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Sample records for fungi metarhizium anisopliae

  1. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Transcriptomics of the Model Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. acridum

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    Shang, Yanfang; Duan, Zhibing; Hu, Xiao; Xie, Xue-Qin; Zhou, Gang; Peng, Guoxiong; Luo, Zhibing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Bing; Fang, Weiguo; Wang, Sibao; Zhong, Yi; Ma, Li-Jun; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Pei, Yan; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xia, Yuxian; Wang, Chengshu

    2011-01-01

    Metarhizium spp. are being used as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides, as model systems for studying insect-fungus interactions, and as a resource of genes for biotechnology. We present a comparative analysis of the genome sequences of the broad-spectrum insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae and the acridid-specific M. acridum. Whole-genome analyses indicate that the genome structures of these two species are highly syntenic and suggest that the genus Metarhizium evolved from plant endophytes or pathogens. Both M. anisopliae and M. acridum have a strikingly larger proportion of genes encoding secreted proteins than other fungi, while ∼30% of these have no functionally characterized homologs, suggesting hitherto unsuspected interactions between fungal pathogens and insects. The analysis of transposase genes provided evidence of repeat-induced point mutations occurring in M. acridum but not in M. anisopliae. With the help of pathogen-host interaction gene database, ∼16% of Metarhizium genes were identified that are similar to experimentally verified genes involved in pathogenicity in other fungi, particularly plant pathogens. However, relative to M. acridum, M. anisopliae has evolved with many expanded gene families of proteases, chitinases, cytochrome P450s, polyketide synthases, and nonribosomal peptide synthetases for cuticle-degradation, detoxification, and toxin biosynthesis that may facilitate its ability to adapt to heterogenous environments. Transcriptional analysis of both fungi during early infection processes provided further insights into the genes and pathways involved in infectivity and specificity. Of particular note, M. acridum transcribed distinct G-protein coupled receptors on cuticles from locusts (the natural hosts) and cockroaches, whereas M. anisopliae transcribed the same receptor on both hosts. This study will facilitate the identification of virulence genes and the development of improved biocontrol strains

  2. In vivo interactions of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria spp. and Metarhizium anisopliae with selected opportunistic soil fungi of sugarcane ecosystem.

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    Geetha, N; Preseetha, M; Hari, K; Santhalakshmi, G; Bai, K Subadra

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the interactions of entomopathogenic fungi viz., Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii and Metarhizium anisopliae among themselves and three other opportunistic soil fungi from the sugarcane ecosystem namely, Fusarium saachari, Aspergillus sp. and Penecillium sp. were assayed in vivo against Galleria mellonella larvae. The tested fungi were co-applied on IV instar G. mellonella @ 1 x 10(7) ml(-1), in combinations of two, at the interval of 24 hrs either preceding or succeeding each otherto assess their efficacy and sporulation rates. Results showed that often mortality rates did not correspond to the spore harvest of the mortality agent and presence of other fungus may be antagonistic. The efficacy of B. bassiana (90%) and B. brongniartii (100%) was not enhanced further but was negatively affected in most combinations with other fungi. In case of M. anisopliae compatibility was higher, resulting in higher mortality by application of B. bassiana before (100%) or after (83.3%) M. anisopliae than when it was applied alone (70%). During sporulation, B. bassiana faced the most intense competition from M. anisopliae (2.75 x 10(6) larva(-1)) and enhancement due to F sacchari irrespective of sequence of application. In case of B. brongniartii, sporulation was lowest in the combination of B. brongniartiipreceding M. anisopliae (1.83 x10(6) larva(-1)) and B. brongniartii succeeding B. bassiana (1.58 x 10(6) larva(-1)). Of all fungi tested, except F sacchari (65.33 x 10(6) larva(-1)) all the other species affected sporulation of M. ansiopliae with the least in treatment of B. bassiana application following M. anisopliae. Similar kind of interaction was observed during sporulation of soil fungi when combined with entomopathogenic fungi, though individually they could not cause mortality of larvae.

  3. Effect of Biofertilizers and Neem Oil on the Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

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    Hirose Edson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro fungitoxic effect of three biofertilizers, E.M.-4, Multibion Ô and Supermagro used in organic agriculture and the neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss on the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana was studied. These products were mixed in a medium where the two fungi were inoculated, and germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis were assessed. The biofertilizers Supermagro and E.M.- 4 showed to be less toxic for the two fungi whereas MultibionÔ caused major inhibition on M. anisopliae, with reductions in germination (-37.74%, colony diameter (-30.26% and conidiogenesis (-42.62%. Neem oil promoted a larger negative effect on B. bassiana, inhibiting germination (-45.27%, colony diameter (-36.62% and conidiogenesis (-84.93%.

  4. Pathogencity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotis ipsilon (Hufn.

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    A. Gabarty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed observing Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on Agrotis ipsilon larvae. SEM of A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appearing. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliae as declared by SEM showed a dense network together and cause the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is allowed tool to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  5. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  6. Anopheline and culicine mosquitoes are not repelled by surfaces treated with the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, are promising bio-pesticides for application against adult malaria mosquito vectors. An understanding of the behavioural responses of mosquitoes towards these fungi is necessary to guide development of fungi beyond the 'proof of concept' stage and to design suitable intervention tools. Methods Here we tested whether oil-formulations of the two fungi could be detected and avoided by adult Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus. The bioassays used a glass chamber divided into three compartments (each 250 × 250 × 250 mm: release, middle and stimulus compartments. Netting with or without fungus was fitted in front of the stimulus compartment. Mosquitoes were released and the proportion that entered the stimulus compartment was determined and compared between treatments. Treatments were untreated netting (control 1, netting with mineral oil (control 2 and fungal conidia formulated in mineral oil evaluated at three different dosages (2 × 1010, 4 × 1010 and 8 × 1010 conidia m-2. Results Neither fungal strain was repellent as the mean proportion of mosquitoes collected in the stimulus compartment did not differ between experiments with surfaces treated with and without fungus regardless of the fungal isolate and mosquito species tested. Conclusion Our results indicate that mineral-oil formulations of M. anisopliae and B. bassiana were not repellent against the mosquito species tested. Therefore, both fungi are suitable candidates for the further development of tools that aim to control host-seeking or resting mosquitoes using entomopathogenic fungi.

  7. Persistence of Brazilian isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. robertsii in strawberry crop soil after soil drench application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago; Mayerhofer, Johanna; Enkerli, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Establishment, persistence and local dispersal of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (ESALQ1037) and M. robertsii (ESALQ1426) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) were investigated in the soil and rhizosphere following soil drench application in strawberries between 2012 and 2013 at a single...... sequence repeat analysis. Both applied fungal isolates were frequently recovered from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of the treated plots, suggesting that they were able to establish and disperse within the soil. Persistence within the soil and strawberry rhizosphere for both fungal isolates...

  8. Ethanol production from chitosan by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia and the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

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    Aranda-Martinez, Almudena; Naranjo Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Abihssira García, Isabel Sofía; Zavala-Gonzalez, Ernesto A; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2017-11-01

    Chitin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and virtually unexplored as raw material for bioethanol production. In this paper, we investigate chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin which is the main component of shellfish waste, as substrate for bioethanol production by fungi. Fungal parasites of invertebrates such as the nematophagous Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc) or the entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) are biocontrol agents of plant parasitic nematodes (eg. Meloidogyne spp.) or insect pests such as the red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). These fungi degrade chitin-rich barriers for host penetration. We have therefore tested the chitin/chitosanolytic capabilities of Pc, Bb and Ma for generating reducing sugars using chitosan as only nutrient. Among the microorganisms used in this study, Pc is the best chitosan degrader, even under anaerobic conditions. These fungi have alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) encoding genes in their genomes. We have therefore analyzed their ethanol production under anaerobic conditions using chitosan as raw material. P. chlamydosporia is the largest ethanol producer from chitosan. Our studies are a starting point to develop chitin-chitosan based biofuels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathogenicity induced by the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in Agrotisipsilon (Hufn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouda, M.A.; Abas, A.A.; Ibrahium, A.A.; Salem, H.; Gabarty, A.

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed to observe B. bassiana and M. anisopliae adhesion and penetration structure on A. ipsilon larvae treated with the Lc 50 of the fungus, B. bassiana revealed adhesion and penetration structures in the infected larvae. Growth of the fungus on the infected larvae and signs of hyphal penetration of insect cuticle as well as proliferation of the cuticle were also appeared. On the other hand, the fungus, M. anisopliaeas declared by SEM showed a dense network together and caused the green spores on the insect cuticle. Also, SEM allowed observing the spores and hyphae of the fungus in the body cavity of infected larvae. Scanning electron microscopy is convenient tools to observe the mode of action of entomopathogenic fungi and to observe how they are able to colonize and infect the host.

  10. BEHAVIOR AND CYTOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride AFTER PASSAGE IN Chrysomya albiceps

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    Francisco Marlon Carneiro Feijó

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride are entomopathogenic fungi with proved action against several species of insects. In this work, the behavior and cytology of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae (PL43 and M. flavoviride var. flavoviride (CG291 were evaluated after the passage in eggs, larvae and adults Chrysomya albiceps, an important causer of secondary myiais. The experiment was carried out under an acclimatized environment's humidity and temperature of 60 ± 10% and 28 ± 1oC. The most expressive results of the biological parameters studied (percentage of germination, quantity of conidia, quantity and diameter of colonies were reached from re-isolated fungi of larvae. No significant differences were observed in the cytological aspects of the life cycle of the fungi post-passage in eggs, larvae and adults. These results suggest the possibility of the use of the fungi in the control of C. albiceps fly.

  11. Development of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana formulations for control of malaria mosquito larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukhari, S.T.; Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana have demonstrated effectiveness against anopheline larvae in the laboratory. However, utilising these fungi for the control of anopheline larvae under field conditions, relies on development of effective means of

  12. Cuticle Fatty Acid Composition and Differential Susceptibility of Three Species of Cockroaches to the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota, Hypocreales).

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    Gutierrez, Alejandra C; Gołębiowski, Marek; Pennisi, Mariana; Peterson, Graciela; García, Juan J; Manfrino, Romina G; López Lastra, Claudia C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in free fatty acids (FFAs) chemical composition of insects may be responsible for susceptibility or resistance to fungal infection. Determination of FFAs found in cuticular lipids can effectively contribute to the knowledge concerning insect defense mechanisms. In this study, we have evaluated the susceptibility of three species of cockroaches to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin by topical application. Mortality due to M. anisopliae was highly significant on adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica L. (Blattodea: Blattellidae). However, mortality was faster in adults than in nymphs. Adults of Blatta orientalis L. (Blattodea: Blattidae) were not susceptible to the fungus, and nymphs of Blaptica dubia Serville (Blattodea: Blaberidae) were more susceptible to the fungus than adults. The composition of cuticular FFAs in the three species of cockroaches was also studied. The analysis indicated that all of the fatty acids were mostly straight-chain, long-chain, saturated or unsaturated. Cuticular lipids of three species of cockroaches contained 19 FFAs, ranging from C14:0 to C24:0. The predominant fatty acids found in the three studied species of cockroaches were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Only in adults of Bl. orientalis, myristoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, arachidic acid, dihomolinoleic acid, and behenic acid were identified. Lignoceric acid was detected only in nymphs of Bl. orientalis. Heneicosylic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were identified in adults of Ba. dubia. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER and insecticide-susceptible (SKK strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide

  14. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously examined the effects of entomopathogenic fungi against adult mosquitoes, most application methods used cannot be readily deployed in the field. Because the fungi are biological organisms it is important to test potential field application methods that will not adversely affect them. The two objectives of this study were to investigate any differences in fungal susceptibility between an insecticide-resistant and insecticide-susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and to test a potential field application method with respect to the viability and virulence of two fungal species Methods Pieces of white polyester netting were dipped in Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 or Beauveria bassiana IMI391510 mineral oil suspensions. These were kept at 27 ± 1°C, 80 ± 10% RH and the viability of the fungal conidia was recorded at different time points. Tube bioassays were used to infect insecticide-resistant (VKPER) and insecticide-susceptible (SKK) strains of An. gambiae s.s., and survival analysis was used to determine effects of mosquito strain, fungus species or time since fungal treatment of the net. Results The resistant VKPER strain was significantly more susceptible to fungal infection than the insecticide-susceptible SKK strain. Furthermore, B. bassiana was significantly more virulent than M. anisopliae for both mosquito strains, although this may be linked to the different viabilities of these fungal species. The viability of both fungal species decreased significantly one day after application onto polyester netting when compared to the viability of conidia remaining in suspension. Conclusions The insecticide-resistant mosquito strain was susceptible

  15. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

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    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  16. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

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    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  17. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

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    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  18. External development of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis Desenvolvimento dos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana E Metarhizium anisopliae no cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis is one of the main pests of sugarcane and eucalyptus in Brazil, and the use of entomopathogenic fungi, alone or associated to chemicals, is an efficient and environmentally favorable method for its control. Studies related to the fungal development on these insects are important due to the effect of insect behavior on entomopathogens. The objective of this work was to describe the external development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on H. tenuis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, determining the duration of the different phases of fungal infection. Two fixation techniques for preparing SEM samples were also evaluated. Worker specimens of H. tenuis were inoculated with a 1 x 10(9 conidia mL-1 suspension of the fungi and maintained at 25±1ºC and 70±10% relative humidity. Insects were collected from 0 to 144 hours after inoculation and prepared on SEM stubs for each of the two fixation techniques. The results obtained with the two techniques were compared and duration of the different phases of the infection process were estimated from SEM observations and compared for three fungal isolates. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae have similar development cycles on the termite, but some important differences exist. The penetration, colonization and conidiogenesis phases are relatively faster for M. anisopliae than for B. bassiana, which results in a faster rate of insect mortality. The fixation technique with OsO4 vapor is suitable for preparation of insects to be used in SEM observation of the developmental stages of entomopathogenic fungi.O cupim subterrâneo Heterotermes tenuis , uma das principais pragas da cana-de-açúcar e eucalipto no Brasil, e o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos, isoladamente ou associados a produtos químicos, é um método eficiente e ambientalmente seguro para seu controle. Estudos relacionados ao desenvolvimento fúngico nestes insetos são importantes devido

  19. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE

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    IntroductionThe goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaer...

  20. Cecropins from Plutella xylostella and Their Interaction with Metarhizium anisopliae.

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    Lina Ouyang

    Full Text Available Cecropins are the most potent induced peptides to resist invading microorganisms. In the present study, two full length cDNA encoding cecropin2 (Px-cec2 and cecropin3 (Px-cec3 were obtained from P. xylostella by integrated analysis of genome and transcriptome data. qRT-PCR analysis revealed the high levels of transcripts of Px-cecs (Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3 in epidermis, fat body and hemocytes after 24, 30 and 36 h induction of Metarhizium anisopliae, respectively. Silencing of Spätzle and Dorsal separately caused the low expression of cecropins in the fat body, epidermis and hemocytes, and made the P.xylostella larvae more susceptible to M. anisopliae. Antimicrobial assays demonstrated that the purified recombinant cecropins, i.e., Px-cec1, Px-cec2 and Px-cec3, exerted a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against fungi, as well as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Especially, Px-cecs showed higher activity against M. anisopliae than another selected fungi isolates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM revealed that cecropins exerted the vital morphological alterations to the spores of M. anisopliae. Based on our results, cecropins played an imperative role in resisting infection of M. anisopliae, which will provide the foundation of biological control of insect pests by using cecorpins as a target in the future.

  1. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

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    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  2. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

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    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra; Ana Paula Duarte Pires; Elza Áurea de Luna Alves Lima

    2009-01-01

    The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C an...

  3. Control of Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae with entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in banana cultivation

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    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous use of pesticides promotes rapid and effective reduction of pests, however, this practice entails the pests the possibility of developing resistance by subjecting the farmer to change product constantly increase the dose or even mix or use more toxic products. Being Cosmopolites sordidus one beetle nocturnal that affect the banana tree because their larvae open galleries in its rhizome and lower pseudostem, resulting in decline, overturning and death of the plant. In view of this and the population's awareness of this problem, the greater has been the participation of organic agriculture in food supply. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of two entomopathogenic fungi in control of C. sordidus in banana cultivation. The trial was held in lot E-104, the Irrigated Perimeter of Baixo Acaraú, in Marco, Ceará state. The statistical design was completely randomized, in factorial 2 x 5, two fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metharizium anisopliae in five concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 g L-1, 5 repetitions each. We evaluated the number of insects for bait in each evaluation and the total number of captured insects. It was found that the fungus B. bassiana was more effective in controlling C. sordidus. It was also observed that the higher concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 g L-1 were more effective. We conclude that the biological control with B. bassiana can be used, as is shown adapted to climatic conditions in the study area.

  4. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agar culture media: potato dextrose agar medium (PDA), potato dextrose with 1% (w/v) peptone agar medium (PPDA), and oatmeal agar medium (OMA). 16 different isolates were identified as Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) based on ...

  5. Isolation and identification of Metarhizium anisopliae from Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2012-04-12

    Apr 12, 2012 ... 1Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (Key Laboratory of ... Keywords: Metarhizium anisopliae, isolation, identification, Chilo venosatus, culture medium, biological control. .... with a Leica microscope and average values were compared for all.

  6. Susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houping Lui; Leah S. Bauer

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibility of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) to selected strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin was evaluated through bioassays with direct immersion or foliar exposure under laboratory conditions. Results showed that A. planipennis adults were...

  7. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for the adult mosquito of Anopheles stephensi (Malarial vector). In the present experiment was carried out in the laboratory of 30-50 male and female adult mosquitoes were exposed to M. anisopliae (exposed to 1 x 106 ...

  8. The Impact of Culture Age, Aeration, and Agitation on the Production of Microsclerotia of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Using 100-Liter Fermentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microsclerotia are desiccation-tolerant, compact hyphal aggregates produced by numerous fungi as overwintering structures. We recently discovered that the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae produced microsclerotia during liquid culture fermentation. When air-dried microsclerotial granu...

  9. Biological insect control using Metarhizium anisopliae: morphological, molecular, and ecological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial control of insects is based on the rational use of pathogens to maintain environmentally balanced pest population levels, and Metarhizium anisopliae has been the most studied and most utilized fungal species for that purpose. The natural genetic variability of entomopathogenic fungi is considered one of the principal advantages of microbial insect control. The inter- and intraspecific variability and the genetic diversity and population structures of Metarhizium and other entomopathogenic fungi have been examined using ITS-RFLP, ISSR, and ISSP molecular markers. The persistence of M. anisopliae in the soil and its possible effects on the structures of resident microbial communities must be considered when selecting isolates for biological insect control.

  10. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, A.F.V.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Farenhorst, M.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have

  11. Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae leads to increased susceptibility to the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Annabel F. V.; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G. J.; Takken, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being investigated as a new mosquito control tool because insecticide resistance is preventing successful mosquito control in many countries, and new methods are required that can target insecticide-resistant malaria vectors. Although laboratory studies have previously

  12. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo, E-mail: jtoledo@ecosur.m [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Chiapas (Mexico). Dept. de Entomologia Tropical; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Subdireccion de Desarrollo de Metodos; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio [Secretaria de Agricultura, Ganaderia, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentacion (SAGARPA), Chiapas (Mexico). Programa Moscamed. Direccion de Operaciones de Campo

    2006-07-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  13. Use of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae for fruit fly control: a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo; Flores, Salvador; Montoya, Pablo; Campos, Sergio E.; Villasenor, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The potential of two species of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Met.) Sorokin, as practical fruit fly biocontrol agents is studied. These natural inhabitants of soil are found infecting a wide range of insect species that spend at least one stage of their life cycle in the soil. Sterile flies are used as vectors of the infection. A summary of results from different laboratory and field cage experiments is presented. (MAC)

  14. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis of two subspecies of Metarhizium anisopliae reveals a plethora of secreted proteins with potential activity in insect hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimoser, Florian M; Screen, Steven; Bagga, Savita; Hu, Gang; St Leger, Raymond J

    2003-01-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries for Metarhizium anisopliae, the causative agent of green muscardine disease, were developed from the broad host-range pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae sf. anisopliae and the specific grasshopper pathogen, M. anisopliae sf. acridum. Approximately 1,700 5' end sequences from each subspecies were generated from cDNA libraries representing fungi grown under conditions that maximize secretion of cuticle-degrading enzymes. Both subspecies had ESTs for virtually all pathogenicity-related genes cloned to date from M. anisopliae, but many novel genes encoding potential virulence factors were also tagged. Enzymes with potential targets in the insect host included proteases, chitinases, phospholipases, lipases, esterases, phosphatases and enzymes producing toxic secondary metabolites. A diverse array of proteases composed 36 % of all M. anisopliae sf. anisopliae ESTs. Eighty percent of the ESTs that could be clustered into functional groups had significant matches (Ehistory of this clade.

  15. Pathogenicity of local Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locusts and grasshoppers are the most important economical threat in the sahelian agricultural system. Principal control strategies of these pests are synthetic chemicals which are, however, harmful to the environment and human health. Metarhizium anisopliae based biopesticide Green Muscle IMI330189 has been ...

  16. Characterization of Metarhizium anisopliae using amplifed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edoja

    Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Molecular methods have revolutionized systematic entomology in the genus Metarhizium. ... Currently, there are three genera Metarhizium and nine varieties. This first genus is M.

  17. Efeito de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos de Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae = Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. on adults of Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Júnior

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a seletividade dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. e Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. sobre adultos do parasitóide Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov. Foram utilizados os isolados Esalq 447 de B. bassiana e E9 de M. anisopliae, na concentração de 107 conídios mL-1. Os resultados mostraram que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae não reduziram a longevidade média do parasitóide. B. bassiana proporcionou porcentagem de mortalidade total de 26% e porcentagem de mortalidade confirmada de 21%, já M.anisopliae causou mortalidade total de 15% e confirmada de 9%, demonstrando que M. anisopliae foi menos agressivo. Portanto, em função dos resultados apresentados, a implementação no manejo integrado de P. xylostella com M. anisopliae, B. bassiana e O.sokolowskii pode ser uma excelente alternativa para otimizar o sistema produtivo das brássicas.The selectivity of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to adults of the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov was evaluated. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and Esalq 447 of B. bassiana were used at the concentration of 107 conidia mL-1. The results showed that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae reduced significantly the mean longevity of the adults about 6.7 and 4.7 days respectively. B. bassiana induced 26% and 21% of total and confirmed mortalities, respectively, while M. anisopliae caused 15% and 9% of total and confirmedmortalities, showing that the isolate of M. anisopliae was less aggressive. Therefore, in function of the presented results the combination of M. anisopliae, B. bassiana, and O. sokolowskii in the integrated management of P. xylostella may be an excellent alternative for optimizing the cabbage growing system.

  18. Desenvolvimento dos fungos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 E Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 sobre Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835 Development of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff, 1879 Sorokin, 1883 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin, 1912 on the Ctenophephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise R. De Melo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A pulga Ctenocephalides felis felis é um parasita causador dermatites alérgicas e também pode transmitir diversos agentes etiológicos aos animais domésticos e aos homens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o desenvolvimento do fungo sobre a cutícula da pulga, através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os isolados fúngicos testados foram o Metarhizium anisopliae 959 e Beauveria bassiana 986, ambos na concentração 10(8 conídios/ml. Após a exposição dos isolados fúngicos no período de duas, 15, 26 e 96 horas , o material foi processado para a microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Com a obtenção das micrografias, pode-se observar que com 2 horas após exposição aos fungos, os conídios estavam aderidos por toda a cutícula, situando-se preferencialmente nas membranas intersegmentais do abdome. Com 15 horas observou-se a formação do tubo de germinação e a cabeça do apressório e após 26 horas foi possível observar as ramificações e o engrossamento das hifas sobre a cutícula das pulgas. Os resultados indicam que os fungos testados foram capazes de se desenvolver sobre a cutícula de C. f. felis.The flea Ctenocephalides felis felis is a parasite that causes allergic dermatitis and also may transmit etiologic agents to domestic animals and humans. This study investigated by scanning electron microscopy the development of entomopathogenic fungi on flea cuticle. Fleas were exposed to conidia (10(8 ml-1 of Metarhizium anisopliae (isolate 959 or Beauveria bassiana (isolate 986. Following standard protocols for electron microscopy, the specimens were prepared 2, 15, 26 and 96 h after infection. The micrography revealed that 2 h after fungus exposure, conidia attachments encompassed the entire flea cuticle, especially on abdominal intersegmental membranes. The emergence of germ tubes and appressoria formation occurred at 15 h, thickening and branching of hyphae on the flea cuticle was noted at 26 h. Therefore, both of

  19. Parameiosis in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (METSH.) Sorokin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagagli, E.; Valadares, M.C.C.; Azevedo, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Variations in the parasexual cycle, especially in relation to diploid instability, have been described in several fungal species. The process has been designated parameiosis; it is characterized by the emergence, from heterokaryons, of haploid and diploid recombinants, as well as the typical diploids normally recovered in a parasexual cycle. In the present work the occurrence of a similar process in Metarhizium anisopliae has been investigated. Conidia from heterokaryons formed between well-marked mutant strains, when plated onto appropriate selective media, resulted in the recovery of at least three main groups of colonies. The first group consisted of very unstable diploids or hyperhaploids; these, on plating of their conidia, produced several types of recombinant haploids. The second group consisted of already stable haploid recombinants formed by the breakdown of diploid heterozygous nuclei before conidial formation; and a third group, heterokaryotic colonies, which segregate only parental types. Parameiosis has been found in several Deuteromycetes and may play an important role in increasing genetic variability in these fungi. (author)

  20. Different strategies to kill the host presented by Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Fernández-Bravo, María; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-03-01

    Studies conducted over the last decades have shown the potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the biocontrol of some insect pests. Entomopathogenic fungi infect their host through the cuticle, so they do not need to be ingested to be effective. These fungi also secrete secondary metabolites and proteins that are toxic to insect pests. In this context, we analyzed the pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn.) strains IBCB 384 and IBCB 425 and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. strains E 1764 and E 3158 against Galleria mellonella (Linn.) larvae, during pre-invasion and post-invasion phases. The results showed M. anisopliae, especially strain IBCB 384, was most virulent in the pre-invasion phase against G. mellonella, whereas B. bassiana, especially strain E 1764, was most virulent in the post-invasion phase. During in vivo development and in the production of toxic serum, B. bassiana E 3158 was the most virulent. Different fungal growth (or toxin) strategies were observed for studied strains. Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 425 prioritizes the growth strategy, whereas strain IBCB 384 and B. bassiana strains E 1764 and E 3158 have a toxic strategy. All strains have pathogenicity against G. mellonella, indicating their possible use for biocontrol.

  1. [Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrich, Michele; Alves, Luis F A; Haas, Jucelaine; Da Silva, Everton R L; Daros, Alaxsandra; Pietrowski, Vanda; Neves, Pedro M O J

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 x 10(9) conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in the control of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiaoyun; Chen, Ze; Luo, Jin; Liu, Guangyuan; Guan, Guiquan; Liu, Zhijie; Liu, Aihong; Li, Youquan; Niu, Qingli; Liu, Junlong; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2016-06-01

    Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, a prevalent tick species in China, is an ectoparasite that preferentially infests small ruminants and can transmit Theileria sp. and Babesia sp. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of individual and mixed infections of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to H. qinghaiensis nymphs. The estimated LC50 for ticks immersed in solutions of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and a mixture thereof were: 5.88056 × 10(4), 2.65 × 10(4), and 2.85 × 10(4) conidia mL(-1) respectively, and the nymphal mortality ranged from 52 to 100 %. Thus, these results suggest a potential approach for the biocontrol of H. qinghaiensis.

  3. METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE DAN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA TERHADAP SERANGGA BUKAN HAMA SASARAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dini Yuliani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Metarhizium anisopliae and Andrographis paniculata to the natural enemies of Nephotettix virescens and non-target insect pests. This research was conducted in tungro endemic areas in Subang District, West Java in the wet season 2013/2014. The method of research used a split plot design with four replications. The main plot was IR66, Inpari 9, and Ciherang varieties. Subplot was the application of M. anisopliae, A. paniculata, and control. Observations were carried out five times started at nursery (2 weeks after seedling, 14, 28, 42, and 56 days after planting using insect nets, double swing 10 times on each plot observations. The results show M. anisopliae and A. paniculata not adversely affect on non-target insect pests such as Chironomid and natural enemies of N. virescens namely Lycosa pseudoannulata, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Sepedon sp., damselfly, Tipulidae sp., Telenomus sp., dragonfly, and Tetrastichus sp.. Efficacy of M. anisopliae and A. paniculata as one of the control strategies that are environmentally friendly and proved not harmful to non-target insect pests.

  4. Infection of silkworm larvae by the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucineia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The isolate E9 of Metarhizium anisopliae was used in commercial hybrids of Bombyx mori larvae to evaluate its biological effect. Symptomatological analyses showed typical signs of fungal infection. Histopathology revealed the presence of large numbers of hemocytes in the hemocoel, and on the sixth dpi the bodies of the insects appeared to be colonised by the fungus. The isolate E9 is pathogenic to larvae B. mori and; therefore, death of the insects was caused by the colonization of fungus in the epidermal and mesodermal tissues.

  5. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Simone A.; Paula, Adriano R.; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O. P.; Santos, Jonathan W. A. B.; Silva, Carlos P.; Samuels, Richard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Methods Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrati...

  6. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  7. Keragaman Genetik Metarhizium anisopliae dan Virulensinya pada Larva Kumbang Badak (Oryctes rhinoceros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Surya Bintang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the important pests of coconut tree. One of eco-friendly control applied for this pest is by using entomopathogenic fungiMetarhizium anisopliae. There is not much information about the variability and virulence of M. anisopliae toward O. rhinoceros. M. anisopliae isolates obtained from Biological Control Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada were cultured on PDA medium.M. anisopliae isolates was isolated from O. rhinoceros larvae (MaOr, Lepidiota stigma larvae (MaLs, Brontispa longissima beetle (MaBl.O. rhinoceros beetles were obtained from Kulon Progo, DIY. This study used molecular test, and virulence test toward 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae by using dipping method. Molecular test by sequence and phylogenetic analysis, showed that MaOr was located at different group (out group with MaLs and MaBr. On the density 107 conidium/ml MaOr and MaLs were more virulent than MaBl towards 3rd stadium of O. rhinoceros larvae. INTISARI Kumbang badak (Oryctes rhinoceros merupakan salah satu hama penting pada tanaman kelapa. Salah satu upaya pengendalian yang ramah lingkungan adalah dengan menggunakan jamur entomopatogen, yakni Metarhizium anisopliae. Belum banyak diketahui mengenai keragaman dan juga virulensi dari M. anisopliae terhadap O. rhinoceros. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keragaman genetik M. anisopliae dan virulensinya pada larva kumbang badak. Isolat yang digunakan berasal dari Laboratorium Pengendalian Hayati, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Gadjah Mada dalam bentuk kultur murni pada medium PDA. Isolat yang gunakan diisolasi dari larvaOryctes rhinoceros (MaOr, larva Lepidiota stigma (MaLs, dan kumbang Brontispa longissima (MaBl. Serangga yang diuji berasal dari daerah Kulon Progo, DIY. Pengujian secara molekuler dengan analisis sekuensing dan filogenetik, menunjukkan bahwa isolat MaOr terletak pada grup yang berbeda dengan MaLs dan Ma

  8. Differential allergy responses to Metarhizium anisopliae fungal component extracts in BALB/c mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intratracheal aspiration (IA) exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA), which is composed of equal protein amounts of mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible proteases/chitinases (IND) extracts/filtrates, has resulted in responses characteristic of human allerg...

  9. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae); Seletividade de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae a Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: profmichele@gmail.com, e-mail: evertonloz@gmail.com, e-mail: pedroneves@uel.br; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Lab. de Zoologia de Invertebrados], e-mail: lfaalves@unioeste.br; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda [Universidade do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal Candido Rondon, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias], e-mail: jubarth@gmail.com, e-mail: vandapietrowski@gmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10{sup 9} conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  10. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.

  11. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Ahmed, S.; Shahid, M.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10 10 , 1 x 10 8 , 1 x 10 6 and 1 x 10 4 conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT 50 values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  12. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, A. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). College of Natural Resources and Environment; Ahmed, S. [South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou (China). Dept. of Agricultural Entomology; Shahid, M., E-mail: solvia_aah@yahoo.co [University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-03-15

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 x 10{sup 10}, 1 x 10{sup 8}, 1 x 10{sup 6} and 1 x 10{sup 4} conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose dependent. There were no significant differences in the LT{sub 50} values between species. Field evaluation of M. anisopliae alone or in combination with diesel oil and thyamethoxam was carried out in two growing seasons (autumn 2005 and spring 2006) at two sites located in Punjab, Pakistan. Dipping the sugarcane setts in these suspensions was tried to determine their effects on germination and percentage of bud damage to sugarcane setts. All treatments significantly reduced termite infestation compared to the untreated control. The combined treatment of M. anisopliae and diesel oil significantly reduced insect damage by attaining higher germination > 55% and lower bud damage < 5.50% at both sites in both seasons. The results suggest that the application of M. anisopliae and diesel oil in combination might be a useful treatment option for the management of termites in sugarcane. (author)

  13. Laboratory and field evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae for controlling subterranean termites

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, A; Ahmed, S; Shahid, M

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of the Metarhizium anisopliae strain ARSEF 6911 was determined in the laboratory and field against two sugarcane pests, Microtermes obesi Holmgren and Odontotermes obesus Rambur (Termitidae: Isoptera). The susceptibility of both termite species to different conidial suspensions (1 × 10(10), 1 × 10(8), 1 × 10(6) and 1 × 10(4) conidia/ml) was determined in laboratory. All conidial suspensions were able to induce mortality. Termite mortality caused by the fungal suspensions was dose...

  14. Diatomaceous earth and oil enhance effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae against Triatoma infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Christian; Rodrigues, Juscelino; Rocha, Luiz F N

    2012-04-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, especially Metarhizium anisopliae, have potential for integrated control of peridomestic triatomine bugs. However, the high susceptibility of these vectors to fungal infection at elevated ambient humidities decreases in the comparatively dry conditions that often prevail in their microhabitats. A formulation adapted to this target pest that induces high and quick mortality can help to overcome these drawbacks. In the present study diatomaceous earth, which is used against pests of stored grains or as an additive to mycoinsecticides, delayed but did not reduce in vitro germination of M. anisopliae s.l. IP 46 conidia after >24h agitation without affecting viability, and did not hamper the survival of Triatoma infestans nymphs exposed to treated surfaces. The settling behavior of nymphs on a treated surface in choice tests depended on the concentration of diatomaceous earth and ambient light level. Conidia formulated with diatomaceous earth and a vegetable oil synergized the insecticidal effect of the fungus in nymphs, and quickly killed all treated insects, even at 75% relative humidity (LT(90) 8.3 days) where unformulated conidia caused only 25% mortality after a 25 days exposure. The improved performance of a combined oil and desiccant dust formulation of this Metarhizium isolate raises the likelihood for its successful mycoinsecticidal use for triatomine control and, apparently, against other domestic insect pests. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Host range findings on Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales in Argentina Espectro de hospedadores hallado en Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Hypocreales en Argentina

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    A. V. Toledo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural insect host range of the entomopathogenic fungi (EPF Beauveria bassiana (Bb and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma was investigated in Argentina during the winter of 2003 through spring of 2004. Fungi- infected insect samples (153 were collected from cornfields and the surrounding uncultivated areas in different localities of Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2, and Corrientes (3 provinces. The rates of Bb-infected host range varied among the Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% and Dermaptera (1.3%. While the rates of Ma-infected host range varied between the Coleoptera (0.7% and Hemiptera (34%. The greater host range resulted with B. bassiana found from eight species of Coleoptera (four families, one species of Dermaptera and four species of Hemiptera (three families, than the host range of M. anisopliae found infecting one species of Coleoptera and three species of Hemiptera (two families. We obtained 75 pure fungal isolates (48 Bb-isolates and 27 to Ma-isolates, and 56 of them (33 Bb-isolates and 23 Ma-isolates were morphologically characterized.El espectro natural de hospedadores de los hongos entomopatógenos (HEP Beauveria bassiana (Bb y Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma fue investigado en Argentina desde el invierno de 2003 hasta la primavera de 2004. Las muestras de insectos con infecciones fúngicas (153 fueron recolectadas a partir de campos de maíz y las áreas no cultivadas circundantes a los mismos, en diferentes localidades de las provincias de Buenos Aires (7, Tucumán (2 y Corrientes (3. El espectro de hospedadores infectados con Bb varió entre los Coleoptera (37%, Hemiptera (27% y Dermaptera (1,3%. Mientras que el espectro de hospedadores infectados con Ma varió entre los Coleoptera (0,7% y los Hemiptera (34%. El mayor espectro lo presentó Bb, encontrado en ocho especies de Coleoptera (cuatro familias, una especie de Dermaptera y cuatro especies de Hemiptera (tres familias, mientras que Ma fue encontrado infectando una especie de

  16. PERSISTÊNCIA DE Metarhizium anisopliae spp NO SOLO SOB DIFERENTES CONDIÇÕES DE TEMPERATURA E UMIDADE

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    Diana Mendonça Silva Guerra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungi entomopathogenic are actually objects of works according to their importance in the ecological system. This work analysed the persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae and M. anisopliae var. acridum, under different conditions of temperature and humidity, in the period of September to December. After inoculation on soil the fungi were submitted to four different treatments: environment temperature and 25% of humidity; environment temperature and 75% of humidity; 28º C and 25% of humidity; 28º C and 75% of humidity, during 120 days. The results show that M. anisiopliac var. anisopliae presented the most recuperation in the treatment at 28º C and 75% of humidity (P > 0,05 in 30 days and maintained a positive conditions on soil for 120 days of experiment. The same did not happen to M. anisopliae var. acridum that, during the whole process of observation and controll the colonies recuperation avoiding its persistence on soil, during the 120 days of experiment.

  17. Patogenisitas Isolat Beauveria bassiana dan Metarhizium anisopliae asal Tanah Lebak dan Pasang Surut Sumatera Selatan untuk Agens Hayati Scirpophaga incertulas

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    Rosdah Thalib

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathogeicity of Beauveria bassiana and  Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates from Fresh Swamp and  Tidal Lowland, South Sumatra for Scirpophaga incertulas Biological Agents.  The objectives of the research weret o explore and to determine the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic  fungi againts the larvae of Scirpophaga incertulas, and to measure conidial viability and density of the fungi.  The method for fungi exploration used larvae of Tenebrio molitor baiting submerged in the soil.  The soil was taken from fresh swampand tidal lowland rice in South  Sumatra.  From the exploration study, we found two species of entomopathogenic fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Mortality of S. incertulas larvae that had been treated topically with fungal conidia (1x106 conidia ml-1 varied among the isolates. The highest mortality (98.33% caused by BPlus isolate of B. Bassiana and the lowest by MtmIn  isolate of M. anisopliae (57.50% and BTmTr  isolate of B. bassiana (57.50%.  The fungal colonies grew fast from the second day up to the fourth day after incubation but the growth became slow after the fifth day.  The highest conidial density was resulted by   BPcMs of B. bassiana isolate (63.33x106 conidia ml-1 but  this density was not significantly different from that of the BPlus  of B. bassiana isolate (63.11x106 conidia ml-1.  The lowest conidial density found in BTmTr of B. bassiana isolate (20.97x106 conidia ml-1 .   The isolate B. bassiana was more effective than M. anisopliae againt the larvae of S.incertulas.

  18. [Potential of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and neem oil to control the Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, José M; Marques, Edmilson J; de Oliveira, José V

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest.

  19. Use of Metarhizium anisopliae Chitinase Genes for Genotyping and Virulence Characterization

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    Saliou Niassy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virulence is the primary factor used for selection of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF for development as biopesticides. To understand the genetic mechanisms underlying differences in virulence of fungal isolates on various arthropod pests, we compared the chitinase genes, chi2 and chi4, of 8 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae. The clustering of the isolates showed various groups depending on their virulence. However, the analysis of their chitinase DNA sequences chi2 and chi4 did not reveal major divergences. Although their protein translates have been implicated in fungal virulence, the predicted protein structure of chi2 was identical for all isolates. Despite the critical role of chitin digestion in fungal infection, we conclude that chi2 and chi4 genes cannot serve as molecular markers to characterize observed variations in virulence among M. anisopliae isolates as previously suggested. Nevertheless, processes controlling the efficient upregulation of chitinase expression might be responsible for different virulence characteristics. Further studies using comparative “in vitro” chitin digestion techniques would be more appropriate to compare the quality and the quantity of chitinase production between fungal isolates.

  20. Application of Bait Treated with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin for the Control of Microcerotermes diversus Silv.

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    Amir Cheraghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera, Termitidae is considered to be the most destructive termite in Khuzestan province (Iran, and its control by conventional methods is often difficult. Biological control using entomopathogenic fungi could be an alternative management strategy. Performance of a bait matrix treated with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, Strain Saravan (DEMI 001, against M. diversus was evaluated in this paper. The highest rate of mortality occurred at concentrations of 3.7 × 107 and 3.5 × 108 (conidia per mL. There was no significant difference between treatments, in the rate of feeding on the bait. The fungal pathogen was not repellent to the target termite over the conidial concentrations used. The current results suggest potential of such bait system in controlling termite. However the effectiveness of M. anisopliae as a component of integrated pest management for M. diversus still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  1. Evaluating the virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes and Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales isolates to Arabian rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus

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    M.W. Khudhair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Virulence of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were tested against Arabian Rhinoceros Beetle, Oryctes agamemnon arabicus larvae. Four concentrations (1×105, 1×107, 1×109 and 1×1011 conidia/mL–1 of two locally isolated entomopathogenic fungi spore suspensions were used in this study via larval direct spraying. Results revealed that both isolates can cause high mortality rate reaching 100% after 29 days. However, Beauveria bassiana scored higher mortality rate in short time especially at the concentration of 1×1011 conidia/ mL–1 with lethal time (LT50 12.75 and LT90 20.00; while, Metarhizium anisopliae caused the higher percentage of malformed adults. Moreover, both isolates affected insect’s life cycle particularly in the pupal stage which was reduced remarkably by almost 50% in comparison with the control treatment.

  2. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycetes) and permethrin to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Benjamin, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.

