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Sample records for fungicide prochloraz feminizes

  1. Perinatal exposure to the fungicide prochloraz feminizes the male rat offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Christiansen, Sofie; Laier, Peter

    2005-01-01

    . Behavioral studies showed that the activity level and sweet preference of adult males were significantly increased. Overall these results strongly indicate that prochloraz feminizes the male offspring after perinatal exposure, and that these effects are due, at least in part, to diminished fetal...

  2. Antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, M.

    2002-01-01

    The commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz was tested for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. Prochloraz, but not the metabolites 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid or 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, inhibited the R1881-induced response in an androgen receptor reporter gene assay. In the Her......, to the effects of flutamide. However, differential effects on levels of FSH, T-4, and TSH indicate that other modes of action apart from the pure AR antagonism might play a role in vivo....

  3. Mechanisms of action underlying the antiandrogenic effects of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, Peter; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Boberg, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The fungicide prochloraz has got multiple mechanisms of action that may influence the demasculinizing and reproductive toxic effects of the compound. In the present study, Wistar rats were dosed perinatally with prochloraz (50 and 150 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) ...... acts directly on the fetal testis to inhibit steroidogenesis and that this effect is exhibited at protein, and not at genomic, level. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  4. THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ: IN VITRO ANDROGEN ANTAGONISM, PARTURITION DELAYS, AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fungicide Prochloraz: In vitro Androgen Antagonism, Parturition Delays, and Male Reproductive Malformations in Rats.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr., noriega.nigel@epa.govUS EPAProchloraz (PZ) is an imid...

  5. Antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo of the fungicide prochloraz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Nellemann, Christine; Dalgaard, Majken;

    2002-01-01

    . In the Hershberger assay, prochloraz exposure at all dose levels (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) given orally to castrated testosterone (T)-treated males markedly reduced weights of ventral prostate, seminal vesicles, musc. levator ani/bulbocavernosus, and bulbourethral gland. These effects were accompanied by an increase...... expression were determined in ventral prostates by real-time RT-PCR. A pronounced decrease of ornithin decarboxylase and PBP C3 mRNA levels was observed for both prochloraz and flutamide. These results indicate that prochloraz antagonizes the peripheral androgen receptors resulting in decreased growth...

  6. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS: IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson,and L. Earl Gray Jr.,noriega.nigel@epa.gov<...

  7. EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL PROCHLORAZ ADMINISTRATION ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN RATS. IN VIVO ASSESSMENTS OF A FUNGICIDE WITH MULTIPLE IN VITRO EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of Gestational Prochloraz Administration on Male Reproductive Development in Rats. In Vivo Assessments of a Fungicide with multiple In Vitro effects.Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr., noriega.nigel@epa.go...

  8. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female-offspring. Besides......, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties....

  9. Environmental azole fungicide, prochloraz, can induce cross-resistance to medical triazoles in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Ramos, Isabel; Tavares, Pedro R; Farinha, Sofia; Neves-Maia, João; Miranda, Isabel M; Silva, Raquel M; Estevinho, Letícia M; Pina-Vaz, Cidalia; Rodrigues, Acácio G

    2014-11-01

    Acquisition of azole resistance by clinically relevant yeasts in nature may result in a significant, yet undetermined, impact in human health. The main goal of this study was to assess the development of cross-resistance between agricultural and clinical azoles by Candida spp. An in vitro induction assay was performed, for a period of 90 days, with prochloraz (PCZ) - an agricultural antifungal. Afterward, the induced molecular resistance mechanisms were unveiled. MIC value of PCZ increased significantly in all Candida spp. isolates. However, only C. glabrata developed cross-resistance to fluconazole and posaconazole. The increased MIC values were stable. Candida glabrata azole resistance acquisition triggered by PCZ exposure involved the upregulation of the ATP binding cassette multidrug transporter genes and the transcription factor, PDR1. Single mutation previously implicated in azole resistance was found in PDR1 while ERG11 showed several synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms. These results might explain why C. glabrata is so commonly less susceptible to clinical azoles, suggesting that its exposure to agricultural azole antifungals may be associated to the emergence of cross-resistance. Such studies forward potential explanations for the worldwide increasing clinical prevalence of C. glabrata and the associated worse prognosis of an infection by this species.

  10. Effects of azole fungicides on the function of sex and thyroid hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærstad, Mia Birkhøj; Andersen, Helle Raun; Taxvig, Camilla

    Resumé: Azole-fungicides are frequently used in Denmark. Epoxiconazole, propiconazole, and tebuconazole had endocrine disrupting properties in cell based assays. In rats, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole increased gestational length, maternal progesterone level, and masculinized female......-offspring. Besides, tebuconazole caused feminization of male-offspring. Similar effects were previously demonstrated for prochloraz. The results indicate that azole-fungicides in general have endocrine disrupting properties...

  11. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during t...

  12. Residues of {sup 14}C-prochloraz in irradiated mangoes; Residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas irradiadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria A.; Tornisielo, Valdemar L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia

    2000-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as Prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling antracnose in mangoes. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the Prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in the post harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with of 1,0 kGy dose, was used to induce Prochloraz degradation. Treated post-harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the Prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 days storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide Prochloraz in the peels (mean = 1,64 {mu}g/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (mean = 0,06 {mu}g/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the post-harvest was the metabolite BTS 44596. The metabolite was found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. (author)

  13. In vitro sensitivity testing of Cladobotryum mycophilum to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinesi Chakwiya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited information of fungicide efficacy on cultivated mushrooms and resistance development potential is available. Minor crop industries in general have a smaller arsenal of protectants to rely on and the likelihood of resistance build-up is of greater concern. This study focused on Cladobotryum mycophilum's sensitivity to carbendazim and prochloraz manganese following recent reports on decreased efficacy of both fungicides. The median effective dose (ED50 values for carbendazim ranged between 0.02 mg/L and 4.31 mg/L with 60% of the South African isolates being moderately resistant. The highest resistance factor for carbendazim was 215. Prochloraz manganese ED50 values varied from 0.00001 mg/L to 0.55 mg/L. A significant difference in mean ED50 values for both fungicides tested was observed. Using cluster analysis, no discrimination of isolates previously exposed and unexposed to prochloraz manganese was observed. A wide range of differences in ED50 values indicated moderate resistance to carbendazim and high sensitivity to prochloraz manganese among isolates under investigation. Discriminant analysis indicated significant differences between clusters contributed by one or a few variables. This study provided evidence that prochloraz manganese remains highly fungitoxic to C. mycophilum. However, prochloraz manganese is to be used in a disease management strategy in combination with strict farm hygiene management strategies to retain product efficacy and ensure crop protection.

  14. Evaluation of the {sup 14}C-prochloraz residue levels in irradiated mangoes (Mangifera indica) and apples (Malus domestica).; Avaliacao dos niveis de residuos de {sup 14}C-prochloraz em mangas (Mangigera indica) irradiadas e em macas (Malus domestica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida

    1998-07-01

    The Brazilian crops mangoes and apples has expanding in the last years. However, tropical fruits crops are susceptible to infection that harms the crop yield. The control of these diseases is made through fungicides such as prochloraz which possesses protecting eradicating action by controlling anthracnose in mangoes and scabies in apples. Agrochemicals are of great importance in the agriculture considering the of relationship cost/benefit. However they may cause a series of problems in the ecosystem, being the levels of agrochemicals residues in fruits one of these factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prochloraz levels in mangoes treated in both stages of pre and post harvest, and in apples treated in the pre harvest. In the treatment of the mangoes, the interaction, fungicide with the gamma radiation with dose of 1,0 kGy, was used to induce prochloraz degradation. Treated post harvest mangoes were stored, at 12 deg C during 21 days. The results showed that the prochloraz did not present reduction in the residual levels of the mangoes after 21 day storage, that is the safe period established by the Brazilian legislation on agrochemicals, in treated mangoes. The refrigerated storage (12 deg C) and the gamma radiation also did not contribute to the degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In average the concentration of the fungicide prochloraz in the peels (bar X = 1,64 mug/g) was higher than in the mangoes pulp (bar x = 0,06 mug/g), which allows the consumption of this fruit, since the peel is always discarded. The degradation product, formed in peels of mangoes in fruits treated in the pre and post harvest was the metabolite BIS 44596; for mangoes treated in the pre-post harvest the metabolite formed was the BIS 445186. Both metabolites were found in very low levels, confirming that occurs degradation of the fungicide in mangoes. In apples treated with the prochloraz, reduction of 500/0 in the levels. (author)

  15. Effects of prochloraz and ethinylestradiol on sexual development in Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2008-08-01

    A wide range of environmental xenobiotics that mimic hormones (endocrine-disrupting chemicals) may cause alterations in sexual development or reproductive function in aquatic organisms such as amphibians when exposed during early sensitive stages. We exposed tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, from hatch to metamorphosis, to two different endocrine disruptors, the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol and the fungicide prochloraz. The object of the study was to assess the effects of these two compounds on the sexual development of the tadpoles by investigating sex ratio, gonadal development, sex steroid concentrations and vitellogenin induction. Histology revealed that a large percentage of all groups were juvenile hermaphrodites at metamorphosis. Tadpoles exposed to 115 and 251 microg/L prochloraz showed a significant increased proportion of males. However, the testosterone concentrations were depressed in those groups. Ethinylestradiol in concentrations of 77 and 159 ng/L EE(2) increased whole-body calcium levels in a dose-dependent manner indicating induction of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin, verified also by gel electrophoresis. The study shows that ethinylestradiol may induce vitellogenesis and prochloraz may affect the sexual development in Common frogs.

  16. Multiculturalism and feminism

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The popular perception of feminism and multiculturalism as incompatible is strongly rejected; in addition, the position that feminism and multiculturalism are always compatible is challenged. An overview of contemporary definitions of feminism and multiculturalism is presented, demonstrating that neither theoretical perspective should be outright rejected. Nevertheless, it is stressed that feminists should resist efforts to balance feminism and multiculturalism since the latter frequently sup...

  17. Existentialism and Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Mary P.

    Because the term feminism linguistically narrows the essence of woman's existence when it is used consistently to describe female writing that deals with individual freedom and considered choices, it is essential to distinguish between feminism and existentialism. While feminism is primarily concerned with women in the context of a dominant male…

  18. On Radical Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟良锴

    2015-01-01

    <正>All men are created equal.For centuries,human have been struggling for their rights.Women,as a special social force,are fighting vigorously for their equal rights with men.According to an introduction to feminism,there are three main types of feminism:socialist,reformist and radical(Feminism 101).In order

  19. Prochloraz and coumaphos induce different gene expression patterns in three developmental stages of the Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizelj, Ivanka; Glavan, Gordana; Božič, Janko; Oven, Irena; Mrak, Vesna; Narat, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    The Carniolan honey bee, Apis mellifera carnica, is a Slovenian autochthonous subspecies of honey bee. In recent years, the country has recorded an annual loss of bee colonies through mortality of up to 35%. One possible reason for such high mortality could be the exposure of honey bees to xenobiotic residues that have been found in honey bee and beehive products. Acaricides are applied by beekeepers to control varroosis, while the most abundant common agricultural chemicals found in honey bee and beehive products are fungicides, which may enter the system when applied to nearby flowering crops and fruit plants. Acaricides and fungicides are not intrinsically highly toxic to bees but their action in combination might lead to higher honey bee sensitivity or mortality. In the present study we investigated the molecular immune response of honey bee workers at different developmental stages (prepupa, white-eyed pupa, adult) exposed to the acaricide coumaphos and the fungicide prochloraz individually and in combination. Expression of 17 immune-related genes was examined by quantitative RT-PCR. In treated prepupae downregulation of most immune-related genes was observed in all treatments, while in adults upregulation of most of the genes was recorded. Our study shows for the first time that negative impacts of prochloraz and a combination of coumaphos and prochloraz differ among the different developmental stages of honey bees. The main effect of the xenobiotic combination was found to be upregulation of the antimicrobial peptide genes abaecin and defensin-1 in adult honey bees. Changes in immune-related gene expression could result in depressed immunity of honey bees and their increased susceptibility to various pathogens.

  20. Where Feminism Will Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komisar, Lucy

    1974-01-01

    Predicts multiple, far-reaching and profound social changes in American society resulting from the growth of feminism which advocates a new and human ethos based on an end to stereotypes, hierarchies, power-based relationships and force. Topics discussed include Federal policies toward women, the effects of feminism on men and building a new…

  1. Gnosticism and Radical Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cahana, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    and radical feminism would easily fall under this definition. There is, however, one major difference: since radical feminism is a relatively recent phenomenon which also benefited from modern modes of text production and preservation, almost all of the sources are still with us. This, in turn, may allow us...... to use radical feminism to make certain aspects of ancient Gnosticism re-emerge from their long submersion, provided that enough similarities can be independently drawn between the two phenomena to merit such a comparison. This paper therefore presents a comparison between concepts and positions...

  2. The Feminization of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightsman, Lawrence S.

    1984-01-01

    Feminization is a term used to describe the current trend for jury decisions to be based on fairness rather than strict adherence to rules. This societal development is identified through the use of psychological theory and research. (DF)

  3. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Drucilla Cornell; Karin van Marle

    2015-01-01

    The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of femi...

  4. Combination Effects of (TriAzole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Rieke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (triazole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence this

  5. Combination Effects of (Tri)Azole Fungicides on Hormone Production and Xenobiotic Metabolism in a Human Placental Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Svenja; Koehn, Sophie; Hirsch-Ernst, Karen; Pfeil, Rudolf; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are exposed to multiple residues of different pesticides via the diet. Therefore, EU legislation for pesticides requires the evaluation of single active substances as well as the consideration of combination effects. Hence the analysis of combined effects of substances in a broad dose range represents a key challenge to current experimental and regulatory toxicology. Here we report evidence for additive effects for (tri)azole fungicides, a widely used group of antifungal agents, in the human placental cell line Jeg-3. In addition to the triazoles cyproconazole, epoxiconazole, flusilazole and tebuconazole and the azole fungicide prochloraz also pesticides from other chemical classes assumed to act via different modes of action (i.e., the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the triazinylsulfonylurea herbicide triflusulfuron-methyl) were investigated. Endpoints analysed include synthesis of steroid hormone production (progesterone and estradiol) and gene expression of steroidogenic and non-steroidogenic cytochrome-P-450 (CYP) enzymes. For the triazoles and prochloraz, a dose dependent inhibition of progesterone production was observed and additive effects could be confirmed for several combinations of these substances in vitro. The non-triazoles chlorpyrifos and triflusulfuron-methyl did not affect this endpoint and, in line with this finding, no additivity was observed when these substances were applied in mixtures with prochloraz. While prochloraz slightly increased aromatase expression and estradiol production and triflusulfuron-methyl decreased estradiol production, none of the other substances had effects on the expression levels of steroidogenic CYP-enzymes in Jeg-3 cells. For some triazoles, prochloraz and chlorpyrifos a significant induction of CYP1A1 mRNA expression and potential combination effects for this endpoint were observed. Inhibition of CYP1A1 mRNA induction by the AhR inhibitor CH223191 indicated AhR receptor dependence of this effect. PMID

  6. The Other Women: Radicalizing Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigvert, Lidia; Darder, Antonia; Merrill, Barbara; de los Reyes, Eileen; Stromquist, Nelly

    A recent international symposium on radicalizing feminism explored ways of developing a dialogic feminism that emphasizes working in different settings under the common goal of including women who have been invisible in the dominant feminist literature by furthering theories and practices based on the principles of dialogic feminism. The seminar…

  7. In vitro screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects – comparison with in vivo effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -based assays. In vitro prochloraz proved to be an activator of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), to inhibit aromatase activity and to possess antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Another two azole fungicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, have now been investigated...... in H295R cells, a cell line, which produces a wide range of steroid hormones in measurable quantities, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol, a property that makes it suitable as a screening assay to detect effects on steroidogenesis. In the in vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole showed...... antiandrogenic effects, and in the H295R cell assay, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were like prochloraz able to inhibit testosterone and estradiol levels and increase progesterone levels. For the in vivo testing, a study was conducted testing the developmental effects on offspring after prenatal exposure...

  8. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  9. Predictive value of cell assays for developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of conazole fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisig, Karin; Taxvig, Camilla; Birkhøj Kjærstad, Mia; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates in vivo predictability of a battery of in vitro tests covering developmental toxicity and embryotoxicity of five widely used conazole fungicides. The conazoles were investigated in the embryonic stem cell test, and data were compared to in vivo embryotoxicity data. The same conazoles were evaluated on the basis of data from a battery of cell assays for endocrine activity, including assays for AR, ER, AhR, and sex hormone synthesis, and data were compared to in vivo developmental toxicity data. Overall, the ranking of the five conazole fungicides based on in vitro data were in reasonably good agreement with available in vivo effects. Ketoconazole and epoxiconazole are the most potent embryotoxic compounds, whereas prochloraz belongs to the most potent developmental toxicants. In conclusion, a rough prediction of the ranking of these conazole fungicides for in vivo toxicity data was possible by a holistic evaluation of data from a panel of cell-based assays.

  10. Millian Liberal Feminism Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Gail

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that John Stuart Mill's principles on liberal feminism are still relevant and have not yet been fully implemented. A Millian account of equality of opportunity and discrimination is developed, and current measures in the field of sexual equality are critiqued. (Author/MSE)

  11. Millian Liberal Feminism Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Gail

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that John Stuart Mill's principles on liberal feminism are still relevant and have not yet been fully implemented. A Millian account of equality of opportunity and discrimination is developed, and current measures in the field of sexual equality are critiqued. (Author/MSE)

  12. Feminism's Perverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Elaine

    2000-01-01

    Discusses directions in which literary, cultural, ethnic, and women's studies have moved in recent years, noting what has been lost by following certain discursive directions proposed by feminism and rejecting others. Examines the steady move toward separation of political from poetic and recommends a return to the literary imagination and…

  13. Has Feminism Changed Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebinger, Londa

    2000-01-01

    Discusses whether the presence of feminism in science has changed science, discounting the idea that simply encouraging more women to enter science will necessarily produce change and stressing the need for governmental funding and initiatives on women and gender in science. Argues for multiple arenas for change (research priorities, domestic…

  14. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  15. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reed M; Dahlgren, Lizette; Siegfried, Blair D; Ellis, Marion D

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera) and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17) while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15). The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI) fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication appears to play an important role. Evidence of non-transivity, year-to-year variation

  16. [Feminism and qualitative nursing research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun; Yih, Bong-Sook

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe feminism and to propose the integration of a feminist method into qualitative nursing methodology in order to expand the body of nursing knowledge. The world view of feminism including philosophy, epistemology and methodology was outlined, and a feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were suggested as a way of strengthening nursing research methodology using literature review. Four different philosophical perspectives of feminism, that is, liberal feminism, radical feminism, Marxist feminism, and social feminism were described. Also epistemological perspectives including feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint, and postmodern feminism, were explained and were related to the methodology and methods of feminism. To enhance the strengths of nursing research within the feminist perspectives, feminist grounded theory and feminist ethnography were exemplified in the paradigm of qualitative nursing research. This paper suggested that incorporation of feminist approaches within nursing is a valuable attempt to expand the body of nursing knowledge and to enhance the quality of nursing care services by rectifying male-oriented knowledge and by empowering women in the care of other people as well as themselves.

  17. Discursive psychology and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Ann

    2012-09-01

    This appraisal highlights the productive engagement between feminism and discursive psychology (DP). It discusses some of the confluence and tensions between DP and feminism. The two share critical perspectives on science and psychology, a concern with prejudice, and have ideas in common about the constructed nature of social categories, such as gender. One difficulty arises from the relativism associated with the post-structural theoretical underpinnings of DP, which can be understood as politically paralyzing. Another problem comes from an endorsement of a conversation analytic mentality, where identity categories such as gender can only be legitimately used in an analysis when participants' orient to their relevance. The high-profile debates and literature in DP shows it has made a notable contribution to social psychology and its influence can also be found in other areas. A particular influence of DP highlighted in the present appraisal is on gender and language research. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Funny for Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Zampetis, Marios Stylianos; Ahmed, Nadia; Uhlig, Louise; Stjerneby, Luna

    2016-01-01

    This project explores, and tries to identify if and how humour and comedy can be used as communicative tools for creating awareness on feminism and other issues in society. Through media platforms, humour is used to promote different social agendas that can inspire and impact positive social change. In order to conduct this project, an extensive use of humour theories were applied. This project analyses and discusses different cases, in which humour has been used to both educate and entertain...

  19. Survey and Screening of Fungicide for the Control of Tomato Black Leaf Mold Pseudocercospora fuligena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mun Haeng Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomato black leaf molds were collected from the six metropolitan cities, which were occurred mainly from the end of August until November. There was no significant difference on the fungal growth between potato dextrose agar and tomato-oatmeal agar media. The mycelial growth of the fungus was robust at a relatively high temperature, from 28 to 30°C. The suppression rates of hyphal growth ranged from 17-98% on the media supplemented with four different chemicals such as difenoconazole, fluquinconazole and prochloraz manganese complex, metconazole, and flutianil and there is no different suppression rates of the fungicides on the tested Pseudocercospora fuligena isolates.

  20. Disease control by chemical and biological fungicides in cultivated mushrooms: button mushroom, oyster mushroom and shiitake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly cultivated basidiomycetes worldwide and in Serbia are button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, oyster mushroom (Pleurotus sp. and shiitake (Lentinus edodes. Production of their fruiting bodies is severely afflicted by fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens that are able to cause diseases which affect yield and quality. Major A. bisporus fungal pathogens include Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillium fungicola, and Cladobotryum spp., the causal agents of dry bubble, wet bubble, and cobweb disease, respectively. Various Trichoderma species, the causal agents of green mould, also affect all three kinds of edible mushrooms. Over the past two decades, green mould caused by T. aggressivum has been the most serious disease of button mushroom. Oyster mushroom is susceptible to T. pleurotum and shiitake to T. harzianum. The bacterial brawn blotch disease, caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii, is distributed globally. Disease control on mushroom farms worldwide is commonly based on the use of fungicides. However, evolution of pathogen resistance to fungicides after frequent application, and host sensitivity to fungicides are serious problems. Only a few fungicides are officially recommended in mushroom production: chlorothalonil and thiabendazol in North America and prochloraz in the EU and some other countries. Even though decreased sensitivity levels of L. fungicola and Cladobotryum mycophilum to prochloraz have been detected, disease control is still mainly provided by that chemical fungicide. Considering such resistance evolution, harmful impact to the environment and human health, special attention should be focused on biofungicides, both microbiological products based on Bacillus species and various natural substances of biological origin, together with good programs of hygiene. Introduction of biofungicides has created new possibilities for crop protection with reduced application of chemicals.

  1. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  2. "Hope in Failure": A Level Students, Discursive Agency, Post-Feminism and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with Pollock's comment that Judith Butler "finds hope in failure" and its aim is to explore what "hope in failure" means in relation to A Level students' engagements with post-feminism and feminism. The article grounds its argument in an exploration of how post-feminism and feminism intersect with sixth form…

  3. "Hope in Failure": A Level Students, Discursive Agency, Post-Feminism and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This article begins with Pollock's comment that Judith Butler "finds hope in failure" and its aim is to explore what "hope in failure" means in relation to A Level students' engagements with post-feminism and feminism. The article grounds its argument in an exploration of how post-feminism and feminism intersect with sixth form students'…

  4. Tratamento térmico e prochloraz no controle da antracnose em pós-colheita de frutos de banana 'Prata Anã' Thermotherapy and prochloraz to control of anthracnose on 'Prata Anã' bananas in post harvest conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Barreto da Silva

    2008-12-01

    ã' (AAB were collected in the pre-climateric stage. The fruits were submitted to four treatments with five replications. 1. thermotherapy (immersion in hot water at 56ºC for six minutes, followed by immersion in water at home temperature, 2. chemical control for six minutes (immersion in fungicidal suspension (prochloraz 2.5 mL.L-1, 3. thermotherapy followed by the chemical control, 4. Negative control, immersion water at home temperature for six minutes. After the treatments, the hands was divided in half parts, one part was put in cold camera (14ºC with variation of 2ºC and the other one stayed at home temperature. The thermotherapy wasn't effective to control of the disease. The fungicide prochloraz at 2.5 mL.L-1 was efficient in the control of the banana post harvest rot. The refrigeration delayed the presence of the disease in up to 12 days. The results indicate that the low temperature, associated or not to the chemical control, can control the fruits post harvest rot for 12 days.

  5. On the Feminism in French Lieutenant's Woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琴

    2010-01-01

    Sarah in The French Lieutenant's Woman has been regarded as a representative of feminism in modern literature field.Undoubtedly, Sarah is an independent woman ahead of her time.The paper is attempted to focus on the feminism in The French Lieutenant's Woman from many aspects and analyze the reasons of such kind of feminism.

  6. Feminism and Islamic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winifred Woodhull

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available "Feminism and Islamic Tradition" explores the territory mapped by Fatima Mernissi in Sultanes oublées (1990 and Le Harem politique: Le Prophète et les femmes (1987 in relation to that charted by Assia Djebar in her latest novel Loin de Médine (1991. The aim is to see why Maghrebian feminists as different as Mernissi and Djebar—a liberal democratic sociologist and a postmodern writer—have begun to move into Arab-Islamic cultural-political spaces which, until recently, have been occupied mainly by various Islamic fundamentalist factions and other right-wing groups such as conservative nationalists in the Maghreb. The essay delineates the change between these writers' recent work and their earlier writing. It then considers their revaluations of Islamic tradition in light of the work of feminists and other progressives in Muslim countries who are resisting the growing power of Islamic fundamentalisms in various geopolitical contexts while at the same time contesting western orientalist views of Islam and Muslim culture.

  7. Fungicide resistance status in French populations of the wheat eyespot fungi Oculimacula acuformis and Oculimacula yallundae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Pierre; Gredt, Michel; Remuson, Florent; Micoud, Annie; Walker, Anne-Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Eyespot, caused by Oculimacula acuformis and Oculimacula yallundae, is the major foot disease of winter wheat in several European countries, including France. It can be controlled by chemical treatment between tillering and the second node stage. The fungicides used include antimicrotubule toxicants (benzimidazoles), inhibitors of sterol 14α-demethylation (DMIs) or of succinate dehydrogenase (SDHIs), the anilinopyrimidines cyprodinil and the benzophenone metrafenone. Since the early 1980s, a long-term survey has been set up in France to monitor changes in the sensitivity of eyespot populations to fungicides. Resistance to benzimidazoles has become generalised since the early 1990s, in spite of the withdrawal of this class of fungicides. In the DMI group, resistance to triazoles is generalised, whereas no resistance to the triazolinethione prothioconazole has yet developed. Resistance to the imidazole prochloraz evolved successively in O. acuformis and O. yallundae and is now well established. Specific resistance to cyprodinil has also been detected, but its frequency has generally remained low. Finally, since the early 2000s, a few strains of O. yallundae displaying multidrug resistance (MDR) have been detected. These strains display low levels of resistance to prothioconazole and SDHIs, such as boscalid. Knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution in France of O. acuformis and O. yallundae field strains resistant to fungicides allows resistance management strategies for eyespot fungi in winter wheat to be proposed.

  8. Annual Fungicide Loadings

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Pesticides, Herbicides, Fungicides...etc, are used for a variety of purposes, including control of household, lawn, and garden pests; for control of mosquitoes and...

  9. Fungicide efflux and the MgMFS1 transporter contribute to the multidrug resistance phenotype in Zymoseptoria tritici field isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrane, Selim; Sghyer, Hind; Audéon, Colette; Lanen, Catherine; Duplaix, Clémentine; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Septoria leaf blotch is mainly controlled by fungicides. Zymoseptoria tritici, which is responsible for this disease, displays strong adaptive capacity to fungicide challenge. It developed resistance to most fungicides due to target site modifications. Recently, isolated strains showed cross-resistance to fungicides with unrelated modes of action, suggesting a resistance mechanism known as multidrug resistance (MDR). We show enhanced prochloraz efflux, sensitive to the modulators amitryptiline and chlorpromazine, for two Z. tritici strains, displaying an MDR phenotype in addition to the genotypes CYP51(I381V Y461H) or CYP51(I381V ΔY459/) (G460) , respectively, hereafter named MDR6 and MDR7. Efflux was also inhibited by verapamil in the MDR7 strain. RNA sequencing lead to the identification of several transporter genes overexpressed in both MDR strains. The expression of the MgMFS1 gene was the strongest and constitutively high in MDR field strains. Its inactivation in the MDR6 strain abolished resistance to fungicides with different modes of action supporting its involvement in MDR in Z. tritici. A 519 bp insert in the MgMFS1 promoter was detected in half of the tested MDR field strains, but absent from sensitive field strains, suggesting that the insert is correlated with the observed MDR phenotype. Besides MgMfs1, other transporters and mutations may be involved in MDR in Z. tritici.

  10. Effect of prothioconazole-based fungicides on Fusarium head blight, grain yield and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam HAIDUKOWSKI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of triazole-based treatments on Fusarium head blight (FHB, grain yields and the accumulation of deoxynivalenol (DON in harvested wheat kernels was evaluated by means of twenty multi-site field experiments performed during five consecutive growing seasons (from 2004‒2005 to 2008‒2009 in Italy. Fungicide treatments were carried out on different cultivars of common wheat (cv. Serio, Blasco, Genio and Savio and durum wheat (cv. Orobel, Saragolla, San Carlo, Levante, Duilio, Karur and Derrik after artificial inoculation with a mixture of toxigenic Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum strains. The application of fungicides containing prothioconazole (Proline® or Prosaro® at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 61 resulted in a consistent reduction of FHB disease severity (by between 39 and 93% and DON levels in wheat kernels (by between 40 and 91% and increased wheat yields (from 0.4 to 5.6 t ha-1, average 2.2 t ha-1, as compared to the untreated/inoculated control. Fungicides containing tebuconazole (Folicur® SE and cyproconazole plus prochloraz (Tiptor® Xcell showed a reduced effectiveness compared with prothioconazole-based treatments. All fungicide treatments were more effective in reducing DON and increasing grain yields of common wheat than durum wheat. Results showed that the application of fungicides containing prothioconazole at the beginning of anthesis provided a strong reduction of FHB disease, allowing both an increase in grain yields and a considerable reduction of DON content in wheat kernels.

  11. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  12. Diana Leonard and Materialist Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stevi

    2013-01-01

    This tribute to Diana Leonard focuses on her contribution to materialist feminism, both through bringing the work of key French theorists to the attention of an Anglophone audience and through her own sociological work on the family, marriage and childhood. In so doing it draws attention to the importance of her work as editor and…

  13. Feminism, Neoliberalism, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Mardi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sparse presence of women in social studies education and to consider the possibility of a confluence of feminism and neoliberalism within the most widely distributed National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) publication, "Social Education." Using poststructural conceptions of discourse, the author…

  14. Diana Leonard and Materialist Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stevi

    2013-01-01

    This tribute to Diana Leonard focuses on her contribution to materialist feminism, both through bringing the work of key French theorists to the attention of an Anglophone audience and through her own sociological work on the family, marriage and childhood. In so doing it draws attention to the importance of her work as editor and…

  15. Is Academic Feminism an Oxymoron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Judith

    2000-01-01

    Discusses paradoxical challenges to the future of academic feminism, noting the growing conservatism of the surrounding political climate and the academy's increasing dependence on technological and managerial forces. Highlights two paradoxes: the growth of transdisciplinary feminist scholarship has generated greater disciplinary specialization,…

  16. Assessing the Risk for Resistance and Elucidating the Genetics of Colletotrichum truncatum That Is Only Sensitive to Some DMI Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Colletotrichum contains a wide variety of important plant pathogens, and Colletotrichum truncatum is one of the most prevalent species of Colletotrichum on chili in China. Demethylation-inhibitor fungicides (DMIs are currently registered chemical agents for the management of the anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum spp. To assess the risk for DMI resistance development, 112 C. truncatum isolates were collected from infected pepper in 13 regions of China. The sensitivity of C. truncatum isolates to five DMI fungicides was determined based on mycelial growth inhibition assay. C. truncatum was sensitive to prochloraz, epoxiconazole, and difenoconazole, but not to tebuconazole or myclobutanil. Baseline sensitivity using the 112 C. truncatum isolates was established for the first three effective DMIs. Prochloraz, epoxiconazole, and difenoconazole EC50 values were 0.053 ± 0.023, 1.956 ± 0.815, and 1.027 ± 0.644 μg/ml, respectively. Eleven stable DMI-resistant mutants all exhibited lower fitness levels than their wild-type parents, suggesting a low risk of DMI resistance in C. truncatum. By inducing gene expression, CtCYP51 expression increased slightly in the resistant mutants as compared to wild-types when exposed to DMI fungicides and thus contributed at least partially to resistance. Molecular docking with CYP51 structure models was used to explain differential sensitivity of the DMI fungicides in C. truncatum. Our results suggest that the M376L/H373N mutations in CYP51 changed the conformation of DMIs in the binding pocket. These changes prevented the formation of the Fe – N coordinate bond between the heme iron active site and tebuconazole or myclobutanil, and apparently contributed to tebuconazole and myclobutanil insensitivity of C. truncatum.

  17. Fungicide sensitivity of selected Verticillium fungicola isolates from Agaricus bisporus farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potočnik Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Five isolates of Verticillium fungicola, isolated from diseased fruiting bodies of Agaricus bisporus collected from mushroom farms in Serbia during 2002-2003, were studied. By observing their colony morphology under different growth conditions and their pathogenic characteristics, the isolates were identified as V. fungicola var. fungicola. The peat/lime casing was the primary source of infection. Testing of sensitivity to selected fungicides showed that all isolates were highly resistant to benomyl (EC50 values were higher than 200.00 mg/l, moderately sensitive to iprodione (EC50 values were between 11.93 and 22.80 mg/l, and highly sensitive to prochloraz-Mn (EC50 values were less than 3.00 mg/l.

  18. Antiandrogenic effects in short-term in vivo studies of the fungicide fenarimol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jacobsen, H.; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng;

    2005-01-01

    The fungicide fenarimol has estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity and inhibits aromatase activity in vitro. We tested, whether fenarimol had antiandrogenic effects in vivo. In a Hershberger assay. fenarimol given orally to castrated testosterone-treated male. rats caused markedly reduced weights...... that fenarimol acts as an antiandrogen in vivo having effects qualitatively comparable to those of flutamide on organ level, whereas differential effects on gene expression were observed. In an additional Hershberger test, the effects of fenarimol were compared to those of estradiol benzoate, prochloraz......-regulation of PBP C3 mRNA and up-regulation of TRPM-2 mRNA levels. Serum T4 levels were reduced after fenarimol treatment and a tendency towards increased LH levels was seen. However. no effects on testosterone levels or testosterone production ex vivo could be revealed. Taken together these results indicate...

  19. What feminism can do for bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, L M

    2001-01-01

    Feminist criticism of health care and of bioethics has become increasingly rich and sophisticated in the last years of the twentieth century. Nonetheless, this body of work remains quite marginalized. I believe that there are (at least) two reasons for this. First, many people are still confused about feminism. Second, many people are unconvinced that significant sexism still exists and are therefore unreceptive to arguments that it should be remedied if there is no larger benefit. In this essay I argue for a thin, "core" conception of feminism that is easy to understand and difficult to reject. Core feminism would render debate within feminism more fruitful, clear the way for appropriate recognition of differences among women and their circumstances, provide intellectually compelling reasons for current non-feminists to adopt a feminist outlook, and facilitate mutually beneficial cooperation between feminism and other progressive social movements. This conception of feminism also makes it clear that feminism is part of a larger egalitarian moral and political agenda, and adopting it would help bioethics focus on the most urgent moral priorities. In addition, integrating core feminism into bioethics would open a gateway to the more speculative parts of feminist work where a wealth of creative thinking is occurring. Engaging with this feminist work would challenge and strengthen mainstream approaches: it should also motivate mainstream bioethicists to explore other currently marginalized parts of bioethics.

  20. Feminism and Curriculum: Getting Our Act Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumet, Madeleine; Stone, Lynda

    2000-01-01

    Considers liberal feminism focusing on its advances and limitations. Addresses dualism as connected to the history and theorizing of feminism. Argues that curriculum is overdetermined by the dualism feminist theory. Addresses and offers four categories descriptive of the dualism (experiential, categorical, psychoanalytic, and deconstructive). (CMK)

  1. [Feminism in nursing science in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2005-08-01

    Although feminism has been actively discussed and applied to nursing in Western societies since the 1980s, it is little known among Korean scholars as well as Korean nurses. This article explores the use of feminist perspectives in nursing science in other developed countries and suggests how feminism could be applied to nursing science in Korea. The literature related to nursing and feminism were reviewed in terms of nursing practice, education, and research. This article describes what feminism is and how feminism and nursing have evolved historically over time in other countries, especially in Western societies. In addition, it discusses how it can be applied to nursing practice, education, and research in Korea. Accepting feminist perspective in Korean nursing could benefit in empowering nurses by valuing nursing, by raising self-esteem of nurses, and by raising the consciousness of socio-political realities. Eventually it could benefit in changing and developing nursing science in Korea.

  2. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  3. Radical democratic politics and feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Labrin, Soledad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article I present a reflection around the radical democratic project proposed by Chantal Mouffe and Ernesto Laclau. Specifically, I examine the application of the project in the context of the “new social movements” and especially, of feminist movement. I state the need of drawing attention to universalism and essentialism as the main obstacles to generate a collective proposal without margins. Nevertheless, doubts remind about the possibility of building up a feminism tailored by the radical democratic project, in a stage in which the political action of such a movement is characterized by categories that are closed and crystallized

  4. Feminism, academia and social change

    OpenAIRE

    González Suárez, Mirta

    2011-01-01

    Feminism, as social theory and practice, analyzes and proposals to overcome patriarchy in all areas, including academicmico where they insert their main centers suchas sexism, bipolar separation between masculine and feminine power, body control of thewomen and violence. El feminismo, como  teoría y práctica social, analiza y realiza propuestas para superar el patriarcado en todos los ámbitos y entre ellos el académico donde se insertan sus núcleos principales tales como el sexismo, la sep...

  5. Bacterial degradation of fungicide captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megadi, Veena B; Tallur, Preeti N; Mulla, Sikandar I; Ninnekar, Harichandra Z

    2010-12-22

    The phthalimide fungicide captan has been widely used to control plant pathogenic fungi. A strain of Bacillus circulans utilized the fungicide captan as sole source of carbon and energy. The organism degraded captan by a pathway involving its initial hydrolysis to yield cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide, a compound without fungicidal activity. The formation of this compound was confirmed by HPLC, IR, NMR, and mass spectral analysis. The results also revealed that cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide was further degraded to o-phthalic acid by a protocatechuate pathway. These findings indicated that there was a complete mineralization of fungicide captan by B. circulans.

  6. 'Generations' and 'waves' in Nordic Feminism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stormhøj, Christel; Halsaa, Beatrice; Stoltz, Pauline

    constructs in feminist theory (Evans 2015, Nielsen 1991, Walby 2011); their interrelations and their usefulness as frameworks for understanding changes and continuities, conflicts and consensus in Nordic feminist activism. We explore the contradictory claims that third wave feminism alludes to a generational...... shift; on the one hand to a conservative, highly individualized, post-feminist generation which takes feminism for granted, and on the other hand a radically new, inclusive, diverse and transnational generation of feminism (Dean, 2009; McRobbie, 2009; Widerberg, 2001). The empirical point of departure...

  7. Feminism and public health nursing: partners for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipert, B D

    2001-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that nursing and feminism have enjoyed an uneasy alliance. In recent years, however, nursing has begun to recognize the importance of feminism. Nevertheless, the literature still rarely addresses the relevance of feminism for public health nursing. In this article, I articulate the relevance of feminism for public health nursing knowledge and practice. First, I define and describe feminism and public health nursing and then I discuss the importance of feminism for public health nursing practice. The importance of feminism for the metaparadigm concepts of public health nursing is then reviewed. Finally, I examine several existing challenges relating to feminism and public health nursing research, education, and practice. The thesis of this article is that feminism is vitally important for the development of public health nursing and for public health care.

  8. Black Feminism: An Integrated Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Katie L

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a systematic literature review exploring the uses and potential benefits of Black Feminism in nursing research. Black Feminism may benefit knowledge development for nursing in a variety of ways, such as illuminating the multifaceted factors of Black women's identities in helping scholars move away from generalization of experiences, to improve understanding of health disparities, and making such changes by broadening the social consciousness of the nurse researchers, who are predominantly White. Discrimination in health disparities may be deconstructed if the focus is placed on asking different research questions and offering different interventions with the social structures that contributes to such actions. When Black Feminism guides the research method (including research questions and analysis), the accuracy of representing the experiences of Black women is increased. In this research, Black Feminism highlights experience, coping mechanisms, spiritual values, a tradition of strength, and a holistic view of identity.

  9. Feminism and women's health professions in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Tracey L; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Historically, prevailing gender ideologies were an important element in both the exclusionary strategies employed by male occupational groups and the countervailing responses by female groups. The way in which evolving gender ideologies, and feminism in particular, influence the continuing struggle for greater status and recognition by female professions, however, remains to be fully explored. In this paper, we examine the impact and the role of feminism and feminist ideologies within three female professional projects: nursing, dental hygiene and midwifery in Ontario. We argue that feminism provides an ideology of opposition that enables leaders in these professions to battle against professional inequalities by laying bare the gender inequalities that underlie them. Framing their struggles in feminist terms, female professions also seek recognition for the uniquely female contribution they make to the health care division of labour. At the same time, there exists a tension between ideals of feminism and ideals of professionalism, that has the potential to undermine female professional projects.

  10. Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Espey, Eve

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is adapted from the Irvin M. Cushner Memorial Lecture, "Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception," given at 2014 Annual Clinical Meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Chicago...

  11. Fungicide resistance assays for fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Gary A; Rivera, Viviana V

    2012-01-01

    Fungicide resistance assays are useful to determine if a fungal pathogen has developed resistance to a fungicide used to manage the disease it causes. Laboratory assays are used to determine loss of sensitivity, or resistance, to a fungicide and can explain fungicide failures and for developing successful fungicide recommendations in the field. Laboratory assays for fungicide resistance are conducted by measuring reductions in growth or spore germination of fungi in the presence of fungicide, or by molecular procedures. This chapter describes two techniques for measuring fungicide resistance, using the sugarbeet leaf spot fungus Cercospora beticola as a model for the protocol. Two procedures are described for fungicides from two different classes; growth reduction for triazole (sterol demethylation inhibitor; DMI) fungicides, and inhibition of spore germination for quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides.

  12. Marxism, Feminism, and Epistemological Dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Bakan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The analytical relationship between Marxism and feminism has engaged critical scholarship and leftist practice since the time of the foundational contributions of Marx and Engels. Socialist feminist analysis has profoundly advanced contemporary Marxism. However, some strands in Marxist theory and left practice continue to be resistant to feminist contributions. It is this resistance that animates this paper, which is theorized as epistemological dissonance. While not in any way universal, such dissonance is pervasive and suggests an epistemological framing. This is suggested to include four dimensions, regarding: (i temporality; (ii idealized masculinities; (iii specific views of totality in relation to class, race and gender; and (iv the relationship between activism and the academy. Collectively, these elements maintain and advance not only certain tenets understood as “knowledge”, but also generate a kind of problematic left common sense that can inhibit constructive Marxist and socialist feminist investigation.

  13. Stemphylium Leaf Blight of Garlic (Allium sativum in Spain: Taxonomy and In Vitro Fungicide Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gálvez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most serious aerial disease of garlic is leaf blight caused by Stemphylium spp. Geographical variation in the causal agent of this disease is indicated. Stemphylium vesicarium has been reported in Spain, whereas S. solani is the most prevalent species recorded in China. In this study, Stemphylium isolates were obtained from symptomatic garlic plants sampled from the main Spanish production areas. Sequence data for the ITS1–5.8S–ITS2 region enabled assignation of the isolates to the Pleospora herbarum complex and clearly distinguished the isolates from S. solani. Conidial morphology of the isolates corresponded to that of S. vesicarium and clearly discriminated them from S. alfalfae and S. herbarum on the basis of the size and septation pattern of mature conidia. Conidial morphology as well as conidial length, width and length:width ratio also allowed the Spanish isolates to be distinguished from S. botryosum and S. herbarum. Control of leaf blight of garlic is not well established. Few studies are available regarding the effectiveness of chemical treatments to reduce Stemphylium spp. incidence on garlic. The effectiveness of nine fungicides of different chemical groups to reduce Stemphylium mycelial growth in vitro was tested. Boscalid + pyraclostrobin (group name, succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors + quinone outside inhibitors, iprodione (dicar-boximide, and prochloraz (demethylation inhibitors were highly effective at reducing mycelial growth in S. vesicarium with EC₅₀ values less than 5 ppm. In general, the effectiveness of the fungicide was enhanced with increasing dosage.

