging contaminants of environmental and public health concern. However, whether triazole fungicides behave as endocrine disruptors by directly mimicking environmental androgens/antiandrogens or exerting potential androgenic disruption indirectly through the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme activity is yet an unresolved question. We herein evaluated five commonly used triazole fungicides including bitertanol, hexaconazole, penconazole, tebuconazole and uniconazole for the androgenic and anti-androgenic activity using two-hybrid recombinant human androgen receptor (AR) yeast bioassay and comparatively evaluated their effects on enzymatic activity of CYP3A4 by P450-Glo™ CYP3A4 bioassay. All five fungicides showed moderate anti-androgenic activity toward human AR with the IC 50 ranging from 9.34 μM to 79.85 μM. The anti-androgenic activity remained no significant change after the metabolism mediated by human liver microsomes. These fungicides significantly inhibited the activity of CYP3A4 at the environmental relevant concentrations and the potency ranks as tebuconazole > uniconazole > hexaconazole > penconazole > bitertanol with the corresponding IC 50 of 0.81 μM, 0.93 μM, 1.27 μM, 2.22 μM, and 2.74 μM, respectively. We found that their anti-androgenic activity and the inhibition potency toward CYP3A4 inhibition was significantly correlated (R 2 between 0.83 and 0.97, p pesticides and structurally similar chemicals should fully consider potential androgenic disrupting effects and the influences on the activity of CYP450s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of three pesticides that differ in mode of action on the ecology of small indoor aquatic microcosms; an evaluation of the effects of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, the herbicide atrazine and the fungicide carbendazim

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the usefulness of an eight litre microcosm for the ecological risk assessment of pesticides is examined. Risk assessment studies were performed for three pesticides with different modes of action, viz. an insecticide (chlorpyrifos), fungicide (carbendazim) and herbicide

  10. Metabolite profiles of striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole are consistent with altered steroidogenesis and oxidative stress.

    Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-06-01

    Amphibians use wetlands in urban and agricultural landscapes for breeding, growth and development. Fungicides and other pesticides used in these areas have therefore been identified as potential threats that could contribute towards amphibian population declines. However, relatively little is known about how such chemicals influence sensitive early life-stages or how short episodic exposures influence sub-lethal physiological and metabolic pathways. The present study applied untargeted metabolomics to evaluate effects in early post-hatch amphibian larvae exposed to the anti-androgenic fungicides vinclozolin and propiconazole. Recently hatched (Gosner developmental stage 25) striped marsh frog (Limnodynastes peronii) larvae were exposed for 96 h to vinclozolin at 17.5, 174.8 and 1748.6 nM and propiconazole at 5.8, 58.4 and 584.4 nM. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was performed on polar metabolites obtained from whole-body extracts. Both fungicides altered metabolite profiles compared to control animals at all concentrations tested, and there were notable differences between the two chemicals. Overall responses were consistent with altered steroidogenesis and/or cholesterol metabolism, with inconsistent responses between the two fungicides likely reflecting minor differences in the mechanisms of action of these chemicals. Broad down-regulation of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was also observed and is indicative of oxidative stress. Interestingly, formic acid was significantly increased in larvae exposed to vinclozolin but not propiconazole, suggesting this metabolite may serve as a useful biomarker of exposure to androgen-receptor binding anti-androgenic contaminants. This study demonstrates the power of untargeted metabolomics for distinguishing between similarly acting, but distinct, pollutants and for unraveling non-endocrine responses resulting from exposure to known endocrine active contaminants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Foliar application of pyraclostrobin fungicide enhances the growth, rhizobial-nodule formation and nitrogenase activity in soybean (var. JS-335).

    Joshi, Juhie; Sharma, Sonika; Guruprasad, K N

    2014-09-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the impact of the fungicide pyraclostrobin (F500 - Headline®; a.i. 20%) on the activity of nitrogenase in soybean (var. JS-335). Pyraclostrobin (F500) was applied on the leaves of soybean plants at 10 and 20 days after emergence (DAE) of seedlings at concentrations ranging from 0.05% to 1%. Leghemoglobin (Lb) content and nitrogenase activity in root nodules were analyzed at 45(th)day after emergence of seedlings indicated a remarkable increase in Lb content and enhanced activity of nitrogenase in the root nodules of pyraclostrobin treated plants. The fungicide also enhanced the number of nodules along with weight of nodules, root biomass and growth of shoot and leaves. Enhanced nitrogen fixation in the root nodules by pyraclostrobin improves the growth of the plant in soybean before flowering and pod formation which ultimately resulted in yield and yield attributes. These results suggest that pyraclostrobin (F500) can be successfully employed as a foliar spray under field conditions to enhance the growth, nitrogen assimilation and hence yield of soybean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All

  13. Cytoplasmic fungal lipases release fungicides from ultra-deformable vesicular drug carriers.

    Gero Steinberg

    Full Text Available The Transfersome® is a lipid vesicle that contains membrane softeners, such as Tween 80, to make it ultra-deformable. This feature makes the Transfersome® an efficient carrier for delivery of therapeutic drugs across the skin barrier. It was reported that TDT 067 (a topical formulation of 15 mg/ml terbinafine in Transfersome® vesicles has a much more potent antifungal activity in vitro compared with conventional terbinafine, which is a water-insoluble fungicide. Here we use ultra-structural studies and live imaging in a model fungus to describe the underlying mode of action. We show that terbinafine causes local collapse of the fungal endoplasmic reticulum, which was more efficient when terbinafine was delivered in Transfersome® vesicles (TFVs. When applied in liquid culture, fluorescently labeled TFVs rapidly entered the fungal cells (T(1/2~2 min. Entry was F-actin- and ATP-independent, indicating that it is a passive process. Ultra-structural studies showed that passage through the cell wall involves significant deformation of the vesicles, and depends on a high concentration of the surfactant Tween 80 in their membrane. Surprisingly, the TFVs collapsed into lipid droplets after entry into the cell and the terbinafine was released from their interior. With time, the lipid bodies were metabolized in an ATP-dependent fashion, suggesting that cytosolic lipases attack and degrade intruding TFVs. Indeed, the specific monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor URB602 prevented Transfersome® degradation and neutralized the cytotoxic effect of Transfersome®-delivered terbinafine. These data suggest that (a Transfersomes deliver the lipophilic fungicide Terbinafine to the fungal cell wall, (b the membrane softener Tween 80 allows the passage of the Transfersomes into the fungal cell, and (c fungal lipases digest the invading Transfersome® vesicles thereby releasing their cytotoxic content. As this mode of action of Transfersomes is independent of the

  14. Influence of biochar on the enantioselective behavior of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in soil

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Hermosín, María Carmen; Cox, Lucía; Celis, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Chiral pesticides comprise an emerging and important class of organic pollutants currently, accounting for more than a quarter of used pesticides. Consequently, the contamination problems caused by chiral pesticides are concern matter and factors affecting enantioselective processes of chiral pesticides in soil need to be understood. For example, certain soil management practices, such as the use of organic amendments, can affect the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticides in soils. Recently, biochar (BC), i.e. organic matter subjected to pyrolysis, has been proposed as organic amendment due to beneficial properties such as its high stability against decay in soil environments and its apparent ability to influence the availability of nutrients. BC is considered to be more biologically inert as compared to otherforms of organic carbon. However, its side-effects on the enantioselectivity of processes affecting the fate of chiral pesticides is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of biochar (BC) on the enantioselectivity of sorption, degradation, and leaching of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl in an agricultural soil. Amending the soil with BC (2% w/w) resulted in 3 times higher sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers compared to unamended soil, but no enantioselectivity in the process was observed. Moreover, both enantiomers showed some resistance to be desorbed in BC-amended soil compared to unamended soil. Dissipation studies revealed that the degradation of metalaxylwas more enantioselective in the unamended soil than in BC-amended soil. In unamended soil, R-metalaxyl(biologically active) and S- metalaxyl had half-lives (t1/2) of 3 and 34 days, respectively. BC enhanced the persistence of both enantiomers in the soil, with R-metalaxyl being degraded faster (t1/2=43 days) than S-metalaxyl (t1/2= 100 days). The leaching of both S-and R-metalaxyl was almost suppressed after amending the soil with BC; less than 10% of the fungicide applied to soil

  15. Control Efficacy of Fungicides on Chinese Cabbage Clubroot under Several Conditions

    Min-Yong Eom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To develop the efficient screening methods for antifungal compound active to Chinese cabbage clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, the control efficacy of three fungicides fluazinam, ethaboxam, and cyazofamid on the disease was tested under several conditions such as soil types, cultivars of Chinese cabbage, growth stages of the host, and inoculum concentrations. The in vivo antifungal activities of the fungicides on clubroot of two Chinese cabbage cultivars were hardly different. At 7- and 14-day-old seedlings, the fungicides were more effective to control of clubroot than at 21-day-old seedlings. In a commercial horticulture media soil (CNS, disease severity of untreated controls was higher and control activity of the fungicides was less than in a mixture of CNS and upland soil (1:1, v/v. Disease development of the seedlings inoculated with P. brassicae at 1.8×10(7 spores/pot to 1.1×10(9 spores/pot was almost same, but control efficacy of the fungicides was negatively correlated with inoculum dosages. To effectively select in vivo antifungal compound on Chinese cabbage clubroot, 14-day-old seedlings need to be inoculated with P. brassicae by drenching the spore suspension to give 1×10(8 spores/pot 1 day after chemical treatment. To develop clubroot, the inoculated plants are incubated in a growth chamber at 20℃ for 2 days, and then cultivated in a greenhouse (20±5℃ for four weeks.

  16. Effectiveness of Different Classes of Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Fruit and Vegetables

    Joon-Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC₅₀ < 0.1 μg/ml, and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC₅₀ = 50 μg/ml, at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides.

  17. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioidesmycelial morphology and fumonisin B1 production

    Tatiana de Á. Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14th day in the treatments and on the 10th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B1production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment was detected from the 7th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control it was detected on the 10th day. The highest fumonisin B1 production occurred on the 14th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  18. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B₁ production.

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á; Bordini, Jaqueline G; Saito, Gervásio H; Andrade, Célia G T de J; Ono, Mario A; Hirooka, Elisa Y; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y S

    2015-03-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 (th) day in the treatments and on the 10 (th) day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 (th) day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 (th) day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 (th) day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.

  19. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  20. Effects of 2 fungicide formulations on microbial and macroinvertebrate leaf decomposition under laboratory conditions

    Elskus, Adria; Smalling, Kelly L.; Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic fungi contribute significantly to the decomposition of leaves in streams, a key ecosystem service. However, little is known about the effects of fungicides on aquatic fungi and macroinvertebrates involved with leaf decomposition. Red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves were conditioned in a stream to acquire microbes (bacteria and fungi), or leached in tap water (unconditioned) to simulate potential reduction of microbial biomass by fungicides. Conditioned leaves were exposed to fungicide formulations QUILT (azoxystrobin + propiconazole) or PRISTINE (boscalid + pyraclostrobin), in the presence and absence of the leaf shredder, Hyalella azteca (amphipods; 7-d old at start of exposures) for 14 d at 23 °C. QUILT formulation (~ 0.3 μg/L, 1.8 μg/L, 8 μg/L) tended to increase leaf decomposition by amphipods (not significant) without a concomitant increase in amphipod biomass, indicating potential increased consumption of leaves with reduced nutritional value. PRISTINE formulation (~ 33 μg/L) significantly reduced amphipod growth and biomass (p<0.05), effects similar to those observed with unconditioned controls. The significant suppressive effects of PRISTINE on amphipod growth, and the trend towards increased leaf decomposition with increasing QUILT concentration, indicate the potential for altered leaf decay in streams exposed to fungicides. Further work is needed to evaluate fungicide effects on leaf decomposition under conditions relevant to stream ecosystems, including temperature shifts and pulsed exposures to pesticide mixtures.

  1. Bioefficacy, residue dynamics and safety assessment of the combination fungicide trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%-75 WG in managing early blight of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Saha, Sujoy; Purath, Ahammed Shabeer Thekkum; Jadhav, Manjusha R; Loganathan, M; Banerjee, Kaushik; Rai, A B

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the in vitro and in vivo bioefficacy of a combination fungicide trifloxystrobin (25%) + tebuconazole (50%) against early blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) caused by Alternaria solani and their corresponding pre-harvest intervals (PHI) with reference to the maximum residue limits (European Union). Bioefficacy of the test fungicide combination revealed that in vitro conditions manifested the best control (75.1%) at 350 mg kg(-1) against 76.2% control under field conditions. A sample preparation method based on ethyl acetate extraction and estimation by LC-MS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was validated in tomato fruits at 0.01 mg/kg and dissipation studies were conducted in field at single and double doses. The residues of both the compounds on all the sampling days were below the European Union maximum residue limits (EU-MRLs) and the maximum permissible intakes (MPIs) were calculated on the basis of prescribed acceptable daily intake (ADI). The combined bioefficacy and residue dynamics information will support label-claim of this fungicide combination for the management of early blight in tomato.

  2. Melatonin Attenuates Potato Late Blight by Disrupting Cell Growth, Stress Tolerance, Fungicide Susceptibility and Homeostasis of Gene Expression in Phytophthora infestans

    Shumin Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora infestans (P. infestans is the causal agent of potato late blight, which caused the devastating Irish Potato Famine during 1845-1852. Until now, potato late blight is still the most serious threat to potato growth and has caused significant economic losses worldwide. Melatonin can induce plant innate immunity against pathogen infection, but the direct effects of melatonin on plant pathogens are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on P. infestans. Exogenous melatonin significantly attenuated the potato late blight by inhibiting mycelial growth, changing cell ultrastructure, and reducing stress tolerance of P. infestans. Notably, synergistic anti-fungal effects of melatonin with fungicides on P. infestans suggest that melatonin could reduce the dose levels and enhance the efficacy of fungicide against potato late blight. A transcriptome analysis was carried out to mine downstream genes whose expression levels were affected by melatonin. The analysis of the transcriptome suggests that 66 differentially expressed genes involved in amino acid metabolic processes were significantly affected by melatonin. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes associated with stress tolerance, fungicide resistance, and virulence were also affected. These findings contribute to a new understanding of the direct functions of the melatonin on P. infestans and provide a potential ecofriendly biocontrol approach using a melatonin-based paradigm and application to prevent potato late blight.

  3. Impact of three different fungicides on fungal epi- and endophytic communities of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and broad bean (Vicia faba).

    Prior, René; Mittelbach, Moritz; Begerow, Dominik

    2017-06-03

    In this study, the impacts of three different fungicides to fungal phyllosphere communities on broad bean (Vicia faba, Fabaceae) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae) were analyzed. The fungicides included copper, sulfur, and azoxystrobin. The plants were sowed, grown, and treated under conditions occurring in conventional and organic farming. A culture-based approach was used to identify changes in the phyllosphere fungal community after the treatment. Different effects on species richness and growth index of the epiphytic and endophytic communities for common bean and broad bean could be shown. Treatments with sulfur showed the weakest effect, followed by those based on copper and the systemic azoxystrobin, which showed the strongest effect especially on endophytic communities. The epiphytic fungal community took five weeks to recover after treatment with azoxystrobin. However, the effect of azoxystrobin on the endophytic community lasted more than five weeks. Finally, the data suggest that the surface structure of the host leaves have a huge impact on the mode of action that the fungicides exert.

  4. COMPARISON OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS AND MINERAL CONTENT IN EUCOMIS AUTUMNALIS (MILL. CHITT. PLANTS OBTAINED FROM BULBS TREATED WITH FUNGICIDES AND COATED WITH NATURAL POLYSACCHARIDES

    Piotr Salachna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucomis autumnalis is an attractive ornamental species from the South Africa, commonly used in natural medicine. Plant protection programs, particularly those concerning plants grown for phytotherapeutics, are focused on prophylactic treatments that facilitate a limited use of pesticides negatively affecting the environment. Polysaccharides, such as chitosan and sodium alginate are exemplary non-toxic and biodegradable substances used for hydrogel coatings. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of treating E. autumnalis bulbs with fungicide or coating with natural polysaccharides on the morphological traits and content of minerals in the leaves and bulbs. Prior to planting, the bulbs were divided into three groups: (I untreated bulbs (control; (II bulbs treated with Kaptan and Topsin fungicides; (III bulbs coated with oligochitosan and sodium alginate. Bulb coating was found to exert a stimulating effect on plant height, number and length of leaf, greenness index (SPAD, number of flowers per inflorescence, fresh weight of the aboveground part and fresh weight of bulbs. The leaves and bulbs of plants grown from coated bulbs contained more nitrogen, potassium and boron. Treating the bulbs with fungicides positively affected the number of leaves, greenness index and fresh weight of the aboveground part.

  5. Methyl Salicylate-Based Vortex-Assisted Surfactant-Enhanced Emulsification Microextraction and HPLC for Determination of Fungicides in Honey Samples.

    Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Bunchamnan, Jutamas; Tongsa, Darunee; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-12-01

    Methyl salicylate based vortex-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction (MeSA-VASEME) has been developed and applied for rapid preconcentration of fungicides (i.e., carbendazim, thiabendazole, and fluberidazole) in honey samples followed by high performance liquid chromatographic analysis. MeSA was used as an extraction solvent, while surfactant was used to enhance the extraction performance under the dispersion by vortex agitation. The optimum MeSA-VASEME conditions were 100 μL MeSA, 2.0 mmol L‒1 sodium dodecyl sulfate, and vortex agitation at 1200 rpm for 90 s. Preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 32-40. The limit of detection in the studied honey samples was 0.5 μg L‒1. The recovery of the spiked target fungicides at 20, 50, and 100 μg L‒1 were 81.5-116.8 % with the relative standard deviation below 11%. The proposed method is simple, sensitive, less organic solvent consuming, inexpensive, and a rapid procedure for the residue analysis of fungicides in honey samples.

  6. Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to fungicide resistance and implications for sampling.

    Van der Heyden, H; Dutilleul, P; Brodeur, L; Carisse, O

    2014-06-01

    Spatial distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to fungicide resistance was studied for Botrytis cinerea populations in vineyards and for B. squamosa populations in onion fields. Heterogeneity in this distribution was characterized by performing geostatistical analyses based on semivariograms and through the fitting of discrete probability distributions. Two SNPs known to be responsible for boscalid resistance (H272R and H272Y), both located on the B subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase gene, and one SNP known to be responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S) were chosen for B. cinerea in grape. For B. squamosa in onion, one SNP responsible for dicarboximide resistance (I365S homologous) was chosen. One onion field was sampled in 2009 and another one was sampled in 2010 for B. squamosa, and two vineyards were sampled in 2011 for B. cinerea, for a total of four sampled sites. Cluster sampling was carried on a 10-by-10 grid, each of the 100 nodes being the center of a 10-by-10-m quadrat. In each quadrat, 10 samples were collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or allele specific PCR. Mean SNP incidence varied from 16 to 68%, with an overall mean incidence of 43%. In the geostatistical analyses, omnidirectional variograms showed spatial autocorrelation characterized by ranges of 21 to 1 m. Various levels of anisotropy were detected, however, with variograms computed in four directions (at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° from the within-row direction used as reference), indicating that spatial autocorrelation was prevalent or characterized by a longer range in one direction. For all eight data sets, the β-binomial distribution was found to fit the data better than the binomial distribution. This indicates local aggregation of fungicide resistance among sampling units, as supported by estimates of the parameter θ of the β-binomial distribution of 0.09 to 0.23 (overall median value = 0

  7. Synthesis of Novel (E) -α-(methoxyimino) Benzeneacetate Derivatives and their Fungicidal Activities

    Wang, X.; Chen, P.; Pang, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Wu, G.; Wang, H.