  3. Susceptibility of Seven Termite Species (Isoptera) to the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    Chouvenc , Thomas; Su , Nan-Yao; Robert , Alain

    2009-01-01

    Seven termite species (Isoptera) from five families were tested for disease susceptibility against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae using a standard protocol: Mastotermes darwiniensis (Mastotermitidae), Hodotermopsis sjoestedti (Termopsidae), Hodotermes mossambicus (Hodotermitidae), Kalotermes flavicollis (Kalotermitidae), Reticulitermes flavipes and Prorhinotermes canalifrons (Rhinotermitidae), and Nasutitermes voeltzkowi (Termitidae). Our results showed a large diversity i...

  4. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a laboratory investigation on the use of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. At a dosage of 1.6 × 1010 conidia/m2, applied on material that served as a mosquito resting site, an average of 87.1 ± 2.65% of

  5. Survival of anopheline eggs and their susceptibility to infection with Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana under laboratory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luz, C.; Mnyone, L.L.; Russell, T.L.

    2011-01-01

    The viability of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs over time and the ovicidal activity of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) were investigated. Eggs were incubated in soil or leaf

  6. The Effect of Water Content of Medium Containing Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae on Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogenicity

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    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocrealeswould effectively infect the target host on the appropriate medium water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water content of medium on the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae in the laboratory. Fifty healthy third instar larvae of O. rhinoceros were  obtained from field. The M. anisopliae obtained from Estate Crop Protection Board in Salatiga. The conidia density and viability of M. anisopliae were examined before used. The medium for maintaining the larva was the sawdust that had been sterilized. A total of 50 plastic cups were prepared to place 50 larvae (1 larva/cup. Each cup was filled with 100 g medium  of sawdust plus 2 g of M. anisopliae which was then stirred until mixed, with different water content: P1 (20%, P2 (40%, P3 (60%, P4 (80% and P5 (98%. The result indicated that  the water content of the medium affected the effectiveness of M. anisopliae fungus infection on O. rhinoceros larvae. The water content influenced the duration of larval mortality at each treatment. An important finding in this study is that controlling O. rhineceros larvae  with M. anisopliae can be done by manipulating the water content of medium. The benefit of this study may be used for the recommendation of O. rhinoceros pest control using M. anisopliae  with an effective water media content.

  7. Differential expression of the pr1A gene in Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium acridum across different culture conditions and during pathogenesis

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    Mariele Porto Carneiro Leão

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The entomopathogenic fungi of the genus Metarhizium have several subtilisin-like proteases that are involved in pathogenesis and these have been used to investigate genes that are differentially expressed in response to different growth conditions. The identification and characterization of these proteases can provide insight into how the fungus is capable of infecting a wide variety of insects and adapt to different substrates. In addition, the pr1A gene has been used for the genetic improvement of strains used in pest control. In this study we used quantitative RT-PCR to assess the relative expression levels of the pr1A gene in M. anisopliae and M. acridum during growth in different culture conditions and during infection of the sugar cane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius. We also carried out a pathogenicity test to assess the virulence of both species against D. saccharalis and correlated the results with the pattern of pr1A gene expression. This analysis revealed that, in both species, the pr1A gene was differentially expressed under the growth conditions studied and during the pathogenic process. M. anisopliae showed higher expression of pr1A in all conditions examined, when compared to M. acridum. Furthermore, M. anisopliae showed a greater potential to control D. saccharalis. Taken together, our results suggest that these species have developed different strategies to adapt to different growing conditions.

  8. EFEITO ANTAGÔNICO DE Trichoderma sp. NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF Trichoderma sp. ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. AND Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SOROK

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    Alcides Moino Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de Trichoderma sp. no desenvolvimento de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae. Trichoderma sp., B. bassiana (isolado 634 e M. anisopliae (isolado E-9 foram inoculados em meio BDA, com intervalos de 0, 48, 120 e 168 horas entre a inoculação de Trichoderma sp. e dos entomopatógenos. Avaliou-se o crescimento radial das colônias nos períodos de 48 e 120 horas após a inoculação de Trichoderma sp., sendo que este afetou o desenvolvimento dos entomopatógenos quando inoculado simultaneamente ou após 48 horas. B. bassiana e M. anisopliae desenvolveram-se normalmente quando inoculados 168 horas antes de Trichoderma sp.. Também foi avaliado o efeito de um extrato de Trichoderma sp. sobre os entomopatógenos, com a adição de 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio, onde foram inoculados os entomopatógenos. Foram medidos os diâmetros de colônias e o número de conídios produzidos por B. bassiana e M. anisopliae na presença do extrato. A concentração de 5,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio alterou o crescimento e a conidiogênese de B. bassiana. O fungo M. anisopliae foi afetado a partir da adição de 1,0 ml de extrato/100,0 ml de meio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of Trichoderma sp. on the development of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. The fungus Trichoderma sp. was inoculated on PDA culture medium, 0, 48, 120 and 168 hours after inoculation of the same plates with either B. bassiana (isolate 634 or M. anisopliae (isolate E-9. The radial growth of fungal colonies was measured 48 and 120 hours after Trichoderma sp. inoculation. Trichoderma sp. affected the development of both entomopathogenic fungi when inoculated simultaneously or 48 hours later. B. bassiana and M. anisopliae had normal development when inoculated 168 hours before Trichoderma sp. The effect of a toxic extract from Trichoderma sp. on the entomopathogenic fungi was also

  9. Effects of Fungicides on the Development of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Efecto de los Fungicidas sobre el Desarrollo del Hongo Entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

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    Maribel Yáñez

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin is an entomopathogenic fungus used for controlling different insect pests. It is most frequently applied to berry fruit crops, where fungicides are also used for disease control. Fungicides: azoxystrobin, benomyl, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione, and metalaxyl in concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg L-1 were evaluated in this research study. Vegetative growth, conidia germination, and conidia germination tube length were measured on the Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430, and Qu-M984 Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae fungus strains. Those strains were selected because of their present use against different insect pest in bramble fruits. Vegetative growth was measured through the colony rate growth in agar media, and those reaching up to 50% of the check growth were considered compatible. Results indicate that the benomyl and fenhexamid fungicides were compatible with the five isolates whereas, azoxystrobin and fludioxonil were incompatible. Furthermore, benomyl and fludioxonil reduced conidia germination by 53 and 91%, and germination tube length by 18 and 37%, respectively.Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin es un hongo entomopatógeno que se utiliza para el control de diferentes insectos, uno de sus usos más frecuentes es en frutales menores, donde también se utilizan fungicidas para el control de enfermedades. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto de los fungicidas azoxystrobin, benomil, captan, chlorothalonil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, iprodione y metalaxil, en concentraciones de 0,01; 0,1; 1; 10 y 100 mg L-1, sobre el crecimiento de la colonia, porcentaje de germinación de conidias y longitud de tubos germinativos de distintas cepas de M. anisopliae var. anisopliae. Las cepas utilizadas fueron Qu-M82, Qu-M151b, Qu-M253, Qu-M430 y Qu-M984, seleccionadas por su uso comercial para el control de diferentes insectos en frutales menores. El

  10. Differential pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae and the control of the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata

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    Patricia Vieira Tiago

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin isolates in controlling the sugarcane root spittlebug Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal (Hemiptera: Cercopidae, nine isolates obtained from a single geographical region were studied. 'Confirmed cumulative' and 'corrected cumulative' spittlebug mortality rates were measured for each of the isolates. Based on the confirmed mortality curve, the isolates URM5946, URM5951 and URM6033 were considered to be potentially the most effective in a biological control program for M. fimbriolata.

  11. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.B.; Alves, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  12. Differential susceptibility of adults and nymphs of Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae) to infection by Metarhizium anisopliae and assessment of delivery strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, R.B., E-mail: rblopes@cenargen.embrapa.b [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Alves, S.B. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia

    2011-05-15

    Microbial insecticides for cockroach control, such as those containing entomopathogenic fungi, may be an alternative to reduce contamination by chemicals in housing and food storage environments. Virulence of isolate ESALQ1037 belonging to the Metarhizium anisopliae complex against nymphs and adults of Blattella germanica (L.), and its infectivity following exposure of insects to a contaminated surface or to M. anisopliae-bait were determined under laboratory conditions. Estimated LD50 15 d following topical inoculation was 2.69 x 105 conidia per adult, whereas for nymphs the maximum mortality was lower than 50%. Baits amended with M. anisopliae conidia had no repellent effect on targets; adult mortality was inferior to 25%, and nymphs were not susceptible. All conidia found in the digestive tract of M. anisopliae-bait fed cockroaches were unviable, and bait-treated insects that succumbed to fungal infection showed a typical mycelial growth on mouthparts and front legs, but not on the hind body parts. As opposed to baits, the use of a M. anisopliae powdery formulation for surface treatment was effective in attaining high mortality rates of B. germanica. Both nymphs and adults were infected when this delivery strategy was used, and mycelia growth occurred all over the body surface. Our results suggest that the development of powders or similar formulations of M. anisopliae to control B. germanica may provide faster and better results than some of the strategies based on baits currently available. (author)

  13. The effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on different stages of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amóra, Sthenia Santos Albano; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Feijó, Francisco Marlon Carneiro; Pereira, Romeika Hermínia de Macedo Assunção; Alves, Nilza Dutra; Freire, Fúlvio Aurélio de Morais; Kamimura, Michel Toth; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Luna-Alves Lima, Elza Aurea; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2010-03-01

    The control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) vector is often based on the application of chemical residual insecticide. However, this strategy has not been effective. The continuing search for an appropriate vector control may include the use of biological control. This study evaluates the effects of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on Lutzomyia longipalpis. Five concentrations of the fungus were utilized, 1 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(8) conidia/ml, accompanied by controls. The unhatched eggs, larvae and dead adults previously exposed to fungi were sown to reisolate the fungi and analysis of parameters of growth. The fungus was subsequently identified by PCR and DNA sequencing. M. anisopliae var. acridum reduced egg hatching by 40%. The mortality of infected larvae was significant. The longevity of infected adults was lower than that of negative controls. The effects of fungal infection on the hatching of eggs laid by infected females were also significant. With respect to fungal growth parameters post-infection, only vegetative growth was not significantly higher than that of the fungi before infection. The revalidation of the identification of the reisolated fungus was confirmed post-passage only from adult insects. In terms of larvae mortality and the fecundity of infected females, the results were significant, proving that the main vector species of VL is susceptible to infection by this entomopathogenic fungus in the adult stage. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. effect of dry conidia formulations of metarhizium anisopliae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    In preliminary studies,. S. zeamais adults sprayed with M. anisopliae ... Initial cultures were stored at 4°C and sub- culturing was made for ... Significant differences between treatment means were compared at .... conidia attachment. Journal of ...

  15. Secondary metabolite gene clusters in the entomopathogen fungus Metarhizium anisopliae: genome identification and patterns of expression in a cuticle infection model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolau Sbaraini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The described species from the Metarhizium genus are cosmopolitan fungi that infect arthropod hosts. Interestingly, while some species infect a wide range of hosts (host-generalists, other species infect only a few arthropods (host-specialists. This singular evolutionary trait permits unique comparisons to determine how pathogens and virulence determinants emerge. Among the several virulence determinants that have been described, secondary metabolites (SMs are suggested to play essential roles during fungal infection. Despite progress in the study of pathogen-host relationships, the majority of genes related to SM production in Metarhizium spp. are uncharacterized, and little is known about their genomic organization, expression and regulation. To better understand how infection conditions may affect SM production in Metarhizium anisopliae, we have performed a deep survey and description of SM biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs in M. anisopliae, analyzed RNA-seq data from fungi grown on cattle-tick cuticles, evaluated the differential expression of BGCs, and assessed conservation among the Metarhizium genus. Furthermore, our analysis extended to the construction of a phylogeny for the following three BGCs: a tropolone/citrinin-related compound (MaPKS1, a pseurotin-related compound (MaNRPS-PKS2, and a putative helvolic acid (MaTERP1. Results Among 73 BGCs identified in M. anisopliae, 20 % were up-regulated during initial tick cuticle infection and presumably possess virulence-related roles. These up-regulated BGCs include known clusters, such as destruxin, NG39x and ferricrocin, together with putative helvolic acid and, pseurotin and tropolone/citrinin-related compound clusters as well as uncharacterized clusters. Furthermore, several previously characterized and putative BGCs were silent or down-regulated in initial infection conditions, indicating minor participation over the course of infection. Interestingly, several up

  16. Evaluation of Strains of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana against Spodoptera litura on the Basis of Their Virulence, Germination Rate, Conidia Production, Radial Growth and Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petlamul, Wanida; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2012-06-01

    Ten strains of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana were evaluated to find the most effective strain for optimization studies. The first criterion tested for strain selection was the mortality (> 50%) of Spodoptera litura larvae after inoculation of the fungus for 4 days. Results on several bioassays revealed that B. bassiana BNBCRC showed the most virulence on mortality S. litura larvae (80% mortality). B. bassiana BNBCRC also showed the highest germination rate (72.22%). However, its conidia yield (7.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL) was lower than those of B. bassiana B 14841 (8.3 × 10(8) conidia/mL) and M. anisopliae M6 (8.2 × 10(8) conidia/mL). The highest accumulative radial growth was obtained from the strain B14841 (37.10 mm/day) while the strain BNBCRC showed moderate radial growth (24.40 mm/day). M. anisopliae M6 possessed the highest protease activity (145.00 mU/mL) while M. anisopliae M8 possessed the highest chitinase activity (20.00 mU/mL) during 96~144 hr cultivation. Amongst these criteria, selection based on virulence and germination rate lead to the selection of B. bassiana BNBCRC. B. bassiana B14841 would be selected if based on growth rate while M. anisopliae M6 and M8 possessed the highest enzyme activities.

  17. CONTROLE ASSOCIADO DE Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE COM Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana E IMIDACLOPRID ASSOCIATED CONTROL OF Cornitermes cumulans (KOLLAR, 1832 (ISOPTERA: TERMITIDAE WITH Metarhizium anisopliae, Beauveria bassiana AND IMIDACLOPRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Janeiro Neves

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o de verificar em condições de campo a eficiência do controle associado de colônias de Cornitermes cumulans utilizando imidacloprid juntamente com fungos entomopatogênicos (Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana. Foram realizados experimentos de campo para determinar quais as concentrações mínimas de conídios e de imidacloprid que quando aplicadas em associação controlaram os ninhos de cupins, mas quando aplicadas em separado não foram eficientes. Isto ocorreu quando 500 mg de conídios do patógeno (M. anisopliae ou B. bassiana foram misturados a 1,9 mg do produto comercial Gaucho 70 PM (imidacloprid e 6 gramas do inerte calcene. Foi possível diminuir a concentração de conídios em até 4 vezes e a do inseticida imidacloprid em até 157 vezes em relação às concentrações usualmente recomendadas. Estas concentrações possibilitaram elevados níveis de controle dos ninhos grandes (>80%, com uma diminuição considerável no custo do controle. Além disso, é importante considerar os benefícios ecológicos advindos deste controle associado pela diminuição na quantidade de inseticida a ser utilizada. Deste modo, esta estratégia deve ser explorada como uma alternativa importante na eliminação das colônias grandes de C. cumulans.The objective of this study was to investigate, under field conditions, the control efficiency against nests of Cornitermes cumulans using imidacoprid associated with entomopathogenic fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Field experiments were conducted to determine the minimal conidia and imidacloprid concentration jointly applied, necessary to control termite nest, but when applied separately was not efficient. This occurred when 500 mg of conidia of the pathogen (M. anisopliae or B. bassiana were mixed with 1.9 mg of imidacloprid (Gaucho 70 PM and 6 g of the inert calcene. It was possible to reduce the conidial concentration 4 times and the

  18. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  19. Pengujian Toksisitas Akut Oral Dan Dermal pada Biolarvasida Metarhizium anisopliae terhadap Tikus Putih Spraque Dawley

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    Deni Zulfiana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute oral and dermal toxicity test against white rats was conducted to determine the toxicity and side effects of bio-larvacide (Metarhizium anisopliae crude extract on humans. In the oral test used a maximum dose 5000 mg/kg and dermal testing used a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg. Dose treatment and control tested to 5 Spraque Dawley male rats. The results showed that oral treatment with a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. In the dermal treatment with a dose of 2000 mg/kg did not cause mortality and did not cause changes in anatomic pathology of viceral organs. Based on these results LD50 acute oral M. anisopliae biolarvacide above 5000 mg/kg and the acute dermal is above 2000 mg/kg. It was therefore concluded that the formulation of Metarhizium anisopliae biolarvasida classified as not hazardous when used in accordance with the recommendation of the class I (WHO, 2003.

  20. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. Results M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. Conclusions MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress. PMID:24383424

  2. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system in evaluating M. anisopliae efficacy under desiccation stress.

  3. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels Richard I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Methods Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818 using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Results Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding, host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed levels. Conclusions Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged

  4. Susceptibility of adult female Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is modified following blood feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-05-26

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of dengue fever, is a target for control by entomopathogenic fungi. Recent studies by our group have shown the susceptibility of adult A. aegypti to fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae. This fungus is currently being tested under field conditions. However, it is unknown whether blood-fed A. aegypti females are equally susceptible to infection by entomopathogenic fungi as sucrose fed females. Insect populations will be composed of females in a range of nutritional states. The fungus should be equally efficient at reducing survival of insects that rest on fungus impregnated surfaces following a blood meal as those coming into contact with fungi before host feeding. This could be an important factor when considering the behavior of A. aegypti females that can blood feed on multiple hosts over a short time period. Female A. aegypti of the Rockefeller strain and a wild strain were infected with two isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae (LPP 133 and ESALQ 818) using an indirect contact bioassay at different times following blood feeding. Survival rates were monitored on a daily basis and one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan's post-hoc test or Log-rank survival curve analysis were used for statistical comparisons of susceptibility to infection. Blood feeding rapidly reduced susceptibility to infection, determined by the difference in survival rates and survival curves, when females were exposed to either of the two M. anisopliae isolates. Following a time lag which probably coincided with digestion of the blood meal (96-120 h post-feeding), host susceptibility to infection returned to pre-blood fed (sucrose fed) levels. Reduced susceptibility of A. aegypti to fungi following a blood meal is of concern. Furthermore, engorged females seeking out intra-domicile resting places post-blood feeding, would be predicted to rest for prolonged periods on fungus impregnated black cloths, thus optimizing infection

  5. Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks

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    Allan Felipe Marciano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Marciano A.F., Coutinho-Rodrigues C.J.B., Perinotto W.M.S., Camargo M.G., Gôlo P.S., Sá F.A., Quinelato S., Freitas M.C., Angelo I.C., Nogueira M.R.S. & Bittencourt V.R.E.P. [Metarhizium anisopliae: influence of pH on enzyme activity and control of Rhipicephalus microplus ticks.] Metarhizium anisopliae: influência do pH na atividade enzimática e no controle de Rhipicephalus microplus. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:85-90, 2015. Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 47, Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: vaniabit@ufrrj.br Rhipicephalus microplus ticks are one of the major agents causing substantial losses to livestock worldwide. In the search for alternative control strategies, both in vitro and in vivo use of the arthropodpathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae has shown promising results against this ectoparasite. During host colonization, protease production by M. anisopliae is considered one important virulence factor once it is directly related to the active penetration process carried by the fungus on the full host cuticle. Nevertheless, limitations as environmental pH may modulate the proteases production and/or activity, as well as, the fungal virulence. The current study aimed evaluate the virulence and total protease activity of M. anisopliae CG 148 sensu lato (s.l.. Fungal aqueous suspensions or 5% mineral oil formulations were used in different pH ranges (5, 7, or 9. Suspensions and formulations were prepared using a pH meter and adjusted to 108 spores mL-1. In the bioassay, four groups were formed for each pH range: the aqueous fungal suspension, the oil-based fungal formulation and their respective controls (aqueous and oil-based, totaling 12 groups. Engorged females were immersed for 3 minutes and maintained under optimal conditions for evaluation of biological parameters. Total protease activity of the artificial medium (after

  6. Infection of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae reduces blood feeding and fecundity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2006-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent against adult African malaria vectors. In addition to causing significant mortality, this pathogen is known to cause reductions in feeding and fecundity in a range of insects. In the present study we

  7. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fungal isolates from grasshoppers of the family Acrididae are suspected to be less virulent to grasshoppers of the family Pyrgomorphidae. The biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum was isolated from an acridid and is thus hypothesized to be less virulent to pyrgomorphids. Th...

  8. Autodissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae amongst adults of the malaria vector anopheles gambiae s.s.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    Background - The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is being considered as a biocontrol agent for adult African malaria vectors. In the laboratory, work was carried out to assess whether horizontal transmission of the pathogen can take place during copulation, as this would enhance the

  9. Exposure of bed bugs to metarhizium anisopliae, and the effect of defensive secretions on fungal growth in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs Cimex lectularius were treated with conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae by topical, spray, and contact exposure. One week post-exposure, inconsistent mortalities were observed, averaging 30% across all treatment groups and replicates. Microscopic examination of top...

  10. PENGARUH FORMULASI DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN PADA VIABILITAS, BIOAKTIVITAS DAN PERSISTENSI CENDAWAN METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE TERHADAP CROCIDOLOMIA PAVONANA FABRICIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraida .

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of formulations and storage length on the viability, bioactivity and persistence of Metarhizium anisopliae against Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius. Crocidolomia pavonana Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is important pest on vegetables form Brassicaceae family, that required to be control. Metarhizium anisopliae entomopathogenic fungus is one potensial of the biological agent that can be used to control C. pavonana. This study aimed to investigated the effect of storage duration on viability, bioactivity and persistence of M. anisopliae after formulated to control C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with the treatment was storage duration that included 2,4,6,8 and 10 weeks that replicated three trials. The variabels to be measured were viability and bioactivity at concentrations106, 107, and108. Field experiment used T Student test with treatment was duration of M. anisopliae formulation survive and its persistence on C. pavonana. Laboratory experiment results showed that the best storage duration of formulation on Metarhizium viability was pellet frmulation at 4th week 4 after storage. While the best bioactivity was pellet formulation with concentration 107 at 10 weeks after storage. Field experiment results showed that M. anisopliae formulation could be survived and its persistence to control pests C. pavonana until 4th day after application, either pellet or powder formulation.

  11. Controle de larvas de Boophilus microplus por Metarhizium anisopliae em pastagens infestadas artificialmente Control of Boophilus microplus larvae by Metarhizium anisopliae in artificially infested pastures

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    Lúcia Mara de Souza Basso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência do controle exercido por Metarhizium anisopliae na população de Boophilus microplus, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, e do híbrido Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., artificialmente infestadas com fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato. Trinta canteiros com 1 m² de área cada foram distribuídos aleatoriamente. Quinze foram pulverizados com esporos do fungo e quinze controles em cada forrageira, constituindo cinco repetições de cada tratamento, foram infestados com número e peso padronizados de fêmeas ingurgitadas do ácaro. Aplicou-se o fungo, na concentração de 1,8x10(8 conídios mL-1, em três situações: pulverização antes da infestação com o carrapato, após a infestação e posterioriormente à emergência das primeiras larvas nos capins. A ação do fungo foi avaliada no 35º, 38º, 41º, 48º, 55º e 61º dia pós-infestação, por meio da contagem de larvas recuperadas. Obteve-se controle de larvas do ácaro, que, nas avaliações realizadas entre o 35º e o 48º dia pós-infestação, variou entre 87% e 94%. As médias das contagens de estágios larvares do carrapato foram menores em todas as amostragens realizadas no capim-Tifton 85, indicando que houve efeito da pastagem na ação do fungo. A situação de aplicação influencia a atividade do fungo, com melhor resultado nas coletas realizadas entre o 41º e 55º dia após infestação em B. brizantha, e aplicação dos conídios logo após a emergência das primeiras larvas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus against Boophilus microplus population in Brachiaria brizantha and Tifton 85 (Cynodon pastures, artificially infested with tick engorged females. Thirty plots of 1 m² each were randomly distributed in fifteen treated and fifteen control groups per type of grass, establishing five repetitions for each treatment. Pastures were infested with engorged tick females

  12. Effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Control Oryctes rhinoceros Larvae in the Rainy Season.

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    Indriyanti, Dyah Rini; Widiyaningrum, Priyantini; Haryuni; Slamet, Muji; Maretta, Yoris Adi

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium anisopliae (MET) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are microorganisms that attack the larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros. The effects of MET, EPN and the combination of both on the O. rhinoceros larvae were studied during the rainy season in Jepara Indonesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of Metarhizium anisopliae and entomopathogenic nematodes to control Oryctes rhinoceros larvae in the rainy season. There were four level doses of MET, four level doses of EPN and four mixture of MET and EPN. The experiment used 72 containers that were placed in the garden with coconut palm shade. Five kilograms of organic soil that was mixed with biological control agents (MET, EPN and MET+EPN) and ten O. rhinoceros larvae 3rd instar were put in each other container. The data were analyzed by descriptive analysis. Every larvae mortality was observed once a week and observations are for 8 weeks. The result showed that the larval mortality due to MET treatment occurred on 2nd-7th week. Meanwhile, the larval mortality due to EPN treatment took place on 2nd-8th weeks and the larval mortality due to MET+EPN treatment occurred on 1st-5th weeks. The combination of MET and EPN was simultaneously effective to control O. rhinoceros larvae than separate use of MET or EPN. Result of this study showed that using two agents of biocontrol was more effective, so that it can be beneficial for controlling O. rhinoceros larvae in the field.

  13. A Field Experiment to Assess the Rate of Infestation in Honey Bee Populations of Two Metarhizium Anisopliae Isolates on Varroa Destructor (Acari: Mesostigmata

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    Khodadad Pirali-kheirabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (DEMI 002 and Iran 437C on the adult stage of Varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.Methods: A total of 12 honey bee colonies were provided from an apiculture farm. The selected hives were divided into 4 groups (3 hives per group. The first group was the control, treated with distilled water. The other two groups were exposed to different fungi (M. anisopliae isolates DEMI 002 and Iran 437C and the last group was treated with one strip of fluvalinate per colony. The number of fallen mites was counted using sticky traps during a 6-day period, six days before and after treatments. A fungal suspension at a concentration of 5× 106 conidia/mL was sprayed onto the frames and the number of fallen mites was counted.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae DEMI 002 and Iran 437C isolates were as effective (i.e., caused as much mite fall as the fluvalinate strip in controlling bee colonies than no treatment.Conclusion: Both M. anisopliae isolates are promising candidates as agents in the control of Varroa mites under field conditions. Isolate DEMI 002 can be considered as a possible non-chemical biocontrol agent for controlling bee infestation with V. destructor in the field. In order to substantiate this hypothesis, tests are currently being performed using larger colonies and larger doses than tested in the present study in our beekeeping.

  14. Effect of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) Sorokin, 1883 and its utilization aiming Diatraea saccharalis (FABRICIUS, 1794) control

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    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The effects of gamma radiation and ultraviolet in isolated of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch) Sorokin, and the utilization of this pathogen for the Diatrae saccharalis (Fabr.) control are studied. (L.M.J.) [pt

  15. Food consumption by Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and effects of feeding natural versus artificial diets on mortality and mycosis.

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    Tefera, Tadele; Pringle, K L

    2003-11-01

    Second and third instar Chilo partellus larvae were infected with Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (both at 1x10(8)conidia/ml) and daily consumption of maize leaves was measured. Infection by the fungi was associated with reduced mean daily food consumption. Reduction in food consumption became evident 3-4 days after treatment with the fungi for second instar larvae and 4-5 days for third instar larvae. Four conidial concentrations, 1x10(5), 1x10(6), 1x10(7), and 1x10(8)conidia/ml, were tested against second instar larvae. Food consumption dropped by 70-85% when the second instar larvae were treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml. Reduction in food consumption by C. partellus larvae infected with B. bassiana and M. anisopliae may offset the slow speed of kill of the fungi. The effect of artificial versus natural diets on mortality and mycoses of second instar larvae treated with the fungi at 1x10(8)conidia/ml was determined. Larvae provided with artificial diet suffered little mortality and mycoses than larvae provided with maize leaves. The LT(50) was longer for larvae provided with artificial diet.

  16. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

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    Greenfield, Melinda; Gómez-Jiménez, María I.; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.; Kramer, Matthew; Parsa, Soroush

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stem cuttings using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of cassava roots by both entomopathogens, though neither was found in the leaves or stems of the treated cassava plants. Both fungal entomopathogens were detected more often in the proximal end of the root than in the distal end. Colonization levels of B. bassiana were higher when plants were sampled at 7–9 days post-inoculation (84%) compared to 47–49 days post-inoculation (40%). In contrast, the colonization levels of M. anisopliae remained constant from 7–9 days post-inoculation (80%) to 47–49 days post-inoculation (80%), which suggests M. anisopliae is better able to persist in the soil, or as an endophyte in cassava roots over time. Differences in colonization success and plant growth were found among the fungal entomopathogen treatments. PMID:27103778

  17. Selection of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae Isolates to Control Triatoma infestans

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    Luz Christian

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty three isolates of Beauveria bassiana and 13 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae were tested on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans, a serious vector of Chagas disease. Pathogenicity tests at saturated humidity showed that this insect is very susceptible to fungal infection. At lower relative humidity (50%, conditions expected in the vector microhabitat, virulence was significantly different among isolates. Cumulative mortality 15 days after treatment varied from 17.5 to 97.5%, and estimates of 50% survival time varied from 6 to 11 days. Maintaining lower relative humidity, four B. bassiana and two M. anisopliae isolates were selected for analysis of virulence at different conidial concentrations and temperatures. Lethal concentrations sufficient to kill 50% of insects (LC50 varied from 7.1x105 to 4.3x106 conidia/ml, for a B. bassiana isolate (CG 14 and a M. anisopliae isolate (CG 491 respectively. Most isolates, particularly B. bassiana isolates CG 24 and CG 306, proved to be more virulent at 25 and 30°C, compared to 15 and 20°C. The differential virulence at 50% humidity observed among some B. bassiana isolates was not correlated to phenetic groups in cluster analysis of RAPD markers. In fact, the B. bassiana isolates analyzed presented a high homogeneity (> 73% similarity.

  18. [Interaction of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and the parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) with larvae of diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Hugo J G; Marques, Edmilson J; Barros, Reginaldo; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2006-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are broadly applied to control diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Diamondback moth is a major pest of cruciferous worldwide, and resistance of this pest to insecticide has been often reported. Thus, this research investigated the interactions among the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and the larval-pupal parasitoid Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov) before and after application of the fungi on DBM larvae offered to the parasitoid. The experiment was carried out at 26+/-l degreeC, 75+/- 5% RH and 12h photophase using a completely randomized design, with eight treatments with six replications each. The isolates E9 of M. anisopliae and ESALQ 447 of B. bassiana, were used at the concentration of 10(7) conidia ml(-1). The results showed that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana reduced the parasitism of P. xylostella by O. sokolowskii. Additive effects were found on the mortality of P. xylostella with the different combinations among the fungi and parasitoid, except for the treatment B. bassiana inoculated 24h before exposition of the larvae to O. sokolowskii. The isolates were more efficacious when applied after exposition of the larvae to the parasitoid. The efficiency of O. sokolowskii was negatively influenced by the presence of the fungi, mainly when the fungi were applied 24h before diamondback's larvae were exposed to the parasitoid. The association of the fungi with the parasitoid presents potential to be tested in field. The use of these natural enemies in the integrated management of P. xylostella may economically improve the cabbage productive system, especially for organic farming.

  19. evaluation of indigenous fungal isolates and metarhizium anisopliae

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    native fungal isolates against the lesser wax moth and assessing non target effect of one isolate of. Beauveria ... worst of which is the foulbrood, an invasive ..... 1934 and at present about 700 species of fungi in .... Original from American Bee J.

  20. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

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    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  1. Tekanan Metarhizium anisopliae dan Feromon terhadap Populasi dan Tingkat Kerusakan oleh Oryctes rhinoceros

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    Wtjaksono Witjaksono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the most serious pests in coconut palm tree. Biological control for controlling the pest is done by applying fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae on its breeding sites to infect the larvae. Recent development for controlling Oryctes beetle was including the use of pheromone trap baited with ethyl-4-methyl octanoic which attract both male and female of the Oryctes beetle. This research was aimed to determine the effect of combination of both entomopathogen and pheromone application on the population dynamics of rhinoceros beetle, and the intensity of leaf damage on coconut tree. For this purpose, a research was conducted in local farmer coconut tree in the Bojong Village, Panjatan District, Kulon Progo from June 2009−January 2010. Observation including leaf damage intensity before and after application, the number of adult beetle trapped by pheromone, and the number infected larvae in the breeding site. The result showed that there were significant differences among all treatments in term of intensity of leaf damage, the number of trapped adult beetle, and the number of larvae at the breeding site. Leaf damage on control, pheromone application, and combined treatment were: 4.73%; 1.08% and 0.65%. The number of trapped Rhinoceros beetle by ferotrap was 101; in combined treatment was 52. The number of M. anisopliae infected grub were 265 out of 281 total observed grub.   INTISARI Kerusakan tanaman kelapa akibat serangan Oryctes rhinoceros terjadi mulai pada tanaman muda. Mengingat besarnya kerugian yang ditimbulkan, maka perlu diupayakan cara pengendalian yang efisien, efektif dan aman bagi sumber daya alam dan lingkungan. Salah satu cara pengendalian secara hayati adalah dengan menggunakan cendawan patogenik Metarhizium anisopliae. Selain menggunakan cendawan, upaya terkini dalam mengendalikan kumbang badak adalah dengan menggunakan perangkap berferomon. Feromon dengan bahan aktif Etil-4-metil oktanoat dapat

  2. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE ON THE DIAMONDBACK MOTH (LEPIDOPTERA: PLUTELLIDAE AND ITS PARASITOID DIADEGMA SEMICLAUSUM (HYMENOPTERA: ICHNEUMONIDAE

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    Rosma Hasibuan, Nilly Christalia, F.X. Susilo1, and Nur Yasin .

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Potential Impact of Metarhizium anisopliae on the Diamondback Moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and Its Parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae.  Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of the Metarhizium anisopliae against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella and its parasitoid, Diadegma  semiclausum. A completely randomized design consisted of 5 treatments (4 concentrations of conidial suspension: 5 x 104, 3.5 x 105, 2.5 x 106, 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml and control was used.  The results indicated that the mortality of P. xylostella larvae were significantly induced by the fungal treatments.  A significant reduction in pupation and adult emergence of P. xylostella was also detected in all treatments when compared with that in the control. The fungus might also result in a male-biased sex ratio of the surviving P. xylostella. When applied at a concentration of 1.2 x 107 conidia/ml, M.  anisopliae might significantly reduce the survival of the parasitoid, D. semiclausum. Thus, despite its potential as a biological control agent against P. xylostella, the entomomogenous fungus M. anisopliae was also detrimental to the larvae parasitoid D. semiclausum.

  3. Neem oil increases the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

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    Gomes, Simone A; Paula, Adriano R; Ribeiro, Anderson; Moraes, Catia O P; Santos, Jonathan W A B; Silva, Carlos P; Samuels, Richard I

    2015-12-30

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management and many isolates are compatible with synthetic and natural insecticides. Neem oil was tested separately and in combination with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larvae of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Our aim was to increase the effectiveness of the fungus for the control of larval mosquito populations. Commercially available neem oil was used at concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 1%. Larval survival rates were monitored over a 7 day period following exposure to neem. The virulence of the fungus M. anisopliae was confirmed using five conidial concentrations (1 × 10(5) to 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)) and survival monitored over 7 days. Two concentrations of fungal conidia were then tested together with neem (0.001%). Survival curve comparisons were carried out using the Log-rank test and end-point survival rates were compared using one-way ANOVA. 1% neem was toxic to A. aegypti larvae reducing survival to 18% with S50 of 2 days. Neem had no effect on conidial germination or fungal vegetative growth in vitro. Larval survival rates were reduced to 24% (S50 = 3 days) when using 1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1). Using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), 30% survival (S50 = 3 days) was observed. We tested a "sub-lethal" neem concentration (0.001%) together with these concentrations of conidia. For combinations of neem + fungus, the survival rates were significantly lower than the survival rates seen for fungus alone or for neem alone. Using a combination of 1 × 10(7) conidia mL(-1) + neem (0.001%), the survival rates were 36%, whereas exposure to the fungus alone resulted in 74% survival and exposure to neem alone resulted in 78% survival. When using 1 × 10(8) conidia mL(-1), the survival curves were modified, with a combination of the fungus + neem resulting in 12% survival, whilst the fungus alone at this concentration also

  4. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Samuels Richard I

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI was added to fungal suspensions. Results A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 109 conidia mL-1. Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. Conclusions This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides

  5. The combination of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with the insecticide Imidacloprid increases virulence against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

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    Paula, Adriano R; Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Cátia O; Samuels, Richard I

    2011-01-25

    Dengue fever transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, is one of the most rapidly spreading insect borne diseases, stimulating the search for alternatives to current control measures. The dengue vector A. aegypti has received less attention than anophelene species, although more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection worldwide. Entomopathogenic fungi are emerging as potential candidates for the control of mosquitoes. Here we continue our studies on the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against adult A. aegypti females. With the aim of further reducing mean survival times of A. aegypti exposed to fungus impregnated surfaces, a sub-lethal concentration of the neonicotinoid insecticide Imidacloprid (IMI) was added to fungal suspensions. A sub-lethal concentration of IMI that did not significantly alter the daily survival rates or mean survival percentages of mosquitoes was identified to be 0.1 ppm. This sub-lethal concentration was combined with M. anisopliae conidia (1 × 10(9) conidia mL(-1)). Both the combined treatment and the conidia alone were able to reduce the survival of A. aegypti compared with untreated or IMI treated mosquitoes. Importantly, mosquito survival following exposure to the combined treatment for 6 and 12 hrs was significantly reduced when compared with mosquitoes exposed to conidia alone. This is the first time that a combination of an insecticide and an entomopathogenic fungus has been tested against A. aegypti. Firstly, the study showed the potential of IMI as an alternative to the currently employed pyrethroid adulticides. Secondly, as an alternative to applications of high concentrations of chemical insecticides, we suggest that adult A. aegypti could be controlled by surface application of entomopathogenic fungi and that the efficiency of these fungi could be increased by combining the fungi with ultra-low concentrations of insecticides, resulting in higher mortality following relatively short

  6. Production of Conidia by the Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Using Solid-State Fermentation.

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    Loera-Corral, Octavio; Porcayo-Loza, Javier; Montesinos-Matias, Roberto; Favela-Torres, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the production of conidia by Metarhizium anisopliae using solid-state fermentation. Before production of conidia, procedures for strains conservation, reactivation, and propagation are essential in order to provide genetic stability of the strains. The strain is conserved in freeze-dried vials and then reactivated through insect inoculation. Rice is used as a substrate for the conidia production in two different bioreactors: plastic bags and tubular bioreactor. The CO2 production in the tubular bioreactors is measured with a respirometer; this system allows calculating indirect growth parameters as lag time (tlag) (25-35 h), maximum rate of CO2 production (rCO2 max) (0.5-0.7 mg/gdm h), specific rate of CO2 production (μ) (0.10-0.15 1/h), and final CO2 production (CO2) (100-120 mg/gdm). Conidial yield per gram of dry substrate (gdm) should be above 1 × 10(9) conidia/gdm after 10 days of incubation. Germination and viability of conidia obtained after 10 days of incubation should be above 80 % and 75 %, respectively. Bioassays using of Tenebrio molitor as a host insect should yield a final mortality above 80 %.

  7. Effect of two dosages of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides Rehn

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    Faria Marcos Rodrigues de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, strain CG 423, was tested under field conditions against the gregarious grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn (Orthoptera: Acrididae. Conidia formulated in a racemic mixture of soybean oil and kerosene were sprayed under field conditions using an ultralow-volume hand-held atomizer Ulva Plus adjusted to deliver 2.9 L/ha. Bands composed of 2nd instar nymphs were treated with either 5.0x10(12 or 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. The number of insects in each band was estimated at day one following spraying and by the end of the field trial (15 to 16 days post-treatment. Reductions in population size reached, in average, 65.8% and 80.4% for bands treated with the higher and lower dosage, respectively. For both dosages, total mortality rates of insects collected at two days post-application, and kept in cages for 14 days under lab conditions, showed no significant differences as compared to that obtained with insects collected immediately after spraying. Healthy insects were fed to native grasses sprayed on the field with 1.0x10(13 viable conidia/ha. Mortality levels of the nymphs fed on grasses collected two and four days post-application were not affected when compared to nymphs fed on grasses collected immediately following application.

  8. Enhancing Growth of Vigna radiata in the Presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biopolymer and Metarhizium anisopliae Spores

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    Bhagwan N. Rekadwad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharide producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2945 (PANCL belonging to gamma-proteobacterium and entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae MCC 1129 (MAMCC belonging to Ascomycota were studied for their morphological features biochemical characteristics and plant growth promotion ability. Optimum growth of PANCL was recorded after 24 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. Gram-negative PANCL appeared as white in color, one mm size, circular, opaque, and nonconsistent elevated colonies with entire margin. It has utilized dextrose, fructose, maltose, and sorbitol as carbon source and produced acid in the medium. PANCL was sensitive to Polymyxin B (300 µgm/disc followed by Neomycin (30 µgm/disc, Gentamycin (10 µgm/disc, and Chloramphenicol (30 µgm/disc. PANCL has secreted extracellular lipase, amylase, protease, and exopolysaccharides (EPS. Another fungal strain MAMCC sporulated after 168 h at temperature 30°C and pH 7.0. MAMCC has septate-white mycelium and bears dirty green colored spores. Growth of MAMCC was enhanced in the presence of Neem and Karela-Amla oil (0.1 mL each. Extracellular polysaccharide produced by PANCL and spores of MAMCC promoted growth of dicotyledon Vigna radiata (Mung individually as well as in consortium. Considerable increase in dry weight of Vigna radiata was recorded. Thus, reported PANCL and MAMCC strains have promoted growth Vigna radiata and may be a solution for sustainable agriculture.

  9. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae; Caracterizacao dos hemocitos de operarios de Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) e avaliacao hemocitaria apos parasitismo por Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Entomologia Agricola], e-mail: ukento@yahoo.com.br; Teixeira, Alvaro A.C. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Morfologia e Fisiologia Animal], e-mail: valeria@dmfa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: auritermes@yahoo.com.br; Alves, Luiz C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA); Lima, Elza A.L.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Micologia. Lab. de Controle Biologico

    2009-03-15

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  10. First report of Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46 pathogenicity in adult Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis (Diptera; Culicidae

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    Lyimo Issa N

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae isolate IP 46, originating from a soil sample collected in 2001 in the Cerrado of Central Brazil, was tested for its ability to reduce the survival of adult male and female Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis mosquitoes. A 6-h exposure to the fungus coated on test paper at a concentration of 3.3 × 106 conidia cm-2 reduced the daily survival of both mosquito species (HR = 3.14, p An. gambiae s.s relative to An. arabiensis (HR = 1.38, p 95% of mosquito cadavers in the treatment groups. The results indicate that M. anisopliae IP 46 has the potential to be a bio-control agent for African malaria vector species, and is a suitable candidate for further research and development.