  14. Sensitivity ofFusarium graminearum from Hubei province to carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz%湖北省小麦赤霉病菌对多菌灵、戊唑醇和咪鲜胺的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋阳阳; 林杨; 罗汉钢; 罗朝喜

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, 206 single-spore isolates ofFusarium graminearum collected from seven districts in Hubei province were identified by morphology. Sensitivity of 100 randomly selected isolates to carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz was assayed by using mycelium growth inhibition method, and the sensitivity baseline was established. The results showed that the EC50 values of carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz toF. graminearum isolates were in the ranges of 0.115-0.705, 0.006-1.356 and 0.002-0.370 μg/mL, and mean values of 0.248, 0.181 and 0.040 μg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity distributions of the 100 isolates to these three fungicides all followed unimodal quasi-normal distribution , which indicated that the EC50 mean values could be used as the sensitivity baseline ofF. graminearum in Hubei province to these three fungicides. Using 10 times of the mean EC50 value of each fungicide as the discriminatory dose, the sensitivity ofF. graminearum in Hubei province was monitored from 2015–2016. The study showed that the average inhibition rates of carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz toF. graminearum isolates were 100%, 85.14%, 82.35%, respectively, in 2015, and 100%, 76.67%, 73.62%, respectively, in 2016. In summary,F. graminearum isolates in Hubei province still wxhibit high sensitivity to carbendazim, tebuconazole and prochloraz, although the inhibition rates of tebuconazole and prochloraz were slightly decreased in 2016.%对2014年采自中国湖北省7个县、市的206株小麦赤霉病菌样品进行单孢分离与鉴定,并采用菌丝生长速率法随机测定了其中100株菌株对多菌灵、戊唑醇和咪鲜胺的敏感性,建立了其敏感基线。结果表明:多菌灵、戊唑醇和咪鲜胺对湖北省小麦赤霉病菌的 EC50值范围分别为0.115~0.705、0.006~1.356和0.002~0.370μg/mL,平均值分别为0.248、0.181和0.040μg/mL;供试100株小麦赤霉病菌对3种药剂的敏感性频率均呈单峰拟正态

  15. Chronic toxicity of five structurally diverse demethylase-inhibiting fungicides to the crustacean Daphnia magna: a comparative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassold, Enken; Backhaus, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) are broad-spectrum fungicides that are ubiquitously used in agriculture and medicine. They comprise chemically heterogeneous substances that share a common biochemical target in fungi, the inhibition of a specific step in sterol biosynthesis. Several DMIs are suspected to disrupt endocrine-mediated processes in a range of organisms and to inhibit ecdysteroid biosynthesis in arthropods. It is unclear, however, whether and, if so, to what extent different DMI fungicides have a similar mode of action in nontarget organisms, which in turn would lead to a common chronic toxicity profile. Therefore, we selected a representative of each of the major DMI classes--the piperazine triforine, the pyrimidine fenarimol, the pyridine pyrifenox, the imidazole prochloraz, and the triazole triadimefon--and comparatively investigated their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. No toxicity was detectable up to the limit of solubility of triforine (61 micromol/L). All other DMIs reduced reproductive success by delaying molting and development and by causing severe developmental abnormalities among offspring. Prochloraz was most toxic (median effective concentration [EC50] for fecundity reduction, 0.76 micromol/L), followed by fenarimol (EC50, 1.14 micromol/L), pyrifenox (EC50, 3.15 micromol/L), and triadimefon (EC50, 5.13 micromol/L). Mean effect concentrations for fecundity reduction were related to lipophilicity and followed baseline toxicity. However, triadimefon and fenarimol (but none of the other tested DMIs) caused severe eye malformations among exposed offspring. Affected neonates did survive, but a reduced ecological fitness can be assumed. Offspring exposed to fenarimol in mater matured earlier. The investigated different life-history parameters were affected in a substance-specific manner. These qualitatively different toxicity profiles suggest additional, substance-specific mechanisms of action in D. magna that probably are related to an

  16. In vitro and in vivo screening of azole fungicides for antiandrogenic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    and antiandrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo. Two other azole fungicides, tebuconazole and epoxiconazole, have now been investigated for antiandrogenic effects in vitro and in vivo as well. The fungicides were screened in two well-established cell assays, including testing for agonistic and antagonistic...... effects on AR in transfected CHO cells, using an AR reporter gene assay. The compounds were also analyzed for effects on steroidogenesis in H295R cells, a human adrenocorticocarcinoma cell line, used to detect effects on steroid production. In vitro tebuconazole and epoxiconazole proved to be antagonists...... signs of feminization of the male offspring were investigated. Tebuconazole caused an increase in testicular 17alfa-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone levels, and a decrease in testosterone levels in male fetuses. Epoxiconazole had no effect on any of the mesured hormonelevels. Furthermore...

  17. Much More than Power: The Pedagogy of Promiscuous Black Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores promiscuous black feminism by juxtaposing black feminism, Foucualt's poststructuralism, and my grandmother. The tensions created by these juxtapositions illuminate the ways black feminism and poststructuralism are resources and challenges to each other, and how both offer understandings of the relations at play that shape…

  18. Much More than Power: The Pedagogy of Promiscuous Black Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckaby, M. Francyne

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores promiscuous black feminism by juxtaposing black feminism, Foucualt's poststructuralism, and my grandmother. The tensions created by these juxtapositions illuminate the ways black feminism and poststructuralism are resources and challenges to each other, and how both offer understandings of the relations at play that shape…

  19. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  20. Review of strobilurin fungicide chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balba, Hamdy

    2007-05-01

    Strobilurins are natural products isolated and identified from specific fungi. Natural strobilurins were named in the order of their discovery as strobilurin-A followed by strobilurin-B, C, D etc. Their discovery opened the door for new chemistry of synthetic fungicides. Applying Quantitative Structural Activity Relationship (QSAR) on the structures of the natural strobilurins, many pesticide companies were able to discover many synthetic analogues that are more efficacious and more stable fungicides. At present there are about eight synthetic strobilurins in the fungicides worldwide market. Some of these products are worldwide registered for use as agrochemical and some are in the process of registration. This class of fungicides is relatively new, as crop protection products and information about them is still fairly scarce. In this review, syntheses and chemistry of natural and synthetic strobilurins are discussed. Also, the mode of action, efficacy, biotic/abiotic degradation, analytical methods, and agricultural uses are discussed.

  1. Feminizing Adrenocortical Carcinoma Without Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli1*,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant feminizing adrenocortical tumors are exceedingly rare. Their main presentation is gynecomastia. In these estrogen secreting tumors (with or without other adrenocortical hormones lack of gynecomastia is exceptional as in our case. A 44-year-old man presented with abdominal pain. Radiological assessment revealed a tumor measuring 120 × 95 mm in the retroperitoneal area with numerous metastases. Pathological examination pleaded for an adrenal origin with a Weiss’s score of 5. Six months later, the tumor relapsed, and he had a second surgery and was sent for hormone assessment. Clinical examination showed a skinny man with severe fatigue. He had no Cushingoid features. Gynecomastia and galactorrhea were absent. Penile length, testicular volume, and body hair growth were normal. Several cutaneous nodules were present. Biological assessment showed high morning plasma cortisol, which failed to be suppressed by treatment with 2 mg dexamethasone. Plasma estradiol and 17OH progesterone levels were high, but his testosterone levels were low. Radiological exploration showed numerous metastases: pleural, pulmonary, retroperitoneal, and abdominal. He was treated with classical chemotherapy, but he died four months after diagnosis.

  2. Fungicidal preparations from Inula viscose

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Inula viscosa is a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean Basin. Extracts made from the shoots of this plant exhibited a strong fungicidal activity in vitro and in vivo. TLC analyses revealed at least 7 fungicidal compounds. Most are lipophilic. When such extracts were sprayed on the leaf surface of crop plants they effectively controlled downy mildew in grape, cucumber and tabacco; late blight in potato and tomato; gray mold in cucumber and tomato; and, powdery mildew in cucurbits and c...

  3. Screening Experiments for the Effective Fungicides of Black Rot Disease of Gonggan(Alternaria citri)%贡柑黑腐病有效防治药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓明学; 谢艳芳; 谭有龙; 覃旭; 覃星瑜; 覃宗典

    2012-01-01

    [目的]筛选防治贡柑黑腐病的有效药剂.[方法]用生长速率法和孢子萌发法测定苯醚甲环唑等15种药剂的EC50、EC95值,并做氟硅唑等5种药剂的田间药效试验.[结果]以EC95(mg a.i./L)排序,抑菌活性较高的有氟硅唑、吡唑醚菌酯·咪鲜胺、吡唑醚菌酯、苯醚甲环唑、咪鲜胺、代森锰锌、丙森锌、百菌清·多菌灵·代森锰锌;田间防效较好的有10%氟硅唑WP、25%苯醚甲环唑·咪鲜胺WP、50%百菌清·多菌灵·代森锰锌WP和72%代森锰锌·霜脲氰WP,而10%氟硅唑EW防效较差.[结论]耐雨水冲刷的杀菌剂和剂型防效较好.%[Aims] This paper aims to screen out the effective fungicides for controlling black rot disease of Gonggan(Alteranria citri). [Methods] The EC50 and EC95(mg a.i./L) of 15 different kinds of fungicides, such as ifenoconazole, pyraclostrobin, were tested with the both methods of the growth rate and spore emergence, meanwhile, the field control of five kinds of fungicides, such as flusilazole, were conducted. [Results] Sorting by EC,,, the effect on inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination from high to low: flusilazole, pyraclostrobin+prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole, prochloraz, mancozeb, propineb. The field trial results showed that the following .fungicides have good effect: flusilazole 10% WP 1 g/L, difenoconazole+prochloraz 25% WP 1 g/L, chlorothalonil+carbendazim+mancozeb 50% WP 1.67 g/L and mancozeb+cymoxanil 72% WP 1.25 g/L, while flusilazole 10% EW 1 g/L with poor control efficiency. [Conclusions] The control effect is better of the fungicides whose formulations can resist rain erosion.

  4. Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve

    2015-08-01

    This commentary is adapted from the Irvin M. Cushner Memorial Lecture, "Feminism and the Moral Imperative for Contraception," given at 2014 Annual Clinical Meeting of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in Chicago. It provides a brief and simplified historical review of the feminist movement, primarily in the United States, focusing on feminism's association with contraception. This commentary reflects the perspective and opinions of the author. Contraception is fundamental to a woman's ability to achieve equality and realize her full social, economic, and intellectual potential.

  5. The evolution of fungicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A; Hawkins, Nichola J; Fraaije, Bart A

    2015-01-01

    Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease and safeguard crop yield and quality. Over time, however, resistance to many of the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations, compromising disease control. This review describes the development of resistance using case histories based on four important diseases of temperate cereal crops: eyespot (Oculimacula yallundae and Oculimacula acuformis), Septoria tritici blotch (Zymoseptoria tritici), powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), and Fusarium ear blight (a complex of Fusarium and Microdochium spp). The sequential emergence of variant genotypes of these pathogens with reduced sensitivity to the most active single-site fungicides, methyl benzimidazole carbamates, demethylation inhibitors, quinone outside inhibitors, and succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors illustrates an ongoing evolutionary process in response to the introduction and use of different chemical classes. Analysis of the molecular mechanisms and genetic basis of resistance has provided more rapid and precise methods for detecting and monitoring the incidence of resistance in field populations, but when or where resistance will occur remains difficult to predict. The extent to which the predictability of resistance evolution can be improved by laboratory mutagenesis studies and fitness measurements, comparison between pathogens, and reconstruction of evolutionary pathways is discussed. Risk models based on fungal life cycles, fungicide properties, and exposure to the fungicide are now being refined to take account of additional traits associated with the rate of pathogen evolution. Experimental data on the selection of specific mutations or resistant genotypes in pathogen populations in response to fungicide treatments can be used in models evaluating the most effective strategies for reducing or preventing resistance. Resistance management based on robust scientific evidence is vital to prolong

  6. What's Feminism Got to Do with It? Examination of Feminism in Women's Everyday Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Carter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades there has been considerable debate about the role and meaning of feminism in younger women's lives. Feminism can be understood as an empowering discourse, fostering critical awareness and resistance to dominant social norms. However, it can also be experienced as regulatory and disciplinary, clearly defining who and what constitutes a "good" feminist. Utilizing Michel Foucault's principle of care of the self, this paper analyzes women's body practices in relation both to women's interpretation of feminism and to dominant feminist discourses. The complexities of negotiating diverse social identities, as well as women's desire for a happier life and greater self-worth, provide some important nuances to contemporary debates about feminism.

  7. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  8. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  9. On Learning to Teach Fat Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boling, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    As a feminist theorist who frequently teaches theorizing that starts from embodied experience, the author has begun to incorporate fat feminism into her teaching. As a neophyte and a relatively thin woman, she has been self-conscious about broaching issues related to fat bodies in her teaching, even though they clearly raise important issues about…

  10. For Members Only: Feminism on Campus Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agness, Karin L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contemporary feminism in the classroom and on campus is widespread, and student clubs, women's centers, and women's studies departments often exclude women who hold traditional views. In this article, the author takes a look at how this influence evolved and describes the very successful actions she took as a student to challenge…

  11. Incorporating Feminism into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Mookyong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The author describes how rehabilitation counselor educators can incorporate the feminist perspective in teaching rehabilitation counselors-in-training by exploring history, core values, and training methods of feminism. Method: Based on a literature review, the author compares philosophy and concepts of rehabilitation counseling and…

  12. For Members Only: Feminism on Campus Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agness, Karin L.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contemporary feminism in the classroom and on campus is widespread, and student clubs, women's centers, and women's studies departments often exclude women who hold traditional views. In this article, the author takes a look at how this influence evolved and describes the very successful actions she took as a student to challenge…

  13. Feminism and Mexican American Adolescent Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Carrubba, Maria D.; Good, Glenn E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) and the Attitudes Toward Feminism and the Womens Movement Scale (FWM) with 389 Mexican American 11th-grade and 12th-grade women. Results indicated internal consistency coefficients of .61, .62, .76, and .77 for the FIDS Passive Acceptance, Revelation,…

  14. A Freudian Looks at Freud and Feminity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldawsky, Stanley

    This article deals with the author's interpretation of the Freudian concept of penis envy. Penis envy is viewed as a psychological phenomenon rather than a biological phenomenon characterized as the "bedrock of feminity." Based on his experiences as a psychoanalyst, the author states that penis envy involves the child's early…

  15. Liberal Feminism, Cultural Diversity and Comparative Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, Penny; Tjiattas, Mary

    2004-01-01

    For multiculturalists who favour a relativist approach, globalization and the increasing interconnectedness of societies pose a threat to cultural diversity. In this paper we show, through an exploration of the work of Martha Nussbaum, that a viable universalist feminism can accommodate a thin and so defensible version of multiculturalism.…

  16. Genetics of fungal resistance to systemic fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Since the introduction of the systemic fungicides, fungicide resistance has become a serious problem in plant disease control. This study was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge about the genetics of fungal resistance to fungicides both from a practical and a fundamental point of vie

  17. 三种杀菌剂对木霉菌及食用菌的毒力测定%Toxicity test of three fungicides on Trichoderma viride and edible fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志强; 林太礼; 廖朝阳

    2001-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of three fungicides on Trichoderma viride and edible fungi were tested. It wasdiscovered that the inhibitory effects of prochloraz and sporgon (the prochloraz manganese chloride complex )were high on the spore germination and the hypha growth of T. viride, and the EC50 of prochloraz and sporgonon the spore germination of T. viride were 0.74 and 0.69 mg · L1 respectively. The EC50 of prochloraz andsporgon on the hypha growth of T. viride were 0.68 and 0.89 mg · L-1 respectively. The inhibitory effect of carbendazin on hypha growth of T. viride was high and the EC50 was 114.77 mg · L-1 , but it had no inhibitory effect on the spore germination of T. viride. The EC50 of prochloraz, sporgon and carbendazin were 13.40, 13.78and 324.00 mg · L-1 respectively on hypha growth of Lentinus edodes, and 14.93, 10.71, 229.50 mg · L-1 respectively on hypha growth of Agrocybe aegerita.%测定了3种杀菌剂对木霉菌和食用菌的抑制作用.结果表明,施保克、施保功对木霉菌的孢子萌发和菌丝生长均有极强烈的抑制作用,其EC50分别是施保克为0.74和0.68 mg·L-1;施保功为0.69和0.89 mg·L-1;多菌灵仅对木霉菌丝有抑制作用,EC50为114.77mg·L-1,对木霉孢子萌发无抑制作用.施保克、施保功、多菌灵对香菇菌丝的EC50分别为13.40、13.78和324.0 mg·L-1,对茶薪菇的EC50分另为14.93、10.71和229.50 mg·L-1.

  18. Footnote in a global history: On histories of feminisms

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2015-01-01

    The paper attempts to offer an alternative reading of the history of Yugoslav feminism. It focuses on birth and development of feminism during socialism, and its aftermath in times of war and disintegration of the common state. What were the trajectories of feminism that emerged in a socialist state? What were its chosen paths when both socialism and the state ceased to exist? The conceptual framework the paper uses draws upon the notion of citizenship regi...

  19. Intersection of feminism and multiculturalism in philosophical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grytsenko T. V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on exploration of valuable works of Uma Narayan, which represent a shift from Western models of feminism towards multicultural, postcolonial and transnational feminism. Since its conceptualization, feminism has developed from orientation solely on Western understanding of feminist and cultural concerns to analysis and critique of complex issues of gender and cultural essentialism and awareness of interrelation of major political concepts with race, ethnicity, social class, and gender in different cultural settings.

  20. Intersection of feminism and multiculturalism in philosophical discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Grytsenko T. V.

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on exploration of valuable works of Uma Narayan, which represent a shift from Western models of feminism towards multicultural, postcolonial and transnational feminism. Since its conceptualization, feminism has developed from orientation solely on Western understanding of feminist and cultural concerns to analysis and critique of complex issues of gender and cultural essentialism and awareness of interrelation of major political concepts with race, ethnicity, social class, ...

  1. Feminism and the Literature of Pramoedya Ananta Toer

    OpenAIRE

    Cendrawaty Tjong

    2013-01-01

    Feminism refers to the social ideological trends that women ask for equal rights as well as the results of ideology when women know the world, the ego, and the sexual relationship in their process of seeking self-liberation. This paper starts with describing the periods in which Indonesian women acknowledged and was associated with western feminism as well as analyzing its period of development. This paper aims at researching the feminism idelology of Pramoedya Ananta Toer, a leading Indonesi...

  2. Footnote in a global history: On histories of feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to offer an alternative reading of the history of Yugoslav feminism. It focuses on birth and development of feminism during socialism, and its aftermath in times of war and disintegration of the common state. What were the trajectories of feminism that emerged in a socialist state? What were its chosen paths when both socialism and the state ceased to exist? The conceptual framework the paper uses draws upon the notion of citizenship regime, which offers a more intricate picture then those customarily used in elaborations of (post-Yugoslav feminism - either those that compare feminism and nationalism, or those that rely on the wider comparison of feminism and capitalism. In the light of the latter remark, Nancy Fraser’s article ‘Feminism, Capitalism, and the Cunning of History’ proved to be valuable for the argument on the complexities of (post- Yugoslav feminism. Thus, the paper calls for a meticulous reading of the paradoxes of the local history of feminism.

  3. Axess och feminism : En kritisk granskning blir kritiskt granskad

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenius, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This essay is about a debate concerning the magazine Axess, feminism and antifeminism - in relation to a issue of Axess called To a new feminism. The theoretical foundation of this essay is Pierre Bourdieu and his field theories. The battles taking place in this particular field concerns the positioning of feminism and antifeminism in the way we culturally interpret these in our society.   The essay shows that the magazine Axess (at least in the first edition of 2012) links feminism with a ve...

  4. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  5. The Genetic Structure, Virulence, and Fungicide Sensitivity of Fusarium fujikuroi in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chia; Lai, Ming-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Tsung-Chun; Cheng, An-Hsiu; Yang, Chin-Cheng; Wu, Hsin-Yuh; Chu, Sheng-Chi; Kuo, Chien-Chih; Wu, Yea-Fang; Lin, Guo-Cih; Tseng, Min-Nan; Tsai, Yi-Chen; Lin, Chun-Chi; Chen, Chi-Yu; Huang, Jenn-Wen; Lin, Heng-An; Chung, Chia-Lin

    2016-06-01

    The rice disease bakanae, caused by Fusarium fujikuroi Nirenberg, has been present in Taiwan for over a century. To better understand the genetic diversity and structure of F. fujikuroi, a set of 16 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were newly developed and used to analyze 637 F. fujikuroi isolates collected in 14 cities or counties around Taiwan from 1996 to 2013. On the basis of Bayesian clustering, the isolates were classified into four highly differentiated clusters: cluster B likely derived from the more widespread and genetically diversified clusters A or C, and cluster D was restricted to four cities or counties and may have been introduced from unknown sources genetically distinct from clusters A, B, and C. The coexistence of both mating types (MAT1-1:MAT1-2 = 1:1.88) and the highly diversified vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) (16 VCG among the 21 assessed isolates) suggest the likelihood of sexual reproduction in the field. However, the biased mating type ratios and linkage disequilibrium in the population suggest nonrandom mating between individuals. A significant pattern of isolation by distance was also detected, which implies a geographical restricted gene flow and low dissemination ability of F. fujikuroi. Evaluation of 24 representative isolates on eight rice varieties revealed differential levels of virulence, however no clear pattern of specific variety x isolate interaction was observed. Investigations of the differences in virulence and fungicide sensitivity between 8 early isolates (1998 and 2002) and 52 recent isolates (2012) indicate the evolution of increased resistance to the fungicide prochloraz in F. fujikuroi in Taiwan.

  6. FEMINISM AND COSMOPOLITANISM: SOME INEVITABLE CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELENA NEAGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will approach the issue of feminism and cosmopolitanism in order to give arguments in sustaining the fact that, today, feminism and cosmopolitanism are inevitable connected. In constructing my discourse I will begin by laying out the main ideas of cosmopolitanism, followed by a presentation of the construction of the feminist movement over time, inter-relating these two discourses at the end of the analysis. Connected with political ethics, political theory and political philosophy, the theoretical framework selected for this paper is based on the cosmopolitan theory developed by scholars like Martha Nussbaum, Fiona Robinson and Kwame Anthony Appaih who, underlining universality, define cosmopolitism as a universal concern with every human life and its well-being, but who are also giving value to the differences (seen as cultural or/ and of identity insofar as they are not harmful to people.

  7. FEMINISM AND COSMOPOLITANISM: SOME INEVITABLE CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena NEAGA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I will approach the issue of feminism and cosmopolitanism in order to give arguments in sustaining the fact that, today, feminism and cosmopolitanism are inevitable connected. In constructing my discourse I will begin by laying out the main ideas of cosmopolitanism, followed by a presentation of the construction of the feminist movement over time, inter-relating these two discourses at the end of the analysis. Connected with political ethics, political theory and political philosophy, the theoretical framework selected for this paper is based on the cosmopolitan theory developed by scholars like Martha Nussbaum, Fiona Robinson and Kwame Anthony Appaih who, underlining universality, define cosmopolitism as a universal concern with every human life and its well-being, but who are also giving value to the differences (seen as cultural or/ and of identity insofar as they are not harmful to people.

  8. The Impact of Feminism on Sociology

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Walby

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the impact of feminism on British sociology over the last 60 years. It focuses on changes in the intellectual content of the discipline, including epistemology, methodology, theory, concepts and the fields of economy, polity, violence and civil society. It situates these changes in the context of changes in gendered organisation of sociology, the rise of women's/gender studies, the ecology of social sciences and societal changes, especially the transformation of the gen...

  9. Mixtures as a fungicide resistance management tactic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil; van den Berg, Femke; Hobbelen, Peter; Oliver, Richard

    2014-12-01

    We have reviewed the experimental and modeling evidence on the use of mixtures of fungicides of differing modes of action as a resistance management tactic. The evidence supports the following conclusions. 1. Adding a mixing partner to a fungicide that is at-risk of resistance (without lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide) reduces the rate of selection for fungicide resistance. This holds for the use of mixing partner fungicides that have either multi-site or single-site modes of action. The resulting predicted increase in the effective life of the at-risk fungicide can be large enough to be of practical relevance. The more effective the mixing partner (due to inherent activity and/or dose), the larger the reduction in selection and the larger the increase in effective life of the at-risk fungicide. 2. Adding a mixing partner while lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide reduces the selection for fungicide resistance, without compromising effective disease control. The very few studies existing suggest that the reduction in selection is more sensitive to lowering the dose of the at-risk fungicide than to increasing the dose of the mixing partner. 3. Although there are very few studies, the existing evidence suggests that mixing two at-risk fungicides is also a useful resistance management tactic. The aspects that have received too little attention to draw generic conclusions about the effectiveness of fungicide mixtures as resistance management strategies are as follows: (i) the relative effect of the dose of the two mixing partners on selection for fungicide resistance, (ii) the effect of mixing on the effective life of a fungicide (the time from introduction of the fungicide mode of action to the time point where the fungicide can no longer maintain effective disease control), (iii) polygenically determined resistance, (iv) mixtures of two at-risk fungicides, (v) the emergence phase of resistance evolution and the effects of mixtures during this phase

  10. 1978 Suggested Fungicide Guide: Fungicide Guide for Commercial Vegetable Growers. Circular 999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Barry; Shurtleff, M. C.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides and fungicides for the control of pests and disease by commercial vegetable growers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of fungicides to control infestation in all crops of commercial importance. (CS)

  11. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

  12. Experiencing Second-Wave Feminism in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Sari; Marshall, Catherine; Pollard, Diane

    2008-01-01

    How has feminism mattered in the lives of particular academic feminists? Three scholars in education whose careers developed during the era of second-wave feminism describe how their personal and political stances were affected by theories, methodological advances, the milieus of academia as well as legal, and political events in the USA. The…

  13. Feminisms and Educational Research. Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Wendy R.; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist theory has come a long way from its nascent beginnings--no longer can it be classified as "liberal," "socialist," or "radical." It has shaped and evolved to take on multiple meanings and forms, each distinct in its own perspective and theory. In "Feminisms and Educational Research," the authors explore the various forms of feminisms,…

  14. Experiencing Second-Wave Feminism in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Sari; Marshall, Catherine; Pollard, Diane

    2008-01-01

    How has feminism mattered in the lives of particular academic feminists? Three scholars in education whose careers developed during the era of second-wave feminism describe how their personal and political stances were affected by theories, methodological advances, the milieus of academia as well as legal, and political events in the USA. The…

  15. Dialogical Feminism: Other Women and the Challenge of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Academic feminism is now largely concerned with abstract theory and a discourse which distances it from the lived reality of working class women. This paper explores, through the concept and approach of dialogical feminism, ways in which feminists in the academy can re-connect with 'other women' in working towards social transformation for all…

  16. Self-Presentation of Beliefs about Gender Discrimination and Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Michelle Ceynar; Hartman, Shelly L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether college students' expressed beliefs about gender discrimination and feminism related to concerns about self-presentation. Students completed gender discrimination and feminism scales and discussed hypothetical court cases. They were told their views would be either shared publicly or remain private. Men expressed more belief in…

  17. Feminisms and Educational Research. Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Wendy R.; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    Feminist theory has come a long way from its nascent beginnings--no longer can it be classified as "liberal," "socialist," or "radical." It has shaped and evolved to take on multiple meanings and forms, each distinct in its own perspective and theory. In "Feminisms and Educational Research," the authors explore the various forms of feminisms,…

  18. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

  19. Making Waves: The Theory and Practice of Black Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ula Y.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies crucial elements of black feminist theory as they surface in the scholarship and activism of black women at the end of the second wave of feminism in the 1970s and the beginnings of the third wave of feminism in the 1980s and 1990s. Socially constructed categories of race and power are emphasized. (SLD)

  20. Adjuvants for spraying of fungicides in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The foliar diseases and spike can markedly reduce the yield of wheat. Despite prevailing chemical control in the management of disease, studies with adjuvants to improve the performance of fungicides are still incipient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding adjuvants to chemical fungicides to control leaf diseases and spike, as well as on the yield of wheat crop. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 05 treatments: control (no fungicide application i...

  1. PROS AND CONS OF FUNGICIDES: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Anju Rani*, Raj Singh, Permod Kumar, Gyanika Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Many contact and systemic fungicides are used to control plant pathogens to get disease free crop. Farmers use these chemicals to protect their crop like plantation crop, fiber crop, vegetable and fruit crops etc., from plant pathogenic fungi and their toxins which destroy their entire crop and finally economic loss occurred. But these fungicides also affect soil microorganisms like decomposers and mycorrhizal fungi etc. Fungicides also show hazardous affect on human health. Soil and water po...

  2. 柑橘炭疽病高效杀菌剂的筛选及抗药性菌株的发现%Screening of Efficient Fungicides for the Control of Citrus Anthracnose and the Discovery of Fungicide-Resistant Isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚; 冯淑杰; 何银银; 王震; 周而勋

    2013-01-01

    采用生长速率法,用50%多菌灵可湿性粉剂(WP)、80%代森锰锌可湿性粉剂(WP)、10%苯醚甲环唑水分散剂(WG)、45%咪鲜胺水乳剂(EW)和25%嘧菌酯悬浮剂(FW)5种杀菌剂对来自广东不同地区和不同柑橘品种的10个柑橘炭疽病菌菌株进行了毒力测定.结果表明,咪鲜胺对柑橘炭疽病菌具有最好的抑制效果,其次是苯醚甲环唑;所有供试菌株对嘧菌酯和代森锰锌都具有一定程度的抗药性;不同地区的菌株对多菌灵的敏感性存在明显的差异,其中菌株CCMZ035、CCMZ004、CCST003和CCST026对多菌灵表现出很强的耐药性(抗药性).因此,咪鲜胺和苯醚甲环唑可作为防治柑橘炭疽病的首选药剂.%Five fungicides, namely 50% carbendazin WP, 80% mancozeb WP, 10% difenoconazole WG, 45% prochloraz EW and 25% azoxystrobin FW, were tested for their toxicities to citrus anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from different cirtrus varieties and different districts of Guangdong Province by using mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that prochloraz had the best antifungal effect, followed by difenoconazole. All tested isolates had certain degrees of resistance to azoxystrobin and mancozeb, and showed obvious sensitivity differences to carbendazim. Isolates CC-MZ004, CCMZ004, CCST003 and CCST026 all had the strong tolerance (resistance) to carbendazim. Therefore, prochloraz and difenoconazole can be used as the preferable fungicides to control citrus anthracnose.

  3. Jane Eyre the symbol of Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟百燕

    2008-01-01

    Feminism lays stresses on the sexual equality and affirms women' s value. The thesis mainly discusses the character of the heroine in Charlotte Brontc famous novel Jane Eyrc. The article successfully creates Jane Eyre-a female image of a new tape of petty bourgeoisie, describing her struggle for independence and equal love. The thesis just analyzes Jane' s rebellious characteristics through three periods of her experience: 1.In her childhood, she has shown her rebellious spirit; 2. When she studies at Lowood, her rebellious spirit is exposed further; 3.She, as a governess in Tomfield Hall falls in love with Rochester-her master.

  4. Endocrine-disrupting activities in vivo of the fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2007-01-01

    The triazole fungicides tebuconazole and epoxiconazole were investigated for reproductive toxic effects after exposure during gestation and lactation. Rats were dosed with epoxiconazole (15 or 50 mg/kg bw/day) or tebuconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg bw/day) during pregnancy from gestational day (GD) 7...... 13 or PND 16, and semen quality was assessed in adults. Both tebuconazole and epoxiconazole affected reproductive development in the offspring after exposure in utero. Both compounds virilized the female offspring as shown by an increased AGD PND 0. Furthermore, tebuconazole had a feminizing effect...... on male offspring as shown by increased nipple retention. This effect was likely caused by the reduced testosterone levels seen in male fetuses. Tebuconazole increased the testicular concentrations of progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in male fetuses, indicating a direct impact on the steroid...

  5. Efeito de fungicidas no controle in vitro de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente etiológico da antracnose do mamoeiro (Carica papaya l. Effects of fungicides on the in vitro control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the anthracnosis etiologic agent of the Papaya tree (Carica papaya L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giltembergue Macedo Tavares

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência de alguns fungicidas sobre Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, agente etiológico da antracnose do mamoeiro (Carica papaya L., testes in vitro foram conduzidos no Laboratório de Epidemiologia/UFLA. Para tanto, utilizou-se o método de incorporação do fungicida ao meio de cultura BDA para avaliação da inibição do crescimento micelial e lâmina escavada contendo água com fungicida para germinação de conídios. Os fungicidas testados foram: azoxystrobin, chlorotalonil, hipoclorito de sódio, imazalil, oxicloreto de cobre, prochloraz, propiconazol, tebuconazol, thiabendazol e tiofanato metílico, nas concentrações de 0, 1, 10, 100, 500 e 1.000 ppm para avaliar a inibição do crescimento do micélio e 0, 1, 10, 50 e 100 ppm para testar inibição da germinação de conídios. Os fungicidas azoxystrobin, chlorotalonil, imazalil, prochloraz, propiconazol e tebuconazol apresentaram alta eficiência na inibição do crescimento micelial. Os fungicidas dos grupos dos benzimidazóis (thiabendazol e tiofanato metílico mostraram baixa eficiência e ineficiência, respectivamente, no controle do patógeno, demonstrando uma tolerância do isolado em estudo a estes produtos. O hipoclorito de sódio também apresentou baixa eficiência no controle do crescimento micelial do fungo. Quanto à inibição da germinação dos conídios, os fungicidas que demonstraram maior eficiência em baixas concentrações foram: chlorotalonil e hipoclorito de sódio.The efficiency of fungicides on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was evaluated in vitro in the Laboratory of Epidemiology and Diseases Management of the Department of Phytopathology /UFLA. The fungicides were applied either in BDA medium or in glass slide chambers, the latter to assess the effects on conidial germination. The fungicides tested were: azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil, sodium hypochloride, imazalil, copper oxychloride, prochloraz, propiconazol, tebuconazol

  6. Can high-risk fungicides be used in mixtures without selecting for fungicide resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaberidze, Alexey; McDonald, Bruce A; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2014-04-01

    Fungicide mixtures produced by the agrochemical industry often contain low-risk fungicides, to which fungal pathogens are fully sensitive, together with high-risk fungicides known to be prone to fungicide resistance. Can these mixtures provide adequate disease control while minimizing the risk for the development of resistance? We present a population dynamics model to address this question. We found that the fitness cost of resistance is a crucial parameter to determine the outcome of competition between the sensitive and resistant pathogen strains and to assess the usefulness of a mixture. If fitness costs are absent, then the use of the high-risk fungicide in a mixture selects for resistance and the fungicide eventually becomes nonfunctional. If there is a cost of resistance, then an optimal ratio of fungicides in the mixture can be found, at which selection for resistance is expected to vanish and the level of disease control can be optimized.

  7. Feminism and Critical Political Economy of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Pajnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of feminist analysis in the field of political economy of communication. We discuss feminisms that flirt with Marxism, socialist and radical feminism, in the light of the importance of studies in the field of communication. We highlight the relevance of the feminist critique of Marxism, drawing attention to the engendered class and addressing the inequalities of capitalist society, not only in the sphere of production but also with relation to the reproductive labor. We introduce notions of “capitalist patriarchy” and “sex class” in order to emphasize the dialectical relationship between the class stratification and hierarchical structuring of capitalist society. We problematize the decline of the materialist perspectives in feminist critique as a turn to discourse and ideology while marginalizing class as an analytical category. In this article, we introduce an intersectional understanding of gender that contributes to gender de-essencialization and de-homogenization. Attention is also paid to prospects for the feminist political economy of communication today, to how it is constituted and what types of analyses it brings and why it is important for the understanding of contemporary society and the processes of communication.

  8. Fungicides Screening for Controlling Wheat Scab%防治小麦赤霉病的药剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚芳; 施娟娟; 倪龙博; 马聪; 倪珏萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to choose fungicide reasonably for controlling wheat scab, nine fungicides and nine formulations were tested by bioassay and field trials, respectively. The mycelium growth rate method was used in vitro and spray method was used in field pot. Bioassay results showed that EC50 values of nine fungicides were 0.0411-0.5863 mg/L, the activity of prochloraz-Cu was the highest, and the activity of carbendazim was the lowest. Field results showed that control effects of carbendazim 50% WP 750.0-1125.0 g/hm2, phenamacril 25% SC 375.0-750.0 g/hm2, prochloraz 450 g/L EW 168.8-236.3 g/hm2, tebuconazole 80% WP 75.0-125.0 g/hm2 were 76.11%-90.78%, 85.49%-97.37%, 75.43%- 88.57%, 76.11%-89.59%. The control effects of phenamacril + hexaconazole 20% SC 240.0-420.0 g/hm2, phenamacril + tebuconazole 48% SC 240.0-420.0 g/hm2, tebuconazole + carbendazim 40% SC 300.0-420.0 g/hm2, tebuconazole + prochloraz 40% SC 150.0-210.0 g/hm2, and thiophanate-methyl + tebuconazole 48% SC 216.0-432.0 g/hm2 were 93.22%-98.62%, 91.57%-99.67%, 66.89%-86.52%, 74.91%-87.37%, and 71.67%-85.32%. The control effects of all five mixture were better than corresponding single formulation and carbendazim formulation. Tebuconazole, prochloraz, phenamacril, phenamacril +tebuconazole 48% SC, and tebuconazole + prochloraz 40% SC were effective to control wheat scab.%以小麦赤霉病为靶标,研究比较了9种原药的室内活性和9种制剂的田间防效,为选择田间用药提供科学依据。室内活性采用菌丝生长速率法,田间防效采用喷雾法。室内生物活性结果表明:9种原药对小麦赤霉病的EC50为0.0411~0.5863 mg/L,其中咪鲜胺铜盐活性最高,多菌灵活性最低。田间药效结果表明:50%多菌灵WP 750.0~1125.0 g/hm2(有效成分用量,下同)防效为76.11%~90.78%,25%氰烯菌酯SC 375.0~750.0 g/hm2防效为85.49%~97.37%,450 g/L咪鲜胺EW 168.8~236.3 g/hm2防效为75.43%~88.57%,80%戊唑醇WP 75.0~125.0 g/hm2

  9. Mixture Effects of 3 Mechanistically Different Steroidogenic Disruptors (Prochloraz, Genistein, and Ketoconazole) in the H295R Cell Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frederik Knud; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Fey, Jennifer Anna

    2015-01-01

    Mixture effects of 3 model endocrine disruptors, prochloraz, ketoconazole, and genistein, on steroidogenesis were tested in the adrenocortical H295R cell line. Seven key steroid hormones (pregnenolone, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, testosterone, estrone, and 17β...... the H295R cell line was suitable for evaluating mixture toxicity of endocrine disruptors with different modes of action. The compounds were chosen because they interfere with steroidogenesis in different ways. They all individually decrease the concentrations of the main sex steroids downstream...... with the H295R cell assay is a useful tool also for studying how mixtures of endocrine disruptors with differing modes of action interfere with the steroidogenic pathway and that existing models like concentration addition are insufficient in such cases. Furthermore, for end points where compounds exert...

  10. 小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌室内药剂筛选%Indoor Fungicide Screening of Helminthosporium Leaf Blotch on Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海珊; 章东方; 严丹侃; 顾江涛; 张勇

    2013-01-01

    [目的]筛选对小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌具有较强抑制效果的药剂.[方法]利用生长速率法测定了5种不同杀菌机制的杀菌剂对小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌的毒力.[结果]5种杀菌剂对小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌的作用效果差异很大,其中咪鲜胺对小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌菌丝的抑制作用最强,EC50仅为0.067 μg/ml;苯醚甲环唑、戊唑醇、噻呋酰胺的抑制作用次之,EC50在0.102 ~0.372 μg/ml;多菌灵的抑制作用最小,EC50为30.588 μg/ml.[结论]对小麦蠕孢菌叶枯病菌安徽分离株有较好抑制作用的药剂是咪鲜胺、苯醚甲环唑和戊唑醇.%[Objective] The aim was to screen out the fungicides which have good inhibition to Helminthosporium leaf blotch (HLB) on wheat. [ Method ] The toxicities of five fungicides against Bipolaris sorokiniana caused Helminthosporium leaf blotch on wheat were tested by mycelium growth rate method. [ Result ] The inhibition effects of five fungicides against B. sorokiniana were significantly different. Among them Prochloraz whose EC50 value was 0.067 μg/ml had the strongest inhibition effect on B. sorokiniana; the next were Difenoconazole, Tebuconazole and thi- fluzamide whose EC50 values were between 0.102 μg/ml and 0. 372 μ/ml. Carbendazim whose EC50 value was 30. 588 μg/ml was the worst. [Conclusion] Prochloraz, Difenoconazole and Tebuconazole have the better inhibition effects on B. sorokiniana caused Helminthosporium leaf blotch on wheat from Anhui Province.

  11. Synergism between demethylation inhibitor fungicides or gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators and bifenthrin in a pyrethroid-resistant population of Listronotus maculicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoutar, D; Cowles, R S; Requintina, E; Alm, S R

    2010-10-01

    In 2007-2008, the "annual bluegrass weevil," Listronotus maculicollis Kirby (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a serious pest of Poa annua L. (Poales: Poaceae) on U.S. golf courses, was shown to be resistant to two pyrethroids, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. In 2008, we showed that bifenthrin resistance was principally mediated by oxidase detoxification (cytochrome P450 [P450]). P450s can be inhibited by demethylation inhibitor fungicides and gibberellin inhibitor plant growth regulators, both of which are commonly used on golf courses. We tested these compounds for synergistic activity with bifenthin against a pyrethroid-resistant population of L. maculicollis. The LD50 value for bifenthrin was significantly reduced from 87 ng per insect (without synergists) to 9.6-40 ng per insect after exposure to the fungicides fenarimol, fenpropimorph, prochloraz, propiconazole, and pyrifenox and the plant growth regulators flurprimidol, paclobutrazol, and trinexapac-ethyl. Simulated field exposure with formulated products registered for use on turf revealed enhanced mortality when adult weevils were exposed to bifenthrin (25% mortality, presented alone) combined with field dosages of propiconizole, fenarimol, flurprimidol, or trinexapac-ethyl (range, 49-70% mortality).

  12. THE FEMINIZATION IN NORMAL SCHOOLS IN THE STATE OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireri Báez-Chávez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The high level of participation of women students in the Degrees of Education, becomes an indicator to check the process of feminization in the Normal Schools of the State of Mexico. The research of analyzing feminism and feminization in enrollment in higher education institutions in Mexico and in particular the Public Normal Schools of the State of Mexico. With data level diagnosis participation of students, teachers and administrators-women, which is a starting point for analyzing how this condition affects initial teacher training is integrated.

  13. Validation of the OECD reproduction test guideline with the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum using trenbolone and prochloraz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiß, Cornelia; Ruppert, Katharina; Askem, Clare; Barroso, Carlos; Faber, Daniel; Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Hutchinson, Thomas H; Kajankari, Paula; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Lagadic, Laurent; Matthiessen, Peter; Morris, Steve; Neiman, Maurine; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Sanchez-Marin, Paula; Teigeler, Matthias; Weltje, Lennart; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) provides several standard test methods for the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals, mainly based on primary producers, arthropods, and fish. In April 2016, two new test guidelines with two mollusc species representing different reproductive strategies were approved by OECD member countries. One test guideline describes a 28-day reproduction test with the parthenogenetic New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. The main endpoint of the test is reproduction, reflected by the embryo number in the brood pouch per female. The development of a new OECD test guideline involves several phases including inter-laboratory validation studies to demonstrate the robustness of the proposed test design and the reproducibility of the test results. Therefore, a ring test of the reproduction test with P. antipodarum was conducted including eight laboratories with the test substances trenbolone and prochloraz and results are presented here. Most laboratories could meet test validity criteria, thus demonstrating the robustness of the proposed test protocol. Trenbolone did not have an effect on the reproduction of the snails at the tested concentration range (nominal: 10-1000 ng/L). For prochloraz, laboratories produced similar EC10 and NOEC values, showing the inter-laboratory reproducibility of results. The average EC10 and NOEC values for reproduction (with coefficient of variation) were 26.2 µg/L (61.7%) and 29.7 µg/L (32.9%), respectively. This ring test shows that the mudsnail reproduction test is a well-suited tool for use in the chronic aquatic hazard and risk assessment of chemicals.

  14. Afro-diasporic Feminism. An emerging agenda of Black feminism in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Vergara Figueroa, Aurora; Universidad Icesi; Arboleda Hurtado, Katherine; Universidad Icesi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we reflect on the motivations, agenda and commitments set within the context of the firstinternational seminar “Afro female Conspiracy: Rethinking feminisms from diversity” held betweenJune 24th and 25th, 2011 in Cali, Colombia. In this scenario, it was proposed to understand Afrodiasporicfeminism as a process, a research agenda, a strategy of social mobilization, a practice ofsolidarity and a restorative justice claim. We establish connections between the proposals discussedin ...