    2015-01-01

    In order to find novel strobilurin derivatives with good fungicidal activities, a series of (E)-α-(methoxyimino)benzeneacetate analogues containing 1,2,4-triazole Schiff base moiety were designed and synthesized. Their structures were confirmed by IR,1H-NMR, HRMS or elemental analyses. The antifungal activities indicated that compounds 6 showed moderate to good fungicidal activities against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinereapers, Fusarium graminearum and Blumeria graminis at the concentration 50 μ g/mL. For example, compounds 6e and 6h exhibited promising antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinereapers and Fusarium graminearum. Compounds 6g and 6j had higher fungicidal activities against Blumeria graminis at the concentration of 50 μ g/ml, inhibitory rate is 95.32 percentage and 89.67 percentage, respectively. (author)

  8. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 25 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing.

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, K; Nielsen, P V

    1996-03-01

    Resistance of 19 mold and 6 yeast species to 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by using a suspension method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 degrees C. Disinfectants containing 0.5% dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g of chloramine-T per 1, 2.0% formaldehyde, 0.1% potassium hydroxide, 3.0% hydrogen peroxide, or 0.3% peracetic acid were ineffective as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine compounds showed great variability between species and among the six isolates of Penicillium roqueforti var. roqueforti tested. The isolates of P roqueforti var. carneum, P. discolor, Aspergillus versicolor, and Eurotium repens examined were resistant to different quaternary ammonium compounds. Conidia and vegetative cells were killed by alcohols, whereas ascospores were resistant. Resistance of ascospores to 70% ethanol increased with age. Both P. roqueforti var. roqueforti and E. repens showed great variability of resistance within isolates of each species.

  9. In vitro Determination of Fungicide Inhibitory Concentration for Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates

    Bianca Moura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In vitro assays were preformed to obtain the IC50 of eight fungicides against Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates from Passo Fundo, RS, Ponta Grossa, PR, and Primavera do Leste, MT. Different concentrations of the fungicides were added to Petri dishes containing soybean leaf extract agar medium. One milliliter of P. pachyrhizi uredospore suspension at the concentration of 3.0 x 104 uredospores/mL was added to each dish for subsequent viability quantification. Only pyraclostrobin and the mixture trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole showed IC50 values inferior to 1.0 mg/L for all tested isolates, demonstrating high fungitoxicity. There was not loss of sensitivity to any of the tested fungicides.

  10. Characterization of biodegradable poly-3-hydroxybutyrate films and pellets loaded with the fungicide tebuconazole.

    Volova, Tatiana; Zhila, Natalia; Vinogradova, Olga; Shumilova, Anna; Prudnikova, Svetlana; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-03-01

    Biodegradable polymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) has been used as a matrix to construct slow-release formulations of the fungicide tebuconazole (TEB). P3HB/TEB systems constructed as films and pellets have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray structure analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. TEB release from the experimental formulations has been studied in aqueous and soil laboratory systems. In the soil with known composition of microbial community, polymer was degraded, and TEB release after 35 days reached 60 and 36 % from films and pellets, respectively. That was 1.23 and 1.8 times more than the amount released to the water after 60 days in a sterile aqueous system. Incubation of P3HB/TEB films and pellets in the soil stimulated development of P3HB-degrading microorganisms of the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Variovorax, and Streptomyces. Experiments with phytopathogenic fungi F. moniliforme and F. solani showed that the experimental P3HB/TEB formulations had antifungal activity comparable with that of free TEB.

  11. Determining the adsorption and desorption behavior of thiabendazole fungicide for five different agricultural soils

    Taghazal Zahra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Thiabendazole 2-(4'-thiazolylbenzimidazole (TBZ is a Benzimidazole fungicide. In the present study adsorption and desorption of TBZ was investigated through batch equilibrium method involving UV-Visible spectrophotometer and High-performance liquid chromatography. Linear and Freundlich coefficients and kinetics of TBZ was studied in different agricultural soils of Pakistan. 9.8µgml-1 and 12.09µgml-1 were highest values of Kd ads and Kd des respectively. Kf ads values ranged from 6.6 to 8µgml-1 whereas values of Kf des followed the range of 1.5µgml-1 to 9.8µgml-1. Most of the samples depict negative hysteresis as their 1/ndes was more than 1/nads. Gibbs or free energy change (∆G and hysteresis vividly proved physical and reversible adsorption process. The values of K om and Koc were indicated medium mobility group of TBZ in selected soils. However all kinetic values varied significantly from sample to sample depending on their physicochemical parameters.

  12. Gating in grapevine: Relationship between application of the fungicide fludioxonil and circadian rhythm on photosynthesis

    Petit, Anne-Noelle [Laboratoire de Stress, Defenses et Reproduction des Plantes, URVVC-SE EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, F-51687 REIMS Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: petit081@etudiant.univ-reims.fr; Fontaine, Florence [Laboratoire de Stress, Defenses et Reproduction des Plantes, URVVC-SE EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, F-51687 REIMS Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: florence.fontaine@univ-reims.fr; Clement, Christophe [Laboratoire de Stress, Defenses et Reproduction des Plantes, URVVC-SE EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, F-51687 REIMS Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: christophe.clement@univ-reims.fr; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie [Laboratoire de Stress, Defenses et Reproduction des Plantes, URVVC-SE EA 2069, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Batiment 18, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, F-51687 REIMS Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: nathalie.vaillant-gaveau@univ-reims.fr

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the fludioxonil (fdx) fungicide on the diurnal fluctuation in grapevine photosynthesis. Therefore, fdx treatment was performed at the end of flowering, at 8 am, 12 am or 7 pm. The study was performed in experimental field and several photosynthesis parameters were followed one day after treatment. Morning fdx treatment induced (i) a significant and simultaneous drop of both photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance between 8 am and 4 pm and (ii) an increase of intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration when compared to control plants. On the contrary, evening fdx treatment did not affect Pn whereas midday treatment caused Pn increase after 4 pm. These data suggest that (i) morning fdx treatment results in a non-stomatal limitation of Pn, (ii) midday treatment is more suitable to treat grapevine with fdx and (iii) a phenomenon of gating was noticed. - The period of fdx spraying was an important parameter in stress response: the midday fdx treatment is more suitable to treat grapevine with fdx.

  13. Gating in grapevine: Relationship between application of the fungicide fludioxonil and circadian rhythm on photosynthesis

    Petit, Anne-Noelle; Fontaine, Florence; Clement, Christophe; Vaillant-Gaveau, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the fludioxonil (fdx) fungicide on the diurnal fluctuation in grapevine photosynthesis. Therefore, fdx treatment was performed at the end of flowering, at 8 am, 12 am or 7 pm. The study was performed in experimental field and several photosynthesis parameters were followed one day after treatment. Morning fdx treatment induced (i) a significant and simultaneous drop of both photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance between 8 am and 4 pm and (ii) an increase of intercellular CO 2 concentration when compared to control plants. On the contrary, evening fdx treatment did not affect Pn whereas midday treatment caused Pn increase after 4 pm. These data suggest that (i) morning fdx treatment results in a non-stomatal limitation of Pn, (ii) midday treatment is more suitable to treat grapevine with fdx and (iii) a phenomenon of gating was noticed. - The period of fdx spraying was an important parameter in stress response: the midday fdx treatment is more suitable to treat grapevine with fdx

  14. Implementation of bio-fungicides and seed treatment in organic rice cv. KDML 105 farming.

    Thobunluepop, Pitipong

    2009-08-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the several chemical compounds of relatively composite structure with antifungal activity from Thai local medical plants. The antifungal activity of Stemona curtisii HK. f., Stemona tuberose L., Acorus calamus L., Eugenia caryophyllus, Memmea siamensis Kost. and an eugenol active compound were studied in vitro. Four pathogenic seed borne fungi, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium moniliforme and Rhizoctonia solani were used as target organisms. The agar overlay technique and spore inhibition techniques were applied for the determination of their essential oil and active compound antifungal activity at various concentration; 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00% (v/v) and untreated as control (0% v/v). Eugenol active compound showed the strongest antifungal activity on all species of tested fungal species. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of those bio-fungicides was lined up into a series from strong to low, as follows: Eugenia caryophyllus > Acorus calamus Linn. > Stemona tuberosa L. > Stemona curtisii Hk.f, while Mammea siamensis Kost. could not control any fungal species. Moreover, after eugenol application, lysis of spore and inhibition of mycelium growth were detected. Microscopic analysis exhibited complete lysis of spores after 24 h at a concentration of 1.00% v/v. Moreover, at the same concentration and 96 h incubation the mycelia growth was completely inhibited.

  15. Unlikely remedy: fungicide clears infection from pathogenic fungus in larval southern leopard frogs (Lithobates sphenocephalus.

    Shane M Hanlon

    Full Text Available Amphibians are often exposed to a wide variety of perturbations. Two of these, pesticides and pathogens, are linked to declines in both amphibian health and population viability. Many studies have examined the separate effects of such perturbations; however, few have examined the effects of simultaneous exposure of both to amphibians. In this study, we exposed larval southern leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates sphenocephalus to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and the fungicide thiophanate-methyl (TM at 0.6 mg/L under laboratory conditions. The experiment was continued until all larvae completed metamorphosis or died. Overall, TM facilitated increases in tadpole mass and length. Additionally, individuals exposed to both TM and Bd were heavier and larger, compared to all other treatments. TM also cleared Bd in infected larvae. We conclude that TM affects larval anurans to facilitate growth and development while clearing Bd infection. Our findings highlight the need for more research into multiple perturbations, specifically pesticides and disease, to further promote amphibian heath.

  16. Phytopharmacology of the rice diseases. I. In vitro tests on application of the dust fungicides to the important pathogenic fungi

    Hashioka, Y; Saito, T

    1953-01-01

    In this paper, the results of experiments on the repressing effect of selected fungicides on the growth of pathogenic fungi of rice are reported. Organic mercury compounds were tested and found to be more effective fungicides than copper. Their use in agriculture is recommended.

  17. 48 CFR 1552.235-73 - Access to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information...

    2010-10-01

    ... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). 1552.235-73 Section... Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996). As prescribed in... Act Confidential Business Information (APR 1996) In order to perform duties under the contract, the...

  18. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  19. The Synergistic Effects of Almond Protection Fungicides on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Forager Survival.

    Fisher, Adrian; Coleman, Chet; Hoffmann, Clint; Fritz, Brad; Rangel, Juliana

    2017-06-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) contributes ∼$17 billion annually to the United States economy, primarily by pollinating major agricultural crops including almond, which is completely dependent on honey bee pollination for nut set. Almond growers face constant challenges to crop productivity owing to pests and pathogens, which are often controlled with a multitude of agrochemicals. For example, fungicides are often applied in combination with other products to control fungal pathogens during almond bloom. However, the effects of fungicides on honey bee health have been so far understudied. To assess the effects of some of the top fungicides used during the 2012 California almond bloom on honey bee forager mortality, we collected foragers from a local apiary and exposed them to fungicides (alone and in various combinations) at the label dose, or at doses ranging from 0.25 to 2 times the label dose rate. These fungicides were Iprodione 2SE Select, Pristine, and Quadris. We utilized a wind tunnel and atomizer set up with a wind speed of 2.9 m/s to simulate field-relevant exposure of honey bees to these agrochemicals during aerial application in almond fields. Groups of 40-50 foragers exposed to either untreated controls or fungicide-laden treatments were monitored daily over a 10-d period. Our results showed a significant decrease in forager survival resulting from exposure to simulated tank mixes of Iprodione 2SE Select, as well as synergistic detrimental effects of Iprodione 2SE Select in combination with Pristine and Quadris on forager survival. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of Maize Hybrid and Foliar Fungicides on Yield Under Low Foliar Disease Severity Conditions.

    Mallowa, Sally O; Esker, Paul D; Paul, Pierce A; Bradley, Carl A; Chapara, Venkata R; Conley, Shawn P; Robertson, Alison E

    2015-08-01

    Foliar fungicide use in the U.S. Corn Belt increased in the last decade; however, questions persist pertaining to its value and sustainability. Multistate field trials were established from 2010 to 2012 in Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, and Wisconsin to examine how hybrid and foliar fungicide influenced disease intensity and yield. The experimental design was in a split-split plot with main plots consisting of hybrids varying in resistance to gray leaf spot (caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis) and northern corn leaf blight (caused by Setosphaera turcica), subplots corresponding to four application timings of the fungicide pyraclostrobin, and sub-subplots represented by inoculations with either C. zeae-maydis, S. turcica, or both at two vegetative growth stages. Fungicide application (VT/R1) significantly reduced total disease severity relative to the control in five of eight site-years (P<0.05). Disease was reduced by approximately 30% at Wisconsin in 2011, 20% at Illinois in 2010, 29% at Iowa in 2010, and 32 and 30% at Ohio in 2010 and 2012, respectively. These disease severities ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% in Wisconsin in 2011 to 16.7 to 22.1% in Illinois in 2010. The untreated control had significantly lower yield (P<0.05) than the fungicide-treated in three site-years. Fungicide application increased the yield by approximately 6% at Ohio in 2010, 5% at Wisconsin in 2010 and 6% in 2011. Yield differences ranged from 8,403 to 8,890 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2011 to 11,362 to 11,919 kg/ha in Wisconsin 2010. Results suggest susceptibility to disease and prevailing environment are important drivers of observed differences. Yield increases as a result of the physiological benefits of plant health benefits under low disease were not consistent.

  1. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline.

    Lei, Peng; Zhang, Xuebo; Xu, Yan; Xu, Gaofei; Liu, Xili; Yang, Xinling; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ling, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Take-all of wheat, caused by the soil-borne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, is one of the most important and widespread root diseases. Given that take-all is still hard to control, it is necessary to develop new effective agrochemicals. Pyrazole derivatives have been often reported for their favorable bioactivities. In order to discover compounds with high fungicidal activity and simple structures, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline, a biologically active group of natural products, was introduced to pyrazole structure. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized, and their fungicidal activities were evaluated. The bioassay results demonstrated that the title compounds displayed obvious fungicidal activities at a concentration of 50 μg/mL, especially against V. mali, S. sclerotiorum and G. graminis var. tritici. The inhibition rates of compounds 10d, 10e, 10h, 10i and 10j against G. graminis var. tritici were all above 90 %. Even at a lower concentration of 16.7 μg/mL, compounds 10d and 10e exhibited satisfied activities of 100 % and 94.0 %, respectively. It is comparable to that of the positive control pyraclostrobin with 100 % inhibition rate. A series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were synthesized and their structures were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR spectrum and HRMS or elemental analysis. The crystal structure of compound 10g was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Bioassay results indicated that all title compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities. In particular, compounds 10d and 10e showed comparable activities against G. graminis var. tritici with the commercial fungicide pyraclostrobin at the concentration of 16.7 μg/mL.Graphical abstractA series of pyrazole derivatives containing 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline were designed and synthesized. Bioassay results indicated that all these compounds exhibited obvious fungicidal activities.

  2. Some physiological changes in faba bean seedlings as affected by the treatment with the fungicide zineb

    Kamel, H.A.; Aly, M.A.S.; Afifi, L.M.

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effect of 10 ppm of the fungicide zineb (zine ethylene -1,2-bis dithiocarbamate) on photosynthesis, respiration and endogenous hormones levels of faba bean seedlings were studied after seed treatment or foliar application utilizing radiotracer techniques. A suggested scheme for faba bean treatment with zineb and a flow diagram for extraction, purification and separation of endogenous hormones are presented. The data obtained (seed treatment) revealed a marked reduction (41.8%) in the amount of 14C O 2 fixed or incorporated in different cell components of seedlings. On the other hand, respiratory activity was significantly increased recording 176.5% and manifesting a respired/fixed radio about 4 times of the corresponding control. In case of foliar application, the amount of 14C O 2 fixed showed remarkable decrease (50%) after 24 h of application then declined to reach almost control values after 72 h. The respiratory 14C O 2 showed a continuos increase with time reaching 398% after 72 h. Respired/fixed ratio amounted 0.8 after 72 h. Both treatments led to an increase in the amounts of endogenous hormones; cytokinines, auxins and ABA when compared with control values recording the highest values after 24 h. A substational reduction in the amount of gibberellin-like substances was observed. Zineb induced high stress on faba bean seedlings and had the impact to reduce the intensity of certain natural processes such as photosynthesis and respiration and increased the endogenous hormones

  3. Preliminary evaluation of fungicidal and termiticidal activities of filtrates from biomass slurry fuel production

    Kartal, S.N. [Istanbul University (Turkey). Forestry Faculty; Imamura, Y. [Kyoto University (Japan). Wood Research Institute; Tsuchiya, F.; Ohsato, K. [JGC Corporation, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    Biomass slurry fuel (BSF) production has recently been developed as a natural energy for the conversion of solid biomass into fuel. In addition to using fuel, filtrates from BSF production may also serve a chemical source with several organic compounds. There is an increasing interest in the research and application of biomass-based filtrates. In this study, fungicidal and termiticidal properties of filtrates from BSF production using sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and acacia (Acacia mangium) wood were evaluated in laboratory decay and termite resistance tests. Wood blocks treated with the filtrates showed increased resistance against brown-rot fungus, Formitopsis palustris. However the filtrates from sugi wood processed at 270{sup o}C which contained less phenolic compounds than the other filtrates were effective against white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor. Phenolic compounds of filtrates seemed to play a role in the decay resistance tests however the filtrates did not increase the durability of the wood blocks against subterranean termites Coptotermes formosanus. Despite high acetic and lactic acid content of the filtrates, vanillin content of the filtrates may have served as an additional food source and promoted termite attack. It can be concluded that filtrates with phenolic compounds from lignin degradation during BSF production can be considered for targeted inhibition of brown-rot. (author)

  4. Drinking water guideline for ethylene thiourea, a metabolite of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    Frakes, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The ethylene bisdithiocarbamate fungicides are the most heavily used pesticides in Maine. Ethylene thiourea (ETU) is a metabolite and environmental decomposition product of these compounds, is highly water soluble, and has been detected in groundwater in the state. ETU is a recognized animal carcinogen and teratogen. When administered in the diet, ETU produced a significant increase in thyroid carcinomas in rats in two studies. Two strains of mice fed ETU in the diet developed an increased incidence of hepatomas and a slight increase in lymphomas. Application of the linearized multistage model resulted in virtually safe doses (10(-5) lifetime cancer risk) of 0.25 to 1.6 micrograms/kg/day. The major teratologic effect has been the development of hydrocephalus and other CNS defects postnatally, resulting in a high mortality rate among the offspring. The NOEL for this effect was 5 mg/kg in a single oral dose. Retarded parietal ossification was observed at 5 mg/kg/day. Serious nononcogenic thyroid effects, such as goiter, decreased 131I uptake, and reduced thyroxine production, have been observed. Thyroid hyperplasia was produced at doses as low as 0.3 mg/kg/day ETU ingested in the diet. Based on protection against thyroid and/or liver tumors and alteration in thyroid function, the recommended Drinking Water Guideline for ETU is determined to be 3 ppb. This will also provide protection against developmental effects, since these occur at doses that are one to two orders of magnitude higher. 37 references

  5. Systems and rates of aerial application of fungicides in irrigated rice

    Tânia Bayer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present research studied the performance of flat-fan and hollow-cone nozzles, with application rates of 20 and 30 L ha-1, and rotary disc atomizer with application rates of 10 and 15 L ha-1. The test was conducted with a fungicide spray tank composed of Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole, in which the density and penetration of droplets into the canopy were evaluated using a water-sensitive paper and the distribution of the active ingredients in the plant was evaluated through the chromatographic analysis. Higher application rates resulted in higher droplet density in the upper stratum of plants. In all treatments, the penetration of the droplets was 26% into the middle stratum and 23% into the lower stratum, in relation to the top of the crop, resulting in an average 25% penetration of droplets into the leaf canopy. The active ingredients were distributed in greater quantity in the upper stratum of the plant. For the same weight, the upper part of the ‘Puitá Inta CL’ rice cultivar has a leaf area 6.4 times larger than the lower part. It was concluded that higher application rate leads to higher droplet density in the upper stratum of the leaf canopy and that all systems and application rates promoted similar penetration of droplets into the canopy.