  11. Prospects of using Metarhizium anisopliae to check the breeding of insect pest, Oryctes rhinoceros L. in coconut leaf vermicomposting sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Murali; Gupta, Alka; Thomas, George V

    2006-10-01

    During vermicomposting of coconut leaves by the earthworm Eudrilus sp., Oryctes rhinoceros L. (rhinoceros beetle), an insect pest of palms, was found to breed in the decomposing organic material. Metarhizium anisopliae var. major was tried as a biocontrol agent for management of this pest. The effect of pathogen at spore loads of 10(3), 10(4) and 10(5) per 10 g of substrate was tested in laboratory on Eudrilus sp. kept with O. rhinoceros grubs and on Eudrilus sp. alone for the pathogenic capability of the fungus on the pest and its possible toxicity towards the vermin. The efficacy of the entomopathogen was also tested in the field in vermicomposting tanks. In laboratory bioassay, 100% mycosis of O. rhinoceros grubs could be obtained while the entomopathogen had no toxic effect on the earthworms. There was a positive change in the number and weight of the earthworms on treatment with M. anisopliae. In the field, application of M. anisopliae reduced O. rhinoceros grubs in the vermicomposting tanks upto an extent of 72%. In conclusion, M. anisopliae could effectively control O. rhinoceros in vermicomposting sites and was non-hazardous to the vermicomposting process as well as the Eudrilus sp.

  12. Effect of natural pesticides and plant extracts on biological parameters of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. SorokEfeito de defensivos agrícolas naturais e extratos vegetais sobre parâmetros biológicos de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok

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    Luis Francisco Angeli Alves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the effect and compatibility of vegetal and Pycnoporus sanguineus basidiocarps extracts and alternative products on biological parameters of Metarhizium anisopliae fungus. Extracts (solution in water 10% and natural products (AR = average field recommendation; 0.5 AR and 2.0 AR are applied on PDA culture media surface previously inoculated with fungi conidia. The effect of the treatment on conidia germination, vegetative growth and conidiogenesis was compared. Most alternative products were compatible to the fungus, and only Bordeaux mixture AR and 2.0 AR were moderately toxic to M. anisopliae. Although some significativally negative effect there were observed on conidial viability (reduction of 50 to 80% by alcoholic extracts, all extracts were compatible. This point to the necessity to be careful with application, avoiding mixtures or subsequent use of products less than 48 hours after fungi application. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a compatibilidade e os efeitos dos defensivos agrícolas naturais, extratos vegetais e basidiocarpos de Pycnoporus sanguineus, em diferentes concentrações, sobre o fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae. Os extratos e os basidiocarpos foram utilizados na concentração de 10%. Os defensivos agrícolas foram utilizados na concentração rotulada (CR, a metade (0,5CR e o dobro da mesma (2CR. Em todos os tratamentos foram realizadas pulverizações sobre o fungo inoculado previamente em meio de cultura (BDA. Foram avaliados germinação, Unidade Formadora de Colônia, crescimento vegetativo e produtividade dos conídios. Em relação aos defensivos agrícolas, somente o Calda Sulfocálcica na concentração recomendada e no dobro da mesma não se mostrou compatível, sendo considerada moderadamente tóxica para o fungo M. anisopliae. Apesar de os extratos terem apresentado efeito significativo principalmente sobre a viabilidade (redução de 50 a 80% por

  13. Hemocyte characterization of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) (Isoptera: Termitidae) workers and hemocyte evaluation after parasitism by Metarhizium anisopliae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Franklin M.; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valeria; Albuquerque, Auristela C.; Lima, Elza A.L.A.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to characterize the morphology and ultrastructure of hemocytes of Nasutitermes coxipoensis (Holmgren) workers and to quantify the cell types 24h, 48h and 72h after inoculation with Metarhizium anisopliae. Six hemocytes types were identified, plasmatocyte, granulocyte, spherulocyte, prohemocyte, adipohemocyte and eonocytoid Hemocytes did not present any morphological alteration at the several observation periods, but they did have a change in their abundance, as observed for spherulocytes, adipohemocytes and eonocytoids at all intervals, and for plasmatocytes and granulocytes at 48h after host inoculation. We argue on the possible reasons and implications of the observed changes. (author)

  14. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  15. Survival and mutant production induced by mutagenic agents in Metarhizium anisopliae Sobrevivência e obtenção de mutantes induzidos por agentes mutagênicos em Metarhizium anisopliae

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    V. Kava - Cordeiro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A wild strain of Metarhizium anisopliae, an entomopathogenic fungus, was submitted to three mutagenic agents: gamma radiation, ultraviolet light and nitrous acid. Survival curves were obtained and mutants were selected using different mutagenic doses which gave 1 to 5% survival. Morphological and auxotrophic mutants were isolated. Morphological mutants were grouped in a class with yellow conidia and other with pale vinaceous conidia as opposed to the green wild type conidia. Auxotrophic mutants had requirements for vitamin and aminoacid biosynthesis. More than 58% of the total auxotrophk mutants required proline/aipnine. Gamma radiation showed to be the most efficient mutagenic agent giving 0.2% of auxotrophk mutants followed by ultraviolet light (0.12% and nitrous acid (0.06%.The conidial colour and auxotrophk mutants isolated until now from M. anisopliae were reviewed.Uma linhagem selvagem do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae foi submetida à ação de três agentes mutagênicos: radiação gama, luz ultravioleta e ácido nitroso. Curvas de sobrevivência foram obtidas para cada mutagênicos utilizado e mutantes foram selecionados a partir de doses dos mutagênicos que proporcionassem de 1 a 5% de sobrevivência. Mutantes morfológicos para a coloração de conídios e mutantes auxotróficos foram isolados. Mutantes para coloração de conidios foram agrupados em duas classes, uma com conídios amarelos e outra com conídios vinho pálido. Os mutantes auxotróficos obtidos foram deficientes para aminoácidos e vitaminas e mais de 58% deles eram auxotróficos para prolina/argmina. Radiação gama foi o mutagênico mais eficiente com uma porcentagem de obtenção de mulantes auxotróficos de aproximadamente 0,2%, seguido pela luz ultravioleta (0.12% e pelo ácido nitroso (0.06%.Os mulantes morfológicos e auxotróficos obtidos até o momento em Metarhizium anisopliae foram revistos.

  16. Réponse des stades larvaires de Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae à l'application de champignons entomopathogènes Metarhizium anisopliae et Beauveria bassiana

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    Tamò, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the nymphs of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Two experiments on dose/mortality response between the instars of Helicoverpa armigera and two strains of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Met 31 and Beauveria bassiana (Bb 11 were carried out in laboratory conditions. In the first experiment, M. anisopliae Met 31 was tested on the third instar of H. armigera, while in the second experiment, both Met 31 and Bb 11 were tested on the fourth instar. In all the experiments, the following different doses of conidia per insect were used: 104, 105, 106, 107. The following parameters were measured: mortality and sporulation rates, the number of pupae formed and the number of adults that emerged. Abbott's formula was used to correct the treatment mortality rates. LD50 was determined using Cox-regression. For the third instar in experiment one, no significant difference was observed between high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect. For instar L4, only the dose of 107 conidia per insect showed high mortality rates (74%. For the strain Bb 11, in spite of the variation observed between the mortality rates induced by high doses (106 and 107 conidia per insect, no significant difference was recorded at the 5% level. No mycosis was observed from cadavers resulting from lower doses when tested on L4. The control recorded the highest numbers of pupae and adults. These two parameters were related to the level of dosage: the higher the dose, the lower the numbers of pupae and adults that emerged. For all the strains of fungi used, whatever the larval stage of H. armigera, the dose/mortality response was significant.

  17. EFFICACY THE MIXTURE OF TWO STRAINS OF Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes TO CONTROL Rhipicephalus microplus ON NATURAL INFESTATION OF CATTLE

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    Roger Ivan Rodriguez-Vivas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae on the control of Rhipicephalus microplus in cattle infested naturally in the Mexican tropics. The study was carried out on a ranch in the Mexican tropics. Base on the number of adult and immature (larvae and nymphs R. microplus ticks 20 steers were assigned into two groups of 10 cattle. Animals in the treated group (average of 73.4 y 27.5 adult and immature ticks respectively were sprayed with a mixture of Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae at a concentration of 1x108 conidios/ml. The other group remained as untreated control (average of 77.7 y 24.7 adult and immature ticks respectively and treated with water+Tween 80. Each group received 4 applications every 14 days. Adult and immature stages of ticks were recorded on days 0, 3, 5, 7 and 14 post-treatment. From the first application treatment to the end of the experiment, animals in the treated group had lower counts (P < 0.05 of adult (30.9-87% and immature (35.8-72% ticks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of repeated treatment with the strains Ma14+Ma34 of M. anisopliae can be used as an alternative to control natural infestation of R. microplus on cattle in the Mexican tropics.

  18. Secretome Analysis of Metarhizium anisopliae Under Submerged Conditions Using Bombyx mori Chrysalis to Induce Expression of Virulence-Related Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustiguel, Cynthia Barbosa; Rosa, José Cesar; Jorge, João Atílio; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-02-01

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is used to control insect pests. This species is specialized for the secretion of an enzymatic complex consisting of proteases, lipases, and chitinases related to pathogenicity and virulence. In this context, the secretomes of strains IBCB 167 and IBCB 384 of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, grown under submerged fermentation in the presence of chrysalis as an inducer, were analyzed. Analysis of two-dimensional gels showed qualitative and quantitative differences between secreted proteins in both isolates. Around 102 protein spots were analyzed, and 76 % of the corresponding proteins identified by mass spectrometry were grouped into different classes (hydrolases, oxidases, reductases, isomerases, kinases, WSC domains, and hypothetical proteins). Thirty-three per cent of all the proteins analyzed were found to be common in both strains. Several virulence-related proteins were identified as proteases and mannosidases. Endo-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase expression was observed to be 10.14-fold higher for strain IBCB 384 than for strain IBCB 167, which may be an important contributor to the high virulence of IBCB 384 in Diatraea ssaccharalis. These results are important for elucidation of the host-pathogen relationship and the differences in virulence observed between the two strains.

  19. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation; Novos biotipos de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin com germinacao alterada de conidios, obtidos pela exposicao a radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    1997-12-31

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author) 31 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Monitoring persistence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae under simulated field conditions with the aim of controlling adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolino, Aline T; Paula, Adriano R; Silva, Carlos P; Butt, Tariq M; Samuels, Richard I

    2014-04-25

    Entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for use in integrated vector management, with recent emphasis aimed at developing adult mosquito control methods. Here we investigated the persistence of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae when tested against female A. aegypti under field conditions. Black cotton cloths impregnated with M. anisopliae conidia, formulated in vegetable oil + isoparaffin, were maintained on a covered veranda for up to 30 days. At specific times, pieces of the cloths were removed, placed in Tween 80 and the resuspended conidia were sprayed directly onto mosquitoes. The persistence of conidia impregnated on black cloths using three different carriers was evaluated in test rooms. Fifty mosquitoes were released into each room and after a 5 day period, the surviving insects were captured. Another 50 insects were then released into each room. The capacity of the fungus at reducing mosquito survival was evaluated over a total of 35 days. Conidia extracted from cloths maintained on the veranda for 2 to 18 days remained virulent, with 28 to 60% mosquito survival observed. Mosquito survival following exposure to fungus impregnated cloths showed that fungus + Tween caused similar reductions to that of fungus + vegetable oil. Mosquitoes exposed to the formulation fungus + vegetable oil had survival rates of 36% over the first 5 days of the experiment. Following the release of the second cohort of mosquitoes (6-11days), survival increased to 50%. The survival of the 12-17 day cohort (78%) was statistically equal to that of the controls (84%). Formulation of the fungus in vegetable oil + isoparaffin increased the persistence of the fungus, with the 18-23 day cohort (64% survival) still showing statistical differences to that of the controls (87% survival). The potential of entomopathogenic fungi for the control of adult A. aegypti was confirmed under field conditions. Vegetable oil + isoparaffin formulations of M. anisopliae significantly increased the

  1. New biotypes of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae E9 strain with altered conidial germination, obtained by exposition to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.G.; Oliveira, N.T.; Luna Alves Lima, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Conidia produced by a wild strain (E9) of the entomopathogenic fungus M. anisopliae var anisopliae were exposed to gamma radiation in order to obtain new biotypes. At the 390 Gy dose there were obtained 48 colonies (MaE). On complete medium, 5 colonies (MaE 01, MaE 10, MaE 15, MaE 40) presented morphological changes in color while the colony MaE 24 lost its esporulation capacity. Twenty six colonies presented mycelial growth significantly different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation. Twelve colonies showed average of conidial germination different from the wild strain, after 12 days of incubation on liquid minimum medium at 25 deg C. The colony MaE started germination precociously after 5 hours of incubation. (author)

  2. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae = Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Marco Aurélio Paes de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos àslarvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered oneof the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of differentconcentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis werefungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower survival

  3. Production of destruxins from metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E prod...

  4. Density, Viability Conidia And Symptoms of Metarhizium anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyanti, D. R.; Putri, R. I. P.; Widiyaningrum, P.; Herlina, L.

    2017-04-01

    M. anisopliae is parasitic fungus on insect pests; it is used as a biocontrol agent. M. anisopliae can be propagated on maize or rice substrate. M. anisopliae is currently sold in the form of kaolin powder formulations. Before it is used to check the density, viability and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae. However the problem is the kaolin powder very soft, so it difficult to distinguish between kaolin and conidia. This article gives information on how to calculate conidia density, viability and symptoms of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae. The study was conducted in the laboratory to determine the density and viability. The pathogenicity testing was done using pots. The Pot is containing soil substrate mixed with M. Anispoliae and ten tails O. Rhinoceros larvae per pot. The results showed that the density of M. anisopliae conidia was 1.81 x 108 conidia mL-1 and the viability was 94% within 24 hours. The larval mortality began to emerge in the 1st week, and all larvae died at the sixth week. The symptom of M. anisopliae infection on Oryctes rhinoceros larvae, there was a black spot on the larval integument. The larvae movements become slow and poor appetite; it will die within 3-7 days. The larvae die hard, and the white hyphae grow on the body surface that turns green.

  5. Bioassay assessment of metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes against Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae Avaliação do bioensaio de Metarhizium anisopliae (metchnikoff sorokin (deuteromycota: hyphomycetes contra Oncometopia facialis (signoret (hemiptera: cicadellidae

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    Wolney Dalla Pria Júnior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC is an economically important, destructive disease in Brazil and is caused by Xylella fastidiosa and transmitted by sharpshooter insects. In this study, the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in controlling the sharpshooter Oncometopia facialis was studied by bioassay conditions. In the bioassay, insects were sprayed with a suspension containing 5 X 10(7 conidia mL-1. Adults captured in the field were treated in groups of 10 in a total of 11 replications per treatment. Significant differences between the natural mortality and the mortality of insects treated with the fungus were observed 6 days after inoculations (PA Clorose Variegada dos Citros (CVC é uma doença economicamente importante e destrutiva no Brasil e é causada pela bactéria Xylella fastidiosa e transmitida por insetos vetores tal como Oncometopia facialis. Nesse estudo, a eficácia do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae em controlar o inseto vetor O. facialis foi estudada em condições de bioensaio. Nesse bioensaio, insetos foram pulverizados com uma suspensão de 5 X 10(7 conídio mL-1. Insetos-adultos capturados no campo foram tratados em grupos de 10, em um total de 11 replicatas por tratamento. Diferenças significativas entre a mortalidade natural e a mortalidade dos insetos tratados com o fungo foram observadas em 6 dias após a inoculação (P<0.05. Estas diferenças significativas aumentaram antes do décimo dia após o tratamento. O fungo causou uma mortalidade de 87,1%, com uma LT50 variando entre 5 e 6 dias. A LC50 foi de 1,2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1, variando de 7,7 X 10(5 a 2 X 10(6 conídio mL-1. Estes resultados mostraram que o vetor O. facialis foi susceptível a ação entomopatogênica de M. anisopliae em condições controladas durante o bioensaio.

  6. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

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    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  7. Human sera IgE reacts with a Metarhizium anisopliae fungal catalase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that Metarhzium anisopliae extract can induce immune responses in a mouse model that are characteristic of human allergic asthma. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the extract proteins t...

  8. Protease production during growth and autolysis of submerged Metarhizium anisopliae cultures Produção de protease durante o crescimento e análise de culturas submersas de Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Gilberto U.L. Braga

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and autolysis of two strains of the entomopathogenic deuteromycete fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae were evaluated in medium containing casein or glucose as carbon source. Parameters such as economic coefficient and degree of autolysis were determined for each strain. Protease production was determined throughout the growth and autolysis phases of the cultures on medium under conditions of protease induction (in the presence of casein as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus was shown to utilize casein as a carbon/energy source in a more efficient manner than glucose. The autolysis shown by the strains was intense under both types of growth conditions, reaching up to 62.7% of the dry mass produced and started soon after the depletion of the exogenous carbon source. The relationship between the proteolytic activities of the two strains evaluated varied significantly (a maximum of 19.78 on the 5th day and a minimum of 2.03 on the 16th day of growth during the various growth and autolysis phases, clearly showing that the difference between the growth curves and the difference in the kinetics of enzyme production may decisively affect the process of strain selection for protease production.O crescimento e a autólise de duas linhagens do deuteromiceto entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae foram avaliados em meio contendo caseína ou glicose como fonte de carbono. Foram determinados parâmetros como o coeficiente econômico e o grau de autólise apresentado pelas linhagens. A produção de protease foi determinada durante todas as fases do crescimento e da autólise das culturas, em meio indutor da produção de proteases (meio contendo caseína como única fonte de carbono e de nitrogênio. Pôde-se verificar que o fungo foi capaz de utilizar a caseína como fonte de carbono/energia de maneira mais eficiente do que a glicose. A autólise apresentada pelas linhagens foi intensa em ambas as condi

  9. Vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti for dengue virus type 2 is reduced with co-infection of Metarhizium anisopliae.

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    Garza-Hernández, Javier A; Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Salazar, Ma Isabel; Russell, Tanya L; Adeleke, Monsuru A; de Luna-Santillana, Erik de J; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto

    2013-01-01

    Aedes aegypti, is the major dengue vector and a worldwide public health threat combated basically by chemical insecticides. In this study, the vectorial competence of Ae. aegypti co-infected with a mildly virulent Metarhizium anisopliae and fed with blood infected with the DENV-2 virus, was examined. The study encompassed three bioassays (B). In B1 the median lethal time (LT50) of Ae. aegypti exposed to M. anisopliae was determined in four treatments: co-infected (CI), single-fungus infection (SF), single-virus infection (SV) and control (C). In B2, the mortality and viral infection rate in midgut and in head were registered in fifty females of CI and in SV. In B3, the same treatments as in B1 but with females separated individually were tested to evaluate the effect on fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length. Survival in CI and SF females was 70% shorter than the one of those in SV and control. Overall viral infection rate in CI and SV were 76 and 84% but the mortality at day six post-infection was 78% (54% infected) and 6% respectively. Survivors with virus in head at day seven post-infection were 12 and 64% in both CI and SV mosquitoes. Fecundity and gonotrophic cycle length were reduced in 52 and 40% in CI compared to the ones in control. Fungus-induced mortality for the CI group was 78%. Of the survivors, 12% (6/50) could potentially transmit DENV-2, as opposed to 64% (32/50) of the SV group, meaning a 5-fold reduction in the number of infective mosquitoes. This is the first report on a fungus that reduces the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti infected with the DENV-2 virus.

  10. Efeito de beauveria bassiana (bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (metsch. sorokin nos parâmetros biológicos de trichogramma atopovirilia oatman & platner, 1983 (hymenoptera: trichogrammatidae Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

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    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o efeito de duas formulações comerciais à base de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch., Sorokin sobre os parâmetros biológicos de Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. No primeiro experimento, cartelas com ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda, 1797 foram mergulhadas em suspensões preparadas com os produtos e, em seguida, colocadas à disposição dos parasitóides para oviposição, durante um período de 24 horas. No segundo, fêmeas do parasitóide foram alimentadas com uma solução mel e suspensão de conídios. Em ambos os experimentos as fêmeas mortas foram colocadas em uma câmara úmida para observar a esporulação dos fungos. Os tratamentos foram mantidos em câmara climatizada com temperatura de 25±1º C, umidade relativa de 70±10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Avaliou-se a longevidade e mortalidade dos adultos, índice de parasitismo, emergência do parasitóide, número de indivíduos por ovo e razão sexual dos descendentes. As formulações não interferiram nos parâmetros avaliados e não foi observada a esporulação do fungo no cadáver do parasitóide adulto. É possível inferir que T. atopovirilia e os fungos entomopatogênicos B. bassiana e M. anisopliae são compatíveis e podem ser empregados simultaneamente em programas de manejo integrado de S. frugiperda.Two bioassays were performed to evaluate the effect of two biopesticides based on Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin on the biological parameters of Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner, 1983. In the first one, displays with S. frugiperda, 1797 eggs were dropped into the biopesticide suspension and offered to the parasitoid females for 24 hours. In the second one, parasitoid females were fed with a suspension containing honey and biopesticide suspension. In both cases, after the parasitoid death they were mantained into a humid

  11. Phylogenetic variation of the green muscadine fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin, and its virulence to larvae of the sugarcane longhorn stem borer, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae

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    Nichanun Kernasa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, Dorysthenes buqueti Guerin (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae has recently become a serious insect pest of sugarcane in Thailand and effective biological control agent must be evaluated. The green muscadine fungus (GMF, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff Sorokin is a species complex of entomopathogenic fungi, which includes many cryptic subspecies and species. It has been reported that GMF infects and kills the sugarcane longhorn stem borer (SLSB, D. buqueti Guerin, so that GMF is a possible biological control agent of SLSB. Molecular analyses were conducted to gain a better understanding of the taxonomic position of GMF Thai strains. Virulence bioassays were carried out on four isolates of GMF to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. This study revealed that an isolate from Khon Kaen (KK showed the highest virulence to 5th–9th instars of SLSB. In biological control, an aqueous suspension containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL of KK isolate was best from the viewpoint of a tradeoff between the economic cost/benefit of the mass production cost and the consequent mortality after application. Comparing suspensions containing 1 × 108 conidia/mL with those containing 1 × 1013 conidia/mL, 100,000 times as much quantity of suspension can be obtained from the same quantity of conidia, though the difference in the D. buqueti mortality was relatively small. Six isolates of GMF from SLSB in Thailand were likely a cryptic species, although further molecular analysis using factor 1-alpha sequences is needed.

  12. Imbibitional damage in conidia of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    When dried organisms are immersed in water, rapid imbibition may cause severe damage to plasma membranes; in unicellular organisms, such damage is usually lethal. This study investigated effects of pre-immersion moisture levels and immersion temperature on imbibitional damage in three insect pathoge...

  13. Performance of Metarhizium anisopliae-treated foam in combination with Phytoseiulus longipes Evans on Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azandémè Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Maniania, Nguya K; Niassy, Saliou; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Delétré, Emilie; Fiaboe, Komi K; Martin, Thibaud

    2018-05-13

    Tetranychus evansi (Te) is an exotic pest of solanaceous crops in Africa. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes (Pl) and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma), are potential biocontrol agents of Te. The present study investigated efficacy of fungus-treated foam placed above or below the third Te-infested tomato leaf. The persistence of fungus-treated foam and the performance of Pl with or without fungus-treated foam were evaluated. The fungus-treated foam was effective when Te infestation was below the third tomato leaf as no damage was recorded on all upper tomato leaves up to 30 days post-treatment. However, in the control treatments, the infestation increased considerably from 9±0.3% to 100±0% at 15 days post-treatment. The reuse of the fungus-treated foam at 15, 30 and 45 days post-treatment resulted in 19±1.4%, 25±1.2% and 54±2.1% respective infestation by Te. The fungus-treated foam and Pl alone are efficient, but there is no benefit to combinting both against Te. The fungus-treated foam is an effective method to optimize the use of Ma in screenhouse conditions. These two control agents could be integrated in an IPM strategy for crops protection. However, these results need to be confirmed in large field trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae, alone and in combination with diatomaceous earth and thiamethoxam on mortality, progeny production, mycosis, and sporulation of the stored grain insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Misbah; Farooq, Muhammad; Shakeel, Muhammad; Din, Naima; Hussain, Shahbaz; Saeed, Nadia; Shakeel, Qaiser; Rajput, Nasir Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    The stored grain insects cause great damage to grains under storage conditions. Synthetic insecticides and fumigants are considered as key measures to control these stored grain insect pests. However, the major issue with these chemicals is grain contamination with chemical residues and development of resistance by insect pests to these chemicals. Biological control is considered as a potential alternative to chemical control especially with the use of pathogens, alone or in combination with selective insecticides. The present study was conducted to evaluate the synergism of Metarhizium anisopliae with diatomaceous earth (DE) and thiamethoxam against four insect pests on the stored wheat grains. In the first bioassay, the M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 and 1.4 × 10 6 conidia/ml alone and in integration with two concentrations (250 and 500 ppm) of tested DE. The tested fungus when combined with DE and thiamethoxam possessed synergistic impact as compared to their individual efficacy. Adult mortality increased with respect to increased exposure interval and doses. In the second bioassay, M. anisopliae was applied at 1.4 × 10 4 conidia/ml individually and in combination with three concentrations (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 ppm) of thiamethoxam. Results concluded that M. anisopliae integrated with DE and thiamethoxam provides more effective control of stored grain insect pests.

  15. Efeito de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre características biológicas de Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627 Effect of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. on Biological Characteristics of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3627

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    Valéria Wanderley Teixeira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis F. é considerada uma das principais pragas nas Américas. Entre os métodos de controle, o uso de fungos entomopatogênicos tem sido amplamente recomendado no manejo das pragas da cana-de-açúcar, incluindo outras lepidobrocas. Assim sendo, este estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes concentrações de Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. sobre parâmetros biológicos da broca da cana-de-açúcar. Larvas de terceiro instar de D. saccharalis foram tratadas com os fungos usando as concentrações de 103, 104 e 105 conídios mL-1. Larvas tratadas com 105 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana tiveram menor sobrevivência (56,6%, comparadas com lagartas não-tratadas (90%. Adultos originados de larvas tratadas colocaram menor número de ovos, com menor viabilidade, e viveram menos, comparados com adultos originados de larvas não-tratadas. Larvas tratadas com M. anisopliae na concentração de 105 conídios mL-1 e adultos originados destas larvas também exibiram redução no desempenho, comparados aos insetos não-tratados. Os resultados indicam que B. bassiana e M. anisopliae, além de patogênicos às larvas de D. saccharalis, também interferem negativamente na sua biologia, mostrando potencial de uso contra esta praga.The sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis F. is considered one of the major sugarcane pests in the American continent. Among control methods, the use of entomopathogenic fungi has been broadly recommended to manage sugarcane pests, including other sugarcane borers. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different concentrations of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metch. Sorok on biological characteristics of the sugarcane borer. Third-instar larvae of D. saccharalis were fungi-treated using the concentrations of 103, 104 and 105 conidia mL-1. Larvae treated with 105 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana showed lower

  16. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae); Patogenicidade de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin e de Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin a Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

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    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: luciane_modenez@ibest.com.br; Avila, Crebio Jose [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], e-mail: crebio@cpao.embrapa.br

    2006-12-15

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  17. Eventos externos e internos da infecção de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae External and internal events of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs infection by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    M.V. Garcia

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Examinaram-se a adesão, a germinação, a penetração e a colonização de larvas e ninfas de Rhipicephalus sanguineus por Metarhizium anisopliae, assim como as lesões infringidas pelo fungo nas respectivas fases do ciclo de vida do ácaro. Realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos contendo 250 larvas e 11 grupos contendo 75 ninfas de R. sanguineus, por meio de banho, durante três minutos sob agitação manual, em suspensão contendo 10(8 conídios/ml do fungo. Nos grupos-controles, o banho foi realizado usando o veículo da suspensão. Larvas e ninfas foram processadas para um estudo histopatológico e de microscopia eletrônica de varredura nos seguintes tempos após a infecção: uma e 18 horas, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e 11 dias. A germinação dos conídios ocorreu em até 18 horas pós-inoculação, e o fungo penetrou nas larvas e ninfas através do tegumento, dois e três dias após a infecção, respectivamente. Após penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo das larvas e ninfas, promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Lesões significativas não foram observadas. A morte das larvas e ninfas ocorreu no terceiro e quarto dias pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver foi iniciada no sexto dia pós-infecção.The adhesion, germination and colonization of Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae and nymphs by Metarhizium anisopliae as well as the lesions caused by the fungus were studied. For this purpose, 11 groups of 250 larvae each and 11 groups of 75 nymphs each were bathed during 3 minutes under manual shaking in a 10(8 conidia/ml suspension. Corresponding control groups were bathed only in the suspension vehicle. Ticks were also submitted to both conventional microscopy and scanning eletronmicrocopy analyses at several post-infection periods (1 and 18 hours and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 11 days. Conidial germination occurred in less

  18. População de Metarhizium anisopliae em diferentes tipos e graus de compactação do solo Metarhizium anisopliae population in differents soil types and compactness degrees

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    Lourenço Maurício Lanza

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou investigar a influência do tipo e compactação do solo na sobrevivência do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae. A sobrevivência do fungo foi determinada em quatro tipos de solos: Latossolo Vermelho textura argilosa, Latossolo Vermelho textura média, Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo textura arenosa média e Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo textura areno-argilosa, com maior teor de matéria orgânica. Para determinar o efeito da compactação na sobrevivência do fungo usaram-se os três primeiros tipos de solos nas densidades de 1,12, 1,32, 1,50g cm-3; 1,22, 1,44, 1,65g cm-3; 1,30, 1,50, 1,70g cm-3, respectivamente. Por meio da contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC em placas de Petri, fizeram-se avaliações da sobrevivência do fungo, após zero, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 e 120 dias de incubação a 27 ± 1ºC. Houve influência significativa do tipo de solo e do grau de compactação na sobrevivência do fungo, obtendo-se maior quantidade de UFC no solo textura areno-argilosa. Entre os demais solos, a maior sobrevivência ocorreu no solo textura arenosa e a menor no solo textura argilosa. O efeito da compactação foi significativo para o tipo de solo, exceto no solo textura arenosa. Independentemente do tipo de solo, a maior sobrevivência foi observada nos valores médios de densidade. A compactação teve maior impacto no solo textura média, onde ocorreu queda mais acentuada na quantidade de UFC em todas as densidades.The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of different soil types and compactness on Metarhizium anisopliae survival. The fungus survivorship was determined in four soil types: Red Latosol with clay texture, Red Latosol with medium texture, Red Yellow Podzolic with medium sand texture and Red Yellow Podzolic with sand-clay texture, with higher amount of organic material. To determine the effect of compactness on fungus survival the first three soil types were used with the following densities

  19. Interactions between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium Anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca Domestica

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    M Sharififard

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metarhizium anisopliae strain IRAN 437C is one of the most virulent fungal isolates against house fly, Musca domestica. The objective of this study was to determine the interaction of this isolate with sublethal doses of spino­sad against housefly.Methods: In adult bioassay, conidia of entomopathogenic fungus were applied as inoculated bait at 105 and 107 spore per gram and spinosad at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 µg (A.I. per gram bait. In larval bioassay, conidia were applied as combina­tion of spore with larval bedding at 106 and 108 spore per gram and spinosad at sublethals of 0.002, 0.004 and 0.006 µg (AI per gram medium. Results: Adult mortality was 48% and 72% for fungus alone but ranged from 66–87% and 89–95% in combination treat­ments of 105 and 107 spore/g with sublethal doses of spinosad respectively. The interaction between 105 spore/g with sublethals exhibited synergistic effect, but in combination of 107 spore in spite of higher mortality, the interac­tion was additive. There was significant difference in LT50 among various treatments. LT50 values in all combination treat­ments were smaller than LT50 values in alone ones. Larval mortality was 36% and 69% for fungus alone but ranged from 58%–78% and 81%–100% in combination treatments of 106 and 108 spore/g medium with sublethals of spino­sad respectively. The interaction was synergistic in all combination treatments of larvae.Conclusion: The interaction between M. anispliae and spinosad indicated a synergetic effect that increased the house fly mortality as well as reduced the lethal time.

  20. Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae Qu-M845 Isolate to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae in Laboratory and Field Trials Evaluación del Aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae en Ensayos de Laboratorio y Terreno

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    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of the Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff Qu-M845 isolate was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. It was previously selected for thermal resistance (at 30 and 35 ºC and pathogenicity on Varroa destructor (Anderson and Trueman. In the laboratory, the first evaluations were carried out by spraying and increasing the concentration from zero to 10(8 conidia mL-1 on varroa adults. Lethal concentrations required for 50 and 90% mite mortality (LC50 and LC90 were 3.8 x 10(5 and 8 x 10(7 conidia mL-1, respectively (χ2 = 2.03. In the autumn field trials, three application methods (doses of 5 x 10(10 conidia per hive were evaluated. The treatments were: a conidia stamped on filter paper, located on every second frame inside the hive; b dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames; and c dry conidia in a dispenser path at the entrance of the hive. Furthermore, untreated hives were included as controls. After 21 days of treatment, the dry conidia sprinkled on and between frames showed 67% less bees infested by the mite than the control (p La efectividad del aislamiento Qu-M845 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschinkoff, seleccionado previamente por su resistencia a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC, y patogenicidad sobre Varroa destructor Anderson y Trueman fue evaluada en laboratorio y en ensayos de terreno. Las primeras pruebas consistieron en pulverizar concentraciones crecientes de 0 a 10(8 conidias mL-1 sobre varroas adultas. La concentración letal para matar el 50 y 90% de la población (CL50 y CL90 fueron de 3,8 x 10(5 y 8 x 10(7 conidias mL-1, respectivamente (χ² = 2,03. En otoño se evaluaron en terreno tres métodos de aplicación de una dosis de 5 x 10(10 conidias por colmena. Los tratamientos fueron: a conidias estampadas en papel filtro ubicado cada dos panales móviles al interior de la colmena; b conidias espolvoreadas sobre y entre los panales; y c dispensador de conidias ubicado en la piquera de las colmenas. Además se

  1. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae em lavoura de arroz irrigado Efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae on rice stem bug Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae control in flooded rice field

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    José Francisco da Silva Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, é altamente prejudicial à cultura do arroz no Brasil, principalmente em sistemas de cultivo irrigados por inundação. O efeito de duas formas de aplicação, conídios em suspensão e veiculados em grãos de arroz autoclavado, da cepa (CP 172 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., no controle do percevejo, foi avaliado em três experimentos conduzidos em 1991, 1993 e 1994, em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado. Em 1991, tanto a pulverização de conídios como a distribuição manual grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico em dosagem equivalente a 7,2 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, sobre o solo e entre os colmos de arroz, onde os percevejos estavam alojados, reduziram significativamente a população natural do inseto com eficiência de controle de 52,6% e 61,8%, respectivamente. Ainda em 1991, estudo sobre o estabelecimento e persistência da cepa no solo do arrozal, com base na contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, indicou que o fungo manteve-se viável na entressafra, até 216 dias após a aplicação, época da implantação de novos arrozais. O número de UFC foi maior nas parcelas tratadas com os grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico. O crescimento linear do número de UFC, no solo nas parcelas testemunhas, evidenciou disseminação do fungo para partes anteriormente não tratadas do arrozal. Resultados significativos de controle com a aplicação da suspensão de conídios e dos grãos de arroz com o fungo, na dose de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, também foram obtidos em 1993, com 51,8% e 48,2% de eficiência, respectivamente. Em 1994, a aplicaç��o da suspensão de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1 resultou em 39,5% de controle do inseto. O índice de confirmação de infeção, contudo, foi baixo, nos dois anos, atingindo, no máximo, 20%, em 1993. O baixo número de insetos com micose, em comparação ao índice de mortalidade

  2. Colonização e lesão em fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato Rhipicephalus sanguineus causadas pelo fungo Metarhizium anisopliae Colonization and lesions on engorged female Rhipicephalus sanguineus, caused by Metarhizium anisopliae

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    Marcos Valerio Garcia

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar a forma de penetração do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH. (SOROKIN, 1883] em carrapatos da espécie Rhipicephalus sanguineus (LATREILLE, 1806, assim como as lesões infringidas nos tecidos internos do ácaro. A forma de aderência e penetração do fungo foi estudada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura e a ação do fungo nos tecidos internos avaliada em secções histológicas convencionais. Para observação destes eventos, realizaram-se infecções experimentais em 11 grupos de fêmeas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus contendo 12 fêmeas ingurgitadas cada. Para tal, as fêmeas ingurgitadas foram banhadas durante 3 minutos, sob agitação manual, em suspensão com concentração 108 conídios/mL. No caso dos grupos controle o banho foi realizado apenas no veículo da suspensão. Os carrapatos foram processados para histopatologia e microscopia eletrônica em diversos tempos após a infecção, a saber: 1 e 18h, e um, dois, três, quatro, cinco, seis, sete, nove e onze dias. Observou-se que a maior parte dos conídios germinou em até 18h após a inoculação e que o fungo penetrou no ácaro através do tegumento 48h após a infecção. Após a penetração, o fungo invadiu o corpo do hospedeiro promovendo uma colonização difusa, sem preferência aparente por tecidos específicos. Dentre as lesões nos tecidos internos do ácaro, ressalta-se o rompimento da parede intestinal e vazamento do conteúdo para a hemocele. A morte do hospedeiro ocorreu entre 96 e 120h pós-infecção, e a esporulação do patógeno sobre o cadáver do ácaro iniciou-se em torno de 120 a 144h pós-infecção. Espera-se, com este trabalho, contribuir para o desenvolvimento e viabilização de técnicas de controle biológico dos carrapatos por fungos como alternativa ao uso de acaricidas.The objective of this work was to verify the penetration of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae [METSCH

  3. Laboratory Trials of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle® Against the Saxaul Locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae Ensayos de Laboratorio de Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green muscle® contra la Langosta de Saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae

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    Heydar Valizadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The saxaul locust, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae is a major pest of saxaul plants in Qom province of Iran. During 2005-2006, different nymphal instars of bands of D. albidula were treated by aerial spraying of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. The gasoline formulation of M. anisopliae var. acridum isolate IMI 330189 was applied in different conidial concentrations (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 spores mL-1 that were prepared in sterile distilled gasoline. Results showed that various concentrations significantly affected the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th nymphal instars of D. albidula compared to control. In addition, there were no differences in the effects of the different concentrations in 2005, but the differences were significant in 2006. Concentration 10(10 killed 100% of tested insects 15 d after treatment. Comparing the results of the two years showed that the susceptibility of nymphs in the second year (2006 was higher than in the first year (2005. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that the fungal insecticide M. anisopliae var. acridum, diluted in gasoline, was efficacious with the nymphal instars of locust D. albidula in 2005 and 2006.La langosta del saxaul, Dericorys albidula Serville (Orthoptera: Dericorythidae, es la principal plaga de plantas de saxaul de las provincias Qom, Irán. Durante 2005-2006, diferentes instars ninfales de D. albidula se asperjaron con Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Green Muscle®. La formulación de gasolina de M. anisopliae var. acridum aislamiento IMI 330189 se aplicó en diferentes concentraciones conidiales (10(6, 10(7, 10(8, 10(9, 10(10 and 10(13 esporas mL-1 preparadas en gasolina destilada estéril. Los resultados demostraron que varias concentraciones afectaron significativamente los nstars ninfales de D. albidula comparado con el control. Además el efecto de concentraciones no fue diferente en 2005 pero sí significativamente en

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA VIRULENCIA DE BLASTOSPOROS DE Metarhizium anisopliae NO CONTROLE DE LARVAS DE CAMPO DO MOSQUITO Aedes aegypti

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    Aline Teixeira Carolino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente no Brasil, o mosquito Aedes aegypti é transmissor das arboviroses dengue, chikungunya e Zika. Não existe tratamento específico para estas doenças. A redução da população do vetor ainda é o método mais eficaz para reduzir a taxa dessas arboviroses. O presente estudo comparou a virulência de conídios e blastosporos de Metarhizium anisopliae contra larvas do mosquito A. aegypti provenientes de coletas no campo. Blastosporos foram mais virulentos para larvas, sendo observada mortalidade total das larvas em apenas 48 horas. Larvas infectadas com conídios apresentaram 100% de mortalidade no quinto dia pós-infecção. O presente estudo mostra que blastosporos apresentam grande potencial para controle de larvas de A. aegypti no campo.

  5. Biolistic co-transformation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum strain CG423 with green fluorescent protein and resistance to glufosinate ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, P W; Aragão, F J; Frazão, H; Magalhães, B P; Valadares-Inglis, M C

    2000-10-15

    Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (syn. M. flavoviride) is recognized as a highly specific and virulent mycopathogen of locusts and grasshoppers and is currently being developed as a biological control agent for this group of insects in Brazil. Intact conidia of M. anisopliae var. acridum strain CG423 were transformed using microparticle bombardment. Plasmids used were: (1) pBARKS1 carrying the bar gene of Streptomyces hygroscopicus fused to the Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter, encoding resistance to glufosinate ammonium (or phosphinothricin) and modified by addition of the telomeric repeat (TTAGGG)(18) of Fusarium oxysporum and 2.pEGFP/gpd/tel carrying a red-shifted variant gene for Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (EGFP) which we have fused to the A. nidulans gpd promoter and trpC terminator. Highly fluorescent co-transformants were selected on solid minimal medium containing 100 microg ml(-1) glufosinate ammonium using an inverted microscope with 450-490 nm excitation/510 nm emission filter set. Southern blot analysis of co-transformants revealed varying multiple chromosomal integrations of both bar and egfp genes at both telomeric and non-telomeric loci. Transformants retained pathogenicity in bioassays against Rhammatocerus schistocercoides and showed unaltered lack of pathogenicity against larvae of the non-target insect Anticarsia gemmatalis. One co-transformant from four tested, however, showed a significant, but non-dose-dependent, elevation in virulence against Tenebrio molitor.