  15. 'Women's Writing' and 'Feminism': A history of intimacy and estrangement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zora Simic

    2013-01-01

    ... 'women's writing' - it is worth revisiting the 1970s and 1980s as a formative era in which feminism was a crucial contributing factor to, and context for, a more diverse Australian literature in which...

  16. Feminizing genitoplasty in congenital adrenal hyperplasia: the value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feminine external genitalia with normal function. ... for both normal sexual function and fertility [5]. The .... hair distribution, clitoral hood size and shape, glans ..... 22 Alizai NK, Thomas DFM, Lilford RJ, Batchelor AGG, Johnson N. Feminizing.

  17. Feminism: Silence and Voicelessness as Tools of Patriarchy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feminism: Silence and Voicelessness as Tools of Patriarchy in Chimamanda Adichie's Purple ... The paper highlights how the woman must take a second place in society. ... It looks at how the system leads the female characters into solitude, ...

  18. Kathy Acker and the Postmodern Subject of Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciolino, Martina

    1990-01-01

    Examines Kathy Acker's narrative methods, which are exemplary of postmodern feminism, as they concern gender differences and desire. Suggests that much theorizing about literary postmodernism has not considered the modalities of desire as they concern gender difference. (TB)

  19. Demethylase Inhibitor Fungicide Resistance in Pyrenophora teres f. sp. teres Associated with Target Site Modification and Inducible Overexpression of Cyp51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Wesley J; Deng, Weiwei; Mullins, Jonathan G L; West, Samuel; Wang, Penghao; Besharat, Naghmeh; Ellwood, Simon R; Oliver, Richard P; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    Pyrenophora teres f. sp. teres is the cause of net form of net blotch (NFNB), an economically important foliar disease in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Net and spot forms of net blotch are widely controlled using site-specific systemic fungicides. Although resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors and quinone outside inhibitors has been addressed before in net blotches, mechanisms controlling demethylation inhibitor resistance have not yet been reported at the molecular level. Here we report the isolation of strains of NFNB in Australia since 2013 resistant to a range of demethylase inhibitor fungicides. Cyp51A:KO103-A1, an allele with the mutation F489L, corresponding to the archetype F495I in Aspergillus fumigatus, was only present in resistant strains and was correlated with resistance factors to various demethylase inhibitors ranging from 1.1 for epoxiconazole to 31.7 for prochloraz. Structural in silico modeling of the sensitive and resistant CYP51A proteins docked with different demethylase inhibitor fungicides showed how the interaction of F489L within the heme cavity produced a localized constriction of the region adjacent to the docking site that is predicted to result in lower binding affinities. Resistant strains also displayed enhanced induced expression of the two Cyp51A paralogs and of Cyp51B genes. While Cyp51B was found to be constitutively expressed in the absence of fungicide, Cyp51A was only detected at extremely low levels. Under fungicide induction, expression of Cyp51B, Cyp51A2, and Cyp51A1 was shown to be 1.6-, 3,- and 5.3-fold higher, respectively in the resistant isolate compared to the wild type. These increased levels of expression were not supported by changes in the promoters of any of the three genes. The implications of these findings on demethylase inhibitor activity will require current net blotch management strategies to be reconsidered in order to avoid the development of further resistance and preserve the lifespan of

  20. The emergence of resistance to fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, Peter H F; Paveley, Neil D; van den Bosch, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Many studies exist about the selection phase of fungicide resistance evolution, where a resistant strain is present in a pathogen population and is differentially selected for by the application of fungicides. The emergence phase of the evolution of fungicide resistance--where the resistant strain is not present in the population and has to arise through mutation and subsequently invade the population--has not been studied to date. Here, we derive a model which describes the emergence of resistance in pathogen populations of crops. There are several important examples where a single mutation, affecting binding of a fungicide with the target protein, shifts the sensitivity phenotype of the resistant strain to such an extent that it cannot be controlled effectively ('qualitative' or 'single-step' resistance). The model was parameterized for this scenario for Mycosphaerella graminicola on winter wheat and used to evaluate the effect of fungicide dose rate on the time to emergence of resistance for a range of mutation probabilities, fitness costs of resistance and sensitivity levels of the resistant strain. We also evaluated the usefulness of mixing two fungicides of differing modes of action for delaying the emergence of resistance. The results suggest that it is unlikely that a resistant strain will already have emerged when a fungicide with a new mode of action is introduced. Hence, 'anti-emergence' strategies should be identified and implemented. For all simulated scenarios, the median emergence time of a resistant strain was affected little by changing the dose rate applied, within the range of doses typically used on commercial crops. Mixing a single-site acting fungicide with a multi-site acting fungicide delayed the emergence of resistance to the single-site component. Combining the findings with previous work on the selection phase will enable us to develop more efficient anti-resistance strategies.

  1. Feminist Online Identity: Analyzing the Presence of Hashtag Feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitsy Dixon

    2014-08-01

    Using the ongoing debate that feminism does not acknowledge real life experience outside of academic terrain, this paper explores how hashtag feminists identify in redefining feminism in their generation. Using the public platform of Twitter and Facebook (less specifically, this paper will explore the online followings of women who identify as hashtag feminists, and how their dialogue has set the tone for the era of internet activism.

  2. Feminism and the sociology of everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Ivana A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the influences of feminist thought on sociological theory and research, refracted through the conceptualization of the sphere of everyday life. It is argued that there are important theoretical affinities between feminism and the sociology of everyday life, as it has developed since mid-20th century. Main feminist contributions to sociological study of everyday life are identified at two levels: substantive (the study of formerly neglected social phenomena, particularly the private sphere, and epistemological (the questioning of positivistic ideals of objective and neutral social science. The position of the feminist theorist Dorothy Smith is selected for a more detailed critical discussion. In the concluding part of the paper some controversial points in the feminist concept of the sociology of everyday life are indicated.

  3. Psychological characterization of testicular feminization syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M A; Barroso, C C; Arce, B

    1983-01-01

    Ten cases with testicular feminization syndrome (TFS) diagnosed at the National Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, were studied. The patients were interviewed and subjected to the following psychological tests: Raven's Progressive Matrices, the MMPI, the 16PF, and the TAT. Laboratory determinations included: nuclear chromatin, karyotype, FHS, LH, estradiol, testosterone and nitrogen retention test. Intellectual achievement was found normal, and as far as psychological stability is concerned (MMPI) there was no common profile typical of the group. Psychosexual attitudes showed alterations related to acceptance of body image, fears to be unable to maintain the stability of the couple, and lack of a strong maternal drive. Personality profile manifested two outstanding traits in the group: Dominance (E+) and Shrewdness (N+), the former being remarkably high for a female population. A hypothesis is advanced in regard to the psychological alterations of the possible role of partial androgenization of the central nervous system in these patients.

  4. CONSOLIDATING FEMINISMS IN ROMANIA – A CONTERFACTUAL ANALISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Elena NEAGA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, only after almost quarter-century since the fall of communism we can talk about feminismS. Furthermore, we can also talk about left feminism (anarchist and socialist formal and informal activist groups and about the upsurge of a more and more grass-roots women's rights movement. What are the variables that can explain such a state of affair and what lessons can be learned from this experience are the main questions that I am trying to give possible answers in this paper. In doing so I will first use a descriptive approach for presenting a brief summary of the way Romanian feminist/women's rights movement has developed and I will use a methodology mostly based on documents analysis. Some locally developed theories are definitely important here: feminist vs Phoenix organization theory, state men-market women theory, the theory of the feminism lost opportunity in transition, the contradiction between communism and feminism theory, the domination of liberal feminism etc. More than that, my proposal is a counterfactual meta-analysis of the data first presented using here, beside the critical approach, also my subjective experience as a scholar and activist form more than 7 years of participative observation in the field of feminist phenomenon in Romania.

  5. Nearly universal, but somewhat distinct: The feminization of poverty in affluent Western democracies, 1969-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David; Kall, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Our study extends research on the feminization of poverty by analyzing the variation in women's, men's and feminized poverty across affluent democracies from 1969 to 2000. Specifically, we address three issues. First, we provide more recent estimates of adult women's and men's poverty and the ratio of women's to men's poverty with two different poverty measures. We suggest that by incorporating the elderly, the feminization of poverty may be greater than previously estimated. The feminization...

  6. 8种杀菌剂对核桃炭疽病病原菌胶孢炭疽菌的室内毒力%Laboratory toxicity of eight fungicides against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing walnut anthracnose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘霞; 杨克强; 朱玉凤; 尹燕飞

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays,walnut anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is the serious and mainly diseases of walnut orchards in Shandong province.The optimum temperature for mycelial growth and conidial germination of the tested strains was measurated,and the toxicity of eight fungicides against walnut anthracnose pathogen was determined by both mycelial growth rate test and conidial germination assay in laboratory.The toxicity of prochloraz and tebuconazole to four selected strains of C.gloeosporioides under different temperatures were determined and the sensitivity of all seventeen strains of C.gloeosporioides to prochloraz and tebuconazole were screened by mycelial growth rate test.Meanwhile the protective and curative effects of prochloraz and tebuconazole were evaluated.The results showed that the optimum temperature for mycelial growth and conidial germination of C.gloeosporioides was 28 ℃.Under 28 ℃,prochloraz,tebuconazole and triadimefon had maximum toxicity against mycelial growth of C.gloeosporioides with the average EC50 value of 0.07,1.45 and 3.04mg/L,respectively;while iprodione,mancozeb and prochloraz had maximum toxicity against conidial germination with the average EC50 value of 21.07,25.14 and 25.18mg/L,respectively.The toxicity of prochloraz against C.gloeosporioides was not influenced by temperature,while the toxicity of tebuconazole increased when the temperature decreased.All the seventeen tested strains of C.gloeosporioides showed high sensitivity to prochloraz and tebuconazole,with mean EC50 values of 0.08 and 1.03mg/L,respectively.It was recommended that prochloraz,tebuconazole,triadimefon,iprodione and mancozeb could be used as effective fungicides for integrated management of walnut anthracnose.%由胶孢炭疽菌Colletotrichum gloeosporioides引起的核桃炭疽病是目前危害山东省核桃生产的主要病害.为筛选防治该病害的高效药剂,在确定了最适菌丝生长和分生孢子萌发温度的基础上,采用菌

  7. 不同杀菌剂对油梨炭疽病菌的抑菌效果%Antibacterial Effect of Different Fungicides on Avocado anthracnos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦文添

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen fungicides effectively suppressing A.anthracnose,toxicity of eight fungicides on A.anthracnose were measured.Results:The toxicity of 10% difenoconazole WDG was the strongest,with the EC50 of 2.829 1 mg/L,followed by 80% ethylicin EC and 25% bromothalonil WP with the EC50 of 13.522 8 mg/L and 16.698 3 mg/L,45% prochloraz EW and 70% Thiophanate-Methyl WP with the EC50 of 36.5306mg/L and 192.838 6 mg/L. The sensitivity of pepper anthracnose 75%chlorothalonil WP ,80% mancozeb WP and 80% captan WDG were lower than others.10% difenoconazole WDG,80% ethylicin EC,25% bromothalonil WP,45% prochloraz EW and 70% Thiophanate-Methyl WP can effectively inhibit the growth of A.anthracnose.%为了筛选有效抑制油梨炭疽病菌的杀菌剂,测定了8种杀菌剂对油梨炭疽病菌的室内抑菌率和毒力。结果表明:抑菌率较高的是45%咪鲜胺EW和70%甲基硫菌灵 WP,达72%以上;其次是25%溴菌清 WP、10%苯醚甲环唑 WDG 和80%乙蒜素 EC,抑菌率均大于61%;80%代森锰锌 WP、75%百菌清WP和80%克菌丹 WDG 抑菌率较低。对油梨炭疽病菌毒力最强的是10%苯醚甲环唑 WDG,EC50为2.8291 mg/L;其次是80%乙蒜素 EC和25%溴菌清 WP,EC50分别为13.5228 mg/L和16.6983 mg/L。结论:10%苯醚甲环唑 WDG、80%乙蒜素EC、25%溴菌清 WP、45%咪鲜胺 EW和70%甲基硫菌灵 WP对油梨炭疽病菌的生长有一定的抑制作用。

  8. On Feminism in Eat,Pray,Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dong-dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contentious space between self-affirmation and self-preoccupation in Elizabeth Gilbert’s popular travel memoir, Eat, Pray, Love. Use the theory of Feminism to analyze it. The results confirms to be walking a fine line between critical self-insight and obsessive self-importance and insists that a lot of Elizabeth’s own experiences can make the readers especially women learn to be stronger and more independent. Besides that the novel Eat, Pray, Love can have a heavy touch on the readers. People becomes more materialistic and always pursuit the worldly happiness in modern time. Eat, Pray, Love is also can make readers learn to respect other cultures. While the strengths of this novel are the unique format, the simple language styles which can make the readers more acceptable, the flexible use of foreign languages, and the cultural diversity. This novel also has weaknesses such as the viewpoint in subjective way and the plot in complicated way.

  9. Indoor Toxicity Text of Eight Fungicides to Lemon Scab%8种杀菌剂对柠檬黑星病原菌的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗雪; 涂锡茂; 阮涛; 杨云飞

    2012-01-01

    The indoor toxicity of eight fungicides to lemon scab was determined by using the growth speed rate method to screen out the fungicides with efficiency, low-toxicity and low-residue. The results showed that different fungicides had different inhibition effect on mycelium growth of lemon scab and EC50 of 300 g/L Armure EC had the best control effect, its EC50 was 0. 067 8 μg/mL. However, 25% Prochloraz EC and 50% Stroby WG also had the prominent effect. The former EC50 were 1. 000 1 μg/mL and 1. 907 3 μg/mL respectively. Therefore, these three fungicides were of popularization and application value in lemon production after further field experiment.%为筛选出防治柠檬黑星病的高效低毒药剂供生产使用,采用生长速率法于室内测定了8种杂菌剂对柠檬黑星病原菌的毒力.结果表明,供试的8种药剂对菌丝生长均有不同程度的抑制作用,分析各药剂间的EC50值可知,300 g/L爱苗EC抑菌作用最强,其EC50仅为0.067 8μg/mL;25%咪酰胺EC和50%施保功WG抑菌作用次之,EC50分别为1.000 1 μg/mL和1.907 3μg/mL.以上3种药剂可进行大田试验,具有推广应用的价值.

  10. 油菜菌核病菌对嘧菌环胺和不同杀菌剂敏感性的相关分析%Sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to cyprodinil and correlation to fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘以楼; 朱桂梅; 郭建; 肖婷; 陈宏州; 杨敬辉

    2011-01-01

    为了明确油菜菌核病菌对新型杀菌剂嘧菌环胺的敏感性和该药剂与其它杀菌剂的交互抗性,采用菌丝生长速率法测定江苏省不同地区的53个油菜菌核病菌菌株对嘧菌环胺的敏感性,并测定对嘧菌环胺不同敏感性的10个菌株对菌核净、异菌脲、腐霉利、多菌灵、咪鲜胺和戊唑醇等杀菌剂的敏感性.结果表明,菌株间对嘧菌环胺的敏感性差异显著,EC50(抑制中浓度)值在0.0342~1.087 6μg/mL之间;通过EC50值相关性分析,油菜菌核病菌对嘧菌环胺与上述杀菌剂之间不存在交互抗性.%To investigate the sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to novel fungicide cyprodinil, 53 isolates of S. sclerotiorum were collected from different regions in Jiangsu province of China, and tested by employing mycelial growth rate method. Results revealed significant sensitivity difference to cyprodinil among 53 isolates with EC50 ranging from 0.034 2 to 1.087 6μg/mL. Then 10 isolates with different sensitivity to cyprodinil were used for cross -resistance tests to other fungicides with diverse action mechanisms. The fungicides included carbendazim, procymi-done, iprodione, dimetachlone, tebuconazole and prochloraz. Linear regression showed that there were no positive - correlation across resistance between cyprodinil and other fungicides.

  11. 葡萄黑痘病无公害防治药剂筛选及控害技术研究%Studies on Fungicide Screening for Non-pollutive Control of Grape Black Pox and Its Control Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红阳; 陈志谊; 周步海; 周加春; 杨华; 张俊喜

    2011-01-01

    选取咪酰胺EC、福星EC等6种对葡萄黑痘病有效的常用杀菌剂品种进行田间试验.结果表明福星EC、苯醚甲环唑WG、咪酰胺EC等3种药剂对预防和控制黑痘病的发生有较好的效果,其中福星EC、苯醚甲环唑WG效果好且对人体无毒副作用,可推荐使用;另外4种药剂可在控害过程中作为轮换药剂,与其他农药搭配使用,以延缓病原菌抗药性的产生.同时针对病害发生特点对其综合防控技术进行了研究集成.%The control effects of six commonly- used fungicide varieties against grape black pox in the field were tested. The resuits indicated that Lucky star EC, Difenoconazole WG and Prochloraz EC had better prevention and control effects on the occurrence of grape black pox, and Lucky star EC and Difenoconazole WG had no toxic side effect to the human body, so they could be used. The other 4 kinds of fungicides could be used as the turn fungicides for the effective control of grape black pox and the delay of its resistance to the fungicides. Simultaneously, according to the occurrence characteristics of grape black pox, the integrated prevention and control techniques of this disease were put forward.

  12. Jane Austen's Ambivalent Feminism in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓媛; 陈燕

    2013-01-01

    "Ambivalence"is a word which entered the language only in this century, the feminism reflected in Pride and Preju⁃dice is ambivalent. Not only was Jane Austen's novel composed almost 200 years ago, but in it she seems to attack love-as-attrac⁃tion, a notion presupposed in the idea of emotional ambivalence, which is reflected from Austen' subconciousness, from the main themes of the novel, from the characters' modelling and from four marriages in the novel, which also boasts the significance of studying ambivalent feminism in literature. In addition, it manifests the limitations and awakening of feminist consciousness. The thesis also applies the influence of Jane Austen’s ambivalent feminism in the field of literature.

  13. Feminism: a perspective for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, F; Sigsby, L M; Campbell, D

    1998-01-01

    This article details some of the key elements related to feminism in American society. It suggests that the meaning and significance of a feminist perspective need to be reexamined for their importance and utility in this dynamic and rapidly changing society. A discussion of the meaning of feminism provides a framework for the article. Issues related to cultural diversity and the need for competent health care delivery for all people are some major themes. The other emphasis is related to research and women. Numerous challenges are outlined. A feminist perspective is recommended as a conceptual model through which health care reform can be enhanced. If feminism were embraced, the health status of people would be improved.

  14. The Meanings of Feminism in the Islamic World and the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Frank

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on different meanings of feminism and feminist (opposition, with special attention on understanding feminism in the Islamic world, especially in Turkey. Feminism is an open concept, which has no fixed meaning and form, but is always re-defined according to the context within which different subjects employ it. Feminism in these contexts is not just a privileged position of the West, which claims the right to define feminist demands in its own terms according to specific and particular norms and values. Indeed, feminism is always contextualised and re-interpreted according to specific needs and (opposition of women.

  15. The Feminization of the Judiciary in Portugal: Dilemmas and Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a significant transformation in the legal professions has been its increasing feminization. However, if in other countries we can find relevant studies on this subject, the gender variable is rarely taken into account in Portugal, except through intuitive and non-scientific processes and discourses that often produce bias and where female judges and public prosecutors have no voice. This article aims to contribute to filling in this empirical lacuna and, based on a survey of the Portuguese population and on interviews with judges and public prosecutors in Portugal, to analyse the existing views on the feminization of justice and female judging.

  16. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mi-Young Yoon; Byeongjin Cha; Jin-Cheol Kim

    2013-01-01

    Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized...

  17. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen

    2017-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control.

  18. 20%咪鲜胺水乳剂防治香蕉炭疽病效果评价%Evaluation on 20% Prochloraz Emulsion Water on Controlling Banana Anthracnos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷照鸣; 梁艳琼; 贺春萍; 郑服丛

    2013-01-01

    [目的]评价20%咪鲜胺水乳剂对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果及对作物的安全性.[方法]于2010 ~2011年研究了3个浓度的20%咪鲜胺水乳剂处理对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果.[结果]20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量在333.3 ~ 500.0 mg/kg时可有效防治香蕉炭疽病,20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为333.3、500.0 mg/kg时和对照药剂25%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为333.3 mg/kg时对香蕉炭疽病的防治效果无显著差异,但三者的防治效果均显著高于20%咪鲜胺水乳剂有效成分量为250.0 mg/kg时,且在供试剂量下对香蕉植株生长无致害性影响.[结论]20%咪鲜胺水乳剂可作为香蕉炭疽病的轮换用药,推荐其有效成分量为333.3~500.0 mg/kg.%[Objective] The aim was to evaluate the control effect of20% Prochloraz EW on controlling banana anthracnos and safety to crops.[Method] Control effects of 20% Prochloraz EW at three concentrations on banana anthracnos were studied from 2010 to 2011.[Result] The 20% Prochloraz EW at 333.3-500.0 mg/kg could control banana anthracnos effectively; there were no significant difference in the control effects of 333.3 and 500.0 mg/kg 20% Prochloraz EW and 333.3 mg/kg contrast agent 25% Prochloraz EW on banana anthracnos,but the control effects of above three groups were significantly higher than that of 250 mg/kg 20% Prochloraz EW; 20% Prochloraz EW had no harmful effect on the banana fruit.[Conclusion] 20% Prochloraz EW could be applied on rotation use to control banana anthracnos,and its application dose of effective component was 333.3-500.0 mg/kg at the beginning of disease occurrence.

  19. 2种常见番茄致病真菌对几种杀菌剂的敏感性测定%Sensitivity Detection of Two Common Tomatoes Pathogenic Fungi to Several Fungicides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奉代力; 王强; 陈丽萍; 郑纪慈; 仇厚援; 吴莉宇

    2013-01-01

      旨在筛选能同时有效抑制番茄早疫病菌和番茄晚疫病菌生长的杀菌剂。采用生长速率法测定了几种杀菌剂对供试病原菌的EC50值,并通过EC50值比较病原菌对供试杀菌剂的敏感性。结果表明:番茄早疫病菌对25%啶菌噁唑EC、25%咪鲜胺EC表现敏感,对50%腐霉利WP、0.3%丁子香酚SL和10%多抗霉素 B WP表现中抗;番茄晚疫病菌仅对25%啶菌噁唑EC表现敏感,对25%咪鲜胺EC、0.3%丁子香酚SL和10%多抗霉素B WP表现中抗,对50%腐霉利WP则表现高抗。2种病原菌对2×108 cfu/g绿色木霉菌WP和8×109 cfu/mL枯草芽孢杆菌AS较为敏感,EC50值均小于1×108 cfu/L。化学杀菌剂中啶菌噁唑,生物源杀菌剂中丁子香酚、绿色木霉菌和枯草芽孢杆菌对2种番茄致病真菌的抑菌效果较好的药剂,用量少且毒性低,可以在生产中推广使用。%The aim was to screen effective fungicides to simultaneously control Alternaria solani and Phytophthora infestans. EC50 values of several fungicides were determined by method of mycelial growth speed, then through the EC50 values,sensitivities of tested fungi to several fungicides were contrasted. The results showed that Alternaria solani were sensitive to 25% SYP-2048 EC and 25% prochloraz EC and intermediate resistant to 50% procymidone WP, 0.3% eugenol SL and 10% polyoxin B WP. Phytophthora infestans were sensitive to 25% SYP-2048 EC only and intermediate resistant to 25% prochloraz EC, 0.3% eugenol SL, 10%polyoxin B WP and highly resistant to 50% procymidone WP; two pathogen fungi were both relatively sensitive to 2×108 cfu/g Trichoderma viride WP and 8×109 cfu/mL Bacillus subtilis AS, EC50 values were less than 1× 108 cfu/L. It was suggested that chemical fungicides SYP-2048 and prochloraz, biofungicides eugenol, Trichoderma viride and Bacillus subtilis, were efficient to control mycelial growth of tested fungi, lower dosage and relatively more safety, and

  20. Stanton's "The Solitude of Self": A Rationale for Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    1980-01-01

    Examines Elizabeth Cady Stanton's speech, "The Solitude of Self," as a philosophical statement of the principles underlying the nineteenth century struggle for woman's rights in the United States. Analyzes the lyric structure and tone of the speech and its tragic, existential rationale for feminism. (JMF)

  1. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  2. Process-Model Feminism in the Corporate University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer-Hanks, D. T.

    2016-01-01

    In a period characterised by worries over the rise of the corporate university, it is important to ask what role feminism plays in the academy, and whether that role is commensurate with feminist values and ethics. Commercial and political pressures brought to bear on the encounter between instructor and student can rob teaching of its efficacy,…

  3. Social Justice Activism: Feminism and Strategies for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernflores, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Success in social justice activism often hinges on judging when to employ the most effective strategy for action. Strategies for action include militancy, peaceful protest, and sometimes, engaging in a longer term program of "marginal gains." The militant feminism of many 19th century suffragettes, such as Emmeline Pankhurst, is a good…

  4. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  5. Chicana and Black Feminisms: "Testimonios" of Theory, Identity, and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Cinthya M.; Perez, Michelle Salazar

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine our own "testimonios" inspired by Chicana and Black feminisms that have not only informed our research and teaching but have also helped us to make sense of our lives. We offer our "testimonios" related to theory, identity negotiations, and pedagogical concerns with teaching multiculturalism as a way to recognize and…

  6. What Is Protest? Feminism, Psychoanalysis and Methods of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that feminism has recognised psychoanalysis to be a theory with direct application to the understanding of sexism for over 50 years, the application of psychoanalytic thinking to feminist activism has yet to be significantly realised. Using the work of Julia Kristeva, sexism is described as a symptom of an intolerable situation…

  7. Antonio Gramsci and Feminism: The Elusive Nature of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledwith, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, I am interested in "women's ways of knowing" (Belenky et al., 1997) and the relationship between knowledge, difference and power (Goldberger et al., 1996). Here I trace the relevance of Gramsci to my own feminist consciousness, and the part he played in my journey to praxis. I also address feminism's intellectual…

  8. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  9. Exclusionary Feminism: Stories of Undergraduate Women of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Seven activist Women of Color shared experiences of racism in feminist activism and provided strategies for building a more inclusive movement through this narrative study. A history of exclusion in the feminist movement and examples of marginalization provide a context for this study. Critical race feminism and intersectionality theory inform the…

  10. Exclusionary Feminism: Stories of Undergraduate Women of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Seven activist Women of Color shared experiences of racism in feminist activism and provided strategies for building a more inclusive movement through this narrative study. A history of exclusion in the feminist movement and examples of marginalization provide a context for this study. Critical race feminism and intersectionality theory inform the…

  11. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of…

  12. Is Feminism Trending? Pedagogical Approaches to Countering (Sl)Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    As they say in social media, feminism is "trending"; feminist conversations, grassroots movements, and activism mark a fourth wave of feminist practice and theory defined by digital spaces. This article considers the effectiveness of using social media as both a course assignment and as a conduit for civic engagement. I analyse survey…

  13. What Is Protest? Feminism, Psychoanalysis and Methods of Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that feminism has recognised psychoanalysis to be a theory with direct application to the understanding of sexism for over 50 years, the application of psychoanalytic thinking to feminist activism has yet to be significantly realised. Using the work of Julia Kristeva, sexism is described as a symptom of an intolerable situation…

  14. An Analysis of George Eliot's Positive Attitude towards Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马寒

    2011-01-01

    As a woman writer in Victorian England,George Eliot,who comes to us almost uncontested as one of the greatest English writers in the nineteenth century,has aroused great enthusiasm in the literary world to study her from a feminist perspective.This thesis attempts to explore George Eliot's positive attitude towards feminism presented through herself and her novels.

  15. Girlfight the Power: Teaching Contemporary Feminism and Pop Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardsley, Alyson

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a course she taught entitled, "Grrl Power and Beyond: Third Wave Feminism and Contemporary Popular Culture," in the interdisciplinary American Studies Program at her college. Here, she lays out her goals in designing the course, and the ways that her students, her circumstances, and her classroom…

  16. Stubborn Soul——Feminism in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austen(1775—1817),the famous writer in the early 19th century,she was well-known and regarded as one of female novelists,her work"Pride and Prejudice",is one of most popular one among her novels.This paper mainly discusses about the feminism reflected in"Pride and Prejudice"and also analyses the reason.

  17. Stubborn Soul--Feminism in Pride and Prejudice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉

    2015-01-01

    Jane Austen (1775—1817),the famous writer in the early 19th century,she was well-known and regarded as one of female novelists,her work“Pride and Prejudice”,is one of most popular one among her novels.This paper mainly discusses about the feminism reflected in“Pride and Prejudice” and also analyses the reason.

  18. Chicana and Black Feminisms: "Testimonios" of Theory, Identity, and Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Cinthya M.; Perez, Michelle Salazar

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine our own "testimonios" inspired by Chicana and Black feminisms that have not only informed our research and teaching but have also helped us to make sense of our lives. We offer our "testimonios" related to theory, identity negotiations, and pedagogical concerns with teaching multiculturalism as a way to recognize and…

  19. Screening Phytophthora rubi for fungicide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results from the survey for fungicide resistance in Phytophthora were reported at the 2016 Washington Small Fruit Conference. Phytophthora was isolated from diseased plants in 28 red raspberry fields and tested against mefenoxam, the active ingredient of Ridomil. Most isolates were ident...

  20. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  1. The 1975 Insecticide, Herbicide, Fungicide Quick Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Bill G.; Thomson, W. T.

    This is a quick guide for choosing a chemical to use to control a certain pest on a specific crop. Information in the book was obtained from manufacturers' labels and from the USDA and FDA pesticide summary. The book is divided into four parts: (1) insecticides, (2) herbicides, (3) fungicides, and (4) conversion tables. Each of the first three…

  2. Evolutionary Psychology is Compatible with Equity Feminism, but Not with Gender Feminism: A Reply to Eagly and Wood (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9. Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences. Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  3. Evolutionary psychology is compatible with equity feminism, but not with gender feminism: a reply to Eagly and Wood (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Barry X

    2012-01-11

    I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences.  Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  4. Evaluating Susceptibility to Commercial Fungicide of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Roses (Rosa hybrida Evaluación de la susceptibilidad de hongos endófitos aislados de rosa (rosa hybrida a fungicidas comerciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo Silvia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Fungal endophytes have shown their potential as biocontrol agents; however, their application in commercial fields remains limited. Continuously applying fungicides to crops (specifically to roses may have harmful effects on endophyte growth. Endophytic fungi were isolated from R. hybrida and their susceptibility to fungicides regularly used for controlling important pathogens was analysed. This was performed in vitro, mixing several fungicide concentrations with standard medium for fungal endophytes; growth inhibition was then measured. The susceptibility of Botrytis cinerea (3015 strain, one of the most important pathogens affecting roses in Colombia, was also assessed using the same protocols. Active ingredients, such as boscalid, captan, iprodione and pyrimethanyl, showed susceptibility ranging from not sensitive (³73.75% to regularly sensitive (³48.75% - 61.25% for 45.45% of the fungal endophytes assessed. Endophytic fungi were highly susceptible to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin plus thiram, fludioxonyl plus ciprodinyl and prochloraz. B. cinerea (3015 strain presented high susceptibility (23.75% to fungicides such as pyrimethanyl, carboxin and thiram, fludioxonil and ciprodinyl, prochloraz. Although B. cinerea showed the greatest growth in controls, the endophytic fungi being assessed grew better in different media with fungicides. The results revealed some of these fungal endophytes’ potential for integrated pest management (IPM in roses in Colombia (3002, 3003, 3004, 3005 and 3006 strains, taking into account correct application time, application frequency and both fungal endophyte and fungicide dosage which may greatly limit fungal endophyte growth.Los hongos endófitos han mostrado potencial como agentes de control biológico. Sin embargo, su aplicación en campos comerciales es aún limitada. En rosas, la continua aplicación de fungicidas en cultivos puede tener efectos deletéreos en el crecimiento de los end

  5. Delaying selection for fungicide insensitivity by mixing fungicides at a low and high risk of resistance development: a modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, P H F; Paveley, N D; van den Bosch, F

    2011-10-01

    This study used mathematical modeling to predict whether mixtures of a high-resistance-risk and a low-risk fungicide delay selection for resistance against the high-risk fungicide. We used the winter wheat and Mycosphaerella graminicola host-pathogen system as an example, with a quinone outside inhibitor fungicide as the high-risk and chlorothalonil as the low-risk fungicide. The usefulness of the mixing strategy was measured as the "effective life": the number of seasons that the disease-induced reduction of the integral of canopy green area index during the yield forming period could be kept fungicides, (ii) was constant for the low-risk fungicide but could increase for the high-risk fungicide, and (iii) was adjusted for both fungicides but their ratio in the mixture was fixed. The effective life was highest when applying the full label-recommended dose of the low-risk fungicide and adjusting the dose of the high-risk fungicide each season to the level required to maintain effective control. This strategy resulted in a predicted effective life of ≤ 12 years compared with 3 to 4 years when using the high risk fungicide alone.

  6. New Heroines of Labour: Domesticating Post-feminism and Neoliberal Capitalism in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenniemi, Suvi; Adamson, Maria

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, post-feminism has become an important element of popular media culture and the object of feminist cultural critique. This article explores how post-feminism is domesticated in Russia through popular self-help literature aimed at a female audience. Drawing on a close reading of self-help texts by three best-selling Russian authors, the article examines how post-feminism is made intelligible to the Russian audience and how it articulates with other symbolic frameworks. It identifies labour as a key trope through which post-feminism is domesticated and argues that the texts invite women to invest time and energy in the labour of personality, the labour of femininity and the labour of sexuality in order to become 'valuable subjects'. The article demonstrates that the domestication of post-feminism also involves the domestication of neoliberal capitalism in Russia, and highlights how popular psychology, neoliberal capitalism and post-feminism are symbiotically related.

  7. 8种杀菌剂对瓠瓜枯萎病的室内毒力研究%Studies on the Toxicity of Eight Fungicides to Pathogens of Fusarium oxysporum Schl.f.sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贤岩; 陆保君; 李翔宇; 吴向辉

    2012-01-01

    为了筛选防治瓠瓜枯萎病的有效药剂,采用菌丝生长速率法分别测定8种杀菌剂对瓠瓜枯萎病的室内毒力和EC50值.结果表明,咪鲜胺、烯唑醇和苯醚甲环唑的EC50值分别为0.08526、0.81147、1.03912mg/L,证明这3种杀菌剂对瓠瓜枯萎病菌均有显著的抑制作用,代森锰锌、三唑酮和百菌清的EC50值分别为99.33022、128.4983、112.112mg/L,抑菌效果不佳.咪鲜胺的室内毒力最强,可在生产中试验应用.%To screen the effective fungicides for the control of the disease, Ecx of eight kinds of fungicides to Fusarium oxysporum Schl. F. Sp. Were tested by means of mycelium growth rate method under the condition of laboratory, respectively. The results showed that Ecx values of prochloraz, diniconazole and difenoconazole were 0.08526, 0.81147 and 1.03912 mg/L, respectively, suggesting that the three fungicides tested all had good inhibition against the fungus. But mancozeb, triadimefon and chlorothalonil were not obviously inhibitory against the pathogen, with the EC50 value being 99.33022,128.4983 and 112.112 mg/L, respectively.

  8. Field evaluation of fungicides in controlling chickpea Ascochyta blight in Washington, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field evaluation of five fungicides of different fungicide classes showed that the fungicides can reduce disease severity and increase yield of chickpea. Alternative fungicides to traditional strobilurin fungicides were identified, and can be used to prevent development of strobilurin resistance in...

  9. An historical Overview of Conferences on Islamic Feminism : Circulations and New Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Badran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conferences bringing people together in face-to-face encounters form an integral part of the history of Islamic feminism and are intimately involved in the shaping and transmitting of Islamic feminist discourse and activist work. At the same time, conferences help consolidate transnational Islamic feminist networks and cement relationships. They also provide valuable records of the work and serve as markers of the trajectory of Islamic feminism The conference on “Islamic feminisms: boundaries...

  10. An historical Overview of Conferences on Islamic Feminism : Circulations and New Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Margot Badran

    2012-01-01

    Conferences bringing people together in face-to-face encounters form an integral part of the history of Islamic feminism and are intimately involved in the shaping and transmitting of Islamic feminist discourse and activist work. At the same time, conferences help consolidate transnational Islamic feminist networks and cement relationships. They also provide valuable records of the work and serve as markers of the trajectory of Islamic feminism The conference on “Islamic feminisms: boundaries...

  11. Feminism and/in/as psychology: The public sciences of sex and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Alexandra; Pettit, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In our introduction to this special issue on the histories of feminism, gender, sexuality, and the psy-disciplines, we propose the tripartite framework of "feminism and/in/as psychology" to conceptualize the dynamics of their conjoined trajectories and relationship to gender and sexuality from the late 19th through the late 20th centuries. "Feminism and psychology" highlights the tensions between a political movement and a scientific discipline and the efforts of participants in each to problematize the other. "Feminism in psychology" refers to those historical moments when self-identified feminists intervened in psychology to alter its content, methodologies, and populations. We propose, as have others, that these interventions predate the 1970s, the period most commonly associated with the "founding" of feminist psychology. Finally, "feminism as psychology/psychology as feminism" explores the shared ground between psychology and feminism-the conceptual, methodological, and (more rarely) epistemological moments when psychology and feminism made common cause. We suggest that the traffic between feminism and psychology has been persistent, continuous, and productive, despite taking different historically and geographically contingent forms. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Becoming lesbian: Monique Wittig's queer-trans-feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kevin

    2017-07-25

    Inspired by Lynne Huffer's queer feminist genealogy, this article explores queer-trans-feminism as a project that would bring together queer, feminist, and transgender theory and politics into a shared critical lineage. I suggest that Monique Wittig is a neglected thinker who could re-enliven connections and debates within queer, feminist, and trans theory and politics. Utilizing recent historiographies of queer and feminist theory, I imagine what it would mean to hold on to the figure of the lesbian as a figure for queer-trans-feminist politics rather than render the lesbian anachronistic. I then explore the implications of Wittig's notion that "lesbians are not women" for a queer-trans-feminism. I argue that Wittig's critique of the language of the social sciences offers queer-trans-feminist scholars a source for contemporary self-critique and coalition.

  13. Lost Purity. Social in Nineteenth and Twentieth-century Feminisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Persano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Social Purity’ appears in a part of the French and Anglo-Saxon (Britain and the United States nineteenth-twentieth century’s feminisms, as a mean for many claims: from the full recognition of sexual difference in Hubertine Auclert’s social and ‘differentialist’ republicanism in France to Josephine Butler’s refusal of any purity imposed from above in England, until the absolute turn of the idea of women’s moral superiority and the equal and opposite force to the final exit from ‘the social’ by the American ‘New Womanism’, individualizing and de-feminizing the act of sexual liberation. All this in a continuous play of actions and reactions, sometimes paradoxical, weaving together suffragism and anti-suffragism, contestation of the conjugal complementarity and the never overcome temptations of hetero or self-control.

  14. Feminism as Islamophobia: A review of misogyny charges against Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmudul Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One important feature of Islamophobia is to caricaturize Islam as misogynistic and oppressive to women and thus to advance imperialist hegemony. This “gendered Islamophobia” stigmatizes the religion even though, compared to other world religions, its treatment of women is arguably preferable and more enlightened. Historically, one treasonous use of feminism has been to misappropriate it in order to serve colonial interests and support imperialist wars of occupation that repress subjugated people including women and children. This article argues that ignorance about, and prejudice against, Islam contribute to portraying it as a misogynistic creed. Wrong notions of Islam lead many feminists in Muslim societies to denigrate Islamic teachings and borrow Western ideas to advance women’s causes. Lampooning Islam and replicating Western feminist ideas in Muslim lands have served neither women nor feminism. Such feminist tendencies rather give a bad name to the women’s rights movement and fuel controversy, anger and resentment among Muslims.

  15. Steps towards the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra COLUMBAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses important issues related to the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway, by providing a case study on the country’s first feminist magazine, Sirene. The first part of the article focuses on the political and historical context which favoured the emergence of the magazine, and insists on a series of legal measures taken in the twentieth century – suffrage rights, equal payment, political representation, etc. – which provided the institutional framework for the women’s movement. The more comprehensive second part of the article focuses on Sirene itself: it analyses the magazine’s structure and key concepts, its political agenda, its aims, but also thebranch of feminism to which Sirene adheres. The article concludes that the magazine represented an influential alternative to the mainstream press of the time, and contributed greatly to achieving the goals of women’s liberation movement.

  16. Reflections on health care consumerism: insights from feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Health care consumerism is a movement concerned with patients’ interests in health care, crucially those that are repressed or partly repressed by dominant interest‐holders. Like feminism, health care consumerism attracts dislike and confusion as well as enthusiasm. But just as the voicing of women’s repressed interests leads to their gradual acceptance by dominant interest‐holders, so does the voicing of patients’ repressed interests. PMID:11281891

  17. Women and nature in the vision of Eco-feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈周新

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyzed the relation between women and nature in the historical process of society and literature, and the relation between women's liberation and environmental pro-tection from the view of Eco-feminism, to reveal the root cause of the oppression to women and to find ways to liberate women, advocating an active role in improving the situation of women and the environment because these two tasks are closely related.

  18. Femininity, neoliberalism and popular culture: the depolitization of feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Esquirol, Meritxell

    2015-01-01

    This thesis intends to analyze the logics of representation of contemporary femininity in the popular imagery that has instrumentalized feminism. Such is the case of the transmedia narrative The Twilight Saga, the cultural franchise of 50 Shades of Grey, and TV fiction Girls. All of these cultural products have earned an important position in contemporary cultural consumption, invite a form of cultural participation closely linked to the consumer industry, and propose female ideals characteri...

  19. Haemophilia A in a patient with testicular feminization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrejev, N J; Korenevskaya, M I; Rutberg, R A; Dukarevitch, M Z; Pokrovskiy, P I; Tokarev, N Y

    1975-04-30

    A case of typical haemophilia A in phenotypically "hairless" women aged 18 with complete testicular feminization (primary amenorrhea, absence of palpated gonads, negative sex chromatin, fluorescence of Y chromosome in interphase nuclei, caryotype 46, XY by common and fluorescent methods) is reported in this paper. Both diseases are of familial character with transmission through female line. The propositus' father did not suffer from haemophilia. Signs of Morris syndrome (delay of menses, absence of secondary hair) are present in the propositus' mother and sister. The propositus' niece, the daughter of her sister, also suffered from testicular feminization, but without any haemophilia, probably due to the crossing-over. The analysis of the pedigree gives no information in favour of sex-linked or autosome-dominant sex limited inheritance of testicular feminization. Haemophilia A in the propositus is characterized by the very low factor-VIII level-1.66%, and typical joints bleedings since 3 years. At the age of 18 the patient had major surgery for a haemophilic thigh pseudotumor. There was rapid consolidation of the fracture and contracture was erradicated. In spite of severe factor VIII deficiency the course of haemophilia in the propositus is clinically milder than in male haemophiliacs in her family and in the general population. The similar findings were reviewed in literature including the case of hemyzygous haemophilia with testicular feminization and described women-homozygotes. The suggestion is made that the course of haemophilia in the propositus is affected by the female phenotype. The psychologica status of the patient and the possibility of professional rehabilitation by surgical treatment is discussed. The need for detailed cytogenetical examination of the persons with "female" haemophilia or the other sex-linked diseases to establish the correct diagnosis and for exclusion of the possible mosaicism is discussed.

  20. A Feminism Analysis of Emily’s Rebellion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海琴

    2014-01-01

    A Rose for Emily presents Miss Emily’s tragic life in a patriarchal society. It has long been the interest of many critics since it was published because of its application of gothic style and symbolism. Beyond that,Emily’s rebellion against the patriarchal society is also reflected in the story and deserves more concern from scholars. So to analyze Emily’s rebellion from feminism perspective could provide a new perspective for understanding this classic short story.