  6. Endocrine disruptors and hypospadias: role of genistein and the fungicide vinclozolin.

    Vilela, Marcelo L B; Willingham, Emily; Buckley, Jill; Liu, Ben Chun; Agras, Koray; Shiroyanagi, Yoshiyuki; Baskin, Laurence S

    2007-09-01

    The phytoestrogen (plant estrogen) genistein, present in soy products, is of interest because in utero exposure to genistein can cause hypospadias in our mouse model and maternal consumption of soy is prevalent in human populations. Another compound of interest is the fungicide vinclozolin, which also causes hypospadias in the mouse and rat and can occur concurrently with genistein in the diet as a residue on exposed foods. A study in the United Kingdom found no relationship between a maternal organic vegetarian diet and hypospadias frequency, but women who consumed nonorganic vegetarian diets had a greater percentage of sons with hypospadias. Because nonorganic diets can include residues of pesticides such as vinclozolin, we sought to assess the interaction of realistic daily exposures to genistein and vinclozolin and their effects on the incidence of hypospadias. Pregnant mice were fed a soy-free diet and orally gavaged from gestational days 13 to 17 with 0.17 mg/kg/day of genistein, 10 mg/kg/day of vinclozolin, or genistein and vinclozolin together at the same doses, all in 100 microL of corn oil. The controls received the corn oil vehicle. The male fetuses were examined at gestational day 19 for hypospadias, both macroscopically and histologically. We identified no hypospadias in the corn oil group. The incidence of hypospadias was 25% with genistein alone, 42% with vinclozolin alone, and 41% with genistein and vinclozolin together. These findings support the idea that exposure to these compounds during gestation could contribute to the development of hypospadias.

  7. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) androgen receptor: sequence homology and up-regulation by the fungicide vinclozolin.

    Smolinsky, Amanda N; Doughman, Jennifer M; Kratzke, Liên-Thành C; Lassiter, Christopher S

    2010-03-01

    Steroid hormones regulate gene expression in organisms by binding to receptor proteins. These hormones include the androgens, which signal through androgen receptors (ARs). Endocrine disrupters (EDCs) are chemicals in the environment that adversely affect organisms by binding to nuclear receptors, including ARs. Vinclozolin, a fungicide used on fruit and vegetable crops, is a known anti-androgen, a type of EDC that blocks signals from testosterone and its derivatives. In order to better understand the effects of EDCs, further research on androgen receptors and other hormone signaling pathways is necessary. In this study, we demonstrate the evolutionary conservation between the genomic structure of the human and zebrafish ar genes and find that ar mRNA expression increases in zebrafish embryos exposed to vinclozolin, which may be evolutionarily conserved as well. At 48 and 72 h post-fertilization, vinclozolin-treated embryos express ar mRNA 8-fold higher than the control level. These findings suggest that zebrafish embryos attempt to compensate for the presence of an anti-androgen by increasing the number of androgen receptors available.

  8. The Fungicidal Activity of Thymol against Fusarium graminearum via Inducing Lipid Peroxidation and Disrupting Ergosterol Biosynthesis

    Tao Gao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thymol is a natural plant-derived compound that has been widely used in pharmaceutical and food preservation applications. However, the antifungal mechanism for thymol against phytopathogens remains unclear. In this study, we identified the antifungal action of thymol against Fusarium graminearum, an economically important phytopathogen showing severe resistance to traditional chemical fungicides. The sensitivity of thymol on different F. graminearum isolates was screened. The hyphal growth, as well as conidial production and germination, were quantified under thymol treatment. Histochemical, microscopic, and biochemical approaches were applied to investigate thymol-induced cell membrane damage. The average EC50 value of thymol for 59 F. graminearum isolates was 26.3 μg·mL−1. Thymol strongly inhibited conidial production and hyphal growth. Thymol-induced cell membrane damage was indicated by propidium iodide (PI staining, morphological observation, relative conductivity, and glycerol measurement. Thymol induced a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA concentration and a remarkable decrease in ergosterol content. Taken together, thymol showed potential antifungal activity against F. graminearum due to the cell membrane damage originating from lipid peroxidation and the disturbance of ergosterol biosynthesis. These results not only shed new light on the antifungal mechanism of thymol, but also imply a promising alternative for the control of Fusarium head blight (FHB disease caused by F. graminearum.

  9. Determination of strobilurin fungicide residues in fruits and vegetables by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping.

    Wang, Kun; Chen, Guan-hua; Wu, Xian; Shi, Jie; Guo, Dong-shan

    2014-02-01

    A new assay of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with sweeping was developed to determine azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin in fruits and vegetables. The key factors affecting resolution and peak height were studied and the optimum conditions were obtained for separation and enrichment. The running buffer consisted of 40 mM borate, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate and 15% acetonitrile, and its pH was adjusted to 8.4. The sample was injected for 677 nL and the separation voltage was 25 kV. Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and pyraclostrobin were 861, 550 and 403; the linear dynamic ranges were all 0.01-5.0 mg/L; the limits of detection were 0.002, 0.001 and 0.002 mg/kg; the recoveries of spiked samples were 85.1-98.5%, 87.5-97.0% and 89.1-99.1%, respectively. The assay can meet the requirement of maximum residue limits for these three strobilurin fungicides, and has been applied for determining their residues in fruits and vegetables.

  10. The effect of fungicides used in the protection of forest tree seedlings on the growth of ectomycorrhizal fungi

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungitoxical activity of ten fungictdes most commonly used in the phytopathological protection of forest nurseries was studied, using the in vitro screening method. The fungitoxical activity was studied against five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (seven strains. The resulting growth inhibition of fungi species and strains tested was prcscnted in terms of fungitoxicity classes of the preparations used. The highest total fungitoxicity against the mycelia of fungi taxa tested was found for Euparen, Bravo, Dithane M-45 and Ridomil. The weakest fungitoxical effect was observed for Topsin M and Bayleton. The least susceptible for the action of the fungicides studied were mycelia of Suillus luteus, while the most susceptible were those of Hebeloma crustuliniforme and Laccaria laccata. The study results arę useful for the selection of fungi strains proper for the artificial mycorrhization of seedlings.

  11. Predictive value of cell assays for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of conazole fungicides

    Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Taxvig, Camilla; Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj

    2013-01-01

    in reasonably good agreement with available in vivo effects. Ketoconazole and epoxiconazole are the most potent embryotoxic compounds, whereas prochloraz belongs to the most potent developmental toxicants. In conclusion, a rough prediction of the ranking of these conazole fungicides for in vivo toxicity data...

  12. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Conazole fungicides are widely used both agriculturally for the protection of crops, and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections. Heavy usage has created concern over the impact these compounds may have through environmental exposure to humans and ot...

  13. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Conazole fungicides are widely used both agriculturally for the protection of crops, and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections. Heavy usage has created concern over the impact these compounds may have through environmental exposure to humans and ot...

  14. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 24 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    Resistance of 19 mold- and 6 yeast- species against 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by a suspension-method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 °C. Disinfectants containing 0.5 % dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g/l chloramine-T, 2.0 % forma...

  15. Infectivity of the conidia of the rice blast fungus treated with the different fungicidal solutions

    Hashioka, Y; Ikegami, H

    1959-01-01

    Infectivity of the conidia of Piricularia oryzae (rice blast fungus) which had been treated with different fungicides was examined. Germination of conidia treated with phenylmercuric acetate was severely repressed. Copper sulfate had a mild inhibitory effect. Organosulfur compounds also had a slight inhibitory effect.

  16. DIFFERENTIATING TOXICITIES OF CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES THROUGH METABONOMIC ANALYSES OF MULTIPLE TISSUES

    The conazole fungicides represent a large group of compounds widely used agriculturally for the protection of crop plants (Hutson 1998) and pharmaceutically in the treatment of topical and systemic infections(Sheehan 1999). In 1999, the latest period for which agricultural usage...

  17. Tentative identification of 2-imidazoline as a transformation product of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides

    Vonk, J.W.; Kaars Sijpesteijn, A.

    2-Imidazoline has been identified tentatively as a minor conversion product of ethylenethiourea in seedlings of cucumber and wheat. As ethylenethiourea is known to be present in plants after root treatment with ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides, 2-imidazoline is assumed to be a terminal residue

  18. Synthesis and fungicidal properties of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5 ...

    The preparation of 2,4-diaza-1,3,5-pentanetrione compounds were described. The fungicidal effects of these compounds on the mycelial growth of the isolate, Phoma eupyrena were carried out by in vitro experiment. The results show that the response to treatment depended not only on the concentration of the compounds ...

  19. Effects of four fungicides on nine non-target submersed macrophytes

    Belgers, J.D.M.; Aalderink, G.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2009-01-01

    We tested the sensitivity of nine submersed macrophyte species to the fungicides chlorothalonil, pentachlorophenol, fluazinam, and carbendazim. Endpoints determined 3 weeks after the start of the treatment were based on shoot and root growth in water. Carbendazim proved not or only moderately toxic

  20. Interaction of basal foliage removal and late season fungicide applications in management of Hop powdery mildew

    Experiments were conducted over three years to evaluate whether fungicide applications could be ceased after the most susceptible stages of cone development (late July) without unduly affecting crop yield and quality when disease pressure was moderated with varying levels of basal foliage removal. I...

  1. Comparing protection afforded by different organic alternatives to conventional fungicides for reducing scab on pecan

    Pecan scab (Venturia effusa) is the major yield-limiting disease in the southeastern USA. Although conventional fungicides are available to manage the disease, there is no comparison of organic methods (organically produced nuts attract a higher price). In 2011, 2012, 2014, 2015 and 2016 trees of cv...

  2. Management of resistance to the fungicide fenpropimorph in Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici

    Engels, A.J.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the last three decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. This practice increased yield significantly but had also negative side-effects on the environment. In many countries, integrated control programs have been initiated in order to reduce pesticide use

  3. Fungicidal seed coatings exert minor effects on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant nutrient content

    Aims: Determine if contemporary, seed-applied fungicidal formulations inhibit colonization of plant roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, plant development, or plant nutrient content during early vegetative stages of several commodity crops. Methods: We evaluated seed-applied commercial fungic...

  4. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Comparative assessment of the effect of synthetic and natural fungicides on soil respiration.

    Stefani, Angelo; Felício, Joanna D'Arc; de Andréa, Mara M

    2012-01-01

    As toxic pesticide residues may persist in agricultural soils and cause environmental pollution, research on natural fungicides to replace the synthetic compounds is currently increasing. The effect of the synthetic fungicide chlorothalonil and a natural potential fungicide on the soil microbial activity was evaluated here by the substrate-induced respiration by addition of glucose (SIR), as bioindicator in two soils (Eutrophic Humic Gley-GHE and Typic Eutroferric Chernosol-AVEC). The induced soil respiration parameter was followed during 28 days after soil treatment either with chlorathalonil (11 μg·g(-1)), or the methanolic fraction from Polymnia sonchifolia extraction (300 μg·g(-1)), and (14)C-glucose (4.0 mg and 5.18 Bq of (14)C-glucose g(-1)). The (14)C-CO(2) produced by the microbial respiration was trapped in NaOH (0.1 M) which was changed each two hours during the first 10 h, and 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 28 days after the treatments. The methanolic fraction of the plant extract inhibited (2.2%) and stimulated (1.8%) the respiration of GHE and AVEC, respectively, but the synthetic chlorothalonil caused 16.4% and 2.6% inhibition of the respiration, respectively of the GHE and AVEC soils. As the effects of the natural product were statistically small, this bioindicator indicates that the methanolic fraction of the Polymnia sonchifolia extract, which has fungicide properties, has no environmental effects.

  6. Comparison of human health risks resulting from exposure to fungicides and mycotoxins via food

    Muri, S.D.; Voet, van der H.; Boon, P.E.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Bruschweiler, B.

    2009-01-01

    The interest in holistic considerations in the area of food safety is increasing. Risk managers may face the problem that reducing the risk of one compound may increase the risk of another compound. An example is the potential increase in mycotoxin levels due to a reduced use of fungicides in crop

  7. Application of Copper Solid Amalgam Electrode for Determination of Fungicide Tebuconazole

    Nováková, Kateřina; Navrátil, Tomáš; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Chýlková, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-16 ISSN 1452-3981 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP206/11/1638; GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tebuconazole * fungicide * copper solid amalgam electrode Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.956, year: 2013

  8. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes

    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (Ml) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, Ml and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by in...

  9. Using airborne imagery to monitor cotton root rot infection before and after fungicide treatment

    Cotton root rot is a severe soilborne disease that has affected cotton production for over a century. Recent research has shown that a commercial fungicide, flutriafol, has potential for the control of this disease. To effectively and economically control this disease, it is necessary to identify in...

  10. The fungicidal properties of the carbon materials obtained from chitin and chitosan promoted by copper salts

    Ilnicka, Anna, E-mail: annakucinska@o2.pl; Walczyk, Mariusz; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2015-07-01

    Renewable raw materials chitin and chitosan (N-deacetylated derivative of chitin) were subjected to action of different copper modifiers that were carbonized in the atmosphere of the N{sub 2} inert gas. As a result of the novel manufacturing procedure, a series of carbon materials was obtained with developed surface area and containing copper derivatives of differentiated form, size, and dispersion. The copper modifier and manufacturing procedure (concentration, carbonization temperature) influence the physical–chemical and fungicide properties of the carbons. The received carbons were chemically characterized using several methods like low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis, and bioassay. Besides chemical testing, some biological tests were performed and let to select carbons with the highest fungicidal activity. Such carbons were characteristic of the specific form of copper derivatives occurring in them, i.e., nanocrystallites of Cu{sup 0} and/or Cu{sub 2}O of high dispersion on the surface of carbon. The carbons may find an application as effective contact fungistatic agents in cosmetology, medicine, food industry, etc. - Highlights: • The novel manufacturing procedure yields new functional carbon materials. • Two biopolymers chitin and chitosan can undergo copper(II) ion modification. • The Cu-modified carbon materials exhibit high fungicidal activity. • The fungicidal activity results from the presence of Cu{sup 0} and Cu{sub 2}O nano-crystallites.

  11. Development and persistence of resistance to fungicides in Sphaerotheca fuliginea in cucumbers in the Netherlands

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    Ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors (EBIs) have a remarkably broad spectrum of antifungal activity. They belong to the commercial fungicides which exhibit the highest activity known to date. Resistance to EBIs was found in vitro, but the level of resistance and the decreased fitness of resistant

  12. In vitro sensitivity reduction of Fusarium graminearum to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Aveline Avozani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, Fusarium head blight (FHB affecting wheat can cause up to 39.8% damage. Resistant cultivars are not available yet; thus, short-term disease control relies on the use of fungicides. The first step to improve control is to monitor fungal populations that are sensitivity to chemicals in order to achieve efficient FHB management. In vitro experiments were conducted to evaluate the inhibitory concentration (IC50 of fungicides for both mycelial growth and conidial germination of ten Fusarium graminearum isolates. The following demethylation inhibitor (DMI fungicides were tested: metconazole, prothioconazole and tebuconazole. In addition, pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were included, representing QoI fungicides, as well as three co-formulations containing metconazole + pyraclostrobin, prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin, and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin. For mycelial growth, the overall mean IC50 of isolates was: metconazole 0.07, prothioconazole 0.1, and tebuconazole 0.19 mg/L. For the co-formulations, it was: prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin 0.08, tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin 0.12, and metconazole + pyraclostrobin 0.14 mg/L. Regarding spore germination inhibition, IC50 for prothioconazole + trifloxystrobin was 0.06, for tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin, 0.12 mg/L, for QoI alone pyraclostrobin, was 0.09, and for trifloxystrobin, 0.28 mg/L. There was a sensitivity shift among isolates and the highest fungitoxicity to F. graminearum was confirmed for prothioconazole, metconazole and tebuconazole .

  13. A reassessment of the risk of rust fungi developing resistance to fungicides.

    Oliver, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    Rust fungi are major pathogens of many annual and perennial crops. Crop protection is largely based on genetic and chemical control. Fungicide resistance is a significant issue that has affected many crop pathogens. Some pathogens have rapidly developed resistance and hence are regarded as high-risk species. Rust fungi have been classified as being low risk, in spite of sharing many relevant features with high-risk pathogens. An examination of the evidence suggests that rust fungi may be wrongly classified as low risk. Of the nine classes of fungicide to which resistance has developed, six are inactive against rusts. The three remaining classes are quinone outside inhibitors (QoIs), demethylation inhibitors (DMIs) and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs). QoIs have been protected by a recently discovered intron that renders resistant mutants unviable. Low levels of resistance have developed to DMIs, but with limited field significance. Older SDHI fungicides were inactive against rusts. Some of the SDHIs introduced since 2003 are active against rusts, so it may be that insufficient time has elapsed for resistance to develop, especially as SDHIs are generally sold in mixtures with other actives. It would therefore seem prudent to increase the level of vigilance for possible cases of resistance to established and new fungicides in rusts. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of artea, a systemic fungicide, on the antioxidant system and ...

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... from oxygen metabolism in mitochondria (Alscher et al.,. 2002). Plants have well ... effects on plant in the sense they may induce a decrease in growth as well as modulating the metabolic balance. Morphological effects of ... with fungicide concentration (about 150% at 100 ppm). At. 25 ppm, the increase in ...

  15. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  16. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    M. H. Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis gray mold (BGM caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010. Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%, and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%; Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%; and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale and the highest increase (38% of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance.