  6. Evaluation of cellulose substrates treated with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin as a biological control agent against the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri (Isoptera: Termitidae

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    Behzad Habibpour

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first report on the promising effect of an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff Sorokin to control populations of Microcerotermes diversus Silvestri. Biological control is an alternative to the long-term usage of chemical pesticides. M. anisopliae, the causal agent of green muscardine disease of insects, is an important fungus in biological control of insect pests. Bait systems can eliminate entire colonies of subterranean termites. Baiting reduces adverse environmental impacts caused by organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides in the control of termites and creates sustainable protection of buildings against their invasion. Treated-sawdust bait was applied by two methods: a combination of treated sawdust and untreated filter paper, and b combination of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust. When combinations of treated sawdust and untreated sawdust were used, LC50 and LC90 were 8.4×106 and 3.9×107 (spore/ml, respectively. With the use of improved bait formula and more virulent strains, we hope to achieve better control of termite colonies and enable pathogens to become a useful element in the Integrated Pest Management system.

  7. Control de Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae mediante el uso del hongo entomopatógeno Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae. Revisión

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    Melina Maribel Ojeda-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las infestaciones de la garrapata del ganado, Rhipicephalus microplus, producen el mayor problema global de ectoparásitos en ganado de regiones tropicales y subtropicales, provocan importantes pérdidas económicas en la producción de carne, leche y pieles, además incrementan los gastos derivados de los programas de control, y son capaces de transmitir Babesia bovis, B. bigemina y Anaplasma marginale. El control de R. microplus se basa principalmente en el uso de ixodicidas, sin embargo, su uso irracional ha propiciado la aparición de garrapatas resistentes a las principales familias de ixodicidas, siendo necesario desarrollar alternativas de control no químico. Una de estas alternativas es el uso de hongos entomopatógenos, entre los que se encuentra Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae el cual ha demostrado ser eficiente, tanto en estudios in vitro como in vivo, para el control de las diferentes fases evolutivas de R. microplus, causa disminución en la tasa de oviposición, incrementa el período de incubación y de eclosión, además produce la muerte de larvas y garrapatas adultas con porcentajes de eficiencia de hasta el 100 %. Diferentes estudios demuestran que M. anisopliae representa una alternativa no química sustentable para el control de garrapatas. La presente revisión tiene como objetivo presentar información actualizada sobre el uso de diferentes cepas de M. anisopliae en el control de la garrapata R.microplus.

  8. Comparative genomics using microarrays reveals divergence and loss of virulence-associated genes in host-specific strains of the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sibao; Leclerque, Andreas; Pava-Ripoll, Monica; Fang, Weiguo; St Leger, Raymond J

    2009-06-01

    Many strains of Metarhizium anisopliae have broad host ranges, but others are specialists and adapted to particular hosts. Patterns of gene duplication, divergence, and deletion in three generalist and three specialist strains were investigated by heterologous hybridization of genomic DNA to genes from the generalist strain Ma2575. As expected, major life processes are highly conserved, presumably due to purifying selection. However, up to 7% of Ma2575 genes were highly divergent or absent in specialist strains. Many of these sequences are conserved in other fungal species, suggesting that there has been rapid evolution and loss in specialist Metarhizium genomes. Some poorly hybridizing genes in specialists were functionally coordinated, indicative of reductive evolution. These included several involved in toxin biosynthesis and sugar metabolism in root exudates, suggesting that specialists are losing genes required to live in alternative hosts or as saprophytes. Several components of mobile genetic elements were also highly divergent or lost in specialists. Exceptionally, the genome of the specialist cricket pathogen Ma443 contained extra insertion elements that might play a role in generating evolutionary novelty. This study throws light on the abundance of orphans in genomes, as 15% of orphan sequences were found to be rapidly evolving in the Ma2575 lineage.

  9. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in arable soil

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    Ryszard Miętkiewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samples of soil were taken from arable field and from balk. Larvae of Galleria mellonella and Ephestia kühniella were used as an "insect bait" for isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soil. Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were isolated from both kind of soil. but Beauveria bassiana was present only in soil taken from balk.

  10. Efeitos de Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill e Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok sobre fêmeas ingurgitadas de Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 em condições de laboratório Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Bals Vuill and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsc Sorok on engorged females of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 in laboratory conditions

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    R.C.S. Reis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro susceptibility of Amblyomma cajennense engorged females to some isolated of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae was verified and lethal concentrations (LC 50 and LC 90 were calculated. The females were dived in conidia suspensions for five minutes, and kept in climatically controlled chambers BOD under 27° C and 80% relative humidity. Each bioassay had four treatments in concentrations of 10(5,10(6,10(7e10(8 conidia/ml. A control group was also used. The following characteristics were evaluated: weight and period of oviposition, indexes of reproductive and nutritional efficiency and percentage of microbiological control. A dose dependent negative effect was observed in ticks treated with the suspension. All isolates tested cause a negative effect on in vitro tests of engorged females of A. cajennense, suggesting its potential for microbiological control of tick's species.

  11. Production of destruxins from Metarhizium spp. fungi in artificial medium and in endophytically colonized cowpea plants.

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    Patrícia S Golo

    Full Text Available Destruxins (DTXs are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918 did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2-3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas and Cucumis sativus (cucumber plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods.

  12. Virulence of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi infecting Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Dubois; Jennifer Lund; Leah S. Bauer; Ann E. Hajek

    2008-01-01

    Twenty isolates of four species of entomopathogenic hypocrealean fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Beauveria brongniartii, Isaria farinosa, and Metarhizium anisopliae) were found to be pathogenic to adults of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. Survival times for 50% of the beetles tested (ST

  13. Evaluation of alternative rice planthopper control by the combined action of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae and low-rate buprofezin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shao-Feng; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Mu, Wen-Jing; Chen, Jue-Qi

    2011-01-01

    High resistance of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål to common insecticides is a challenge for control of the pest. An alternative control strategy based on the combined application of fungal and chemical agents has been evaluated. Three gradient spore concentrations of oil-formulated Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Ma456) were sprayed onto third-instar nymphs in five bioassays comprising the low buprofezin rates of 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg mL(-1) respectively. Fungal LC(50) after 1 week at 25 °C and 14:10 h light:dark photoperiod decreased from 386 conidia mm(-2) in the buprofezin-free bioassay to 40 at the highest chemical rate. Buprofezin (LC(50): 1647, 486 and 233 µg mL(-1) on days 2 to 4) had no significant effect on the fungal outgrowths of mycosis-killed cadavers at the low application rates. The fungal infection was found to cause 81% reduction in reproductive potential of BPH adults. In two 40 day field trials, significant planthopper (mainly BPH) control (54-60%) was achieved by biweekly sprays of two fungal candidates (Ma456 and Ma576) at 1.5 × 10(13) conidia ha(-1) and elevated to 80-83% by incorporating 30.8 g buprofezin ha(-1) into the fungal sprays. The combined application of the fungal and chemical agents is a promising alternative strategy for BPH control. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Evaluación y validación de mezclas de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin y Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin para el control de la Broca del café en frutos infestados caídos al suelo

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo González , Jorge Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resumen: Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae son entomopatógenos usados como agentes de control biológico contra la broca del café (Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari). La exploración de la diversidad genética de las cepas ha demostrado que el uso de mezclas puede resultar en procesos de coinfección y sinergismo que incrementan la virulencia y mortalidad sobre los insectos. Esta investigación se desarrolló con el fin de evaluar y validar en campo el efecto de las mezclas de cepas de B. bass...

  15. Occurence of thrips on Niagara table grape and its control with the insecticides thiacloprid and methiocarb associated with Metarhizium anisopliae Ocorrência de tripes em uva Niagara e seu controle com os inseticidas thiacloprid e methiocarb associados com Metarhizium anisopliae

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    ROGÉRIO BIAGGIONI LOPES

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thrips are reported as important pests on table grapes in United States and several countries of Europe. Damage caused by thrips, particulary Frankliniella occidentalis, was observed on niagara table grape crop in Limeira-SP, Brazil. During the blooming period, high thrips densities were observed feeding on pollen and small berries. The symptoms left were more visible after the development of the berries and were characterized by dark scars and suberized surface on berries, sometimes causing the berry to crack, and the seed to prolapse. The effect of insecticides thiacloprid or methiocarb, associated or not with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated during the blooming period. For evaluation of thrips damage on fruits, the treatments were applied three additional times, 7, 14 and 21 days after the first application. The treatments were: a M. anisopliae (strain 1037 1x10(7 conidia/mL; b thiacloprid 20mL/100L; c-d methiocarb 100 and 150mL/100L; e methiocarb 100mL/100L + M. anisopliae 1x10(7 conidia/mL. Only methiocarb, associated or not with the fungus, was effective in reducing thrips infestation, and no phytotoxic damage was observed. The efficiency of methiocarb 150mL/100L and the insecticide associated with the fungus for the control of the thrips population was 84.2 and 95.5%, respectively. In both cases, there was a reduction of approximately 70% in the number of berries with scars symptoms. For control of thrips on table grapes, chemical insecticides associated or not with M. anisopliae should be applied during the blooming period of the crop.Os tripes são mencionados como importantes pragas da cultura da uva de mesa em diversos países da Europa e Estados Unidos. Em área de cultivo da uva Niagara localizada na região de Limeira-SP verificou-se a ocorrência de danos provocados por Frankliniella occidentalis. Essa praga foi observada, principalmente, durante a fase de florescimento, alimentando-se de pólen e

  16. Effects of single and combined applications of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was carried out to investigate the insecticidal properties of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar for their virulence against 2nd, 4th and 6th instar larvae of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Both fungi were either applied alone or ...

  17. Development of a user-friendly delivery method for the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae to control the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor in honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Adamczyk, John; Patt, Joseph; Gracia, Carlos; Cascino, John

    2010-12-01

    A user-friendly method to deliver Metarhizium spores to honey bee colonies for control of Varroa mites was developed and tested. Patty blend formulations protected the fungal spores at brood nest temperatures and served as an improved delivery system of the fungus to bee hives. Field trials conducted in 2006 in Texas using freshly harvested spores indicated that patty blend formulations of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) significantly reduced the numbers of mites per adult bee, mites in sealed brood cells, and residual mites at the end of the 47-day experimental period. Colony development in terms of adult bee populations and brood production also improved. Field trials conducted in 2007 in Florida using less virulent spores produced mixed results. Patty blends of 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice) were less successful in significantly reducing the number of mites per adult bee. However, hive survivorship and colony strength were improved, and the numbers of residual mites were significantly reduced at the end of the 42-day experimental period. The overall results from 2003 to 2008 field trials indicated that it was critical to have fungal spores with good germination, pathogenicity and virulence. We determined that fungal spores (1 × 10(10) viable spores per gram) with 98% germination and high pathogenicity (95% mite mortality at day 7) provided successful control of mite populations in established honey bee colonies at 10 g of conidia per hive (applied twice). Overall, microbial control of Varroa mite with M. anisopliae is feasible and could be a useful component of an integrated pest management program.

  18. Effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycete), Cypermethrin, and D-Limonene, Alone and Combined, on Larval Mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Rebolledo, Omar Francisco; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Lezama-Gutiérrez, Roberto; García-Márquez, Luis Jorge; Minchaca-Llerenas, Yureida B; Morales-Barrera, Eduardo; Tellez, Guillermo; Hargis, Billy; Skoda, Steven R; Foster, John E

    2017-09-01

    The effect of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae Ma14 strain, D-limonene, and cypermethrin, alone and combined, on the mortality of Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille larvae was evaluated. Eight separate groups with 25 tick larvae were inoculated with the fungus, cypermethrin, and D-limonene, and four groups were used as untreated controls. The groups were inoculated with serial dilutions of each treatment material: for example, conidial concentrations were 1 × 101, 1 × 102, 1 × 103, 1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107, and 1 × 108. A complete randomized experimental design was used. Significant differences were obtained between fungal concentrations, with larval mortalities ranging from 29 to 100%; the D-limonene concentrations showed significant differences, with mortalities that ranged from 47.9 to 82.6%, and cypermethrin mortalities ranged from 69.9 to 89.9% when each was applied alone. In the combined application, the serial dilution of the Ma14 fungus plus cypermethrin at 0.1% concentration caused mortalities ranging from 92.9 to 100%; the mix of serially diluted Ma14 plus D-limonene at 0.1% caused mortalities from 10.3 to 100%; and the mix consisting of serially diluted D-limonene plus cypermethrin at 0.1% caused mortalities from 7.4 to 35.9%. Further laboratory and field research could show that these materials, alone and in combinations, are useful in future tick management and control programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae) (strain F52) does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Ilya R; Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control). Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray), habitat (lawn vs. forest), and treatment (Met52 vs. control), versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  20. The tick biocontrol agent Metarhizium brunneum (= M. anisopliae (strain F52 does not reduce non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya R Fischhoff

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that Met52®, which contains the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum, is effective in reducing the abundance of Ixodes scapularis, the tick vector for the bacterium causing Lyme disease and for other tick-borne pathogens. Given widespread interest in effective, safe methods for controlling ticks, Met52 has the potential to be used at increasing scales. The non-target impacts of Met52, as applied for tick control, have not yet been assessed. A Before-After-Control-Impact experiment was conducted to assess the effects of Met52 on non-target arthropods in lawn and forest habitats typical of residential yards. Ground-dwelling arthropods were collected using bulk sampling of soil and litter, and pitfall sampling. Arthropods were sampled once before and twice after treatment of plots with either Met52 or water (control. Multivariate general linear models were used to jointly model the abundance of arthropod orders. For each sampling method and post-spray sampling occasion, Akaike Information Criterion values were used to compare the fits of two alternative models: one that included effects of period (before vs. after spray, habitat (lawn vs. forest, and treatment (Met52 vs. control, versus a nested null model that included effects of period, and habitat, but no treatment effect. The null model was consistently better supported by the data. Significant effects were found of period and habitat but not treatment. Retrospective power analysis indicated the study had 80% power to detect a 50% reduction in arthropod abundance, as measured by bulk samples taken before versus one week after treatment. The deployment of Met52 in suburban settings is unlikely to cause meaningful reductions in the abundance of non-target arthropods.

  1. Selectivity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarrhizium anisopliae to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrich, Michele; Silva, Everton L. da; Neves, Pedro M.O.J.; Alves, Luis F.A.; Daros, Alaxsandra; Haas, Jucelaine; Pietrowski, Vanda

    2009-01-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae are efficient biological control agents and are thought to be used jointly. In here, we investigated if these entomopathogens could have any side-effects on T. pretiosum. Therefore, 1 x 8 cards containing sterilized eggs of Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) that were sprayed with 0.2 ml of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae (1.0 X 10 9 conidia/ml) were offered to a T. pretiosum female for 24h (30 cards/fungus = 30 replicates). Afterwards, females were isolated in glass tubes. The control group was sprayed with sterile distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%). In addition, 60 cards with sterilized eggs of A. kuehniella were submitted to parasitism by females of T. pretiosum for 24h. Of these cards, 30 were sprayed with B. bassiana or M. anisopliae and 30 with distillated water + Tween 80 (0.01%), and observed daily until parasitoid emergence. Metarhizium anisopliae decreased parasitoid emergence and caused confirmed mortality. Therefore, field and semi-field experiments should be conducted for a final assessment of the side-effects of these entomopathogens on Trichogramma as a ways to develop a control strategy in which both can be used. (author)

  2. Metodologia para produção de Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin em cultivo submerso: esporulação da biomassa, efeito da concentração de açúcar e custo do inoculant Methodology for production of Metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH. sorokin in submerged cultivation: biomass sporulation, sugar concentration effect and inoculant cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina de Mello Pereira

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveram-se um método de cultivo e um meio de cultura para produção massal do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, com maior pureza e concentração de conídios. Este método envolveu o cultivo submerso da linhagem M-61 do entomopatógeno em meio líquido de arroz parboilizado, extrato de levedura, extrato do percevejo da soja (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, sob seis diferentes níveis de concentração de açúcar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, além do meio convencional sólido de arroz em grão. As biomassas obtidas foram separadas através de tela de nylon (63 mesh e dispostas em estufa para a esporulação. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram avaliados pelos parâmetros pesos fresco e seco do micélio, número de conídios por grama de substrato, viabilidade e patogenicidade dos conídios sobre o percevejo. Observou-se que 2.0g l-1 de açúcar em meio de cultura de extrato de N. viridula produziu o dobro do número de conídios por grama de substrato em relação à concentração de 10.0g l-1, a um custo 51 vezes inferior ao obtido no processo convencional de produção do fungo. A viabilidade não foi afetada nos diferentes meios utilizados. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas na patogenicidade em função dos meios de cultura e métodos de cultivo.A method of cultivation and a culture medium were developed aiming at the mass production of fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin, 1883, with great concentration and purity of conidia. This method involved the M-61 strain of entomopathogenic fungus in liquid medium of rice, yeast extract, soybean bug extract (Nezara viridula (L., 1758 Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, under six differents concentrations of sugar (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10g l-1, and the solid conventional medium of rice grains. The biomasses obtained were filtered and put in an incubator to promote sporulation. The treatments were evaluated through the parameters wet and dry-weight of micelium

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium spp. in the soil environment of an agroecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt Michael

    Species of the entomopathogenic fungal genus Metarhizium are found worldwide predominantly in the soil environment where they infect a broad spectrum of insects, but also associate with plant roots. To increase performance of Metarhizium as biological control agents against pests, fundamental...... ecological knowledge of Metarhizium is necessary. The present PhD project contributed to this knowledge, particularly of Metarhizium spp. occurrence and abundance within a single Danish agroecosystem, with emphasis on the molecular diversity and ecological traits. Metarhizium was isolated from bulk soil...... several sympatric species and genotypes. The isolated species and their genotypes were evaluated for ecological traits including UVB tolerance, temperature dependent in vitro growth, virulence and conidia production on infected cadavers, and mycelial growth from insect cadavers into the surrounding soil...

  4. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Potencial de isolados de Metarhizium anisopliae e Beauveria bassiana e do oleo de Nim no controle do pulgao Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia - Entomologia], e-mail: jma_junior@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: emar@depa.ufrpe.br, e-mail: vargasoliveira@uol.com.br

    2009-07-15

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto{sup R}). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  5. Responsiveness of entomopathogenic fungi to menadione-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Rosana F F; Souza, Roberta K F; Braga, Gilberto U L; Rangel, Drauzio E N

    2014-12-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are predisposed to ROS induced by heat and UV-A radiation when outside the insect host. When inside the host, they are subject to phagocytic cells that generate ROS to eliminate invading pathogens. The oxidative stress tolerance of the entomopathogenic fungi Aschersonia aleyrodis (ARSEF 430 and 10276), Aschersonia placenta (ARSEF 7637), Beauveria bassiana (ARSEF 252), Isaria fumosorosea (ARSEF 3889), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (ARSEF 6433), Metarhizium acridum (ARSEF 324), Metarhizium anisopliae (ARSEF 5749), Metarhizium brunneum (ARSEF 1187 and ARSEF 5626), Metarhizium robertsii (ARSEF 2575), Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (ARSEF 3392), Tolypocladium inflatum (ARSEF 4877), and Simplicillium lanosoniveum (ARSEF 6430 and ARSEF 6651) was studied based on conidial germination on a medium supplemented with menadione. Conidial germination was evaluated 24 h after inoculation on potato dextrose agar (PDA) (control) or PDA supplemented with menadione. The two Aschersonia species (ARSEF 430, 7637, and 10276) were the most susceptible fungi, followed by the two Tolypocladium species (ARSEF 3392 and 4877) and the M. acridum (ARSEF 324). Metarhizium brunneum (ARSEF 5626) and M. anisopliae (ARSEF 5749) were the most tolerant isolates with MIC 0.28 mM. All fungal isolates, except ARSEF 5626 and ARSEF 5749, were not able to germinate at 0.20 mM. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of pesticides used potatoes control on the growth of entomopathogenic fungi isolated from potatoes fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Miętkiewicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Metarhizium anisopliae, M.flavoviridae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus was estimated on Sabouraud's medium to which insecticides and herbicides were added in three doses: A - 10 times higher from recommended field dose, B - as recommended field dose, C - 10 timer lower than recommended. Fungicides were used in B and C doses as well as in dose D - 100 times lower than recomended one. The fungi were obtained from soil under potatoes using Galleria mellonella as bait insect. Chlorothalonil and copper oxychloride were chosen from fungicides, linuron, MCPA, fluazifop-P-butyl and dikwat - from herbicides and deltamethrin, teflubenzuron and fozalon from insecticides. The growth of both species of Metarhizium was stronger inhibited than of Paecilomyces fumosoroseus by fungicides however colonies of Metarhizium always overpassed 50% controls colonies apart from M. flavoviridae on medium with copper oxychloride at concentration B. Herbicide linuron was more toxic to fungi than fungicides. M. anisopliae and M. fluvoviridae did not grow on medium containing dose A and dose B this herbicide but the colonies of P. fumosoroseus at dose B did not overpass 20% of controlled ones. MCPA and fluazifop-P-butyl inhibited fungal colonies in approximated way. On the medium with these herbicides in concentration A fungal colonies were strongly inhibited and the growth of fungi on medium with MCPA at this concentration appeared not before 5 days after inoculation. Dikwat in dose A strongly inhibited the growth of M. anisopliae but in remaining combinations growth of fungal colonies was similar to controlled ones. Fozalon, among insecticides, inhibited the growth of inwestigated fungi strongest. On the medium containing this insecticide in dose A all fungi did not grow, and in dose B colonies of both species of Metarhizium did not overpass 40% of controlled ones. Deltamethrin in dose A and B inhibited the growth of M. anisopliae and M. flavoviridae, but

  7. Association between entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Matos, Renata Silva; da Silva Golo, Patrícia; Angelo, Isabele Costa; de Souza Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo; Coelho Rodrigues, Camila Aparecida; Furlong, John; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the association of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi on Rhipicephalus microplus. The nematodes used were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora HP88 and Heterorhabditis indica LPP1 and the fungi were Metarhizium anisopliae IBCB 116 and Beauveria bassiana ESALQ 986. In the groups treated with the fungi, the females were immersed for 3 min in a conidial suspension, while in the groups treated with the nematodes, the ticks were exposed to infective juveniles. To evaluate the interaction between entomopathogens, the females were first immersed in a conidial suspension and then exposed to the nematodes. The egg mass weight and hatching percentage values of the groups treated with M. anisopliae IBCB 116 and B. bassiana ESALQ 986 in the two experiments were statistically similar (p > 0.05) to the values of the control group. In the groups treated only with nematodes, there was a significant reduction (p fungus M. anisopliae IBCB 116.

  8. Effects of the gamma and ultraviolet radiation in metarhizium anisopliae (METSCH) isolated SOROKIN, 1883 and its application to control the distracer saccharals (Fabricius, 1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L.C. de.

    1983-06-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effects of gamma and ultraviolet radiations in isolates of M. anisopliae and the utilization of this pathogen, aiming the polulation control of the sugarcane borer, D. saccharalis. To evaluate the application of M. anisopliae under field conditions, two experiments were carried out, the first consisting of a spore suspension application upon sugarcane borer egg masses, and the second consisting of a pulverization of spores upon egg masses previously placed on sugarcane leaves. The dosages utilized were of 100, 200 and 300 g of spores/ha. The results obtained in both trials indicated that the deposition of spores on D. saccharalis egg masses was difficulted by the sugarcane foliar mass. (author) [pt

  9. Análise de adesão do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium anisopliae para o controle de Alphitobius diaperinus (cascudinho em instalações avícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano de Araújo Cassiano

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho permitiu a construção de um modelo estatístico para a adesão de conídios do fungo Metarhizium anisopliae diante de diferentes níveis de concentração e tempo, além de avaliar seu potencial para o controle do cascudinho (Alphitobius diaperinus, importante praga da avicultura, causadora de danos às aves pelos ferimentos no trato digestivo e pela transmissão de várias doenças. O estudo da adesão sobre o tegumento é de grande importância, pois a adesão representa um evento complexo, sendo o primeiro do ciclo das relações patógeno-hospedeiro que ocorre após a deposição do fungo sobre o inseto e visa a preparação do local para a fase de penetração. Insetos adultos do cascudinho foram expostos a três concentrações do fungo: 1x10³, 1x10(6 e 1x10(9 conídios/mL, sendo 5, 10 e 15 minutos de exposição em cada concentração. Para verificar o potencial de controle de M. anisopliae, os insetos foram colocados para caminhar sobre uma massa de conídios crescida em meio BDA por 10 minutos, resultando num potencial de inóculo de 8,1x10(8 conídios/mL, a mortalidade foi avaliada durante 21 dias consecutivos, onde se verificou uma mortalidade de 74% em larvas após 48h, e 50% de mortalidade em adultos após 15 dias de exposição ao fungo. A análise de variância (ANOVA mostrou que existe influência e interação de ambos os efeitos: concentração e tempo.

  10. Comparative genome analysis of entomopathogenic fungi reveals a complex set of secreted proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Charley Christian; Junges, Angela; Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; de Morais, Guilherme Loss; Boldo, Juliano Tomazzoni; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Andreis, Fábio Carrer; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Sbaraini, Nicolau; da Paixão, Rana Louise de Andrade; Broetto, Leonardo; Landell, Melissa; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter Orlando; Silveira, Carolina Pereira; Serrano, Thaiane Rispoli; de Oliveira, Eder Silva; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Schrank, Augusto

    2014-09-29

    Metarhizium anisopliae is an entomopathogenic fungus used in the biological control of some agricultural insect pests, and efforts are underway to use this fungus in the control of insect-borne human diseases. A large repertoire of proteins must be secreted by M. anisopliae to cope with the various available nutrients as this fungus switches through different lifestyles, i.e., from a saprophytic, to an infectious, to a plant endophytic stage. To further evaluate the predicted secretome of M. anisopliae, we employed genomic and transcriptomic analyses, coupled with phylogenomic analysis, focusing on the identification and characterization of secreted proteins. We determined the M. anisopliae E6 genome sequence and compared this sequence to other entomopathogenic fungi genomes. A robust pipeline was generated to evaluate the predicted secretomes of M. anisopliae and 15 other filamentous fungi, leading to the identification of a core of secreted proteins. Transcriptomic analysis using the tick Rhipicephalus microplus cuticle as an infection model during two periods of infection (48 and 144 h) allowed the identification of several differentially expressed genes. This analysis concluded that a large proportion of the predicted secretome coding genes contained altered transcript levels in the conditions analyzed in this study. In addition, some specific secreted proteins from Metarhizium have an evolutionary history similar to orthologs found in Beauveria/Cordyceps. This similarity suggests that a set of secreted proteins has evolved to participate in entomopathogenicity. The data presented represents an important step to the characterization of the role of secreted proteins in the virulence and pathogenicity of M. anisopliae.

  11. Evaluating the virulence and longevity of non-woven fiber bands impregnated with Metarhizium anisopliae against the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan P. Shanley; Melody Keena; Micheal M. Wheeler; Jarrod Leland; Ann E. Hajek

    2009-01-01

    Fiber bands impregnated with entomopathogenic fungi (=fungal bands) provide an effective method for controlling the invasive Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). In this study we investigated the effective longevity of fungal bands for use against A. glabripennis, using...

  12. Abundance, Genetic Diversity and Persistence of Metarhizium Spp. Fungi from Soil of Strawberry Crops and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents against the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago Rodriguesde

    The growing demand for strawberries has imposed challenges, especially regarding the control of pests. Many farmers report problems with reduced chemical control efficiency, probably due to selection of resistant populations of insects and mites. An alternative is the use of biological control...... agent were performed, but this bulk of knowledge is in remarkable contrast to the lack of research on the fundamental ecology of Metarhizium in agroecosystems. This thesis aimed to evaluate the establishment, persistence and dispersal of these entomopathogenic fungi in strawberry crop soil...... in Inconfidentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil; and to study the diversity and abundance of species of Metarhizium isolated from organic and conventional strawberry crop soils, and from the field margins in Brazil and Denmark. The effectiveness of new species of Metarhizium recently found in Brazil, was evaluated against...

  13. Unveiling the oxidative metabolism of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) experimentally exposed to entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2016-10-01

    Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.

  14. The Xenon Test Chamber Q-SUN® for testing realistic tolerances of fungi exposed to simulated full spectrum solar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Luciana P; Araújo, Claudinéia A S; Pupin, Breno; Ferreira, Paulo C; Braga, Gilberto Ú L; Rangel, Drauzio E N

    2018-06-01

    The low survival of insect-pathogenic fungi when used for insect control in agriculture is mainly due to the deleterious effects of ultraviolet radiation and heat from solar irradiation. In this study, conidia of 15 species of entomopathogenic fungi were exposed to simulated full-spectrum solar radiation emitted by a Xenon Test Chamber Q-SUN XE-3-HC 340S (Q-LAB ® Corporation, Westlake, OH, USA), which very closely simulates full-spectrum solar radiation. A dendrogram obtained from cluster analyses, based on lethal time 50 % and 90 % calculated by Probit analyses, separated the fungi into three clusters: cluster 3 contains species with highest tolerance to simulated full-spectrum solar radiation, included Metarhizium acridum, Cladosporium herbarum, and Trichothecium roseum with LT 50  > 200 min irradiation. Cluster 2 contains eight species with moderate UV tolerance: Aschersonia aleyrodis, Isaria fumosorosea, Mariannaea pruinosa, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium brunneum, Metarhizium robertsii, Simplicillium lanosoniveum, and Torrubiella homopterorum with LT 50 between 120 and 150 min irradiation. The four species in cluster 1 had the lowest UV tolerance: Lecanicillium aphanocladii, Beauveria bassiana, Tolypocladium cylindrosporum, and Tolypocladium inflatum with LT 50  solar radiation before. We conclude that the equipment provided an excellent tool for testing realistic tolerances of fungi to full-spectrum solar radiation of microbial agents for insect biological control in agriculture. Copyright © 2018 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    two spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, effect of temperature on virulence, as well as ... It has become a big challenge to maintain quality of products and compete in ... Data were collected on the number of hatched and un-hatched eggs.

  16. Pathogenecity of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emulsifiable formulation on two-spotted spider mite, T. urticae. Weibin and. Mingguang (2004) found that both B. bassiana and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus infections decreased the hatch rates of Tetranychus cinnanarinus eggs and the higher the conidial concentrations resulted in greater reduction in the hatch rates.

  17. OCCURRENCE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOILS FROM FESTUCA PRATENSIS HUDS. CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kolczarek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi are the largest group of microorganisms existing in the soil environment. Occurrence and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in soil is dependent on many factors affecting the soil environment. The aim of this study was to compare the species composition and the intensity of the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from monoculture crops of Festuca pratensis Huds. The study material consisted of soil samples taken from the experiment conducted in two experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivars Study. The insecticides fungi were isolated from soil using a method of the selective substrate. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae were isolated from the study soils using the selective medium.

  18. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    beetles were low (Carabidae: max. 7.6%, Staphylinidae: max. 7.0%). in comparison, prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi in carabid larvae was high (19-50%). At one study site an epizootic of Beauveria bassiana was observed, infecting 67% of staphylinid Anotylus rugosus and 37% of the staphylinid Gyrohypnus...... angustatus. Beauveria bassiana was the predominant fungus isolated from ground beetles and rove beetles from all studied sites. Other fungal species included the hyphomycetes Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii as well as Zoophthora radicans and Zoophthora philonthi...... (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Two individuals of Anotylus rugosus were found to have a dual infection of Zoophthora philonthi and Beauveria bassiana...

  20. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  1. Occurrence of Entomopathogenic Fungi from Agricultural and Natural Ecosystems in Saltillo, México, and their Virulence Towards Thrips and Whiteflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peña, Sergio R.; Lara, Jorge San-Juan; Medina, Raúl F.

    2011-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi were collected from soil in four adjacent habitats (oak forest, agricultural soil, pine reforestation and chaparral habitat) in Saltillo, México using the insect bait method with Tenebrio molitor (L.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae as bait. Overall, of the larvae exposed to soil, 171 (20%) hosted Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), 25 (3%) hosted Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and 1 (0.1%) hosted lsaria (=Paecilomyces) sp. (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae). B. bassiana was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to oak forest soil. M. anisopliae was significantly more frequent on larvae exposed to agricultural soil. From the infected bait insects, 93 isolates of B. bassiana and 24 isolates of M. anisopliae were obtained. Strains were tested for their infectivity against Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips uzeli Zimmerman (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) and the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). B. bassiana isolates caused the highest mortality on thrips (some causing 88% mortality after 6 days); both fungal species caused similarly high mortality levels against whiteflies (75%) after 6 days. Large amounts of germplasm of entomopathogenic fungi, fundamentally B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, exist in the habitats sampled; pathogenicity varied among strains, and some strains possessed significant virulence. Soils in these habitats are reservoirs of diverse strains with potential for use in biocontrol. PMID:21521145

  2. Growth and sporulation of Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride on culture media and lighting regimes Crescimento e esporulação de Metarhizium flavoviride var. Flavoviride em meios de cultura e regimes de luz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sideney Becker Onofre

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi from the genus Metarhizium are largely used for the biological control of agricultural pests by conidia spreading on the field. Although conidia production is well studied in M. anisopliae, only few research studies were done in M. flavoviride. The present work was carried out alming to evaluate the Mycelial growth and sporulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride growing at 27 ± 2°C on Potato-dextrose-agar (PDA, Czapek-agar (CZP and a complete agar medium (CM under three lighting regimes, (continuous illumination, light/dark cycle and an black light/dark cycle were investigated. A completely randomized 3 × 3 (culture media × lighting regime factorial design with four replicates was used. The best mycelial growth and sporulation occurred on the PDA and CM media under continuous illumination (P Fungos entomopatogênicos do genêro Metarhizium são empregados no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas por meio da dispersão de seus conídios no campo. Embora a produção de conídios em M. anisopliae esteja bem estudada, poucas pesquisas a respeito existem na espécie M. flavoviride. O presente trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de três meios de cultura, batata-dextrose-ágar (BDA, Czapek-ágar (CZP e meio completo (MC, e três regimes de luminosidade, claro contínuo, alternância com luz do dia/escuro e luz negra/escuro, sobre o crescimento miceliano e esporulação do fungo entomopatogênico Metarhizium flavoviride var. flavoviride. O experimento foi realizado em câmara de incubação à temperatura de 27 ± 2°C. Empregou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 3°C 3 (meios de cultura e regime de luminosidade com quatro repetições. As melhores condições para o crescimento miceliano e esporulação foram conseguidas tanto no meio de cultura BDA como no MC quando combinados com o regime claro contínuo (P <= 0,05.

  3. The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in soils from apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Marjańska-Cichoń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum and occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi in orchard soil and arable soil were evaluated using an "insect bait method". Soil samples taken in autumn and spring from sward, herbicides fallow and arable soil were baited with Galleria mellonella larvae. Entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill., Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize Brown et Smith were isolated from three species of orchards soil and adjacent arable soil. Infection levels of G. mellonella larvae were depended from species of soil . M. anisoopliae caused most frequent infections of bait insects in light loamy sand and P. fumosoroseus in alluvial silt and coarse sand. B. bassiana was dominated in alluvial silt. It was established that M. anisopliae and B. bassiana infected more larvae in autumn than in spring. In case of P. fumosoroseus an opposite tendency was observed. Generaly in arable soil and sward number of infected larvae was higher than other stands. In case of light loamy sand more infections of G. mellonella larvae were found in samples from herbicides fallow. Irrespective of soil type B. bassiana was the dominated species isolated from herbicides fallow, M. anisopliae from sward and P. fumosoroseus - from arable soil.

  4. Selection of Entomopathogenic Fungi to Control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae Selección de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Control de Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was select entomopathogenic fungi tolerant to temperatures inside the brood area of honey bees (Apis mellifera for to control Varroa destructor. For this purpose, 50 Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin and 48 Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin isolates were evaluated at 30 and 35 ºC. For each isolate, colony discs of 5 mm with mycelium were placed in the center of a Petri dish with Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA medium. The dishes were incubated at 30 and 35 °C, without light. Radial growth of each colony was measured daily. All the B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates presented a lineal growth rate at a temperature of 30 ºC. However, at 35 ºC, most of the isolates did not grow, except three B. bassiana and 14 M. anisopliae isolates (P El objetivo de este trabajo fue seleccionar hongos entomopatógenos tolerantes a las temperaturas del nido de cría de las abejas (Apis mellifera, para ser utilizados en el control de Varroa destructor. Se evaluaron 50 aislamientos de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vuillemin y 48 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschn. Sorokin a temperaturas de 30 y 35 ºC. Discos de agar de 5 mm de diámetro con micelio de colonias de cada aislamiento, se depositaron en el centro de placas Petri con medio agar Sabouraud dextrosa (ASD. Las placas fueron incubadas a 30 y 35 °C y oscuridad y diariamente se midió el radio de cada colonia. Todos los aislamientos de B. bassiana y M. anisopliae var. anisopliae presentaron una tendencia lineal a través del tiempo a temperaturas de incubación de 30 °C. A 35 °C la mayoría de los aislamientos no crecieron, excepto tres aislamientos de B. bassiana y 14 de M. anisopliae (p < 0,001. Estos aislamientos fueron seleccionados para realizar pruebas de patogenicidad sobre V. destructor, aplicando una suspensión de 10(7 conidias mL-1. El aislamiento más efectivo fue Qu-M845 de M. anisopliae (p = 0,0033, produjo una mortalidad de 85%. La capacidad patogénica de este

  5. Metachelins, mannosylated and N-oxidized coprogen-type siderophores from Metarhizium robertsii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under iron-depleted culture conditions, the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii (Bischoff, Humber, and Rehner) (= M. anisopliae) produces a complex of extracellular siderophores including novel O-glycosylated and/or N-oxidized coprogen-type compounds as well as the known fungal siderophore...

  6. Evaluation of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi for Control of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Underground Storm Drains in the Coachella Valley, California, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popko, David A; Henke, Jennifer A; Mullens, Bradley A; Walton, William E

    2017-12-22

    Commercially available formulations of two entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), were assessed for control of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in underground storm drain systems (USDS) in the Coachella Valley of southern California. Each of three treatments, the two fungi or a water control, was applied to 1 m2 of vertical wall at eight USDS sites in spring and autumn of 2015. Fungal infectivity and lethality were assessed at 1 d and 1, 2, and 4 wk post-application. Overnight bioassays using adult lab-reared female mosquitoes were carried out on the treated USDS wall areas and then mosquitoes were held in the laboratory for up to 21 d to allow fungal infections to be expressed. Postmortem fungal sporulation was assessed up to 2 wk at 100% humidity. Mosquito-fungal interactions also were assessed in bioassays of the three treatments on filter paper exposed to USDS conditions during autumn. Metarhizium anisopliae killed mosquitoes faster than B. bassiana; nevertheless, both freshly applied formulations caused greater than 80% mortality. Fungal persistence declined significantly after 1 wk under USDS conditions, but some infectivity persisted for more than 4 wk. Beauveria bassiana was more effective against Cx. qinquefasciatus in the spring, while M. anisopliae was more effective in the cooler conditions during autumn. USDS environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, standing water) influenced fungal-related mortality and infection of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The utility of these fungal formulations for mosquito abatement in the Coachella Valley and implications for fungal control agents in USDS environments are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Tools for delivering entomopathogenic fungi to malaria mosquitoes: effects of delivery surfaces on fungal efficacy and persistence

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    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi infection on malaria vectors increases daily mortality rates and thus represents a control measure that could be used in integrated programmes alongside insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs and indoor residual spraying (IRS. Before entomopathogenic fungi can be integrated into control programmes, an effective delivery system must be developed. Methods The efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae ICIPE-30 and Beauveria bassiana I93-825 (IMI 391510 (2 × 1010 conidia m-2 applied on mud panels (simulating walls of traditional Tanzanian houses, black cotton cloth and polyester netting was evaluated against adult Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mosquitoes were exposed to the treated surfaces 2, 14 and 28 d after conidia were applied. Survival of mosquitoes was monitored daily. Results All fungal treatments caused a significantly increased mortality in the exposed mosquitoes, descending with time since fungal application. Mosquitoes exposed to M. anisopliae conidia on mud panels had a greater daily risk of dying compared to those exposed to conidia on either netting or cotton cloth (p B. bassiana conidia on mud panels or cotton cloth had similar daily risk of death (p = 0.14, and a higher risk than those exposed to treated polyester netting (p Conclusion Both fungal isolates reduced mosquito survival on immediate exposure and up to 28 d after application. Conidia were more effective when applied on mud panels and cotton cloth compared with polyester netting. Cotton cloth and mud, therefore, represent potential substrates for delivering fungi to mosquitoes in the field.