  1. A novel mechanism of non-feminizing estrogens in neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler-Chiurazzi, Elizabeth B; Covey, Douglas F; Simpkins, James W

    2016-11-03

    Estrogens are potent and efficacious neuroprotectants both in vitro and in vivo in a variety of models of neurotoxicity. We determined the structural requirements for neuroprotection in an in vitro assay using a panel of >70 novel estratrienes, synthesized to reduce or eliminate estrogen receptor (ER) binding. We observed that neuroprotection could be enhanced by as much as 200-fold through modifications that positioned a large bulky group at the C2 or C4 position of the phenolic A ring of the estratriene. Further, substitutions on the B, C or D rings either reduced or did not markedly change neuroprotection. Collectively, there was a negative correlation between binding to ERs and neuroprotection with the more potent compounds showing no ER binding. In an in vivo model for neuroprotection, transient cerebral ischemia, efficacious compounds were active in protection of brain tissue from this pro-oxidant insult. We demonstrated that these non-feminizing estrogens engage in a redox cycle with glutathione, using the hexose monophosphate shunt to apply cytosolic reducing potential to cellular membranes. Together, these results demonstrate that non-feminizing estrogens are neuroprotective and protect brain from the induction of ischemic- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neuropathology in an animal model. These features of non-feminizing estrogens make them attractive compounds for assessment of efficacy in AD and stroke, as they are not expected to show the side effects of chronic estrogen therapy that are mediated by ER actions in the liver, uterus and breast.

  2. Electrochemical Determination of Prochloraz in Orange Peel after Derivatization%衍生电化学法测定橘皮中的咪酰胺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李红波; 胡效亚

    2011-01-01

    A method to determine prochloraz in orange peel by electrochemistry analysis after derivatization was developed.Prochloraz was stepwise extracted by acetone and ethyl acetate,and hydrolyzed into electrochemical active 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by pyridine hydrochloride.Differential pulse stripping voltammetry(DPSV) was utilized to determine prochloraz under the optimized conditions pH 4.0 and accumulation at 0 V potential for 300 s.The results showed that oxidative peak current of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol was positively linearly correlated with its concentration within the range of 9.0 × 10-9-8.0 × 10-5 mol/L.The detection limit was 9.7 × 10-10 mol/L,and the recovery between 98.5% and 113.0%.%采取简便的衍生电化学法灵敏地测定橘皮中的咪酰胺。用丙酮和乙酸乙酯分别萃取橘皮中的咪酰胺,然后用吡啶盐酸盐对其进行水解,使没有电化学活性的咪酰胺生成具有电化学活性的2,4,6-三氯苯酚。在优化实验条件(pH4.0,富集电位和富集时间分别是0V和300s)下,运用差示脉冲溶出伏安法建立测定橘皮中咪酰胺含量的新方法。进一步实验结果表明,2,4,6-三氯苯酚氧化峰电流与其浓度在9.0×10-9~8.0×10-5mol/L范围内呈良好的线性关系,检出限为9.7×10-10mol/L,回收率为98.5%~113.0%。

  3. Can agricultural fungicides accelerate the discovery of human antifungal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Klittich, Carla J R

    2015-01-01

    Twelve drugs from four chemical classes are currently available for treatment of systemic fungal infections in humans. By contrast, more than 100 structurally distinct compounds from over 30 chemical classes have been developed as agricultural fungicides, and these fungicides target many modes of action not represented among human antifungal drugs. In this article we introduce the diverse aspects of agricultural fungicides and compare them with human antifungal drugs. We propose that the information gained from the development of agricultural fungicides can be applied to the discovery of new mechanisms of action and new antifungal agents for the management of human fungal infections.

  4. Recent Trends in Studies on Botanical Fungicides in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Young Yoon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants are attacked by various phytopathogenic fungi. For many years, synthetic fungicides have been used to control plant diseases. Although synthetic fungicides are highly effective, their repeated use has led to problems such as environmental pollution, development of resistance, and residual toxicity. This has prompted intensive research on the development of biopesticides, including botanical fungicides. To date, relatively few botanical fungicides have been registered and commercialized. However, many scientists have reported isolation and characterization of a variety of antifungal plant derivatives. Here, we present a survey of a wide range of reported plant-derived antifungal metabolites.

  5. "I'm Not a Feminist, But...": Introducing Feminism in Psychology of Women Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottolo, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This article will describe an exercise the author uses within the first week (usually the second day) of her Psychology of Women courses in order to (a) quickly introduce basic principles of feminism, (b) dispel some of the myths and stereotypes about feminists, and (c) address some students' fears and misconceptions about feminism and the course.…

  6. Library Feminism and Library Women's History: Activism and Scholarship, Equity and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the development of library women's history in the context of library feminism and American history. Considers the aftermath of World War II and the Cold War and suggests that the earlier equity or fairness orientation is today challenged by a cultural orientation in both library feminism and library women's history. (Contains 70…

  7. "I'm Not a Feminist, But...": Introducing Feminism in Psychology of Women Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottolo, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    This article will describe an exercise the author uses within the first week (usually the second day) of her Psychology of Women courses in order to (a) quickly introduce basic principles of feminism, (b) dispel some of the myths and stereotypes about feminists, and (c) address some students' fears and misconceptions about feminism and the course.…

  8. (Re)Writing "Feminism in Canada": Wikipedia in the Feminist Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana

    2012-01-01

    In the winter of 2012, the students in the author's fourth-year seminar, The Politics of the Canadian Women's Movement, undertook the project of editing, updating, and expanding a number of Wikipedia articles, including the page on "Feminism in Canada." Though it often serves as a first point of reference for research on Canadian feminism, this…

  9. Family Values as Practiced by Feminist Parents: Bridging Third-Wave Feminism and Family Pluralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack-Canty, Colleen; Wright, Sue

    2004-01-01

    The shift from second-wave feminism, with its emphasis on gender equality, to third-wave feminism, whose concern is with oppression more generally, poses intriguing questions about theoretical and social change. We have chosen to explore these issues through the insight and perspectives of families who parent from feminist perspectives. To gain…

  10. Nearly universal, but somewhat distinct: the feminization of poverty in affluent Western democracies, 1969-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, David; Kall, Denise

    2008-09-01

    Our study extends research on the feminization of poverty by analyzing the variation in women's, men's, and feminized poverty across affluent democracies from 1969 to 2000. Specifically, we address three issues. First, we provide more recent estimates of adult women's and men's poverty and the ratio of women's to men's poverty with two different poverty measures. We suggest that by incorporating the elderly, the feminization of poverty may be greater than previously estimated. The feminization of poverty is nearly universal across affluent Western democracies 1969-2000. Second, we show that women's, men's and overall poverty are highly correlated, but the feminization of poverty diverges as a distinct social problem. Third, we find that women's, men's and overall poverty share several correlates, particularly the welfare state, though some differences exist. At the same time, several of our findings differ with past research. The feminization of poverty is only influenced by social security transfers, single motherhood and the sex ratios of the elderly and labor force participation. While power resources theory probably best explains women's, men's and overall poverty, structural theory may best explain the feminization of poverty. We conclude by discussing how analyses of the feminization of poverty contribute to debates on poverty and gender inequality.

  11. A Rhetoric of Textual Feminism: (Re)reading the Emotional in Virginia Woolf's "Three Guineas."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Krista

    1993-01-01

    Explores the concept of a rhetoric of textual feminism. Defines the concept and discusses its functions by citing Virginia Woolf and Kenneth Burke. Argues that a rhetoric of textual feminism reveals the emotional, and critiques Woolf's "Three Guineas" to reread the emotional. (HB)

  12. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngkeun; Kim, Dongsub

    2012-03-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by field test and it was promising to prevent Chinese cabbage and radish from phytophthora and root rot.

  13. Development of biodegradable fungicide by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Dong Sub [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    To develop the fungicide which is biodegradable and alternative to chemical pesticide that has an side effect of environmental pollution, Mutant induction of the enhanced antifungal activity was studied by using radiation. Characteristics and structure of antifungal biomaterials derived from these mutants were analysed. Two biomaterials related to the antifungal activity from the above mutant were isolated and purified. Microbial pesticide were manufactured in combination of various additives. Antiphytopathogenic effects were proven by pot experiment and It was promising to prevent pepper, Chinese cabbage and radish from anthrax, phytophthora and root rot

  14. A model for fungicide applications in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Pinnschmidt, Hans; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2006-01-01

    A statistical prediction of the opitamal fungicide dose and strategy based on expert knowledge and 5 yers' trial data from Denmark......A statistical prediction of the opitamal fungicide dose and strategy based on expert knowledge and 5 yers' trial data from Denmark...

  15. Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Pyrimethanil Heterocyclic Acid Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN,Xiao-Hong; LIU,Yuan-Fa; CHEN,Bang; JIA,Ying-Qi; YANG,Jian-Wu

    2007-01-01

    Seven pyrimethanil salts were synthesized by organic base containing nitrogen atom reacting with substituted pyridine acids. They are reported for the first time. Their structures have been confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The preliminary toxicity tests indicated that most of them exhibited excellent fungicidal activities.The relationship between the structures and the fungicidal activities of the compounds was discussed.

  16. Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Silvestri, M.; Houbraken, J.; Hoekstra, E.; Theelen, B.; Boekhout, T.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulan

  17. Italian feminism, workerism and autonomy in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Cuninghame

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet essai examine certaines des différences entre le féminisme italien ouvriériste et les féminismes de tendance libérale, socialiste et séparatiste dans les années 1970. Il décrit l'émergence des principales organisations féministes ouvriéristes, émergence étroitement liée à de problématiques telles que le « travail » de reproduction non rémunéré ainsi que la violence physique et sexuelle contre les femmes. Les problèmes liés aux relations entre le féminisme et le mouvement social anti-capitaliste Autonomia sont également explorés.En este ensayo se analizan algunas de las diferencias entre el feminismo obrerista italiano y los feminismos liberal, socialista y separatista en el decenio de los 1970. Se describe el surgimiento de las principales organizaciones feministas obreristas en torno a las cuestiones de « trabajo » no remunerado de reproducción y de la violencia física y sexual contra la mujer. Los problemas vinculados a las relaciones entre el feminismo y el movimiento social anticapitalista Autonomía también son explorados.This essay discusses some of the differences between Italian workerist feminism and liberal, socialist and separatist feminisms during the 1970s. It outlines the emergence of the main workerist feminist organizations around the issues of unpaid reproductive labour and of physical and sexual violence against women. The problems linked to relations between feminism and the anti-capitalist Autonomia social movement are also explored.

  18. Real Knockouts The Physical Feminism of Women's Self-Defense

    CERN Document Server

    McCaughey, Martha

    1997-01-01

    An examination of women's self-defense culture and its relationship to feminism. I was once a frightened feminist. So begins Martha McCaughey's odyssey into the dynamic world of women's self- defense, a culture which transforms women involved with it and which has equally profound implications for feminist theory and activism. Unprecedented numbers of American women are learning how to knock out, maim, even kill men who assault them. Sales of mace and pepper spray have skyrocketed. Some 14 million women own handguns. From behind the scenes at gun ranges, martial arts dojos, fitness centers off

  19. Third Wave Feminism's Unhappy Marriage of Poststructuralism and Intersectionality Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Archer Mann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article first traces the history of unhappy marriages of disparate theoretical perspectives in US feminism. In recent decades, US third-wave authors have arranged their own unhappy marriage in that their major publications reflect an attempt to wed poststructuralism with intersectionality theory. Although the standpoint epistemology of intersectionality theory shares some common ground with the epistemology of poststructuralism, their epistemological assumptions conflict on a number of important dimensions. This contested terrain has generated serious debates within the third wave and between second- and thirdwave feminists. The form, content, and political implications of their "unhappy marriage" are the subject of this article.

  20. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51 regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    Full Text Available Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014 at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA. A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression.

  1. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA) identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51) regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression.

  2. Queering biology, gutting feminism: A review essay of Gut Feminism by Elizabeth A. Wilson (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, David A

    2017-07-25

    The author reviews Elizabeth A. Wilson's Gut Feminism (2015), arguing that Wilson's book productively challenges some of feminist theory's most entrenched presuppositions: that social, cultural, and discursive frameworks are opposed and superior to biological ones; that biological matter is flat, sovereign, monolithic, and determining; that depression is more a cultural, historical, and psychological phenomenon than a biochemical and pharmaceutical one (and that these nominative distinctions are stable and natural); and finally, that the belly's ruminations (hunger, ingestion, digestion, peristalsis, diarrhea, constipation, and excretion) give no clue as to the complexities of entanglements between gut, psyche, subjectivity, sociality, and hostility.

  3. Época de aplicação de fungicida para controle da mancha de Mycosphaerella do morangueiro Timing of fungicide application for Mycosphaerella leaf spot control on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Furlanetto

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da época do início da aplicação de fungicida na severidade da mancha de Mycosphaerella fragariae em parcelas experimentais de morango cv. IAC-Campinas. O ensaio foi conduzido em área produtora (Brazlândia, DF em blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos (épocas de início de pulverização e quatro repetições. Foram efetuadas aplicações quinzenais com o p.a. prochloraz (450 g i.a/litro na dosagem de 100 ml/100 litros de água, e testadas as épocas de início de aplicação: Plantio (pulverização por ocasião do plantio das mudas, com um total de dez aplicações; Flor1 (após a primeira florada, oito aplicações; Flor2 (após a segunda florada, seis aplicações; Flor3 (após a terceira florada, quatro aplicações; Flor4 (após a quarta florada, duas aplicações e Test (testemunha pulverizada com água desde o transplantio. As seguintes variáveis foram avaliadas: produção total acumulada; severidade de doença; número de folhas mortas e sadias; número de hastes lesionadas e sadias. Os resultados indicaram que os tratamentos Plantio e Flor1 foram superiores aos demais em todos os critérios (Duncan, 5%. O tratamento Flor2 apresentou controle intermediário de doença. Os demais tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas significativas entre si.The effect of timing of first fungicide application on the severity of Mycosphaerella leaf spot (Mycosphaerella fragariae on strawberry cv. IAC-Campinas was studied in field plots located in Brazlândia-DF, Brazil. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with six treatments (times of first fungicide delivery and four replicates. The fungicide (prochloraz - 450 g a.i./L was delivered at a dosage of 100 ml/100 L of water, on a 15-day schedule. The following periods for first application were tested: "Plant": at transplant stage; with a total of ten fungicide applications; "Flor1": at first flowering stage, total of eight applications

  4. Design, synthesis, and fungicidal activities of imino diacid analogs of valine amide fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Man; Yang, Hui-Hui; Tian, Lei; Li, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Wei-Guang

    2015-12-15

    The novel imino diacid analogs of valine amides were synthesized via several steps, including the protection, amidation, deprotection, and amino alkylation of valine, with the resulting structures confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR and HRMS. Bioassays showed that some of these compounds exhibited good fungicidal activity. Notably, isopropyl 2-((1-((1-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl)amino)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)amino)propanoate 5i displayed significant levels of control, at 50%, against Erysiphe graminis at 3.9μM as well as a level of potency very similar to the reference azoxystrobin, which gave 60% activity at this concentration. The present work demonstrates that imino diacid analogs of valine amides could be potentially useful key compounds for the development of novel fungicides against wheat powdery mildew.

  5. Feminizing Adrenal Carcinoma Presenting with Heart Failure and Ventricular Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjana Harnoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of feminizing adrenal carcinoma with severe elevation in serum estradiol and otherwise unexplained congestive heart failure with ventricular arrhythmia and review the literature on feminizing adrenal tumors and the potential relationship between estrogen and cardiac problems. A 54-year-old man presented with congestive heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia. Imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Hormonal evaluation revealed a very high serum level of estradiol, elevated DHEA-sulfate and androstenedione, and lack of cortisol suppression on a low-dose overnight dexamethasone suppression test. The patient underwent a left adrenalectomy with subsequent normalization of serum estradiol. Surgical pathology examination established adrenocortical carcinoma MacFarlane stage II. Upon 15-month followup, the patient continued to have a normal serum estradiol level, his cardiac function was significantly improved, and he had no further episodes of ventricular arrhythmia. To the best of our knowledge, the serum estradiol level that was detected in our case is the highest that has been reported. Further, we hypothesize that the very high serum concentration of estradiol in our case may have played a role in his cardiac presentation with congestive heart failure and arrhythmia, particularly as these problems resolved with normalization of his serum estradiol level.

  6. Feminismos y solidaridad Types of Feminism and Solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Rodríguez Martínez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo revisamos el concepto de solidaridad asociado con la epistemología feminista empirista, el punto de vista feminista y el feminismo postmoderno. En el primer caso, la solidaridad entre mujeres no es necesaria si hay una situación de igualdad y justicia. En el segundo modelo, la solidaridad entre mujeres se da por supuesta. En el tercer caso, dicha solidaridad no existe de antemano y sólo son posibles solidaridades pasajeras. Planteamos, por fin, la solidaridad desde la perspectiva de los feminismos periféricos.This article reviews the concept of solidarity associated with empirical feminist epistemology, the feminist point of view and postmodern feminism. In the first case, solidarity between women is unnecessary if conditions of equality and justice exist. In the second model, solidarity between women is assumed. In the third case, solidarity does not exist beforehand and it is only possible temporarily. The author concludes by positing solidarity from the point of view of peripheral feminism.

  7. Mill’s Liberal Feminism: Its Legacy and Current Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANA SZAPUOVÁ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights John Stuart Mill’s views on the problem of gender equality as expressed in The Subjection of Women, which is commonly regarded as one of the core texts of Enlightenment liberal feminism of the 19th century. In this paper, the author outlines the historical context of both Mill’s views and his personal biography, which influenced his argumentation for the emancipation of women, and considers Mill’s utilitarianism and liberalism, as the main philosophical background for his criticism of social conditions that subordinated women. She reflects on some of the philosopher’s ideas and arguments for equality and friendship between women and men which may still be considered noteworthy and relevant. Attention is also given to the main lines of contemporary reception of Mill’s liberal feminism from the perspective of current feminist philosophy, within which certain critical views predominate. Despite some problematic points in Mill’s considerations, his essay on women’s subjection may be regarded as one of the philosophically most interesting conceptions of liberal feminist thinking.

  8. A rapid resazurin bioassay for assessing the toxicity of fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair

    2009-03-01

    Fungicides are widely used in agriculture, and released in large amounts to the environment. Methods used for antifungal susceptibility testing are cumbersome and time-consuming. As a result, very little attention has been paid to including fungal tests in the routine screening of pesticides and there are no reports in the literature of fungicide focussed effects directed analysis (EDA). In addition very little is known on the toxicity of fungicides to environmentally significant fungi. Here we report a rapid microplate-based resorufin fluorescence inhibition bioassay and compare it with a 24h microplate-based yeast growth inhibition bioassay using eight fungicides. The growth inhibition bioassay was sensitive, giving IC50 and IC90 values comparable to previously reported IC50 or MICs of these fungicides for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other fungi. The resorufin fluorescence inhibition bioassay was both faster and more sensitive than the growth inhibition bioassay. Inhibitory concentrations obtained just after 30min of incubation with amphotericin B (AMB) and captan were at least a hundred fold lower than IC50s in the literature for fungi. The fluorescence bioassay showed only a small response to pyrazophos and thiabendazole but these only inhibited growth at high concentrations so this may reflect low sensitivity of S. cerevisiae to these particular fungicides. This bioassay can detect toxic effects of a range of fungicides from different chemical classes with different modes of action. It will be valuable for screening chemical libraries for fungicides and as a biomarker for detecting the effects of fungicides to non-target fungi.

  9. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly eDzhavakhiya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or chemosensitization. Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA, 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of A. alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of F. sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  10. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhavakhiya, Vitaly; Shcherbakova, Larisa; Semina, Yulia; Zhemchuzhina, Natalia; Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A common consequence of using agricultural fungicides is the development of resistance by fungal pathogens, which undermines reliability of fungicidal effectiveness. A potentially new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides, or "chemosensitization." Chemosensitization can be accomplished by combining a commercial fungicide with a certain non- or marginally fungicidal substance at levels where, alone, neither compound would be effective. Chemosensitization decreases the probability of the pathogen developing resistance, reduces the toxic impact on the environment by lowering effective dosage levels of toxic fungicides, and improves efficacy of antifungal agents. The present study shows that the antifungal activity of azole and strobilurin fungicides can be significantly enhanced through their co-application with certain natural or synthetic products against several economically important plant pathogenic fungi. Quadris (azoxystrobin) combined with thymol at a non-fungitoxic concentration produced much higher growth inhibition of Bipolaris sorokiniana, Phoma glomerata, Alternaria sp. and Stagonospora nodorum than the fungicide alone. The effect of Dividend (difenoconazole) applied with thymol significantly enhanced antifungal activity against B. sorokiniana and S. nodorum. Folicur (tebuconazole) combined with 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA), 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde or thymol significantly inhibited growth of Alternaria alternata, at a much greater level than the fungicide alone. In addition, co-application of Folicur and 4-HBA resulted in a similar enhancement of antifungal activity against Fusarium culmorum. Lastly, we discovered that metabolites in the culture liquid of Fusarium sambucinum biocontrol isolate FS-94 also had chemosensitizing activity, increasing S. nodorum sensitivity to Folicur and Dividend.

  11. Building coalitions: The interconnections between feminism and trans* activism in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas Platero, R; Ortega-Arjonilla, Esther

    2016-01-01

    What made current Spanish feminism shift toward transfeminism? Based on in-depth interviews and literature reviews, we explore what factors facilitated the participation of trans* women in Spanish feminism. Tracing the history through relevant events such as the National Feminist Conferences, it becomes clear that trans* women participated in the 1993, 2000, and 2009 conferences, posing relevant issues regarding prostitution, transgenderism, and the political subject of feminism. Our research allows a break with global oppositional narratives, in which these movements are in conflict, and highlights the importance of understanding the vernacular nuances that take place in a particular geopolitical context.

  12. Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of the fungicide captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, Teresa; Guiberteau, Agustina; Mora, Nielene M; Alvarez, Pedro R; Salinas, Francisco

    2002-11-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of the fungicide captan has been developed based on its reaction with thiosemicarbazide. The absorbance was measured at 315 nm. The effects of the proportion of water, thiosemicarbazide concentration, pH and temperature on this reaction was studied to select the best chemical conditions. The calibration graph was obtained between 1.2 and 30 ppm and the detection limit is 0.5 ppm. The RSD (n = 10) was 1.34%. Possible interference of various pesticides was examined. The method was applied to the determination of captan in agrochemical formulations. Results agree well with the labelled values and also with results that were obtained by a polarographic method.

  14. Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Paul; Denning, David W

    2014-02-01

    Fungal diseases are problematic in both human health and agriculture. Treatment options are limited and resistance may emerge. The relatively recent recognition of triazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus has prompted questioning of the origin of resistance. While multiple mechanisms are described in clinical isolates from triazole-treated patients, some de novo resistance is also recognised, especially attributable to TR34 /L98H. Such strains probably arose in the environment, and, indeed, multiple studies have now demonstrated TR(34) /L98H triazole resistance strains of A. fumigatus from soil. Docking and other in vitro studies are consistent with environmental resistance induction through exposure to certain triazole fungicides, notably difenoconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, bromuconazole and tebuconazole. This article addresses the potential implications of this issue for both human health and food security.

  15. KETAHANAN JAMUR TERHADAP FUNGISIDA DI INDONESIA (RESISTANCE OF FUNGI AGAINST FUNGICIDES IN INDONESIA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiyono, Christanti

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases control with fungicides had been practised for decades in Indonesia. The orientation of consumers to have high quality agriculture product caused the intensif use of pesticides including fungicides. Systemic fungicides were used as therapeutant agens for disease control. Intensively used and sublethal dose of systemic fungicides induced fungi to be resistant. The purpose of this article was to describe the occurrence of developing fungicides resistance strains. Several publicat...

  16. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of a series of novel aryloxylepidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, N V; Daeuble, J F; Davis, L N; Hannum, A C; Hellwig, K; Lawler, L K; Parker, M H; Pieczko, M E

    2001-09-01

    A series of novel (hetero) aryloxylepidine derivatives was devised as hybrid structures of the phenoxyquinoline and phenethoxyquin(az)oline fungicides. Synthesis of these targets required the development of several new routes to derivatised 4-hydroxymethylquinolines, and subsequent coupling with phenols or haloarenes. The aryloxylepidines generally showed moderate broad-spectrum fungicidal activity across several diseases of cereals. Substitution of the quinoline ring with chlorine at the 7- and/or 5-positions gave molecules with high levels of protectant activity against Erysiphe graminis f sp tritici (powdery mildew of wheat), but this did not improve the level of fungicidal activity against other diseases. In vitro activity against mitochondrial electron transport complex I (MET) derived from Ustilago maydis showed that 8-fluorolepidine analogues were moderately active at this target site, while the more fungicidally active 7- and 5,7-substituted compounds were inactive. This indicates that MET is not the primary target of these highly active powdery mildewicides.

  17. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole.

  18. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Section 18 Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Section 18 of Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) authorizes EPA to allow an unregistered use of a pesticide for a limited time if EPA...

  19. Sensitivity of Botrytis cinerea Isolates Against Some Fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desen

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... concentrations, in controlling gray mold in fruit infection. In addition, fitness of ... the fungicide resistance problem within this region would ... sterile long and narrow wood strips in sterile plastic boxes contain- ing wetted ...

  20. Effects of Conazole Fungicides on Spontaneous Activity in Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaconazole (HEX), Tetraconazole (TET), Fluconazole (FLU), and Triadimefon (TRI) are conazole fungicides, used to control powdery mildews on crops, and as veterinary and clinical treatments. TRI, a demethylation inhibitor, is neurotoxic in vivo, and previous in vitro experiments...

  1. Effects of Conazole Fungicides on Spontaneous Activity in Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaconazole (HEX), Tetraconazole (TET), Fluconazole (FLU), and Triadimefon (TRI) are conazole fungicides, used to control powdery mildews on crops, and as veterinary and clinical treatments. TRI, a demethylation inhibitor, is neurotoxic in vivo, and previous in vitro experiments...

  2. Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

  3. Current possibilities and prospects of using fungicides in forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okorski Adam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using chemicals in European forestry is extremely limited due to the binding legal regulations and specific conditions concerning the market of plant protection products. This is reflected in the limited availability of active fungicides in forestry. Due to this limitation, practitioners using fungicides in forest nurseries and forest cultivation must have substantial knowledge of the biology of pathogens to ensure satisfactorily effective protection.

  4. FUNGICIDE APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING POSTHARVEST QUALITY IN TOMATO FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    D. M. Vani; S. M. Bonaldo

    2014-01-01

    Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 ...

  5. The changing nature of eco/feminism : telling stories from Clayoquot Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore-Cherry, Niamh

    2015-01-01

    ... in Canadian environmental discourse. Yet although the camp was said to be based on feminist or eco/feminist principles, insufficient attention has been paid to its impact on feminism and the debates that were raging at that time...

  6. The Growth of Scarlett’s Consciousness of Feminism in Gone with the Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁朝霞

    2014-01-01

    Most feminist analyses of Scarlett in Gone with the Wind are concerned with how feminism is reflected in Scarlett’s per-sonality, while this research pays attention to how her feminist consciousness grow through three stages.

  7. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  8. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  9. Effects of Fungicides on Aquatic Fungi and Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, D. E.; Rosemond, A. D.; Black, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    Aquatic microorganisms play an important role in conditioning leaf litter that enters streams and serves as an important base of production for consumers. Contamination of streams by fungicides may adversely affect microorganisms and alter leaf litter processing rates. Unfortunately, microorganisms are rarely used in acute toxicity tests for fungicide evaluation and registration. We adapted the resazurin reduction assay, which is used in medical microbiology, to assess the acute toxicity of four fungicides (azoxystrobin, trifloxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and chlorothalonil) to aquatic fungi (Articulospora tetracladia) and bacteria (Cytophaga spp.), and investigated the ability of the toxicants to inhibit leaf breakdown in microcosms. Fungi were more sensitive to fungicides than many standard test organisms (cladocerans, green algae, trout), while bacteria were often the least sensitive. All of the fungicides except kresoxim-methyl, when added to microcosms at concentrations that inhibited the fungi by 90 percent in acute tests, reduced leaf breakdown rates by an average of 14.7 percent. Thus, aquatic fungi and their associated functions in streams may be relatively sensitive to fungicides applied terrestrially that enter streams through non-point sources. These data highlight the importance of including aquatic fungi in safety assessments of pesticides for protection of microbial function.

  10. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinghua; Zhang, Jianyun; Li, Feixue; Liu, Jing

    2016-05-05

    Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  11. The Study of the Comparison between the Eco-feminism and Taoism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张阳

    2013-01-01

    Eco-feminism is the product of environmentalism and feminism. Its critique of dualistic theory and ecological awareness have some similarities with the Taoism, however, there are some obvious differences on its starting point, final goal and innovative concept. The dialectical unity of the two concepts can bring people’s awareness of feminist principles into focus as well as change the traditional world value.

  12. Theory of feminism and tribal women: An empirical study of Koraput

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra Anil

    2009-01-01

    In the mainstream culture to identify oneself as a "feminist" has been a fashion. Feminism covers all issues degrading and depriving women of their due in society vis-à-vis male members and it has started a crusade against atrocities on women across the globe. It is therefore regarded as synonymous with a movement and revolution to defend and promote issues involving women. However, the concerns that feminism raises do seem alien to tribal inhabitants in the Koraput district of Orissa,...

  13. Islam and feminism in post-colonial era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ejub Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary academic debates often deal with the issue of the compatibility of Islam with liberal values. The issues most commonly encountered in these debates are the compatibility of Islam with principles of secularism, democracy and human rights. The definition of human rights in current international documents includes: the position and status of religious minorities, freedom of belief, opinion and expression, the position of women in society, children's rights, the rights of people with disabilities, and many others. This paper will specifically deal with (corelations between Islam and the position of women in society, as well as a theoretical analysis of the most important works of women theorists who have dealt with Islamic feminism and rereading of Qur'an from a woman's perspective. Also, once the work has given basic assumptions of the most important works of these women theorists, we will offer their critical review.

  14. The lesbian rights movement and feminism in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Kim, Soo Jin; Lee-Kim, Soo Youn; Kwon-Lee, Eun Jung

    2006-01-01

    The lesbians' rights movement in South Korea has undertaken various projects for solidarity with feminist movement groups for over 10 years. In spite of these efforts, lesbian issues have been blatantly excluded from all the agendas of women's rights. The same thing has happened in Women's Studies. Some feminists express homophobic thoughts without understanding the reality of lesbians, and other young scholars take on a lesbian identity temporarily as a sign of being progressive and liberated; in neither situation are they committed to dealing with the oppression of lesbians or seeing lesbian rights as a feminist concern. In order to further lesbian rights there are two strategies possible: forming a movement only for lesbians or forming solidarity with feminists. In the latter case, a concern about lesbian rights will help achieve the goals of a true feminism as patriarchy is built upon heterosexism. doi:10.1300/J155v10n03_11.

  15. Feminizing adrenal tumors: Our experience about three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chentli Farida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminizing adrenal tumors (FATs are very rare as they account for less than 2% of all the adrenal neoplasms. Their prognosis is deemed to be very poor. We aimed to present a mono centre (adult and pediatric experience over a long period of time (January 1980 to Jun 2012. During the study period, we observed only three cases in men aged 22 (2 cases and 45 (1 case. They all consulted for a painful gynecomastia, decreased libido and impotency. Estradiol was high in two cases at presentation, and after a relapsing tumor in the third one. All had big adrenal tumors (5.9, 6, and 17 cm, and a mixed secretion composed by high estradiol and cortisol. The pathological study argued for malignancy in two cases. But, only one had diffuse metastasis and died 4 years after diagnosis; the others diagnosed one and three years ago are still alive without any metastasis or relapsing.

  16. Identity, sex and 'women's writing' in French poststructural feminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses political implications of the feminist revision of psychoanalysis in the works of major representatives of 1970s French poststructuralism, and their current significance. The influence and modifications of Lacan's interpretation of imaginary structure of the Ego and linguistic structure of the unconscious on explanations of the relations between gender and identity developed by Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray and Héléne Cixous are examined. French poststructuralist feminism, developing in the 1970s, was the second major current in French feminism of the times, different from and in a way opposed to Simone de Beauvoir's approach. While de Beauvoir explores 'women's condition' determined by social and historical circumstances, French feminists of poststructuralist persuasion engage with problems of unconscious psychological structuring of feminine identity, women's psychosexuality, theoretical implications of gendered visions of reality, especially in philosophy, semiology and psychology, as well as opening up new discursive possibilities of women's and feminine self-expression through 'women's writing'. Political implications of their approach have remained controversial to this day. These authors have been criticized for dislocating women's activism into the sphere of language and theory, as well as for reasserting the concept of women's nature. Debates over whether we need the concept of women's nature - and if yes, what kind - and over the relation between theory and political activism, have resulted in the split between the so-called 'essentialist' and 'anti-essentialist' approaches in feminist theory, and the subsequent division into American (non-essentialist and French (partly labeled as essentialist strands. The division is an oversimplification and overlooks concrete historical circumstances that produced the divergence between 'materialist' and 'linguistic' currents in France.

  17. Morphogenetic Alterations of Alternaria alternata Exposed to Dicarboximide Fungicide, Iprodione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Lee, Hye Min; Kim, Young Ho

    2017-01-01

    Fungicide-resistant Alternaria alternata impede the practical control of the Alternaria diseases in crop fields. This study aimed to investigate cytological fungicide resistance mechanisms of A. alternata against dicarboximide fungicide iprodione. A. alternata isolated from cactus brown spot was cultured on potato-dextrose agar (PDA) with or without iprodione, and the fungal cultures with different growth characteristics from no, initial and full growth were observed by light and electron microscopy. Mycelia began to grow from one day after incubation (DAI) and continued to be in full growth (control-growth, Con-G) on PDA without fungicide, while on PDA with iprodione, no fungal growth (iprodione-no growth, Ipr-N) occurred for the first 3 DAI, but once the initial growth (iprodione-initial growth, Ipr-I) began at 4–5 DAI, the colonies grew and expanded continuously to be in full growth (iprodione-growth, Ipr-G), suggesting Ipr-I may be a turning moment of the morphogenetic changes resisting fungicidal toxicity. Con-G formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and septa and intact dense cytoplasm. In Ipr-N, fungal sporulation was inhibited by forming mostly undeveloped unicellular conidia with degraded and necrotic cytoplasm. However, in Ipr-I, conspicuous cellular changes occurred during sporulation by forming multicellular conidia with double layered (thickened) cell walls and accumulation of proliferated lipid bodies in the conidial cytoplasm, which may inhibit the penetration of the fungicide into conidial cells, reducing fungicide-associated toxicity, and may be utilized as energy and nutritional sources, respectively, for the further fungal growth to form mature colonies as in Ipr-G that formed multicellular conidia with cell walls and intact cytoplasm with lipid bodies as in Con-G. PMID:28167893

  18. 咪鲜胺在人参和土壤中的残留动态及安全性评价%Residual dynamics and safety evaluation of prochloraz in ginseng and soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 王春伟; 高洁; 崔丽丽; 吕雁斌

    2014-01-01

    To determine the residual dynamics and environmental safety of prochloraz 25% EC and ensure the quality safety of ginseng products, a high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for determining residual dynamics and final residues of prochloraz in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned-up with PSA solid phase extraction cartridge, separated by liquid chromatography and analyzed with the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode by employing the external standard method, using electron spray ionization source (ESI). The results show-ed that the recoveries of prochloraz were 86.8%-90.8%, and the relative standard deviations were 3.95%-7.15%in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil. The half-lives of prochloraz were from 8.39 to 13.20 d at spraying dosage of 1 000 g·hm-2. Final residues of prochloraz were less 0.0417 mg·kg-1 in ginseng root, stem, leaf and soil, below the MRLs of Japan (0.05 mg·kg-1), EU (0.20 mg·kg-1) and Korea (0.30 mg·kg-1) over 60 d, which at spraying dosage range from 500 to 1 000 g·hm-2. Therefore, it is safe to apply prochloraz to ginseng at the recommended dosage.%为明确人参中咪鲜胺的残留量及环境安全性,确保人参产品质量安全,采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定25%咪鲜胺乳油在人参根、茎、叶及土壤中的残留动态及最终残留量。样品经乙腈提取,PSA固相萃取柱净化后以液相色谱分离,采用电喷雾电离源,以质谱正离子扫描多反应监测模式进行定量分析,外标法定量。结果表明,咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、叶及土壤中的回收率为86.8%~90.8%,相对标准偏差为3.95%~7.15%。施药剂量为1000 g·hm-2(以有效成分计)时,咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、叶和土壤中的降解半衰期为8.39~13.20 d。施药剂量为500~1000 g·hm-2时,施药后60 d咪鲜胺在人参根、茎、

  19. Solarization and biosolarization enhance fungicide dissipation in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoll, José; Ruiz, Encarnación; Hellín, Pilar; Navarro, Simón; Flores, Pilar

    2010-03-01

    Although there is some evidence regarding the effect of solarization and biosolarization on pesticide degradation, information is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of these disinfection techniques on the degradation of eight fungicides (azoxystrobin, kresoxin methyl, tebuconazole, hexaconazole, triadimenol, cyprodinil, pyrimethanil and fludioxonil) commonly used in pepper crops under greenhouse cultivation. Seventy-five 17-L pots filled with clay-loam soil were placed in a greenhouse during the summer season and then contaminated with the studied fungicides. Treatments consisted of different disinfection treatments, including a control without disinfection, solarization and biosolarization. For the solarization and biosolarization treatments, low-density polyethylene film was used as cover. Five pots per treatment were sampled periodically up to 90d after the beginning of each treatment and fungicide residues were analyzed by GC/MS. The results showed that both solarization and biosolarization enhanced fungicide dissipation rates with regard to the control treatment, an effect which was attributed to the increased soil temperature. Most of the fungicides studied showed similar behavior under solarization and biosolarization conditions. However, triadimenol was degraded to a greater extent in the biosolarization than in the solarization treatment, while fludioxonil behaved in the opposite way. The results confirm that both solarization and biosolarization contribute to pesticide dissipation and can therefore be considered alongside other soil disinfection techniques, as a bioremediation tool for pesticide-polluted soils.

  20. Reduced fungicide doses in cereals: Which parameters to consider?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials wi...... that reduced fungicide rates select less for fungicide resistance and can help to delay development of resistance.......Abstract:A long tradition for using reduced fungicides rates in cereals have been exploited successfully in Denmark for more than 20 years and a similar trend has also been seen in other Northern European countries. The use of reduced and appropriate dose rates have been driven by field trials...... to be controlled successfully at rates down to quarter rates. Fungicides, in general, show highly variable dose responses for specific diseases, which is important to know when specific advice is given. Preventive treatments generally require less input compared with treatments during the latent period or later...

  1. Efficacy of conventional fungicides in controlling tomato grey mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mavandadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the important diseases of tomato plants is grey mold, which is caused by Botrytis cinerea. In this research, the effects of 10 fungicides on mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea were investigated. Results showed that carbendazim with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 0.1 mg/L had the highest inhibitory effect and bordeaux mixture with an IC50 value of 1096.9 mg/L had the lowest inhibitory effect. Benomyl with an IC50 value of 0.04 mg/L had the most visual effects, after 3 and 7 days, on mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The effect of fungicides on preventing fruit wound development caused by B. cinerea was investigated, too. In benomyl treatment, wound diameter on the fruits was 0.73 mm and in copper oxychloride treatment was 6.16 mm, showing the highest and the lowest effective fungicides in the prevention of wound expansion. Different strains of the fungus were collected from various areas in Isfahan province and the effect of the fungicides on their conidial germination was evaluated. Results revealed that the collected isolates had different susceptibility to the 10 tested fungicides.

  2. 咪鲜胺对糙皮侧耳(平菇)污染菌绿色木霉的抑制作用%Inhibitory Effect of Prochloraz on Trichoderma viride Contaminated Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq: ex Fr.) Quèl.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高苇; 李宝聚; 石延霞; 金丹

    2012-01-01

    采用菌丝生长速率法测定咪鲜胺对绿色木霉(Trichoderma viride)和5个不同品种糙皮侧耳(Pleurotus ostreatus)(平菇)的菌丝生长抑制活性;采用滤纸片抑菌圈法测定了其对绿色木霉分生孢子萌发的影响.结果表明:咪鲜胺能够极显著地抑制绿色木霉菌丝生长和孢子萌发,EC50值分别为2.536 mg·L-1和5.482 mg·L-1.同时咪鲜胺对平菇的菌丝生长也有一定的抑制作用,在咪鲜胺有效浓度为8.333 mg·L-1以下时抑制作用不显著;生料栽培试验也获得了相似的结果.%Prochloraz's activities on inhibiting the mycelium growth of Trichoderma viride and 5 different varieties of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr.) Quel. were tested by the mycelium growth rate method and its effect on conidiophore germination of Trichoderma viride was tested by inhibition zone method. The results indicated that prochloraz could remarkably inhibit the growth of Trichoderma viride mycelium and spore germination. The EC50values were 2.536 mg o L-1 and 5.482 mg o L-1, respectively. Additionally, prochloraz could also inhibit the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr. ) Quel. mycelium. There are less significant differences of inhibition to Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr.) Quel. when the effective concentration of prochloraz was below 8.333 mg o L-1, its inhibitory effect on the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus ( Jacq: ex Fr. ) Quel. mycelium was not remarkable.

  3. Toxicity Measurement of Different Fungicides on Citrus Scab Disease%不同杀菌剂对柑橘疮痂病菌的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小燕; 姜于兰

    2011-01-01

    为筛选出对柑橘疮痂病病菌[痂圆孢菌(Sphaceloma.fawcetti Jenkins)]高效、低毒、低残留药剂供生产上使用,采用生长速率法测定了9种杀菌剂对该菌的室内毒力.结果表明,9种药剂对柑橘痂圆孢菌菌丝生长的抑制效果不同,25%咪酰胺EC和10%苯醚甲环唑WG抑菌作用最强,其EC50值分别为0.0267μg/mL和0.036 2μg/mL;60%唑醚·代森联WG次之,其EC50值为1.6101μg/mL,抑菌作用也较强;75%代森锰锌WG和3%中生菌素WP有较好抑菌活性,其EC50值均小于42μg/mL;25%嘧菌酯SC效果最差,EC50值为80274.970 1μg/mL.%In order to screen efficiency, low toxicity and low residual fungicides for the alternant use in citrus production,toxicity measurement of nine fungicides were studied on citrus scab disease with the method of growth rate. The results showed that the nine fungicides had different effects on myeelium growth of Sphaceloma fawcetti. The effects of 25% Prochloraz EC and 10% Difenoconazole WG behaved best, and their ECho were 0.026 7 μg/mL and 0.036 2 μg/mL, respectively;followed by 60% Pyraclostrobin .Metiram WG whose EC50 was 1.610 1 μg/mL. The EC50 of 75% Mancozeb WG and 3%Zhongshengmycin WP was both less than 42 μg/mL; while 25% Chloronitropropane SC behaved worst, and its EC50 was 80 274.970 1 μg/mL.

  4. Impact of fungal drug transporters on fungicide sensitivity, multidrug resistance and virulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de M.A.; Andrade, A.C.; Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Zwiers, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    Drug transporters are membrane proteins that provide protection for organisms against natural toxic products and fungicides. In plant pathogens, drug transporters function in baseline sensitivity to fungicides, multidrug resistance (MDR) and virulence on host plants. This paper describes drug transp

  5. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of some alkyl – 2,4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro fungicidal assay of these alkyl sulfenate esters against Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolonifer ... Increase in chain length of the alkyl substituents was found to reduce the fungicidal activity of the alkyl sulfenate esters. ... Article Metrics.

  6. Biological Activity of Several Fungicides against Ustilaginoidea virens%几种杀菌剂对稻曲病菌生物学活性的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贤岩; 陈雨; 任学祥; 张爱芳; 叶正和

    2015-01-01

    [目的]为了筛选出能够显著降低稻曲病发病率和病情指数的高效药剂,以及探寻防治适期。[方法]采用菌丝生长测定法测定药剂对稻曲病菌的生长抑制活性,求出不同药剂抑制菌丝生长的有效中浓度 EC50;同时选取17种药剂进行喷药防治,评估其防效及对水稻产量等性状的影响。[结果]氟环唑、苯醚甲环唑、丙环唑和咪酰胺对稻曲病菌菌丝生长的抑制活性较高,EC50分别为0.04、0.07、0.12和0.11μg/ml;田间试验结果表明,纹曲宁、苯醚甲环唑、咪鲜胺、丙环唑、氟环唑等化学制剂及其复配制剂对稻曲病均有70%或以上的防效。[结论]所用17种药剂在水稻剑叶完全展开期进行喷雾防治对水稻稻曲病都有一定的防治效果,对水稻叶片和稻粒均无药害。%Objective] This study aims to screen for the high effective fungicides which could significantly decrease the disease incidence and disease index of rice false smut. [Method] The inhibitory activities of the fungicide against mycelial growth of Ustilaginoidea virens were measured to in vitro evaluate the EC50 values. And 17 fungicides were sprayed to evaluate the efficacy and effect of the fungicides tested in the field trials on the rice characters. [Result] The results showed that epoxicona-zole, difenoconazole, propiconazole and procloraz exhibited high inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Ustilaginoidea virens with the EC50 values 0.04, 0.07, 0.12 and 0.11 μg/ml, respectively. The results of field trials showed that the efficacy of Wen-quning, and fungicides such as difenoconazole, prochloraz, propiconazole, epoxi-conazole and their mixtures in control ing rice false smut were al 70% or more. [Conclusion] The 17 tested fungicides behaved efficacy in control ing rice false smut and did not cause drug injury on leaves and grains of rice plants, sprayed when flag leaves of rice ful y expanded.