  17. Evaluation of some fungicides on mycorrhizal symbiosis between two Glomus species from commercial inocula and Allium porrum L. seedlings

    Hernandez-Dorrego, A.; Mestre Pares, J.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the effect of twenty-five commonly used fungicides in agriculture on two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) present in commercial products of ATENS, S.L.: Glomus intra radices (Schenck and Smith) and Glomus mosseae [(Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerdemann and Trappe], forming the symbiosis with leek plants. Systemic fungicides (Aliette, Beltanol, Caddy 10, Forum, Moncut, Ortiva, Previcur, Ridomil Gold MZ, Ridomil Gold SL, Rubigan, Sinthane, Stroby, Swich, Tachigarem, Teldor, Topas 10 EC, Frupica) and non systemic fungicides (Daconil 75%, Ditiver, Euparem, INACOP, Octagon, Parmex, Terrazole and Metaram), started to be applied to soil and leaves at recommended concentrations and frequencies 4 weeks after transplant and AMF inoculation. The effect of the fungicides was assessed by comparing treated and untreated plants that were inoculated with the AMF through quantification of root mycorrhizal colonization. Among the fungicides applied to the soil, Octagon, Ditiver, Parmex and Metaram virtually eliminated the mycorrhizal symbiosis in treated plants, while the mycorrhizal colonization was not affected by the soil treatment with Beltanol, INACOP and Previcur. Three fungicides of foliar recommended application: Rubigan, Frupica, and Sinthane, strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization, but Aliette, Forum, Teldor, Swich and Ortiva, did not seem to reduce it substantially. In addition, the work describes the individual effect of each fungicide applied on both, foliage and soil. (Author) 29 refs.

  18. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of N-thiazol-4-yl-salicylamides, a new family of anti-oomycete compounds.

    Sulzer-Mosse, Sarah; Cederbaum, Fredrik; Lamberth, Clemens; Berthon, Guillaume; Umarye, Jayant; Grasso, Valeria; Schlereth, Alexandra; Blum, Mathias; Waldmeier, Rita

    2015-05-01

    A novel class of experimental fungicides has been discovered, which consists of special N-thiazol-4-yl-salicylamides. They originated from amide reversion of lead structures from the patent literature and are highly active against important phytopathogens, such as Phytophthora infestans (potato and tomato late blight), Plasmopara viticola (grapevine downy mildew) and Pythium ultimum (damping-off disease). Structure-activity relationship studies revealed the importance of a phenolic or enolic hydroxy function in the β-position of a carboxamide. An efficient synthesis route has been worked out, which for the first time employs the carbonyldiimidazole-mediated Lossen rearrangement in the field of thiazole carboxylic acids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Fungicides, Essential Oils and Gamma Irradiated Bioagents on Chickpea Root Rot Caused by Sclerotium rolfsii

    El-Batal, A.I.; Fathy, R.M.; Ismail, A.A.; Mubark, H.M.; Mahmoud, Y.A.

    2011-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii) causes root rot disease in several crops including Cicer arietinum (chickpea) that results in low yield. In vitro experiments on fungicides, vitavax and monceren T, and essential oils, clove and mint oils, were conducted to control root rot disease of chickpea caused by S. rolfsii. The treatments resulted in 80 % suppression of root rot disease. Gliocladium virens (G. virens) and Gliocladium deliquescens (G. deliquescens) were effective as biocontrol agents against S. rolfsii. The results showed that these treatments greatly reduced the root rot disease in chickpea. In this study, the effect of gamma irradiation at doses 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy on the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii were investigated. The results revealed that gamma irradiation increased the pathogenecity of G. virens and G. deliquescens against S. rolfsii

  20. Aggregation-based colorimetric sensor for determination of prothioconazole fungicide using colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

    Ivrigh, Zahra Jafar-Nezhad; Fahimi-Kashani, Nafiseh; Hormozi-Nezhad, M. Reza

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing interest in developing high-performance sensors monitoring fungicides, due to their broadly usage and their adverse effects on humans and wildlife. In the present study, a colorimetric probe has been proposed for detection of prothioconazole based on aggregation of unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Under optimized condition, linear relationships between the concentration of prothioconazole and the absorbance ratio of A500/A395 were found over the range of 0.01 μg·mL- 1 to 0.4 μg·mL- 1 with quantification limit as low as 1.7 ng·mL- 1. Furthermore, AgNPs color change from yellow to pink-orange in presence of prothioconazole, indicates highly sensitive naked-eye colorimetric assay for quantifying prothioconazole in real applications. The proposed approach was successfully used for the determination of prothioconazole in wheat flour and paddy water sample.

  1. Probabilities for profitable fungicide use against gray leaf spot in hybrid maize.

    Munkvold, G P; Martinson, C A; Shriver, J M; Dixon, P M

    2001-05-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, causes considerable yield losses in hybrid maize grown in the north-central United States and elsewhere. Nonchemical management tactics have not adequately prevented these losses. The probability of profitably using fungicide application as a management tool for gray leaf spot was evaluated in 10 field experiments under conditions of natural inoculum in Iowa. Gray leaf spot severity in untreated control plots ranged from 2.6 to 72.8% for the ear leaf and from 3.0 to 7.7 (1 to 9 scale) for whole-plot ratings. In each experiment, fungicide applications with propiconazole or mancozeb significantly reduced gray leaf spot severity. Fungicide treatment significantly (P fungicide applications. For one application, the probability ranged from approximately 0.06 to more than 0.99, and exceeded 0.50 in six of nine scenarios (specific experiment/hybrid). The highest probabilities occurred in the 1995 experiments with the most susceptible hybrid. Probabilities were almost always higher for a single application of propiconazole than for two applications. These results indicate that a single application of propiconazole frequently can be profitable for gray leaf spot management in Iowa, but the probability of a profitable application is strongly influenced by hybrid susceptibility. The calculation of probabilities for positive net returns was more informative than mean separation in terms of assessing the economic success of the fungicide applications.

  2. Signum, a new fungicide for control of leaf diseases in outdoor vegetables.

    Callens, D; Sarrazyn, R; Evens, W

    2005-01-01

    During three years, the new fungicide Signum, containing 6.7% pyraclostrobine + 26.7 % boscalid and developed by BASF. has been evaluated in leek, carrots and cabbages in several outdoor field experiments under practical conditions and during one year in outdoor lettuce. In leek, Phytophthora porri is one of the major leaf diseases causing lesions on differ ent places on the leaves, resulting in at least extra labour costs for trimming or even worse sometimes resulting in complete crop loss. So far, crop protection consists of repeated applications of fungicides especially during autumn and winter. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid has been evaluated in comparison with the fungicides mancozeb, mancozeb + metalaxyl-M and azoxystrobin. The progress of the disease during the growth season is discussed. For all parameters evaluated, pyraclostrobin + boscalid gave comparable or even better results than reference products. Especially during 2003, a small drop of the activity of benalaxyl against P. porri has been observed after repeated applications. In carrots, Erisiphe heraclei and Alternaria dauci are both the most common leaf diseases causing yield and quality loss. During periods of very high pressure of A. dauci, pyraclostrobin + boscalid, applied in a three weeks interval, revealed a superior activity compared with triazole references or compared with azoxystrobin. Against E. heraclei, a good control but also a clear dose response activity have been observed with pyraclostrobin + boscalid. Yield gain was approximately 30 ton /ha compared wih untreated. In Brussels sprouts, good efficacy was obtained against Mycosphaerella spp., Albugo candida and Alternaria spp. In outdoor lettuce Botrytis cinerea and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum are the most important diseases causing crop damage and reducing the quality of the heads. Pyraclostrobin + boscalid was evaluated in comparison with the standard fungicide iprodione. The plant protection was better with the new fungicide

  3. Bioremediation of fungicides by spent mushroom substrate and its associated microflora.

    Ahlawat, O P; Gupta, Pardeep; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, D K; Ahlawat, K

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were conducted both under in vitro and in situ conditions to determine the biodegradation potential of button mushroom spent substrate (SMS) and its dominating microbes (fungi and bacteria) for carbendazim and mancozeb, the commonly used agricultural fungicides. During 6 days of incubation at 30 ± 2°C under broth culture conditions, highest degradation of carbendazim (17.45%) was recorded with B-1 bacterial isolate, while highest degradation of mancozeb (18.05%) was recorded with Trichoderma sp. In fungicide pre-mixed sterilized SMS, highest degradation of carbendazim (100.00-66.50 μg g(-1)) was recorded with mixed inoculum of Trichoderma sp. and Aspergillus sp., whereas highest degradation of mancozeb (100.00-50.50 μg g(-1)) was with mixed inoculum of Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp. and B-I bacterial isolate in 15 days of incubation at 30 ± 2°C. All these microbes both individually as well as in different combinations grew well and produced extracellular lignolytic enzymes on SMS, which helped in fungicides degradation. Under in situ conditions, among three different proportions of SMS (10, 20 and 30%, w/w) mixed with fungicide pre-mixed soil (100 μg g(-1) of soil), the degradation of carbendazim was highest in 30% SMS treatment, while for mancozeb it was in 20% SMS treatment. The residue levels of both fungicides decreased to half of their initial concentration after 1 month of SMS mixing.

  4. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  5. Residue-free wines: fate of some quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides in the winemaking process.

    Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; De Melo Abreu, Susana; Caboni, Pierluigi; Angioni, Alberto; Alves, Arminda; Cabras, Paolo

    2009-03-25

    The fate of three fungicide residues (fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin) from vine to wine was studied to evaluate the decay ratio and the influence of the technological process. The aim of this work was to identify pesticides that can degrade rapidly or be eliminated together with byproduct (lees and cake) of the winemaking process to obtain wine free of residues. The disappearance rate on grapes was calculated as pseudo-first-order kinetics, and the half-life (t(1/2)) was in the range from 5.4 +/- 1.9 to 12.2 +/- 1.2 days. The mechanism of dissipation of the three quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides was studied using different model systems. It was observed that the main mechanism responsible for disappearance was photodegradation. For active ingredients (ai) the half-lives of fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin were 10.2 +/- 0.8, 20.1 +/- 0.1, and 8.6 +/- 1.0 h, respectively, whereas for formulation higher half-lives were observed when epicuticular waxes were present (from 13.8 +/- 0.2 to 26.6 +/- 0.1 h). After winemaking, fenamidone, pyraclostrobin, and trifloxystrobin residues were not detected in the wine, but they were present in the cake and lees. This was due to the adsorption of pesticide residues to the solid parts, which are always eliminated at the end of the alcoholic fermentation. The data obtained in these experiments suggest that these three active ingredients could be used in a planning process to obtain residue-free wines.

  6. Low-level laser therapy to the mouse femur enhances the fungicidal response of neutrophils against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    Eva Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils (PMN play a central role in host defense against the neglected fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM, which is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. PCM is of major importance, especially in Latin America, and its treatment relies on the use of antifungal drugs. However, the course of treatment is lengthy, leading to side effects and even development of fungal resistance. The goal of the study was to use low-level laser therapy (LLLT to stimulate PMN to fight Pb in vivo. Swiss mice with subcutaneous air pouches were inoculated with a virulent strain of Pb or fungal cell wall components (Zymosan, and then received LLLT (780 nm; 50 mW; 12.5 J/cm2; 30 seconds per point, giving a total energy of 0.5 J per point on alternate days at two points on each hind leg. The aim was to reach the bone marrow in the femur with light. Non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The number and viability of the PMN that migrated to the inoculation site was assessed, as well as their ability to synthesize proteins, produce reactive oxygen species (ROS and their fungicidal activity. The highly pure PMN populations obtained after 10 days of infection were also subsequently cultured in the presence of Pb for trials of protein production, evaluation of mitochondrial activity, ROS production and quantification of viable fungi growth. PMN from mice that received LLLT were more active metabolically, had higher fungicidal activity against Pb in vivo and also in vitro. The kinetics of neutrophil protein production also correlated with a more activated state. LLLT may be a safe and non-invasive approach to deal with PCM infection.

  7. Selective inhibition of the demethylation at C-14 in ergosterol biosynthesis by the fungicide, Denmert (S-1358)

    Kato, Toshiro; Kawase, Yasuo

    1976-01-01

    A direct evidence of the inhibitory effect in a cell-free system of S. cerevisiae was experimentally studied, and the site of action of Denmert (S-n-butyl S'-p-tert-butylbenzyl N-3-pyridyldithiocarbon-imidate) in sterol biosynthesis was examined. 14 C-labeled lanosterol and 14-desmethyl-lanosterol were biosynthetically prepared. DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C was incubated with yeast cell-free homogenates for 3 hr at 28 deg C while being shaked vigorously in atmospheric oxygen. The resultant 14 C-labeled sterol was extracted and chromatographed on a silicic acid-Hyflo Super Cel column. 4,4-dimethyl sterol thus obtained was acetylated with acetic anhydride and pyridine. The separation of lanosteryl acetate and 14-desmethyl lanosteryl acetate was accomplished on alumina thin-layer plates. After the saponification of each steryl acetate, the quantity of the sterol was assessed by gas chromatography with cholesterol as an internal standard. The incubation of the 14 C-labeled sterol was achieved under the same conditions as those for the DL-mevalonate-2- 14 C except the addition of the substrate which was dispersed in 0.1M phosphate buffer. Denmert inhibited the conversion of 14 C-labeled lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol, while the conversion of 14 C-labeled 14-desmethyl lanosterol to 4-desmethyl sterol was hardly affected by the fungicide. Therefore, Denmert is a potent selective inhibitor of the demethylation at the C-14 position in ergosterol biosynthesis. The fungicide, triarimol, exhibited the same effect on sterol biosynthesis as that of Denmert. (Iwakiri, K.)

  8. Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide thiabendazole.

    Perruchon, Chiara; Pantoleon, Anastasios; Veroutis, Dimitrios; Gallego-Blanco, Sara; Martin-Laurent, F; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2017-12-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a persistent fungicide used in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. Its application results in the production of contaminated effluents which should be treated before their environmental discharge. In the absence of efficient treatment methods in place, biological systems based on microbial inocula with specialized degrading capacities against TBZ could be a feasible treatment approach. Only recently the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly transform TBZ was isolated. This study aimed to characterize its biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification potential. The capacity of the consortium to mineralize 14 C-benzyl-ring labelled TBZ was initially assessed. Subsequent tests evaluated its degradation capacity under various conditions (range of pH, temperatures and TBZ concentration levels) and relevant practical scenarios (simultaneous presence of other postharvest compounds) and its bioaugmentation potential in soils contaminated with increasing TBZ levels. Finally cytotoxicity assays explored its detoxification potential. The consortium effectively mineralized the benzoyl ring of the benzimidazole moiety of TBZ and degraded spillage level concentrations of the fungicide in aqueous cultures (750 mg L -1 ) and in soil (500 mg kg -1 ). It maintained its high degradation capacity in a wide range of pH (4.5-7.5) and temperatures (15-37 °C) and in the presence of other pesticides (ortho-phenylphenol and diphenylamine). Toxicity assays using the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 showed a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity, concomitantly with the biodegradation of TBZ, pointing to a detoxification process. Overall, the bacterial consortium showed high potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications.

  9. Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz

    Laier, Peter; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Borch, Julie; Hagen, Marie Louise; Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Axelstad, Marta; Kledal, Thuri; Dalgaard, Majken; McKinnell, Chris; Brokken, Leon J.S.; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 16. Caesarian sections were performed on selected dams at GD 21, while others were allowed to give birth to pups that were followed until PND 16. Prochloraz caused mild dysgenesis of the male external genitalia as well as reduced anogenital distance and retention of nipples in male pups. An increased anogenital distance indicated virilization of female pups. Effects on steroidogenesis in male fetuses became evident as decreased testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and increased levels of progesterone. Ex vivo synthesis of both steroid hormones was qualitatively similarly affected by prochloraz. Immunohistochemistry of fetal testes showed increased expression of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (P450c17) and a reduction in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 10) expression, whereas no changes in expression of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis were observed. Increased expression of P450c17 mRNA was observed in fetal male adrenals, and the androgen-regulated genes ornithine decarboxylase, prostatic binding protein C3 as well as insulin-like growth factor I mRNA were reduced in ventral prostates PND 16. These results indicate that reduced activity of P450c17 may be a primary cause of the disrupted fetal steroidogenesis and that an altered androgen metabolism may play a role as well. In vitro studies on human adrenocortical carcinoma cells supported the findings in vivo as reduced testosterone and increased progesterone levels were observed. Overall, these results together indicate that prochloraz acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level

  10. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta; Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo; Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George

    2010-01-01

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg -1 , pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm -3 . Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg -1 ). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  11. Effects of the fungicide metiram in outdoor freshwater microcosms: responses of invertebrates, primary producers and microbes.

    Lin, Ronghua; Buijse, Laura; Dimitrov, Mauricio R; Dohmen, Peter; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Roessink, Ivo; Sinkeldam, Jos A; Smidt, Hauke; Van Wijngaarden, René P A; Brock, Theo C M

    2012-07-01

    The ecological impact of the dithiocarbamate fungicide metiram was studied in outdoor freshwater microcosms, consisting of 14 enclosures placed in an experimental ditch. The microcosms were treated three times (interval 7 days) with the formulated product BAS 222 28F (Polyram®). Intended metiram concentrations in the overlying water were 0, 4, 12, 36, 108 and 324 μg a.i./L. Responses of zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, phytoplankton, macrophytes, microbes and community metabolism endpoints were investigated. Dissipation half-life (DT₅₀) of metiram was approximately 1-6 h in the water column of the microcosm test system and the metabolites formed were not persistent. Multivariate analysis indicated treatment-related effects on the zooplankton (NOEC(community) = 36 μg a.i./L). Consistent treatment-related effects on the phytoplankton and macroinvertebrate communities and on the sediment microbial community could not be demonstrated or were minor. There was no evidence that metiram affected the biomass, abundance or functioning of aquatic hyphomycetes on decomposing alder leaves. The most sensitive populations in the microcosms comprised representatives of Rotifera with a NOEC of 12 μg a.i./L on isolated sampling days and a NOEC of 36 μg a.i./L on consecutive samplings. At the highest treatment-level populations of Copepoda (zooplankton) and the blue-green alga Anabaena (phytoplankton) also showed a short-term decline on consecutive sampling days (NOEC = 108 μg a.i./L). Indirect effects in the form of short-term increases in the abundance of a few macroinvertebrate and several phytoplankton taxa were also observed. The overall community and population level no-observed-effect concentration (NOEC(microcosm)) was 12-36 μg a.i./L. At higher treatment levels, including the test systems that received the highest dose, ecological recovery of affected measurement endpoints was fast (effect period < 8 weeks).

  12. Sequential extraction and availability of copper in Cu fungicide-amended vineyard soils from Southern Brazil

    Correa Nogueirol, Roberta [University of Sao Paulo (ESALQ/USP), C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ferracciu Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo, E-mail: alleoni@esalq.usp.br [Department of Soil Science, ESALQ/USP. C.P. 9, Piracicaba 13418-900, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro Nachtigall, Gilmar; Wellington de Melo, George [National Research Center of Grapes and Wine - Embrapa Uva e Vinho, C.P. 130, Bento Goncalves 95700-000, RS (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    The continuous use of cupric fungicides in vineyards, mainly copper sulfate (as a component of the bordeaux mixture), has increased Cu concentration in soils to levels near or even above the maximum established by the Commission of Soil Chemistry and Fertility of the States of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Besides the total content, the fractions of the element along the soil profile must be known, because the total content of Cu in the soil is not sufficient to express its environmental impact. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of Cu contentes along the soil profile and its speciation and partitioning in 29 soil samples from vineyards in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Samples were collected in areas cropped with vineyards older than 15 years that had been frequently treated with the bordeaux mixture. These samples were from Nitosols, Acrisols, Cambisols and Leptosols and were analysed by sequential extractions and several chemical extractors. Soils had diverse chemical and physical attributes: clay content in the plowed layer (0-0.2 m) ranged from 120 to 610 g kg{sup -1}, pH ranged from 5.3 to 7.3 and organic carbon contents varied from 2.9 to 51 g dm{sup -3}. Among the 29 samples, 16 had the total Cu above the maximum limit allowed by the European Community regulations (140 mg kg{sup -1}). The average amount of Cu bonded to the oxide fraction accounted for 49.5% of the total Cu.