  8. Viability, purity, and genetic stability of entomopathogenic fungi species using different preservation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Gallou, Adrien; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Andrade-Michel, Gilda Y; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, José C; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Preservation methods for entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) require effective protocols to ensure uniform processes and to avoid alterations during storage. The aim of this study was to preserve Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium acridum, M. anisopliae, M. rileyi, Isaria javanica, Hirsutella thompsonii, H. citriformis and Lecanicillium lecanii in mineral oil (MO), sterile water (SW), silica gel (SG), lyophilisation (L), ultracold-freezing at -70 °C, and cryopreservation at -196 °C. The viability and purity of the fungi were then verified: phenotypic characteristics were evaluated qualitatively at 6, 12 and 24 m. Genetic stability was tested by amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) analysis at 24 m. Of the eight species of EPF, three remained viable in SW, five in MO and L, six at -70 °C, seven in SG, and eight at -196 °C. No significant changes were observed in AFLP patterns at 24 m of storage. The most effective preservation methods for EPF were SG, L, -70 and -196 °C. Beauveria bassiana, M. acridum, M. anisopliae, M. rileyi and I. javanica remained stable with all methods, while the remaining species were less compatible. The optimisation of preservation methods for EPF facilitates the development of reliable protocols to ensure their inherent characteristics in culture collections. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Compatibility of chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi for control of soybean defoliating pest, Rachiplusia nu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Sebastian A; Schalamuk, Santiago; Simón, María R; Stenglein, Sebastian A; Pacheco-Marino, Suani G; Scorsetti, Ana C

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the major lepidopteran pests defoliating soybeans (Glycine max Merrill) in Argentina. The combined use of chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi is a promising pest-control option to minimize adverse chemical effects. In this work, we evaluated the interactions between five insecticides-two being considered biorational-and five fungal entomopathogenic strains under laboratory conditions in order to determine the possible usefulness of combinations of these agents against R. nu. The insecticides were tested for compatibility at four doses by in vitro bioassay and for the lethality of R. nu by inoculations at three doses. Fungal strains were applied at 1×10 8 , 1×10 6 , and 1×10 4 conidia/ml. The combinations of those insecticides with Beauveria bassiana (LPSc 1067, LPSc 1082, LPSc 1098), Metarhizium anisopliae (LPSc 907), and Metarhizium robertsii (LPSc 963) caused higher R. nu-larval mortalities than any of the individual agents alone. We observed significant differences in the in vitro conidial viability, vegetative growth, and conidia production of the five strains of entomopathogenic fungi exposed to different doses of the chemical insecticides. The combination gamma-cyhalothrin-LPSc-1067 caused the highest percent mortality of R. nu larvae, with synergism occurring between the two agents at 50% and 25% of the maximum field doses. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular, morphological and pathogenic characterization of six strains of Metarhizium spp. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes for the control of Aegorhinus superciliosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Sepúlveda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aegorhinus superciliosus is an important pest on blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. and other fruit trees. The use of entomopathogenic fungi as Metarhizium spp. has been evaluated for the control of this insect, but variability has been observed among different strains. The aim of this study was to characterize six promising strains of Metarhizium spp. for the control of A. superciliosus. The studied strains were QuM173c, Qu-M363, Qu-M171a, Qu-M156a, Qu-M421, and Qu-M430, all of which belonged to the Chilean Collection of Microbial Genetic Resources (ChCMGR of the Institute de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Chile. Molecular characterization was made by sequencing the ITS region (Internal Transcribed Spacers, ITS-5.8S rDNA. The morphology of conidia was evaluated through scanning electron microscopy and radial colony growth was evaluated in potato dextrose agar (PDA, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA, agar enriched with larvae of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae (GA, and agar enriched with adults of A. superciliosus (AA. Pathogenicity was studied based on mortality of adults of A. superciliosus inoculated with conidia. Sequencing of the ITS-5.8S rDNA region indicates that the strains belong to the clade of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, except for Qu-M171a, which was identified as M. anisopliae var. lepidiotum. Conidia average length for the six strains was 5.09 pm and average conidia width was 1.92 pm. Radial colony growth differences were observed between strains (p < 0.01 and between different growth media (p < 0.01. The strains exhibited the highest colony growth in the GA medium, while in the AA medium they showed the lowest (p < 0.01. Pathogenicity tests show that Qu-M430 reached a 90% mortality rate (p < 0.01. Results show that there is variability between the studied strains, which is expressed in their morphology, molecular characteristics and pathogenicity towards A. superciliosus.

  11. Development of pilot-scale fermentation and stabilization processes for the production of microsclerotia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneun strain F52

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using 100L stirred-tank bioreactors, we evaluated the effect of fermentation parameters and drying protocols on the production and stabilization of microsclerotia (MS) of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (formerly M. anisopliae F52). Results showed that stirred-tank bioreactors can ...

  12. Insertion of an esterase gene into a specific locust pathogen (Metarhizium acridum enables it to infect caterpillars.

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    Sibao Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An enduring theme in pathogenic microbiology is poor understanding of the mechanisms of host specificity. Metarhizium is a cosmopolitan genus of invertebrate pathogens that contains generalist species with broad host ranges such as M. robertsii (formerly known as M. anisopliae var. anisopliae as well as specialists such as the acridid-specific grasshopper pathogen M. acridum. During growth on caterpillar (Manduca sexta cuticle, M. robertsii up-regulates a gene (Mest1 that is absent in M. acridum and most other fungi. Disrupting M. robertsii Mest1 reduced virulence and overexpression increased virulence to caterpillars (Galleria mellonella and M. sexta, while virulence to grasshoppers (Melanoplus femurrubrum was unaffected. When Mest1 was transferred to M. acridum under control of its native M. robertsii promoter, the transformants killed and colonized caterpillars in a similar fashion to M. robertsii. MEST1 localized exclusively to lipid droplets in M. robertsii conidia and infection structures was up-regulated during nutrient deprivation and had esterase activity against lipids with short chain fatty acids. The mobilization of stored lipids was delayed in the Mest1 disruptant mutant. Overall, our results suggest that expression of Mest1 allows rapid hydrolysis of stored lipids, and promotes germination and infection structure formation by M. robertsii during nutrient deprivation and invasion, while Mest1 expression in M. acridum broadens its host range by bypassing the regulatory signals found on natural hosts that trigger the mobilization of endogenous nutrient reserves. This study suggests that speciation in an insect pathogen could potentially be driven by host shifts resulting from changes in a single gene.

  13. Screening of Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. conidia with exposure to simulated sunlight and a range of temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley-Davies, J.; Moore, D.; Prior, C.

    1996-01-01

    Conidia of 14 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium flavoviride and M. anisopliae were formulated by suspending in paraffinic oil or as dry powder. Non-indicating silica gel was added to both formulations which were stored at 13 °C for at least 2 wk before exposure to a range of temperatures: −10°, 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° and 50° to determine the effects of temperature of storage on viability. At 50° the isolate studied in most detail (M. flavoviride, IMI 330189) initially showed a gradual decline in viability with 73% germination for oil samples after 60 d from an initial level of 93%, whereas the dry samples typically showed higher germination rates (initially 96% germination, dropping to 80% after 60 d). Subsequently there was a rapid decline and both oil formulated and dry conidia had lost almost all viability by 90 d. Samples of IMI 330189 stored dry or in oil, at 40° and below showed > 79% germination after 90 d. M. flavoviride 191–660 exhibited the highest temperature tolerance with >40% germination of the dry stored conidia after 90 d at 50°. Some isolates of both B. bassiana and Metarhizium spp. showed markedly lower tolerance of high temperatures. Samples stored dry usually showed greater percentage germination than samples in oil for all isolates, at all temperatures. The isolates were also exposed to 4, 8, 16 and 24 h uv light from a sunlight simulator at 40°. Conidial viability decreased markedly in all isolates with increasing uv exposure. Germination ranged between 10 and 50% after 24 h exposure to uv, 191–660 retaining highest viability. (author)

  14. Adulticidal effect of fungal pathogen, Metarhizium anisopliae on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Page 1 ... forms conidiophores or analogous structure and sporu- lates. Alternatively, many species form some type of resting stages capable of forming or releasing a type of spore. ... Mosquitoes landing on the suspension to consume glucose would thus be exposed to conidia through tarsal contact or ...

  15. Efficacite du melange aqueux de metarhizium anisopliae var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le traitement le plus efficace en termes d'impact sur la densité de population du criquet était le mélange (P < 0,01). Notre étude indique que le mélange des deux insecticides permet une diminution importante des densités de population de sauteriaux et qu'il est possible d'utiliser des formulations aqueuses contenant des ...

  16. Susceptibility of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) and Its Parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to Entomopathogenic Fungi under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Cortés, K H; Guzmán-Franco, A W; González-Hernández, H; Ortega-Arenas, L D; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A; Robles-Bermúdez, A

    2018-02-01

    Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (isolates B1 and B3), Metarhizium anisopliae s.s. (Metsch.) (Ma129 and Ma65) and Isaria fumosorosea Wize (I2 and Pae). We conducted experiments evaluating infection levels in all three insect groups following inoculation with a series of conidial concentrations (1 × 10 4 -1 × 10 8 conidia mL -1 ). Results showed that D. citri nymphs and T. radiata were more susceptible to fungal isolates than D. citri adults. Overall, B. bassiana and M. anisopliae isolates caused the greatest infection compared with I. fumosorosea isolates in all three groups of insects. Isolates B1 (B. bassiana) and Ma129 (M. anisopliae) infected a greater proportion of adults and nymphs of D. citri, respectively. Both isolates of B. bassiana caused greater infection in T. radiata compared with isolates of the other fungal species. We propose that isolates B1 and Ma129 are the strongest candidates for control of D. citri. Our results represent the first report of entomopathogenic fungi infecting T. radiata, and the basis for future studies to design a biological control programme that uses both agents more efficiently against D. citri populations.

  17. [Species diversity and temporal niche of entomopathogenic fungi in the extensively managed tea plantation soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xian-Jian; Shen, Wan-Fang; Liu, Yu-Jun; Chen, Ming-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The species diversity and temporal niche of entomopathogenic fungi community in the rhizosphere soil collected from the extensively managed Huangshan fuzz tip tea plantation were investigated. A total of 140 soil samples were collected at the location of Tangkou Town, Huangshan of Anhui Province during August, 2012 to June, 2013, and totally 1041 fungal isolates were obtained on selective medium with soil dilution plating. The results showed that the entomopathogenic fungi community in the tea plantation soil was diverse with 13 species in 6 genera. Purpureocillium lilacinum (309 strains), Beauveria bassiana (255 strains), and Metarhizium anisopliae (101 strains) were the dominant species accounting for 29.7%, 24.5% and 9.7% of the relative frequency, respectively. P. lilacinum had the widest temporal niche breadth among these dominant entomopathogenic fungi from the tea plantation soil, while B. bassiana had the narrowest. Among the entomopathogenic fungi, B. bassiana and B. brongniartii had the biggest temporal niche overlap of 1.965, while Isaria javanicus and B. bassiana had the smallest of 0.374.

  18. Effect of Three Entomopathogenic Fungi on Three Species of Stingless Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Under Laboratory Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Hernández, R A; Ruíz-Toledo, J; Toledo, J; Sánchez, D

    2016-05-04

    Development of alternative strategies for pest control with reduced effect on beneficial organisms is a priority given the increasing global loss of biodiversity. Biological control with entomopathogenic fungi arises as a viable option to control insect pests. However, few studies have focused on the consequences of using these organisms on pollinators other than the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) or bumble bees (Bombus spp). We evaluated the pathogenicity of commercial formulations of three widely used entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, Beauveria bassiana Vuillemin, and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize), to three species of stingless bees: Tetragonisca angustula Latreille, Scaptotrigona mexicana Guérin-Meneville, and Melipona beecheii Bennett. Bioassays consisted of exposing groups of bees to the recommended field concentration of each fungus using a microspray tower under laboratory conditions. Susceptibility to fungi varied greatly among species. Isaria fumosorosea (strain Ifu-lu 01) and the two formulations of B. bassiana (Bea-TNK and BotanicGard) caused entomopathogenic fungi on stingless bees, further field studies are required to support this finding. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Selection of entomopathogenic fungi against the red spider mite Tetranychus kanzawai (Kishida (Tetranychidae: Acarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayan Sanjaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenicity of three entomopathogenic fungal species to Tetranychus kanzawai was investigated. Seven isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae, six isolates of Beauveria bassiana, and an isolate of Paecilomyces lilacinus from the Philippines and Indonesia were evaluated. The following studies were undertaken: (1 screening of M. anisoplae, B. bassiana and P. lilicanus pathogenic to T. kanzawai, and (2 bioefficacy studies of the selected entomopathogenic fungi under greenhouse conditions. Conidia of each isolate were mass-produced on potato dextrose agar (PDA at 26+-1 oC and a 12-hour photophase for a maximum of 21 days. Preliminary screening for the most pathogenic isolate within the same species was determined using suspension with 104 to 108 conidia ml-1. At 4 days after treatment (DAT, the pathogenicity within M. anisopliae isolates in decreasing order was Ma5>Ma6>Ma4>Ma2>Ma1>Ma3>Ma7 while for B. bassiana, was Bb6>Bb5>Bb4>Bb3>Bb1>Bb2. The top three most pathogenic isolates within the two species were subjected to further studies to determine the most virulent isolate against T. kanzawai. At 5 DAT, the LC50 values of M. anisopliae isolates ranged from 5.0 x102 to 1.4x103 while for B. bassiana ranged from 1.2 x 103 to 2.4x 103 conidia ml-1. Based on LC50, the virulence of the fungal isolates within the species in decreasing order was Ma6>Ma5>Ma4 and Bb6>Bb5>Bb4. However, the LC50 values are not significantly different from each other. Green house trials showed that the epizootic of entomopathogenic fungus can regulate the population of mites. The fungal isolates used in the study, although not originally isolated from mites were virulent to T. kanzawai, indicating their wide host range.

  20. Biocontrol of the Brown-banded Cockroach, Supella longipalpa F. (Blattaria: Blattellidae, with Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metharhizium anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sharififard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Considering to the high distribution of cockroaches as urban pests, the efficacy of different formula­tions of Metarhizium anisopliae strain Iran 437C were assessed against the brown-banded cockroach, Supella longi­palpa F. under laboratory and field conditions.Methods: Metarhizium anisopliae isolates were screened with immersing adults of the brown-banded cockroachs in aqueous suspension of 108 conidia ml-1 followed by surface or bait treated with different doses of the most virulent isolate against the nymphs. Then formulations of conidia oil-in-water were examined versus cockroach nymphs us­ing different plant oils and paraffin. Then they were evaluated and compared with aqueous suspension and control group. On a large-scale, the sunflower oil-in-water formulation of conidia was sprayed at houses using a hand sprayer.Results: Metarhizium anisopliae IRAN 437C was the most virulent isolate against the brown-banded cockroach, causing 100% mortality in adults at seven days post-exposure. Inoculated bait with this isolate was not enough path­ogenic against the cockroach even at two weeks after treatment. Treated surface with conidia as aqueous suspension or oil-in- water formulation was more effective than the bait formulation against the cockroach caused 39.4–97.2% mortality compared with 2.5% mortality in control group after two days. Spraying the conidia formulated with sun­flower oil was an effective formulation causing 76.1% reduction in the cockroach density on the third day post treatment in the houses.Conclusion: The oil-in-water formulation of M. anisopliae IRAN 437C could be recommended as a promising al­ternative for cockroach control.  

  1. Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E.; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt

    2018-01-01

    been the focus of most ecological research. Some taxa of invertebrate pathogenic fungi have evolved adaptations for utilizing living plants as substrates, and these lifestyles have recently received increased attention from researchers following the initial documentations of such plant associations...

  2. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B; Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p < 0.001 reduced population development of D. suzukii from infested berries. All nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  3. Further Screening of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Nematodes as Control Agents for Drosophila suzukii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Audsley, Neil

    2016-06-09

    Drosophila suzukii populations remain low in the UK. To date, there have been no reports of widespread damage. Previous research demonstrated that various species of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes could potentially suppress D. suzukii population development under laboratory trials. However, none of the given species was concluded to be specifically efficient in suppressing D. suzukii. Therefore, there is a need to screen further species to determine their efficacy. The following entomopathogenic agents were evaluated for their potential to act as control agents for D. suzukii: Metarhizium anisopliae; Isaria fumosorosea; a non-commercial coded fungal product (Coded B); Steinernema feltiae, S. carpocapsae, S. kraussei and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The fungi were screened for efficacy against the fly on fruit while the nematodes were evaluated for the potential to be applied as soil drenches targeting larvae and pupal life-stages. All three fungi species screened reduced D. suzukii populations developing from infested berries. Isaria fumosorosea significantly (p nematodes significantly reduced adult emergence from pupal cases compared to the water control. Larvae proved more susceptible to nematode infection. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora proved the best from the four nematodes investigated; readily emerging from punctured larvae and causing 95% mortality. The potential of the entomopathogens to suppress D. suzukii populations is discussed.

  4. Entomopathogenic Fungi as Dual Control Agents against Both the Pest Myzus persicae and Phytopathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hwi-Geon; Kim, Dong-Jun; Gwak, Won-Seok; Shin, Tae-Young; Woo, Soo-Dong

    2017-09-01

    The green peach aphid ( Myzus persicae ), a plant pest, and gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea , affect vegetables and fruit crops all over the world. To control this aphid and mold, farmers typically rely on the use of chemical insecticides or fungicides. However, intensive use of these chemicals over many years has led to the development of resistance. To overcome this problem, there is a need to develop alternative control methods to suppress populations of this plant pest and pathogen. Recently, potential roles have been demonstrated for entomopathogenic fungi in endophytism, phytopathogen antagonism, plant growth promotion, and rhizosphere colonization. Here, the antifungal activities of selected fungi with high virulence against green peach aphids were tested to explore their potential for the dual control of B. cinerea and M. persicae . Antifungal activities against B. cinerea were evaluated by dual culture assays using both aerial conidia and cultural filtrates of entomopathogenic fungi. Two fungal isolates, Beauveria bassiana SD15 and Metarhizium anisopliae SD3, were identified as having both virulence against aphids and antifungal activity. The virulence of these isolates against aphids was further tested using cultural filtrates, blastospores, and aerial conidia. The most virulence was observed in the simultaneous treatment with blastospores and cultural filtrate. These results suggest that the two fungal isolates selected in this study could be used effectively for the dual control of green peach aphids and gray mold for crop protection.

  5. EFFECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF A MINERAL-AND-ORGANIC FERTILISER PRODUCED FROM BROWN COAL ON THE OCCURRENCE AND INFECTIOUS POTENTIAL OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN SOIL

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    Anna Majchrowska-Safaryan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the species composition and rate of entomopathogenic fungi occurrence in cultivable soil following the application of a mineral-and-organic fertiliser produced from brown coal. The material for testing consisted of soil samples collected in the second year of the experiment on two dates in 2015 (spring and autumn. The experiment was carried out on the following plots: control plot (no fertilisation; a plot fertilised with mineral fertilisers NPK presowing + N60 for top dressing; a plot fertilised with NPK presowing + manure; a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 1 t/ha NPK presowing + N20 for top dressing; and a plot fertilised with a fertiliser produced from brown coal at a dose of 5 t/ha NPK presowing + N40 for top dressing. Entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from soil of particular fertilisation experiment plots using insect traps (Galleria mellonella larvae as well as a selective medium. Three species of entomopathogenic fungi, i.e. Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. and Isaria fumosorosea, were isolated using two methods, from the soil samples collected from particular fertilisation experiment plots on two dates, i.e. spring and autumn. Fungus M. anisopliae s.l. proved to be the predominant species in the tested soil samples. The addition of the mineral-and-organic fertiliser, produced based on brown coal, to the soil at both applied doses contributed to an increase in the number of infectious units (CFUs of entomopathogenic fungi formed in relation to the control plot.

  6. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of Central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walmirton B; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian

    2012-08-13

    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting Amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one Metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in Central Brazil from October 2009 to March 2011. Fungi were isolated from soils with Rhipicephalus sanguineus as surrogate baits. No fungi were found in ticks or soils during the driest months (May to August). Testing pathogenicity of fungi all R. sanguineus females were killed regardless of the isolate and fungi sporulated abundantly on the cadavers. A. cajennense was less susceptible to infection with P. lilacinum within 20 days than R. sanguineus. All three fungal species probably act as natural antagonists of A. cajennense particularly in the rainy season and have interest for integrate control of vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ACTIVITY OF SOME BRAZILIAN ISOLATES OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI AGAINST THE POULTRY RED MITE DERMANYSSUS GALLINAE DE GEER (ACARI: DERMANYSSIDAE

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    CR Kasburg

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is a cosmopolitan and hematophagous species commonly found in layer houses around the world. Poultry mite infestations may cause anemia, stress, low body weight and egg production, and mortality. Mite control is typically based on chemical products, but they are not effective and leave residues in eggs; therefore, alternative control methods, such as entomopathogenic fungi, need to researched. This study aimed at evaluating, in the laboratory, the activity of Brazilian isolates of entomopathogenic fungi against D. gallinae. The mites were collected from a commercial layer house and were sprayed with conidial suspensions (1 × 108 conidia/mL of five isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. All tested isolates were pathogenic for the red mite, with confirmed mortality ranging from 22.9 to 52.4%. This demonstrate the potential of the tested entomopathogenic fungi isolates for mite control, and reinforces the need for further studies with other isolates, application strategies, and with fungal formulations.

  8. Development of a population-based threshold model of conidial germination for analysing the effects of physiological manipulation on the stress tolerance and infectivity of insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M; Magan, N; Mead, A; Chandler, D

    2006-09-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are being used as biocontrol agents of insect pests, but their efficacy can be poor in environments where water availability is reduced. In this study, the potential to improve biocontrol by physiologically manipulating fungal inoculum was investigated. Cultures of Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium muscarium, Lecanicillium longisporum, Metarhizium anisopliae and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus were manipulated by growing them under conditions of water stress, which produced conidia with increased concentrations of erythritol. The time-course of germination of conidia at different water activities (water activity, aw) was described using a generalized linear model, and in most cases reducing the water activity of the germination medium delayed the onset of germination without affecting the distribution of germination times. The germination of M. anisopliae, L. muscarium, L. longisporum and P. fumosoroseus was accelerated over a range of aw levels as a result of physiological manipulation. However, the relationship between the effect of physiological manipulation on germination and the osmolyte content of conidia varied according to fungal species. There was a linear relationship between germination rate, expressed as the reciprocal of germination time, and aw of the germination medium, but there was no significant effect of fungal species or physiological manipulation on the aw threshold for germination. In bioassays with M. anisopliae, physiologically manipulated conidia germinated more rapidly on the surface of an insect host, the melon cotton aphid Aphis gossypii, and fungal virulence was increased even when relative humidity was reduced after an initial high period. It is concluded that physiological manipulation may lead to improvements in biocontrol in the field, but choice of fungal species/isolate will be critical. In addition, the population-based threshold model used in this study, which considered germination in terms of physiological

  9. Screening of Fungi for Biological Control of a Triatomine Vector of Chagas Disease: Temperature and Trypanosome Infection as Factors.

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    Aline R M Garcia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated as an alternative tool for controlling various insects, including triatomine vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Here we tested the pathogenicity and virulence of ten isolates of the fungi Metarhizium spp. and Beauveria bassiana against Rhodnius prolixus and found all of the isolates to be virulent. We used two isolates (URPE-11 Metarhizium anisopliae and ENT-1 Beauveria bassiana for further screening based on their prolific sporulation in vitro (an important property of fungal biopesticides. We characterized their virulences in a dose-response experiment and then examined virulence across a range of temperatures (21, 23, 27 and 30°C. We found isolate ENT-1 to maintain higher levels of virulence over these temperatures than URPE-11. We therefore used B. bassiana ENT-1 in the final experiment in which we examined the survival of insects parasitized with T. cruzi and then infected with this fungus (once again over a range of temperatures. Contrary to our expectations, the survival of insects challenged with the pathogenic fungus was greater when they had previously been infected with the parasite T. cruzi than when they had not (independent of temperature. We discuss these results in terms of aspects of the biologies of the three organisms. In practical terms, we concluded that, while we have fungal isolates of potential interest for development as biopesticides against R. prolixus, we have identified what could be a critical problem for this biological tool: the parasite T. cruzi appears to confer a measure of resistance to the insect against the potential biopesticide agent so use of this fungus as a biopesticide could lead to selection for vector competence.

  10. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin isolates to Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker (Hemiptera, Cydnidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Luciane Modenez Saldivar; Avila, Crebio Jose

    2006-01-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin to stink bug Scaptocoris carvalhoi Becker, 1967 was evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Experiments were carried out at EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, in 2003. Ten M. anisopliae and eleven B. bassiana isolates were evaluated in laboratory using a completely randomized experimental design with five replicates (10 adults and 5 nymphs/plot). The pathogenicity of M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was also separately evaluated against nymphs and adults in laboratory and greenhouse. The stink bug mortality levels were higher for M. anisopliae isolates (between 73.3% and 94.7% than for B. bassiana isolates (between 10.7% and 78.7%). In greenhouse, stink bug mortality due to the M. anisopliae isolate (Ma69) was 57.3%, and there was no difference of mortality for nymphs and adults of stink bug in laboratory. However, in greenhouse, mortality levels were significantly higher (p<0,05) for nymphs (38,4%) than for adults (16,2%). From these data, we conclude that M. anisopliae isolate Ma69 was efficient to control S. carvalhoi in laboratory and in greenhouse, thus being a promising choice for use as a microbial insecticide under field conditions. (author)

  11. Potential for entomopathogenic fungi to control Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, a vector of Chagas disease in Mexico

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    María Guadalupe Vázquez-Martínez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The use of entomopathogenic fungi to control disease vectors has become relevant because traditional chemical control methods have caused damage to the environment and led to the development of resistance among vectors. Thus, this study assessed the pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi in Triatoma dimidiata. Methods Preparations of 108 conidia/ml of Gliocladium virens, Talaromyces flavus, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were applied topically on T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. Controls were treated with the 0.0001% Tween-80 vehicle. Mortality was evaluated and recorded daily for 30 days. The concentration required to kill 50% of T. dimidiata (LC50 was then calculated for the most pathogenic isolate. Results Pathogenicity in adults was similar among B. bassiana, G. virens and T. flavus (p>0.05 and differed from that in triatomine nymphs (p=0.009. The most entomopathogenic strains in adult triatomines were B. bassiana and G. virens, which both caused 100% mortality. In nymphs, the most entomopathogenic strain was B. bassiana, followed by G. virens. The native strain with the highest pathogenicity was G. virens, for which the LC50 for T. dimidiata nymphs was 1.98 x108 conidia/ml at 13 days after inoculation. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana and G. virens showed entomopathogenic potential in T. dimidiata nymphs and adults. However, the native G. virens strain presents a higher probability of success in the field, and G. virens should thus be considered a potential candidate for the biological control of triatomine Chagas disease vectors.

  12. Pengendalian Diaphorina citri (Vektor Penyakit CVPD dengan Metarrhizium anisopliae

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    Kardi Raharjo

    2000-07-01

    and after insect infestation. The first phase of the research phase has been conducted in Temanggung, Completely Randomize Design (CRD factorial with three time replication. Factor I: sterile water without fructose, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml without fructose, concentration 10^10 conidia/ml: without fructose, sterile water + fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^6 conidia/ml without fructose 5 mg/ml, concentration 10^8 conidia/ml + fructose (fungi application before insect infestation and W1 (fungi application after insect infestation. Research phase II was carried out with the best treatment combination compare with control treatment in Temanggung and Bantul. The results of experiment showed that the initial die of D. citri caused by M. anisopliae infection are on 4-6 days after application. The application of M. anisopliae at concentration 10^10 conidia/ml without fructose, applied after insect infestation was most effective. The application after insect infestation was more effective compare with application before insect infestation especially on 4 days after application, but on 35th days after application there was no significant difference. Fructose has no effect to mortality of D. citri.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of temperature effects on the germination and growth of entomopathogenic fungi and on their pathogenicity to two aphid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Helen; Pell, Judith K; Alderson, Peter G; Clark, Suzanne J; Pye, Barry J

    2003-02-01

    As part of an approach to select potential mycoinsecticides for aphid biocontrol, we investigated the effects of temperature on the growth, germination and pathogenicity of some hyphomycete fungi. Commercially available mycoinsecticides (based on Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas) and other isolates of B bassiana, V lecanii, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown & Smith were evaluated. The rate of in vitro conidial germination of all isolates was slower at 10 and 15 degrees C than at 20 and 25 degrees C. Similarly, in vitro growth of most isolates was adversely affected at 10 and 15 degrees C. The greatest reduction at 10 degrees C in rates of conidial germination and colony growth, compared with other temperatures, was for M anisopliae isolates. Germination of V lecanii (isolate HRI 1.72) was fastest at 10 degrees C compared with the other fungi. It was also the most pathogenic of three isolates tested against Aphis fabae Scopoli and Myzus persicae Sulzer at 10, 18 and 23 degrees C. Generally, A fabae was more susceptible than M persicae to infection by the fungal isolates tested. A significant interaction between aphid species and temperature indicated that the pathogenic nature of an isolate was dependent not only on the target aphid species but also the temperature conditions of the bioassay. The series of studies, detailed above, allowed a temperature profile to be formed for the different isolates. Verticillium lecanii isolate HRI 1.72 (commercialised as Vertalec) was the most promising isolate selected from results of the series of experiments. Temperature profiles in conjunction with infectivity assays can be useful in selecting appropriate isolates for a particular thermal environment.

  14. Effectiveness of Selected Entomopathogenic Fungi in Packed Rice Grain at Room Temperature Against Corcyra Cephalonica Stainton

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    Hendrawan Samodra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated as dried conidia against the rice moth,  Corcyra cephalonica. In bioassays two isolates of Beauveria bassiana (BbGc and BbPs and one isolate of Metarhizium anisopliae (MaPs consistently gave high mortality to C. cephalonica larvae. Formulations in either kaolin, talc or tapioca flour (20 % w/w a.i. thoroughly mixed with long grain rice in plastic cups (8 cm diameter by 5 cm gave complete larval mortality by the 12th day of treatment. However, in general those formulated in kaolin and talc were more efficacious and faster to kill compared to those formulated in tapioca flour or the unformulated control. Even at the lowest rate of 0.05 g BbGc in kaolin provided 100% mortality 7 days after introduction compared with other dust formulations. Isolate BbGc in kaolin and talc administered at 0.4 g a.i. in 200 g rice packed in plastic kept at room temperature provided protection against the rice moth up to 4 months of storage. Larval mortality in excess of 90% was obtained 15 days after introduction. Formulations of MaPs was effective only within the first month of storage beyond which infectivity rapidly declined.

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi isolates to control the borer of yerba mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; CerambycidaeIsolados de fungos entomopatogênicos visando ao controle da broca da erva-mate (Hedypathes betulinus Kluger (Coleoptera; Cerambycidae

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    André Luis Pereira Fanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is an important crop of southern Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay, with socio-economic and environmental importance. Due the lack of native herbals, yerba mate has become a monoculture, and as a consequence, insects have become pests, and the borer, Hedypathes betulinus, one of the most important. In order to improve biological control in the crop, this work aims to select in laboratory the most virulent, of 32 isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. and 18 isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok. Initially, isolates virolence was evaluated by immersing the adults borers in a fungal suspension, containing 1×108 conidia mL-1, and after, those caused highest confirmed mortality were selected for the second step, wherein it was evaluated the virulence, vegetative growth and conidia production in culture medium, rice and borer bodies. Three isolates of B. bassiana (UNIOESTE 4, UNIOESTE 52 and UNIOESTE 64 and one of M. anisopliae (IBCB 352 reached confirmed mortality equal or superior to 90%, these isolates were selected for the second step, together with the standard isolated GC 716 (B. bassiana. The isolated IBCB 352 of M. anisopliae, despite being the only of this species to be selected for the second step, promoted the high confirmed mortality and conidiogenesis in adults borer, indicating a high inoculums production i, being nominated for field evaluations. A erva-mate é uma cultura importante da região sul do Brasil, Argentina e Paraguai, tendo grande importância sócio-econômica e ambiental. Com a escassez de ervais nativos, a cultura da erva-mate passou a ser cultivada em sistema de monocultivo e como consequência, alguns insetos tornaram-se pragas, sendo a broca, Hedypathes betulinus, muito importante. A fim de incrementar o controle biológico na cultura, o objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar em laboratório os isolados mais virulentos de 32 isolados do fungo entomopatog

  16. Volatile organic compounds emitted by filamentous fungi isolated from flooded homes after Hurricane Sandy show toxicity in a Drosophila bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G; Yin, G; Inamdar, A A; Luo, J; Zhang, N; Yang, I; Buckley, B; Bennett, J W

    2017-05-01

    Superstorm Sandy provided an opportunity to study filamentous fungi (molds) associated with winter storm damage. We collected 36 morphologically distinct fungal isolates from flooded buildings. By combining traditional morphological and cultural characters with an analysis of ITS sequences (the fungal DNA barcode), we identified 24 fungal species that belong to eight genera: Penicillium (11 species), Fusarium (four species), Aspergillus (three species), Trichoderma (two species), and one species each of Metarhizium, Mucor, Pestalotiopsis, and Umbelopsis. Then, we used a Drosophila larval assay to assess possible toxicity of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by these molds. When cultured in a shared atmosphere with growing cultures of molds isolated after Hurricane Sandy, larval toxicity ranged from 15 to 80%. VOCs from Aspergillus niger 129B were the most toxic yielding 80% mortality to Drosophila after 12 days. The VOCs from Trichoderma longibrachiatum 117, Mucor racemosus 138a, and Metarhizium anisopliae 124 were relatively non-toxigenic. A preliminary analysis of VOCs was conducted using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry from two of the most toxic, two of the least toxic, and two species of intermediate toxicity. The more toxic molds produced higher concentrations of 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 2-nonanone; while the less toxic molds produced more 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol, or an overall lower amount of volatiles. Our data support the hypothesis that at certain concentrations, some VOCs emitted by indoor molds are toxigenic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Junior, Jose M. de; Marques, Edmilson J.; Oliveira, Jose V. de

    2009-01-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (Neemseto R ). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  18. Infection of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, with two species of entomopathogenic fungi: effects of concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence

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    Lwetoijera Dickson W

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates have been shown to infect and reduce the survival of mosquito vectors. Methods Here four different bioassays were conducted to study the effect of conidia concentration, co-formulation, exposure time and persistence of the isolates M. anisopliae ICIPE-30 and B. bassiana I93-925 on infection and survival rates of female Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Test concentrations and exposure times ranged between 1 × 107 - 4 × 1010 conidia m-2 and 15 min - 6 h. In co-formulations, 2 × 1010 conidia m-2 of both fungus isolates were mixed at ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 1:1,1:0, 0:1, 1:2 and 1:4. To determine persistence, mosquitoes were exposed to surfaces treated 1, 14 or 28 d previously, with conidia concentrations of 2 × 109, 2 × 1010 or 4 × 1010. Results Mosquito survival varied with conidia concentration; 2 × 1010 conidia m-2 was the concentration above which no further reductions in survival were detectable for both isolates of fungus. The survival of mosquitoes exposed to single and co-formulated treatments was similar and no synergistic or additive effects were observed. Mosquitoes were infected within 30 min and longer exposure times did not result in a more rapid killing effect. Fifteen min exposure still achieved considerable mortality rates (100% mortality by 14 d of mosquitoes, but at lower speed than with 30 min exposure (100% mortality by 9 d. Conidia remained infective up to 28 d post-application but higher concentrations did not increase persistence. Conclusion Both fungus isolates are effective and persistent at low concentrations and short exposure times.

  19. Multiplexed microsatellite markers for seven Metarhizium species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-species transferability of 41 previously published simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was assessed for 11 species of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. A collection of 65 Metarhizium isolates including all 54 used in a recent phylogenetic revision of the genus were characterized. Betwe...

  20. Synergistic effect of dual imidacloprid-Metarhizium anisopliae applications against Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd A. Ugine; Calum W. Russell; Ann E. Hajek

    2011-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently, eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the...

  1. 76 FR 26194 - Metarhizium anisopliae Strain F52; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... sensitization--guinea pig (Harmonized Guideline 870.2600; MRID No. 448447-15). An acceptable dermal... pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide...

  2. Behavioural effects of fungal infection by Metarhizium anisopliae in adult malaria mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Malaria remains a major global health problem with the burden of disease greatest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The strategies for malaria control differ throughout the world according to levels of endemicity and the magnitude of disease but the focus remains either to control malaria parasites or

  3. Two efficient methods for isolation of high-quality genomic DNA from entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Domínguez, María G; Andrade-Michel, Gilda Y; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Gallou, Adrien

    2018-03-27

    Conventional and commercial methods for isolation of nucleic acids are available for fungal samples including entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). However, there is not a unique optimal method for all organisms. The cell wall structure and the wide range of secondary metabolites of EPF can broadly interfere with the efficiency of the DNA extraction protocol. This study compares three commercial protocols: DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen), Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega), and Axygen™ Multisource Genomic DNA Miniprep Kit (Axygen) and three conventional methods based on different buffers: SDS, CTAB/PVPP, and CTAB/β-mercaptoethanol versus three cell lysis procedures: liquid nitrogen homogenization and two bead-beating materials (i.e., tungsten-carbide and stainless-steel) for four representative species of EPF (i.e., Beauveria bassiana, Hirsutella citriformis, Isaria javanica, and Metarhizium anisopliae). Liquid nitrogen homogenization combined with DNeasy® Plant Mini Kit (i.e., QN) or SDS buffer (i.e., SN) significantly improved the yield with a good purity (~1.8) and high integrity (>20,000 bp) of genomic DNA in contrast with other methods, also, these results were better when compared with the two bead-beating materials. The purified DNA was evaluated by PCR-based techniques: amplification of translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) and two highly sensitive molecular markers (i.e., ISSR and AFLP) with reliable and reproducible results. Despite a variation in yield, purity, and integrity of extracted DNA across the four species of EPF with the different DNA extraction methods, the SN and QN protocols maintained a high-quality of DNA which is required for downstream molecular applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selección de Cepas de Hongos Entomopatógenos para el Manejo de Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 (Diptera: Tephritidae en Colombia Selection of Strains of Entomopathogenic Fungi for Management of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart, 1835 (Diptera: Tephritidae in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Osorio-Fajardo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 15 cepas de los hongos entomopatógenos Beauveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisopliae sobre adultos de un día de edad de la mosca de la fruta Anastrepha obliqua. El trabajo se realizó con el fin de seleccionar las cepas más virulentas al insecto y estudiar el efecto sobre los adultos jóvenes cuando el hongo era aplicado antes de la emergencia. Mediante un screening con una concentración de 1x10(7 conidias/mL se seleccionaron las tres cepas más virulentas, siendo dos de ellas de Beauveria y una de Metarhizium, las cuales causaron mortalidades del 77%, 71% y 66%. Valores de CL50 de 2,38x10(6, 1,81x10(6 y 9,94x10(6 conidias/mL, respectivamente, fueron determinados para cada una de estas cepas y un TL50 respectivo de 48,12; 56 y 42,75 horas. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la mortalidad entre hembras y machos. La aspersión de la CL90 de las cepas seleccionadas sobre el medio de pupación de la mosca de la fruta produjo 34-48% de mortalidad durante las 120 horas de evaluación. Los hongos entomopatógenos pueden ser utilizados fácilmente para el control biológico de A. obliqua aplicándolos de manera dirigida a los adultos jóvenes bajo la copa de los árboles, en programas de manejo integrado de plagas.Fifteen strains from entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi were evaluated on one day-old adults of Anastrepha obliqua fruit fly. Tested were carried out for selecting the most virulent strains and the effectiveness of their use on young adult when the entomopathogen were applied before emergence were studied too. A screening with a 1x10(7 conidia/mL concentration was used for selecting the three most pathogenic isolates, two from Beauveria and one from Metarhizium, having 77, 71 and 66% mortality. The LC50 for these isolates were 2.38x10(6, 1.81x10(6 and 9.94x10(6 conidia/mL, respectively, and a respective LT50 were 48.12, 56 and 42.75 hours. No significant differences were found

  5. Protecting Plants against Pests and Pathogens with Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, Chad Alton

    This thesis investigates the natural occurrence of the fungal genus Metarhizium in association with crop-roots in Denmark, and advances the current understanding of how these fungi interact with other root-associating organisms when applied as a biological control agent. Insect-pest management...... protection. The fungal genus Metarhizium is one of the most intensely researched groups of entomopathogenic fungi and several isolates have been successfully employed as biopesticides for crop protection; however, inconsistent field reliability has limited wider implementation. Research emphasizing...... of the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys roseas to control Fusarium culmorum disease in wheat; and a significant level of insect mortality was observed in insects feeding on roots from inoculated seed – even when Metarhizium was applied jointly with C. rosea. Furthermore, M. flavoviride, a less frequently studied...

  6. PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ALLERGENS FROM METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this project is the identification and characterization of allergens from the fungus M. Anisopliae, using mass spectrometry (MS). The US EPA, under the "Children at Risk" program, is currently addressing the problem of indoor fungal bioaerosol contamination. One of ...

  7. Entomopathogenic fungi in population of Zonocerus variegatus (l) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field survey of population of Zonocerus variegatus revealed a high fungal incidence of 76% when Sporulation tests were carried out on grasshoppers cadaver. Eight fungi with differing incidence rates were isolated. These are Fusarium sp. (8%); Beauveria bassiana (18%); Metarhizium sp. (20%); Aspergillus flavus (10%); ...