  7. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  8. Combretastatin A-4 and Derivatives: Potential Fungicides Targeting Fungal Tubulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-lin; Yan, Xiao-jing; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Jiu-jiu; Pang, Wan; Kai, Zhen-peng; Wu, Fan-hong

    2016-02-01

    Combretastatin A-4, first isolated from the African willow tree Combretum caffrum, is a tubulin polymerization inhibitor in medicine. It was first postulated as a potential fungicide targeting fungal tubulin for plant disease control in this study. Combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives were synthesized and tested against Rhizoctonia solani and Pyricularia oryzae. Several compounds have EC50 values similar to or better than that of isoprothiolane, which is widely used for rice disease control. Structure-activity relationship study indicated the the cis configuration and hydroxyl group in combretastatin A-4 are crucial to the antifungal effect. Molecular modeling indicated the binding sites of combretastatin A-4 and carbendazim on fungal tubulin are totally different. The bioactivity of combretastatin A-4 and its derivatives against carbendazim-resistant strains was demonstrated in this study. The results provide a new approach for fungicide discovery and fungicide resistance management.

  9. Baseline sensitivity of Brazilian Mycosphaerella fijiensis isolates to protectant and systemic fungicides.

    OpenAIRE

    GOMES, L. I. S.; BIBIANO, L. B. J.; SILVA, G.F. da.; HANADA, R.E.; MIZUBUTI, E. S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Black Sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a foliar disease that affects banana plants and large amounts of fungicides are required to prevent crop losses. Intensive applications of single-site fungicides can select for fungicide-resistant isolates. The objective of this study was to assess the sensitivity of 60 isolates of M. fijiensis to commonly used fungicides. Using two different protocols, microtiter and Petri plate tests, the effective concentration at which mycelium growth i...

  10. Triazole fungicide tebuconazole disrupts human placental trophoblast cell functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jinghua [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Jianyun [Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Feixue [Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Organ Development and Regeneration, Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036 (China); Liu, Jing, E-mail: jliue@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Research Center for Air Pollution and Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Tebuconazole (TEB) inhibited the proliferation of human placental trophoblasts. • TEB changed cell cycle distribution of G1 and G2 phases of trophoblasts. • TEB induced apoptosis of trophoblasts via mitochondrial pathway. • TEB decreased the invasive and migratory capacities of trophoblasts. • TEB altered the mRNA levels of key regulatory genes in trophoblasts - Abstract: Triazole fungicides are one of the top ten classes of current-use pesticides. Although exposure to triazole fungicides is associated with reproductive toxicity in mammals, limited information is available regarding the effects of triazole fungicides on human placental trophoblast function. Tebuconazole (TEB) is a common triazole fungicide that has been extensively used for fungi control. In this work, we showed that TEB could reduce cell viability, disturb normal cell cycle distribution and induce apoptosis of human placental trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo (HTR-8). Bcl-2 protein expression decreased and the level of Bax protein increased after TEB treatment in HTR-8 cells. The results demonstrated that this fungicide induced apoptosis of trophoblast cells via mitochondrial pathway. Importantly, we found that the invasive and migratory capacities of HTR-8 cells decreased significantly after TEB administration. TEB altered the expression of key regulatory genes involved in the modulation of trophoblast functions. Taken together, TEB suppressed human trophoblast invasion and migration through affecting the expression of protease, hormones, angiogenic factors, growth factors and cytokines. As the invasive and migratory abilities of trophoblast are essential for successful placentation and fetus development, our findings suggest a potential risk of triazole fungicides to human pregnancy.

  11. Rural development in Brazil: are we practising feminism or gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardenberg, C; Costa, A A; Passos, E

    1999-11-01

    Drawing on the experience of a state-sponsored rural development project, referred to as the Eagle River project, this article considers feminism and gender issues in rural Brazil, where agriculture is one of the livelihood strategies of poor men and women. Section 1 offers an overview of the project and the project area. Section 2 describes the lives of women in the Eagle River region where traditional values on division of labor, domestic roles of women, and gender hierarchies are still predominant. Section 3 highlights the objective of the project and activities designed to achieve its aim. Three main areas of work are being focused: community development, production development, and provision of rural credit. The project structure and decision-making powers are discussed in section 4. Sections 5 and 6 describe experiences in the project during its first 18 months and the challenges of incorporating gender into the project. Section 7 focuses on the development of the gender program. Section 8 outlines lessons learned out of the project outcome and the final section contains concluding messages.

  12. Bisphenol A induces feminization in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gregor; Lutz, Ilka; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate possible estrogenic effects of bisphenol A (BPA) in an amphibian model, Xenopus laevis tadpoles were exposed to BPA and 17beta-estradiol (E2) during larval development. After metamorphosis, the gonadal phenotype was determined by gross morphology, and testes were further examined histologically to validate the results. BPA treatment altered the normal sex ratio toward females depending on the BPA concentrations added. Chemical analysis showed a time-dependent decline of BPA during semistatic exposure, indicating that BPA is taken up and metabolized to some extent by tadpoles. In addition, tadpoles were exposed to BPA and E2 for 2 weeks during sensitive stages of sexual differentiation. Afterward, the expression of an estrogenic biomarker, estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA, was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Both BPA and E2 up-regulated ER mRNA significantly. In conclusion, these results show clear evidence that BPA induces feminization in X. laevis tadpoles, revealing an estrogenic potency of BPA that influences sexual development in amphibians.

  13. VIRGINIA WOOLF'S FEMINISM AND A POST-COLONIAL LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio André Senem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Feminism and Post-Colonialism are movements that emerged in the 20th century within the Social Sciences and that similarly attempt to deconstruct the hegemonically European and patriarchal literary canon in order to understand it and to modify the individuals’ performatic structures, allowing them a greater interaction with literature and all the areas of human knowledge and expression. From the work A room of one’s own (1928, written by the English author Virginia Woolf, we intend to make a relation of the expressions and concepts used by both movements, and to demonstrate the similarities in what they wish to say and to accomplish. Virginia Woolf’s work, that was directed to the emancipation of women and written for a conference given at a British University for a female audience, shows that women’s problems are similar to the silence imposed on the actions of the individuals from countries that are former colonies of European countries. Therefore, by studying the theories of post-structuralism, the intended analogy may be referred so as to discuss and to establish further more characteristics to the feminists movements and to post-colonialism itself. African black women, for example, who have been silenced by patriarchalism e by colonialism left as heritages, now find mechanisms to be heard and to express their knowledge about life and the world.

  14. Feminism and liberalism: a not-so-unhappy marriag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Saen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It seems that political liberalism and feminism constitute an “unhappy marriage.” I shall argue that it should be a happy one.  Liberalism does more feminist work than feminist theorists acknowledge. Feminist theorists raise both internal and external critiques.  Some of the internal critiques are ungrounded and based on misinterpretation of key liberal concepts, while others can be accommodated by revisingthe liberal framework.  In contrast, the external criticisms, which are presented as a definitive challenge to liberalism, are unsuccessful.  They themselves implicitly rely on some key liberal assumptions, which shows that they are ultimately internal critiques. My primary aim in this paper is to show that the feminist critiques remain within a liberal framework.  Feminists also claim that liberal theory is incompatible with current facts about gender.  I shall call these “inefficacy critiques.”  As my secondary aim I shall show that this  critique of liberalism relies on a misunderstanding of the distinction between normative and descriptive claims

  15. Different for girls? Feminism, health information and librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilett, Rosie

    2002-03-01

    This paper focuses on the provision and organization of health information materials in women's health centres in UK and Ireland in the late 20th century Such centres sprung from the work of feminist activists and health workers from the late 1960s onwards, promoting health information and other interventions to counteract women's devalued status within society, and the stereotypes perpetuated by health care and other systems. Centres that developed were (and still are) typically within the voluntary sector, have a strong feminist perspective and are run by lay workers. This paper will draw on research into information provision in these centres, its scope, organization and who provides it. It will argue that this work is of interest to mainstream librarianship, but there are minimal linkages as feminist thinking within librarianship has been unable overall to make common cause with the work of these, and other such agencies, which has inhibited potential developments of mutual benefit. This paper draws on ongoing research into feminism and librarianship, and findings that have been presented in a number of settings.

  16. Mode of action of the phenylpyrrole fungicide fenpiclonil in Fusarium sulphureum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jespers, A.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    In the last few decades, plant disease control has become heavily dependent on fungicides. Most modem fungicides were discovered by random synthesis and empirical optimization of lead structures. In general, these fungicides have specific modes of action and meet modem enviromnental criteria. A disa

  17. An examination of fungicide sensitivity of Cercospora beticola in Michigan and Ontario sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris) (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola Sacc. is the major foliar disease of sugarbeet in Michigan. Fungicide applications are one of the most important tools in managing this disease. However, fungicide resistance has developed in C. beticola to several classes of fungicides. To look for the levels...

  18. Are Muslim Women in Need of Islamic Feminism? In Consideration of a Re-Imagined Islamic Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Nuraan

    2015-01-01

    In its remonstrations against male patriarchy, common understandings of Islamic feminism have, on the one hand, claimed attachment to other forms of feminism. On the other hand, because of its location within the structures of Qur'anic exegesis and prophetic traditions, it has claimed a detachment from what has been understood as the largely…

  19. Are Muslim Women in Need of Islamic Feminism? In Consideration of a Re-Imagined Islamic Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Nuraan

    2015-01-01

    In its remonstrations against male patriarchy, common understandings of Islamic feminism have, on the one hand, claimed attachment to other forms of feminism. On the other hand, because of its location within the structures of Qur'anic exegesis and prophetic traditions, it has claimed a detachment from what has been understood as the largely…

  20. Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women's Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancy, George

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes how the structure of whiteness has shaped the feminist movement, marginalizing the voices of black women. Shows how racism forms the core ideology of feminism, suggesting that the hegemonic racial epistemological standpoint of feminism is limited. Argues that black women's standpoint must be understood within the framework of their unique…

  1. Comparison on the Control Effects of Different Fungicides on Postharvest Citrus Green Mould%不同杀菌剂对采后柑桔绿霉病的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏长秀; 李红叶; 王明爽; 彭龙; 娄伟; 严翔; 赖华荣; 凌永河; 朱从一; 方贻文

    2012-01-01

    在柑桔果实先刺伤接种柑桔绿霉病菌Penicillium digitatum孢子悬浮液再进行药剂浸果的条件下,研究了不同类型、不同浓度药剂对抗苯并咪唑类和咪唑类杀菌剂(双抗)或双敏感菌系的防治效果.结果表明:500或1 000 mg/L的甲基硫菌灵、咪鲜胺(扑霉灵)和抑霉唑(500mg/L)单剂,甲基硫菌灵和咪鲜胺(或扑霉灵)混剂对双抗菌系防治作用均低于50%;1 000 mg/L百可得单剂,500、1 000 mg/L百可得混配相同浓度咪鲜胺(或扑霉灵)均可控制双抗菌系引起的腐烂,防治效果在83%以上;1000mg/L咯菌腈对双抗菌系的防治效果为83.3%,500和1 000 mg/L嘧霉胺对双抗菌系的防治效果分别为91.1%和98.9%.500mg/L百可得、抑霉唑和嘧霉胺单剂,500mg/L百可得混配相同浓度咪鲜胺(或扑霉灵),500 mg/L甲基硫菌灵混配相同浓度扑霉灵对敏感菌系均有88%以上防治效果.基于研究结果,建议不再使用苯并咪唑类和咪唑类杀菌剂单剂或这两类杀菌剂混剂防治柑桔采后病害,可选择1 000 mg/L百可得(双胍辛烷苯基磺酸盐)单剂,500mg/L百可得和相同浓度咪唑类混剂.同时建议将嘧霉胺登记用于柑桔采后处理.%Effects of different types and concentrations of fungicides on post-harvest green mould disease were evaluated after wound- inoculation of the fruit with spore suspensions of Penicillium digitatum. Results showed that the control efficacy of 500 or 1 000 mg/L of thiophanate-methyl, 500 or 1 000 mg/L of prochlorazalone, 500 mg/L of imazalil, 500 mg/L of thiophanate-methyl plus 500 mg/L of prochloraz was lower than 50%. However, 1 000 mg/L of Bellkute, 500 mg/L of Bellkute + 500 mg/L of Prochloraz, 1 000 mg/L of Bellkute + 1 000 mg/L of Prochloraz showed good control results toward the double resistance isolates. The control efficacy of fludioxonil at 1 000 mg/L, pyrimethanil at 500 and 1 000 mg/L was 83. 3%, 91. 1% and 98. 9%, respectively. The control efficacy

  2. A qualitative investigation of Muslim and Christian women's views of religion and feminism in their lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Mahmood, Amina; Moel, Joy; Hudson, Carolyn; Leathers, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored a relatively understudied aspect of cultural diversity: feminism and religion in the lives of religiously diverse women. More specifically, structured interviews were used to investigate views of religion, women's issues, gender roles, culture, and feminism for a small group of Muslim and Christian women living in the United States. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings indicated a complex relationship between feminism, gender roles, culture, and religion for these women with the majority of the Muslim women reporting that their religion supports feminist principles and identifying themselves as feminist. Christian women were less willing to endorse the feminist label. Implications for multicultural feminist practice are discussed. 2008 APA

  3. Theory of feminism and tribal women: an empirical study of koraput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Anil Kumar

    2009-01-01

    In the mainstream culture to identify oneself as a "feminist" has been a fashion. Feminism covers all issues degrading and depriving women of their due in society vis-à-vis male members and it has started a crusade against atrocities on women across the globe. It is therefore regarded as synonymous with a movement and revolution to defend and promote issues involving women. However, the concerns that feminism raises do seem alien to tribal inhabitants in the Koraput district of Orissa, because, unknowingly, they are its champions. Its principles are ingrained in their very culture. They practice and follow feminism as a matter of habit that has come to them down the ages. They do not follow it out of fear, compassion, enlightenment, education or compulsion; it is a necessity that comes quite naturally to them. It has been spontaneous and indigenous.

  4. Occurrence of azoxystrobin, propiconazole, and selected other fungicides in US streams, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Fungicides are used to prevent foliar diseases on a wide range of vegetable, field, fruit, and ornamental crops. They are generally more effective as protective rather than curative treatments, and hence tend to be applied before infections take place. Less than 1% of US soybeans were treated with a fungicide in 2002 but by 2006, 4% were treated. Like other pesticides, fungicides can move-off of fields after application and subsequently contaminate surface water, groundwater, and associated sediments. Due to the constant pressure from fungal diseases such as the recent Asian soybean rust outbreak, and the always-present desire to increase crop yields, there is the potential for a significant increase in the amount of fungicides used on US farms. Increased fungicide use could lead to increased environmental concentrations of these compounds. This study documents the occurrence of fungicides in select US streams soon after the first documentation of soybean rust in the US and prior to the corresponding increase in fungicide use to treat this problem. Water samples were collected from 29 streams in 13 states in 2005 and/or 2006, and analyzed for 12 target fungicides. Nine of the 12 fungicides were detected in at least one stream sample and at least one fungicide was detected in 20 of 29 streams. At least one fungicide was detected in 56% of the 103 samples, as many as five fungicides were detected in an individual sample, and mixtures of fungicides were common. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (45% of 103 samples) followed by metalaxyl (27%), propiconazole (17%), myclobutanil (9%), and tebuconazole (6%). Fungicide detections ranged from 0.002 to 1.15 μ/L. There was indication of a seasonal pattern to fungicide occurrence, with detections more common and concentrations higher in late summer and early fall than in spring. At a few sites, fungicides were detected in all samples collected suggesting the potential for season-long occurrence in some streams

  5. Interpretation on the Ecological Feminism in Reflections in a Golden Eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na FENG

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of commentators begin to read literary classics from the perspective of ecological feminism. In reading Carson McCullers' novel Reflections in a Golden Eye, readers can intensively feel its natural ecological properties regardless of the gothic image within it, or think the "image" refers to the relationship between human and nature, the relationship between women and nature, and the relationship between women and patriarchy. From the perspective of ecological feminism, in this paper, the ecological view of nature in the novel to criticize anthropocentrism and paternalism is explored and analyzed.

  6. Voicing Gay Women's Liberation: Judy Grahn and the Shaping of Lesbian Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Chelsea Del

    2015-01-01

    A closer look at the rich world of California feminisms demonstrates how Judy Grahn served as a central figure in bay area feminism, working to establish and support lesbian activist organizations, feminist publications, women's cultural events, and more. Two of Grahn's early political writings consider how lesbians sat at the nexus of homophobia and sexism. These writings demonstrate the formative role played by San Francisco lesbians in reframing ideas about "women-loving women" and the intersections of gender and sexuality in creating the oppressions faced by all women.

  7. Fungicides for organic cantaloupe production in Oklahoma: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides that are potentially useful in organic production were evaluated for foliar disease control in cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulates ’Israeli’) during 2009 at Lane, Oklahoma. Milstop (85% potassium bicarbonate), Neem oil, Bonide liquid copper (10% copper octanoate), Serenade (QST ...

  8. Governing principles can guide fungicide-resistance management tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank; Oliver, Richard; van den Berg, Femke; Paveley, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Fungicide-resistance management would be more effective if principles governing the selection of resistant strains could be determined and validated. Such principles could then be used to predict whether a proposed change to a fungicide application program would decrease selection for resistant strains. In this review, we assess a governing principle that appears to have good predictive power. The principle states that reducing the product of the selection coefficient (defined as the difference between the per capita rate of increase of the sensitive and resistant strains) and the exposure time of the pathogen to the fungicide reduces the selection for resistance. We show that observations as well as modeling studies agree with the predicted effect (i.e., that a specific change to a fungicide program increased or decreased selection or was broadly neutral in its effect on selection) in 84% of the cases and that only 5% of the experimental results contradict predictions. We argue that the selection coefficient and exposure time principle can guide the development of resistance management tactics.

  9. Analysis of the mutations inducedd by conazole fungicides in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mouse liver tumorigenic conazo1e fungicides triadimefon and propiconazo1e have previously been shown to be in vivo mouse liver mutagens in the Big Blue" transgenic mutation assay when administered in feed at tumorigenic doses, whereas the nontumorigenic conazo1e myc1obutani1 ...

  10. Efficacy of fungicides against Phytophthora cactorum on Viola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blindeman, L; Heungens, K; Goossens, F; Gobin, B

    2009-01-01

    Phytophthora cactorum caused significant losses to pansies during the heat wave at the end of the summer of 2006. Infected plants showed foliage that appeared stunted and chlorotic, with wilting occurring even when soil moisture was adequate. When uprooted, symptomatic plants typically possess a surprisingly healthy looking and well-developed root system, but stem and root tissue at the soil interface is discoloured (purple to dark brown) and soft. Older Leaves turn yellow and when the stem base is attacked, the plant dies. Phytophthora cactorum was identified from stem and root tissue with both morphological and molecular techniques. To evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against this pathogen, healthy plants were infected with zoospores of a Phytophthora cactorum isolate collected from commercial plants. Eleven fungicides were evaluated and compared to an untreated control. Two fungicides were applied via root drenching, 7 days before inoculation with zoospores of P. cactorum. The other fungicides were applied by spraying 24 hours after inoculation with P. cactorum. Preventive drenching with the combined formulation of fenamidone + fosethyl offered the best protection against P. cactorum, while drenching with dimethomorf also resulted in an obvious reduction in the number of infected plants. Foliar application was less successful, as only a combined formulation of mancozeb + metalaxyl-M gave sufficient protection. In conclusion, preventive drenching appears to be the best solution to prevent infection with P. cactorum, especially during warm weather periods, which are conducive to pathogen and disease development.

  11. A novel bioassay to monitor fungicide sensitivity in Mycosphaerella fijiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngando, Josué E; Rieux, Adrien; Nguidjo, Oscar; Pignolet, Luc; Dubois, Cécile; Mehl, Andreas; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Carlier, Jean; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc

    2015-03-01

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD) is the most important disease of bananas for export. The successful control of BLSD requires an intensive use of systemic fungicides, leading to the build-up of resistance and failure of control. Early detection of fungicide resistance is crucial to drive rational chemical strategies. Present methods relying on ascospore germination bioassays have several drawbacks that could be overcome using conidia. Generally, a single genotype is present on the conidial population derived from one lesion. Conidial germination tests with thiabendazole (5 mg L(-1)) enable a clear detection of strains resistant to methyl benzimidazole carbamates. Germination bioassays on azoxystrobin (10 mg L(-1)) enable the detection of most QoI-resistant strains, but their proportion might be underestimated with cut-off limits of germ tube length (L > 120 µm) or growth inhibition (GI < 50%). The level of fungicide resistance differs at different canopy levels of a banana tree, which should be considered for sampling. The ascospore germination bioassay provided more variable estimations of the level of resistance by comparison with the new conidial germination bioassay. Germination bioassays performed with conidia obtained from young lesions overcome most drawbacks encountered with ascospore germination bioassays and could be considered as a new reference method for fungicide resistance monitoring in this species. Different steps are proposed, from sampling to microscopic examinations, for the implementation of this technique. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Comparison of three fungicide spray advisories for lettuce downy mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Koike, S.T.

    2001-01-01

    Lettuce growers in coastal California have relied mainly on protective fungicide sprays to control downy mildew. Thus, timing of sprays before infection is critical for optimal results. A leaf-wetness-driven, infection-based advisory system, previously developed, did not always perform satisfactoril

  13. Molecular basis of fungicide resistance in Cercospora beticola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora beticola, is the most important foliar disease of sugarbeet. Control measures include the application of sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI) and quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides. Understanding the molecular mechanism of fungici...

  14. [Use of cytochemical methods for diagnosis in fungicide research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H M; Casperson, G

    1984-01-01

    Cytochemical localization of acid and alkaline phosphatases, cytochrom c-oxidase, peroxidases and catalase was carried out on Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de By. and Mucor mucedo (L.) Fres. First results are obtained about the influence of sublethal dosages of fungicidal compounds on the demonstration of these enzymes in the electron-microscope.

  15. The toxicity of the fungicide Propiconazole to soil flagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, Flemming; Westergaard, Kamma; Søe, Dorthe

    2000-01-01

    of bacterivorous flagellates in liquid culture. The fungicide affected a mixed natural population of fungivorous flagellates less than the population of bacterivorous flagellates. Our results indicated that the effects of propiconazole on flagellates are direct toxic effects and not effects mediated via their food...

  16. Does nutrient enrichment compensate fungicide effects on litter decomposition and decomposer communities in streams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Diego; Tummala, Mallikarjun; Schreiner, Verena C; Duarte, Sofia; Pascoal, Cláudia; Winkelmann, Carola; Mewes, Daniela; Muñoz, Katherine; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2016-05-01

    Nutrient and pesticide pollution are widespread agricultural stressors. Fungicides may affect freshwater fungi, which play an important role in litter decomposition (LD), whereas moderate nutrient enrichment can stimulate LD. We examined potential interaction effects of nutrients and fungicides on decomposer communities and LD in a 14-day two-factorial (fungicide and nutrient treatments) mesocosm experiment. Fungicide exposure was limited to 4days to simulate episodic contamination. Only the microbial community responded significantly to the experimental factors, though non-significant increases >20% were found for invertebrate decomposer weight gain and LD under high-nutrient conditions. Fungal community structure responded more strongly to fungicides than sporulation. Sporulation responded strongest to nutrients. Bacterial community structure was affected by both factors, although only nutrients influenced bacterial density. Our results suggest effects from fungicides at field-relevant levels on the microbial community. Whether these changes propagate to invertebrate communities and LD remains unclear and should be analysed under longer and recurrent fungicide exposure.

  17. Comparison of Field Efficiency with Ten Fungicides Controlling Rice Sheath Blight%10种杀菌剂防治水稻纹枯病的田间药效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋益民; 刁亚梅; 顾春燕; 冒宇翔; 沈俊明; 陈惠; 丛国林; 马亚芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to screen excellent, low-toxic and safe fungicides for controlling rice sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani Ktthn), the field trials of ten fungicides controlling rice sheath blight were carried out according to GB/T 17980.20-2000 and adding the efficiency of sickness plant (SPE). The results showed that the field efficiency of azoxystrobin 250 g/L SC was 87.53%. The field efficiencies of five fungicides, such as coumoxystrobin 20% SC, propiconazole 25% EC, difenoconazole 10% WG, tebuconazole 80% WP and triadimenol 15% WP, were 71.97%-79.59%. The field efficiencies of three fungicides, such as thiophanate-methyl 70% WP, validamycin 10% AS and thifluzamide 240 g/L SC, were 63.92%-66.78%.The last one was prochloraz 15% ME and its field efficiency was 46.73%. The trend of SPE and field efficiency was consistent. All ten fungicides were safe to rice plant. So azoxystrobin, coumoxystrobin, propiconazole, difenoconazole, tebuconazole and triadimenol were recommended to control rice sheath blight. Coumoxystrobin had been priority. In order to retard resistance, mixture or rotation was beneficial.%为筛选防治水稻纹枯病的高效、低毒及安全药剂,采用GB/T 17980.20 - 2000的方法,对10种杀菌剂防治水稻纹枯病的田间药效进行了试验比较,并增加调查了病株率防效,以供比较参考.结果表明,250 g/L嘧菌酯悬浮剂防治水稻纹枯病防效为87.53%,20%丁香菌酯悬浮剂、25%丙环唑乳油、10%苯醚甲环唑水分散粒剂、80%戊唑醇可湿性粉剂、15%三唑醇可湿性粉剂防效为71.97%~79.59%,70%甲基硫菌灵可湿性粉剂、10%井冈霉素水剂、240 g/L噻呋酰胺悬浮剂防效为63.92%~66.78%,15%咪鲜胺微乳剂防效为46.73%.病株率防效与病情指数防效趋势一致.试验条件下10个供试药剂对水稻无药害.防治水稻纹枯病可以选用嘧菌酯、丁香菌酯、丙环唑、苯醚甲环唑、戊唑醇、三唑醇等新型高效杀菌剂,

  18. An Analysis of The Unicorn from the Perspective of Gothic Feminism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧丹; 付慧

    2014-01-01

    Iris Murdoch was a major contemporary novelist and playwright. Philosophical thoughts and literary schools can find their position in her novels. This essay will explore The Unicorn, one of Murdoch’s masterpieces, in the view of Gothic Feminism. Symbols will be analyzed to assist the readers’ comprehension.

  19. Activating Archives in Women's Studies 101: New Stories about Old Feminism and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaneld, Jen

    2017-01-01

    The classroom is a sort of ground zero for feminist storytelling--it's there that we encounter the commonplace, surface stories students have absorbed about feminism, and it's there that we complicate, reiterate, or replace those stories through our syllabi and coursework. How can activating feminist archives in the classroom intervene in these…

  20. Humanism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism: Essential Elements of Social Justice in Counseling, Education, and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the association between and among humanism, feminism, multiculturalism, and social justice in counseling, education, and advocacy. In so doing, it shows how these theoretical forces, individually and collectively, are essential to professional counseling, client welfare, education, and the promotion of social justice. The…

  1. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Carola; Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Van Breen, Jolien A; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadership aspirations contingent on a high level of feminist identification. In our study US-based women (N = 208) attended to gender stereotypic (vs. counter-stereotypic) content. We measured identification with women and identification with feminism, and, following the manipulation, leadership aspirations in an imagined work scenario. The interaction between identification with women, identification with feminism, and attention to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) significantly predicted leadership aspirations. In the counter-stereotypic condition women's identification associated with greater leadership aspirations regardless of feminist identification. In the stereotypic condition women's identification predicted leadership aspirations only at high levels of feminist identification. We conclude that salient counter-stereotypes and a strong identification with feminism may help high women identifiers increase their leadership aspirations.

  2. Exploring Women Faculty's Experiences and Perceptions in Higher Education: The Effects of Feminism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midkiff, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses women faculty's discourse about feminism, themselves, and their professional experiences as scholars in the North American university context. This case study pushes at the boundaries of what we believe we know about "the gender question" in the academy, opening a discursive space for scholars to examine university…

  3. Changing the Place of Teacher Education: Feminism, Fear, and Pedagogical Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Stephanie Jones and Hilary E. Hughes suggest that particular discursive lessons are readily available in justice-oriented teacher education which might influence a pedagogy that crowds out responsiveness, the experience of the student, and the role of gender and feminism in teacher education. They contend that changing the place…

  4. Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

  5. Shaping Futures and Feminisms: Qur'anic Schools in West African Francophone Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the representation of female education in Qur'anic schools in a selection of West African francophone novels. I argue that in being the earliest form of education for most Muslim women and also a neglected topic of scholarly interest, the Qur'anic school shapes their feminisms in more significant ways than has been…

  6. An Old Map of State feminism and an insufficient Recognition of Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Hanne Marlene

    2010-01-01

    with a new map showing the changed landscape in which there are different obstacles and through which we need to navigate. A thick description of a feminist Nirvana is not provided here, but instead useful reflections on the recognition of care as engineered by state feminism in a European context...

  7. From Performativity to Aporia: Taking "Tremendous Responsibility" towards Feminism and the University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablikova, Lenka

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the thinking on feminism's past and present entanglement with the university and strives to imagine its future. Through a close reading of the opening passage of Derrida's essay "Mochlos, or The Conflict of the Faculties," I trace "a university responsibility" which does not lead to a subject…

  8. Shaping Futures and Feminisms: Qur'anic Schools in West African Francophone Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the representation of female education in Qur'anic schools in a selection of West African francophone novels. I argue that in being the earliest form of education for most Muslim women and also a neglected topic of scholarly interest, the Qur'anic school shapes their feminisms in more significant ways than has been…

  9. An analysis of A Rose for Emily from a Feminism Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红灿

    2013-01-01

    A Rose for Emily is an excellent short story by American author William Faulkner in the 20th century. It is about the tragic fate of the aristocratic lady Emily. This paper analyses the reasons of Emily's tragedy, her awakening and the failure of her revolt from a feminism perspective.

  10. Exploring Women Faculty's Experiences and Perceptions in Higher Education: The Effects of Feminism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midkiff, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses women faculty's discourse about feminism, themselves, and their professional experiences as scholars in the North American university context. This case study pushes at the boundaries of what we believe we know about "the gender question" in the academy, opening a discursive space for scholars to examine university…

  11. Miss Congeniality Meets the New Managerialism: Feminism, Contingent Labour, and the New University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, non-permanent faculty are no longer simply a reserve, flexible labour pool available for administrators to draw on when needed (e.g. during times of fluctuating enrollments); rather, they represent a strategy utilized by universities to reduce overall labour costs. In this article I bring together Women's Studies, feminism, contingent…

  12. Confronting the "Bra-Burners": Teaching Radical Feminism with a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreydatus, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In many of the U.S. History courses the author has taught, she has encountered students who refer to the second-wave feminists of the 1960s and 1970s as "bra-burners." Unsurprisingly, these students know very little about the origin of this epithet, and frequently, they know even less about the women's movement generally. Second-wave feminism, and…

  13. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral testoster

  14. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral testoster

  15. The future of Asian feminisms: confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts and neo-liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katjasungkana, N.; Wieringa, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    This book on the future of Asian feminisms, confronting fundamentalisms, conflicts, and neo-liberalism is a critical contribution to the rising voices of Asian women’s studies scholars and activists. It is based on the ongoing research and advocacy work of the Kartini Asia Network, founded in 2003 i

  16. (Re)Writing "Feminism in Canada": Wikipedia in the Feminist Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana

    2012-01-01

    In the winter of 2012, the students in the author's fourth-year seminar, The Politics of the Canadian Women's Movement, undertook the project of editing, updating, and expanding a number of Wikipedia articles, including the page on "Feminism in Canada." Though it often serves as a first point of reference for research on Canadian…

  17. Re-Visions of Psychology: Feminism as a Paradigm of Scientific Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Arlene

    An intellectual revolution is described in which the logic-centered, value-free model that has served as the foundation for paradigms in psychology is being reevaluated. As part of the intellectual revolution, feminism is presented as a paradigm of scientific inquiry meeting Thomas Kuhn's definition. The question is posed of whether psychologists…

  18. Changing the Place of Teacher Education: Feminism, Fear, and Pedagogical Paradoxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie; Hughes, Hilary E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Stephanie Jones and Hilary E. Hughes suggest that particular discursive lessons are readily available in justice-oriented teacher education which might influence a pedagogy that crowds out responsiveness, the experience of the student, and the role of gender and feminism in teacher education. They contend that changing the place…

  19. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1980-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimoar Dueñas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asunción Lavrin. Women, feminism and social change in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, 1890-1940. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1995, 481 páginas. Tercer volúmen de la serie Engendering Latin America.

  20. Dental Hygiene Students' Perceptions of Themselves and Their Professional Role in Regard to Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Christine M.

    Dental hygiene students' perceptions of themselves and the "typical dental hygienist" were assessed in relation to feminist attitudes at Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia, and the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Dempewolff's (1972) 56-item Feminism II Scale was administered to all first-year, second-year, and…

  1. Humanism, Feminism, and Multiculturalism: Essential Elements of Social Justice in Counseling, Education, and Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the association between and among humanism, feminism, multiculturalism, and social justice in counseling, education, and advocacy. In so doing, it shows how these theoretical forces, individually and collectively, are essential to professional counseling, client welfare, education, and the promotion of social justice. The…

  2. Teaching the Conflicts: (Re)Engaging Students with Feminism in a Postfeminist World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Meredith A.; Helmbrecht, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors ask: What is the difference between an assumed image of empowerment and a "real" image of empowerment? How can feminist educators help students to tell the difference? What do the discourses of current third-wave feminism and postfeminism teach women about representation, empowerment, and their place in the realm of…

  3. Wish to Live: The Hip-Hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader. Educational Psychology. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…

  4. Discourses from without, Discourses from Within: Women, Feminism and Voice in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heugh, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Discourses of development, education, gender, feminism and critical linguistics arrive in Africa from usually well-meaning but often opportunistic agents from other contemporary socio-political and economic contexts. Each of these forms a new layer that veils the earlier discourses and practices. Simultaneously, people in Africa are…

  5. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING IN WOMEN WITH COMPLETE TESTICULAR FEMINIZATION - IS ANDROGEN REPLACEMENT THERAPY PREFERABLE TO ESTROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLOB, AK; TENBOSCH, JJ; VANHALL, EV; DEJONG, FH; SCHULTZ, WCMW; EIKELBOOM, FA

    1993-01-01

    Effects of oral testosterone undecanoate (Andriol) on blood hormone levels, moods, sociosexual functioning and self-image of the body were studied in four gonadectomized patients with complete testicular feminization. In a double-blind cross-over experiment, patients were treated with oral

  6. Women's Relationship to Feminism: Effects of Generation and Feminist Self-Labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lauren E.

    2010-01-01

    The relative importance to feminism of generation and feminist self-labeling was explored in a sample of 667 women riding buses to a 1992 March on Washington for Reproductive Rights. Specifically, generational (Generation X vs. Baby Boomers) and feminist self-labeling (strong feminists vs. weak feminists vs. nonfeminists) similarities and…

  7. (Re)Writing "Feminism in Canada": Wikipedia in the Feminist Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattapan, Alana

    2012-01-01

    In the winter of 2012, the students in the author's fourth-year seminar, The Politics of the Canadian Women's Movement, undertook the project of editing, updating, and expanding a number of Wikipedia articles, including the page on "Feminism in Canada." Though it often serves as a first point of reference for research on Canadian…

  8. Jet m” in 2003, adan: FEMINISM AND SELF-ASSERTION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ike

    feminism to the study of African female writers, gives the impression that the .... the birth of a child in her society. For her ... Presided over by a domineering and unloving father ... Li's sense of identity makes her feel free and gay even in front of.

  9. Immunoendocrine interactions during chronic cysticercosis determine male mouse feminization: role of IL-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Montor, J; Baig, S; Mitchell, R; Deway, K; Hallal-Calleros, C; Damian, R T

    2001-10-15

    Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis results in an impressive feminization in male mice during chronic infection, characterized by increased serum estradiol levels 100 times their normal values, while those of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are decreased by 85 and 95% respectively. Concomitantly, the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and IL-6 are increased 70 and 90 times their normal values in the infected male mice. Since a specific Th1/Th2 shift of the immune response has been previously reported during the chronic infection, and this shift may be associated with the feminization process, we proposed that this shift is induced by immunoendocrine interactions during the disease, and this gives way to a change in the initial resistance to the infection in the male mice, which become as susceptible as female mice. To confirm this hypothesis, we depleted immune system activity in two different ways: total body irradiation and neonatal thymectomy. Our results show that when immune system activity is depleted using either strategy, the male mice do not feminize, and the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and IL-6 are inhibited. Depletion of IL-6 using IL-6(-/-) knockout mice does not produce the feminization process stated above, while restitution of the IL-6(-/-) knockout, irradiated, and thymectomized mice with murine recombinant IL-6 restores the feminization process. Expression of the IL-6 gene was found only in the testes and spleen of infected animals. Our results illustrate the importance of immunoendocrine interactions during a parasitic disease and show a possible new mechanism of parasite establishment in an initially resistant host.

  10. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  11. Method validation for strobilurin fungicides in cereals and fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit

    2001-01-01

    Strobilurins are a new class of fungicides that are active against a broad spectrum of fungi. In the present work a GC method for analysis of strobilurin fungicides was validated. The method was based on extraction with ethyl acetate/cyclohexane, clean-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC......) and determination of the content by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture (EC-), nitrogen/phosphorous (NP-), and mass spectrometric (MS-) detection. Three strobilurins, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin were validated on three matrices, wheat, apple and grapes. The validation was based...... and reproducibility were within the limits for repeatability and reproducibility given by the Horwitz equation. Validation was not accepted for azoxystrobin in grapes on all three detectors and for azoxystrobin in apple for the MS-detector. A comparison of matrix-matched standards versus standards in solvent showed...

  12. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  13. MEDIA APPROPRIATIONS OF BLACK FEMINISM IN BRAZILIAN CONTEMPORANEITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Sueli Pinto Johnson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Este artigo examina apropriações midiáticas pelo feminismo negro baseadas em reflexões teórico-conceituais sobre a problemática da comunicação em sociedades midiatizadas e suas relações com a literacia midiática. O Instituto da Mulher Negra Geledés, fundado em 1998 no período da redemocratização brasileira, constitui-se no objeto de investigação. O movimento Geledés foi observado e mapeado em sua página no site de rede social Facebook, durante um período consecutivo de oito semanas em 2016, com o propósito de identificar modalidades de interações entre seus visitantes. A análise dedica-se, para além das postagens do Geledés, a apreender e compreender o que acontece na esfera da recepção quando se trata de tipos de usos, apropriações e produções de sentidos. Um construto metodológico baseado na Cartografia de Controvérsias (CC foi operacionalizado para analisar as interações dos actantes sociais do Geledés no Facebook, revelando predominância de interações passivas e elevado número de comentários participativos desqualificados sob a ótica do debate público racional.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Comunicação; Redes Sociais; Feminismo Negro; Literacia Midiática; Cartografia de Controvérsias.     ABSTRACT This article examines media appropriations by black feminism based on theoretical-conceptual reflections on the problem of communication in mediatized societies and their relations with media literacy. The Geledés Black Women's Institute, founded in 1998 in the period of Brazilian redemocratization, is the object of this research. The Geledés movement was observed and mapped on its page on the social networking site Facebook, during a consecutive period of eight weeks in 2016, with the purpose of identifying modalities of interactions among its visitors. The analysis is dedicated, in addition to the posts of the Geledés, to apprehend and to understand what happens in the sphere of the reception when

  14. Insecticidal, Repellent and Fungicidal Properties of Novel Trifluoromethylphenyl Amides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amidesq Maia Tsikolia a,⇑, Ulrich R. Bernier a, Monique R. Coy a...Swale e, Jeffrey R. Bloomquist e aU.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Center for Medical, Agricultural , and Veterinary...dU.S. Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service, Natural Products Utilization Research Unit, The University of Mississippi, University

  15. Curative and eradicant action of fungicides to control Phakopsora pachyrhizi in soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber and laboratory to quantify the curative and eradicant actions of fungicides in Asian soybean rust control. The experiments were conducted with the CD 214 RR cultivar, assessing the following fungicides, separately or in association, chlorothalonil, flutriafol, cyproconazole + trifloxystrobin, epoxiconazole + pyraclostrobin, cyproconazole + azoxystrobin, and cyproconazole + picoxystrobin. The fungicides were applied at four (curative and nine days after inoculation (eradicant treatment. Treatments were evaluated according to the density of lesions and uredia/cm2, and the eradicant treatment was assessed based on the necrosis of lesions/uredia and on uredospore viability. Except for the fungicide chlorothalonil, there was curative action of latent/virtual infections by the fungicides. Penetrant fungicides that are absorbed have curative and eradicant action to soybean rust.

  16. Sensitivity of Mycosphaerella graminicola isolates to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronis, Antanas; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Semaskiene, Roma

    2014-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Fuckel) J. Schröt. (anamorph Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous) causes Septoria leaf blotch disease of wheat. The disease can be responsible for yield losses of 30–50% and, when severe, requires management with a fungicide. Single picnidia isolates...... collected from different locations of Lithuania were tested in vitro for sensitivity to demethylation-inhibiting (DMI) fungicides epoxiconazole, cyproconazole and prothioconazole. Fungicide concentrations were chosen from the proposed Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) methods. Microtitre plates...... that fungicides epoxiconazole and prothioconazole significantly reduced the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) values of Septoria leaf blotch compared with untreated plots in winter wheat. In most cases, a single fungicide application significantly increased grain yield and a thousand grain weight...

  17. [Regional disparities in the feminization of the teaching staff of elementary schools: examples from Austria, Baden-Wurttemberg, and Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusburger, P; Schmude, J

    1991-01-01

    Regional differences in the process of feminization of teaching staffs in Austria, Germany, and Hungary are analyzed, with particular attention given to the Austrian province of Vorarlberg. The study covers the late nineteenth century to the present. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Phytotoxicity: An Overview of the Physiological Responses of Plants Exposed to Fungicides

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celeste Dias

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, the use of fungicides in agriculture for fungi diseases control has become crucial. Fungicide research has produced a diverse range of products with novel modes of action. However, the extensive use of these compounds in the agriculture system raises public concern because of the harmful potential of such substances in the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but little is known about the impact of these ...

  19. Phytotoxicity: An Overview of the Physiological Responses of Plants Exposed to Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celeste Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the use of fungicides in agriculture for fungi diseases control has become crucial. Fungicide research has produced a diverse range of products with novel modes of action. However, the extensive use of these compounds in the agriculture system raises public concern because of the harmful potential of such substances in the environment and human health. Moreover, the phytotoxic effects of some fungicides are already recognized but little is known about the impact of these compounds on the photosynthetic apparatus. This paper presents a comprehensive overview of the literature considering different classes of fungicides and their effects on plant physiology, with particular emphasis on photosynthesis.

  20. In vivo sensitivity of Phakopsora pachyrhizi to DMI and QoI fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Melo Reis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In in vivo experiments the sensitivity of 18 isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi from several regions of Brazil to IDM fungicides (cyproconazole, epoxiconazole and tebuconazole and an IQE (pyraclostrobin were evaluated. The assessments were based on leaflet uredia density. Inhibitory concentration (IC50 and sensitivity reduction factor were determined for all fungicide x strain interactions. Tebuconazole sensitivity reduction was detected for most fungus isolates. In contrast, there was no fungicide shift in sensitivity of the fungus to pyraclostrobin. We conclude that the control failure of soybean rust found in some farms is due to the reduced sensitivity of the fungus to the IDM fungicide and that it remains sensitive to pyraclostrobin.

  1. Understanding Transgender and Medically Assisted Gender Transition: Feminism as a Critical Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jamie Lindemann

    2016-11-01

    Feminism has fought the trivialization of women's experiences, championed women's security, and insisted on respect for women's choices. In so doing, feminism has developed important perspectives on the complicated connections between what gender means as it plays itself in people's lives, and the inequalities of power and authority that structure much of human experience. Here, I put a few of these perspectives into contact with an issue where the interactions of gender and power are squarely in play: medicine's role in assisting gender transitioning generally and, specifically, the enduring controversy between medicine and many transgender people about the pathologization of transgender and the role of clinicians as gatekeepers to gender-transition interventions. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  2. [Feminization of the odontology course at the State University of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Durães, Sarah Jane Alves; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2010-06-01

    This article substantiates the feminization of the odontology course starting from the case study of the Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros - Unimontes, Brazil, and its relation with some explanations that can be found at specialized literature. Its subject of analysis is the empirical data about the number of people, by gender, enrolled in the entrance examination and that has concluded the course at the university during the period of 1997 and 2006. Since its establishment, the odontology course of Unimontes has been having a higher percentage of women since the number entrance examination or entering, and also that has been concluded it. The analyzed literature source is according to the empirical data from the present case study. It was concluded that the feminization phenomena also occurs in the odontology course of Unimontes.