  13. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2018-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  14. A new mechanism for reduced sensitivity to demethylation-inhibitor fungicides in the fungal banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Díaz-Trujillo, C.; Chong, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The Dothideomycete Pseudocercospora fijiensis, previously Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the causal agent of black Sigatoka, one of the most destructive diseases of bananas and plantains. Disease management depends on fungicide applications with a major share for sterol demethylation-inhibitors

  15. Determination of tetrahydrophtalimide and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan, in rats and humans

    van Welie, R.T.H.; van Duyn, P; Lamme, E K; Jäger, P; van Baar, B L; Vermeulen, N P

    1991-01-01

    Capillary gas chromatographic (GC) methods using sulphur and mass selective detection for the qualitative and quantitative determination of tetrahydrophtalimide (THPI) and 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA), urinary metabolites of the fungicide captan in rat and humans, were developed.

  16. CYP1A1 induction and CYP3A4 inhibition by the fungicide imazalil in the human intestinal Caco-2 cells-comparison with other conazole pesticides.

    Sergent, Thérèse; Dupont, Isabelle; Jassogne, Coralie; Ribonnet, Laurence; van der Heiden, Edwige; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Muller, Marc; McAlister, Dan; Pussemier, Luc; Larondelle, Yvan; Schneider, Yves-Jacques

    2009-02-10

    Imazalil (IMA) is a widely used imidazole-antifungal pesticide and, therefore, a food contaminant. This compound is also used as a drug (enilconazole). As intestine is the first site of exposure to ingested drugs and pollutants, we have investigated the effects of IMA, at realistic intestinal concentrations, on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and efflux pumps by using Caco-2 cells, as a validated in vitro model of the human intestinal absorptive epithelium. For comparison, other conazole fungicides, i.e. ketoconazole, propiconazole and tebuconazole, were also studied. IMA induced cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 activity to the same extent as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell-free aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding assay and reporter gene assay suggested that IMA is not an AhR-ligand, implying that IMA-mediated induction should involve an AhR-independent pathway. Moreover, IMA strongly inhibited the CYP3A4 activity in 1,25-vitamin D(3)-induced Caco-2 cells. The other fungicides had weak or nil effects on CYP activities. Study of the apical efflux pump activities revealed that ketoconazole inhibited both P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP-2) or breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), whereas IMA and other fungicides did not. Our results imply that coingestion of IMA-contaminated food and CYP3A4- or CYP1A1-metabolizable drugs or chemicals could lead to drug bioavailability modulation or toxicological interactions, with possible adverse effects for human health.

  17. Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic daily temperature regimes.

    Willming, Morgan M; Maul, Jonathan D

    2016-04-01

    Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems daily water temperature fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such temperature fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant temperature (23 °C), a fluctuating temperature regime (18-25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating temperature regime (20-26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating temperatures. There was a significant interaction between temperature treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic temperature variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in daily temperature regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effect of the vigour and of the fungicide treatment in the germination and sanity tests of soybean seeds

    Gomes, Delineide Pereira; Barrozo, Leandra Matos; Souza, Apolyana Lorraine; Sader, Rubens [UNESP; Silva, Gilvania Campos [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    Soybeans seeds with different levels of vigour, treated and or no with fungicide were submitted to the test of germination in the sand and roll substrates of paper and the test of sanity. In test of germination, there were only significant differences between treatments that used soybeans with high vigour and with low vigour, regardless of the presence or absence of fungicide treatment, in the two substrates. The soybeans with low vigour no treated provided the largest percentages of seed con...

  19. Influence of the fungicide Folcidin on the distribution and metabolism of /sup 32/P in gherkin plants

    Hanker, I; Kudelova, A; Taimr, L [Vyzkumne Ustavy Rostlinne Vyroby, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Ochrany Rostlin; Friedrich, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Experimentalni Botaniky

    1976-01-01

    A high accumulation of /sup 32/P was observed in the leaves of intact gherkin plants 9 days after their roots had been treated with a 0.005% suspension of the systemic fungicide Folcidin 50WP (cypendazole), and 8 days after the roots had been exposed to labelled phosphate. Folcidin also affected phosphorus metabolism in the plants. A high biological cytokinin-like activity of the fungicide was established using a callus cytokinin bioassay.

  20. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  1. Seleção de Fungicidas para Controle de Oídio em Eucalipto Selection of Fungicides for Control of Eucalypt Powdery Mildew

    Rafaela Mazur Bizi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste estudo foi encontrar fungicidas eficientes contra o oídio do eucalipto. Foram testados os fungicidas chlorothalonil (2 g/l, fenarimol (0,5 ml/l, enxofre (3 g/l, tebuconazole (1 ml/l, propiconazol 12,5% + trifloxistrobina 12,5% (0,6 ml/l, benzothiadiazol (1g/l, piraclostrobina 13,3% + epoxiconazol 5% (1ml/l e triadimenol (1 ml/l. Os fungicidas foram pulverizados em 30 mudas por tratamento de Eucalyptus benthamii, naturalmente infectadas. A doença foi avaliada aos 9, 16, 23, 30 e 37 dias após serem colocadas em um ambiente infectado, onde os sintomas foram classificados em uma escala de notas que variam de 0 (ausência de sintomas a 4 (sintoma muito forte. Os melhores tratamentos foram piraclostrobina + epoxiconazol, propiconazol + trifloxistrobina e triadimenol, apresentando um índice médio de infecção de 0,39 e 0,63 e 1,01, respectivamente.  
    The objective of this study was to find effective fungicides against eucalypt powdery mildew. Fungicides tested were chlorothalonil, fenarimol, sulfur, tebuconazole, propiconazole, benzothiazole, pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole and triadimenol. These fungicides were sprayed on Eucalyptus benthamii seedlings in a greenhouse infested with powdery mildew. Severity was evaluated at 9, 16, 23, 30 and 37 days after spraying, classifying symptoms observed with a scale 0 (symptoms absent to 4 (strong symptoms. Best treatments were obtained with pyraclostrobin + epoxiconazole, propiconazole + trifloxystrobin and triadimenol, with an infection index average of 0.39, 0.63 and 1.01, respectively.

  2. Direct and indirect toxicity of the fungicide pyraclostrobin to Hyalella azteca and effects on leaf processing under realistic daily temperature regimes

    Willming, Morgan M.; Maul, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungicides in aquatic environments can impact non-target bacterial and fungal communities and the invertebrate detritivores responsible for the decomposition of allochthonous organic matter. Additionally, in some aquatic systems daily water temperature fluctuations may influence these processes and alter contaminant toxicity, but such temperature fluctuations are rarely examined in conjunction with contaminants. In this study, the shredding amphipod Hyalella azteca was exposed to the fungicide pyraclostrobin in three experiments. Endpoints included mortality, organism growth, and leaf processing. One experiment was conducted at a constant temperature (23 °C), a fluctuating temperature regime (18–25 °C) based on field-collected data from the S. Llano River, Texas, or an adjusted fluctuating temperature regime (20–26 °C) based on possible climate change predictions. Pyraclostrobin significantly reduced leaf shredding and increased H. azteca mortality at concentrations of 40 μg/L or greater at a constant 23 °C and decreased leaf shredding at concentrations of 15 μg/L or greater in the fluctuating temperatures. There was a significant interaction between temperature treatment and pyraclostrobin concentration on H. azteca mortality, body length, and dry mass under direct aqueous exposure conditions. In an indirect exposure scenario in which only leaf material was exposed to pyraclostrobin, H. azteca did not preferentially feed on or avoid treated leaf disks compared to controls. This study describes the influence of realistic temperature variation on fungicide toxicity to shredding invertebrates, which is important for understanding how future alterations in daily temperature regimes due to climate change may influence the assessment of ecological risk of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. - Highlights: • Pyraclostrobin was directly toxic to Hyalella azteca and reduced leaf processing. • Indirect exposure via leaf material did not change H

  3. Ranking of fungicides according to risk assessments for health and environment

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik

    2014-01-01

    PL varies for fungicide standard rates by a factor of 10. Products including epoxiconazole generally have higher PL's due to the human health profile of this active. PL's per area, crop or product will supplement the previous pesticide statistics based on treatment frequency index (TFI). PL has also......Denmark has introduced a new indicator for ranking the potential impact of pesticides on health and environment. The new Pesticide Load (PL) makes it possible for farmers to choose the least harmful fungicides and substitute between products which have an equally good efficacy profile. In practice...... been introduced as the basis for a new tax system for pesticides from 1 July 2013, replacing the old value based tax. The Government has asked for a 40% reduction in the PL per ha by 2015, based on substitutions to less harmfull products. As certain pesticide groups will be favoured by the new tax...

  4. Amelioration of irradiation injury to Florida grapefruit by pretreatment with vapor heat or fungicides

    Miller, W.R.; McDonald, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Grapefruit shipped to certain markets must be certified free of Caribbean fruit fly (Anastrepha suspensa Loew) (CFF) infestation. Low-dose irradiation is effective for the control of CFF by sterilization. This treatment is expected to be approved for industry usage in the near future. 'Marsh' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) was treated with vapor heat (2 hours at 38 degrees C), and fungicidal treatments of thiabendazole (TBZ) (4 gm.L-1) and TBZ (1 gm.L-1) plus imazalil (1 gm.L-1) prior to irradiation at 0.5 or 1.0 kGy. Vapor heat reduced the severity and incidence of peel injury by approximately 50% without adversely affecting other quality attributes. The fungicide did not reduce peel injury. The use of vapor heat before low-dose irradiation quarantine treatment of grapefruit may ameliorate or eliminate peel injury caused by irradiation

  5. Fungicidal control of Lophodermium seditiosum on Pinus sylvestris seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries

    Stenstroem, Elna [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    During the 1990s, there were serious outbreaks of the pathogen Lophodermium seditiosum on pine seedlings in Swedish forest nurseries, even though the seedlings had been treated with the fungicide propiconazole. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate two other fungicides, fluazinam and azoxystrobin, as possible alternatives to propiconazole. In the tests, which were all carried out in the same forest nursery, seedlings were treated with either propiconazole, fluazinam. or azoxystrobin, and the proportion of needles with ascocarps of L. seditiosum and the number of ascocarps per needle were recorded over the following 2 yrs. Seedlings treated with azoxystrobin already appeared healthier than control seedlings in September of the first year, and by November all azoxystrobin-treated seedlings had fewer ascocarps per needle compared with control seedlings. In autumn of the second year, there were no ascocarps on seedlings treated with fluazinam or azoxystrobin, whereas seedlings treated with propiconazole had similar numbers of ascocarps to non-treated control seedlings.

  6. The effect of stereochemistry on the biological activity of natural phytotoxins, fungicides, insecticides and herbicides.

    Evidente, Antonio; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna

    2013-02-01

    Phytotoxins are secondary microbial metabolites that play an essential role in the development of disease symptoms induced by fungi on host plants. Although phytotoxins can cause extensive-and in some cases devastating-damage to agricultural crops, they can also represent an important tool to develop natural herbicides when produced by fungi and plants to inhibit the growth and spread of weeds. An alternative strategy to biologically control parasitic plants is based on the use of plant and fungal metabolites, which stimulate seed germination in the absence of the host plant. Nontoxigenic fungi also produce bioactive metabolites with potential fungicide and insecticide activity, and could be applied for crop protection. All these metabolites represent important tools to develop eco-friendly pesticides. This review deals with the relationships between the biological activity of some phytotoxins, seed germination stimulants, fungicides and insecticides, and their stereochemistry. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Preliminary Trials on Treatment of Esca-Infected Grapevines with Trunk Injection of Fungicides

    T. Dula

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in trunk diseases (due to esca, Agrobacterium, rugose wood virus, leaf roll viruses, phytoplasma etc. leading to young vines death is a very serious worry in vineyards in Hungary, as it is in other countries. In response to a demand expressed by grapevine growers, a method was tested for the direct treatment of pathogens in wood tissue. An experiment based on trunk injection was carried out in an esca infected vineyard. The various fungicides (propiconazole, difenoconazole, thiabendazole; propiconazole+ thiabendazole were injected into the trunk before the beginning of the xylem sap flow at high pressure. As a result the number of symptomatic plants was decreased, and the vigour of the plants was not impaired by the fungicide ingredients. The combination difenoconazole+ thiabendazole showed the best result.

  8. In vitro and in vivo screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    signs of feminization of the male offspring were investigated. Tebuconazole caused an increase in testicular 17alfa-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone levels, and a decrease in testosterone levels in male fetuses. Epoxiconazole had no effect on any of the mesured hormonelevels. Furthermore...... and antiandrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Two other azole fungicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, have now been investigated for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo as well. The fungicides were screened in two well-established cell assays, including testing for agonistic and antagonistic...... effects on AR in transfected CHO cells, using an AR reporter gene assay. The compounds were also analyzed for effects on steroidogenesis in H295R cells, a human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line, used to detect effects on steroid production. In vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole proved to be antagonists...

  9. Comparison of dielectric barrier discharge modes fungicidal effect on candida albicans growth

    Slama, J.; Kriha, V.; Fantova, V.; Julak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentary and quasi-homogeneous mode of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was investigated as a plasma source with fungicidal effect on Candida albicans yeast inoculated on Sabouraud agar wafers. As compared with the filamentary DBD mode, the quasi-homogeneous mode had significantly better results: shorter exposition time needed for inhibiting C. albicans yeast, moreover the quasi-homogeneous mode had gentle influence on the agar surface structure.

  10. Proteomic profile of the plant-pathogenic oomycete Phytophthora capsici in response to the fungicide pyrimorph.

    Pang, Zhili; Chen, Lei; Miao, Jianqiang; Wang, Zhiwen; Bulone, Vincent; Liu, Xili

    2015-09-01

    Pyrimorph is a novel fungicide from the carboxylic acid amide (CAA) family used to control plant-pathogenic oomycetes such as Phytophthora capsici. The proteomic response of P. capsici to pyrimorph was investigated using the iTRAQ technology to determine the target site of the fungicide and potential biomarker candidates of drug efficacy. A total of 1336 unique proteins were identified from the mycelium of wild-type P. capsici isolate (Hd3) and two pyrimorph-resistant mutants (R3-1 and R3-2) grown in the presence or absence of pyrimorph. Comparative analysis revealed that the three P. capsici isolates Hd3, R3-1, and R3-2 produced 163, 77, and 13 unique proteins, respectively, which exhibited altered levels of abundance in response to the pyrimorph treatment. Further investigations, using Cluster of Orthologous Groups of Proteins (COG) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis identified 35 proteins related to the mode of action of pyrimorph against P. capsici and 62 proteins involved in the stress response of P. capsici to pyrimorph. Many of the proteins with altered expression were associated with glucose and energy metabolism. Biochemical analysis using d-[U-(14) C]glucose verified the proteomics data, suggesting that the major mode of action of pyrimorph in P. capsici is the inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis. These results also illustrate that proteomics approaches are useful tools for determining the pathways targeted by novel fungicides as well as for evaluating the tolerance of plant pathogens to environmental challenges, such as the presence of fungicides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Determination of acid dissociation constants of triazole fungicides by pressure assisted capillary electrophoresis

    Konášová, Renáta; Jaklová Dytrtová, Jana; Kašička, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1408, Aug 21 (2015), s. 243-249 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-17224S; GA ČR GP13-21409P Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : triazole fungicides * acid dissociation constant * pK(a) * capillary electrophoresis * ionic mobility Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 3.926, year: 2015

  12. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    Trapman, Marc

    2004-01-01

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper oxychloride per ha, and gave a better leaf quality and less fruit skin russeting then the sta...

  13. Signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.

    Hauke, K; Creemers, P; Brugmans, W; Van Laer, S

    2004-01-01

    Signum, a new fungicide developed by BASF, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. The product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. Boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. Both components in the premix formulation combine two different biochemical modes of action in the fungal cell respiration. Therefore, this co-formulation gives a broad-spectrum activity and also a reduced resistance risk for different target pathogens. Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease on strawberry-fruits and thus the control of fruit rot is mainly focused on this fungus. In average over 6 years, Signum has not only given a very good control against Botrytis fruit rot, but it has also shown a high performance in the control of Colletotrichum. Besides, Signum provides good control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) and limits the shift to other fruit rots like leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and leak (Rhizopus, Mucor). The availability of several categories of fungicide families with a different mode of action gives opportunities in alternating different fungicides and is the best guarantee for a sustainable control of fruit rot in all kinds of strawberry production methods. Signum should be integrated in an overall disease management program. Trials, in which the applications of Signum were timed on disease forecasting, based on environmental factors favorable for Botrytis development, were very promising. This tool can also help in establishing the IPM-concept in the production of strawberries.

  14. Biological characterization of fenpicoxamid, a new fungicide with utility in cereals and other crops.

    Owen, W John; Yao, Chenglin; Myung, Kyung; Kemmitt, Greg; Leader, Andrew; Meyer, Kevin G; Bowling, Andrew J; Slanec, Thomas; Kramer, Vincent J

    2017-10-01

    The development of novel highly efficacious fungicides that lack cross-resistance is extremely desirable. Fenpicoxamid (Inatreq™ active) possesses these characteristics and is a member of a novel picolinamide class of fungicides derived from the antifungal natural product UK-2A. Fenpicoxamid strongly inhibited in vitro growth of several ascomycete fungi, including Zymoseptoria tritici (EC 50 , 0.051 mg L -1 ). Fenpicoxamid is converted by Z. tritici to UK-2A, a 15-fold stronger inhibitor of Z. tritici growth (EC 50 , 0.0033 mg L -1 ). Strong fungicidal activity of fenpicoxamid against driver cereal diseases was confirmed in greenhouse tests, where activity on Z. tritici and Puccinia triticina matched that of fluxapyroxad. Due to its novel target site (Q i site of the respiratory cyt bc1 complex) for the cereals market, fenpicoxamid is not cross-resistant to Z. tritici isolates resistant to strobilurin and/or azole fungicides. Across multiple European field trials Z. tritici was strongly controlled (mean, 82%) by 100 g as ha -1 applications of fenpicoxamid, which demonstrated excellent residual activity. The novel chemistry and biochemical target site of fenpicoxamid as well as its lack of cross-resistance and strong efficacy against Z. tritici and other pathogens highlight the importance of fenpicoxamid as a new tool for controlling plant pathogenic fungi. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Late Blight of Potato (Phytophthora infestans I: Fungicides Application and Associated Challenges

    Abdul Majeed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. has been remained an important agricultural crop in resolving global food issues through decades. The crop has experienced enormous growth in terms of production throughout the world in recent decades because of improvement in agricultural mechanization, fertilizers application and irrigation practices. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of this valuable crop is still vulnerable to losses due to prevalence of different viral, bacterial, fungal and nematodes infestations. Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary, is one of the most threatening pathogenic diseases which not only results in direct crop losses but also cause farmers to embrace huge monetary expenses for disease control and preventive measures. The disease is well known for notorious ‘Irish Famine’ which resulted in drop of Irish population by more than 20% as result of hunger and potato starvation. Globally, annual losses of crop and money spend on fungicides for late blight control exceeds one trillion US dollars. This paper reviews the significance of late blight of potato and controlling strategies adopted for minimizing yield losses incurred by this disease by the use of synthetic fungicides. Advantages and disadvantages of fungicides application are discussed.