  8. Evaluating the lethal and pre-lethal effects of a range of fungi against adult Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanford Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide resistance is seriously undermining efforts to eliminate malaria. In response, research on alternatives to the use of chemical insecticides against adult mosquito vectors has been increasing. Fungal entomopathogens formulated as biopesticides have received much attention and have shown considerable potential. This research has necessarily focused on relatively few fungal isolates in order to ‘prove concept’. Further, most attention has been paid to examining fungal virulence (lethality and not the other properties of fungal infection that might also contribute to reducing transmission potential. Here, a range of fungal isolates were screened to examine variation in virulence and how this relates to additional pre-lethal reductions in feeding propensity. Methods The Asian malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi was exposed to 17 different isolates of entomopathogenic fungi belonging to species of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Metarhizium acridum and Isaria farinosus. Each isolate was applied to a test substrate at a standard dose rate of 1×109 spores ml-1 and the mosquitoes exposed for six hours. Subsequently the insects were removed to mesh cages where survival was monitored over the next 14 days. During this incubation period the mosquitoes’ propensity to feed was assayed for each isolate by offering a feeding stimulant at the side of the cage and recording the number probing. Results and conclusions Fungal isolates showed a range of virulence to A. stephensi with some causing >80% mortality within 7 days, while others caused little increase in mortality relative to controls over the study period. Similarly, some isolates had a large impact on feeding propensity, causing >50% pre-lethal reductions in feeding rate, whereas other isolates had very little impact. There was clear correlation between fungal virulence and feeding reduction with virulence explaining nearly 70% of the variation in

  9. Efficacy Test of Mutant Metarrhizium anisopliae by Gamma Radiation to Control Rhinoceros Beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeerapong, Lawan; Piadang, Nattayana; Jantasang, Kittisak; Kamontip, Rukprasong

    2006-09-01

    Increasing the efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ma) DOAE variety to control rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) by gamma radiation was found that among 20 varieties got from the fungus irradiated with 20 doses of gamma radiation, MAI-20 irradiated with 1.6, 8 and 10 kGy of gamma ray was the most suitable far control rhinoceros larvae as follow reason : the dominant characterize of MAI -20 is the spore with black color, It can grow wi trh the diameter of 1.8 centimeter on PDA agar within 10 days and full growth on surface of maize seed at 1.5 kilogram with in 15 days. The effectiveness of MAI-20 to control 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros beetle was 80 percent mortality within 10 days while the original variety (DOAE variety) with the dominant characterization of green color spore, 1 centimeter diameter growth on PDA agar within 10 days and full growth on surface of maize seed 1.5 kilogram within 15 days. This variety caused 60 percent mortality to 3 in star larvae of rhinoceros within 7 days. It could conclude that from laboratory experiment, MAI-20 is the most effective and suitable variety to control rhinoceros beetle even though the mortality time was longer than the original variety because the larvae of the insect does not caused the damage to coconut. The efficiency for controlling rhinoceros beetle at field trial by using irradiated MAI-20 comparing to the original variety and control (with out fungus) by adding each 1,2 kilogram of the MAI-20 and original variety growth on surface of maize seed on each manure pile size 1x1x0.5 meter. After 7 days of both varieties of Metarhizium application, the number of dead larvae caused by the fungus and the number of healthy larvae in each manure pile was collected and counted. It was found that after continuous survey 4 time (7 day per 1 time ) the percent mortality of rhinoceros larvae caused by the 2 fungus varieties were as follow : 1 kilogram of original varieties had an average of 55.5 percent larva

  10. Preliminary survey for entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes scapularis>/i> (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern New York and New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhioua, Elyes; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Humber, Richard A.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    1999-01-01

    Free-living larval, nymphal, and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were collected from scattered locales in southern New England and New York to determine infection rates with entomopathogenic fungi. Infection rates of larvae, nymphs, males, and females were 0% (571), 0% (272), 0% (57), and 4.3% (47), respectively. Two entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from field-collected I. scapularis females from Fire Island, NY. Isolates were identified as Verticillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Viegas and Verticillium sp. (a member of the Verticillium lecanii species complex).Ixodes scapularis Say is the principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner (Burgdorfer et al. 1982, Johnson et al. 1984), the etiologic agent of Lyme disease in the northeastern and upper-midwestern United States. Control of I. scapularis is based on chemical treatment (Mather et al. 1987b; Schulze et al. 1987, 1991), environmental management (Wilson et al. 1988, Schulze et al. 1995), and habitat modification (Wilson 1986). These methods have shown variable success, and some potentially have negative environmental effects (Wilson and Deblinger 1993, Ginsberg 1994).Studies concerning natural predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of I. scapularis are rare. The use of ground-dwelling birds as tick predators has had only limited success (Duffy et al. 1992). Nymphal I. scapularis are often infected with the parasitic wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Howard) (Mather et al. 1987a, Hu et al. 1993, Stafford et al. 1996, Hu and Hyland 1997), but this wasp does not effectively control I. scapularis populations (Stafford et al. 1996). The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic only to engorged female I. scapularis, and thus have limited applicability (Zhioua et al. 1995). In contrast, the entomogenous fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin is highly pathogenic to all stages of I. scapularis, unfed as well as engorged

  11. Elevational distribution and morphological attributes of the entomopathogenic fungi from forests of the Qinling Mountains in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Abolfazl; Koprowski, John Lad; Bhattarai, Upendra Raj; Wang, Dun

    2018-02-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are considered to be a safe microbiological pesticide alternative to chemical control. Efforts are underway to understand precisely their taxonomy and natural distribution through mycological and biodiversity studies based on molecular markers. Here, we present descriptions of the diversity of the entomopathogenic fungi in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria found along the elevational gradients of the Qinling subtropical and temperate forests of Shaanxi province in China, using morphological aspects and molecular markers. Molecular characterization using the Mz_IGS3 intergenic region revealed that Metarhizium isolates phylogenetically clustered in the PARB clade with four different distinguishable species, but the 5'-TEF gene allowed only ambiguous delimitation of Metarhizium species. Beauveria isolates were characterized by sequence analyses of the translation elongation factor 1-α and the Bloc region. The richness of Metarhizium species decreased with increasing elevation, with Metarhizium robertsii s.l. being the most abundant species along the elevational gradient. Our bioassay suggests that certain species of Metarhizium are significantly pathogenic to the insect model Tenebrio molitor at both the adult and larvae stages and could potentially serve as a control of insect pests of forests.

  12. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  13. Genome Studies on Nematophagous and Entomogenous Fungi in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Cheng, Xiaoli; Liu, Xingzhong; Xiang, Meichun

    2016-01-01

    The nematophagous and entomogenous fungi are natural enemies of nematodes and insects and have been utilized by humans to control agricultural and forestry pests. Some of these fungi have been or are being developed as biological control agents in China and worldwide. Several important nematophagous and entomogenous fungi, including nematode-trapping fungi (Arthrobotrys oligospora and Drechslerella stenobrocha), nematode endoparasite (Hirsutella minnesotensis), insect pathogens (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium spp.) and Chinese medicinal fungi (Ophiocordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris), have been genome sequenced and extensively analyzed in China. The biology, evolution, and pharmaceutical application of these fungi and their interacting with host nematodes and insects revealed by genomes, comparing genomes coupled with transcriptomes are summarized and reviewed in this paper. PMID:29376926

  14. Infection of malaria (Anopheles gambiae s.s.) and filariasis (Culex quinquefasciatus) vectors with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, E.J.; Njiru, B.N.; Smallegange, R.C.; Takken, W.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Current intra-domiciliary vector control depends on the application of residual insecticides and/or repellents. Although biological control agents have been developed against aquatic mosquito stages, none are available for adults. Following successful use of an entomopathogenic fungus

  15. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding mammalian health impacts of these agents has focused on toxicity and pathogenicity, with limited research regarding allergenicity and asthma development. We compared the ability of funga...

  16. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)and compatibility with chemical insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi...

  18. Genetic variability in regenerated Metarhizium flavoviride protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Kuklinsky-Sobral

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Protoplast isolation and regeneration were evaluated in two wild-type and two colour mutant strains of Metarhizium flavoviride. Cultivation in liquid medium, followed by mycelium treatment with Novozym 234 in the presence of KCl 0.7M as osmotic stabilizer, produced 5.05 x 10(6 to 1.15 x 10(7x mL-1 protoplasts. The percentage of regeneration ranged from 6.65 to 27.92%. Following protoplast regeneration, one strain produced spontaneously stable morphological variant colonies. Although colonies with altered morphology have been reported in bacteria following protoplast regeneration, this is the first time that the same is described in a filamentous fungus. The original strain and one derived variant were tested for sensitivity to the fungicides benomyl and captan.A formação e regeneração de protoplastos foram avaliadas em duas linhagens selvagens e duas linhagens mutantes para coloração de conídios em Metarhizium flavoviride. O cultivo em meio líquido seguido do tratamento do micélio com Novozym 234 na presença de KCl 0,7 M como estabilizador osmótico, resultou na produção de 5,05´10(6 a 1,15´10(7 protoplastos´mL-1. A porcentagem de regeneração das diferentes linhagens variou de 6,65 a 27,92%. Após a regeneração, uma das linhagens selvagens produziu espontaneamente variantes estáveis, com morfologia alterada. Embora variantes morfológicos já tenham sido observados após regeneração de protoplastos em bactérias, esta parece ser a primeira vez que tal ocorrência é descrita em fungos filamentosos. Um desses variantes, além da linhagem selvagem da qual ele foi originado, foi testado para sensibilidade aos fungicidas benomil e captano.

  19. An extra-domiciliary method of delivering entomopathogenic fungus, Metharizium anisopliae IP 46 for controlling adult populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnyone Ladslaus L

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fungal biopesticides have the potential to significantly reduce densities of malaria vectors as well as associated malaria transmission. In previous field trials, entomopathogenic fungus was delivered from within human dwellings, where its efficacy was limited by low infection rates of target mosquitoes, high costs of spraying fungus inside houses, and potential public health concerns associated with introducing fungal conidia inside houses. Here we have demonstrated that Metarhizium anisopliae IP 46, delivered within an extra-domiciliary odor-baited station (OBS, can infect and slowly-kill a high proportion of the wild adult malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis which entered and exited the OBS. This study, carried out in rural Tanzania, showed that by using a concentration of 3.9 × 1010 conidia/m2, more than 95% of mosquitoes that flew in and out of the OBS died within 14 days post-exposure. At least 86% infection of mosquito cadavers was recorded with a significant reduction in the probability of daily survival of exposed An. arabiensis in both treatments tested: low quantity of conidia (eave baffles plus one cotton panel; HR = 2.65, P P

  20. Metacridamides A and B from the biocontrol fungus metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. As part of an effort to catalog the secondary metabolites of this fungus we discovered that its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycl...

  1. Borisade et al (10)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    Entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria farinosa are biocontrol agents (BCA) widely reported for the management of insect pests, and they are potential components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) systems. Compatibility of their infective conidia with low rates of four agrochemicals; Champ-DP ...

  2. MrSkn7 controls sporulation, cell wall integrity, autolysis, and virulence in Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Chen, Peilin; Chen, Yixiong; Lu, Yuzhen; Wang, Chengshu

    2015-04-01

    Two-component signaling pathways generally include sensor histidine kinases and response regulators. We identified an ortholog of the response regulator protein Skn7 in the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii, which we named MrSkn7. Gene deletion assays and functional characterizations indicated that MrSkn7 functions as a transcription factor. The MrSkn7 null mutant of M. robertsii lost the ability to sporulate and had defects in cell wall biosynthesis but was not sensitive to oxidative and osmotic stresses compared to the wild type. However, the mutant was able to produce spores under salt stress. Insect bioassays using these spores showed that the virulence of the mutant was significantly impaired compared to that of the wild type due to the failures to form the infection structure appressorium and evade host immunity. In particular, deletion of MrSkn7 triggered cell autolysis with typical features such as cell vacuolization, downregulation of repressor genes, and upregulation of autolysis-related genes such as extracellular chitinases and proteases. Promoter binding assays confirmed that MrSkn7 could directly or indirectly control different putative target genes. Taken together, the results of this study help us understand the functional divergence of Skn7 orthologs as well as the mechanisms underlying the development and control of virulence in insect-pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Genetically altering the expression of neutral trehalase gene affects conidiospore thermotolerance of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guoxiong

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum has been used as an important biocontrol agent instead of insecticides for controlling crop pests throughout the world. However, its virulence varies with environmental factors, especially temperature. Neutral trehalase (Ntl hydrolyzes trehalose, which plays a role in environmental stress response in many organisms, including M. acridum. Demonstration of a relationship between Ntl and thermotolerance or virulence may offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi through genetic engineering. Results We selected four Ntl over-expression and four Ntl RNA interference (RNAi transformations in which Ntl expression is different. Compared to the wild-type, Ntl mRNA expression was reduced to 35-66% in the RNAi mutants and increased by 2.5-3.5-fold in the over-expression mutants. The RNAi conidiospores exhibited less trehalase activity, accumulated more trehalose, and were much more tolerant of heat stress than the wild-type. The opposite effects were found in conidiospores of over-expression mutants compared to RNAi mutants. Furthermore, virulence was not altered in the two types of mutants compared to the wild type. Conclusions Ntl controlled trehalose accumulation in M. acridum by degrading trehalose, and thus affected conidiospore thermotolerance. These results offer a new strategy for enhancing conidiospore thermotolerance of entomopathogenic fungi without affecting virulence.

  4. Survival of chicken ascarid eggs exposed to different soil types and fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thapa, Sundar; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-01-01

    The eggs of intestinal ascarid parasites (Ascaridia galli and Heterakis spp.) of chickens can survive long-term in soil and this makes contaminated yards and pastures infective to chickens for years. The fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia Biotype 10 and Metarhizium brunneum KVL04-57 can kill ascarid...... eggs in agar assays but their efficacy against these eggs in soil is unknown. We therefore initially tested the ovicidal effect of the two fungi in laboratory soil assays. Unembryonated eggs were added to sterilised and non-sterilised soil with or without fungi, and egg recovery was examined before...... and after incubation (22 °C, 30 days). Egg recovery was substantially reduced by P. chlamydosporia and M. brunneum in sterilised soil. However, in non-sterilised soil only M. brunneum slightly reduced egg counts. Notably, egg recovery was reduced markedly in non-sterilised soil though no fungi were applied...

  5. Evaluation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) for control of Japanese beetle larvae in turfgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental and commercial preparations of Metarhizium brunneum strain F52 were evaluated for control of Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarbaeidae) larvae (white grubs) in the laboratory and under field conditions. Experimental preparations consisted of granule and liquid f...

  6. DNA methyltransferases contribute to the fungal development, stress tolerance and virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulong; Wang, Tiantian; Qiao, Lintao; Zhu, Jianyu; Fan, Jinrui; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Zhang-Xun; Li, Wanzhen; Chen, Anhui; Huang, Bo

    2017-05-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in mammals, plants, and fungi and depends on multiple genetic pathways involving de novo and maintenance DNA methyltransferases (DNMTases). Metarhizium robertsii, a model system for investigating insect-fungus interactions, has been used as an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical insecticides. However, little is known concerning the molecular basis for DNA methylation. Here, we report on the roles of two DNMTases (MrRID and MrDIM-2) by characterizing ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 mutants. The results showed that approximately 71, 10, and 8% of m C sites remained in the ΔMrRID, ΔMrDIM-2, and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 strains, respectively, compared with the wild-type (WT) strain. Further analysis showed that MrRID regulates the specificity of DNA methylation and MrDIM-2 is responsible for most DNA methylation, implying an interaction or cooperation between MrRID and MrDIM-2 for DNA methylation. Moreover, the ΔMrDIM-2 and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 strains showed more defects in radial growth and conidial production compared to the WT. Under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation or heat stress, an obvious reduction in spore viability was observed for all the mutant strains compared to the WT. The spore median lethal times (LT 50 s) for the ΔMrDIM-2 and ΔRID/ΔDIM-2 strains in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, were decreased by 47.7 and 65.9%, respectively, which showed that MrDIM-2 is required for full fungal virulence. Our data advances the understanding of the function of DNMTase in entomopathogenic fungi, which should contribute to future epigenetic investigations in fungi.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of Metarhizium anisopliae var acridum isolates as microbial agents for locust and grasshopper control. Genbank Accession numbers FJ787311 to FJ787325

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing interest in the biological control of locusts and grasshoppers (Acrididae) has led to the development of biopesticides based on naturally occurring pathogens which offers an environmentally safe alternative to chemical pesticides. However, the fungal strains which are being sought for biop...

  8. Filamentous Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  9. Differentiation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride (Hyphomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier-Santos Solange

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation of a Brazilian isolate of Metarhizium flavoviride (CG 423, a promising candidate for the biocontrol of grasshoppers, was investigated. Conidia were spread onto solid medium (1% yeast extract, 2.8% agar, 96.2% distilled water, incubated at 28°C and observed during 26 h. Germination initiated as conidia size increased from 5.3 (±0.6 x 3.1 (±0.3 µm (0 h incubation to 8.1 (±0.2 x 6.1 (±0.2 µm (8 h incubation. Germ tubes started to appear after 10 h incubation showing a high degree of multipolarity. Twenty six hours after inoculation, hyphal differentiation and anastomosis among hyphae from adjacent conidia were recorded. Appressoria were formed only from conidia incubated in liquid medium containing minimum concentration of yeast extract (0.06%; w/v. Appressoria were firmly adhered to the bottom of plastic dishes.

  10. Assessing effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum on soil microbial communities in Agriotes spp. biological pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, Johanna; Eckard, Sonja; Hartmann, Martin; Grabenweger, Giselher; Widmer, Franco; Leuchtmann, Adrian; Enkerli, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    The release of large quantities of microorganisms to soil for purposes such as pest control or plant growth promotion may affect the indigenous soil microbial communities. In our study, we investigated potential effects of Metarhizium brunneum ART2825 on soil fungi and prokaryota in bulk soil using high-throughput sequencing of ribosomal markers. Different formulations of this strain, and combinations of the fungus with garlic as efficacy-enhancing agent, were tested over 4 months in a pot and a field experiment carried out for biological control of Agriotes spp. in potatoes. A biocontrol effect was observed only in the pot experiment, i.e. the application of FCBK resulted in 77% efficacy. Colony counts combined with genotyping and marker sequence abundance confirmed the successful establishment of the applied strain. Only the formulated applied strain caused small shifts in fungal communities in the pot experiment. Treatment effects were in the same range as the effects caused by barley kernels, the carrier of the FCBK formulation and temporal effects. Garlic treatments and time affected prokaryotic communities. In the field experiment, only spatial differences affected fungal and prokaryotic communities. Our findings suggest that M. brunneum may not adversely affect soil microbial communities. © FEMS 2017.

  11. Metabolomics reveals the heterogeneous secretome of two entomopathogenic fungi to ex vivo cultured insect tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charissa de Bekker

    Full Text Available Fungal entomopathogens rely on cellular heterogeneity during the different stages of insect host infection. Their pathogenicity is exhibited through the secretion of secondary metabolites, which implies that the infection life history of this group of environmentally important fungi can be revealed using metabolomics. Here metabolomic analysis in combination with ex vivo insect tissue culturing shows that two generalist isolates of the genus Metarhizium and Beauveria, commonly used as biological pesticides, employ significantly different arrays of secondary metabolites during infectious and saprophytic growth. It also reveals that both fungi exhibit tissue specific strategies by a distinguishable metabolite secretion on the insect tissues tested in this study. In addition to showing the important heterogeneous nature of these two entomopathogens, this study also resulted in the discovery of several novel destruxins and beauverolides that have not been described before, most likely because previous surveys did not use insect tissues as a culturing system. While Beauveria secreted these cyclic depsipeptides when encountering live insect tissues, Metarhizium employed them primarily on dead tissue. This implies that, while these fungi employ comparable strategies when it comes to entomopathogenesis, there are most certainly significant differences at the molecular level that deserve to be studied.

  12. Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with (15)N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of (15)N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities.

  13. Efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick Rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M; Rot, A; Ment, D; Barel, S; Glazer, I; Gindin, G

    2014-12-15

    High infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. However, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. The present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum against the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. It demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of the fungus under field conditions. During the summer, 93% of tick females exposed to fungus-contaminated ground died within 1 week, whereas during the winter, only 62.2% died within 6 weeks. Nevertheless, the hatchability of their eggs was only 6.1% during the summer and 0.0% during winter. Covering the ground with grass, leaves or gravel improved fungal performance. Aside from killing female ticks, the fungus had a substantial effect on tick fecundity. Fungal infection reduced the proportion of female ticks laying full-size egg masses by up to 91%, and reduced egg hatchability by up to 100%. To reduce the negative effect of outdoor factors on fungal activity, its conidia were mixed with different oils (olive, canola, mineral or paraffin at 10% v/v) and evaluated in both laboratory and field tests for efficacy. All tested oils without conidia sprayed on the sand did not influence tick survival or weight of the laid eggs but significantly reduced egghatchability. Conidia in water with canola or mineral oil spread on agarose and incubated for 18 h showed 57% and 0% germination, respectively. Comparing, under laboratory conditions, the effects of adding each of the four oils to conidia in water on ticks demonstrated no effect on female mortality or weight of the laid egg mass, but the percentage of hatched eggs was reduced. In outdoor trials, female ticks placed on the ground sprayed with conidia in water yielded an average of 175 larvae per female and there was no hatching of

  14. Dicer and Argonaute Genes Involved in RNA Interference in the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Huimin; Wang, Zhangxun; Wang, Yulong; Zhu, Hong; Huang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene-silencing mechanism that plays an important role in gene regulation in a number of eukaryotic organisms. Two core components, Dicer and Argonaute, are central in the RNAi machinery. However, the physiological roles of Dicer and Argonaute in the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii have remained unclear. Here, the roles of genes encoding Dicer ( M. robertsii dcl1 [ Mrdcl1 ] and Mrdcl2 ) and Argonaute ( Mrago1 and Mrago2 ) proteins in M. robertsii were investigated. The results showed that the Dicer-like protein MrDCL2 and Argonaute protein MrAGO1 are the major components of the RNAi process occurring in M. robertsii The Dicer and Argonaute genes were not involved in the regulation of growth and diverse abiotic stress response in M. robertsii under the tested conditions. Moreover, our results showed that the Dicer and Argonaute gene mutants demonstrated reduced abilities to produce conidia, compared to the wild type (WT) and the gene-rescued mutant. In particular, the conidial yields in the Δ dcl2 and Δ ago1 mutants were reduced by 55.8% and 59.3%, respectively, compared with those from the control strains. Subsequently, for the WT and Δ dcl2 mutant strains, digital gene expression (DGE) profiling analysis of the stage of mycelium growth and conidiogenesis revealed that modest changes occur in development or metabolism processes, which may explain the reduction in conidiation in the Δ dcl2 mutant. In addition, we further applied high-throughput sequencing technology to identify small RNAs (sRNAs) that are differentially expressed in the WT and the Δ dcl2 mutant and found that 4 known microRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) and 8 novel milRNAs were Mrdcl2 dependent in M. robertsii IMPORTANCE The identification and characterization of components in RNAi have contributed significantly to our understanding of the mechanism and functions of RNAi in eukaryotes. Here, we found that Dicer and Argonaute genes play an important role

  15. Swainsonine Biosynthesis Genes in Diverse Symbiotic and Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cook

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Swainsonine—a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug—is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glory symbiont belonging to order Chaetothyriales. Genome sequence analyses revealed that these fungi share orthologous gene clusters, designated “SWN,” which included a multifunctional swnK gene comprising predicted adenylylation and acyltransferase domains with their associated thiolation domains, a β-ketoacyl synthase domain, and two reductase domains. The role of swnK was demonstrated by inactivating it in M. robertsii through homologous gene replacement to give a ∆swnK mutant that produced no detectable swainsonine, then complementing the mutant with the wild-type gene to restore swainsonine biosynthesis. Other SWN cluster genes were predicted to encode two putative hydroxylases and two reductases, as expected to complete biosynthesis of swainsonine from the predicted SwnK product. SWN gene clusters were identified in six out of seven sequenced genomes of Metarhzium species, and in all 15 sequenced genomes of Arthrodermataceae, a family of fungi that cause athlete’s foot and ringworm diseases in humans and other mammals. Representative isolates of all of these species were cultured, and all Metarhizium spp. with SWN clusters, as well as all but one of the Arthrodermataceae, produced swainsonine. These results suggest a new biosynthetic hypothesis for this alkaloid, extending the known taxonomic breadth of swainsonine producers to at least four orders of Ascomycota, and suggest that swainsonine has roles in mutualistic symbioses and diseases of plants and animals.

  16. Potential of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) activity against Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Anuja; Stafford, Kirby C

    2011-12-01

    The yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., has been used to indicate qualitatively the presence of entomopathogenic fungi in the soil or as a model for evaluating stress and other factors on fungal activity. Although this beetle appears highly susceptible to many of these fungi, little quantitative information is available on the sensitivity of T. molitor to a specific fungus and, therefore, fungal presence or as an indicator for pathogenicity to other species. The purpose of this study was to establish the suitability of T. molitor larvae as a bioassay probe for Metarhizium brunneum for comparison against the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Nine concentrations of M. brunneum strain F52 ranging from 1.0 x 10(1) to 8.4 x 10(8) conidial/ml were simultaneously tested against T. molitor larvae and I. scapularis adults. Larvae of yellow mealworm were less sensitive to M. brunneum than I. scapularis adults (LC50's 4.4 x 10(7) and 1.7 x 10(5) conidia/ml, respectively, 4-wk post-treatment). The greater sensitivity of I. scapularis to the fungus suggests that the detection of fungal mycosis in mealworms would indicate sufficient inoculum to be pathogenic to I. scapularis and make this insect a suitable probe for evaluation of the presence and activity of M. brunneum against the blacklegged tick in field applications.

  17. Direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinger, Jaka; Lutz, Matthias; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Palmisano, Marilena; Wohler, Christian; Urek, Gregor; Grunder, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    A potential Delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. In addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. The following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: Trichoderma atroviride, T. koningiopsis, T. gamsii, Beauveria bassiana, Metharhizium anisopliae, M. brunneum and Clonostachys solani. A commercial carbosulfan-based insecticide was used as a positive control. Additionally, two commercial products, one based on B. bassiana (Naturalis) and one on Bacillus thuringiensis (Delfin) were used as reference biocontrol agents. The aims were (i) to assess the pathogenicity of the selected fungal isolates to Delia radicum, (ii) to evaluate the fungal isolates' rhizosphere competence, with the emphasis on the persistence of the original inoculum on the growing roots, (iii) to assess possible endophytic plant tissue colonization, and (iv) to evaluate potential plant growth stimulating effects of the added inoculi. Significant pathogenicity of tested fungi against Delia radicum was confirmed in in vitro and glasshouse experiments. All tested fungi persisted on cauliflower rhizoplane. More importantly, the added fungi were found on thoroughly washed roots outside the original point of inoculation. This provided us with evidence that our tested fungi could be transferred via or grow with the elongating roots. In addition to colonizing the rhizoplane, some fungi were found inside the plant root or stem tissue, thus exhibiting endophytic characteristics. The importance of fungal ecology as a criterion in appropriate biological control agent selection is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ação de fungos entomopatogênicos em larvas e adultos da mosca do figo Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae Action of entomopathogenic fungi on the larvae and adults of the fig fly Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Michelle Svedese

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A mosca do figo, Zaprionus indianus, vem se disseminando no Brasil e causou nos últimos anos perdas de até 50% na produção de figos. Uma alternativa viável de controle desta mosca pode ser a utilização de fungos entomopatogênicos. Este trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório (27±1°C, UR 70±10% e fotoperíodo de 12h para avaliar a suscetibilidade dos estágios de larva e adulto de Z. indianus a cinco concentrações (10(8 a 10(4 conídios mL-1 de B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 e M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. Não houve mortalidade larval e o período de pré-pupa não sofreu alteração em relação ao grupo controle, já o estágio de pupa foi aumentado em até três dias quando se utilizou B. bassiana. A emergência de adultos diminuiu em relação ao grupo controle: 10,6% quando as larvas foram tratadas com a maior concentração de B. bassiana URM2916 e 2,0% com M. anisopliae URM4403. No bioensaio com adultos, a mortalidade máxima atingiu 98,7% com B. bassiana e 100,0% com M. anisopliae. Os menores valores da CL50 foram de 1,09x10(5 conídios mL-1 para B. bassiana URM2916 e de 1,94x10(4 conídios mL-1 para M. anisopliae URM4403. O tempo letal médio (TL50 variou de 4,5 a 6,12 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que ambos os fungos são eficientes e mostram ser promissores agentes biocontroladores da mosca do figo, com destaque para M. anisopliae URM4403.The "fig fly", Zaprionus indianus, has spread by in Brazil and in recent years and has caused losses of up to 50% in the production of figs. A viable alternative to control this fly may be the use of entomopathogenic fungi such. The present study was developed in laboratory (27±1°C, RH 70±10% and 12h photoperiod, to assess the susceptibility of larval and adult stages of Z. indianus to five concentrations (10(8 to 10(4 conidia mL-1 of B. bassiana (URM2915; ESALQ447 and M. anisopliae (URM3349; URM4403. There was no larval mortality and the pre-pupal period did not change compared

  19. Ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum (Mb F52) on dengue fever vector, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ovicidal activity of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Mb F52) grown from granules was evaluated against Aedes aegypti eggs over time. Survival of larvae from treated eggs was significantly less when compared with untreated eggs at 7, 10 and 14 days post treatment. Only 27 % of treated eggs produced vi...

  20. Metacridamides A and B, bioactive macrocycles from conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium acridum, an entomopathogenic fungus, has been commercialized and used successfully for biocontrol of grasshopper pests in Africa and Australia. Its conidia produce two novel 17-membered macrocycles, metacridamides A (1) and B (2), which consist of a Phe unit condensed with a nonaketide....

  1. An in vivo transcriptome for entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenic process of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 in its host are only partially understood. To probe the transcriptional responses of the fungus during the interaction with insects, we have developed a method to specifically recover patho...

  2. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  3. Microsclerotia of Metarhizium brunneum F52 applied in hydromulch for control of Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (Petch), strain F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) is able to produce environmentally persistent microsclerotia. Incorporating these desiccation-tolerant M. brunneum F52 microsclerotia (Mb MS) granules into hydromulch [a mixture of water + wheat straw...

  4. Biotechnology of marine fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.; Singh, P.; Raghukumar, S.

    Filamentous fungi are the most widely used eukaryotes in industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Their biotechnological uses include the production of enzymes, vitamins, polysaccharides, pigments, lipids and others. Marine fungi are a still...

  5. Transcriptional analysis of the conidiation pattern shift of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum in response to different nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenglong; Jin, Kai; Xia, Yuxian

    2016-08-09

    Most fungi, including entomopathogenic fungi, have two different conidiation patterns, normal and microcycle conidiation, under different culture conditions, eg, in media containing different nutrients. However, the mechanisms underlying the conidiation pattern shift are poorly understood. In this study, Metarhizium acridum undergoing microcycle conidiation on sucrose yeast extract agar (SYA) medium shifted to normal conidiation when the medium was supplemented with sucrose, nitrate, or phosphate. By linking changes in nutrients with the conidiation pattern shift and transcriptional changes, we obtained conidiation pattern shift libraries by Solexa/Illumina deep-sequencing technology. A comparative analysis demonstrated that the expression of 137 genes was up-regulated during the shift to normal conidiation, while the expression of 436 genes was up-regulated at the microcycle conidiation stage. A comparison of subtractive libraries revealed that 83, 216, and 168 genes were related to sucrose-induced, nitrate-induced, and phosphate-induced conidiation pattern shifts, respectively. The expression of 217 genes whose expression was specific to microcycle conidiation was further analyzed by the gene expression profiling via multigene concatemers method using mRNA isolated from M. acridum grown on SYA and the four normal conidiation media. The expression of 142 genes was confirmed to be up-regulated on standard SYA medium. Of these 142 genes, 101 encode hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown function, and only 41 genes encode proteins with putative functions. Of these 41 genes, 18 are related to cell growth, 10 are related to cell proliferation, three are related to the cell cycle, three are related to cell differentiation, two are related to cell wall synthesis, two are related to cell division, and seven have other functions. These results indicate that the conidiation pattern shift in M. acridum mainly results from changes in cell growth and proliferation. The

  6. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  7. Higher marine fungi from mangroves (Manglicolous fungi)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ChinnaRaj, S.

    of higher marine fungi which included 23 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 17 Deuteromycetes (Kohlmeyer and Kohlmeyer, 1979). Hyde (1990a) listed 120 species from 29 mangroves from all over the World this includes 87 Ascomycetes, 2 Basidiomycetes and 31...

  8. Patogenisitas Beberapa Isolat Cendawan Entomopatogen Metarhizium spp. terhadap Telur Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizelia Trizelia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metarhizium spp. is one of the entomopathogenic fungus that can be used to control Spodoptera litura. The purpose of this research was to study the pathogenicity of Metarhizium spp. to Spodoptera litura eggs. The isolates were collected from rhizosphere of different crops i.e., cabbage, onion, leek and chili. The results showed that there was effect of all isolates on egg mortality. Mortality of S. litura eggs depend on the fungal isolates, ranged between 19.79%-75.70%. First instar larvae was also died 3 days after eclosion. The maximum mortality of first instar larvae was 58.65%. At a concentration of 108 conidia/ml, isolate Mt-kb had the highest virulence which caused higher mortality of eggs and first instar larvae.

  9. MaHog1, a Hog1-type mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, contributes to stress tolerance and virulence of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kai; Ming, Yue; Xia, Yu Xian

    2012-12-01

    Fungal biocontrol agents have great potential in integrated pest management. However, poor efficacy and sensitivity to various adverse factors have hampered their wide application. In eukaryotic cells, Hog1 kinase plays a critical role in stress responses. In this study, MaHog1 (GenBank accession no. EFY85878), encoding a member of the Hog1/Sty1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase family in Metarhizium (Me.) acridum, was identified. Targeted gene disruption was used to analyse the role of MaHog1 in virulence and tolerance of adverse factors. Mutants with MaHog1 depletion showed increased sensitivity to high osmotic stress, high temperature and oxidative stress, and exhibited remarkable resistance to cell wall-disturbing agents. These results suggest that Hog1 kinase has a conserved function in regulating multistress responses among fungi, and that MaHog1 might influence cell wall biogenesis in Me. acridum. Bioassays conducted with topical inoculation and intrahaemocoel injection revealed that MaHog1 is required for both penetration and postpenetration development of Me. acridum. MaHog1 disruption resulted in a significant reduction in virulence, likely due to the combination of a decrease in conidial germination, a reduction in appressorium formation and a decline in growth rate in insect haemolymph, which might be caused by impairing fungal tolerance of various stresses during infection.

  10. Differential DNA methylation may contribute to temporal and spatial regulation of gene expression and the development of mycelia and conidia in entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanzhen; Wang, Yulong; Zhu, Jianyu; Wang, Zhangxun; Tang, Guiliang; Huang, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Conidia and mycelia are two important developmental stages in the asexual life cycle of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium. Despite the crucial role that DNA methylation plays in many biological processes, its role in regulation of gene expression and development in fungi is not yet fully understood. We performed genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation patterns of an M. robertsii strain with single base pair resolution. Specifically, we examined for changes in methylation patterns between the conidia and mycelia stages. The results showed that approximately 0.38 % of cytosines are methylated in conidia, which is lower than the DNA methylation level (0.42 %) in mycelia. We found that DNA methylation undergoes genome-wide reprogramming during fungal development in M. robertsii. 132 differentially methylated regions (DMRs), which were mostly distributed in gene regions, were identified. KEGG analysis revealed that the DMR-associated genes belong to metabolic pathways. Intriguingly, in contrast to most other eukaryotes, promoter activities in M. robertsii seemed differentially modulated by DNA methylation levels. We found that transcription tended to be enhanced in genes with moderate promoter methylation, while gene expression was decreased in genes with high or low promoter methylation. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill and Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin in the pupas control of Prodiplosis longifila Gagné on asparagus crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the entomopathogen fungi Baeuveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisioplae of the Prodiplosis longifila pupas, in order to reduce the adult population of this insect. The treatments consisted on the application of two different propagel concentrations (mycel and conidia of each entomopathogen. One of these concentration was 1x106 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 25 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen; and the other one, was 1x107 propagels/ml (obtained from the total amount of conidia collected of 40 kg of rice colonized by the entomopathogen. As a check a non application treatment was considered. The applications were trough the irrigation system and started 15 days after the end of harvest and were repeated each five days during a month, coincident with the period of most falls of pupas of the soil. As a result Baeuveria bassiana at 1x107 propagels/ml shown 53.4 % of the total pupas colonized by the entomopathogen, which allows indicating B. bassiana as a promissory biocontrol of this specie

  12. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with

  13. Marine fungi: A critique

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, S.; Raghukumar, C.

    in the sea have been ignored to a large extent. However, several instances of terrestrial species of fungi, active in marine environment have been reported. The arguments to support the view that terrestrial species of fungi by virtue of their physiological...

  14. Integrated pest management and entomopathogenic fungal biotechnology in the Latin Americas: II key research and development prerequisites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatourians, George G; Valencia, Edison

    1999-01-01

    In the first part of this review article (Valencia and Khachatourians, 1998) we presented the special opportunity that entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) offer for integrated pest management (IPM) in the Latin Americas. As expected, along with the opportunities, there are challenges for the use of EPF. First that there are only two fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, for which some prerequisite knowledge of basic and applied mycology for industrial research and development (R and D) are in place. Because of precedent setting leadership in the development of certain EPF, e.g., B. bassiana in IPM, Latin America stands to contribute to and gain from future

  15. Kajian Beberapa Jamur Entomopatogenik pada Ulat Daun Kubis Hijau, Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Harjaka

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of entomopathogenic fungi for controlling Diamond Back Moth (DBM, Plutella xylostella L. still limited. Even though there are some entomopathogenic fungi could infect DBM. The aim of this research is to know the kind of entomopatogenic fungi on DBM to be used as biological control agent. Some isolates of  fungi were collected  from DBM infected by  the fungi  on field  in Central Java and  Yogyakarta. Fungi infecting DBM was  isolated, and cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA. Purification, identification and  infection tests were done to know  the potency of each fungal isolates. The results showed thatfive species of fungi infecting DBM, are Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces sp. Entomophthora sp.and Hirsutella sp.

  16. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-08-10

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  17. Maarja Unduski 'Fungi'

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    24. nov.-st Linnagaleriis Tallinnas Maarja Unduski kolmas isiknäitus 'Fungi'. Eksponeeritud hiigelseened ja rida värviliste lehtedega ramatuid, mille kaante valmistamisel on autor esmakordselt kasutanud ka lõuendit ja paberreljeefi.

  18. Manglicolous fungi from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.; Untawale, A.G.

    This paper deals with nine Ascomycetous fungi viz. Rhizophila marina Hyde et Jones, Trematosphaeria striatispora Hyde, Lineolata rhizophorae (Kohlm. et. Kohlm.) Kohlm. et. Volkm.-Kohlm., Caryosporella rhizophorae Kohlm., Passeriniella savoryellopsis...

  19. Dual effects of Metarhizium spp. and Clonostachys rosea against an insect and a seed-borne pathogen in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Chad A; Jensen, Birgit; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2016-03-01

    Crops are often prone to both insect herbivory and disease, which necessitate multiple control measures. Ideally, an efficacious biological control agent must adequately control the target organism and not be inhibited by other biological control agents when applied simultaneously. Wheat seeds infected with the plant pathogen Fusarium culmorum were treated with Metarhizium brunneum or M. flavoviride and Clonostachys rosea individually and in combination, with the expectation to control both root-feeding insects and the pathogen. Emerging roots were evaluated for disease and then placed with Tenebrio molitor larvae, which were monitored for infection. Plant disease symptoms were nearly absent for seeds treated with C. rosea, both individually and in combination with Metarhizium spp. Furthermore, roots grown from seeds treated with Metarhizium spp. caused significant levels of fungal infection in larvae when used individually or combined with C. rosea. However, cotreated seeds showed reduced virulence towards T. molitor when compared with treatments using Metarhizium spp. only. This study clearly shows that seed treatments with both the entomopathogenic fungus M. brunneum and the mycoparasitic fungus C. rosea can protect plant roots from insects and disease. The dual-treatment approach to biological control presented here is consistent with the ideals of IPM strategies. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of fermentation media on the production, efficacy and storage stability of Metarhizium brunneum microsclerotia formulated as a prototype granule

    Science.gov (United States)

    New liquid fermentation techniques for the production of the bioinsecticidal fungus Metarhizium brunneum strain F-52 have resulted in the formation of microsclerotia (MS), a compact, melonized-hyphal structure capable of surviving desiccation and formulation as dry granules. When rehydrated, these M...

  1. Soil application of formulated Metarhizium brunneum F52 (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) containing microsclerotia controls eggs of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the potential of a granular formulation of Metarhizium brunneum F52 containing microsclerotia (MbMSc granules) for control of Aedes aegypti (L.) by targeting eggs. MbMSc granules produced infective conidia within 14 days after application to moist potting soil, producing 5.9 × 10**5, 2....

  2. Root isolations of Metarhizium spp. from crops reflect diversity in the soil and indicate no plant specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinwender, Bernhardt M.; Enkerli, Jürg; Widmer, Franco

    2015-01-01

    elongation factor 1-alpha and characterized by simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of 14 different loci. Metarhizium brunneum was the most common species isolated from plant roots (84.1% of all isolates), while M. robertsii (11.1%) and M. majus (4.8%) comprised the remainder. The SSR analysis revealed...

  3. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  4. The Ste12-like transcription factor MaSte12 is involved in pathogenicity by regulating the appressorium formation in the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinglv; Du, Yanru; Jin, Kai; Xia, Yuxian

    2017-12-01

    Homeodomain transcription factor Ste12 is a key target activated by the pathogenic mitogen-activated-protein kinase pathway, and the activated Ste12p protein regulates downstream gene expression levels to modulate phenotypes. However, the functions of Ste12-like genes in entomopathogenic fungi remain poorly understood and little is known about the downstream genes regulated by Ste12. In this study, we characterized the functions of a Ste12 orthologue in Metarhizium acridum, MaSte12, and identified its downstream target genes. The deletion mutant (ΔMaSte12) is defective in conidial germination but not in hyphal growth, conidiation, or stress tolerance. Bioassays showed that ΔMaSte12 had a dramatically decreased virulence in topical inoculations, but no significant difference was found in intrahemolymph injections when the penetration process was bypassed. The mature appressorium formation rate of ΔMaSte12 was less than 10% on locust wings, with the majority hyphae forming appressorium-like, curved but no swollen structures. Digital gene expression profiling revealed that some genes involved in cell wall synthesis and remodeling, appressorium development, and insect cuticle penetration were downregulated in ΔMaSte12. Thus, MaSte12 has critical roles in the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus M. acridum, and our study provides some explanations for the impairment of fungal virulence in ΔMaSte12. In addition, virulence is very important for fungal biocontrol agents to control insect pests effectively. This study demonstrated that MaSte12 is involved in fungal virulence but not conidial yield or fungal stress tolerance in M. acridum. Thus, MaSte12 and its downstream genes may be candidates for enhancing fungal virulence to improve mycoinsecticides.

  5. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  6. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An ENA ATPase, MaENA1, of Metarhizium acridum influences the Na(+)-, thermo- and UV-tolerances of conidia and is involved in multiple mechanisms of stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinsi; Jin, Kai; Peng, Guoxiong; Xia, Yuxian

    2015-10-01

    In fungi, ENA ATPases play key roles in osmotic and alkaline pH tolerance, although their functions in thermo- and UV-tolerances have not been explored. Entomopathogenic fungi are naturally widespread and have considerable potential in pest control. An ENA ATPase gene, MaENA1, from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium acridum was functionally analyzed by deletion. MaENA1-disruption strain (ΔMaENA1) was less tolerant to NaCl, heat, and UV radiation than a wild-type strain (WT). Digital Gene Expression profiling of conidial RNAs resulted in 281 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the WT and ΔMaENA1 strains. Eighty-five DEGs, 56 of which were down-regulated in the ΔMaENA1 strain, were shown to be associated with heat/UV tolerance, including six cytochrome P450 superfamily genes, 35 oxidoreductase genes, 24 ion-binding genes, seven DNA repair genes, and five other genes. In addition, eight genes were components of stress responsive pathways, including the Ras-cAMP PKA pathway, the RIM101 pathway, the Ca(2+)/calmodulin pathway, the TOR pathway, and the HOG/Spc1/Sty1/JNK pathway. These results demonstrated that MaENA1 influences fungal tolerances to Na(+), heat, and UV radiation in M. acridum, and is involved in multiple mechanisms of stress tolerance. Therefore, MaENA1 is required for the adaptation and survival of entomopathogenic fungi in stressful conditions in the environment and in their hosts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Enumeration of fungi in barley

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, CJ

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, pre...

  10. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin-Felix, Y.; Hernández-Restrepo, Margarita; Wingfield, M.J.; Akulov, A.; Carnegie, A.J.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Gramaje, D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Guarnaccia, V.; Halleen, F.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Marincowitz, S.; Moslemi, A.; Mostert, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Schumacher, R.K.; Spies, C.F.J.; Thangavel, R.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Wilson, A.M.; Wingfield, B.D.; Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.