  3. Feminicídios em grupos étnicos e racializados: síntese

    OpenAIRE

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel; Betty Ruth Lozano Lerma

    2017-01-01

    Resumo O texto “Feminicídios em grupos étnicos e racializados: sínteses” apresenta algumas das discussões que aconteceram durante um foro sobre este tema em Buenaventura, na Colômbia. Buenaventura é o principal porto colombiano no Pacífico, uma região rica em minérios e corredor para a circulação de mercadorias, o que a torna um território estratégico e centro de disputas. No seminário, foram discutidos os determinantes sociais e políticos do feminicídio, entendendo-o como uma tát...

  4. Intra-Abdominal Testicular Seminoma in a Woman with Testicular Feminization Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana D. Rasalkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intra-abdominal testicular tumor in a 36-year-old married lady presenting with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea. The patient was later diagnosed with testicular feminization syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism. This testicular tumor was histologically proven as seminoma. Due to rarity, imaging findings in patients with testicular feminization syndrome and intraabdominal testicular tumor have been poorly documented. So far, only one case report had described the combined role of CT and MR imaging in intraabdominal testicular sex-cord stromal tumor. To our knowledge, this case is first to document USG and MR imaging in addition to MR spectroscopy features in intraabdominal testicular seminoma.

  5. George Eliot’s Feminism in The Mill on the Floss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣

    2014-01-01

    George Eliot (1819-1880) is an outstanding female writer in Victorian Age. Virginia Woolf, a feminist pioneer, once praised her as“the pride and paragon of the female”. However,her feminism is ambivalent. On the one hand, she dares to chal⁃lenge the male-dominated society and supports women’s rights to receive education and freedom of love and marriage. On the other hand, she emphasizes that women should make self-sacrifice to help men achieve their goals. Based on The Mill on the Floss and studies of previous scholars, this thesis tries to analyze George Eliot’s ambivalent feminism. Thus it is beneficial for read⁃ers to observe and think about women’s future.

  6. Feminal Magazine: Paradigm of Spanish Feminist Publications of the Early Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Feminal magazine was published as a supplement of the newspaper La Ilustració Catalana from April 1907 to December 1917. The mainstream of this publication lies in being the first, in Barcelona, which addresses issues of relevance to the history of Spanish feminism as the claiming for the voting rights. The magazine as the whole shows, explicitly, the interest of Karr to increase women’s culture, in fact musical repertoire is no stranger to this goal: it can be seen several intentions of Carmen Karr such as the promotion of female authorship, creating a link between female authors and female interpreters and the translation in music of a particular cultural thought. The musical repertoire of the magazine creates a relationship shared by the members of the performance, building a particular female social identity.

  7. Understanding feminism: considerations for nurses working to end violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2011-03-01

    Violence against women is a pervasive and serious human rights and public health problem worldwide. As interdisciplinary research teams try to address the effects of this health problem of which the effects transcend all women, nurses are at the forefront. Using a feminist philosophy and methodology to explore violence against women is one way to uncover new knowledge to address this health epidemic. In this paper, we will review the basic concepts of feminism and provide examples of viewing violence research and forensic nursing practice through this theoretical lens. These perspectives provide a foundation for understanding feminism and facilitating nurses' awareness as they consider careers in research and practice. Through this lens, nurses who are helping to ease the burden of violence in our global society may affect change in women's lives.

  8. Atrazine induces complete feminization and chemical castration in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Khoury, Vicky; Narayan, Anne; Nazir, Mariam; Park, Andrew; Brown, Travis; Adame, Lillian; Chan, Elton; Buchholz, Daniel; Stueve, Theresa; Gallipeau, Sherrie

    2010-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine is one of the most commonly applied pesticides in the world. As a result, atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground, surface, and drinking water. Atrazine is also a potent endocrine disruptor that is active at low, ecologically relevant concentrations. Previous studies showed that atrazine adversely affects amphibian larval development. The present study demonstrates the reproductive consequences of atrazine exposure in adult amphibians. Atrazine-exposed males were both demasculinized (chemically castrated) and completely feminized as adults. Ten percent of the exposed genetic males developed into functional females that copulated with unexposed males and produced viable eggs. Atrazine-exposed males suffered from depressed testosterone, decreased breeding gland size, demasculinized/feminized laryngeal development, suppressed mating behavior, reduced spermatogenesis, and decreased fertility. These data are consistent with effects of atrazine observed in other vertebrate classes. The present findings exemplify the role that atrazine and other endocrine-disrupting pesticides likely play in global amphibian declines. PMID:20194757

  9. Sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum to Boscalid and Its Correlation with Other Diverse Fungicides%油菜菌核病菌对啶酰菌胺的敏感性及对不同杀菌剂敏感性的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘以楼; 朱桂梅; 郭建; 肖婷; 顾炳朝

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of S. sclerotiorum to novel fungicide boscalid, 110 isolates of 5. sclerotiorum collected from different regions in Jiangsu province were deteimined with mycelial growth rate method. Using 10 isolates with different sensitivity to boscalid, their sensitivity to carbendanm,procyimdone,iprodione,dimetachlone,tebuconazole and prochloraz was determined by the same method to investigate whether there existed cross resistance between boscalid and other fungicides with diverse action mechanisms. The results showed that there existed significant sensitivity difference to boscalid among tested isolates with EC50 values ranging from 0.0021 μg·mL-1 to 0. 2113 μg·mL-1 ,and average value was 0.0882 ±0.0548 μg·mL-1. The linear regression indicated that there were no positively-correlated cross resistance between boscalid and other diverse mechanism fungicides, and the correlation coefficient was lower.%为了明确油菜菌核病菌对新型杀菌剂啶酰菌胺的敏感性和该药剂与其它杀菌剂的交互抗性,采用菌丝生长速率法测定江苏省不同地区的110个油菜菌核病菌菌株对啶酰菌胺的敏感性,并测定对啶酰菌胺不同敏感性的10个菌株对菌核净、异菌脲、腐霉利、多菌灵、咪鲜胺和戊唑醇等不同杀菌剂的敏感性.结果表明,油菜菌核病菌菌株间对啶酰菌胺的敏感性差异显著,EC50值在0.0021 ~0.2113μg·mL-1之间,平均为0.0882±0.0548μg·mL-1;根据EC50值相关性分析,油菜菌核病菌对啶酰菌胺与上述杀菌剂之间不存在交互抗性.

  10. A Study of Mrs.Gaskell’s Feminism in Mary Barton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甄艳华; 屈伟丽

    2015-01-01

    Mrs.Gaskel is one of the most outstanding feminist novelists in Victorian Age.Mary Barton is her first novel and the most important one deal with many subjects include the labor conflicts,ethical concerns as wel as the struggle for women rights.The paper tries to analyze Mary Barton from the feminist ’ s perspective and study Mrs.Gaskel ’s feminism through the analysis of the main characters in the novel.

  11. “The Other”in Feminism and Post-colonialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁飞

    2015-01-01

    “The other” is one of the key terms of Western literary theory. The political critique of “the other” is most obvious in feminism and post-colonialism. This essay intends to ilustrate their different application of “the other”. With the enrichment of its concept, feminists and post-colonial theorists tend to emphasize difference, fighting against sexism or racism.

  12. An Analysis Of Feminism In Maya Angelou’s Selected Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Sembiring, Dian Bania Persada

    2011-01-01

    Judul skripsi ini adalah An Analysis of Feminism in Maya Angelou’s Selected Poems. Skripsi ini menganalisis tentang feminisme yang tergambar melalui tujuh puisi karya Maya Angelou, seorang penulis wanita kulit hitam pada abad ke-20. Feminisme merupakan paham yang memperjuangkan hak-hak kaum perempuan yang secara budaya, politik, maupun ekonomi berbeda dengan kaum laki-laki. Puisi Maya Angelou sendiri memiliki tema memperjuangkan hak-hak kaum perempuan melalui kepercayaan diri, kepribadian yan...

  13. TOXICITY PROFILES IN MICE TREATED WITH HEPATOTUMORIGENIC AND NON-HEPATOTUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDES: PROPICONAZOLE, TRIADIMEFON, AND MYCLOBUTANIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles comprise a class of fungicides used in agriculture and as pharmaceutical products. The fungicidal properties of conazoles are due to their inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Certain conazoles are tumorigenic in rodents; both propiconazole and triadimefon are hepatot...

  14. Agonizing care: care ethics, agonistic feminism and a political theory of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G

    2002-09-01

    'Care' is central to nursing theory and practice, and has been described in a variety of ways. Intense conversations about care have been developing in other fields of study as well, from the social sciences to the humanities. Care ethics has grown out of intellectual exchange between feminist thought, moral theory and the critique of traditional western political philosophy. However, care ethics is not without its critics, as these accounts of care have also sparked vigorous challenges. This paper traces the construct of care through nursing theory, care ethics, feminist critiques of moral and political theory and agonistic feminism to outline a set of problematics that a political theory of care should engage. It discusses how care is conventionally posited in more or less essentialist, universalizing and naturalizing terms. It introduces the ideas of feminist theorists who resist dichotomizing care and the political, and situate care in the context of power and politics. The tensions between care feminism and agonistic feminism are highlighted in order to explore the potential of theorizing both care and nursing in political terms.

  15. Description of sex difference as prescription for sex change: on the origins of facial feminization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plemons, Eric D

    2014-10-01

    This article explores the research project that led to the development of facial feminization surgery, a set of bone and soft tissue reconstructive surgical procedures intended to feminize the faces of male-to-female trans- women. Conducted by a pioneering surgeon in the mid-1980s, this research consisted of three steps: (1) assessments of sexual differences of the skull taken from early 20th-century physical anthropology, (2) the application of statistical analyses taken from late 20th-century orthodontic research, and (3) the vetting of this new morphological and metric knowledge in a dry skull collection. When the 'feminine type' of early 20th-century physical anthropology was made to articulate with the 'female mean' of 1970s' statistical analysis, these two very different epistemological artifacts worked together to produce something new: a singular model of a distinctively female skull. In this article, I show how the development of facial feminization surgery worked across epistemic styles, transforming historically racialized and gendered descriptions of sex difference into contemporary surgical prescriptions for sex change. Fundamental to this transformation was an explicit invocation of the scientific origins of facial sexual dimorphism, a claim that frames surgical sex change of the face as not only possible, but objectively certain.

  16. Feminization of pheromone-sensing neurons affects mating decisions in Drosophila males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beika Lu

    2014-01-01

    The response of individual animals to mating signals depends on the sexual identity of the individual and the genetics of the mating targets, which represent the mating social context (social environment. However, how social signals are sensed and integrated during mating decisions remains a mystery. One of the models for understanding mating behaviors in molecular and cellular terms is the male courtship ritual in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster. We have recently shown that a subset of gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs that are enriched in the male appendages and express the ion channel ppk23 play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of male courtship via the perception of cuticular contact pheromones, and are likely to represent the main chemosensory pathway that influences mating decisions by males. Here we show that genetic feminization of ppk23-expressing GRNs in male flies resulted in a significant increase in male–male sexual attraction without an apparent impact on sexual attraction to females. Furthermore, we show that this increase in male–male sexual attraction is sensory specific, which can be modulated by variable social contexts. Finally, we show that feminization of ppk23-expressing sensory neurons lead to major transcriptional shifts, which may explain the altered interpretation of the social environment by feminized males. Together, these data indicate that the sexual cellular identity of pheromone sensing GRNs plays a major role in how individual flies interpret their social environment in the context of mating decisions.

  17. Double trouble: combined action of meiotic drive and Wolbachia feminization in Eurema butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Peter; Cook, James M.; Kageyama, Daisuke; Riegler, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Arthropod sex ratios can be manipulated by a diverse range of selfish genetic elements, including maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria. Feminization by Wolbachia is rare but has been described for Eurema mandarina butterflies. In this species, some phenotypic and functional females, thought to be ZZ genetic males, are infected with a feminizing Wolbachia strain, wFem. Meanwhile, heterogametic WZ females are not infected with wFem. Here, we establish a quantitative PCR assay allowing reliable sexing in three Eurema species. Against expectation, all E. mandarina females, including wFem females, had only one Z chromosome that was paternally inherited. Observation of somatic interphase nuclei confirmed that W chromatin was absent in wFem females, but present in females without wFem. We conclude that the sex bias in wFem lines is due to meiotic drive (MD) that excludes the maternal Z and thus prevents formation of ZZ males. Furthermore, wFem lines may have lost the W chromosome or harbour a dysfunctional version, yet rely on wFem for female development; removal of wFem results in all-male offspring. This is the first study that demonstrates an interaction between MD and Wolbachia feminization, and it highlights endosymbionts as potentially confounding factors in MD of sex chromosomes. PMID:25948567

  18. Gender-Associated Genomic Differences in Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Insight from Feminization of Male Cancer Cells

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    Rola H. Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2–q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46% exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003 and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009. No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  19. Gender-associated genomic differences in colorectal cancer: clinical insight from feminization of male cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rola H; Marafie, Makia J; Bitar, Milad S; Al-Dousari, Fahad; Ismael, Samar; Bin Haider, Hussain; Al-Ali, Waleed; Jacob, Sindhu P; Al-Mulla, Fahd

    2014-09-29

    Gender-related differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) are not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that CRC arising in females are significantly associated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP-high). Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we analyzed a cohort of 116 CRCs (57 males, 59 females) for chromosomal copy number aberrations (CNA) and found that CRC in females had significantly higher numbers of gains involving chromosome arms 1q21.2-q21.3, 4q13.2, 6p21.1 and 16p11.2 and copy number losses of chromosome arm 11q25 compared to males. Interestingly, a subset of male CRCs (46%) exhibited a "feminization" phenomenon in the form of gains of X chromosomes (or an arm of X) and/or losses of the Y chromosome. Feminization of cancer cells was significantly associated with microsatellite-stable CRCs (p-value 0.003) and wild-type BRAF gene status (p-value 0.009). No significant association with other clinicopathological parameters was identified including disease-free survival. In summary, our data show that some CNAs in CRC may be gender specific and that male cancers characterized by feminization may constitute a specific subset of CRCs that warrants further investigation.

  20. O feminismo desconstruindo e re-construindo o conhecimento Feminism deconstructing and reconstructing knowledge

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    Eleonora Menicucci de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, relaciono sinteticamente alguns exemplos de situações enfrentadas pelas mulheres que observei durante a realização de pesquisa na área da saúde para enfatizar a necessidade do diálogo do conhecimento e das práticas de saúde com o feminismo. Em seguida, abordo alguns aspectos do diálogo da epistemologia com o feminismo, destacando a posição de Gaston Bachelard, de um lado, e de Dorothy Smith, Alison Jaggar, Susan Bordo, Gayle Rubin e Teresita de Barbieri, do outro. Por último sintetizo aquilo que considero como as grandes rupturas epistemológicas promovidas pelo feminismo, referindo-me à linguagem e ao trabalho.In this paper I briefly describe some examples of observations I made, while involved in a health care research project, of situations faced by women. The purpose of the exercise was to emphasize the need for an interaction(dialoguebetween knowledge, health care practice and feminism. I also discuss some aspects of the interaction(dialogue between epistemology and feminism in the light of the work of Bachelard as opposed to the views of Dorothy Smith, Alison Jaggar, Susan Bordo, Gayle Rubin and Teresita de Barbieri. Lastly, I attempt a synthesis of what I consider to be the major epistemological ruptures promoted by feminism concerning mainly language and work.

  1. Double trouble: combined action of meiotic drive and Wolbachia feminization in Eurema butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Peter; Cook, James M; Kageyama, Daisuke; Riegler, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Arthropod sex ratios can be manipulated by a diverse range of selfish genetic elements, including maternally inherited Wolbachia bacteria. Feminization by Wolbachia is rare but has been described for Eurema mandarina butterflies. In this species, some phenotypic and functional females, thought to be ZZ genetic males, are infected with a feminizing Wolbachia strain, wFem. Meanwhile, heterogametic WZ females are not infected with wFem. Here, we establish a quantitative PCR assay allowing reliable sexing in three Eurema species. Against expectation, all E. mandarina females, including wFem females, had only one Z chromosome that was paternally inherited. Observation of somatic interphase nuclei confirmed that W chromatin was absent in wFem females, but present in females without wFem. We conclude that the sex bias in wFem lines is due to meiotic drive (MD) that excludes the maternal Z and thus prevents formation of ZZ males. Furthermore, wFem lines may have lost the W chromosome or harbour a dysfunctional version, yet rely on wFem for female development; removal of wFem results in all-male offspring. This is the first study that demonstrates an interaction between MD and Wolbachia feminization, and it highlights endosymbionts as potentially confounding factors in MD of sex chromosomes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. THE FEMINISM AND FEMININITY OF ANN VERONICA IN H. G. WELLS' ANN VERONICA

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    Liem Satya Limanta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available H.G. Well's Ann Veronica structurally seems to be divided into two parts; the first deals with Ann Veronica's struggle to get equality with men and freedom in most aspects of life, such as in politics, economics, education, and sexuality; the second describes much the other side of her individuality which she cannot deny, namely her femininity, such as her crave for love, marriage, maternity, and beauty. H.G. Wells describes vividly the two elements in Ann Veronica, feminism and femininity. As a feminist, Ann Veronica rebelled against her authoritative Victorian father, who regarded women only as men's property to be protected from the harsh world outside. On the other side, Ann could not deny her being a woman after she fell in love with Capes. Her femininity from the second half of the novel then is explored. Although the novel ends with the depiction of the domestic life of Ann Veronica, it does not mean that the feminism is gone altogether. The key point is that the family life Ann chooses as a `submissive' wife and good mother is her choice. It is very different if it is forced on her to do. Thus, this novel depicts both sides of Ann Veronica, her feminism and her femininity.

  3. Insecticidal and fungicidal activity of new synthesized chitosan derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabea, Entsar I; Badawy, Mohamed E I; Rogge, Tina M; Stevens, Christian V; Höfte, Monica; Steurbaut, Walter; Smagghe, Guy

    2005-10-01

    Chitosan, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, is a potential biopolysaccharide owing to its specific structure and properties. In this paper, we report on the synthesis of 24 new chitosan derivatives, N-alkyl chitosans (NAC) and N-benzyl chitosans (NBC), that are soluble in dilute aqueous acetic acid. The different derivatives were synthesized by reductive amination and analyzed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. A high degree of substitution (DS) was obtained with N-(butyl)chitosan (DS 0.36) at a 1:1 mole ratio for NAC derivatives and N-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)chitosan (DS 0.52) for NBC derivatives. Their insecticidal and fungicidal activities were tested against larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the grey mould Botrytis cinerea Pers (Leotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) and the rice leaf blast Pyricularia grisea Cavara (Teleomorph: Magnaporthe grisea (Hebert) Barr). The oral feeding bioassay indicated that all the derivatives had significant insecticidal activity at 5 g kg(-1) in artificial diet. The most active was N-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)chitosan, which caused 100% mortality at 0.625 g kg(-1), with an estimated LC50 of 0.32 g kg(-1). Treated larvae ceased feeding after 2-3 days; the mechanism of action remains unknown. In a radial hyphal growth bioassay with both plant pathogens, all derivatives showed a higher fungicidal action than chitosan. N-Dodecylchitosan, N-(p-isopropylbenzyl)chitosan and N-(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)chitosan were the most active against B cinerea, with EC50 values of 0.57, 0.57 and 0.52 g litre(-1), respectively. Against P grisea, N-(m-nitrobenzyl)chitosan was the most active, with 77% inhibition at 5 g litre(-1). The effect of different substitutions is discussed in relation to insecticidal and fungicidal activity.

  4. FUNGICIDAL PROPERTIES OF ARTEMISIA AROMATIC PLANTS TOWARDS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

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    Ivashchenko Iryna Vіctorovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article establishes the fungicidal activity of water extracts of Artemisia maritimа L., Artemisia austriaca Jacq., under the concentration of 100, 50 and 25 mg/ml on dry matter with regard to the phytopathogenic mushroom Fusarium oxysporum. It also shows the fungistatic influence of extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. under concentration 25 and 50 mg/ml, fungicidal – under 100 mg/ml. Concerning Artemisia abrotanum L., the slow growth of mushroom is observed under the concentration 25 mg/ml, fungicidal effect – under 50 and 100 mg/ml. The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil and phenolic compounds of Artemisia maritimа, Artemisia austriaca, Artemisia abrotanum, Artemisia dracunculus, cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. The chief ingredients of ethereal oil which is synthesized by the plant of Artemisia abrotanum are 1,8-cineole (30.44% and camphor (31.92%. A high 1,8-cineole and camphor content determines antimicrobial properties of the plants. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Artemisia abrotanum is 2.98 percent. By the method of highly efficient solution chromatography (HESChr in the grass of Artemisia abrotanum we have detected 23 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, luteolin-7-glycoside as well as caffeic, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. The main compounds of ethereal oil of Artemisia austriaca are trans-verbenole (30.77 %, pinocarvone (10.77 % and sabinilacetate (18.16 %. In the grass of Artemisia austriaca we have detected 31 phenolic compounds, of which we identified such flavonoids as rutin, apigenin, quercetin-bioside and the following acids: caffeic, chlorogenic, and isochlorogenic. Amount of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw Austrian wormwood is 27.25 mg / g (2.73 %. The main component of ethereal oil of Artemisia dracunculus is methyleugenol (94.65 %. We have discovered 31 phenolic compounds in the grass of linear-leaved wormwood

  5. Evaluating Headline fungicide on alfalfa production and sensitivity of pathogens to pyraclostrobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headline fungicide was recently registered for management of foliar diseases on alfalfa. The effect of disease control on yield, forage quality, and potential return on investment for fungicide application was determined for field experiments conducted at five locations in 2012, three in Wisconsin a...

  6. Comparative impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunncum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypocreales fungi such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae can be negatively affected by fungicides thereby reducing their biocontrol potential. The overall goal of this study was to investigate the impact of artificial selection for fungicide resistance on two commercial entomopathoge...

  7. Effects of the azole fungicide imazalil on the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) steroidogenesis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azole fungicides, used for both agriculture and human therapeutic applications may disrupt endocrine function of aquatic life. Azole fungicides are designed to inhibit the fungal enzyme lanosterol 14 á-demethylase (cytochrome P450 [CYP] 51). However, they can also interact...

  8. Bffects of foliar fungicides on the mycoflora of glumes of Triticum aestivum

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    Janusz Błaszkowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1983-1984. the effect of three foliar fungicides, i.e.. Bayleton 25 WP. Dithane M-45 and Funaben K on the mycoflora associated with glumus of spring Tritieum aestivum cv. Kolibri cultivated in the field was investigated. During each vegetative period, glumes were collected in the milky ripe of seeds. Fungi species associated with glumes were determined based of colonies isolated from glumes incubated in Petri dishes with potato glucose agar. The fungicide which reduced the most the overall number of fungal isolates was Bayleton 25 WP. The number of species was most reduced following Dithane M-45 application. The mycoflora of glumes which had been untreated and treated with fungicides was compared with fungicides-treated and fungicide-untreated seeds and leaves. The highest similarity in the mycoflora of fungicide-untreated plant parts was found when glumes and seeds were compared. The mycoflora of fungicide-treated glumes, leaves, and seeds varied. depending on the year and fungicide applied.

  9. Development and evaluation of adverse outcome pathways predicting adverse effects of conazole fungicides on avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conazoles are a class of fungicides commonly used in agriculture and as pharmaceuticals to prevent the spread of fungus through inhibition of cytochrome P450 14á-demethylase (CYP51). However these fungicides are known to act promiscuously on other cytochrome P450 enzymes (...

  10. Can phyllosphere yeast explain the effect of scab fungicides on russeting of Elstar Apples?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Heijne, B.; Houbraken, J.; Vromans, T.; Hoekstra, E.S.; Boekhout, T.

    2004-01-01

    In 1999 and 2000, the effects of scab fungicides on yeast composition and russeting of Elstar apples were assessed. Yeast composition of fungicide-treated and untreated young apple fruit with or without russet symptoms was investigated and enzyme activity of the yeasts was studied. Cryptococcus albi

  11. Cercospora leaf spot: monitoring and managing fungicide resistance in populations of Cercospora beticola in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS, Cercospora beticola) is the most serious foliar disease of sugarbeet in Michigan and Ontario.Management of CLS depends on timely fungicide applications, disease forecasting prediction models and the use of CLS resistant sugar beet varieties. Fungicides have a dominant role...

  12. Fungicide resistance phenotypes in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Understanding fungicide- resistant phenotypes of B. cinerea is important to the development of preharvest fungicide programs for contro...

  13. Analysis of Turf Fungicides in Snow Melt Runoff by LC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides are applied on turf grass, in autumn, to control snow mold in the north-central United States. Fungicides of varying chemical classes have been detected in snow melt runoff from turf. A multi-residue method for simultaneous sample extraction and analysis is needed to process a large quant...

  14. Effect of Fungicides on the Reaction of Sorghum Hybrids to Anthracnose in Burleson County, Texas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of three fungicides to control grain mold/weathering and anthracnose on two sorghum hybrids NC+7R34 and Warner W851-DR was conducted during the 2012 growing season. Three fungicides Headline, Quilt Xcel, and Topguard were used. On May 26, plots were inoculated by putting 10 Colletotrichum ...

  15. Honey bee gut microbial communities are robust to the fungicide Pristine® consumed in pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeybees that consume pollen with sublethal levels of the fungicide Pristine® can have reduced pollen digestion, lower ATP synthesis and in many ways resemble malnourished bees. Reduced nutrient acquisition in bees exposed to Pristine® might be because this fungicide affects the composition of gut ...

  16. Effects of Oral Exposure to Fungicides on Honey Bee Nutrition and Virus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Chen, Yanping; Watkins Dejong, Emily; Chambers, Mona L; Hidalgo, Geoffrey

    2015-12-01

    Sublethal exposure to fungicides can affect honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in ways that resemble malnutrition. These include reduced brood rearing, queen loss, and increased pathogen levels. We examined the effects of oral exposure to the fungicides boscalid and pyraclostrobin on factors affecting colony nutrition and immune function including pollen consumption, protein digestion, hemolymph protein titers, and changes in virus levels. Because the fungicides are respiratory inhibitors, we also measured ATP concentrations in flight muscle. The effects were evaluated in 3- and 7-d-old worker bees at high fungicide concentrations in cage studies, and at field-relevant concentrations in colony studies. Though fungicide levels differed greatly between the cage and colony studies, similar effects were observed. Hemolymph protein concentrations were comparable between bees feeding on pollen with and without added fungicides. However, in both cage and colony studies, bees consumed less pollen containing fungicides and digested less of the protein. Bees fed fungicide-treated pollen also had lower ATP concentrations and higher virus titers. The combination of effects we detected could produce symptoms that are similar to those from poor nutrition and weaken colonies making them more vulnerable to loss from additional stressors such as parasites and pathogens.

  17. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  18. The Evolution of Fungicide Resistance Resulting from Combinations of Foliar-Acting Systemic Seed Treatments and Foliar-Applied Fungicides: A Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, James L; van den Bosch, Frank; Paveley, Neil D; Helps, Joseph; van den Berg, Femke

    2016-01-01

    For the treatment of foliar diseases of cereals, fungicides may be applied as foliar sprays or systemic seed treatments which are translocated to leaves. Little research has been done to assess the resistance risks associated with foliar-acting systemic seed treatments when used alone or in combination with foliar sprays, even though both types of treatment may share the same mode of action. It is therefore unknown to what extent adding a systemic seed treatment to a foliar spray programme poses an additional resistance risk and whether in the presence of a seed treatment additional resistance management strategies (such as limiting the total number of treatments) are necessary to limit the evolution of fungicide-resistance. A mathematical model was developed to simulate an epidemic and the resistance evolution of Zymoseptoria tritici on winter wheat, which was used to compare different combinations of seed and foliar treatments by calculating the fungicide effective life, i.e. the number of years before effective disease control is lost to resistance. A range of parameterizations for the seed treatment fungicide and different fungicide uptake models were compared. Despite the different parameterizations, the model consistently predicted the same trends in that i) similar levels of efficacy delivered either by a foliar-acting seed treatment, or a foliar application, resulted in broadly similar resistance selection, ii) adding a foliar-acting seed treatment to a foliar spray programme increased resistance selection and usually decreased effective life, and iii) splitting a given total dose-by adding a seed treatment to foliar treatments, but decreasing dose per treatment-gave effective lives that were the same as, or shorter than those given by the spray programme alone. For our chosen plant-pathogen-fungicide system, the model results suggest that to effectively manage selection for fungicide-resistance, foliar acting systemic seed treatments should be included as

  19. Fungicides and the effects of mycotoxins on milling fractions of irrigated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dors, Giniani Carla; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Hackbart, Helen Cristina dos Santos; Primel, Ednei Gilberto; Fagundes, Carlos Alberto Alves; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2013-02-27

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of fungicides on rice cultivation, regarding the occurrence and the distribution of mycotoxins in fractions of the processed grain, by a validated chromatographic method. A method based on extraction with acetonitrile:water, determination by HPLC-DAD, and confirmation by LC-MS was validated before the mycotoxin evaluation. Control samples and samples to which triazole fungicides had been applied were collected from experimental fields for four years. Results showed that 87% of the samples were contaminated with deoxynivalenol or zearalenone, and that all samples treated with fungicide were contaminated with some of these mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B(1) and ochratoxin A were found in 37% of the samples; half of them had been treated with fungicide. Therefore, fungicides tend to be stressors for toxigenic fungi found in the fields.

  20. Emerging resistance against different fungicides in Lasiodiplodia theobromae, the cause of mango dieback in Pakistan

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    Rehman ur Ateeq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dieback of mango caused by Lasiodiplodia theobromae is among several diseases responsible for low crop production in Pakistan. To further complicate the issue, resistance in L. theobromae is emerging against different fungicides. L. theobromae was isolated from diseased samples of mango plants collected from various orchards in the Multan District. The efficacy of different fungicides viz. copper oxychloride, diethofencarb, pyrachlostrobin, carbendazim, difenoconazole, mancozeb, and thiophanate-methyl was evaluated in vitro using a poison food technique. Thiophanate-methyl at all concentrations was found to be the most effective among five systemic fungicides against L. theobromae, followed by carbendazim, difenoconazole and diethofencarb. The fungicides, i.e., thiophanate-methyl, difenoconazole, carbendazim and diethofencarb showed maximum efficacy with increasing concentration. The isolates of L. theobromae showed some resistance development against the tested fungicides when compared with previous work. These investigations provide new information about chemical selection for the control of holistic disease in mango growing zones of Pakistan.

  1. Embryonic exposure to the fungicide vinclozolin causes virilization of females and alteration of progesterone receptor expression in vivo: an experimental study in mice

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    Baskin Laurence S

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinclozolin is a fungicide that has been reported to have anti-androgenic effects in rats. We have found that in utero exposure to natural or synthetic progesterones can induce hypospadias in mice, and that the synthetic progesterone medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA feminizes male and virilizes female genital tubercles. In the current work, we selected a relatively low dose of vinclozolin to examine its in utero effects on the development of the genital tubercle, both at the morphological and molecular levels. Methods We gave pregnant dams vinclozolin by oral gavage from gestational days 13 through 17. We assessed the fetal genital tubercles from exposed fetuses at E19 to determine location of the urethral opening. After determination of gonadal sex, either genital tubercles were harvested for mRNA quantitation, or urethras were injected with a plastic resin for casting. We analyzed quantified mRNA levels between treated and untreated animals for mRNA levels of estrogen receptors α and β, progesterone receptor, and androgen receptor using nonparametric tests or ANOVA. To determine effects on urethral length (males have long urethras compared to females, we measured the lengths of the casts and performed ANOVA analysis on these data. Results Our morphological results indicated that vinclozolin has morphological effects similar to those of MPA, feminizing males (hypospadias and masculinizing females (longer urethras. Because these results reflected our MPA results, we investigated the effects of in utero vinclozolin exposure on the mRNA expression levels of androgen, estrogen α and β, and progesterone receptors. At the molecular level, vinclozolin down-regulated estrogen receptor α mRNA in females and up-regulated progesterone receptor mRNA. Vinclozolin-exposed males exhibited up-regulated estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor mRNA, effects we have also seen with exposure to the synthetic estrogen, ethinyl

  2. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanyika, Harrison, E-mail: hwanyika@gmail.com [Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Kenya)

    2013-08-15

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  3. Sustained release of fungicide metalaxyl by mesoporous silica nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyika, Harrison

    2013-08-01

    The use of nanomaterials for the controlled delivery of pesticides is nascent technology that has the potential to increase the efficiency of food production and decrease pollution. In this work, the prospect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) for storage and controlled release of metalaxyl fungicide has been investigated. Mesoporous silica nanospheres with average particle diameters of 162 nm and average pore sizes of 3.2 nm were prepared by a sol-gel process. Metalaxyl molecules were loaded into MSN pores from an aqueous solution by a rotary evaporation method. The loaded amount of metalaxyl as evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis was about 14 wt%. Release of the fungicide entrapped in the MSN matrix revealed sustained release behavior. About 76 % of the free metalaxyl was released in soil within a period of 30 days while only 11.5 and 47 % of the metalaxyl contained in the MSN carrier was released in soil and water, respectively, within the same period. The study showed that MSN can be used to successfully store metalaxyl molecules in its mesoporous framework and significantly delay their release in soil.

  4. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  5. Ecotoxicity of climbazole, a fungicide contained in antidandruff shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Wick, Arne; Ternes, Thomas A; Coors, Anja

    2013-12-01

    Emerging pollutants such as personal care products can reach the environment via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and digested sludge. Only recently, the antidandruff agent and antimycotic climbazole was detected for the first time in a WWTP effluent with concentrations up to 0.5 µg/L. Climbazole acts as a C14-demethylase inhibitor (DMI) fungicide and thus has a high efficacy against fungi, but knowledge of its potential environmental impact is lacking. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize climbazole's ecotoxicity by conducting standard biotests with organisms representing different trophic levels from the aquatic as well as the terrestrial ecosystems. It was found that the toxicity of climbazole is mostly similar to that of other DMI fungicides, whereas it proved to be particularly toxic to primary producers. The lowest median effective concentrations (EC50s) were determined for Lemna minor, at 0.013 mg/L (biomass yield), and Avena sativa, at 18.5 mg/kg soil dry weight (shoot biomass). Reduction of frond size in water lentils and shoot length in higher plants suggested an additional plant growth-retarding mode of action of climbazole. In addition, it was demonstrated here that for an ionizable compound such as climbazole, the soil pH can have a considerable influence on phytotoxicity. © 2013 SETAC.

  6. Molecular mechanism of resistance of Fusarium fujikuroi to benzimidazole fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zihao; Gao, Tao; Liang, Shuping; Liu, Kexue; Zhou, Mingguo; Chen, Changjun

    2014-08-01

    Although carbendazim (MBC) and other benzimidazole fungicides have effectively controlled bakanae disease of rice (which is caused by Fusarium fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides) in the past, MBC resistance has become common. Previous research has shown that MBC resistance results from a mutation in the β1 -tubulin (β1 tub) gene in F. verticillioides. However, MBC resistance in F. fujikuroi, a predominant species in China, does not result from a mutation in the β1 tub. The molecular mechanism of F. fujikuroi resistance against benzimidazole fungicides is poorly understood. In this study, we determined that although β1 tub and β2 -tubulin (β2 tub) in F. fujikuroi have high homology with β1 tub and β2 tub in F. verticillioides, MBC resistance in F. fujikuroi results from mutations in β2 tub [GAG(Glu)→GTG(Val) at codon 198, TTC(Phe)→TAC(Tyr) at codon 200, and GGC(Gly)→GGT(Gly) at codon 235] but not in β1 tub. Δβ2 tub (β2 tub deletion) mutants were highly sensitive to MBC, produced fewer conidia and were less virulent than parental strains. Complementation of the Δβ2 tub mutants with a copy of the whole β2 tub locus from their parental strains restored the level of MBC resistance (or sensitivity) to that of the parental strain.

  7. Botrytis cinerea Control and the Problem of Fungicide Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankica Tanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of grey mould, greatly affects fruit, grapevine, vegetable and ornamental crops production. It is a common causal agent of diseases in plants grown in protected areas, as well as fruit decay during storage and transport. The fungusinvades almost all parts of the plant in all developmental stages, and the symptoms are usually described as grey mould, grey mildew, brown rot and seedling blight. The paper reviews the current knowledge on control possibilities of this necrotrophic pathogen. Theattention is particularly paid to the mode of action of novel fungicides and to the problem of resistance. It is pointed out that by limiting the number of treatments in the growing season, avoiding the use of only one fungicide with a high risk for resistance development,appropriate application rate and timing, using mixtures of pesticides with different modes of action, as well as by alternative use of pesticides from different resistance groups, a longterm preservation of pesticide efficacy is provided.

  8. Vacuole-targeting fungicidal activity of amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira eOgita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are recognized as major threats to patients with immune depression as well as those with cancer chemotherapy. Amphotericin B (AmB, a classical antifungal agent with a polyene macrolide structure, is widely used for the control of serious fungal infections. However, the clinical use of this antibiotic is limited by the treatment-associated side effects and the appearance of resistant strains. AmB lethality has been generally elucidated by the alteration of plasma membrane ion permeability due to its specific binding to plasma membrane ergosterol. While, the recent studies with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans reveals the vacuole disruptive action as another cause of AmB lethality on the basis of its marked amplification in combination with allicin, an allyl sulfur compound from garlic. Indeed, AmB causes a serious structural damage to the vacuole membrane at a lethal concentration, and even at a non-lethal concentration in combination with allicin. Such an enhancement effect of allicin is dependent on an inhibition of ergosterol-trafficking from the plasma membrane to the vacuole membrane, which is considered to be a cellular response to protect against the vacuole membrane disintegration. Allicin can also decrease the minimum fungicidal concentration of AmB against the pathogenic fungi C. albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, as is the case of S. cerevisiae. The synergistic fungicidal activities of AmB and allicin may have significant implications in the development of the vacuole-targeting chemotherapy against fungal infections.

  9. Development of competitive immunoassays to hydroxyl containing fungicide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kevin C; Jarvis, Shila; Maddison, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies and the development of competitive immunoassays to pesticide metabolites of the fungicides imazalil, carbendazim and thiabendazole. The metabolite specific hydroxyl residues were used as the reactive group with which to link the metabolite to the carrier proteins Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). In each case immune responses in mice were raised and monoclonal antibodies were produced. Antibodies were developed into competitive ELISAs to the appropriate metabolite. The antibody raised to a metabolite of imazalil was optimised into a competitive ELISA format which had an assay IC50 of 7.5 μg/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 μg/L. A single antibody isolated against the metabolite of carbendazim had assay IC50s of 3.2 and 2.7 μg/L for the metabolites of carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively with an LOD of 0.38 μg/L for both. These sensitive immunoassays may have application in the monitoring of human exposure to these fungicide residues either by occupational or non-occupational routes.

  10. FUNGICIDE APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING POSTHARVEST QUALITY IN TOMATO FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 applications Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 17 applications of Propamocarb+Fluopicolide (Control. We analyzed the incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, decay percentage of fruit weight (g and Brix. For incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced by 14.3%, the pathogen in fruits. There was a decrease of 82% in the deterioration of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 91% in those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol. As for the weight gain, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin, Boscalida and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced the weight gain in 8.12%, 20.8% and 38.8%, respectively, compared to the control. ° Brix values of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Boscalida were higher than those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol and Control (Propamocarb+Fluopicolide. It is concluded that the treatment carried out with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin afforded the greatest benefits in maintaining the tomato fruits in harvest.

  11. The inter-generic fungicidal activity of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Marcelo; Flores, Oriana; Carrasco, Mario; Rozas, Juan Manuel; Oviedo, Vicente; Barahona, Salvador; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the existence of intra-specific and inter-generic fungicidal activity in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and Phaffia rhodozyma strains isolated from different regions of the earth was examined. Assays were performed under several culture conditions, showing that all the analyzed X. dendrorhous and P. rhodozyma strains have killing activity against Kloeckera apiculata, Rhodotorula sloffiae, and R. minuta. This activity was greater in rich media at a pH from 4.6 to 5.0. Extracellular protein extracts with fungicidal activity were obtained from cultures of all strains, and their characterization suggested that a protein of 33 kDa is the antifungal factor. According to peptide mass fingerprinting and an analysis of the results with the MASCOT search engine, this protein was identified as an aspartic protease. Additionally, extrachromosomal double-stranded DNA elements (dsDNAs) were observed in all X. dendrorhous and P. rhodozyma strains. Although there is a high variability, two dsDNAs of 5.4 and 6.8 kb are present in all strains.

  12. Design, Synthesis and Fungicidal Activities of Some Novel Pyrazole Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ru Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to discover new compounds with good fungicidal activities, 32 pyrazole derivatives were designed and synthesized. The structures of the target compounds were confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS, and their fungicidal activities against Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, Valsa mali Miyabe et Yamada, Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank Donk, Fusarium oxysporum (S-chl f.sp. cucumerinum Owen, and Fusarium graminearum Schw were tested. The bioassay results indicated that most of the derivatives exhibited considerable antifungal activities, especially compound 26 containing a p-trifluoromethyl- phenyl moiety showed the highest activity, with EC50 values of 2.432, 2.182, 1.787, 1.638, 6.986, and 6.043 μg/mL against B. cinerea, R. solani, V. mali, T. cucumeris, F. oxysporum, and F. graminearum, respectively. Moreover, the activities of compounds such as compounds 27–32 were enhanced by introducing isothiocyanate and carboxamide moieties to the 5-position of the pyrazole ring.

  13. 咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜对脐橙果实采后品质的影响%Effect of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex Coating on the Postharvest Quality of Citrus Sinensis Osbeck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂青玉

    2012-01-01

    以脐橙为试材,果实采后以1%的壳寡糖为涂膜剂,分别与质量分数为0.01%,0.05%,0.10%浓度的咪鲜胺(有效成份450 g/L水乳剂)组合,浸泡处理后置于18~25℃,75%~85%RH环境中贮藏,比较与不涂膜处理及仅用1%的壳寡糖处理对脐橙贮藏品质、采后生理的影响.结果表明:不同浓度的咪鲜胺壳寡糖复合涂膜均能降低果实的失重率、腐烂率;延缓果实可溶性固形物、可滴定酸、还原性抗坏血酸含量的下降;抑制呼吸强度、丙二醛含量、相对电导率的上升;有效保持贮藏脐橙果实的感官品质、风味品质、营养品质,延长果实的贮藏期.其中,0.05%咪鲜胺与1%壳寡糖复合涂膜处理果实的各项品质、生理指标优于其它处理组,为有效延长脐橙果实贮藏时间的最经济、安全组合浓度.%Postharvest Citrus sinensis Osbeck has been stored after being soaked in 18 - 25 ℃ , 75% -85% RH environment,by the treatment of 1. 0% of Oligochitosan Combined with 0. 01 %, 0. 05% and 0. 1 % of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) respectively. The effects of 1 % Oligochitosan treatment and uncoating treatment on the postharvest physiology and storage quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck have been compared. The result illustrates that all kinds of Oligochitosan and Prochloraz Complex coating could reduce rate of weight loss and decay, delay the decline of soluble solids, titratable acidity and the content of ascorbic acid in fruits, inhibit the increase of the respiration rate, MDA content and relative electrical conductivity, maintain effectively the sensory, flavor, nutritional quality of Citrus sinensis Osbeck stored, and extend the storage period of Citrus sinensis Osbeck. Furthermore, the most economical and secure combination is 0.05% of Prochloraz (active ingredient 450 g/L of water emulsion) and 1% of Oligochitosan, which can make all kinds of the quality, physiological indexes

  14. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schreuders-Bais, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adult outcome after feminizing

  15. The long term outcome of feminizing genital surgery for congenital adrenal hyperplasia: anatomical, functional and cosmetic outcomes, psychosexual development, and satisfaction in adult female patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Willemsen, W.N.P.; Schreuders-Bais, C.; Feitz, W.F.J.; Rieu, P.N.M.A.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only a few reports analyzing the long term outcome of feminizing surgery in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Such analysis is crucial to evaluate the treatment and to make necessary adjustments. STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the adult outcome after feminizing

  16. Desorption and mobilization of three strobilurin fungicides in three types of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Wu, Wen Zhu; Han, Zhi Hua; Yang, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phenamacril (JS399-19 with independent intellectual property developed by China), azoxystrobin, and kresoxim-methyl are strobilurin fungicide. Due to their broad spectrum and good control of most of known fungi, strobilurin fungicide has been widely used in agriculture management. Thus, it is important to evaluate their environmental behaviors particularly in soils and underground water. In this study, the sorption/desorption and mobility of strobilurin fungicides in three Chinese soils (Jiangxi red soil, Taihu paddy soil, and Northeast China black soil) were conducted using comprehensively analytic approaches including batch experiment and soil thin-layer chromatography. The strobilurin fungicides were hard to be adsorbed in Jiangxi red soil but had medium adsorption capability in Tanhu paddy soil and Northeast China black soil, while the desorption of three strobilurin fungicides ranked in the order of Jiangxi red soil > Taihu paddy soil > Northeast China black soil. Soil properties including soil organic matter (SOM), pH, and cationic exchange capacity (CEC) affected the adsorption/desorption of the fungicides. Azoxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl had weak mobility in the soils. JS399-19 was moderately mobile in Jiangxi red soil but was not easily moved in Taihu paddy soil and Northeast China black soil. Due to their weak mobility in soils, these strobilurin fungicides tended to remain in the soil phase but not to shift downward to underground water. As azoxystrobin and JS399-19 had a long retention period in soil, there may become persistent residues in the soil environment.