  16. The Effect of Fungicides for Seed Treatment on Germination of Barley

    Vesna Stevanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemicals, such as fungicides for seed treatment, is one of the most reliable and perhaps most efficient measures for integrated preservation of crops, and its practicing has become a legal obligation for all seed producers. This investigation was carried out in the laboratory for seed quality and phytopathology of the Small Grains Research Center in Kragujevac. The objective was to establish the effect of fungicides on germination energy and seed germinability (determined after treatments. Two varieties were tested due to a possibility of specific sensitivities of some varieties, so that the results acquired on one variety would not necessarily be valid for another one. Fungicides based on active ingredients from the triasol chemical group had different effects on the energy of germination of barley seeds. Applying Raxil S040-FS, the average germination of barley seeds was 79.3% for the variety Record, and 91.3% for the Grand variety. The variety Record achieved a lower value than the minimum for barley seed germination (88% stipulated by the Rules on Seed Quality of Agricultural Crops.Regardless of barley type, the product Raxil S040-FS showed a statistically significant effect on the number of atypical seedlings and increase in the number of non-germinated seeds, compared to the control.

  17. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  18. Influence of fungicides on occurence of Fusarium spp. and other stem base diseases on winter wheat

    Václav Sklenář

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1999 to 2004 the occurence of fungi: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron. and Fusarium spp. was evaluated in small plot field trials on seven varieties of winter wheat. The efficacy of fungicide protection against stem base diseases and influence on yields was monitored in field conditions in Velká Bystřice near Olomouc.For diagnostic of casual fungi two methods were used: 1. Method of coloring mycelium in stems, 2. Method of cultivation of mycelim on agar.Results from detection of casual fungi are following: Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron., Fusarium culmorum (W. G. Sm. Sacc. and Fusarium graminearum Schwabe.For high efficacy of protection against roots and stem base disease the following fungicide variants should be applied: Sportak Alpha 1.5 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51, Sportak HF 1 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1, Alert S 1.0 l . ha−1 (BBCH 30/Cerelux Plus 0.7 l . ha−1 (BBCH 51. The application of fungicides positively influenced yields. Yield increased at average by10–20 % after the aplication but the rise in yields was not in total correlation with the efficacy. These results can be possibly used in the system of integral control of winter wheat against stem base disease in wheat.

  19. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF SOME COPPER BASED FUNGICIDES ACCORDING TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE

    Marga GRĂDILĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data demonstrating the functionality of biological systems reconstituted with aquatic organisms developed under Good Laboratory Practice testing facility within Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection Bucharest for environmental risk assessment of four fungicides based on copper, according to Good Laboratory Practice requirements. For risk assessment, according to GLP were made the following steps: Good Laboratory Practice test facility was established, we have ensured adequate space for growth, acclimatization and testing for each test species, it was installed a complex water production instalation needed to perform tests, it was achieved control system for checking environmental conditions and have developed specific operating procedures that have been accredited according to Good Laboratory Practice.The results showed that biological systems model of the Good Laboratory Practice test facility in Research - Development Institute for Plant Protection meet the requirements of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines regarding GLP, and after testing copper-based fungicides in terms of acute toxicity Cyprinus carpio and to Daphnia magna revealed that three of them (copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide and copper sulphate showed ecological efficiency, ie low toxicity. Metallic copper based fungicides showed a higher toxicity, resulting in fish toxicity symptoms: sleep, sudden immersion, faded, weakness, swimming in spiral, lack of balance, breathing slow and cumbersome, spasms and mortality.

  1. Fungicidal Drugs Induce a Common Oxidative-Damage Cellular Death Pathway

    Peter Belenky

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin, miconazole, and ciclopirox are antifungal agents from three different drug classes that can effectively kill planktonic yeast, yet their complete fungicidal mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we employ a systems biology approach to identify a common oxidative-damage cellular death pathway triggered by these representative fungicides in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This mechanism utilizes a signaling cascade involving the GTPases Ras1 and Ras2 and protein kinase A, and it culminates in death through the production of toxic reactive oxygen species in a tricarboxylic-acid-cycle- and respiratory-chain-dependent manner. We also show that the metabolome of C. albicans is altered by antifungal drug treatment, exhibiting a shift from fermentation to respiration, a jump in the AMP/ATP ratio, and elevated production of sugars; this coincides with elevated mitochondrial activity. Lastly, we demonstrate that DNA damage plays a critical role in antifungal-induced cellular death and that blocking DNA-repair mechanisms potentiates fungicidal activity.

  2. Fungicide Effect on Glomus Intrarradices in Different Genotypes of Beans (Phaseolus Vulgaris L., OAT (Avena Sativa L., and Wheat (Triticum Aaestivum L. Growth Cultivated in Two Soil Types under Greenhouse Conditions

    Abdul Khalil Gardezi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the association with Glomus intraradices and soil contamination on three genotypes of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., one of oat (Avena sativa L., and another one of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study was done under greenhouse conditions at the Montecillo Campus of the Postgraduate College, Mexico. Two soils were used, one irrigated with sewage water and the other one with clean water from a well. Half of the plants were inoculated with Glomus intraradices. Metacaptan was used as a fungicide applied to half of the seeds. The pH of the soil was alkaline. Electric conductivity, and organic matter, nitric and ammoniac nitrogen, phosphorous, copper and nickel quantities were higher on the soils irrigated with sewage water. The soil contamination did not affect significantly plant responses in this study. It is concluded that endomycorrhiza inoculation (Glomus intraradices gave better growth and yield, especially in beans. The application of fungicides improved plant growth.

  3. Assessment of strobilurin fungicides' content in soya-based drinks by liquid micro-extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Campillo, Natalia; Iniesta, María Jesús; Viñas, Pilar; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Seven strobilurin fungicides were pre-concentrated from soya-based drinks using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) with a prior protein precipitation step in acid medium. The enriched phase was analysed by liquid chromatography (LC) with dual detection, using diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MS/MS). After selecting 1-undecanol and methanol as the extractant and disperser solvents, respectively, for DLLME, the Taguchi experimental method, an orthogonal array design, was applied to select the optimal solvent volumes and salt concentration in the aqueous phase. The matrix effect was evaluated and quantification was carried out using external aqueous calibration for DAD and matrix-matched calibration method for MS/MS. Detection limits in the 4-130 and 0.8-4.5 ng g(-1) ranges were obtained for DAD and MS/MS, respectively. The DLLME-LC-DAD-MS method was applied to the analysis of 10 different samples, none of which was found to contain residues of the studied fungicides.

  4. Isolation of Stem rot Disease Causing Organism of Brinjal and their in-vitro Inhibition with Fungicides and Bio-control Agents

    Shaily Javeria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Different strains of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were isolated from the diseased samples collected from different hosts and locations. Among the 14 isolates, 12 isolates colonies covered the entire Petri plates within 96 hours but, two isolates from fababean and yellow mustard showed slow colony growth within 96 hours. All isolates produced sclerotia which were varied in number, but the fenugreek isolate produced maximum (43 number of sclerotia and lambs quarter isolate produced minimum number of sclerotia (12 on PDA medium. To examine inhibitory effect of fungicide on the mycelial growth of the pathogen, 9 fungicides were tested in vitro against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, of those carbendazim, carboxin, topsin-M and carbendazim+ mancozeb (SAAF were found most effective and inhibited the mycelial growth of pathogen up to 100 per cent at 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2% concentration. The effect of different bioagents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, T. koningii, T. atroviride, T. longibraciatum, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium globosome and Penicillium notatum in inhibiting the growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was studied through “Dual Culture Technique”. The data showed that among the eight biocontrol agent six were fond effective. The maximum inhibition was found by T. harzianum causing 70.82% inhibition of mycelial growth of the pathogen S. sclerotiorum.

  5. Observations on the Behaviour of Different Populations of Plasmopara viticola Resistant to QoI Fungicides in Italian Vineyards

    M.L. Gullino

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara viticola, is probably the most damaging fungal disease of grapevine world-wide. Among the fungicides recently developed for downy mildew control is the QoI class of fungicides, which inhibits mitochondrial respiration. Since 1999, selected P. viticola populations in northern Italy have been monitored for resistance to QoI fungicides. Detached leaf discs and whole potted plants were used under controlled conditions to test the sampled populations. QoI-resistant populations of P. viticola were found in all the vineyards sampled in 2001 and 2002 in Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia, where failure in QoI control was reported. Many of the populations had minimum inhibition concentration (MIC values 3– 30 times higher than those of sensitive reference populations. Populations of P. viticola sampled from vineyards in Piedmont, where no QoI fungicides had previously been used, showed MIC values equal to, or lower than those of the reference populations. Most of the P. viticola populations collected in Trentino Alto Adige in 2001 showed high virulence in leaf disc test and were not controlled by QoI fungicides, applied both at field and double field rates in the whole plant test. Most of these populations retained their virulence in the subsequent leaf disc test in water.

  6. Disruption of quercetin metabolism by fungicide affects energy production in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Mao, Wenfu; Schuler, Mary A; Berenbaum, May R

    2017-03-07

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) in the honey bee, Apis mellifera , detoxify phytochemicals in honey and pollen. The flavonol quercetin is found ubiquitously and abundantly in pollen and frequently at lower concentrations in honey. Worker jelly consumed during the first 3 d of larval development typically contains flavonols at very low levels, however. RNA-Seq analysis of gene expression in neonates reared for three days on diets with and without quercetin revealed that, in addition to up-regulating multiple detoxifying P450 genes, quercetin is a negative transcriptional regulator of mitochondrion-related nuclear genes and genes encoding subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway. Thus, a consequence of inefficient metabolism of this phytochemical may be compromised energy production. Several P450s metabolize quercetin in adult workers. Docking in silico of 121 pesticide contaminants of American hives into the active pocket of CYP9Q1, a broadly substrate-specific P450 with high quercetin-metabolizing activity, identified six triazole fungicides, all fungal P450 inhibitors, that dock in the catalytic site. In adults fed combinations of quercetin and the triazole myclobutanil, the expression of five of six mitochondrion-related nuclear genes was down-regulated. Midgut metabolism assays verified that adult bees consuming quercetin with myclobutanil metabolized less quercetin and produced less thoracic ATP, the energy source for flight muscles. Although fungicides lack acute toxicity, they may influence bee health by interfering with quercetin detoxification, thereby compromising mitochondrial regeneration and ATP production. Thus, agricultural use of triazole fungicides may put bees at risk of being unable to extract sufficient energy from their natural food.

  7. Effects of Insecticides and Fungicides Commonly Used in Tomato Production on Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phtyoseiidae).

    Ditillo, J L; Kennedy, G G; Walgenbach, J F

    2016-12-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of tomatoes in North Carolina. Resident populations of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis have recently been detected on field-grown tomatoes in central North Carolina, and potentially can be a useful biological control agent against T. urticae Laboratory bioassays were used to assess lethal and reproductive effects of 10 insecticides and five fungicides commonly used in commercial tomato production (chlorantraniliprole, spinetoram, permethrin, imidacloprid, dimethoate, dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, boscalid, cyazofamid, and mancozeb) on P. persimilis adult females and eggs. Insecticides were tested using concentrations equivalent to 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of the recommended field rates. Fungicides were tested at the 1× rate only. Dimethoate strongly impacted P. persimilis with high adult mortality, reduced fecundity, and reduced hatch of eggs laid by treated adults, particularly at high concentrations. The pyrethroids lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and fenpropathrin were associated with repellency and reproductive effects at high concentrations. Bifenthrin additionally caused increased mortality at high concentrations. Chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and permethrin did not significantly affect mortality or reproduction. Imidacloprid significantly reduced fecundity and egg viability, but was not lethal to adult P. persimilis Thiamethoxam negatively impacted fecundity at the 1× rate. There were no negative effects associated with fungicide exposure with the exception of mancozeb, which impacted fecundity. Field trials were conducted to explore the in vivo impacts of screened insecticides on P. persimilis populations in the field. Field trials supported the incompatibility of dimethoate with P. persimilis populations. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  8. Impact of Fungicide Residues on Polymerase Chain Reaction and on Yeast Metabolism

    Gildo Almeida da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The indiscriminate use of pesticides on grape crops is harmful for consumers´ healthin “in natura” consumption and in the ingestion of wine and grape juice. During winemaking, a rapid and efficient fermentation stage is critical to avoid proliferation of contaminating microorganisms and to guarantee the product´s quality. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR has the advantage of detecting these contaminants in the early stages of fermentation. However,this enzymatic reaction may also be susceptible to specific problems, reducing its efficiency. Agricultural practices, such as fungicide treatments, may be a source of PCR inhibiting factors and may also interfere in the normal course of fermentation.The action of the pesticides captan and folpet on PCR and on yeast metabolism was evaluated, once these phthalimide compounds are widely employed in Brazilian vineyards. DNA amplification was only observed at 75 and 37.5 µg/mL of captan concentrations, whereas with folpet, amplification was observed only in the two lowest concentrations tested (42.2 and 21.1µg/mL.Besides the strong inhibition on Taq polymerase activity, phthalimides also inhibited yeast metabolism at all concentrations analyzed.Grape must containing captan and folpet residues could not be transformed into wine due to stuck fermentation caused by the inhibition of yeast metabolism. Non-compliance with the waiting period for phthalimide fungicides may result in financial liabilities to the viticulture sector.The use of yeasts with high fungicide sensitivity should be selected for must fermentation as a strategy for sustainable wine production and to assure that products comply with health and food safety standards.

  9. Impact of fungicide and insecticide use on non-target aquatic organisms in rice paddy fields

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L. has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam, which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.

  10. Suspension Array for Multiplex Detection of Eight Fungicide-Resistance Related Alleles in Botrytis cinerea

    Zhang, Xin; Xie, Fei; Lv, Baobei; Zhao, Pengxiang; Ma, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    A simple and high-throughput assay to detect fungicide resistance is required for large-scale monitoring of the emergence of resistant strains of Botrytis cinerea. Using suspension array technology performed on a Bio-Plex 200 System, we developed a single-tube allele-specific primer extension (ASPE) assay that can simultaneously detect eight alleles in one reaction. These eight alleles include E198 and 198A of the β-Tubulin gene (BenA), H272 and 272Y of the Succinate dehydrogenase iron–sulfur...

  11. Influence of Fungicides Application and Seed Processing on Sunflower Seed Quality

    Šimić, Branimir; Svitlica, Brankica; Ćosić, Jasenka; Andrić, Luka; Rozman, Vlatka; Postić, Jelena; Liović, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine influence of methods of seed processing and application of fungicides on mass of 1000 seeds, intergrowth energy and seed germination of sunflower hybrids ‘Favorit’ and ‘Apolon’ in 2005 and 2006. Selected untreated seeds of both sunflower hybrids (control) had a minimal mass of 1000 seeds (55-59 g), intergrowth energy (18-37 %) and seed germination (39-52 %). In both years of research maximal seed quality, mass of 1000 seeds (67-69 g), intergrowth energ...

  12. In-vitro evaluation of fungicides, plant extracts and bio-control agents against rice blast pathogen magnaporthe oryzae couch

    Hajano, J.U.D.; Lodhi, M.; Pathan, M.A.; Khanzada, A.; Shah, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    Among 5 fungicides viz., Thiophanate-methyl, Carbendazim, Fosetyl-aluminium, Mancozeb and Copper oxychloride, used against the Magnaporthe oryzae, only Mancozeb appeared as the highly effective fungicide that completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus. All other fungicides showed little effect at higher concentrations. The extracts of garlic (Allium sativum L.), neem (Azadirachta indica L.) and calatropis (Calotropis procera L.) when used against M. oryzae by food poisoning method, only higher dose of garlic completely inhibited the mycelial growth of the test fungus. Six bio-control agents viz., Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma polysporum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii, Gliocladium virens, Paecilomyces variotii and Paecilomyces lilacinus were used. Maximum mycelial inhibition of M. oryzae was provided by P. lilacinus followed by Trichoderma spp. (author)

  13. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results

  14. Probing the fungicidal property of CdS quantum dots on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis using MALDI-MS

    Manikandan, Muthu; Wu, Hui-Fen, E-mail: hwu@faculty.nsysu.edu.tw [National Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Chemistry (China)

    2013-07-15

    For the first time, we report the successful application of inhouse synthesized CdS quantum dots (QDs) with particle sizes between 1 and 7 nm exhibiting excellent fungicidal activity based on the interactions with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida utilis. The growth curves and the growth rates of both fungi were established in the presence of three varying concentrations of CdS QDs. It was observed that the CdS QDs were highly inhibitory even at the lowest concentration of 10 mg/L used in this study, while the untreated control cells followed a normal growth pattern in the cases of both Saccharomyces and Candida. MALDI-MS was applied to substantiate the observations obtained by direct cell count method. It was observed that the trend observed in the case of Saccharomyces and Candida was well-represented in the MALDI-MS spectra. This study proposes a mechanism for the first time based on MALDI-MS results, that the CdS QDs interact with the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and remove small molecules from EPS layer; on the other hand, it was observed that CdS QDs at all concentrations lead to enrichment of protein signals in MALDI-MS. We have substantiated these results by quantifying the EPS in the control and treated cells and also using TEM to further confirm the results.

  15. Comparison of the Fungicide Sensitivity of Alberta and Prince Edward Island Isolates of Fusarium graminearum Producing Either 3- or 15-acetyl Deoxynivalenol

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe of the ‘3ADON’ chemotype is now displacing ‘15ADON’ isolates in Canada. One concern regarding this shift in chemotypes is related to potential differences in fungicide sensitivity. This could have significant implications as fungicide application is an important strate...

  16. Off-site transport of fungicides with runoff: A comparison of flutolanil and pentachloronitrobeneze applied to creeping bentgrass managed as a golf course fairway

    Flutolanil and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) are fungicides used to control or suppress foliar and soil borne diseases in turf and ornamental crops. On golf courses, sports fields, sod farms and commercial lawns these fungicides are used as preventive treatments to combat snow mold, brown patch an...

  17. Fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    Matthias Kretschmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1 that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of

  18. Fungicide efficacy in peach rusty spot control in Serbia

    Dolovac Nenad; Miletić Novica; Aleksić Goran; Savić Dušan; Živković Svetlana; Trkulja Nenad; Bulajić Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Rusty Spot has long been known as a harmful peach disease in many parts of the world. During the past several years, rusty spot infection of the late-maturing peach cultivars (Summerset, Suncrest, Fayette and O’Henry) caused significant yield losses in Serbia. Although the etiology of the disease is still unknown, there are numerous studies attempting to set a strategy for its control and recommend appropriate chemical and other peach protection methods. Ho...