    2019-01-01

    This paper represents the second contribution in the Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY) series. The series provides morphological descriptions and information regarding the pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms for the treated genera. In addition, primary and secondary DNA

  11. Deep-sea fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C; Damare, S.R.

    significant in terms of carbon sequestration (5, 8). In light of this, the diversity, abundance, and role of fungi in deep-sea sediments may form an important link in the global C biogeochemistry. This review focuses on issues related to collection...

  12. Fun with Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  13. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  14. SELECCIÓN DE AISLAMIENTOS DE Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Y Metarhizium anisopliae Metsch. Sorokin (ASCOMYCOTA: HYPOCREALES) PATOGÉNICOS A GALLINA CIEGA Phyllophaga polyphylla (Bates) (COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE) Y DISTRIBUCIÓN VERTICAL DE ESPORAS EN DIFERENTES TIPOS DE SUELO

    OpenAIRE

    CRUZ COTA, LIZETH RAMONA

    2012-01-01

    Los hongos entomopatógenos son una alternativa promisoria para el control de plagas agrícolas. En este estudio, se obtuvieron diversos aislamientos nativos de estos microorganismos provenientes de larvas de gallina ciega del género Phyllophaga sp., una de la plagas más importantes del cultivo de maíz en el estado de Guanajuato. En total se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos de hongos entomopatógenos, de los cuales ocho pertenecen a Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. y el resto a Meta...

  15. Philatelic Mycology: Families of Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasas, W.F.O.; Marasas, H.M.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Philately, the study of postage stamps, and mycology, the study of fungi, are seldom connected by those that practice these very different activities. When associated, philatelic mycology would be considered as the study of fungi on stamps. The Fungi touch every aspect of our daily lives, most

  16. Mortality risk from entomopathogenic fungi affects oviposition behavior in the parasitoid wasp Trybliographa rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rännbäck, Linda-Marie; Cotes, Belen; Anderson, Peter; Rämert, Birgitta; Meyling, Nicolai V

    2015-01-01

    Biological control of pests in agroecosystems could be enhanced by combining multiple natural enemies. However, this approach might also compromise the control efficacy through intraguild predation (IGP) among the natural enemies. Parasitoids may be able to avoid the risk of unidirectional IGP posed by entomopathogenic fungi through selective oviposition behavior during host foraging. Trybliographa rapae is a larval parasitoid of the cabbage root fly, Delia radicum. Here we evaluated the susceptibility of D. radicum and T. rapae to two species of generalist entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium brunneum isolate KVL 04-57 and Beauveria bassiana isolate KVL 03-90. Furthermore, T. rapae oviposition behavior was assessed in the presence of these entomopathogenic fungi either as infected hosts or as infective propagules in the environment. Both fungi were pathogenic to D. radicum larvae and T. rapae adults, but with variable virulence. When host patches were inoculated with M. brunneum conidia in a no-choice situation, more eggs were laid by T. rapae in hosts of those patches compared to control and B. bassiana treated patches. Females that later succumbed to mycosis from either fungus laid significantly more eggs than non-mycosed females, indicating that resources were allocated to increased oviposition due to perceived decreased life expectancy. When presented with a choice between healthy and fungal infected hosts, T. rapae females laid more eggs in healthy larvae than in M. brunneum infected larvae. This was less pronounced for B. bassiana. Based on our results we propose that T. rapae can perceive and react towards IGP risk posed by M. brunneum but not B. bassiana to the foraging female herself and her offspring. Thus, M. brunneum has the potential to be used for biological control against D. radicum with a limited risk to T. rapae populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  19. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  20. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural substrata for corticioid fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene O. Yurchenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the types of substrata inhabited by non-poroid resupinate Homobasidiomycetes in situ in global scale with both examples from literature sources and from observations on Belarus corticioid fungi biota. The groups of organic world colonized by corticioid basidiomata and vegetative mycelium are arboreous, semi-arboreous, and herbaceous vascular plants, Bryophyta, epiphytic coccoid algae, lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, and occasionally myxomycetes and invertebrates. The fungi occur on living, dying, and dead on all decay stages parts of organisms. Besides, the fungi are known on soil, humus, stones, artificial inorganic and synthetic materials and dung.

  2. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  3. Biochemiluminescence of certain fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Sławiński

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Twelve species of fungi growing on the Sabouraud medium in darkness and illumination in an incubator, were tested to find out their ability to emit the ultra-weak biochemiluminescence. Using a sensitive photon-counling device, it was possible to measure biochemiluminescence intensity during ten days of cultures growth. Boletus edulis, Pestalotia funerea and Microsporum gypseum displayed biochemiluminescence, while Aspergillus nidulans, A. quadrilineatus, Beauveria bassiana, Macrophoma candollei, Mucor lausanensis, Paecilomyces farinosus, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma lignorum and Tricholoma equestre failed to do it. Illumination put down biochemiluminescence and stimulated colour formation in both mycelia and in the medium.

  4. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  5. Some mycogenous fungi from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chlebicki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of earlier studies on mycogenous fungi which were gathered occasionally are summarized. Fifieen specres. previously Pyrenomycetes s.l., have been found growing on other fungi Immothia hypoxylon and Lophiostoma polyporicola are new species to the Polish mycoflora. Sphaeronaemella Kulczyńskiana described by K. R o u p p e r t (1912 is considered to be Eleuteromyces subultus. Relatively high number of fungi inhabiting stromata of Diatrypella favacea is probably connected with its early colonization of the Polish area.

  6. Enzyme and biochemical producing fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lübeck, Peter Stephensen; Lübeck, Mette; Nilsson, Lena

    2010-01-01

    factories for sustainable production of important molecules. For developing fungi into efficient cell factories, the project includes identification of important factors that control the flux through the pathways using metabolic flux analysis and metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways....

  7. The effect of entomopathogenic fungal culture filtrate on the immune response of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Namara, Louise; Carolan, James C; Griffin, Christine T; Fitzpatrick, David; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3-fold and 3.8-fold, respectively). Larvae co-injected with either M. anisopliae or B. caledonica culture filtrate and Candida albicans showed significantly increased mortality. The same was not seen for larvae injected with Beauveria bassiana filtrate. Together these results suggest that B. caledonica and M. anisopliae filtrate are modulating the insect immune system allowing a subsequent pathogen to proliferate. B. caledonica and M. anisopliae culture filtrates impact upon the larval prophenoloxidase (ProPO) cascade (e.g. ProPO activating factor 3 and proPO activating enzyme 3 were increased in abundance relative to controls), while B. bassiana treated larvae displayed higher abundances of alpha-esterase when compared to control larvae (2.4-fold greater) and larvae treated with M. anisopliae and B. caledonica. Treatment with EPF culture filtrate had a significant effect on antimicrobial peptide abundances particularly in M. anisopliae treated larvae where cecropin-D precursor, hemolin and gloverin were differentially abundant in comparison to controls. Differences in proteomic profiles for different treatments may reflect or even partially explain the differences in their immunomodulatory potential. Screening EPF for their ability to modulate the insect immune response represents a means of assessing EPF for use as biocontrol agents, particularly if the goal is to use them in combination with other control agents. Additionally EPF represent a

  8. LTR retrotransposons in fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muszewska

    Full Text Available Transposable elements with long terminal direct repeats (LTR TEs are one of the best studied groups of mobile elements. They are ubiquitous elements present in almost all eukaryotic genomes. Their number and state of conservation can be a highlight of genome dynamics. We searched all published fungal genomes for LTR-containing retrotransposons, including both complete, functional elements and remnant copies. We identified a total of over 66,000 elements, all of which belong to the Ty1/Copia or Ty3/Gypsy superfamilies. Most of the detected Gypsy elements represent Chromoviridae, i.e. they carry a chromodomain in the pol ORF. We analyzed our data from a genome-ecology perspective, looking at the abundance of various types of LTR TEs in individual genomes and at the highest-copy element from each genome. The TE content is very variable among the analyzed genomes. Some genomes are very scarce in LTR TEs (8000 elements. The data shows that transposon expansions in fungi usually involve an increase both in the copy number of individual elements and in the number of element types. The majority of the highest-copy TEs from all genomes are Ty3/Gypsy transposons. Phylogenetic analysis of these elements suggests that TE expansions have appeared independently of each other, in distant genomes and at different taxonomical levels. We also analyzed the evolutionary relationships between protein domains encoded by the transposon pol ORF and we found that the protease is the fastest evolving domain whereas reverse transcriptase and RNase H evolve much slower and in correlation with each other.

  9. Factors affecting fungus-induced larval mortality in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Willem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entomopathogenic fungi have shown great potential for the control of adult malaria vectors. However, their ability to control aquatic stages of anopheline vectors remains largely unexplored. Therefore, how larval characteristics (Anopheles species, age and larval density, fungus (species and concentration and environmental effects (exposure duration and food availability influence larval mortality caused by fungus, was studied. Methods Laboratory bioassays were performed on the larval stages of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi with spores of two fungus species, Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. For various larval and fungal characteristics and environmental effects the time to death was determined and survival curves established. These curves were compared by Kaplan Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae caused high mortality of An. gambiae and An. stephensi larvae. However, Beauveria bassiana was less effective (Hazard ratio (HR Metarhizium anisopliae. Anopheles stephensi and An. gambiae were equally susceptible to each fungus. Older larvae were less likely to die than young larvae (HR Conclusions This study shows that both fungus species have potential to kill mosquitoes in the larval stage, and that mortality rate depends on fungus species itself, larval stage targeted, larval density and amount of nutrients available to the larvae. Increasing the concentration of fungal spores or reducing the exposure time to spores did not show a proportional increase and decrease in mortality rate, respectively, because the spores clumped together. As a result spores did not provide uniform coverage over space and time. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a formulation that allows the spores to spread over the water surface. Apart from formulation appropriate delivery methods are also necessary to avoid exposing non-target organisms to fungus.

  10. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales) Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Meelad; Alba-Ramírez, Carmen; Garrido Jurado, Inmaculada; Mateu, Jordi; Raya Díaz, Silvia; Valverde-García, Pablo; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique

    2018-01-01

    Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly ( Bactrocera oleae ) population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor , its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 10 8 conidia ml - ) caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22%) with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 10 3 conidia g soil -1 ). These results

  12. Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota; Hypocreales Treatments Targeting Olive Fly in the Soil for Sustainable Crop Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meelad Yousef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatments with Metarhizium brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su strain conducted in both Northern and Southern Spain reduced the olive fly (Bactrocera oleae population density emerging from the soil during spring up to 70% in treated plots compared with controls. A model to determine the influence of rainfall on the conidial wash into different soil types was developed, with most of the conidia retained at the first 5 cm, regardless of soil type, with relative percentages of conidia recovered ranging between 56 and 95%. Furthermore, the possible effect of UV-B exposure time on the pathogenicity of this strain against B. oleae adults coming from surviving preimaginals and carrying conidia from the soil at adult emergence was also evaluated. The UV-B irradiance has no significant effect on M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su pathogenicity with B. oleae adult mortalities of 93, 90, 79, and 77% after 0, 2, 4, and 6 of UV-B irradiance exposure, respectively. In a next step for the use of these M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Sun soil treatments within a B. oleae IPM strategy, its possible effect of on the B. oleae cosmopolitan parasitoid Psyttalia concolor, its compatibility with the herbicide oxyfluorfen 24% commonly used in olive orchards and the possible presence of the fungus in the olive oil resulting from olives previously placed in contact with the fungus were investigated. Only the highest conidial concentration (1 × 108 conidia ml− caused significant P. concolor adult mortality (22% with enduing mycosis in 13% of the cadavers. There were no fungal propagules in olive oil samples resulting from olives previously contaminated by EAMa 01/58-Su conidia. Finally, the strain was demonstrated to be compatible with herbicide since the soil application of the fungus reduced the B. oleae population density up to 50% even when it was mixed with the herbicide in the same tank. The fungal inoculum reached basal levels 4 months after treatments (1.6 × 103 conidia g soil−1

  13. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  14. DIFFERENTIAL ALLERGIC AND NEUROTROPHIN RESPONSES TO FUNGAL COMPONENT EXTRACTS IN BALB/C MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metarhizium anisopliae mycelium (MYC), conidia (CON) and inducible protease (IND) extracts were combined to produce the antigen MACA to screen for allergenic potential. Involuntary aspiration (IA) exposure to MACA in BALB/c mice has caused immune, inflammatory and physiological ...

  15. Fungi isolated in school buildings

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    Elżbieta Ejdys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fungi occurring on wall surfaces and in the air in school buildings. Fungi isolated from the air using the sedimentation method and from the walls using the surface swab technique constituted the study material. Types of finish materials on wall surfaces were identified and used in the analysis. Samples were collected in selected areas in two schools: classrooms, corridors, men's toilets and women's toilets, cloakrooms, sports changing rooms and shower. Examinations were conducted in May 2005 after the heating season was over. Fungi were incubated on Czapek-Dox medium at three parallel temperatures: 25, 37 and 40°C, for at least three weeks. A total of 379 isolates of fungi belonging to 32 genera of moulds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi were obtained from 321 samples in the school environment. The following genera were isolated most frequently: Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium. Of the 72 determined species, Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum occurred most frequently in the school buildings. Wall surfaces were characterised by an increased prevalence of mycobiota in comparison with the air in the buildings, with a slightly greater species diversity. A certain species specificity for rough and smooth wall surfaces was demonstrated. Fungi of the genera Cladosporium and Emericella with large spores adhered better to smooth surfaces while those of the genus Aspergillus with smaller conidia adhered better to rough surfaces. The application of three incubation temperatures helped provide a fuller picture of the mycobiota in the school environment.

  16. Fungi and mycotoxins: Food contaminants

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    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi on food causes physical and chemical changes which, further affect negatively the sensory and nutritive quality of food. Species from genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternariа, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Eurotium and Emericella are usually found. Some of them are potentially dangerous for humans and animals, due to possible synthesis and excretion of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins into the food. Their toxic syndroms in animals and humans are known as mycotoxicoses. The pathologic changes can be observed in parenhimatic organs, and in bones and central nervous system also. Specific conditions are necessary for mycotoxin producing fungi to synthetize sufficient quantities of these compounds for demonstration of biologic effects. The main biochemical paths in the formation of mycotoxins include the polyketide (aflatoxins, sterigmatocystin, zearalenone, citrinine, patulin, terpenic (trichothecenes, aminoacid (glicotoxins, ergotamines, sporidesmin, malformin C, and carbonic acids path (rubratoxins. Aflatoxins are the most toxigenic metabolites of fungi, produced mostly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus species. Aflatoxins appear more frequently in food in the tropic and subtropic regions, while the food in Europe is more exposed to also very toxic ochratoxin A producing fungi (A. ochraceus and some Penicillium species. The agricultural products can be contaminated by fungi both before and after the harvest. The primary mycotoxicoses in humans are the result of direct intake of vegetable products contaminated by mycotoxins, while the secondary mycotoxicoses are caused by products of animal origin. The risk of the presence of fungi and mycotoxin in food is increasing, having in mind that some of them are highly thermoresistent, and the temperatures of usual food sterilization is not sufficient for their termination. The paper presents the review of most important mycotoxins, their biologic effects

  17. Mortality and reduced brood production in walnut twig beetles, Pityophthorus juglandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), following exposure to commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louela A. Castrillo; Albert E. Mayfield; Michael H. Griggs; Robert Camp; Bryan Mudder; Adam Taylor; John D. Vandenberg

    2017-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD), caused by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, and its associated fungal symbiont, Geosmithia morbida, is a disease of economic and ecological concern on eastern black...

  18. Glass bead cultivation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, H.

    2013-01-01

    Production of bioactive compounds and enzymes from filamentous fungi is highly dependent on cultivation conditions. Here we present an easy way to cultivate filamentous fungi on glass beads that allow complete control of nutrient supply. Secondary metabolite production in Fusarium graminearum...... and Fusarium solani cultivated on agar plates, in shaking liquid culture or on glass beads was compared. Agar plate culture and glass bead cultivation yielded comparable results while liquid culture had lower production of secondary metabolites. RNA extraction from glass beads and liquid cultures was easier...... to specific nutrient factors. •Fungal growth on glass beads eases and improves fungal RNA extraction....

  19. Non-target effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum (BIPESCO 5/F52) on predatory arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos de Azevedo, Ana Gorete

    females in the presence of M. brunneum revealed that gravid A. aphidimyza are able to perceive the risk posed by M. brunneum and react to that by choosing a pathogen-free site for offspring. In conclusion, non-target effects of M. brunneum on predatory arthropods may be expected. However, knowledge......The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the interactions that may occur when combining natural enemies of an herbivore. This was done by assessing the non-target effects of the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum on four different predatory arthropods...... of the life cycles of the predatory arthropods and the optimal timing for releasing the natural enemies can reduce the risk of antagonistic interactions. Findings confirm that A. aphidimyza females are able to change their oviposition behavior in the presence of the entomopathogen. It furthermore confirms...

  20. Fight Fungi with Fungi: Antifungal Properties of the Amphibian Mycobiome

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    Patrick J. Kearns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases caused by fungal taxa are increasing and are placing a substantial burden on economies and ecosystems worldwide. Of the emerging fungal diseases, chytridomycosis caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (hereafter Bd is linked to global amphibian declines. Amphibians have innate immunity, as well as additional resistance through cutaneous microbial communities. Despite the targeting of bacteria as potential probiotics, the role of fungi in the protection against Bd infection in unknown. We used a four-part approach, including high-throughput sequencing of bacterial and fungal communities, cultivation of fungi, Bd challenge assays, and experimental additions of probiotic to Midwife Toads (Altyes obstetricans, to examine the overlapping roles of bacterial and fungal microbiota in pathogen defense in captive bred poison arrow frogs (Dendrobates sp.. Our results revealed that cutaneous fungal taxa differed from environmental microbiota across three species and a subspecies of Dendrobates spp. frogs. Cultivation of host-associated and environmental fungi realved numerous taxa with the ability to inhibit or facilitate the growth of Bd. The abundance of cutaneous fungi contributed more to Bd defense (~45% of the fungal community, than did bacteria (~10% and frog species harbored distinct inhibitory communities that were distinct from the environment. Further, we demonstrated that a fungal probiotic therapy did not induce an endocrine-immune reaction, in contrast to bacterial probiotics that stressed amphibian hosts and suppressed antimicrobial peptide responses, limiting their long-term colonization potential. Our results suggest that probiotic strategies against amphibian fungal pathogens should, in addition to bacterial probiotics, focus on host-associated and environmental fungi such as Penicillium and members of the families Chaetomiaceae and Lasiosphaeriaceae.

  1. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of anamorphic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid Lorca, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Anamorphic fungi (those reproducing asexually) are a big part of kingdom Fungi. Most of them occur as saprobes in nature, but numerous species are pathogenic to plants and animals including man. With the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the diversity and distribution of anamorphic fungi, we performed a phenotypic and molecular characterization of environmental and clinical isolates of these fungi. Based on a polyphasic taxonomy approach which included morphology, physiology and DNA seq...

  2. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  3. A bioencapsulation and drying method increases shelf life and efficacy of Metarhizium brunneum conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyklenk, Michael; Vemmer, Marina; Hanitzsch, Miriam; Patel, Anant

    2017-08-01

    This study reports the development of encapsulated and dried entomopathogenic fungus Metarhiuzm brunneum with reduced conidia content, increased conidiation, a high drying survival and enhanced shelf life. Dried beads prepared with the fillers corn starch, potato starch, carboxymethylcellulose or autoclaved baker's yeast, showed enhanced survival with increasing filler content. The maximum survival of 82% was found for beads with 20% corn starch at shelf life compared to non-formulated conidia. This "microfermenter" will pave the way for encapsulated fungi to be used as cost-effective biocontrol agents.

  4. Fungal biological control agents for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae of livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana had wide host range against insects and hence these are being exploited as fungal bio-pesticide on a large scale. Both fungi are proved pesticides against many crop pests and farmers are well acquainted with their use on the field. Thus, research was aimed to explore the potency of these fungal spores against larval and adult Culicoides midges, a pest of livestock. Materials and Methods: In-vitro testing of both fungal biological control agents was undertaken in Petri dishes against field collected Culicoides larvae, while in plastic beakers against field collected blood-engorged female Culicoides midges. In-vivo testing was undertaken by spraying requisite concentration of fungal spores on the drainage channel against larvae and resting sites of adult Culicoides midges in the cattle shed. Lethal concentration 50 (LC50 values and regression equations were drawn by following probit analysis using SPSS statistical computerized program. Results: The results of this study revealed LC50 values of 2692 mg and 3837 mg (108 cfu/g for B. bassiana and M. anisopliae, respectively, against Culicoides spp. larvae. Death of Culicoides larvae due to B. bassiana showed greenish coloration in the middle of the body with head and tail showed intense blackish changes, while infection of M. anisopliae resulted in death of Culicoides larvae with greenish and blackish coloration of body along with total destruction, followed by desquamation of intestinal channel. The death of adult Culicoides midges were caused by both the fungi and after death growth of fungus were very well observed on the dead cadavers proving the efficacy of the fungus. Conclusion: Preliminary trials with both funguses (M. anisopliae, B. bassiana showed encouraging results against larvae and adults of Culicoides spp. Hence, it was ascertained that, these two fungal molecules can form a part of biological control and

  5. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii communicates with the insect host Galleria mellonella during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic fungi are the only pathogens that can infect insect hosts directly through their proteinaceous exoskeleton. Penetration of the cuticle requires the release of fungal enzymes, including proteinases, which act as virulence factors. Insects can sense fungal infections and activate innate immune responses, including the synthesis of antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors that neutralize the incoming proteinases. This well-studied host response is epigenetically regulated by histone acetylation/deacetylation. Here we show that entomopathogenic fungi can in turn sense the presence of insect-derived antifungal peptides and proteinase inhibitors, and respond by inducing the synthesis of chymotrypsin-like proteinases and metalloproteinases that degrade the host-derived defense molecules. The rapidity of this response is dependent on the virulence of the fungal strain. We confirmed the specificity of the pathogen response to host-derived defense molecules by LC/MS and RT-PCR analysis, and correlated this process with the epigenetic regulation of histone acetylation/deacetylation. This cascade of responses reveals that the coevolution of pathogens and hosts can involve a complex series of attacks and counterattacks based on communication between the invading fungal pathogen and its insect host. The resolution of this process determines whether or not pathogenesis is successful.

  6. Density-dependence and within-host competition in a semelparous parasite of leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, William; Petersen, Klaus; Ugelvig, Line

    2004-01-01

    the effects of parasite density and heterogeneity on parasite virulence and fitness using four strains of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and its leaf-cutting ant host Acromyrmex echinatior as the model system.RESULTS:The relationship between parasite density and infection...

  7. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  8. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  9. RNA-sequencing analysis of fungi-induced transcripts from the bamboo wireworm Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Huan Ye

    Full Text Available Larvae of Melanotus cribricollis, feed on bamboo shoots and roots, causing serious damage to bamboo in Southern China. However, there is currently no effective control measure to limit the population of this underground pest. Previously, a new entomopathogenic fungal strain isolated from M. cribricollis larvae cadavers named Metarhizium pingshaense WP08 showed high pathogenic efficacy indoors, indicated that the fungus could be used as a bio-control measure. So far, the genetic backgrounds of both M. cribricollis and M. pingshaense WP08 were blank. Here, we analyzed the whole transcriptome of M. cribricollis larvae, infected with M. pingshaense WP08 or not, using high-throughput next generation sequencing technology. In addition, the transcriptome sequencing of M. pingshaense WP08 was also performed for data separation of those two non-model species. The reliability of the RNA-Seq data was also validated through qRT-PCR experiment. The de novo assembly, functional annotation, sequence comparison of four insect species, and analysis of DEGs, enriched pathways, GO terms and immune related candidate genes were operated. The results indicated that, multiple defense mechanisms of M. cribricollis larvae are initiated to protect against the more serious negative effects caused by fungal infection. To our knowledge, this was the first report of transcriptome analysis of Melanotus spp. infected with a fungus, and it could provide insights to further explore insect-fungi interaction mechanisms.

  10. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  11. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmina Halis,; Hui Rus Tan,; Zaidon Ashaari,; Rozi Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were fir...

  12. The MrCYP52 cytochrome P450 monoxygenase gene of Metarhizium robertsii is important for utilizing insect epicuticular hydrocarbons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangcai Lin

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens of plants and insects infect their hosts by direct penetration of the cuticle. Plant and insect cuticles are covered by a hydrocarbon-rich waxy outer layer that represents the first barrier against infection. However, the fungal genes that underlie insect waxy layer degradation have received little attention. Here we characterize the single cytochrome P450 monoxygenase family 52 (MrCYP52 gene of the insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii, and demonstrate that it encodes an enzyme required for efficient utilization of host hydrocarbons. Expressing a green florescent protein gene under control of the MrCYP52 promoter confirmed that MrCYP52 is up regulated on insect cuticle as well as by artificial media containing decane (C10, extracted cuticle hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent long chain alkanes. Disrupting MrCYP52 resulted in reduced growth on epicuticular hydrocarbons and delayed developmental processes on insect cuticle, including germination and production of appressoria (infection structures. Extraction of alkanes from cuticle prevented induction of MrCYP52 and reduced growth. Insect bioassays against caterpillars (Galleria mellonella confirmed that disruption of MrCYP52 significantly reduces virulence. However, MrCYP52 was dispensable for normal germination and appressorial formation in vitro when the fungus was supplied with nitrogenous nutrients. We conclude therefore that MrCYP52 mediates degradation of epicuticular hydrocarbons and these are an important nutrient source, but not a source of chemical signals that trigger infection processes.

  13. Immune-physiological aspects of synergy between avermectins and the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomilova, Oksana G; Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Duisembekov, Bahytzhan A; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Tyurin, Maksim V; Kryukova, Natalia A; Skorokhod, Valery; Dubovskiy, Ivan M; Glupov, Viktor V

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii and natural avermectin metabolites of the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis were investigated on Colorado potato beetle larvae. A synergy in the mortality of larvae was detected after simultaneous treatment with half-lethal doses of avermectins (commercial name actarophit) 0.005% and fungus (5×10 5 conidia/ml). The treatment with avermectins led to rapid fungal colonization of the hemolymph. The defense strategies of insects infected by fungus and treated with avermectins and untreated insects were compared to investigate the mechanisms of this synergy. We have shown an increase in hemocytes, especially immunocompetent cells - plasmatocytes and granular cells in the initial stages of mycosis (third day post inoculation). In contrast, avermectins suppressed cellular immunity in hemolymph. Specifically, avermectins dramatically decreased the count of granular cells in larvae infected and uninfected with fungus. Apoptosis inducement and hemocyte necrosis under the influence of avermectins has been shown in vitro as one of the possible reasons for hemocyte mortality. In addition, avermectins enhanced the activity of phenoloxidases in integuments and hemolymph and increased the activity of glutathione-S-transferases activity in the fat body and hemolymph of infected and uninfected larvae, thereby intensifying the development of fungal infection by M. robertsii in Colorado potato beetle larvae. The combination of fungal infection and avermectins constitutes a new perspective for developing multicomponent bioinsecticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

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    Raquel González-Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  15. Fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes isolated from affected leaves of rhododendron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to identify fungi and fungi-like Oomycetes occurring on affected leaves of rhododendron Rhododendron L. Mycological analyses were carried out on 200 leaves collected from green areas of Kraków from May till September 2005. Isolated fungi-like Oomycetes belonged to 67 taxa. The most frequently found fungi included: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Coelophoma empetri, Nigrospora sphaerica, Pestalotia sydowiana, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phomopsis archeri, Septoria azalea and Sordaria fimicola. Among fungi-like organisms Phytophthora cinnamomi and P. citricola were isolated.

  16. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    OpenAIRE

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-01-01

    The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora).

  17. Aquatic fungi in the Lake Sejny complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazyli Czeczuga

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycoflora of the Lake Sejny complex was studied. Samples of water were collected in 1990-1991 for hydrochemical analysis and determination of fungi species. In total 69 species of fungi reported for the first time from Poland (Myzocylium vermicolum, Angulospora aquatica, Zoophthora rhizospora.

  18. Antibacterial activity of marine-derived fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Carsten; Crescente, Oscar; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    A total of 227 marine isolates of ubiqituous fungi were cultivated on different media and the secondary metabolite content of the extracts (ethyl acetate/chlorofonn/methanol 3 : 2 : 1) characterized by HPLC. The fungi were secured from animals, plants and sediments of Venezuelan waters (0-10 m...

  19. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  20. Promising carbons for supercapacitors derived from fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hui; Wang, Xiaolei; Yang, Fan; Yang, Xiurong [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 (China)

    2011-06-24

    Activated carbons with promising performance in capacitors are produced from fungi via a hydrothermal assistant pyrolysis approach. This study introduces a facile strategy to discover carbonaceous materials and triggers interest in exploring fungi for material science applications. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Alkali metals in fungi of forest soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, M.; Taylor, A.; Rosen, K.; Nikolova, I.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The high affinity of forest soil fungi for alkali metals such as potassium, rubidium, caesium as well as radiocaesium is shown and discussed. Good positive correlation was found between K: Rb concentration ratios in soil and in fungi, when correlation between K: Cs concentration ratios was less pronounced. (LN)

  2. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved

  3. Entomopathogenic fungi-based mechanisms for improved Fe nutrition in sorghum plants grown on calcareous substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Raya-Díaz

    Full Text Available Although entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are best known for their ability to protect crops against insect pests, they may have other beneficial effects on their host plants. These effects, which include promoting plant growth and conferring resistance against abiotic stresses, have been examined in recent years to acquire a better understanding of them. The primary purposes of the present study were (i to ascertain in vitro whether three different strains of EPF (viz., Metarhizium, Beauveria and Isaria would increase the Fe bioavailability in calcareous or non-calcareous media containing various Fe sources (ferrihydrite, hematite and goethite and (ii to assess the influence of the EPF inoculation method (seed dressing, soil treatment or leaf spraying on the extent of the endophytic colonization of sorghum and the improvement in the Fe nutrition of pot-grown sorghum plants on an artificial calcareous substrate. All the EPFs studied were found to increase the Fe availability during the in vitro assay. The most efficient EPF was M. brunneum EAMa 01/58-Su, which lowered the pH of the calcareous medium, suggesting that it used a different strategy (organic acid release than the other two fungi that raised the pH of the non-calcareous medium. The three methods used to inoculate sorghum plants with B. bassiana and M. brunneum in the pot experiment led to differences in re-isolation from plant tissues and in the plant height. These three inoculation methods increased the leaf chlorophyll content of young leaves when the Fe deficiency symptoms were most apparent in the control plants (without fungal inoculation as well as the Fe content of the above-ground biomass in the plants at the end of the experiment. The total root lengths and fine roots were also increased in response to fungal applications with the three inoculation methods. However, the soil treatment was the most efficient method; thus, its effect on the leaf chlorophyll content was the most

  4. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  5. BIOLOGIA E CONTROLE DE Pycnoscelus Surinamensis L. POR EXTRATOS VEGETAIS E FUNGOS ENTOMOPATÓGÊNICOS COMERCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO MARCUS FREIRE VIEIRA LIMA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the susceptibility of Coackroach Suriname (Pycnoscelus surinamensis to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, and vegetable products. The first phase of the research aimed to study the biological cycle of the insect. The second step was using bioassays in the laboratory using eight commercial products at different doses and each with three replicates being made three applications at weekly intervals. 10 cockroaches were placed in each container and kept in this chamber at 25 °C and U.R. of 70%. The treatments were: Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill (Boveril® B102, B. bassiana (Bovenat®, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok (Metarril® M102; M. anisopliae (Metanat®, all doses of 1, 2, 3 and 5 kg ha-1; azadirachtin (Natuneem®, neem oil + pepper extract (Nim-I-Go®, neem + timbó + citronella + fedegoso + geranium + organic acids (Compostonat®, rotenone (Rotenat®, all at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0%, and control (distilled water. The Compostonat® at a dose of 5% was 100% effective in controlling the 1st application and also excelled on the lowest dose applied, reaching 83.33% efficiency in the 3rd application at a dose of 0.5%. We observed five instars: the first lasts an average of 18 days, the second 22, third 36, fourth and fifth in 45 days 63 days on average. Reproduce between 45 and 60 days after adult average of 25 nymphs per ootheca and average adult length of 24 mm.

  6. Mortality and repellent effects of microbial pathogens on Coptotermes formosanus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Maureen S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two entomopathogenic fungi, Isaria fumosorosea and Metarhizium anisopliae, and one bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, were tested for their ability to cause mortality of Formosan subterranean termites (FST, Coptotermes formosanus (Shiraki, after liquid exposure, and for their lack of propensity to repel FST. Results The fungus Isaria fumosorosea at 108 spores/ml caused 72.5% mortality on day 7, significantly higher than the control and 106 spores/ml treatment. On day 14, the 106 and 108 concentrations caused 38.8% and 92.5% mortality, respectively, significantly higher than the control. On day 21, 82.5% and 100% of the termites were killed by the 106 and 108 treatments, respectively. I. fumosorosea did not repel termites at 106 nor 108 spores/g in sand, soil or sawdust. The fungus Metarhizium anisopliae at 108 spores/ml caused 57.5% mortality on day 7, 77.5% mortality on day 14 and 100% mortality on day 21. Conclusions On all three days the rate of mortality was significantly higher than that of the control and 106 spores/ml treatment with I. fumosorosea. Neither I. fumosorosea nor M. anisopliae caused repellency of FST in sand, soil or sawdust. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis did not cause significant mortality on days 7, 14 or 21. When termites were exposed to cells of B. thuringiensis in sawdust and when termites were exposed to a mixture of spores and cells in sand, a significantly higher number remained in the control tubes. Repellency was not seen with B. thuringiensis spores alone, nor with the above treatments in the other substrates.

  7. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  8. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S K

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  9. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  10. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqun Lv

    Full Text Available Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  11. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  12. Entomopathogenic Fungus as a Biological Control for an Important Vector of Livestock Disease: The Culicoides Biting Midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad Ali; Pope, Edward C.; Carpenter, Simon; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Butt, Tariq M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The recent outbreak of bluetongue virus in northern Europe has led to an urgent need to identify control measures for the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges that transmit it. Following successful use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against larval stages of biting midge Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen, we investigated the efficacy of this strain and other fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea and Lecanicillium longisporum) as biocontrol agents against adult C. nubeculosus in laboratory and greenhouse studies. Methodology/Findings Exposure of midges to ‘dry’ conidia of all fungal isolates caused significant reductions in survival compared to untreated controls. Metarhizium anisopliae strain V275 was the most virulent, causing a significantly decrease in midge survival compared to all other fungal strains tested. The LT50 value for strain V275 was 1.42 days compared to 2.21–3.22 days for the other isolates. The virulence of this strain was then further evaluated by exposing C. nubeculosus to varying doses (108–1011 conidia m−2) using different substrates (horse manure, damp peat, leaf litter) as a resting site. All exposed adults were found to be infected with the strain V275 four days after exposure. A further study exposed C. nubeculosus adults to ‘dry’ conidia and ‘wet’ conidia (conidia suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) of strain V275 applied to damp peat and leaf litter in cages within a greenhouse. ‘Dry’ conidia were more effective than ‘wet’ conidia, causing 100% mortality after 5 days. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study to demonstrate that entomopathogenic fungi are potential biocontrol agents against adult Culicoides, through the application of ‘dry’ conidia on surfaces (e.g., manure, leaf litter, livestock) where the midges tend to rest. Subsequent conidial transmission between males and females may cause an increased level of fungi-induced mortality in midges

  13. Characterization of Metarhizium viride Mycosis in Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus), Panther Chameleons (Furcifer pardalis), and Inland Bearded Dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Volker; Klasen, Linus; Schneider, Juliane; Hübel, Jens; Pees, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Metarhizium viride has been associated with fatal systemic mycoses in chameleons, but subsequent data on mycoses caused by this fungus in reptiles are lacking. The aim of this investigation was therefore to obtain information on the presence of M. viride in reptiles kept as pets in captivity and its association with clinical signs and pathological findings as well as improvement of diagnostic procedures. Beside 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) (small subunit [SSU]) and internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1), a fragment of the large subunit (LSU) of 28S rDNA, including domain 1 (D1) and D2, was sequenced for the identification of the fungus and phylogenetic analysis. Cultural isolation and histopathological examinations as well as the pattern of antifungal drug resistance, determined by using agar diffusion testing, were additionally used for comparison of the isolates. In total, 20 isolates from eight inland bearded dragons ( Pogona vitticeps ), six veiled chameleons ( Chamaeleo calyptratus ), and six panther chameleons ( Furcifer pardalis ) were examined. Most of the lizards suffered from fungal glossitis, stomatitis, and pharyngitis or died due to visceral mycosis. Treatment with different antifungal drugs according to resistance patterns in all three different lizard species was unsuccessful. Sequence analysis resulted in four different genotypes of M. viride based on differences in the LSU fragment, whereas the SSU and ITS-1 were identical in all isolates. Sequence analysis of the SSU fragment revealed the first presentation of a valid large fragment of the SSU of M. viride According to statistical analysis, genotypes did not correlate with differences in pathogenicity, antifungal susceptibility, or species specificity. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Hydrophobin genes of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, are differentially expressed and corresponding mutants are decreased in virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. Herein, we report identification of three ...

  15. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  16. Impedimetric method for physiologically characterisation of fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Petersen, Karina

    1998-01-01

    Fungi are playing an important role in the food and pharmaceutical industry today, both as starter cultures, fermentation organisms, and as contaminants. Characterisation of fungal growth is normally time consuming as it includes measurements and study on a wide range of media at different...... temperatures, pH, water activity and atmosphere composition. Nevertheless is it important information in ecophysiological studies, where the growth potential by fungi are related to composition and storage of food. It is therefore of great interest to device a rapid method for characterisation of fungi.......The objective was to determine the growth phases of various fungi using an impedimetric method and compare this with traditional methods using agar plates, in order to determine if this rapid method can replace the traditional method.The method is based on impedimetric assessment of growth on the Bactometer 128...

  17. Distribution of sterigmatocystin in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Christian; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    . Six new ST producing fungi were discovered: Aspergillus asperescens, Aspergillus aureolatus, Aspergillus eburneocremeus, Aspergillus protuberus, Aspergillus tardus, and Penicillium inflatum and one new aflatoxin producer: Aspergillus togoensis (=Stilbothamnium togoense). ST was confirmed in 23...

  18. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH AFRICAN MUDFISH (Clarias gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    Clarias gariepinus (African mudfish) and 144 fish holding water samples were collected from ... Finding these fungi in the fish holding water might have occurred through the use ... This increased .... microbial profile of some fish ponds in the.

  19. Characterization of hydrocarbon utilizing fungi from hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    isolated fungi could be useful in the bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites. Keywords: ... Technologies such as mechanical force, burying, evaporation, dispersant application, and ..... The effects of drilling fluids on marine bacteria from a.

  20. Thraustochytrid fungi associated with marine algae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghukumar, C.

    Many of the diatoms collected from Arabian Sea were found to harbour thraustochytrid fungi on them. The fungus was identified as Ulkenia visurgensis and it could be grown on pine pollen in seawater. The fungus never infected healthy growing cultures...

  1. Classification and infection mechanism of entomopathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Margy Alejandra Esparza; Castilho, Alzimiro Marcelo Conteiro; Fraga, Marcelo Elias

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Entomopathogenic fungi are important biological control agents throughout the world, have been the subject of intensive research for more than 100 years, and can occur at epizootic or enzootic levels in their host populations. Their mode of action against insects involves attaching a spore to the insect cuticle, followed by germination, penetration of the cuticle, and dissemination inside the insect. Strains of entomopathogenic fungi are concentrated in the following orders: Hypocre...

  2. Decolorization of six synthetic dyes by fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hartikainen, E. Samuel; Miettinen, Otto; Hatakka, Annele; Kähkönen, Mika A.

    2016-01-01

    To find out ability of fourteen basidiomycetes and four ascomycetes strains to grow in the presence of synthetic colour dyes and to degrade them, fungi were cultivated on the malt agar plates containing 0.5 g kg-1 dye, either Remazol Brilliant Blue R, Remazol Brilliant Yellow GL, Remazol Brilliant Orange 3 R, Reactive Blue 4, Remazol Brilliant Red F3B or Reactive Black 5. Fungi representing basidiomycetes were Phlebia radiata (FBCC 43), Tremella encephala (FBCC 1145), Dichomitus squalens (FBC...

  3. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20 degrees C and a maximum temperature of growth extending Itp to 60 to 62 degrees C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45 degrees C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62 degrees C. Although wides...

  4. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested ...

  5. Sex and the Imperfect Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.

  6. Multi-locus sequence typing provides epidemiological insights for diseased sharks infected with fungi belonging to the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Debourgogne, Anne; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Zaffino, Marie; Sutton, Deanna; Burns, Rachel E; Frasca, Salvatore; Hyatt, Michael W; Cray, Carolyn

    2018-07-01

    Fusarium spp. are saprobic moulds that are responsible for severe opportunistic infections in humans and animals. However, we need epidemiological tools to reliably trace the circulation of such fungal strains within medical or veterinary facilities, to recognize environmental contaminations that might lead to infection and to improve our understanding of factors responsible for the onset of outbreaks. In this study, we used molecular genotyping to investigate clustered cases of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) infection that occurred in eight Sphyrnidae sharks under managed care at a public aquarium. Genetic relationships between fungal strains were determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis based on DNA sequencing at five loci, followed by comparison with sequences of 50 epidemiologically unrelated FSSC strains. Our genotyping approach revealed that F. keratoplasticum and F. solani haplotype 9x were most commonly isolated. In one case, the infection proved to be with another Hypocrealian rare opportunistic pathogen Metarhizium robertsii. Twice, sharks proved to be infected with FSSC strains with the same MLST sequence type, supporting the hypothesis the hypothesis that common environmental populations of fungi existed for these sharks and would suggest the longtime persistence of the two clonal strains within the environment, perhaps in holding pools and life support systems of the aquarium. This study highlights how molecular tools like MLST can be used to investigate outbreaks of microbiological disease. This work reinforces the need for regular controls of water quality to reduce microbiological contamination due to waterborne microorganisms.