  17. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Woodward

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; R2=0.73; P<0.01 was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PATHOGENICITY AND FUNGICIDE TOLERANCE IN THE WHEAT PATHOGEN MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, A; Deweer, C; Tisserant, B; Randoux, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola (anamorph: Zymoseptoria tritici) is currently the most devastating disease on wheat crops worldwide, especially in regions with suitable climate conditions such as Western Europe. Pathogen control relies mainly on the use of fungicides and resistant cultivars. However, the durability of chemical and genetic control strategies is increasingly compromised in the field since the fungus frequently develops resistance to fungicides and overcomes host resistance. Here, we assessed the association between pathogenicity and fungicide tolerance in eighteen different M. graminicola strains isolated in 2009 from Northern France. These strains were chosen because they exhibited in preliminary experiments a wide range of in vitro tolerance levels against six demethylation inhibitors (epoxiconazole, cyproconazole, fluquinconazole, propiconazole, prothioconazole and pyrefenox). Inoculation of the Scorpion susceptible wheat cultivar in the greenhouse with these strains revealed a great variability in their pathogenicity levels (disease symptoms ranged from 0 to 66% of leaf area bearing pycnidia). Interestingly, strains with high fungicide tolerance levels caused overall the highest disease symptoms (45% of diseased leaf area on average) when compared to those with low fungicide tolerance levels (22% of diseased leaf area on average), thus confirming the association between pathogenicity level and fungicide tolerance in M. graminicola. The occurrence and selection in the field of fungal genotypes combining both pathogenicity and fungicide resistance should be taken into account in disease management strategies.

  19. The rising threat of fungicide resistance in plant pathogenic fungi: Botrytis as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of site-specific fungicides almost 50 years ago has revolutionized chemical plant protection, providing highly efficient, low toxicity compounds for control of fungal diseases. However, it was soon discovered that plant pathogenic fungi can adapt to fungicide treatments by mutations leading to resistance and loss of fungicide efficacy. The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea, a major cause of pre- and post-harvest losses in fruit and vegetable production, is notorious as a 'high risk' organism for rapid resistance development. In this review, the mechanisms and the history of fungicide resistance in Botrytis are outlined. The introduction of new fungicide classes for grey mould control was always followed by the appearance of resistance in field populations. In addition to target site resistance, B. cinerea has also developed a resistance mechanism based on drug efflux transport. Excessive spraying programmes have resulted in the selection of multiresistant strains in several countries, in particular in strawberry fields. The rapid erosion of fungicide activity against these strains represents a major challenge for the future of fungicides against Botrytis. To maintain adequate protection of intensive cultures against grey mould, strict implementation of resistance management measures are required as well as alternative strategies with non-chemical products.

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of fungicide formulation Tango(®) Super in bovine lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbacherová, Viera; Wnuk, Maciej; Lewinska, Anna; Potocki, Leszek; Zebrowski, Jacek; Koziorowski, Marek; Holečková, Beáta; Šiviková, Katarína; Dianovský, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Tango(®) Super is a two-compound fungicide formulation widely employed in grain protection. However, details of Tango(®) Super effects on cell cultures have not been fully investigated. In this study, bovine lymphocytes were exposed to a concentration range 0.5; 1.5; 3; 6; and 15 μg mL(-1) for 4 h to assess the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of the fungicide. Our experiments revealed that this fungicide treatment reduced cell viability, decreased cell proliferation and provoked apoptotic cell death. Cell cycle analysis showed predominant accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. The fungicide was able to induce mitochondrial superoxide production accompanied by elevated levels of carbonylated proteins and changes in the lipid membrane composition. The fungicide did not induce micronuclei production, but stimulated both DNA double-strand breaks and the formation of p53 binding protein, which is accumulated during the DNA repair process at the site of double-strand breaks. Based on the obtained data we suppose that the fungicide-induced DNA damage is the result of oxidative stress, which may contribute to higher occurrence of apoptotic cell death. Because ergosterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides are widely used in agriculture to ensure higher crop yields and may cause health impairment of animals and humans, there is a need for further testing to elucidate their potential genotoxic effects using in vivo and/or in vitro systems.

  1. The magazine feminal: photography and visualization of the feminine contribution to the educational reform in Catalonia 1907-1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat SUREDA GARCIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Barcelona, between 1907 and 1917, a monthly feminine supplement called Feminal run by Carme Karr i Alfonsetti was published in the magazine Ilustració Catalana. Feminal systematically resorted to photographs to round off its reports on current affairs. The orientation Karr sets the publication responds to the ideas of conservative feminism that advocate for a greater public presence of women, without ceasing to be a wife and a mother, by modernizing their education. These aims are framed in and committed to the broad Regenerationist programme promoted by the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie at the time, with education as one of its main axes. In this article we analyse the role of photographs in reinforcing the modernizing discourse of education.

  2. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Aguilar-Barragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM without applications and Intensive management (IM more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L-1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L-1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  3. Chemical management in fungicide sensivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C.; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L−1 for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L−1 for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices. PMID:24948956

  4. Chemical management in fungicide sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis collected from banana fields in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Barragan, Alejandra; García-Torres, Ana Elisa; Odriozola-Casas, Olga; Macedo-Raygoza, Gloria; Ogura, Tetsuya; Manzo-Sánchez, Gilberto; James, Andrew C; Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Beltrán-García, Miguel J

    2014-01-01

    The chemical management of the black leaf streak disease in banana caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis (Morelet) requires numerous applications of fungicides per year. However this has led to fungicide resistance in the field. The present study evaluated the activities of six fungicides against the mycelial growth by determination of EC50 values of strains collected from fields with different fungicide management programs: Rustic management (RM) without applications and Intensive management (IM) more than 25 fungicide application/year. Results showed a decreased sensitivity to all fungicides in isolates collected from IM. Means of EC50 values in mg L(-1) for RM and IM were: 13.25 ± 18.24 and 51.58 ± 46.14 for azoxystrobin, 81.40 ± 56.50 and 1.8575 ± 2.11 for carbendazim, 1.225 ± 0.945 and 10.01 ± 8.55 for propiconazole, 220 ± 67.66 vs. 368 ± 62.76 for vinclozolin, 9.862 ± 3.24 and 54.5 ± 21.08 for fludioxonil, 49.2125 ± 34.11 and 112.25 ± 51.20 for mancozeb. A molecular analysis for β-tubulin revealed a mutation at codon 198 in these strains having an EC50 greater than 10 mg L(-1) for carbendazim. Our data indicate a consistency between fungicide resistance and intensive chemical management in banana fields, however indicative values for resistance were also found in strains collected from rustic fields, suggesting that proximity among fields may be causing a fungus interchange, where rustic fields are breeding grounds for development of resistant strains. Urgent actions are required in order to avoid fungicide resistance in Mexican populations of M. fijiensis due to fungicide management practices.

  5. Azole fungicides disturb intracellular Ca2+ in an additive manner in dopaminergic PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusinkveld, Harm J; Molendijk, Jeffrey; van den Berg, Martin; Westerink, Remco H S

    2013-08-01

    Humans are exposed to complex mixtures of pesticides and other compounds, mainly via food. Azole fungicides are broad spectrum antifungal compounds used in agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. The mechanism of antifungal action relies on inhibition of CYP51, resulting in inhibition of fungal cell growth. Known adverse health effects of azole fungicides are mainly linked to CYP inhibition. Additionally, azole fungicide-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, though the underlying mechanism(s) are largely unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of a group of six azole fungicides (imazalil, flusilazole, fluconazole, tebuconazole, triadimefon, and cyproconazole) on cell viability using a combined alamar Blue/CFDA-AM assay and on oxidative stress using a H2-DCFDA fluorescent assay. As calcium plays a pivotal role in neuronal survival and functioning, effects of these six azole fungicides and binary and quaternary mixtures of azole fungicides on the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were investigated using single-cell fluorescence microscopy in dopaminergic PC12 cells loaded with the calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye Fura-2. Only modest changes in cell viability and ROS production were observed. However, five out of six azole fungicides induced a nonspecific inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), though with varying potency. Experiments using binary IC20 and quaternary IC10 mixtures indicated that the inhibitory effects on VGCCs are additive. The combined findings demonstrate modulation of intracellular Ca(2+) via inhibition of VGCCs as a novel mode of action of azole fungicides. Furthermore, mixtures of azole fungicides display additivity, illustrating the need to take mixture effects into account in human risk assessment.

  6. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Crettaz, Pierre [Federal Office of Public Health, Division Chemical Products, 3003 Bern (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Universitätsstrasse 16, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  7. Fungicidal effect of 15 disinfectants against 24 fungal contaminants commonly found in bread and cheese manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Kirsten; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    .0 % formaldehyde, 0.1 % potassium hydroxide, 3.0 % hydrogen peroxide or 0.3 % peracetic acid were ineffective as fungicides. The fungicidal effect of quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorine compounds showed great variance between species and among the 6 tested isolates of Penicillium roqueforti var. roqueforti......Resistance of 19 mold- and 6 yeast- species against 15 commercial disinfectants was investigated by a suspension-method in which the fungicidal effect and germination time were determined at 20 °C. Disinfectants containing 0.5 % dodecyldiethylentriaminacetic acid, 10 g/l chloramine-T, 2...

  8. In vitro Toxicity of Fungicides of Different Mode of Action to Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolates of Agaricus bisporus strains F56 and U3 were tested for sensitivity to several selected fungicides in vitro. The analysis showed that flusilasole + carbendazim and cyproconazole + carbendazim were the most toxic fungicides to A. bisporus strain F56 with respective EC50 values of 0.04 and 0.23 mg/l. The least toxic fungicides were carbendazim (EC50 = 16.58 mg/l and trifloxystrobin (EC50 = 20.69 mg/l to A. bisporus F56 and benomyl (EC50 = 14.99 mg/l to A. bisporus U3.

  9. 杧果畸形病病菌(Fusarium mangiferae)生物学特性及杀菌剂对其室内毒力测定%Biological characteristics of Fusarium mangiferae and indoor toxicity determination of different fungicides to F. mangiferae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳凤; 詹儒林; 韦继光; 常金梅

    2012-01-01

    为进一步了解杧果畸形病病原菌Fusarium mangiferae的生物学特性,筛选出防治效果较好的药剂应用于生产,系统研究了该菌在不同培养基、温度、光照和碳氮源条件下的生长特性,并测定了9种杀菌剂对该菌的抑制作用。结果表明,病菌在0MA培养基上生长速度最快,在液体PDA中生长量最大,最佳产孢培养基为PSA;菌丝生长和孢子萌发的最佳温度均为25~28℃;光照时间和酸碱(pH4~10)对病菌菌丝生长速度、孢子产生及萌发的影响不明显。病原菌生长的最佳碳源和氮源分别为蔗糖和酵母提取物。室内9种杀菌剂病原的毒力测定结果表明:25%咪鲜胺乳油对病菌菌丝生长的抑制效果最好,EC50和EC95,分别为1.2004mg·L^-1和2.6239mg·L^-1;25%嘧菌酯悬浮剂能够强烈抑制病菌分生孢子的萌发,EC50和EC95分别为0.5312mg·L^-1和2.9741mg·L^-1。25%咪鲜胺乳油和25%嘧菌酯悬浮剂对杧果畸形病病菌具有较好的抑制作用,可进一步进行田间药效试验。%The growth characteristics of mango malformation pathogen (Fusarium mangiferae) were studied under the conditions of different media, temperature, light intensity and carbon/nitrogen, and the toxicity of 9 fungicides to F. mangiferae was determined indoor for screening the fungicides with good control effect on mango malformation disease.The results showed that the best culture medium for the mycelial growth rate, growth quantity and sporulation were OMA, liquid PDA and PSA respectively, optimum temperature for mycelial growth and spore germination was from 25 ℃ to 28 ℃. The effect of light and pH on the mycelial growth, sporulation and spore germination of the strain were not obvious. Sucrose was the best carbon source and yeast extraction was the best nitrogen source. 25% Prochloraz EG had the best control effect on mycelial growth, its EC50 was 1.200 4 mg·L^-1 and EC95 was 2

  10. Resistance of Botryodiplodia theobromae to carbendazim and the fungicides screening using stem end rot of mango fruit as a control%杧果蒂腐病菌对多茵灵的抗药性测定及其杀菌剂筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡美姣; 师超; 安勇; 李敏; 杨凤珍; 高兆银

    2009-01-01

    The resistance to carbendazim of 86 isolates of mango stem end rot pathogen Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat. collected from 3 regions in Hainan province was tested in vitro. The toxicity of 23 fungicides to 4 isolates of B. theobromae was tested by mycelium growth rate methods. The toxicity results were analyzed by the EC_(50) value, the EC_(90) value and the cross-resistance to each other. Results showed that 10 fungicides including sporgon, propiconazole, flusilazole, prochloraz, iprodi-one, difenoconazole, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin and validamycin A were recommended for choices for controlling mango stem end rot disease. In addition, the fungicides of chlorothalonil and mancozeb could also be chosen. The resistance to thiophanate-methyl, kresoxim-methyl, and diniconazole was appeared in the tested pathogens. In cross-resistance test, the results showed that carbendazim, kresoxim-methyl and diniconazole had cross-resistance each other, while kresoxim-methyl and validamycin A had negative cross-resistance each other. To avoid the resistance of the pathogen to some of the fungicides, such fungicides should be used by turns.%对来自海南3个地区的86个杧果蒂腐病菌(Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat.)菌株进行了对多菌灵的抗药性测定,结果表明,杧果蒂腐病菌群体中存在着对多菌灵抗性的群体.采用生长速率法进行了23种杀菌剂对4株杧果蒂腐病菌的室内毒力测定,通过EC_(50)值、EC_(90)值及与多菌灵的交互抗性等的综合分析,结果表明,作为防治杧果蒂腐病的首选药剂有咪鲜胺锰盐、丙环唑、氟硅唑、咪鲜胺、异菌脲、苯醚甲环唑、戊唑醇、腈菌唑、吡唑醚菌酯和井冈霉素10种杀菌剂,可选杀菌剂还有百菌清和代森锰锌.杧果蒂腐病菌除对多菌灵产生抗性外,还对甲基硫菌灵、醚菌酯和烯唑醇3种杀菌剂产生了抗药性.通过交互抗性分析,多菌灵、甲基硫菌灵和烯唑醇3

  11. Sertraline demonstrates fungicidal activity in vitro for Coccidioides immitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Paul

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial morbidity in endemic areas. Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is an AIDS defining condition and treatment often requires lifelong antifungal therapy. Sertraline, a widely used serotonin-reuptake inhibitor anti-depressant, has demonstrated activity against Candida and Cryptococcus sp. both in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate if sertraline has activity against Coccidioides, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC of sertraline for four clinical isolates of C. immitis were determined. Sertraline was observed to have an MIC range of 4–8 µg/ml and MFC also of 4–8 µg/ml for Coccidioides. These MIC and MFC results for C. immitis are similar to those reported for Cryptococcus sp. suggesting sertraline may potentially have utility for the treatment of coccidioidomycosis.

  12. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: consistent effects across vertebrate classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B; Anderson, Lloyd L; Beasley, Val R; de Solla, Shane R; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S; Luque, Enrique H; McCoy, Krista A; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E; Trudeau, Vance L; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2011-10-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called "Hill criteria" (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause-effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis - demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals - represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the "Hill criteria".

  13. Demasculinization and feminization of male gonads by atrazine: Consistent effects across vertebrate classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B.; Anderson, Lloyd L.; Beasley, Val R.; de Solla, Shane R.; Iguchi, Taisen; Ingraham, Holly; Kestemont, Patrick; Kniewald, Jasna; Kniewald, Zlatko; Langlois, Valerie S.; Luque, Enrique H.; McCoy, Krista A.; Muñoz-de-Toro, Mónica; Oka, Tomohiro; Oliveira, Cleida A.; Orton, Frances; Ruby, Sylvia; Suzawa, Miyuki; Tavera-Mendoza, Luz E.; Trudeau, Vance L.; Victor-Costa, Anna Bolivar; Willingham, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Atrazine is the most commonly detected pesticide contaminant of ground water, surface water, and precipitation. Atrazine is also an endocrine disruptor that, among other effects, alters male reproductive tissues when animals are exposed during development. Here, we apply the nine so-called “Hill criteria” (Strength, Consistency, Specificity, Temporality, Biological Gradient, Plausibility, Coherence, Experiment, and Analogy) for establishing cause–effect relationships to examine the evidence for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes the gonads of male vertebrates. We present experimental evidence that the effects of atrazine on male development are consistent across all vertebrate classes examined and we present a state of the art summary of the mechanisms by which atrazine acts as an endocrine disruptor to produce these effects. Atrazine demasculinizes male gonads producing testicular lesions associated with reduced germ cell numbers in teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, and induces partial and/or complete feminization in fish, amphibians, and reptiles. These effects are strong (statistically significant), consistent across vertebrate classes, and specific. Reductions in androgen levels and the induction of estrogen synthesis – demonstrated in fish, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals – represent plausible and coherent mechanisms that explain these effects. Biological gradients are observed in several of the cited studies, although threshold doses and patterns vary among species. Given that the effects on the male gonads described in all of these experimental studies occurred only after atrazine exposure, temporality is also met here. Thus the case for atrazine as an endocrine disruptor that demasculinizes and feminizes male vertebrates meets all nine of the “Hill criteria”. PMID:21419222

  14. Efficiency of Elite Fungicide for Control of Pistachio Gummosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moradi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several species of Phytophthora cause crown and root rot diseases of herbaceous and woody plants. Crown and root rot of pistachio trees cause significant damages in infected orchards. The effect of foliar application with Elite (fosetyl-Al in 2 and 2.5 g/l was evaluated in greenhouse experiments. The frequency of mortality, fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots, height, intensity of crown root colonization using CAMA-PARP medium was determined. Under greenhouse experiments, foliar application with Elite increased height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and root either in inoculation with and without Phytophthora drechsleri. The effects of Elite were more pronounced in roots, which increased the fresh and dry weight of root 1.3 and 2.5 times compared to those not sprayed with Elite, respectively. On the other hand, the application of Elite before or on the day of inoculation significantly reduced the frequency of mortality, which ranged from 35 to 90% (P ≤ 0.01. Crown and root colonization of pistachio seedling was affected by both the concentration of Elite and reduced the frequency of crown and root colonization of seedling. When fungicide and pathogen were applied at the same time, the frequency of colonization reduced to 18% and 36% for 2 and 2.5 g/l, respectively, and 43% and 60% when seedlings were treated with fungicide before P. drechsleri inoculations. The highest effect was seen in foliar application of Elite seven days before inoculation in 2.5 g/l. Further investigations have been conducted to understand the effect of Elite in infected trees as well as modeling of Elite application via soil drench, foliar application or trunk injection.

  15. The fungicide mancozeb induces toxic effects on mammalian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, Rita [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Tiboni, Gian Mario [Department of Medicine and Aging, Section of Reproductive Sciences, University “G. D' Annunzio”, Chieti-Pescara (Italy); Buccione, Roberto [Tumor Cell Invasion Laboratory, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Santa Maria Imbaro, Chieti (Italy); Rossi, Gianna; Cellini, Valerio [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy); Canipari, Rita [Department of Anatomy, Histology, Forensic Medicine and Orthopedics, Section of Histology and Embryology, School of Pharmacy and Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Rome (Italy); Cecconi, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.cecconi@cc.univaq.it [Department of Health Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    The ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate mancozeb is a widely used fungicide with low reported toxicity in mammals. In mice, mancozeb induces embryo apoptosis, affects oocyte meiotic spindle morphology and impairs fertilization rate even when used at very low concentrations. We evaluated the toxic effects of mancozeb on the mouse and human ovarian somatic granulosa cells. We examined parameters such as cell morphology, induction of apoptosis, and p53 expression levels. Mouse granulosa cells exposed to mancozeb underwent a time- and dose-dependent modification of their morphology, and acquired the ability to migrate but not to proliferate. The expression level of p53, in terms of mRNA and protein content, decreased significantly in comparison with unexposed cells, but no change in apoptosis was recorded. Toxic effects could be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of ethylenthiourea (ETU), the main mancozeb catabolite, which was found in culture medium. Human granulosa cells also showed dose-dependent morphological changes and reduced p53 expression levels after exposure to mancozeb. Altogether, these results indicate that mancozeb affects the somatic cells of the mammalian ovarian follicles by inducing a premalignant-like status, and that such damage occurs to the same extent in both mouse and human GC. These results further substantiate the concept that mancozeb should be regarded as a reproductive toxicant. Highlights: ► The fungicide mancozeb affects oocyte spindle morphology and fertilization rate. ► We investigated the toxic effects of mancozeb on mouse and human granulosa cells. ► Granulosa cells modify their morphology and expression level of p53. ► Mancozeb induces a premalignant-like status in exposed cells.

  16. The Social Representation of Feminism within the On-line Movement “Women Against Feminism”

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Crusmac

    2017-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyse the social representation of feminism within the “Women Against Feminism” (WAF) on-line movement that is based on a shared blog which gained significant coverage in the U.S. and U.K. media since the summer of 2014. Using the method of quantitative content analysis and the insights provided by social representations theory, the paper will disclose what lies behind the concept of ‘feminism’ for the group embracing the WAF movement and also aims to find whether ...

  17. A Feminism Analysis of the Spiritual Journey of Female Figures in Little Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Ming

    2016-01-01

    Louisa May Alcott is an excellent American female writer of the 19th century as well as a feminist who focuses on women and their problems. Little Women, her best known novel, is about four girls’daily lives. Through description of their life, Alcott disclosed the discrimination and persecution the patriarchy society of the 19th century forced on women and pointed out a road for women to fight against the patriarchy society. The thesis demonstrated Alcott’s feminism viewpoint and its embodiment in Little Women through analysis of the novel’s plot and the character of the four heroines.

  18. Feminismus: gestern – heute – und überhaupt? Feminism: yesterday—today—and at all?

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Peters; Katharina Mickler

    2005-01-01

    Feminismus für Eilige will, der Titel deutet es an, einen raschen Überblick über Geschichte und Theorie der feministischen Bewegung(en) sein. Margret Karsch leitet her, aus welchen politischen Fragen die Frauenbewegung entstanden ist, welche wesentlichen Strömungen es gibt und mit welchen theoretischen Grundlagen und Strategien diese hantieren. Ihr ist ein instruktives, gut lesbares Buch gelungen, das als Einführung mit zahlreichen Namen und Daten glänzt.Feminismus für Eilige (Feminism for th...

  19. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome or testicular feminization: review of literature based on a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souhail, Regragui; Amine, Slaoui; Nadia, Abounouh; Tarik, Karmouni; Khalid, El Khader; Abdellatif, Koutani; Ahmed, Ibn Attya

    2016-01-01

    Testicular feminization, or the androgen insensitivity syndrome, is a rare disease. Because of various abnormalities of the X chromosome, a male, genetically XY, has some physical characteristics of a woman or a full female phenotype. Indeed the androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs because of a resistance to the actions of the androgen hormones, which in turn switches the development towards the aspect of a woman. We report a case of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in a 30 years old woman who presented primary amenorrhea. We aim to improve our knowledge of this illness from the data that provides us this study, and a review of the literature.

  20. Breaking and catching feminism: female roles in literature for young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gyløien, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I investigate female roles in literature for young adults, taking a comparative approach to a number of the most popular and bestselling works in recent times, The Twilight Series (2005-2008) by Stephenie Meyer and The Hunger Games (2008-2010) by Suzanne Collins. The thesis will open with a brief historical overview of the history of feminism followed by a descriptive summary of the origins and developments of children’s literature/ young adult literature in the United States....

  1. An Analysis of A Woman on a Roof from the Feminism Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui

    2015-01-01

    The British female writer Doris Lessig has devoted most of her time to the problem of the female and produced many works about the female. Her short novel A Woman on a Roof tells us a story about a nearly naked woman and three working men. This essay tries to present the originality of the characterization of the heroine and the absurdity of the patriarchal society from the perspective of feminism and get the conclusion that Doris Lessing has expected the harmony between the male and the female.

  2. SHAPE OF FEMININITY IN THE TEXT OF GEGURITAN (PHILOSOPICAL VERSE IN BALI: ANALYSIS OF FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Karmini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is Balinese traditional literature which is the form of geguritan(philosophical verse. The reason why such texts are used as the object of the study is that theycontain very complex and interesting narrations about feminism. The objectives of this studyare to find out the formal and narrative structure of the texts and to describe the shape offemininity in the texts and its relevance to the lives of Balinese women who are Hindufollowers in the society. The objectives are all at once the answers to the problems of the study.The theory applied is that of feminism which emphasizes the concept ofRadical-Cultural Feminism. This study is a qualitative one of which the data were collected bydocumentation method, that is, by the techniques of note taking, observation and interview. Thedata were analyzed using the formal method in accordance with literature studies.There were nine geguritan (philosophical verses which were used as the object of thestudy. From the formal structural analysis, the pupuh (strophe used, its function and literarystyle could be identified. From the content, religious and amusement functions could beidentified. From the narrative structural analysis, it could be identified that the plot waschronological and sorot balik (backward directed; the characters and characterization weredescribed to express extraordinary ability, which was based on Hinduism, while the theme wasdescribed to express the application of panca crada (the five principles in Hinduism. Therewere seven findings as far as the analysis of the text is concerned: they are: (1 the educatedwomen could determine their attitudes, make decisions, show prestige and maintain theirdignity; (2 the women in the texts had extraordinary power. This means that the women werenot weak. Therefore, the stereotype that women were weak was neglected; (3 the educatedwomen who used Hinduism as the reference could become the men’s power; (4 the womenwho could

  3. Yield of Potato as Influenced by Crop Sanitation and Reduced Fungicidal Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of crop sanitation and reduced sprays of "Ridomil plus®" (12 % metalaxyl + 60 % cuprous oxide on the control of potato (Solanum tuberosum late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in two field experiments in 1993 in Dschang, Cameroon. In the first experiment, sanitation (five weekly removals of blighted leaves and two fungicidal treatments were initiated from first symptoms. In the second experiment, both fungicidal sprays were made at varying rates. Marketable yields increased by 50 % in sanitation-treated plots, by 94 % in plots sprayed with Ridomil plus (2.24 kg a. i./ha, or by 55 % in those exposed to both control methods. The fungicide equivalence of the sanitation treatment was two sprays of Ridomil plus at 0.76 kg a. i./ha. These results suggest that proper removal of diseased leaves or reduced fungicidal protection may be an effective late blight control method in potato farming.

  4. Impact of Fungicides Used for Wheat Treatment on Button Mushroom Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Potočnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields of Agaricus bisporus. Potential chemical risks of eight fungicides (for wheat treatments for A. bisporus: mancozeb, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl,carbendazim+cyproconazole, carbedazim+flusilasole, captan, chlorothalonil and trifloxystrobinare disscused. Only the value of maximum residue level of flusilasole and its formulation was evaluated as higher than medium effective concentration of the fungicide for A.bisporus. As a conclusion, flusilazole treatment could be a limiting factor for using straw for composting and mushroom cultivation.

  5. The effect of selected fungicides on survival of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in various kinds of soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Barczyński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 10 fungicides on survival of A. tumefaciens in various types of soils was studied. In fertile, nonsterile soil Dithane M-45 (mancozeb, Euparen 50 WP (tolyfluanid, Kaptan 50 WP (captan and Ridomil Gold 80 WP (metalaxyl at concentration of 1000 ppm showed the highest antibacterial activity. Similar trends in activity of these fungicides occurred in fertile, sterile soil, however a little lower in case of Kaptan and Euparen. In most of investigated soils Befran 25 SL (imimnoctadyne, Syllit 65 WP (dodine and Thiram Granulfo 80 WG (thiram increased bacteria number. In sandy acidic soil (pH 3,5 all tested fungicides totally eliminated bacteria. On the other hand in sandy neutral soil only Dithane, Euparen, Kaptan and Ridomil showed such activity. Ten fold decrease of fungicides concentration generally did not influence Kaptan and Ridomil effectiveness but it decreased the activity of Dithane and Euparen.

  6. RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY-BASED METABOLOMICS FOR DIFFERENTIATING EXPOSURES TO TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES USING RAT URINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a metabolomic tool for assessing the impacts of exposure to environmental contaminants, using rat urine collected during the course of a toxicological study. Specifically, one of three triazole fungicides, myclobutanil, propiconazole or ...

  7. Gene Expression Profiling in Liver and Testis of Rats to Characterize the Toxicity of Triazole Fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four triazole fungicides were studied using toxicogenomic techniques to identify potential mechanisms of action. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed for 14 days by gavage with fluconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or triadimefon. Following exposure, serum was collected ...

  8. USING PHARMACOKINETIC DATA TO INTERPRET METABOLOMIC CHANGES IN CD-1 MICE TREATED WITH TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triazoles are a class of fungicides widely used in both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. These compounds elicit a variety of toxic effects including disruption of normal metabolic processes such as steroidogenesis. Metabolomics is used to measure dynamic changes in e...

  9. Resistance behaviour of Septoria tritici to some fungicides in the territory of the Czech Republic

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    Ludvik Tvaružek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of colony diameter using two DMI-fungicides and one strobilurine fungicide was evaluated in the Septoria tritici population. In an in vitro assay, 57 strains of S. tritici originating from different parts of the Czech Republic were grown on agar plates containing different concentrations of fungicides. The mean EC50 values of strains were analysed for flusilazole (Capitain, metconazole (Caramba and one strobilurine fungicide: azoxystrobin (Amistar. ED 50 values for metconazole were low. There were highly significant correlation in reaction of pathogen strains to metconazole and flusilazole. Some isolates showed significant higher level of resistance to azoxystrobin. The data will be used in a continuing survey of resistance development in the S. tritici population originating from the territory of the Czech Republic.

  10. Modulators of membrane drug transporters potentiate the activity of the DMI fungicide oxpoconazole against Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayashi, K.; Schoonbeek, H.; Waard, de M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Modulators known to reduce multidrug resistance in tumour cells were tested for their potency to synergize the fungitoxic activity of the fungicide oxpoconazole, a sterol demethylation inhibitor (DMI), against Botrytis cinerea Pers. Chlorpromazine, a phenothiazine compound known as a calmodulin

  11. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  12. Occurrence and persistence of fungicides in bed sediments and suspended solids from three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reilly, Timothy J; Sandstrom, Mark W; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2013-03-01

    To document the environmental occurrence and persistence of fungicides, a robust and sensitive analytical method was used to measure 34 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in bed sediments and suspended solids collected from areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within agricultural research farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least two fungicides were detected in 55% of the bed and 83% of the suspended solid samples and were detected in conjunction with herbicides and insecticides. Six fungicides were detected in all samples including pyraclostrobin (75%), boscalid (53%), chlorothalonil (41%) and zoxamide (22%). Pyraclostrobin, a strobilurin fungicide, used frequently in the United States on a variety of crops, was detected more frequently than p,p'-DDE, the primary degradate of p,p'-DDT, which is typically one of the most frequently occurring pesticides in sediments collected within highly agricultural areas. Maximum fungicide concentrations in bed sediments and suspended solids were 198 and 56.7 μg/kg dry weight, respectively. There is limited information on the occurrence, fate, and persistence of many fungicides in sediment and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of documenting the persistence of fungicides in the environment and the need for a better understanding of off-site transport mechanisms, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases.

  13. Fungi and bacteria. [fungicide and bactericide measures for spacecraft in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Spacecraft equipment is usually protected from fungi and bacteria by incorporating a fungicide-bactericide in the material, by a fungicide-bactericide spray, or by reducing the relative humidity to a degree where growth will not take place. A unique method to protect delicate, expensive bearings in equipment was to maintain a pressure (with dry air or nitrogen) slightly above the outside atmosphere (few millibars) within the working parts of the equipment, thus preventing fungi from entering equipment.

  14. Impact of fungicides used for wheat treatment on button mushroom cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana Potočnik; Jelena Vukojević; Mirjana Stajić; Dejana Kosanović; Emil Rekanović; Miloš Stepanović; Svetlana Milijašević-Marčić

    2012-01-01

    Little information is currently available on the potential environmental risks that fungicides applied during wheat cultivation and remaining in straw may have for mushroom production. The substrate for many cultivated mushrooms is mostly based on cereal straw. This review aimed to answer the question whether residues of the fungicides commonly used in wheat production and remaining in straw could be directly or indirectly responsible for changes in yields ...

  15. Control of angular leaf spot on dry beans with fungicides and its effect on plant production

    OpenAIRE

    Deman, Luis Alfredo Raue; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The angular leaf spot of dry bean caused by the fungus Phaeoisairopsis griseola is a very important disease on dry bean crops in Brazil. In propitious weather conditions, susceptible cultivars have significant losses due to this disease. In these conditions, fungicide usage is an important step for angular leaf spot management. Since the effects of this method of control on plant physiology are not known, this study had the following objectives: a) Verify the action of fungicide in physiologi...

  16. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Esbozo de un feminismo latinoamericano Outlines of a Latin American feminism

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    María Luisa Femenías

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available ¿Existe un feminismo latinoamericano? Creemos que sí, y que tienen sus propias raíces y su propio perfil, que abreva de las múltiples corrientes teóricas y filosóficas de los desarrollos actuales del feminismo. Creemos además que la situación periférica del continente le permite tomar y situar diversas lecturas, trazar redes conceptuales y aceptar el desafío de pensar y plantear sus propios problemas. Este artículo pretende dar cuenta de algunos de esos desafíos y recorridos.Does a Latin American feminism exist? We believe it does and that it has its own roots and profile which derives from different theoretical and philosophical lines of the most important feminist achievements. We also believe that the so-called peripheral situation of the continent allows to situate and locate different readings, draw conceptual maps and accept that feminism's own challenges. This paper intends to map out some of challenges and trajectories.

  18. THE VALUE AND IMPORTANCE OF FEMINISM IN THE NOVELS OF SHOBHAA DE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Vikrant Rajput

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primal and seminal concerns of Feminism is to declare that a woman is a being, not an appendage but an autonomous being, capable of finding her own self. In its early stages feminism thought of Amazon-Utopias, an all-female world, but the recent trends are an indication that it's possible for a woman to live in the world where men also live. The deeper most concerns of the novelists in Indian have been the human relationships, especially men-women relationships, and the functioning of female psyche. The contemporary novelists are entangled in the complexities of men-women relationships and subtleties of feminine consciousness. The early image of woman in Indian English Novel as a silent, an incarnation of patience and endurance has gradually been eroded. The woman portrayed by the Indian Feminist writers is a picture of an independent, free-thinking individual. Women writers like 'Shobhaa De' are conscious of the marginal status of woman in society. The study incorporated here includes major novels of 'Shobhaa De'. The endeavor here undertaken is an analysis of her novels from feminist point of view.

  19. Intersectionality and Transnational Feminism between Constructivism, Post-Structuralism and Epistemological Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Demaria

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean today to talk about intersectionality or, better, about intersectional approaches within the vast and fragmented field of Feminist Studies? And how can intersectionality help understanding the development of transnational feminism, and viceversa? By offering a brief critical genealogy of the notion of intersectionality, from the systemic to the anti-categorial positions that have characterized the debate on this notion, the essay tries to present a reading of the main questions that stemmed from thinking the working of the many power differentials and identity markers (gender, race, class, ages, disabilities, etc. that constitute regional, national and transnational subjectivities. In adopting an anti-categorial stance, this work attempts at showing how feminism has changed thanks to different, yet complementary, perspectives on intersectional subject formations and positioning, along with the relational and transnational struggles that have been imagined in order to refine a feminist gaze at every level of social, cultural and political life, be it theoretical, methodological or epistemological.

  20. Feminization and alteration of Drosophila taste neurons induce reciprocal effects on male avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaille, Fabien; Everaerts, Claude; Ferveur, Jean-François

    2009-09-01

    Taste perception allows most animals to find edible food, potential mates, and avoid ingesting toxic molecules. Intriguingly, a small group of Drosophila taste neurones (expressing Gr66a-Gal4) involved in the perception of bitter substances is also used to detect 7-tricosene (7-T), a male cuticular pheromone. Male flies tend to be inhibited by 7-T whereas females are stimulated by this pheromone. To better understand their role on male courtship, Gr66a-Gal4 neurons were genetically feminized or altered with various transgenes, and the response of transgenic males was measured toward live targets carrying various amounts of 7-T, or of bitter molecules (caffeine, quinine and berberine). Surprisingly, tester males with feminized taste neurons showed an increased dose-dependent avoidance toward targets with high level of any of these substances, compared to other tester males. Conversely, males with altered neurons showed no, or very little avoidance. Moreover, the surgical ablation of the sensory appendages carrying these taste neurons differently affected the behavioral response of the various tester males. The fact that this manipulation did not affect the courtship toward control females nor the locomotor activity of tester males suggests that Gr66a-Gal4 neurons are involved in the sex-specific perception of molecules inducing male avoidance behavior.

  1. Special Edition: Fighting Feminism – Organised Opposition to Women’s Rights; Guest Editors’ Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Dragiewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This special issue presents a series of papers by scholars who participated in a workshop entitled ‘Men's Groups: Challenging Feminism’, which was held at the University of British Columbia (UBC, Canada, 26-27 May 2014. The workshop was organised by Susan B Boyd, Professor of Law and Chair in Feminist Legal Studies at the UBC Faculty of Law, and was sponsored by the Peter Wall Institute for Advanced Studies at UBC, the Peter A Allard School of Law, the Centre for Feminist Legal Studies at UBC, and the Canadian Journal of Women and the Law. The aim of the workshop was to bring together feminist scholars from multiple disciplines and multiple national contexts to explore a source of resistance to feminism that has been largely overlooked in scholarly research: the growing number of nationally situated and globally linked organisations acting in the name of men's rights and interests which contend that men are discriminated against in law, education and government funding, and that feminism is to blame for this. This special edition presents eight papers inspired by the workshop, authored by scholars from Canada, New Zealand, Poland, Sweden and the United States. A second special issue comprised of eight other papers inspired by the workshop was published in the Canadian Journal of Women and the Law as volume 28(1 in 2016.To find out more about this special edition, download the PDF file from this page.

  2. Esterase isozymes patterns of grape vine (Vitis vinifera L. are altered in response to fungicide exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Ribeiro Orasmo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Current analysis characterizes the effect of different fungicides often applied for pest control on a-and b-esterase patterns of four economically important table-wine grape cultivars (Italia, Rubi, Benitaka and Brasil of Vitis vinifera. The a- and b-esterase patterns in bud leaves of the cultivars were assessed by native PAGE analysis. Cabrio Top® compound inhibited Est-2, Est-5, Est-6, Est-7, Est-8, Est-9 and Est-10 carboxylesterases, whereas Est-4, Est-11, Est-12, Est-13, Est-14 acetylesterases and Est-16 carboxylesterase were detected as weakly stained bands. Carboxylesterases and acetylesterases were also detected as weakly stained bands when exposed to fungicides Orthocide 500®, Positron Duo® and Folicur PM®. No changes in a- and b-esterase patterns were reported when the vines were exposed to the fungicides Rovral SC®, Kumulus DF®, Curzate M®, Score® or Cuprogarb 500®. The evidence of functional changes in carboxylesterase and acetylesterase levels in current study is a warning to grape producers on the dangers inherent in the indiscriminate use of potent and modern fungicides extensively used in agriculture. The inhibition effect of fungicides on esterase isozyme molecules seems to be independent of the fungicide chemical.

  3. Predicting multiple ecotoxicological profiles in agrochemical fungicides: a multi-species chemoinformatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck-Planche, Alejandro; Kleandrova, Valeria V; Luan, Feng; Cordeiro, M Natália D S

    2012-06-01

    Agriculture is needed to deal with crop losses caused by biotic stresses like pests. The use of pesticides has played a vital role, contributing to improve crop production and harvest productivity, providing a better crop quality and supply, and consequently contributing with the improvement of the human health. An important group of these pesticides is fungicides. However, the use of these agrochemical fungicides is an important source of contamination, damaging the ecosystems. Several studies have been realized for the assessment of the toxicity in agrochemical fungicides, but the principal limitation is the use of structurally related compounds against usually one indicator species. In order to overcome this problem, we explore the quantitative structure-toxicity relationships (QSTR) in agrochemical fungicides. Here, we developed the first multi-species (ms) chemoinformatic approach for the prediction multiple ecotoxicological profiles of fungicides against 20 indicators species and their classifications in toxic or nontoxic. The ms-QSTR discriminant model was based on substructural descriptors and a heterogeneous database of compounds. The percentages of correct classification were higher than 90% for both, training and prediction series. Also, substructural alerts responsible for the toxicity/no toxicity in fungicides respect all ecotoxicological profiles, were extracted and analyzed.

  4. Fate and transport of agriculturally applied fungicidal compounds, azoxystrobin and propiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Paul G; Murphy, Tracye M; Lydy, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Fungicidal active ingredients azoxystrobin and propiconazole, individually and in combination, have been marketed worldwide in a range of fungicide treatment products for preventative and curative purposes, respectively. Their presence in streams located throughout the midwestern and southeastern United States warrant the need for research into the potential routes of transport of these fungicides in an agricultural field setting. Potential canopy penetration and drift effects of these fungicides during aerial and ground applications were studied in the current project. Canopy penetration was observed for both application types, however drift was associated only with the aerial application of these fungicides. Azoxystrobin and propiconazole persisted in the soil up to 301 d, with peak concentrations occurring approximately 30 d after application. The predominant mode of transport for these compounds was agricultural runoff water, with the majority of the fungicidal active ingredients leaving the target area during the first rain event following application. The timing of application in relation to the first rain event significantly affected the amount of loss that occurred, implying application practices should follow manufacturer recommended guidelines.

  5. Exploitation of genomics in fungicide research: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, Hans J; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2013-02-01

    Every year, fungicide use to control plant disease caused by pathogenic fungi increases. The global fungicide market is now worth more than £5.3 billion, second only to the herbicide market in importance. In the UK, over 5500 tonnes of fungicide were applied to crops in 2010 (The Food and Environment Research Agency, Pesticide Usage Statistics), with 95.5% of the wheat-growing area receiving three fungicide sprays. Although dependence on fungicides to produce food securely, reliably and cheaply may be moderated in the future by further developments in crop biotechnology, modern crop protection will continue to require a diversity of solutions, including effective and safe chemical control. Therefore, investment in exploiting the increasingly available genome sequences of the most devastating fungal and oomycete phytopathogenic species should bring an array of new opportunities for chemical intervention. To date, the impact of whole genome research on the development, introduction and stewardship of fungicides has been limited, but ongoing improvements in computational analysis, molecular biology, chemical genetics, genome sequencing and transcriptomics will facilitate the development and registration of the future suite of crop protection chemicals.

  6. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  7. New α-Methylene-γ-Butyrolactone Derivatives as Potential Fungicidal Agents: Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongling Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the fact that the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety is a major bio-functional group in the structure of carabrone and possesses some agricultural biological activity, forty-six new ester and six new ether derivatives containing α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moieties were synthesized, and their fungicidal activities against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Botrytis cinerea were investigated. Most of the synthesized compounds showed moderate to significant fungicidal activity. Among them, halogen atom-containing derivatives showed better activity than others, especially compounds 6a,d which exhibited excellent fungicidal activity against C. lagenarium, with IC50 values of 7.68 and 8.17 μM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR analysis indicated that ester derivatives with electron-withdrawing groups on the benzene ring showed better fungicidal activity than those with electron-donating groups. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR model (R2 = 0.9824, F = 203.01, S2 = 0.0083 was obtained through the heuristic method. The built model revealed a strong correlation of fungicidal activity against C. lagenarium with the molecular structures of these compounds. These results are expected to prove helpful in the design and exploration of low toxicity and high efficiency α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone-based fungicides.