  19. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISATION AND GENETIC ANALYSIS OF MUTANTS OF ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS RESISTANT TO THE FUNGICIDE TOLCLOFOS-METHYL

    A CHIBANI

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutants of Aspergillus nidulans were recovered from 0,55.10+7  conidia incubated on synthetic medium supplemented with 100 mg tolclofos-methyl/ml. They differed considerably in morphology, growth rate, and level of resistance to two other fungicides. All mutants tested were cross-resistant to quintozene and vinclozolin; they produced fewer conidia than their wild-type parent. Some mutants required fungicides for maximum growth. Genetic analysis revealed that the mutants carried mutations in one gene located on linkage group III.

  20. The fungicidal effect of ultraviolet light on impression materials

    Ishida, H.; Nahara, Y.; Tamamoto, M.; Hamada, T.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) light on fungi and impression materials were tested. UV light (250 microW/cm2) killed most Candida organisms (10(3) cells/ml) within 5 minutes. UV light (8000 microW/cm2) killed most C. albicans (10(7) cells/ml) within 2 minutes of exposure. The effect of UV light on dimensional change and surface roughness of impression materials (irreversible hydrocolloid, agar, and silicone rubber) was tested. The results showed that neither dimensional change nor surface roughness of the impression materials were affected. The results of this study indicate that UV light disinfects impression materials that are contaminated with Candida organisms

  1. [In vitro susceptibility of Trichoconiella padwickii to various active ingredients used as fungicides in the cultivation of rice].

    Lovato Echeverria, Alfonso D; Gutiérrez, Susana A; Carmona, Marcelo A

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the mycelial susceptibility of Trichoconiella padwickii to different active ingredients through average median concentration IC 50 calculation. Inoculum disks were seeded on bean agar at different concentrations (0.1; 1; 10; 30, 50; 100 and 1000mg/l) of various fungicides. After seven days the colony diameter was measured. The data obtained were fitted to nonlinear regression models. Susceptibility was classified using the scale proposed by Edgington. The results show that the pathogen is very sensitive to products that act on the respiratory chain (quinone outside inhibitors [QoI] and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors [SDHI]) and cell membrane (multi-site contact activity), and moderately sensitive to those products interfering with cell division (methyl benzimidazole carbamates [MBC]), synthesis of nucleic acids (phenylamides [PA]) and osmotic signal transduction (multi-site contact activity). This work is the first record on the sensitivity of T. padwickii. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity of TDT 067 (Terbinafine in Transfersome) against Agents of Onychomycosis, as Determined by Minimum Inhibitory and Fungicidal Concentrations▿

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-01-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38–A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC50 values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted. PMID:21411586

  3. Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

  4. Synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid insecticide and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicide in three bee species.

    Sgolastra, Fabio; Medrzycki, Piotr; Bortolotti, Laura; Renzi, Maria Teresa; Tosi, Simone; Bogo, Gherardo; Teper, Dariusz; Porrini, Claudio; Molowny-Horas, Roberto; Bosch, Jordi

    2017-06-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been identified as an important factor contributing to bee diversity declines. Nonetheless, uncertainties remain about their impact under field conditions. Most studies have been conducted on Apis mellifera and tested single compounds. However, in agricultural environments, bees are often exposed to multiple pesticides. We explore the synergistic mortality between a neonicotinoid (clothianidin) and an ergosterol-biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicide (propiconazole) in three bee species (A. mellifera, Bombus terrestris, Osmia bicornis) following oral exposure in the laboratory. We developed a new approach based on the binomial proportion test to analyse synergistic interactions. We estimated uptake of clothianidin per foraging bout in honey bees foraging on seed-coated rapeseed fields. We found significant synergistic mortality in all three bee species exposed to non-lethal doses of propiconazole and their respective LD 10 of clothianidin. Significant synergism was only found at the first assessment times in A. mellifera (4 and 24 h) and B. terrestris (4 h), but persisted throughout the experiment (96 h) in O. bicornis. O. bicornis was also the most sensitive species to clothianidin. Our results underscore the importance to test pesticide combinations likely to occur in agricultural environments, and to include several bee species in environmental risk assessment schemes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Nanoemulsion Formulations of Fungicide Tebuconazole for Agricultural Applications

    Vianney Díaz-Blancas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tebuconazole (TBZ nanoemulsions (NEs were formulated using a low energy method. TBZ composition directly affected the drop size and surface tension of the NE. Water fraction and the organic-to-surfactant-ratio (RO/S were evaluated in the range of 1–90 and 1–10 wt %, respectively. The study was carried out with an organic phase (OP consisting of an acetone/glycerol mixture containing TBZ at a concentration of 5.4 wt % and Tween 80 (TW80 as a nonionic and Agnique BL1754 (AG54 as a mixture of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The process involved a large dilution of a bicontinuous microemulsion (ME into an aqueous phase (AP. Pseudo-ternary phase diagrams of the OP//TW80//AP and OP//AG54//AP systems at T = 25 °C were determined to map ME regions; these were in the range of 0.49–0.90, 0.01–0.23, and 0.07–0.49 of OP, AP, and surfactant, respectively. Optical microscope images helped confirm ME formation and system viscosity was measured in the range of 25–147 cP. NEs with drop sizes about 9 nm and 250 nm were achieved with TW80 and AG54, respectively. An innovative low-energy method was used to develop nanopesticide TBZ formulations based on nanoemulsion (NE technology. The surface tension of the studied systems can be lowered 50% more than that of pure water. This study’s proposed low-energy NE formulations may prove useful in sustainable agriculture.

  6. Optimal control issues in plant disease with host demographic factor and botanical fungicides

    Anggriani, N.; Mardiyah, M.; Istifadah, N.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model of plant disease with the effect of fungicide. We assume that the fungicide is given as a preventive treatment to infectious plants. The model is constructed based on the development of the disease in which the monomolecular is monocyclic. We show the value of the Basic Reproduction Number (BRN) ℛ0 of the plant disease transmission. The BRN is computed from the largest eigenvalue of the next generation matrix of the model. The result shows that in the region where ℛ0 greater than one there is a single stable endemic equilibrium. However, in the region where ℛ0 less than one this endemic equilibrium becomes unstable. The dynamics of the model is highly sensitive to changes in contact rate and infectious period. We also discuss the optimal control of the infected plant host by considering a preventive treatment aimed at reducing the infected host plant. The obtaining optimal control shows that it can reduce the number of infected hosts compared to that without control. Some numerical simulations are also given to illustrate our analytical results.

  7. Bioassay and characterization of soil microorganisms involved in the biodegradation of the fungicide, metalaxyl

    Bailey, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitive bioassay was developed to detect low concentrations of metalaxyl in soils. The quantitative estimation of metalaxyl in soils was based on a significant positive relationship between the radial growth of Phytophthora boehmeriae and the log concentration of the fungicide in the agar. The isolate of P. boehmeriae was chosen for its sensitivity to metalaxyl as manifested in a linear growth response on cornmeal agar over a range of 2 to 30 ng/ml. The sensitivity and quantitative nature of the bioassay was confirmed by comparison with data obtained by using 14 C-metalaxyl. Metabolism of metalaxyl was detected in three of five avocado soils that had repeated applications of the fungicide over 2-5 yr. The average disappearance of metalaxyl was 28 days, and in the most active soils was 14 days. The composition and level of the microbial populations of soils, either active or inactive in the breakdown of metalaxyl, did not differ. Fungal and bacterial microflora recovered from these two soils by use of either selective media or filtration techniques were capable of metabolizing metalaxyl over a 45-day period

  8. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight.

  9. Effectiveness of control strategies against Botrytis cinerea in vineyard and evaluation of the residual fungicide concentrations.

    Gabriolotto, Chiara; Monchiero, Matteo; Negre, Michele; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2009-05-01

    This investigation was undertaken to test different control strategies against Botrytis cinerea vineyards. Two commercial vineyards, "Barbera" and "Moscato," located in Piedmont (Northern Italy) were divided into seven plots and treated with different combinations of fungicides including fenhexamid, pyrimethanil, fludioxonil + cyprodinil, iprodione, and boscalid, a new carboxamide compound. An integrated strategy including a chemical (pyrimethanil) and a biocontrol agent (Trichoderma spp. t2/4ph1) was also included. At harvest, the percentage of bunches and berries attacked by B. cinerea and the concentration of the chemical fungicides were determined. All the pesticide residues at harvest were below the maximum residue level (MRL), except when two applications of pyrimethanil per season were applied. Boscalid was the most effective active ingredient against B. cinerea among the tested chemicals. When boscalid application was followed by a treatment with pyrimethanil, its efficacy was similar to that shown by two treatments of pyrimethanil. However, this second strategy was not feasible due to the risks of resistance development in the pathogen and to the residue accumulation as indicated by the analysis.

  10. Biological activity of sedaxane---a novel broad-spectrum fungicide for seed treatment.

    Zeun, Ronald; Scalliet, Gabriel; Oostendorp, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Sedaxane is a new broad-spectrum seed treatment fungicide developed by Syngenta Crop Protection for control of seed- and soil-borne diseases in a broad range of crops. Its physicochemical properties and activity spectrum have been optimised for use as a seed treatment providing both local and systemic protection of the seed and roots of target crops. Sedaxane inhibits respiration by binding to the succinate dehydrogenase complex in the fungal mitochondrium. Its activity spectrum covers seed-borne fungi such as Ustilago nuda, Tilletia caries, Monographella nivalis and Pyrenophora graminea, as well as the soil-borne fungi Rhizoctonia solani, R. cerealis and Typhula incarnata. Under greenhouse conditions, sedaxane showed high levels and consistent protection against U. nuda, P. graminea and Rhizoctonia spp. Under field conditions, efficacy against Rhizoctonia spp. resulted in increased yield compared with the untreated check. Efficacy against snow mould has been shown under very high disease pressure conditions. The combination of sedaxane plus fludioxonil against snow mould can provide resistance management for sustainable use. The broad spectrum and high level of activity in combination with excellent crop tolerance allow the use of sedaxane as a seed treatment in a wide variety of crops. It is a potential tool for precautionary resistance management when combined with other fungicides, especially against pathogens showing a potential for resistance development, such as M. nivalis. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Cytotoxicity of the dicarboximide fungicides, vinclozolin and iprodione, in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells.

    Dierickx, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    Dicarboximide fungicides are widely used to control various fungal species. Their primary action is not known, due to a lack of knowledge concerning the mechanism of action of the dicarboximide group. The cytotoxicities of vinclozolin and iprodione in rat hepatoma-derived Fa32 cells were investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured by neutral red uptake inhibition after treatment for 24 hours. Iprodione was more toxic than vinclozolin. Vinclozolin was less toxic in glutathione-depleted cells than in control cells. This was also true for iprodione at lower concentrations, but iprodione became more toxic at higher concentrations. Both the fungicides increased the endogenous glutathione content by 20% after 1 hour. After 24 hours, the glutathione content was doubled by vinclozolin, but was not affected by iprodione. No effect on glutathione S-transferase activity or reactive oxygen species formation could be observed. Cytochrome P450-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylase activities were moderately activated by iprodione and strongly activated by vinclozolin. A glutathione-related cytochrome P450-dependent metabolic attack of vinclozolin and iprodione could be responsible for their cytotoxicity in Fa32 cells. Further research is needed to fully elucidate these (or other) mechanisms.

  12. Analysis of Dithiocarbamate Fungicides in Vegetable Matrices Using HPLC-UV Followed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    Al-Alam, Josephine; Bom, Laura; Chbani, Asma; Fajloun, Ziad; Millet, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    A simple method combining ion-pair methylation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with detection at 272 nm and atomic absorption spectrometry was developed in order to determine 10 dithiocarbamate fungicides (Dazomet, Metam-sodium, Ferbam, Ziram, Zineb, Maneb, Mancozeb, Metiram, Nabam and Propineb) and distinguish ethylenbisdithiocarbamates (EBDTCs) Zineb, Maneb and Mancozeb in diverse matrices. This method associates reverse phase analysis by HPLC analysis with detection at 272 nm, with atomic absorption spectrometry in order to distinguish, with the same extraction protocol, Maneb, Mancozeb and Zineb. The limits of detection (0.4, 0.8, 0.5, 1.25 and 1.97) and quantification (1.18, 2.5, 1.52, 4.2 and 6.52) calculated in injected nanogram, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, dimethyldithiocarbamates (DMDTCs), EBDTCs and propylenebisdithiocarbamates (PBDTCs) justify the sensitivity of the method used. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.9985, 0.9978, 0.9949, 0.988 and 0.9794, respectively, for Dazomet, Metam-Na, DMDTCs, EBDTCs and PBDTCs, and the recovery from fortified apple and leek samples was above 90%. Results obtained with the atomic absorption method in comparison with spectrophotometric analysis focus on the importance of the atomic absorption as a complementary specific method for the distinction between different EBDTCs fungicides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. MALDI-MS Imaging Analysis of Fungicide Residue Distributions on Wheat Leaf Surfaces.

    Annangudi, Suresh P; Myung, Kyung; Avila Adame, Cruz; Gilbert, Jeffrey R

    2015-05-05

    Improved retention and distribution of agrochemicals on plant surfaces is an important attribute in the biological activity of pesticide. Although retention of agrochemicals on plants after spray application can be quantified using traditional analytical techniques including LC or GC, the spatial distribution of agrochemicals on the plants surfaces has received little attention. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging technology has been widely used to determine the distribution of proteins, peptides and metabolites in different tissue sections, but its application to environmental research has been limited. Herein, we probed the potential utility of MALDI imaging in characterizing the distribution of three commercial fungicides on wheat leaf surfaces. Using this MALDI imaging method, we were able to detect 500 ng of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin applied in 1 μL drop on the leaf surfaces using MALDI-MS. Subsequent dilutions of pyraclostrobin revealed that the compound can be chemically imaged on the leaf surfaces at levels as low as 60 ng of total applied in the area of 1 μL droplet. After application of epoxiconazole, azoxystrobin, and pyraclostrobin at a field rate of 100 gai/ha in 200 L water using a track sprayer system, residues of these fungicides on the leaf surfaces were sufficiently visualized. These results suggest that MALDI imaging can be used to monitor spatial distribution of agrochemicals on leaf samples after pesticide application.

  14. Increasing the Fungicidal Action of Amphotericin B by Inhibiting the Nitric Oxide-Dependent Tolerance Pathway

    Kim Vriens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphotericin B (AmB induces oxidative and nitrosative stresses, characterized by production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, in fungi. Yet, how these toxic species contribute to AmB-induced fungal cell death is unclear. We investigated the role of superoxide and nitric oxide radicals in AmB’s fungicidal activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a digital microfluidic platform, which enabled monitoring individual cells at a spatiotemporal resolution, and plating assays. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME was used to interfere with nitric oxide radical production. L-NAME increased and accelerated AmB-induced accumulation of superoxide radicals, membrane permeabilization, and loss of proliferative capacity in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, the nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione inhibited AmB’s action. Hence, superoxide radicals were important for AmB’s fungicidal action, whereas nitric oxide radicals mediated tolerance towards AmB. Finally, also the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were more susceptible to AmB in the presence of L-NAME, pointing to the potential of AmB-L-NAME combination therapy to treat fungal infections.

  15. GIBBERELLINS, FUNGICIDES AND STORAGE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF Genipa americana L. (RUBIACEAE SEEDS

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg.L-1, of fungicides of the groups chemical benzimidazol (0, 25, 50 and 100 g.L-1 and ditiocarbamato (0, 1,25, 2,50 and 5,00 g.L-1 on seed germination. Viability of those seeds was evaluated through germination tests at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse. The experimental design was fully randomized one, with five replicates per treatment. The traits evaluated were emergence and index of emergence speed. The treatment with GA3 didn't provide significant so much differences among the germination rates as well as for the emergence speed. It was verified that the use of the fungicides in smaller concentrations (25 g.L-1 of benzimidazol and 1,25 g.L-1 of ditiocarbamato promoted a better germination speed. The seeds of G. americana possess viability period relatively short, with germination absence 60 days period of storage, and it could be associated to the humidity tenors presented by the seeds in this period.

  16. COMPATIBILIDADE DO INSETICIDA THIAMETHOXAM COM FUNGICIDAS UTILIZADOS NO TRATAMENTO DE SEMENTES DE FEIJOEIRO COMPATIBILITY OF THE INSECTICIDE THIAMETHOXAM WITH FUNGICIDES APPLIED TO COMMON BEAN SEEDS

    Rosana Gonçalves Barros

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A mosca-branca (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring tem causado sérios prejuízos em muitas áreas produtoras de feijão no Brasil. O dano indireto através da transmissão do vírus do mosaico dourado é um dos fatores limitantes na produção do feijão, podendo causar perdas de até 100%. Uma das medidas recentemente desenvolvidas para o controle desta praga é o tratamento das sementes com inseticida. Neste trabalho foi testada a compatibilidade do inseticida thiamethoxam com alguns dos fungicidas utilizados para tratamento de sementes de feijão destinadas ao plantio (difenoconazole, fludioxonil e carboxin. As variáveis utilizadas na avaliação foram: porcentagens de germinação, de sanidade das sementes e de eficiência de controle da mosca-branca. Considerando todas as variáveis, constatou-se que não houve incompatibilidade do inseticida com os fungicidas utilizados. Os tratamentos thiamethoxam+carboxin e thiamethoxam+fludioxonil foram os que apresentaram maior eficiência no controle de fungos incidentes em sementes e da mosca-branca em plântulas até os onze dias após a emergência.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mosca-branca; Bemisia argentifolli; fungos de sementes; controle químico.

    The white fly (Bemisia argentifolli Bellows & Perring causes serious damage to the common bean crop in Brazil. The indirect damage through the transmission of bean gold mosaic virus can cause losses of up to 100%. One measure recently developed to control this pest is insecticide seed dressing. In this study, the compatibility of the insecticide thiamethoxam with the fungicides used for dry beans seed dressing was tested. These treatments included the fungicides difenoconazole, fludioxonil and carboxin. The variables evaluated were

  17. Exposure to the widely used fungicide Mancozeb causes thyroid hormone disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring

    Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    The widely used fungicide Mancozeb has been shown to cause hypothyroxinemia and other adverse effects on the thyroid hormone system in adult experimental animals. In humans, hypothyroxinemia early in pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on the developing nervous system and can lead...... to impaired cognitive function and motor development in children. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess whether perinatal Mancozeb exposure would cause developmental neurotoxicity in rats. Groups of 9-21 time-mated Wistar rats were dosed with 0, 50, 100 or 150 mg Mancozeb/kg bw/day by gavage...... offspring. The dose of 150 mg/kg/day caused neurotoxicity in the pregnant dams, and was therefore reduced to 100 mg/kg bw/day in mid study. T4 levels showed a dose-dependent and significant decreased in dams from all three dose groups on GD 15, whereas offspring T4 levels, thyroid weights and histology were...

  18. Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.

    D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of

  19. Micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds induced in human lymphocytes by the fungicide signum and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin).

    Çayır, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Coskun, Mahmut

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of the Signum fungicide and its active ingredients (boscalid and pyraclostrobin) on human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay. Micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear bud (NBUDs) formations, and the cytokinesis-block proliferation index (CBPI) were evaluated in treated lymphocytes in Go (cells were treated and then kept in culture without stimulation for 24 h) and proliferation phases (cells were treated after 44 h culture in medium containing phytohemagglutinin). MN formation in lymphocytes treated in G0 statistically increased at doses of 2, 6, and 25 μg/mL signum; 0.5 and 2 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.5, 1.5, and 2 μg/mL pyraclostrobin; while NPB formation increased at a dose of 0.25 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. All concentrations of each fungicide did not statistically increase NBUD formation, while the cytotoxicity increased the dependent on concentration in lymphocytes treated in G0 . Doses of 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 3 μg/mL signum; 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μg/mL boscalid; and 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin statistically increased the MN formation in proliferating lymphocytes. NPB formation increased in proliferating lymphocytes at doses of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/mL signum and at a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin. In addition, a dose of 0.75 μg/mL pyraclostrobin increased NBUD frequencies. Cytotoxicity increased with increasing concentrations of each fungicide. It is concluded that signum, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin may be genotoxic and cytotoxic in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in consideration of each of the two protocols. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 29: 723-732, 2014. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  20. The effect of nitrogen fertilizing and fungicide application on the yield and selected parameters of grain quality of winter wheat

    Alena Bezdíčková

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2001–2004 an influence of gradually increased portions of nitrogen (100–130–160 kg/N.ha–1 applied on the wheat variety Ebi in combination with the modified fungicidal protection in the yield and the selected quality grain parameters were observed within the small-plot field trials. Nitrogenous fertilizers according to the amount of nitrogen contained were applied in 2–4 terms during vegetation in regeneration (55kg/N.ha–1, 1st production (45kg/N.ha–1, 2nd production (30kg/N.ha–1 and qualitative portion (30kg/N.ha–1. The fungicidal protection was based on the equal treatment in the phase of BBCH 37 and with regard to the varieties different treatment in the phase of BBCH 55. The dependence on the year was proved at all observed parameters. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization had no decisive impact on the yields. From the point of view of increased yields, the second production nitrogenous fertilization had the strongest impact; it increased the grain yields by 0.084–0.461 t./ha–1. Higher intensity of nitrogenous fertilization positively influenced the baker’s grain quality. The increased portions of nitrogen decisively increased the volume of N-substances in all trial years. The second production nitrogenous fertilization increased the N-substances volume from 0.1 to 0.8%. Qualitative additional fertilization increased their volume from 0.26 to 1.38%. Higher N portions increased sedimentation in most cases. The falling number was not considerably influenced. The mechanical grain qualities (volume weight, number full grains, and GTW were relatively less influenced than the baker’s quality by the nitrogenous fertilization. The application of fungicides positively influenced not only the yields but also mechanical qualities of the grain, i.e. volume weight, thousand grains weight and portion of Full grains. On the contrary the baker’s quality was not decisively influenced. It was proved that the decisive

  1. Modeling of ecosystem function in aquatic microcosms as influenced by chronic levels of a fungicide and a herbicide

    Traas TP; van den Brink PJ; Janse JH; Aldenberg T; ECO; SC-DLO; LWD; LWD

    1998-01-01

    In de context van het project 'Functionele Biodiversiteit werd de beinvloeding van ecosysteem functies bestudeerd door het effect van pesticiden op zoetwater gemeenschappen bestudeerd. Voedselweb modellen werden opgesteld die het effect beschrijven van een herbicide, linuron en een fungicide,

  2. The origin, versatility and distribution of azole fungicide resistance in the banana black Sigatoka pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis

    Chong Aguirre, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka disease of banana. It is one of the most damaging threats of the crop requiring excessive fungicide applications for disease control as the major export “Cavendish” clones are highly susceptible. The consequence of this practice is the

  3. 48 CFR 1552.235-77 - Data Security for Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business...

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Data Security for Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act Confidential Business Information (DEC 1997). 1552.235-77 Section... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1552.235-77 Data Security for...

  4. The Synthetic Amphipathic Peptidomimetic LTX109 Is a Potent Fungicide That Disturbs Plasma Membrane Integrity in a Sphingolipid Dependent Manner

    Bojsen, Rasmus; Torbensen, Rasmus; Larsen, Camilla Eggert

    2013-01-01

    The peptidomimetic LTX109 (arginine-tertbutyl tryptophan-arginine-phenylethan) was previously shown to have antibacterial properties. Here, we investigated the activity of this novel antimicrobial peptidomimetic on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that LTX109 was an efficient fungicid...

  5. Two fungicides alter reproduction of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus by influencing gene and protein expression

    Aside from their intended actions, fungicides can drive pest insect outbreaks and, due to virtually continuous use, evolution. Small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, outbreaks occurred recently in many provinces in China, with devastating rice losses. Because exposure to the fungici...

  6. Separation and Simultaneous Determination of 14 Fungicides with the Combination of Multi-Analyte Methods and HPLC Detection

    Canping, Pan [Department of Applied Chemistry, China Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    2009-07-15

    The separation and simultaneous HPLC-MS determination for a series of fungicide products is reported. Multi-analyte methods were applied on a Chromolith RP-18e monolithic column having low resistance and enabling high flow rates and short analysis time at very good separation power. Details and analytical conditions are described with chromatograms illustrating the results and work done. (author)

  7. Efficacy of fungicide combinations, phosphoric acid, and plant extract from stinging nettle on potato late blight management and tuber yield

    Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans is a major constraint to potato production. Inadequate management of the disease has often resulted in heavy losses in various production regions. We assessed the efficacy of fungicides, phosphoric acid, and stinging nettle plant extract combinations for...

  8. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  9. The effect of soil pH and the fungicide 'Captan' on 134Cs transfer factors for cucumber and radish plants

    Skarlou, V.; Massas, I.; Anoussis, J.; Haidouti, C.; Arapis, G.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of soil pH and the fungicide 'Captan' on 134 Cs transfer factors (TFs) was studied in a greenhouse pot experiment with cucumber and radish plants. A soil with a low pH (4.2) was selected and its pH value has increased to 5.7, 6.5 and 7.6 by the addition of different amounts of Ca(OH) 2 . Liming of the soil and the subsequent increase in pH values resulted in a reduction of 134 Cs TFs which was not always significant. TFs were the highest in the very acid soil (pH 4.2) and were practically the same above the pH 5.7 although they were the lowest in the calcareous soil. The ratio highest / lowest TF of each crop or plant part ranged between ∼ 2.0 for radish and 4.5 for cucumber plants and it was much lower than that previously reported and attributed to pH differences. Edible to other plant material TF ratio indicates that cucumber plant accumulates considerably more of the totally absorbed 134 CS in the edible part than radish crops. When biomass production was used for excluding dilution effects, 134 CS total activity (Bq/pot) was higher for both plants when grown in the intermediate soil pH (5.7 - 6.5), due to the higher yield at these pH values. The application of the fungicide 'Captan' gave no significant differences in 134 Cs TFs for both plant species and in all studied soil pH. Refs. 4 (author)

  10. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of some fungicides on catalase produced and purified from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Kavakçıoğlu, Berna; Tarhan, Leman

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of some commonly used fungicides, antibiotics, and various chemicals on isolated and purified catalase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. The catalase was purified 129.10-fold by using 60% ammonium sulfate and 60% ethanol precipitations, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange and Sephacryl-S-200 gel filtration chromatographies from P. chrysosporium growth in carbon- and nitrogen-limited medium for 12 days. The molecular weight of native purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was found to be 290 ± 10 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE results indicated that enzyme consisted of four apparently identical subunits, with a molecular weight of 72.5 ± 2.5 kDa. Kinetic characterization studies showed that optimum pH and temperature, Km and Vmax values of the purified catalase which were stable in basic region and at comparatively high temperatures were 7.5, 30°C, 289.86 mM, and 250,000 U/mg, respectively. The activity of purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was significantly inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetamide, EDTA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was found that while antibiotics had no inhibitory effects, 45 ppm benomyl, 144 ppm captan, and 47.5 ppm chlorothalonil caused 14.52, 10.82, and 38.86% inhibition of purified catalase, respectively. The inhibition types of these three fungicides were found to be non-competitive inhibition with the Ki values of 1.158, 0.638, and 0.145 mM and IC50 values of 0.573, 0.158, 0.010 mM, respectively. The results of in vivo experiments also showed that benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil caused 15.25, 1.96, and 36.70% activity decreases after 24-h treatments compared to that of the control.

  11. The impact of the fungicide fenpropimorph (Corbel) on bacterivorous and fungivorous protozoa in soil

    Ekelund, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    1. The ability of indigenous soil protozoa to survive and multiply when exposed to various concentrations of the fungicide fenpropimorph was investigated. The number of protozoan taxa in relation to biocide concentration was examined in enrichment cultures. The population dynamics of bacterivorous...... and fungivorous protozoa, hyphal forming units, and respiration activity were followed in soil microcosms amended with glucose and various concentrations of fenpropimorph. 2. The average number of flagellate taxa detected in 50-mg portions of air-dried soil declined from 12 to zero with fenpropimorph...... as in systems with glucose only; however, soil respiration was significantly impeded in microcosm systems with a low pesticide content and stimulated in systems with a high pesticide content. 4. Bacterivorous protozoa (naked amoebae and heterotrophic flagellates) were affected at all tested concentrations (074...

  12. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2007-01-01

    13 or PND 16, and semen quality was assessed in adults. Both tebuconazole and epoxiconazole affected reproductive development in the offspring after exposure in utero. Both compounds virilized the female offspring as shown by an increased AGD PND 0. Furthermore, tebuconazole had a feminizing effect......The triazole fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were investigated for reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation. Rats were dosed with epoxiconazole (15 or 50 mg/kg bw/day) or tebuconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day) during pregnancy from gestational day (GD) 7...... and continued during lactation until postnatal day (PND) 16. Some dams were randomly chosen for cesarean section at GD 21 to evaluate effects on sexual differentiation in the fetuses. Other dams delivered normally, and the pups were examined (e.g., anogenital distance [AGD] and hormone levels) at birth, at PND...

  13. Anethole, a potential antimicrobial synergist, converts a fungistatic dodecanol to a fungicidal agent.

    Fujita, Ken-Ichi; Fujita, Tomoko; Kubo, Isao

    2007-01-01

    Anethole shows synergistic effects on the antifungal activities of phytochemicals including polygodial and (2E)-undecenal against Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. It was found that a fungistatic dodecanol combined with a sublethal amount of anethole showed a fungicidal activity against S. cerevisiae. The MIC of dodecanol quickly reduced cell viability, but the cell viability recovered shortly after and then finally became no longer different from the control, indicating that the effect of dodecanol on this yeast was classified as sublethal damage. On the other hand, anethole completely restricted the recovery of cell viability. Therefore the expression of the synergistic effect was probably due to a blockade of the recovery process from dodecanol-induced stress.

  14. Distribution of haemic neoplasia of soft-shelled clams in Prince Edward Island: an examination of anthropogenic factors and effects of experimental fungicide exposure.

    Mateo, D R; MacCallum, G S; McGladdery, S E; Davidson, J

    2016-05-01

    Haemic neoplasia was first considered a disease of concern for soft-shell clams in Prince Edward Island (PEI) when it was diagnosed as the cause of mass mortalities in 1999. The aetiology of the disease remains elusive, but has been associated with environmental degradation. In this study, a 2-year (2001-2002) geographic and seasonal survey was conducted for haemic neoplasia, using histology, in soft-shell clams from PEI. In addition, using geographic information system, the association between anthropogenic factors in the watersheds at sites affected by haemic neoplasia and the prevalence of the disease was investigated. Finally, histopathological changes were assessed in soft-shell clams experimentally exposed to four concentrations of chlorothalonil for 27 days. Haemic neoplasia could not be induced at any concentration of chlorothalonil. Clams exposed to a concentration of 1000 μg L(-1) of the fungicide, however, exhibited an LC50 of 17 days. Although this information provides additional toxicity information (LC50) for soft-shell clams, further experiments are required to assess longer term exposure to the fungicide. The highest prevalences of haemic neoplasia in PEI were found in North River and Miscouche (28.3-50.9% and 33.0-77.8%, respectively). No clear seasonal patterns were found. There was a correlation between haemic neoplasia prevalence and watersheds with a high percentage of potato acreage and forest coverage (P = 0.026 and P = 0.045, respectively), suggesting a link between anthropogenic activity and the prevalence of the disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods with a modified QuEChERS method and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Mu, Zhaobin; Feng, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Hongyan

    2016-02-01

    A multi-residue method based on modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was developed and validated for the determination of three selected fungicides (propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, and isopyrazam) in seven animal origin foods. The overall recoveries at the three spiking levels of 0.005, 0.05, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) spanned between 72.3 and 101.4% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values between 0.7 and 14.9%. The method shows good linearity in the concentrations between 0.001 and 1 mg L(-1) with the coefficient of determination (R (2)) value >0.99 for each target analyte. The limit of detections (LODs) for target analytes were between 0.04 and 1.26 μg kg(-1), and the limit of quantifications (LOQs) were between 0.13 and 4.20 μg kg(-1). The matrix effect for each individual compound was evaluated through the study of ratios of the areas obtained in solvent and matrix standards. The optimized method provided a negligible matrix effect for propiconazole within 20%, whereas for pyraclostrobin and isopyrazam, the matrix effect was relatively significant with a maximum value of 49.8%. The developed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of 210 animal origin samples obtained from 16 provinces of China. The results suggested that the developed method was satisfactory for trace analysis of three fungicides in animal origin foods.

  16. Fungicidal activities and mechanisms of action of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae lipodepsipeptide syringopeptins 22A and 25A

    Mekki F. Bensaci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The plant-associated bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae simultaneously produces two classes of metabolites: the small cyclic lipodepsinonapeptides such as the syringomycins and the larger cyclic lipodepsipeptide syringopeptins SP22 or SP25. The syringomycins inhibit a broad spectrum of fungi (but particularly yeasts by lipid-dependent membrane interaction. The syringopeptins are phytotoxic and inhibitory to Gram positive bacteria. In this study, the fungicidal activities of two major syringopeptins, SP22A and SP25A, and their mechanisms of action were investigated and compared to those of syringomycin E. SP22A and SP25A were observed to inhibit the fungal yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans although less effectively than syringomycin E. S. cerevisiae mutants defective in ergosterol and sphingolipid biosyntheses were less susceptible to SP22A and SP25A but the relative inhibitory capabilities of SRE vs. SP22A and SP25A were maintained. Similar differences were observed for capabilities to cause cellular K+ and Ca2+ fluxes in S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, in phospholipid bilayers the syringopeptins are found to induce larger macroscopic ionic conductances than syringomycin E but form single channels with similar properties. These findings suggest that the syringopeptins target the yeast plasma membrane, and, like syringomycin E, employ a lipid-dependent channel forming mechanism of action. The differing degrees of growth inhibition by these lipodepsipeptides may be explained by differences in their hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic SP22A and SP25A might interact more strongly with the yeast cell wall that would create a selective barrier for their incorporation into the plasma membrane.

  17. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  18. Phyllosticta species on citrus: Risk estimation of resistance to QoI fungicides and identification of species with cytochrome b gene sequences

    Stammler, G.; Schutte, G.C.; Speakman, J.; Miessner, S.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolates of three fungal species associated with citrus, Phyllosticta citricarpa, Phyllosticta citriasiana and Phyllosticta capitalensis, collected from different citrus growing countries of the world, were investigated for their sensitivities to the QoI fungicides pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin.

  19. Seletividade de fungicidas cúpricos e sistêmicos sobre o fungo Cladosporium cladosporioides em cafeeiro Selectivity of cupric and systemic fungicides on Cladosporium cladosporioides in coffee plants

    Sára Maria Chalfoun

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência do fungo Cladosporium sp. em frutos do cafeeiro é freqüente e coincide com o período de controle de doenças desta cultura. O fungo Cladosporium sp. tem sido relatado associado a cafés de boa qualidade portanto, é importante que os fungicidas sejam seletivos aos agentes antagonistas de fungos deletérios à qualidade do café sendo o Cladosporium sp incluído neste grupo. Deste modo, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi testar a seletividade de alguns produtos utilizados visando o controle de doenças do cafeeiro sobre o fungo Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres. de Vries. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em uma lavoura da cultivar Acaiá Cerrado MG 1474, com 6 anos de idade no espaçamento adensado de 2,0 x 0,6 m, onde foram testados produtos preventivos, a base de cobre, e sistêmico, aplicados isoladamente e associados. Foram empregados como produtos cúpricos o oxicloreto de cobre (50% de cobre metálico e Calda Viçosa comercial e como sistêmico o epoxiconazole. A avaliação da incidência de C. cladosporioides foi realizada através de notas subjetivas, em quatro épocas, registrando em porcentagem a área com crescimento fúngico sobre os frutos do cafeeiro. Verificou-se que enquanto nos tratamentos com fungicida epoxiconazole aplicado isoladamente ou associado ao fungicida cúprico o fungo apresentava-se inicialmente com baixa incidência, aumentando progressivamente a partir do mês de maio, nos tratamentos com apenas fungicidas cúpricos a incidência do fungo mostrou-se elevada desde maio, indicando não ter sido afetada e/ou mesmo favorecida por pulverizações anteriores do produto.The occurrence of Cladosporium cladosporioides on coffee fruits is frequently and coincides with the control of others diseases in coffee plants. The fungus Cladosporium sp. has been found associated with coffee of good quality; therefore, it is important to use of selective fungicides to preserve it. On the study, six years old, coffee

  20. Influence of fungicide seed treatment on soybean nodulation and grain yield Influência do tratamento de sementes com fungicidas na nodulação e rendimento de grãos da soja

    Jerri Édson Zilli

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological N2 fixation is a major factor contributing to the increased competitiveness of Brazilian soybeans on the international market. However, the contribution of this process may be limited by adverse conditions to symbiotic bacteria, such as fungicide seed treatments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the fungicides carbendazim + thiram and carboxin + thiram on soybean nodulation, plant growth and grain yield. Two field experiments were carried out in the Cerrado region of the State of Roraima, in a soil with a low organic matter content and no soybean bradyrhizobia. In 2005, seeds were treated with fungicide carbendazim + thiram and commercial inoculants containing the Bradyrhizobium elkanii strains SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 587 and B. japonicum strains SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080. In 2006, soybean seeds were treated with the fungicides carbendazim + thiram or carboxin + thiram and inoculated separately with each one of the four strains. The plants were evaluated for number of nodules and dry weight, shoot dry weight and total N accumulated in shoots 35 days after plant emergence, while grain yield and N grain content were determined at harvest. Both fungicides reduced soybean nodulation, especially in the presence of B. elkanii strains. The fungicide carbendazim + thiram reduced nodulation by about 50 % and grain yield by more than 20 % (about 700 kg ha-1, in the treatment inoculated with of strain SEMIA 587.A fixação biológica de N2 representa um dos principais fatores que aumentam a competitividade da soja no mercado internacional. Entretanto, a resposta desse processo pode ser limitada por condições adversas à bactéria, como o tratamento de sementes com fungicidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de fungicidas à base de carbendazim + tiram e carboxin + tiram sobre a nodulação, o desenvolvimento das plantas e o rendimento de grãos da cultura da soja. Dois experimentos foram realizados no Cerrado do Estado de