  8. Book Review: A THIRD WAVE: ABOUT THE POLITICS OF PROCLAIMING A `NEW' FEMINISM Stacy Gillis, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford, eds Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, expanded 2nd edn Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 310 pp., ISBN-13 978-0-230-52174-2

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Book Review: A THIRD WAVE: ABOUT THE POLITICS OF PROCLAIMING A `NEW' FEMINISM Stacy Gillis, Gillian Howie and Rebecca Munford, eds Third Wave Feminism: A Critical Exploration, expanded 2nd edn Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007, 310 pp., ISBN-13 978-0-230-52174-2 London School of Economics - (Scharff, Christina)

  9. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  10. Are We "There" Yet? the Treatment of Gender and Feminism in Technical, Business, and Workplace Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Rumsey, Suzanne Kesler; Amidon, Stevens

    2016-01-01

    This article reexamines the treatment of gender and feminism in technical, business, and workplace writing studies--areas in which the three of us teach. Surprisingly, the published discourse of our field seems to implicitly minimize the gendered nature of business and technical writing workplaces and classrooms. To understand this apparent lack…

  11. AESA 2012 Presidential Address "What My Community Means to Me": Reimagining Civic Praxis with Latina/Chicana Feminisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article invites imaginings of democracy and education with and through "other" knowledges. It argues for the possibilities of working across difference as articulated in the transnational, border, and decolonial perspectives of Chicana/Latina feminisms. Specifically, it explores Gloria Anzaldúa's notions of…

  12. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  13. A Community of Disagreement: Feminism in the University. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 431

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    As academic feminism has critiqued the often-violent inscriptions of institutionality, it has also produced a narrative of its role in the university fraught with difficulties of its own. The understanding of difference--as an object to be agreed upon and as the foundation for a diversity model of inclusion--that has emerged as the defining…

  14. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives…

  15. Identity Politics, Justice and the Schooling of Muslim Girls: Navigating the Tensions between Multiculturalism, Group Rights and Feminism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the concerns expressed by three female Muslim educators who are support staff at an English comprehensive school. Consistent with the debates associated with multiculturalism, group rights and feminism, the article illuminates spaces of gender constraint and possibility within the discourses shaping these women's lives and…

  16. Are We "There" Yet? the Treatment of Gender and Feminism in Technical, Business, and Workplace Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Rumsey, Suzanne Kesler; Amidon, Stevens

    2016-01-01

    This article reexamines the treatment of gender and feminism in technical, business, and workplace writing studies--areas in which the three of us teach. Surprisingly, the published discourse of our field seems to implicitly minimize the gendered nature of business and technical writing workplaces and classrooms. To understand this apparent lack…

  17. Up the Down Staircase: Women's Upward Mobility and the Wage Penalty for Occupational Feminization, 1970-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the long-term trends of two parallel and related gender effects, in light of the hypothesis that highly rewarded occupations will be the most penalized by the process of feminization. Using multilevel models of the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series data from 1970 to 2007, the study analyzes trends in women's occupational…

  18. My Qarina, my self: The homoerotic as Islamic feminism in Alifa Rifaat's "My World of the Unknown".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Diya M

    2012-01-01

    In Alifa Rifaat's "My World of the Unknown," the female narrator's homoerotic encounter with a djinn functions as a radical brand of Islamic feminism that challenges Arabo-Islamic cultural perceptions of female sexuality as threatening. Rifaat reinterprets Islamic teachings and Arabic folklore to show how women's sexuality must be revered rather than feared.

  19. A Community of Disagreement: Feminism in the University. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Volume 431

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    As academic feminism has critiqued the often-violent inscriptions of institutionality, it has also produced a narrative of its role in the university fraught with difficulties of its own. The understanding of difference--as an object to be agreed upon and as the foundation for a diversity model of inclusion--that has emerged as the defining…

  20. Secular Feminisms and Attitudes towards Religion in the Context of a West-European Society – Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brandt, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Ideologies and politics of humanism and secularism in Western Europe historically have a tensioned relationship with religion as well as with feminism and the women's movement. In this article, I aim to demonstrate the multiplicity and complexity of several recent secular feminist responses to incre

  1. AESA 2012 Presidential Address "What My Community Means to Me": Reimagining Civic Praxis with Latina/Chicana Feminisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.

    2015-01-01

    This article invites imaginings of democracy and education with and through "other" knowledges. It argues for the possibilities of working across difference as articulated in the transnational, border, and decolonial perspectives of Chicana/Latina feminisms. Specifically, it explores Gloria Anzaldúa's notions of…

  2. The Role of the Black Women in the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement and on to Transnational Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Gloria

    1999-01-01

    "As the title states I will be discussing the role that Black women in the USA have played in two major social movements in this Century - the Black Liberation Movement and the Women's Movement. Their roles were critical and pertinent forces in both movements. Subsequently, I will discuss their vision regarding globalization and transnational feminism." (author's abstract)

  3. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  4. Are steroids really the cause for fish feminization? A mini-review of in vitro and in vivo guided TIEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenk, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Feminization of fish has been reported throughout the world in freshwater and marine systems. While the population impacts are conflictive, enough negative effects warrant additional research into causation. In order to ascertain the identities of specific feminizing agents, variants of toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) have been employed. The majority of these evaluations have utilized in vitro estrogen receptor-based cell-lines to identify chromatographic fractions that possess biological activity from predominately wastewater derived from municipal treatment facilities and have concluded that synthetic and natural estrogens are the primary cause for feminization of fish. This paper will focus on three aquatic systems impacted by wastewater originating from purely domestic, and industrial/domestic secondary treatment systems. Wastewater and sediment extracts were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo biological responses in a TIE fractionation design. While in vitro responses tended to mirror in vivo responses in purely domestic wastewater systems, in vitro responses tended to severely underestimate in vivo estrogenic activity when normalized to estradiol equivalents in more complex systems. TIE fractionation schemes using in vivo biological responses failed to indicate any relationship to steroids in either wastewater or sediment extractions. These data consistently support the view that mechanisms other than direct ER binding and activation by toxicants may be important in the feminization of fish particularly residing in habitats that receive complex wastewater or agricultural effluents.

  5. Insecticidal, repellent and fungicidal properties of novel trifluoromethylphenyl amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikolia, Maia; Bernier, Ulrich R; Coy, Monique R; Chalaire, Katelyn C; Becnel, James J; Agramonte, Natasha M; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Clark, Gary G; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Swale, Daniel R; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2013-09-01

    Twenty trifluoromethylphenyl amides were synthesized and evaluated as fungicides and as mosquito toxicants and repellents. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (1e) was the most toxic compound (24 h LC50 1940 nM), while against adults N-(2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide (1c) was most active (24 h LD50 19.182 nM, 0.5 μL/insect). However, the 24 h LC50 and LD50 values of fipronil against Ae. aegypti larvae and adults were significantly lower: 13.55 nM and 0.787 × 10(-4) nM, respectively. Compound 1c was also active against Drosophila melanogaster adults with 24 h LC50 values of 5.6 and 4.9 μg/cm(2) for the Oregon-R and 1675 strains, respectively. Fipronil had LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.017 μg/cm(2) against the two strains of D. melanogaster, respectively. In repellency bioassays against female Ae. aegypti, 2,2,2-trifluoro-N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)acetamide (4c) had the highest repellent potency with a minimum effective dosage (MED) of 0.039 μmol/cm(2) compared to DEET (MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2)). Compound N-(2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)hexanamide (4a) had an MED of 0.091 μmol/cm(2) which was comparable to DEET. Compound 4c was the most potent fungicide against Phomopsis obscurans. Several trends were discerned between the structural configuration of these molecules and the effect of structural changes on toxicity and repellency. Para- or meta- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with an aromatic ring attached to the carbonyl carbon showed higher toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae, than ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. Ortho- trifluoromethylphenyl amides with trifluoromethyl or alkyl group attached to the carbonyl carbon produced higher repellent activity against female Ae. aegypti and Anopheles albimanus than meta- or para- trifluoromethylphenyl amides. The presence of 2,6-dichloro- substitution on the phenyl ring of the amide had an influence on larvicidal and repellent

  6. Control Effect of 35%Thiamethoxam-prochloraz FS to Plant Diseases and Insect Pests at Rice Seedling Stage and Safety Evaluation%35%噻·咪种衣剂对水稻苗期病虫害的防效及安全性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚善良; 李红阳; 周加春; 张俊喜; 顾慧玲; 孙星星

    2015-01-01

    The prevention and control effect of 35% thiamethoxam-prochloraz FS to rice thrips and rice bakanae disease and its influence on the quality of rice seedlings were studied. The results show that when 100 kg of rice seeds were coated with 200 g of 35% thiamethoxam-prochloraz FS,the control effects to rice thrips were 93.0% and 84.7% 15 and 20 days after sowing, and the control effect to rice bakanae disease was 90.8% 30 days after sowing. As 100 kg of rice seeds were coated with 250 g of 35% thiamethoxam-prochloraz FS, the control effects to rice thrips were 98.2% and 94.9% 15 and 20 days after sowing, and the control ef-fect to rice bakanae disease was 94.6% 30 days after sowing. 35% thiamethoxam-prochloraz FS is safe to rice seedlings and can effectively promote the growth of rice seedlings.%田间测定了35%噻·咪 FS对水稻蓟马、水稻恶苗病的防治效果和对秧苗素质的影响。结果表明,35%噻·咪 FS 200 g/100 kg包衣,播后15、20 d对水稻蓟马的防效分别为93.0%、84.7%,播后30d对水稻恶苗病的防效为90.8%,35%噻·咪 FS 250 g/100 kg包衣,播后15、20 d对水稻蓟马的防效分别为98.2%、94.9%,播后30 d 对水稻恶苗病的防效为94.6%,两者均对水稻秧苗安全无药害,且能够有效促进秧苗的生长。

  7. Fate and activity of fungal BCAs delivered to strawberry flowers and their potential for integration with fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    Grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a serious strawberry disease. Yield loss is prevented by repeated fungicide treatments during flowering which increases the risk of pesticide residues in berries. Fruit lesions are typically initiated from B. cinerea infected stamens or from dead infected......) the interaction between BCAs and B. cinerea on strawberry flowers, 2) the sensitivity of BCAs to strawberry fungicides, and 3) the effect of combined BCA+fungicide treatment on BCAs and on the indigenous mycobiota....

  8. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  9. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  10. Stereoselective degradation of chiral fungicide myclobutanil in rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    Myclobutanil, (RS)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-(1H-1, 2, 4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)hexanenitrile is a broad-spectrum systemic triazole fungicide which consists of a pair of enantiomers. The stereoselective degradation of myclobutanil was investigated in rat liver microsomes. The concentrations of myclobutanil enantiomers were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a cellulose-tris-(3,5-dimethyl-phenylcarbamate)-based chiral stationary phase (CDMPC-CSP) under reversed phase condition. The t(1/2) of (+)-myclobutanil is 8.49 min, while the t(1/2) of (-)-myclobutanil is 96.27 min. Such consequences clearly indicated that the degradation of myclobutanil in rat liver microsomes was stereoselective and the degradation rate of (+)-myclobutanil was much faster than (-)-myclobutanil. In addition, significant differences between two enantiomers were also observed in enzyme kinetic parameters. The V(max) of (+)-myclobutanil was about 4-fold of (-)-myclobutanil and the CL(int) of (+)-myclobutanil was three times as much as (-)-myclobutanil after incubation in rat liver microsomes. Corresponding consequences may shed light on the environmental and ecological risk assessment for myclobutanil and may improve human health.

  11. Environmental behavior of the fungicide metalaxyl in experimental tobacco field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidis, Vasilios; Hela, Dimitra; Patakioutas, George

    2013-01-01

    The loss of metalaxyl, a systemic fungicide, was determined in runoff water from loamy soil plots of various surface slopes cultivated with tobacco, over a period of 170 days. Conditions were selected to simulate agricultural practices employed in the Mediterranean region. The surface slopes of plots were 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10% and both cultivated and uncultivated (control) areas were simultaneously monitored. The cumulative losses of metalaxyl in surface runoff from tilled and untilled plots with a slope of 10% were estimated at 0.469% and 0.740% of the initial applied active ingredient respectively, while for the plots with a slope 0% they were 0.033% and 0.044%. The dissipation in topsoil was studied for a period of 110 days. The half-lives that were calculated using first-order kinetics ranged from 13.7 to 16.6 days in tobacco soil and from 13.8 to 17 days in non-cropped soil. The dissipation of metalaxyl from the topsoil in cultivation of tobacco was higher in comparison with the untilled plots (46-62% and 52-69% respectively, of the applied dose in 23 days after the second application). The slope of soil surface, the compound solubility and sorption capacities are the main parameters that influenced the transport of metalaxyl residues via surface water in soil-water systems.

  12. EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDAL EFFICIENEY OF IRANIAN MADE BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Imandel

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungicidal efficiency of Iranian made benzalkonium chloride named Akhgar, Afshang and Hamoon were evaluated on pure culture species of Aspergillus nijer, Candida ablicans and Mucour according to the standard method No. 2442 issued by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, from October 1993 to March 1994. Suspensions were prepared in a way that each cubic centimeter having 3.5×107 condia of Aspergillus nijer, 4×107 Candida albicans yeast cell and 2×107 Mucour spore, and Improved Neubauer slide counting cell were used for enumeration. These laboratory study showed that Lecithine and Tween were the best neutralizers with equal power. Usage of five dilutions of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1 fungus separately at 6.5 to 6.7 pH, confirmed the correctness of dilution figure of 0.4 percent proposed by producer companies and showed that these fungi are still sensitive against Benzalkonium Chloride disinfectants.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of the fungicide Mancozeb in agricultural workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Emanuela; Birindelli, Sarah; Fustinoni, Silvia; De Paschale, Gioia; Mammone, Teresa; Visentin, Sara; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina; Colosio, Claudio

    2005-10-15

    Available data suggest that ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs) may have immunomodulatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the immunological profile of farmers exposed to Mancozeb, an EBDC fungicide, through the determination of several serum, cellular, and functional immune parameters. Twenty-six healthy subjects entered the study, 13 vineyards exposed to Mancozeb and 13 unexposed controls. Exposure was assessed through the determination of ethylentiourea (ETU) in urine. Complete and differential blood count, serum immunoglobulins, complement fractions, autoantibodies, lymphocyte subpopulations, proliferative response to mitogens, natural killer (NK) activity, and cytokine production were measured. Post-exposure samples showed ETU urine concentration significantly higher than pre-exposure and control groups. A significant increase in CD19+ cells, both percentage and absolute number, and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD25+ cells were found in post-exposure samples compared to controls. A statistically significant increase in the proliferative response to phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA + ionomycin) was observed in the post-exposure group compared to controls and baseline, while a significant reduction in LPS-induced TNF-alpha release in post-exposure samples was observed. Overall, our results suggest that low-level exposure to Mancozeb has slight immunomodulatory effects, and point out a method adequate to reveal immune-modifications in workers occupationally exposed to potential immunotoxic compounds, based on a whole blood assay.

  14. Does farm fungicide use induce azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Kohata, Erina; Tateishi, Akira; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Hirose, Dai; Shibata, Yasuko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Hiroaki; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    Azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been reported worldwide and it would appear to be mainly due to a point mutation in the 14α-sterol demethylase (CYP51A) gene, which is the target enzyme for azoles. The mutation has been confirmed in isolates from patients who received long-term itraconazole (ITZ) therapy and from agricultural fields where high levels of azole fungicides were employed. However, the relationship between farm environments and azole-resistant A. fumigatus has not been fully studied. In this investigation, 50 isolates of A. fumigatus were obtained from a farm where tetraconazole has been sprayed twice a year for more than 15 years. The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isolates was 0.74 (0.19-1.5) mg/L against ITZ, which was below the medical resistance level of ITZ. The sequence of CYP51A from isolates indicated no gene mutations in isolates from the farm. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates to tetraconazole showed that spraying with tetraconazole did not induce resistance to tetraconazole or ITZ in A. fumigatus.

  15. Fenarimol, a Pyrimidine-Type Fungicide, Inhibits Brassinosteroid Biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keimei Oh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The plant steroid hormone brassinosteroids (BRs are important signal mediators that regulate broad aspects of plant growth and development. With the discovery of brassinoazole (Brz, the first specific inhibitor of BR biosynthesis, several triazole-type BR biosynthesis inhibitors have been developed. In this article, we report that fenarimol (FM, a pyrimidine-type fungicide, exhibits potent inhibitory activity against BR biosynthesis. FM induces dwarfism and the open cotyledon phenotype of Arabidopsis seedlings in the dark. The IC50 value for FM to inhibit stem elongation of Arabidopsis seedlings grown in the dark was approximately 1.8 ± 0.2 μM. FM-induced dwarfism of Arabidopsis seedlings could be restored by brassinolide (BL but not by gibberellin (GA. Assessment of the target site of FM in BR biosynthesis by feeding BR biosynthesis intermediates indicated that FM interferes with the side chain hydroxylation of BR biosynthesis from campestanol to teasterone. Determination of the binding affinity of FM to purified recombinant CYP90D1 indicated that FM induced a typical type II binding spectrum with a Kd value of approximately 0.79 μM. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the expression level of the BR responsive gene in Arabidopsis seedlings indicated that FM induces the BR deficiency in Arabidopsis.

  16. Interactions among cooling, fungicide and postharvest ripening temperature on peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Trujillo, J. Pablo; Cano, Antonio; Artes, Francisco [Postharvest and refrigeration Lab., Dept. of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. 'Miraflores') harvested at the firm-ripe stage, treated or not with 2 g l{sup -1} iprodione, were cooled or not at 1{sup o}C and ripened at 15 or 20{sup o}C and 95% RH for 10 days. During ripening, weight loss, fungal development and changes in quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ground and flesh color), and carbon dioxide and ethylene production were monitored. Cooling alone or combined with iprodione avoided Rhizopus nigricans decay during ripening at either ripening temperatures. A skin damage not previously reported on fungicide treated peach was observed at 20{sup o}C. Cooled fruit ripened at 15{sup o}C showed an anomalous respiration rate and ethylene production after the climacteric peak, a loss of firmness and a drop in titratable acidity after 7 days of storage, and reduced endo-polygalacturonase activity in presence of continuous pectinmethylesterase activity during the first week. Cooling before ripening at 20{sup o}C led to the best flavor without excessive total losses. These results helped in the optimization of warming cycles during cold storage used to avoid chilling injuries development on peaches. (Author)

  17. Sensitivity of four Yeasts to Fungicides and CO2 Concentrations and Their Antagonistic Ability in Combination with Fungicide to pathogenic Fungi in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shi-ping; YAO Hong-jie; QIN Guo-zheng; XU Yong; FENG Xiao-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The yeasts Cryptococcus laurentii,Trichosporon pullulans,Rhodotorula glutinis and Trichosporon sp.were used to investigate their sensitivity to four fungicides and different concentrations of CO2,as well as their antagonistic ability to Penicilliumexpansum and Alternaria alternata in vitro when applied with fungicide.There were significant differences in sensitivity to the fungicides among the different yeasts(P = 0.05).R.glutinis was more sensitive to Deccocil,Iprodione and Stroby as compared to other yeasts.Combination antagonistic yeasts with fungicide could more significantly enhance biocontrol ability of the yeasts against the pathogenic fungi in vitro(P = 0.05).C.laurentii was the most effective antagonist among the four yeasts and could completely control spore germination of P.expansum and A.alternata when combined with Stroby at the concentration of 100 μL L-1.The yeasts,except R.glutinis,could grow well on nutrient yeast dextrose agar (NYDA) after 8 d incubation even at 20% CO2 concentration at 25℃.Particularly Trichosporon sp.showeda better adaptability to low temperature as compared to other antagonists.

  18. O feminismo em novas rotas e visões Feminism on new routes and views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto se baseia no debate proposto por Mary Hawkesworth no artigo "A semiótica de um encontro prematuro: o feminismo em uma era pós-feminista", orientando-se por um olhar latino-americano-caribenho sobre as transformações do feminismo e as conquistas das mulheres em momentos cruciais dessa articulação, relembrando fases memoráveis como a renovação dos ideais feministas, a autonomia do movimento de mulheres negras e sua inter-relação com o ativismo negro e feminista, articulações internacionais sintonizados com a realidade/diversidade brasileira e a incorporação da agenda feminista nas instâncias governamentais. A autora expõe o dinamismo e a capacidade de retroalimentação do feminismo brasileiro, características que possibilitam a força necessária para sua sobrevivência e inovações harmonizadas com a evolução de valores sociais diante das conquistas decorrentes de sua existência nos cenários local, regional e global. Substancialmente, desenvolve o texto com ênfase no ativismo local como desencadeador de uma ação efetiva de Estado para eqüidade de gênero e raça.This paper is based on the debate proposed by Mary Hawkesworth in "The semiotics of a Premature Burial: Feminism in a Post-Feminist Age". It is guided by a Latin-American and Caribbean view of the transformations of feminism and of women's achievements in critical moments of that articulation, recollecting outstanding periods such as the renovation of feminist ideals; the autonomy of the black women's movement and its inter-relation with black and feminist activism; and international articulations tuned with Brazilian reality/diversity and with the incorporation of the feminist agenda within governmental instances. The author portrays how the verve and retro-feeding capacity of Brazilian feminism provide the necessary strength for its survival, as well as for its innovations which are consonant with the evolution of social values, leading to

  19. Contemporary Culture and the Undoing of Feminism: Review of Angela McRobbie's The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Henderson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A
 couple
 of
 times
 a
 year
 (usually
 around
 International
 Women’s
 Day
 or
 the
latest
 gender
 controversy
 there’ll
 be
 a
 journalist
 on
 the
 phone,
 asking
 me,
 ‘where
 is
 feminism
 now?’ 
Angela 
McRobbie’s
 The 
Aftermath 
of
 Feminism: Gender,
 Culture
 and
 Social
 Change
 provides
 the
 perfect
 answer,
 though
 one
 that
 probably
 won’t
 be
 dutifully
 reported
 in
 the
 pages
 of
 the
 Courier­ Mail.
 McRobbie
 has
 always
 been
 a
 preeminent
 figure
 in
 feminist
 cultural
 studies,
 and
 this
 work
 highlights
 her
 continuing 
importance.
Indeed, The 
Aftermath 
of 
Feminism
 reminds
 us 
of 
the 
power
 of 
feminist 
cultural
 studies 
to 
explain
 what’s 
going 
on,
whether
 this 
is 
in 
the
media,
 popular
 culture,
 everyday
 life,
 governmentality,
 the
 corporate
 world,
 or
 their
 interrelationships.
 And
 McRobbie’s
 diagnosis
 of
 ‘a
 social
 and
 cultural
 landscape
 which
 could
 be
 called
 post‐feminist’
 
is
 uncompromising,
 far‐reaching 
in
 scope,
 and 
deeply 
disturbing.

  20. Historicizing (bi)sexuality: a rejoinder for gay/lesbian studies, feminism, and queer theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelides, Steven

    2006-01-01

    One of the principal aims of queer theory has been to challenge heteronormative constructions of sexuality and to work the hetero/homosexual structure to the point of critical collapse. Despite an epistemic location within this very structure, however, the category of bisexuality has been largely marginalized and even erased from the deconstructive field of queer theory. This article explores some of the factors behind this treatment of bisexuality and suggests that bisexuality's marginalization and erasure brings into relief the strained relationship between the fields of gay/lesbian history, feminism, and queer theory. In exploring some early influential queer deconstructionist texts, it argues that in overlooking the role the category of bisexuality has played in the formation of the hetero/homosexual structure, the project of queer deconstruction has in important ways fallen short of its goals. The author concludes with a call to rethink conventional deconstructive reading practices.

  1. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  2. Liberating minds: Consciousness-raising as a bridge between feminism and psychology in 1970s Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruck, Nora

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the interrelations between psychology and feminism in the work of feminist psychologists and radical feminists in Toronto in the early 1970s. For Canadian feminist psychology as well as for second-wave activism, Toronto was a particular hotspot. It was the academic home of some of the first Canadian feminist psychologists, and was the site of a lively scene of feminists working in established women's organizations along with younger socialist and radical feminists. This article analyzes the interrelations of academic feminist psychology and feminist activism by focusing on consciousness-raising, a practice that promised to bridge tensions between the personal and the political, psychological and social liberation, everyday knowledge and institutionalized knowledge production, theory and practice, as well as the women's movement and other spheres of women's lives. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Feminization of Female Figures in Spanish Women's Poetry of the 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Keefe Ugalde

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines how women poets appropriate and transform man-made biblical and literary figures—Eve, Lot's wife, and Ophelia—in order to express female meaning. Poetry by women published since the democratization of Spain in the late 1970s serves as the basis of the study. Three strategies of feminization stand out. Enhancement reflects the predicament of poets living roles imposed by male denomination, but sensing the presence of a silenced, imprisoned self. Subversion is aimed at dismantling patriarchally defined reality, and revision corresponds to the constructive task of self-discovery. Poets, for example, embrace Ophelia, recognizing that their desperation (like hers is rooted in patriarchal order, and subvert the image of Lot's wife into a demand for autonomy. Eve is revised to communicate the awareness that female subjectivity is closely bound to female eroticism, and perhaps most astonishingly, poor, helpless Ophelia comes to symbolize woman's new freedom and power to inscribe herself.

  4. Searching for feminism: an analysis of community psychology literature relevant to women's concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelique, H L; Culley, M R

    2000-12-01

    Articles published in both the American Journal of Community Psychology and Journal of Community Psychology, from their inception in 1973 through 1997, were content analyzed for women relevance, diversity, feminism, and historical change. Overall, 9.8% of the articles reviewed (N = 2,178) were considered women relevant, 4% recognized diversity among women, and 3% were considered feminist. There was an average yearly increase in women-relevant and feminist articles from 7.3 pre-1990 to 11.2 post-1990, and 1.6 pre-1990 to 4.6 post-1990, respectively. Overall, mental health and motherhood were the most addressed content areas. Among feminist articles, gender roles and violence against women were most salient. Race and SES were the most noted issues of diversity in both women-relevant and feminist articles. While an increase in feminist publications by both journals is promising, stereotypes of women and other oppressed groups continue to be perpetuated.

  5. Disciplinary discourses: rates of cesarean section explained by medicine, midwifery, and feminism.

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    Lee, Amy Su May; Kirkman, Maggie

    2008-05-01

    In the context of international concern about increasing rates of cesarean sections, we used discourse analysis to examine explanations arising from feminism and the disciplines of medicine and midwifery, and found that each was positioned differently in relation to the rising rates. Medical discourses asserted that doctors are authorities on birth and that, although cesareans are sometimes medically necessary, women recklessly choose unnecessary cesareans against medical advice. Midwifery discourses portrayed medicine as paternalistic toward both women and midwifery, and feminist discourses situated birth and women's bodies in the context of a patriarchally structured society. The findings illustrate the complex ways in which this intervention in birth is discursively constructed, and demonstrate its significance as a site of disciplinary conflict.

  6. The Feminization of Primary Education: Effects of Teachers' Sex on Pupil Achievement, Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert

    2007-03-01

    Since the mid-1990s, considerable concern has been expressed about the feminization of education. The underlying assumption is that the increasing number of female teachers is leading to a lack of male role models, which may then have negative consequences for the achievement and behaviour of boys in particular. For this reason, policy is currently being pursued in several countries to increase the number of male teachers. In the present article, the theoretical foundation for this policy will be shown to be weak at best. To test this empirically, a large-scale study of Dutch primary schools was conducted, which involved 5181 grade eight pupils, 251 teachers and 163 schools. This study confirmed that teacher sex has no effect whatsoever on the achievement, attitudes or behaviour of pupils. This finding holds for both boys and girls, for both minority and non-minority pupils and for both children from lower and higher social-economic milieus.

  7. Development of a novel multiplex DNA microarray for Fusarium graminearum and analysis of azole fungicide responses

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    Deising Holger B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The toxigenic fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum compromises wheat production worldwide. Azole fungicides play a prominent role in controlling this pathogen. Sequencing of its genome stimulated the development of high-throughput technologies to study mechanisms of coping with fungicide stress and adaptation to fungicides at a previously unprecedented precision. DNA-microarrays have been used to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns and uncovered complex transcriptional responses. A recently developed one-color multiplex array format allowed flexible, effective, and parallel examinations of eight RNA samples. Results We took advantage of the 8 × 15 k Agilent format to design, evaluate, and apply a novel microarray covering the whole F. graminearum genome to analyze transcriptional responses to azole fungicide treatment. Comparative statistical analysis of expression profiles uncovered 1058 genes that were significantly differentially expressed after azole-treatment. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis for 31 selected genes indicated high conformity to results from the microarray hybridization. Among the 596 genes with significantly increased transcript levels, analyses using GeneOntology and FunCat annotations detected the ergosterol-biosynthesis pathway genes as the category most significantly responding, confirming the mode-of-action of azole fungicides. Cyp51A, which is one of the three F. graminearum paralogs of Cyp51 encoding the target of azoles, was the most consistently differentially expressed gene of the entire study. A molecular phylogeny analyzing the relationships of the three CYP51 proteins in the context of 38 fungal genomes belonging to the Pezizomycotina indicated that CYP51C (FGSG_11024 groups with a new clade of CYP51 proteins. The transcriptional profiles for genes encoding ABC transporters and transcription factors suggested several involved in mechanisms alleviating the impact of the fungicide

  8. Sterol-inhibiting fungicide impacts on soil microbial ecology in Atlantic Coastal Plain soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P. M.; Potter, T. L.; Strickland, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-five percent of the peanuts (Arachus hypogaia) produced in the United States are grown in the Atlantic Coastal Plain region. Portions of this area, including Alabama and Georgia, exhibit a subtropical climate that promotes soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Most fields receive repeated fungicide applications during the growing season to suppress the disease causing organisms, such as Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Cylindrocladium parasiticum. Information regarding fungicide effects on the soil microbial community, with components principally responsible for transformation and fate of fungicides and other soil-applied pesticides, is limited. The objectives of the study were to assess soil microbial community response to (1) varying rates of the sterol-inhibiting fungicide tebuconazole (0, single application, season max, 2x season max), and (2) field rates of the sterol-inhibitors cyproconazole, prothioconazole, tebuconazole, and flutriafol, and thiol-competitor chlorothalonil. The sterol-inhibitors exhibited different half lives, as listed in the FOOTPRINT database, ranging from 1300 d. Chlorothalonil was chosen because it is the most frequently applied fungicide to peanut. Shifts in the fungi, gram positive and gram negative bacteria, were monitored during the experiments using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Ergosterol levels and pesticide decay rates were also monitored to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungicide and soil residence time, respectively. In the rate study, the highest rate of tebuconazole reduced the fungal biomarker 18:2ω6,9c to 2.6 nmol g-1 dry soil at 17 d, as compared to the control (4.1 nmol g-1 dry soil). However, levels of the fungal PLFA biomarker were similar regardless of rate at 0 and 32 d. The gram negative bacterial PLFA mole percent was greater at 17 d for the two highest rates of tebuconazole, but was similar at 0 and 32 d. Gram positive and fungal mole percents were not affected at any time point

  9. Black Feminism: What Women of Color Went Through in Toni Morrison’s Selected Novels

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    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through.  By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter,  a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color  in Literature based on Morrison’s selected  novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and  struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of  women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones. Keywords: Feminism, Naturalism, Racism, Postmodernism, Sexism, Scapegoat

  10. (Un)Disciplined futures: Women of color feminism as a disruptive to white affect studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rojas, Claudia

    2017-07-03

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how women of color feminism predates and disrupts dominant dialogues in the field of White affect studies. I introduce the concept of White affect studies as an arena of inquiry that draws from Western-European theories and literatures and architects a sociopolitical structure of affect that positions White affects as universal. Scholars contributing to the field of White affect studies posit theories of affect, embodiment, subjectivity, phenomenology, violence, war, and more, while disregarding the theoretical contributions made by women of color feminism in thinking through these notions and social issues. This is done by engaging in a citational practice that results in an epistemic erasure of women of color feminist thought. The voices of women of color feminists are thus disqualified, and their theoretical contributions are not acknowledged as significant or relevant in conceptualizing affect, affective economies, and the social. By turning to the writings of women of color feminists, I demonstrate how their theories on embodiment, subjectivity, and social structures predate the institutionalization of White affect studies. Feminists of color from the past and present have and continue to theorize through a language of self their experiences as subjects embedded within matrices of violence, power, and pleasure. Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla write about the ways in which lesbian and queer women of color institute different affects that counter dominant structures of emotion, systems of power, and heterosexual modes of being. In developing conceptual methodologies, Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla are able to weave into the dominant discursive logic a language of self that both introduces new queer subjectivities, while reinterpreting existing forms of thought, thereby contesting mainstream economies of White affects and White affect studies. It is through a language of self that Lorde, Martinez, and Chinchilla develop

  11. Testicular Feminization or Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS in Iran: a Retrospective Analysis of 30-Year Data

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    Dariush. D FARHUD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS or testicular feminization is a partial or complete inability of cell response to androgen. The cause is enzymatic defect in synthesis of testosterone, resulting sexually immature phenotypically female, with primary amenorrhea. There are three categories of AIS, complete, partial and mild, depending on the degree of external genital masculinization. The aim of this study was to find out chromosomal abnormalities, and correlation between AIS and maternal/paternal age, parents' consanguineous marriage, family history and clinical observation, in Iranian AIS patients.  Method: This study includes a retrospective data analysis of 72,000 families' medical records in the Genetic Clinic in Tehran, during a 30-yr period (1984-2014. The essential basis for the patients' referral to the clinic by gynecologists was primary amenorrhea. Cytogenetic abnormalities has been confirmed by chromosome G-banding and conventional staining methods.Results: Seventy AIS female patients with 46XY pattern were cytogenetically diagnosed and the frequency of AIS syndrome was estimated about 0.05% (~70/140000. The results showed no association between AIS and maternal or paternal age nor were the marital pattern of the parents. The clinical findings illustrated that primary amenorrhea had the highest indication for referral of AIS patients for genetic counseling and cytogenetic study.Conclusion: No correlation was observed between AIS and maternal or paternal age or consanguineous marriages. Amenorrhea is the most clinically observed sign of AIS patients.  Keywords: Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS, Testicular feminization, Human androgen receptor (HAR, Amenorrhea, Iran

  12. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: long-term evaluation of feminizing genitoplasty and psychosocial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D K; Shilpa, Sharma; Amini, A C; Gupta, M; Aggarwal, Gautam; Deepika, Gupta; Kamlesh, Khatri

    2006-11-01

    Analyzing the long-term outcome in females with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is crucial to evaluate effectiveness of treatment strategies. The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term results in patients with CAH after feminizing surgery from the pediatric intersex clinic. Of 163 patients of CAH being followed (1980-2005), 50 responded for review. The patients had undergone feminizing genitoplasty and hormonal therapy. Evaluation included filling a detailed questionnaire along with physical examination and a structured interview in privacy. Assessment was performed for cosmetic results (50), psychosocial adjustment (42) above 5-year age, and functional outcome in 19 cases above 14-year age. Mean age at clitoroplasty was 3.6 years (1-16 years) and at time of the study was 14.6 years (4-23 years), with a mean post-op follow up of 6 years after the final surgery (6 months-17 years). The cosmetic outcome of clitoroplasty was excellent in 37, satisfactory in 10, and poor in 3. Gender identity was female, male, and mixed in 45, 4, and 1, respectively. The attitude to self and life was positive in 36 and negative in 6. The functional outcome of vaginoplasty was satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and undetermined in 11, 4, and 4, respectively. Endocrine control was satisfactory in 36/50. A novel assessment system has been adopted for analyzing the results of clitoroplasty and vaginoplasty. Endocrine control and surgical treatment are complimentary to each other to achieve satisfactory results in majority of CAH patients.

  13. The biopower of beauty: humanitarian imperialisms and global feminisms in an age of terror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mimi Thi

    2011-01-01

    As part of a feminist commitment to collaboration, this article, which appears as a companion essay to Minh-Ha T. Pham's "The Right to Fashion in the Age of Terror," offers a point of departure for thinking about fashion and beauty as processes that produce subjects recruited to, and aligned with, the national interests of the United States in the war on terror. The Muslim woman in the veil and her imagined opposite, the fashionably modern and implicitly Western woman, become convenient metaphors for articulating geopolitical contests of power as human rights concerns, as rescue missions, as beautifying mandates. This essay examines newer iterations of this opposition, after September 11, 2001, in order to demonstrate the critical resonance of a biopolitics of fashion and beauty. After the events of September 11, 2001, George W. Bush's administration launched a military and public relations campaign to promote U.S. national interests using the language of feminism and human rights. While these discourses in the United States helped to reinvigorate a declining economy, and specifically a flagging fashion industry (as Pham addresses in her companion essay), feminism abroad was deployed to very different ends. This article considers the establishment of the Kabul Beauty School by the nongovernmental organization Beauty without Borders, sponsored in large part by the U.S. fashion and beauty industries. Examining troubling histories of beauty's relation to morality, humanity, and security, as well as to neoliberal discourses of self-governance, the author teases out the biopower and biopolitics of beauty, enacted here through programs of empowerment that are inseparable from the geopolitical aims of the U.S. deployment in Afghanistan.

  14. Control of Fusarium head blight of winter wheat by artificial and natural infection using new fungicides

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    Olga Treikale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Latvia, climatic factors are influential in spreading of Fusarium head blight of cereals caused by Fusarium species. The most significant factor affecting the incidence of the disease in winter wheat is hightened temperature at the time of wheat anthesis. Field trials for the control of the disease in winter wheat were done in 2003-2004 using new fungicides applied at various rates by natural infection and artificial inoculation. Three species of causative agents: Fusarium avenaceum var. herbarum, F. gibbosum, F. culmorum were collected from infected seeds of wheat and used for inoculation of experimental plots at the concentration 106 conidia ml-1 (1:1:1 at the stage of full anthesis. Effective control of the disease was obtained through application of new fungicides with different active ingredient: Prosaro 250 EC (tebuconazole 125 G, prothioconazole 125 G L-1, Input 460 EC (spiroxamine 300 G, prothioconazole 160 G L-1. In conditions of artificial infection by severe attack of Fusarium spp. the application of fungicides containing tebuconazole at T3 gave significant influence on yield of winter wheat through plumpness of grains increase. High efficacy of fungicides against leaf infection with Erysiphe graminis and Drechslera tritici-repentis was also in the trial achieved. Application of fungicide containing cyproconazole and trifloxystrobin at T1 in the trial 2004 gave good control of Septoria tritici, E. graminis and D. triticirepentis.

  15. Synthesis and fungicidal activity of aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Bao-Ju; Ling, Yun; Miao, Hong-Jian; Shi, Yan-Xia; Yang, Xin-Ling

    2010-03-10

    Chitin, a major structural component of insect cuticle and fungus cell wall but absent in plants and vertebrates, is regarded as a safe and selective target for pest control agents. Chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) have been well-known as insect growth regulators (IGRs) but rarely found as fungicides in agriculture. To find novel CSIs with good activity, benzoylphenylurea, a typical kind of CSIs, was chosen as the lead compound and 26 novel aryl carbamic acid-5-aryl-2-furanmethyl esters were designed by converting the urea linkages of benzoylphenylureas to carbamic acid esters and changing the aniline parts into furanmethyl groups. The title compounds were synthesized and their structures confirmed by IR, (1)H NMR, and elemental analysis. Preliminary insecticidal and fungicidal bioassays were carried out. The results indicated that the title compounds had no insecticidal effect on Culex pipiens pallens and Plutella xylostella Linnaeus , but most compounds exhibited good fungicidal activities against Corynespora cassiicola , Thanatephorus cucumeris , Botrytis cinerea , and Fusarium oxysporum . In particular, compounds V-4, V-6, V-7, and V-8 showed better activities against the four strains than those of the commercialized fungicides. The morphologic result suggested that compound V-21 had disturbed the cell wall formation of C. cassiicola. The results indicated that modification on the urea linkage of benzoylphenylurea was an effective way to discover new candidates for fungicides.

  16. Effectiveness of Different Classes of Fungicides on Botrytis cinerea Causing Gray Mold on Fruit and Vegetables

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    Joon-Oh Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen causing a major problem in the export and post-harvest of strawberries. Inappropriate use of fungicides leads to resistance among fungal pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity of B. cinerea to various classes of fungicide and to determine the effectiveness of different concentrations of commonly used fungicides. We thus evaluated the effectiveness of six classes of fungicide in inhibiting the growth and development of this pathogen, namely, fludioxonil, iprodione, pyrimethanil, tebuconazole, fenpyrazamine, and boscalid. Fludioxonil was the most effective (EC₅₀ < 0.1 μg/ml, and pyrimethanil was the least effective (EC₅₀ = 50 μg/ml, at inhibiting the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Fenpyrazamine and pyrimethanil showed relatively low effectiveness in inhibiting the germination and conidial production of B. cinerea. Our results are useful for the management of B. cinerea and as a basis for monitoring the sensitivity of B. cinerea strains to fungicides.

  17. Fungicide residues in grapes determined the dynamics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during spontaneous wine fermentation

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    Čuš Franc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of three fungicides against B. cinerea (iprodione, pyrimethanil and f ludioxonil plus cyprodinil on the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation was studied. With regard to the use of fungicides in the vineyard at two stages of the grapevine growth we followed four different spontaneous fermentations: control, iprodione, pyrimethanil and f ludioxonil plus cyprodinil. The fungicide residues in the grapes were determined by GC/MS system and the fermentations were followed by changes in yeast, sugar, and ethanol concentrations using colony counting and HPLC. The karyotype analysis of 473 isolates was done by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The fungicide residues in the grapes at the harvest were below the maximum residue limits. Isolates of S. cerevisiae were classified into 15 karyotype groups. The duration of the processes and the populations of the karyotypes differed between the fermentations. The iprodione and control fermentations lasted 36 days with the prevalence of karyotype A while the fludioxonil plus cyprodinil fermentation lasted 50 days and karyotype D led the process. In the pyrimethanil fermentation, none of the karyotypes prevailed in the must and the fermentation lasted much longer than others did (68 days. The results showed that the fungicide residues have an influence on the fermentation kinetics and selection of S. cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous alcoholic fermentation and therefore should be considered as an important factor that may indirectly influence the formation of fermentation aroma in the wine produced by such process.

  18. Synthesis and anti-fungicidal activity of some transition metal complexes with benzimidazole dithiocarbamate ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; Ibrahim, Nasser A.; Attia, Hanaa A. E.

    2009-04-01

    Seven transition metal complexes of benzimidazole ligand (HL) are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA and DTA). From the obtained data, the complexes were proposed to have the general formulae [MX 2(HL)(H 2O)]· yH 2O, where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cr(III); X = Cl -, SO 42- and y = 0-4. The molar conductance data revealed that all the metal chelates were non-electrolytes. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it was found that the geometrical structure of these complexes is octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates showed that the hydrated complexes loss water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. Fungicidal activity of the prepared complexes and free ligand was evaluated against three soil borne fungi. Data obtained showed the higher biological activity of the prepared complexes than the parent Schiff base ligand. Formulation of the most potent complex was carried out in the form of 25% WP. Fungicidal activity of the new formulation was evaluated and compared with the standard fungicide Pencycuron (Monceren 25% WP). In most cases, the new formulation possessed higher fungicidal activity than the standard fungicide under the laboratory conditions.

  19. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioides mycelial morphology and fumonisin B 1 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Tatiana de Á.; Bordini, Jaqueline G.; Saito, Gervásio H.; Andrade, Célia G.T. de J.; Ono, Mario A.; Hirooka, Elisa Y.; Vizoni, Édio; Ono, Elisabete Y.S.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B 1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14 th day in the treatments and on the 10 th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B 1 production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment) was detected from the 7 th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control) it was detected on the 10 th day. The highest fumonisin B 1 production occurred on the 14 th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B 1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins. PMID:26221120

  20. Effect of fungicide on Fusarium verticillioidesmycelial morphology and fumonisin B1 production

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    Tatiana de Á. Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M on the mycelial morphology, sporulation and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium verticillioides 103 F was evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that the fungicide caused inhibition of hyphal growth and defects on hyphae morphology such as cell wall disruption, withered hyphae, and excessive septation. In addition, extracellular material around the hyphae was rarely observed in the presence of fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M. While promoting the reduction of mycelial growth, the fungicide increased sporulation of F. verticillioides compared to the control, and the highest production occurred on the 14th day in the treatments and on the 10th day in the control cultures. Fumonisin B1production in the culture media containing the fungicide (treatment was detected from the 7th day incubation, whereas in cultures without fungicide (control it was detected on the 10th day. The highest fumonisin B1 production occurred on the 14th day, both for the control and for the treatment. Fludioxonil + metalaxyl - M can interfere in F. verticillioides mycelial morphology and sporulation and increase fumonisin B1 levels. These data indicate the importance of understanding the effects of fungicide to minimize the occurrence of toxigenic fungi and fumonisins.