  7. Uji Efikasi Bioinsektisida Jamur Entomopatogen Berformulasi Cair terhadap Plutella xylostella (L. Di Laboratorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haperidah Nunilahwati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy test of liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungi in control against Plutella xylostella in the laboratory.  The insect pest P. xylostella could reduce crop production of Brassicaceae. The aim of research was to test the efficacy liquid bio insecticide with active ingredient of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae fungi to control P. xylostella. Bio-insecticide was applied by spraying  on mustard leaves infested with 50 individuals of third instar larvae of P. xylostella and a density of 1x106 conidia ml-1. Larval mortality was observed every 2 hours and LT50 of larvae was calculated. The study showed that the highest percentage of mortality found in Mt ES and Mt ES (cf isolates was 99.6%, the lowest mortality at Mt NES isolate was 96.80%. LT50 and LT95 values   Bb ES were the lowest i.e. 2.04 days and 2.95 days. The highest LT50 and LT95 of Mt NES isolate were 2.24 days and 3.32 days. The liquid bio-insecticide of entomopathogenic fungus B. bassiana and M. anisopliae were effective to control the larvae of P. xylostella.

  8. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Robert Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2017-02-17

    Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF) will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a) thermotolerant and (b) present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  9. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming

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    Robert Russell M. Paterson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a thermotolerant and (b present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  10. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  11. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

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    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard; Nagy, Laszlo; Brown, Daren; Held, Benjamin; Baker, Scott; Blanchette, Robert; Boussau, Bastien; Doty, Sharon L.; Fagnan, Kirsten; Floudas, Dimitris; Levasseur, Anthony; Manning, Gerard; Martin, Francis; Morin, Emmanuelle; Otillar, Robert; Pisabarro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan; Wolfe, Ken; Hibbett, David; Grigoriev, Igor

    2013-08-07

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism. Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.

  12. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Susceptibility of ectomycorrhizal fungi to soil heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipfer, Tabea; Egli, Simon; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are an important biotic factor for successful tree recruitment because they enhance plant growth and alleviate drought stress of their hosts. Thus, EcM propagules are expected to be a key factor for forest regeneration after major disturbance events such as stand-replacing forest fires. Yet the susceptibility of soil-borne EcM fungi to heat is unclear. In this study, we investigated the heat tolerance of EcM fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae). Soil samples of three soil depths were heated to the temperature of 45, 60 and 70 °C, respectively, and surviving EcM fungi were assessed by a bioassay using Scots pine as an experimental host plant. EcM species were identified by a combination of morphotyping and sequencing of the ITS region. We found that mean number of species per sample was reduced by the 60 and 70 °C treatment, but not by the 45 °C treatment. Species composition changed due to heat. While some EcM fungi species did not survive heating, the majority of species was also found in the heated samples. The most frequent species in the heat treatment were Rhizopogon roseolus, Cenococcum geophilum and several unidentified species. Copyright © 2010 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Airborne fungi in an intensive care unit

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    C. L. Gonçalves

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of airborne fungi in Intensive Care Unit (ICUs is associated with increased nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of airborne fungi presented in an ICU from the University Hospital of Pelotas – RS, with the attempt to know the place’s environmental microbiota. 40 Petri plates with Sabouraud Dextrose Agar were exposed to an environment of an ICU, where samples were collected in strategic places during morning and afternoon periods for ten days. Seven fungi genera were identified: Penicillium spp. (15.18%, genus with the higher frequency, followed by Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Paecelomyces spp., Curvularia spp., Alternaria spp., Zygomycetes and sterile mycelium. The most predominant fungi genus were Aspergillus spp. (13.92% in the morning and Cladosporium spp. (13.92% in the afternoon. Due to their involvement in different diseases, the identified fungi genera can be classified as potential pathogens of inpatients. These results reinforce the need of monitoring the environmental microorganisms with high frequency and efficiently in health institutions.

  15. Rock-eating fungi: Ectomycorrhizal fungi are picky eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstock, Nicholas; Smits, Mark; Berner, Christoffer; Kram, Pavel; Wallander, Hakan

    2014-05-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi, which form mutualistic symbiosis with the roots of most temperate and boreal forest trees, play a key role in the provision of nitrogen and phosphorus to their plant symbionts; they have also been shown to provide potassium and magnesium. Ectomycorhizal hyphae colonize and take up mineral nutrients (including P, K, and Mg) from primary mineral surfaces in the soil. It is poorly understood whether mineral colonization and uptake of nutrients from minerals can increase in accordance with host plant demand for these nutrients, and this question has been difficult to address in field settings. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities are diverse and niche separation according to nutrient uptake and transport to the host is commonly considered one of the major factors maintaining diversity and shaping ectomycorrhizal community composition.We investigated ectomycorrhizal growth, community composition, and mineral colonization in a series of connected Norway spruce forests in the Czech republic. These forests have similar aspect, climate and stand history, but are underlain by different parent materials and are, as a result, limited by different nutrients. The productivity of forests overlying a high amount of serpentinite rock are co-limited by K and P, those growing on primarily granitic rock are limited by Mg, while those on amphibolite are N limited. We assessed the fungal community in both soil and in-growth mesh bags measuring biomarkers, using in-growth assays and performing community analysis with 454 sequencing of the ITS region. In-growth mesh bags were filled with quartz sand and incubated for two growing seasons in the soil. These mesh bags select for ectomycorrhizal hyphae and were either pure quartz sand or amended with ground apatite (Ca and P source), hornblende (Mg source) or biotite (K source). Ectomycorrhizal growth and community composition were most strongly affected by parent material. The phosphorus-limited site had the lowest tree

  16. Interactions among the Predatory Midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, the Fungal Pathogen Metarhizium brunneum (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, and Maize-Infesting Aphids in Greenhouse Mesocosms

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    Ana Gorete Campos de Azevedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The generalist entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum, has proved to have great potential as a versatile biological pest control agent. The gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza is a specialist predator that occurs naturally in Europe and has been successfully used for aphid suppression. However, the interaction between these two biological control organisms and how it may affect the biological control of aphids awaits further investigation. As part of the EU-supported project INBIOSOIL, this study was conducted in greenhouse conditions to assess the possible effects of combining both biological control agents. In a randomized complete block design, sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata plants were grown in large pots filled with natural soil or natural soil inoculated with M. brunneum. At the third leaf stage, before being individually caged, plants were infested with Rhopalosiphum padi and A. aphidimyza pupae were introduced in the soil. Aphidoletes aphidimyza midge emergence, number of living midges and number of aphids were recorded daily. The presence of conidia in the soil and on leaves was assessed during the experiment. At the conclusion of the experiment, the number of live aphids and their developmental stage, consumed aphids, and A. aphidimyza eggs was assessed under stereomicroscope. This study’s findings showed that the presence of M. brunneum did not affect A. aphidimyza midge emergence. However, longevity was significantly affected. As the study progressed, significantly fewer predatory midges were found in cages treated with M. brunneum compared to untreated cages. Furthermore, by the end of the study, the number of predatory midges found in the Metarhizium-treated cages was four times lower than in the untreated cages. Both daily and final count of aphids were significantly affected by treatment. Aphidoletes aphidimyza applied alone suppressed the aphid population more effectively than M. brunneum applied alone. Additionally

  17. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

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    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  18. Virulence Factors IN Fungi OF Systemic Mycoses

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    KUROKAWA Cilmery Suemi

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi that cause systemic mycoses retain several factors which allow their growth in adverse conditions provided by the host, leading to the establishment of the parasitic relationship and contributing to disease development. These factors are known as virulence factors which favor the infection process and the pathogenesis of the mycoses. The present study evaluates the virulence factors of pathogenic fungi such as Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in terms of thermotolerance, dimorphism, capsule or cell wall components as well as enzyme production. Virulence factors favor fungal adhesion, colonization, dissemination and the ability to survive in hostile environments and elude the immune response mechanisms of the host. Both the virulence factors presented by different fungi and the defense mechanisms provided by the host require action and interaction of complex processes whose knowledge allows a better understanding of the pathogenesis of systemic mycoses.

  19. Genera of phytopathogenic fungi: GOPHY 1

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    Y. Marin-Felix

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Genera of Phytopathogenic Fungi (GOPHY is introduced as a new series of publications in order to provide a stable platform for the taxonomy of phytopathogenic fungi. This first paper focuses on 21 genera of phytopathogenic fungi: Bipolaris, Boeremia, Calonectria, Ceratocystis, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Coniella, Curvularia, Monilinia, Neofabraea, Neofusicoccum, Pilidium, Pleiochaeta, Plenodomus, Protostegia, Pseudopyricularia, Puccinia, Saccharata, Thyrostroma, Venturia and Wilsonomyces. For each genus, a morphological description and information about its pathology, distribution, hosts and disease symptoms are provided. In addition, this information is linked to primary and secondary DNA barcodes of the presently accepted species, and relevant literature. Moreover, several novelties are introduced, i.e. new genera, species and combinations, and neo-, lecto- and epitypes designated to provide a stable taxonomy. This first paper includes one new genus, 26 new species, ten new combinations, and four typifications of older names.

  20. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P.; Venâncio, A.; Lima, N.

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer's health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B), 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G), and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic). Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg. PMID:22666128

  1. Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Portuguese Almonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination of nuts is an increasing concern to the consumer’s health. Portugal is a big producer of almonds, but there is no scientific knowledge on the safety of those nuts, in terms of mycotoxins. The aim of this paper was to study the incidence of aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of 21 samples of Portuguese almonds, and its evolution throughout the various stages of production. All fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were identified and tested for their aflatoxigenic ability. Almond samples were tested for aflatoxin contamination by HPLC-fluorescence. In total, 352 fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Flavi were isolated from Portuguese almonds: 127 were identified as A. flavus (of which 28% produced aflatoxins B, 196 as typical or atypical A. parasiticus (all producing aflatoxins B and G, and 29 as A. tamarii (all nonaflatoxigenic. Aflatoxins were detected in only one sample at 4.97 μg/kg.

  2. Comparative Genome Analysis of Basidiomycete Fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Morin, Emmanuelle; Nagy, Laszlo; Manning, Gerard; Baker, Scott; Brown, Daren; Henrissat, Bernard; Levasseur, Anthony; Hibbett, David; Martin, Francis; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-19

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes the mushrooms, wood rots, symbionts, and plant and animal pathogens. To better understand the diversity of phenotypes in basidiomycetes, we performed a comparative analysis of 35 basidiomycete fungi spanning the diversity of the phylum. Phylogenetic patterns of lignocellulose degrading genes suggest a continuum rather than a sharp dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Patterns of secondary metabolic enzymes give additional insight into the broad array of phenotypes found in the basidiomycetes. We suggest that the profile of an organism in lignocellulose-targeting genes can be used to predict its nutritional mode, and predict Dacryopinax sp. as a brown rot; Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea as white rots.

  3. Heterologous gene expression in filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyun; Schmitz, George; Zhang, Meiling; Mackie, Roderick I; Cann, Isaac K O

    2012-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are critical to production of many commercial enzymes and organic compounds. Fungal-based systems have several advantages over bacterial-based systems for protein production because high-level secretion of enzymes is a common trait of their decomposer lifestyle. Furthermore, in the large-scale production of recombinant proteins of eukaryotic origin, the filamentous fungi become the vehicle of choice due to critical processes shared in gene expression with other eukaryotic organisms. The complexity and relative dearth of understanding of the physiology of filamentous fungi, compared to bacteria, have hindered rapid development of these organisms as highly efficient factories for the production of heterologous proteins. In this review, we highlight several of the known benefits and challenges in using filamentous fungi (particularly Aspergillus spp., Trichoderma reesei, and Neurospora crassa) for the production of proteins, especially heterologous, nonfungal enzymes. We review various techniques commonly employed in recombinant protein production in the filamentous fungi, including transformation methods, selection of gene regulatory elements such as promoters, protein secretion factors such as the signal peptide, and optimization of coding sequence. We provide insights into current models of host genomic defenses such as repeat-induced point mutation and quelling. Furthermore, we examine the regulatory effects of transcript sequences, including introns and untranslated regions, pre-mRNA (messenger RNA) processing, transcript transport, and mRNA stability. We anticipate that this review will become a resource for researchers who aim at advancing the use of these fascinating organisms as protein production factories, for both academic and industrial purposes, and also for scientists with general interest in the biology of the filamentous fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. FungiDB: An Integrated Bioinformatic Resource for Fungi and Oomycetes

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    Evelina Y. Basenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available FungiDB (fungidb.org is a free online resource for data mining and functional genomics analysis for fungal and oomycete species. FungiDB is part of the Eukaryotic Pathogen Genomics Database Resource (EuPathDB, eupathdb.org platform that integrates genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and phenotypic datasets, and other types of data for pathogenic and nonpathogenic, free-living and parasitic organisms. FungiDB is one of the largest EuPathDB databases containing nearly 100 genomes obtained from GenBank, Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD, The Broad Institute, Joint Genome Institute (JGI, Ensembl, and other sources. FungiDB offers a user-friendly web interface with embedded bioinformatics tools that support custom in silico experiments that leverage FungiDB-integrated data. In addition, a Galaxy-based workspace enables users to generate custom pipelines for large-scale data analysis (e.g., RNA-Seq, variant calling, etc.. This review provides an introduction to the FungiDB resources and focuses on available features, tools, and queries and how they can be used to mine data across a diverse range of integrated FungiDB datasets and records.

  5. Patogenic fungi associated with blue lupine seeds

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    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 10% ofseeds harvested in 1991 and 1992 (50 samples, 400 seeds in each sample proved to be infested with various fungi. Fusarium spp. and Botrytis cinerea were the most common pathogens isolated. Fusarium avenaceum was the most common and highIy pathogenic species. Fusarium semitectum and F. tricinctum were highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings but they were the least common Fusarium isolated from seeds. Similarily, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was isolated only from 0,2% seeds tested but this fungus was highly pathogenic to lupin seedlings. Some other fungi know as lupin pathogens (F. oxysporum, Stemphylium botryosum, Pleiochaeta setosa and Phomopsis leptostromiformis were also noted in tested seeds.

  6. Investigating the potential of an autodissemination system for managing populations of vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Tom W; Hough, Gemma; Arbona, Charlotte; Roberts, Harriet; Bennison, Jude; Buxton, John; Prince, Gill; Chandler, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia. In this system, 88% of adult weevils came in contact with the powder within 48 h. When the powder was applied to five adult weevils that were then placed within a population of 35 potential recipients, it was transmitted on average to 75% of the recipient population within 7 days. Three isolates of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana isolate codes 433.99 and 1749.11 and Metarhizium brunneum isolate code 275.86), selected from a laboratory virulence screen. These three isolates were then investigated for efficacy when applied as conidial powders in artificial refuges placed among populations of adult weevils held in experimental boxes in the laboratory at 20 °C. Under this regime, the fungal isolates caused 70-90% mortality of adult weevils over 28 days. A final polytunnel experiment tested the efficacy of conidial powders of M. brunneum 275.86 placed in artificial refuges to increase vine weevil mortality. Overall weevil mortality was relatively low (26-41%) but was significantly higher in cages in which the conidial powders were placed in refuge traps than in cages with control traps. The lower weevil mortality recorded in the polytunnel experiment compared to the laboratory test was most likely a consequence of the greater amounts of inoculum required to kill adult weevils when conditions

  7. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi

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    Pasco B. Avery

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus, and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae. Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus, X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1 the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF (Isaria fumosorosea, Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana; and (2 the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 106 viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana, compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus, the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana. After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests indicated an

  8. Spore Acquisition and Survival of Ambrosia Beetles Associated with the Laurel Wilt Pathogen in Avocados after Exposure to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Pasco B; Bojorque, Verónica; Gámez, Cecilia; Duncan, Rita E; Carrillo, Daniel; Cave, Ronald D

    2018-04-25

    Laurel wilt is a disease threatening the avocado industry in Florida. The causative agent of the disease is a fungus vectored by ambrosia beetles that bore into the trees. Until recently, management strategies for the vectors of the laurel wilt fungus relied solely on chemical control and sanitation practices. Beneficial entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are the most common and prevalent natural enemies of pathogen vectors. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that commercial strains of EPF can increase the mortality of the primary vector, Xyleborus glabratus , and potential alternative vectors, Xylosandrus crassiusculus , Xyleborus volvulus and Xyleborus bispinatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Our study provides baseline data for three formulated commercially-available entomopathogenic fungi used as potential biocontrol agents against X. crassiusculus , X. volvulus and X. bispinatus. The specific objectives were to determine: (1) the mean number of viable spores acquired per beetle species adult after being exposed to formulated fungal products containing different strains of EPF ( Isaria fumosorosea , Metarhizium brunneum and Beauveria bassiana ); and (2) the median and mean survival times using paper disk bioassays. Prior to being used in experiments, all fungal suspensions were adjusted to 2.4 × 10⁶ viable spores/mL. The number of spores acquired by X. crassiusculus was significantly higher after exposure to B. bassiana , compared to the other fungal treatments. For X. volvulus , the numbers of spores acquired per beetle were significantly different amongst the different fungal treatments, and the sequence of spore acquisition rates on X. volvulus from highest to lowest was I. fumosorosea > M. brunneum > B. bassiana . After X. bispinatus beetles were exposed to the different suspensions, the rates of acquisition of spores per beetle amongst the different fungal treatments were similar. Survival estimates (data pooled across two tests) indicated an

  9. Biodegradation of PAHs by fungi in contaminated-soil containing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PAH) benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(a) fluoranthene, benzo(a) pyrene, chrysene and phenanthrene in a soil that was sterilized and inoculated with the nonligninolytic fungi, Fusarium flocciferum and Trichoderma spp. and the ligninolytic fungi, ...

  10. Composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with cassava

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... Objectives: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form root symbiotic relationships with higher plants, but .... including growth habit of stem, stem colour, outer and inner root ..... of AM fungi to colonize roots, breaking down their.

  11. Aflatoxins Associated with Storage Fungi in Fish Feed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Timothy Ademakinwa

    This study investigates storage fungi and aflatoxin in fish feed stored under three different ... secondary metabolites of fungi which are formed ... Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of ... antibiotic is to inhibit the growth of any bacterial.

  12. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    morelet) in Ijaiye Forest Reserve, 38 km northwest of Ibadan, Nigeria. The wood samples were inoculated separately with two species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brownrot fungi; ...

  13. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  14. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leho Tedersoo; Mohammad Bahram; Sergei Põlme; Urmas Kõljalg; Nourou S. Yorou; Ravi Wijesundera; Luis Villarreal Ruiz; Aida M. Vasco-Palacios; Pham Quang Thu; Ave Suija; Matthew E. Smith; Cathy Sharp; Erki Saluveer; Alessandro Saitta; Miguel Rosas; Taavi Riit; David Ratkowsky; Karin Pritsch; Kadri Põldmaa; Meike Piepenbring; Cherdchai Phosri; Marko Peterson; Kaarin Parts; Kadri Pärtel; Eveli Otsing; Eduardo Nouhra; André L. Njouonkou; R. Henrik Nilsson; Luis N. Morgado; Jordan Mayor; Tom W. May; Luiza Majukim; D. Jean Lodge; Su See Lee; Karl-Henrik Larsson; Petr Kohout; Kentaro Hosaka; Indrek Hiiesalu; Terry W. Henkel; Helery Harend; Liang-dong Guo; Alina Greslebin; Gwen Gretlet; Jozsef Geml; Genevieve Gates; William Dunstan; Chris Dunk; Rein Drenkhan; John Dearnaley; André De Kesel; Tan Dang; Xin Chen; Franz Buegger; Francis Q. Brearley; Gregory Bonito; Sten Anslan; Sandra Abell; Kessy Abarenkov

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples,we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity.The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles....

  15. Direct identification of fungi using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dørge, Thorsten Carlheim; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    1999-01-01

    Filamentous fungi have often been characterized, classified or identified with a major emphasis on macromorphological characters, i.e. the size, texture and color of fungal colonies grown on one or more identification media. This approach has been rejcted by several taxonomists because of the sub......Filamentous fungi have often been characterized, classified or identified with a major emphasis on macromorphological characters, i.e. the size, texture and color of fungal colonies grown on one or more identification media. This approach has been rejcted by several taxonomists because...... of the subjectivity in the visual evaluation and quantification (if any)of such characters and the apparent large variability of the features. We present an image analysis approach for objective identification and classification of fungi. The approach is exemplified by several isolates of nine different species...... of the genus Penicillium, known to be very difficult to identify correctly. The fungi were incubated on YES and CYA for one week at 25 C (3 point inoculation) in 9 cm Petri dishes. The cultures are placed under a camera where a digital image of the front of the colonies is acquired under optimal illumination...

  16. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo-metabolome...

  17. Pyrene degradation by yeasts and filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, M Cristina; Salvioli, Mónica L; Cazau, M Cecilia; Arambarri, A M

    2002-01-01

    The saprotrophic soil fungi Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc., Cylindrocarpon didymum (Hartig) Wollenw, Penicillium variabile Sopp. and the yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis (Fresenius) Harrison and Rhodotorula minuta (Saito) Harrison were cultured in mineral medium with pyrene. The remaining pyrene concentrations were periodically determined during 20 incubation days, using HPLC. To assess the metabolism of pyrene degradation we added 0.1 microCi of [4,5,9,10] 14C-pyrene to each fungi culture and measured the radioactivity in the volatile organic substances, extractable, aqueous phase, biomass and 14CO2 fractions. The assays demonstrated that F. solani and R. glutinis metabolized pyrene as a sole source of carbon. Differences in their activities at the beginning of the cultures disappeared by the end of the experiment, when 32 and 37% of the original pyrene concentration was detected, for the soil fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the filamentous fungi, F. solani was highly active and oxidized pyrene; moreover, small but significant degradation rates were observed in C. didymum and P. variahile cultures. An increase in the 14CO2 evolution was observed at the 17th day with cosubstrate. R. glutinis and R. minuta cultures showed similar ability to biotransform pyrene, and that 35% of the initial concentration was consumed at the end of the assay. The same results were obtained in the experiments with or without glucose as cosubstrate.

  18. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  19. Screening of fungi for soil remediation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Lamar; Laura M. Main; Diane M. Dietrich; John A. Glaser

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if physiological and/or biochemical factors such as growth rate, tolerance to and ability to degrade PCP or creosote have use for predicting the potential bioremediation performance of fungi. Because we have focused the initial development of a fungal-based soil remediation technology on PCP- and/or creosote-...

  20. Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential biosurfactant producing endophytic and epiphytic fungi, isolated from macrophytes in the Negro River in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. ... Solms and Cyperus ligularis L., macrophytes collected from oil-contaminated waters, were studied to assess their potential for producing biosurfactants; the most promising ones ...

  1. Enzymatic activity of fungi isolated from crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta A. Żukiewicz-Sobczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To detect and assess the activity of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes and to find differences in enzymograms between fungi isolated from wheat and rye samples and grown on Czapek-Dox Broth and Sabouraud Dextrose Broth enriched with cereal (wheat or rye. Isolated strains were also classified in the scale of biosafety levels (BSL. Material and methods: The study used 23 strains of fungi cultured from samples of wheat and rye (grain, grain dust obtained during threshing and soil collected in the Lublin region (eastern Poland. API ZYM test (bioMérieux was carried out according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Classification of BSL (Biosafety levels was based on the current literature. Results : High enzymatic activity was found in strains cultured in media containing 1% of wheat grain ( Bipolaris holmi, Penicillium decumbens and with an addition of 1% of rye grain ( Cladosporium herbarum, Aspergillus versicolor, Alternaria alternata . The total number of enzymes varied depending on the type of media, and in most cases it was higher in the culture where an addition of cereal grains was used. Conclusions : Isolated strains of fungi reveal differences in the profiles of the enzyme assay. It can be assumed that the substrate enriched in grains stimulate the higher activity of mold enzymes. Key words: enzymatic activity, mold fungi, zymogram, biohazards.

  2. Potassium, rubidium and caesium in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johanson, K.J.; Nikolova, I. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology; Vinichuk, M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Soil Sciences

    2005-09-15

    Samples of mushrooms and soil were collected in a forest ecosystem close to Nuclear Power Plant at Forsmark, Sweden. The soil were fractionated in bulk soil, rhizosphere, soil-root interface and fungal mycelium and the concentration of K, Rb and Cs were determined. The K concentration increased from 605 mg/kg in bulk soil to 2,750 mg/kg in mycelium and 39,500 in fruitbodies of fungi. The corresponding values for Rb was 2.5 mg/kg in bulk soil and 191 mg/kg in fruitbodies of fungi. For Cs the corresponding values were 0.21 mg/kg for bulk soil and 3.9 mg/kg in fruitbodies. In fruitbodies of fungi good correlation was found between the concentration of K and Rb or of Rb and Cs, but not between K and Cs. Yoshida found similar correlation and concluded that the mechanism of Cs uptake by fungi may be different from that of K.

  3. Response of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Rhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect ofRhizobium and Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation, both individually and in combination on growth and chlorophyll content of economically important plant Vigna unguiculata L. A significant (p < 0.05) increase over control in root length (45.6 cm), shoot height ...

  4. Fire, hypogeous fungi and mycophagous marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Trappe; Andrew W. Claridge; Ari Jumpponen

    2005-01-01

    In their interesting research on post-fire foraging behaviour of northern bettongs (Bettongia tropica) in tropical Queensland, Australia, Vernes et al. (2004) used forage-diggings of their study animals to locate plots for estimating biomass of hypogeous fungi on prescribed-burnt sites in comparison with unburnt control sites. They concluded that...

  5. Fungi in carpeting and furniture dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, G

    1991-11-01

    The qualitative and quantitative species composition of fungi in carpets and upholstered furniture dust found in the living-rooms of nine Dutch dwellings was examined in a pilot study. Numbers of spores of xerophilic fungi did not differ in dust removed from carpeting and upholstery. Spores of hydrophilic species were found to be more predominant on floors (P less than 0.05), whereas meso-hygrophilic spores, largely dominated by allergologically relevant Penicillium species, were significantly more abundant in dust taken from regularly used furniture (P less than 0.05). Our results indicate that growth conditions for fungi in the micro-habitats of furniture differ from those in carpeting. No statistically significant differences in number of viable spores have been found in samples taken from ground-floor level compared with those taken from 1st to 3rd floor level of dwellings. From this study, the need for a micro-topographic analysis of the fungal flora in the human environment has become apparent. Efficient allergological home sanitation in dwellings of allergic patients requires detailed data about the colonization of the various micro-habitats by allergenic fungi.

  6. Fungi in space--literature survey on fungi used for space research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V D; Hock, B

    1993-09-01

    A complete review of the scientific literature on experiments involving fungi in space is presented. This review begins with balloon experiments around 1935 which carried fungal spores, rocket experiments in the 1950's and 60's, satellite and moon expeditions, long-time orbit experiments and Spacelab missions in the 1980's and 90's. All these missions were aimed at examining the influence of cosmic radiation and weightlessness on genetic, physiological, and morphogenetic processes. During the 2nd German Spacelab mission (D-2, April/May 1993), the experiment FUNGI provided the facilities to cultivate higher basidiomycetes over a period of 10 d in orbit, document gravimorphogenesis and chemically fix fruiting bodies under weightlessness for subsequent ultrastructural analysis. This review shows the necessity of space travel for research on the graviperception of higher fungi and demonstrates the novelty of the experiment FUNGI performed within the framework of the D-2 mission.

  7. Responses of mycorrhizal fungi and other rootassociated fungi to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Marie Porret

    Climate change is expected to affect many terrestrial ecosystem processes. Mycorrhizal fungi are important to soil carbon (C) and nutrient cycling thus changes in abundance of mycorrhizal fungi could alter ecosystem functioning. The aim of the present thesis was therefore to investigate responses...... of mycorrhizal fungi to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. Effects of elevated CO2 (510 ppm), night-time warming and extended summer drought were investigated in the long-term field experiment CLIMAITE located in a Danish semi-natural heathland. Mycorrhizal colonization was investigated...... levels. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi increased under elevated CO2 and warming in spring while ericoid mycorrhiza (ErM) colonisation decreased in response to drought and warming. Increased AM colonization correlated with higher phosphorus and nitrogen root pools. Dark septate...

  8. In vitro culture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: advances and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ecologically important for most vascular plants for their growth and survival. AM fungi are obligate symbionts. In recent years, there have been many attempts to cultivate in vitro. Some relevant results indicate efforts are not far from successful growth of AM fungi independent of a plant ...

  9. Mycorrhizal fungi of aspen forests: Natural occurrence and potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathy L. Cripps

    2001-01-01

    Native mycorrhizal fungi associated with aspen were surveyed on three soil types in the north-central Rocky Mountains. Selected isolates were tested for the ability to enhance aspen seedling growth in vitro. Over 50 species of ectomycorrhizal fungi occur with Populus tremuloides in this region, primarily basidiomycete fungi in the Agaricales. Almost one-third (30%)...

  10. Aflatoxins associated with storage fungi in fish feed | Samuel | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cereals and legumes are a very important part of feed used in culturing fishes. Feed, when not properly stored, enhances the growth of storage fungi which is a source of mycotoxins, secondary metabolites produced by storage fungi. This study investigates storage fungi and aflatoxin in fish feed stored under three different ...

  11. Phylogenetic congruence between subtropical trees and their associated fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Xubing; Liang, Minxia; Etienne, Rampal S.; Gilbert, Gregory S; Yu, Shixiao

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have detected phylogenetic signals in pathogen-host networks for both soil-borne and leaf-infecting fungi, suggesting that pathogenic fungi may track or coevolve with their preferred hosts. However, a phylogenetically concordant relationship between multiple hosts and multiple fungi

  12. Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... species of white-rot fungi; Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown- rot fungi; Lentinus ... The results indicated that biodegradation by rot fungi differs in intensity according to the fungus ..... wood of coast red wood Sequoia Sempervirens (D. Don). For. Prod. J. 33(5): 15-20 ...

  13. Detection of species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular-mycorhizal fungi (AMF) from melon plants grown in Van province, were studied by nested-PCR method to establish colonization ratio of related fungi in plants and to detect the fungi at species level. From 10 different locations, a total of 100 soil samples were taken from rhizosphere area of melon plants.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Fungi Associated With Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spoilage fungi isolated were Aspergillus species, Rhizopus, Penicilluim, Fusarium, Eurotium, Mucor, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Actinomyces species. The predominant spoilage fungi in the grains were Aspergillus species. The populations of some spoilage fungi isolated from the grains were not high ...

  15. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  16. Viability of ectomycorrhizal fungi following cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crahay, Charlotte; Declerck, Stéphane; Colpaert, Jan V; Pigeon, Mathieu; Munaut, Françoise

    2013-02-01

    The use of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in biotechnological processes requires their maintenance over long periods under conditions that maintain their genetic, phenotypic, and physiological stability. Cryopreservation is considered as the most reliable method for long-term storage of most filamentous fungi. However, this technique is not widespread for ECM fungi since many do not survive or exhibit poor recovery after freezing. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient cryopreservation protocol for the long-term storage of ECM fungi. Two cryopreservation protocols were compared. The first protocol was the conventional straw protocol (SP). The mycelium of the ECM isolates was grown in Petri dishes on agar and subsequently collected by punching the mycelium into a sterile straw before cryopreservation. In the second protocol, the cryovial protocol (CP), the mycelium of the ECM isolates was grown directly in cryovials filled with agar and subsequently cryopreserved. The same cryoprotectant solution, freezing, and thawing process, and re-growth conditions were used in both protocols. The survival (positive when at least 60 % of the replicates showed re-growth) was evaluated before and immediately after freezing as well as after 1 week, 1 m, and 6 m of storage at -130 °C. Greater survival rate (80 % for the CP as compared to 25 % for the SP) and faster re-growth (within 10 d for the CP compared to the 4 weeks for the SP) were observed for most isolates with the CP suggesting that the preparation of the cultures prior to freezing had a significant impact on the isolates survival. The suitability of the CP for cryopreservation of ECM fungi was further confirmed on a set of 98 ECM isolates and displayed a survival rate of 88 % of the isolates. Only some isolates belonging to Suillus luteus, Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Paxillus involutus and Thelephora terrestris failed to survive. This suggested that the CP is an adequate method for the ultra-low cryopreservation of

  17. Application of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy to Compare the Cell Materials of Wood Decay Fungi with Wood Mould Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barun Shankar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fungi create vast damage among standing trees and all types of wood materials. The objectives of this study are to (a characterize the cell materials of two major wood decay fungi (Basidiomycota, namely, Trametes versicolor and Postia placenta, and (b compare the cell materials of decay fungi with four wood mould fungi (Ascomycota, namely, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Ulocladium atrum. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy is used to characterize the microbial cellular materials. The results showed that the IR bands for the fatty acid at ∼2900 cm−1 were different for the two-decay-fungi genre. Postia placenta shows more absorbance peaks at the fatty acid region. Band ratio indices for amide I and amide II from protein amino acids were higher for the mould fungi (Ascomycota than the decay fungi (Basidiomycota. Similarly, the band ratio index calculated for the protein end methyl group was found to be higher for the mould fungi than the decay fungi. Mould fungi along with the decay fungi demonstrated a positive correlation (R2=0.75 between amide I and amide II indices. The three-component multivariate, principal component analysis showed a strong correlation of amide and protein band indices.

  18. Methods for genetic transformation of filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Tang, Yu; Lin, Jun; Cai, Weiwen

    2017-10-03

    Filamentous fungi have been of great interest because of their excellent ability as cell factories to manufacture useful products for human beings. The development of genetic transformation techniques is a precondition that enables scientists to target and modify genes efficiently and may reveal the function of target genes. The method to deliver foreign nucleic acid into cells is the sticking point for fungal genome modification. Up to date, there are some general methods of genetic transformation for fungi, including protoplast-mediated transformation, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, electroporation, biolistic method and shock-wave-mediated transformation. This article reviews basic protocols and principles of these transformation methods, as well as their advantages and disadvantages.

  19. EXTRACELLULAR CELLULOLYTIC COMPLEXES PRODUCTION BY MICROSCOPIC FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Syrchin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to screen and to study the effect of inducers on the synthesis of the cellulolytic enzyme complexes by microscopic fungi. Cellulolytic and xylanolytic activities were determined by reducing sugar with DNS reagent, and β-glucosidase activity by pNPG hydrolysis. The enzyme preparations were obtained by ammonium sulphate precipitation. Among 32 studied strains of microscopic fungi 14 produced cellulo- and xylanolytic enzyme complexes. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 demonstrated the highest levels of all studied enzyme activities. Enzyme preparations with high endo-, exoglucanase, xylanase and β-glucosidase activities were obtained from these strains. Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 were active producers of cellulase enzyme complexes during growth on natural substrates. It was shown that inductors of cellulolytic enzymes in Fusarium sp. 5 and Fennellia sp. 2806 differed from the ones in Trichoderma reesei.

  20. Growth of indoor fungi on gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, F J J; van Laarhoven, K A; Wösten, H A B; Dijksterhuis, J

    2017-08-01

    To have a better understanding of fungal growth on gypsum building materials to prevent indoor fungal growth. Gypsum is acquired by mining or as a by-product of flue-gas desulphurization or treatment of phosphate ore for the production of fertilizer. Natural gypsum, flue-gas gypsum and phosphogypsum therefore have different mineral compositions. Here, growth of fungi on these types of gypsum was assessed. Conidia of the indoor fungi Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium halotolerans and Penicillium rubens were inoculated and observed using microscopic techniques including low-temperature scanning electron microscopy. Elemental analysis of gypsum was done using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and segmented flow analysis. Moisture content of the gypsum was determined using a dynamic vapour sorption apparatus. Aspergillus niger, C. halotolerans and P. rubens hardly germinated on natural gypsum and flue-gas gypsum. The latter two fungi did show germination, outgrowth, and conidiation on phosphogypsum, while A. niger hardly germinated on this substrate. Other experiments show that C. halotolerans and P. rubens can develop in pure water, but A. niger does not. The observations show that the lack of germination of three indoor fungi is explained by the low amount of phosphor in natural, flue-gas and laboratory-grade gypsum. Additionally, C. halotolerans and P. rubens can develop in pure water, while conidia of A. niger do not show any germination, which is explained by the need for organic molecules of this species to induce germination. Indoor fungal growth is a potential threat to human health and causes damage to building materials. This study possibly helps in the application of the right type of gypsum in buildings. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. The Frequency Of Fungi In Doubtful Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Hashemi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While nowadays,great attainments have been achieved in curing and preventing the pathogenic fungal infections, and some how there has been reduction in the number of occurrences, the occurrences of opportunistic infections have been increased. Since the study of fungal infections in various organs (e.g.digestive system is crucial ,and because of few study were done in this field in the world, it is decided to examine the apendectomide tissue for fungal contamination in Iran. Materials and Methods: The work has been done for six months. After oparation sergery the appendix tissue in two media (formalin & normal salin were carried out in the medical mycology laboratory at Tehran University of medical sciences. The specimens were examined directly and cultured in sabourauds dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (sc. In this experiment 200 appendicular tissues were examined. Results: Out of them some fungi were isolated in 10 cases included 4 Candida albican (40%, 2 Candida tropicalis (20%,1 Cryptococcus sp. (10%,1 Candida sp.and 2 Geotrichum sp. Cryptococcus sp. was identified with mycological methods. This isolation related to a young man that has a history for long contact to pigeon.some of the fungi specially yeast can be a part of mycoflora in digestive system but the finding of Cryptococcus is uncommon. Conclusion: In this study the fungi were isolated from 5% of appendisits and with pay attention to this finding that the most patients hadn.t background factors causing the proliferation of the fungal agents in the intestine, so with further studies it is probable to consider the fungi as the agents causing appendicitis in this patients.

  2. REGULATION OF COAL POLYMER DEGRADATION BY FUNGI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Bumpus

    1998-11-30

    A variety of lignin degrading fungi mediate solubilization and subsequent biodegradation of coal macromolecules (a.k.a. coal polymer) from highly oxidized low rank coals such as leonardites. It appears that oxalate or possibly other metal chelators (i.e., certain Krebs Cycle intermediates) mediate solubilization of low rank coals while extracellular oxidases have a role in subsequent oxidation of solubilized coal macromolecule. These processes are under nutritional control. For example, in the case of P. chrysosporium, solubilization of leonardite occurred when the fungi were cultured on most but not all nutrient agars tested and subsequent biodegradation occurred only in nutrient nitrogen limited cultures. Lignin peroxidases mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule in a reaction that is dependent on the presence of veratryl alcohol and hydrogen peroxide. Kinetic evidence suggests that veratryl alcohol is oxidized to the veratryl alcohol cation radical which then mediates oxidation of the coal macromolecule. Results by others suggest that Mn peroxidases mediate formation of reactive Mn{sup 3+} complexes which also mediate oxidation of coal macromolecule. A biomimetic approach was used to study solubilization of a North Dakota leonardite. It was found that a concentration {approximately}75 mM sodium oxalate was optimal for solubilization of this low rank coal. This is important because this is well above the concentration of oxalate produced by fungi in liquid culture. Higher local concentrations probably occur in solid agar cultures and thus may account for the observation that greater solubilization occurs in agar media relative to liquid media. The characteristics of biomimetically solubilized leonardite were similar to those of biologically solubilized leonardite. Perhaps our most interesting observation was that in addition to oxalate, other common Lewis bases (phosphate/hydrogen phosphate/dihydrogen phosphate and bicarbonate/carbonate ions) are able to mediate

  3. [Microscopic soil fungi - bioindicators organisms contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donerian, L G; Vodianova, M A; Tarasova, Zh E

    In the paper there are considered methodological issues for the evaluation of soil biota in terms of oil pollution. Experimental studies have shown that under the exposure of a various levels of oil pollution meeting certain gradations of the state and optimal alteration in microbocenosis in sod-podzolic soils, there is occurred a transformation of structure of the complex of micromycetes and the accumulation of toxic species, hardly typical for podzolic soils - primarily represantatives of the genus Aspergillus (A.niger and A. versicolor), Paecilomyces (P.variotii Bainer), Trichoderma (T.hamatum), the genus of phytopathogens Fusarium (F.oxysporum), dermatophytes of genus Sporothrix (S. schenckii) and dark-colored melanin containing fungi of Dematiaceae family. Besides that there are presented data on the study of microbiocenosis of the urban soil, the urban soil differed from the zone soil, but shaped in similar landscape and climatic conditions, and therefore having a tendency to a similar response from the side of microorganisms inhabiting the soil. Isolated complex of soil microscopic fungi is described by many authors as a complex, characteristic for soils of megalopolises. This allowed authors of this work to suggest that in urban soils the gain in the occurrence of pathogenic species micromycetes also increases against a background of chronic, continuously renewed inflow of petroleum hydrocarbons from various sources of pollution. Because changes in the species composition of micromycetes occurred in accordance with the increasing load of oil, so far as microscopic soil fungi can be recommended as a bioindicator organisms for oil. In the article there is also provided information about the distinctive features of modern DNA identification method of soil microscopic fungi and accepted in our country methodology of isolation of micromycetes with the use of a nutrient Czapek medium.

  4. Analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Dąbrowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Szczecin Lagoon waters was carried out between April and December 1996. Changes in yeasts numbers of this particular estuary were found to be typical for the marinę and estuary waters with maximum concentration of yeast-like fungi in the summer season. Qualitative analysis of the isolated strains, proved Rhodotorula glutinis to be the most frequently isolated species at the three sampling sites, with Candida coliculosa dominating at the forth one.

  5. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  6. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  7. Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.

  8. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  9. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  10. Tolerance of Antarctic soil fungi to hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Kevin A.; Bridge, Paul; Clark, Melody S. [British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of hydrocarbons and fuel oil on Antarctic filamentous fungi in the terrestrial Antarctic environment. Growth of fungi and bacteria from soils around Rothera Research Station (Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula) was assessed in the presence of ten separate aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons [marine gas oil (MGO), dodecane, hexadecane, benzoic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, toluene, phenol, biphenyl, naphthalene and m- and p-xylenes with ethylbenzene]. Aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited soil microbial growth more than aliphatic hydrocarbons. Soil microorganisms from a moss patch, where little previous impact or hydrocarbon contamination had occurred, were less tolerant of hydrocarbons than those from high impact sites. Fungal growth rates of Mollisia sp., Penicillium commune, Mortierella sp., Trichoderma koningii, Trichoderma sp. and Phoma herbarum were assessed in the presence of hydrocarbons. Generally, aromatic hydrocarbons inhibited or stopped hyphal extension, though growth rates increased with some aliphatic hydrocarbons. Hyphal dry weight measurements suggested that Mortierella sp. may be able to use dodecane as sole carbon and energy source. Hydrocarbon-degrading Antarctic fungi may have use in future hydrocarbon spill bioremediation. (author)

  11. BIOMODIFICATION OF KENAF USING WHITE ROT FUNGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmina Halis,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available White rot fungi can be used as a pretreatment of biomass to degrade lignin. It also alters the structure of the lignocellulosic matter, thus increasing its accessibility to enzymes able to convert polysaccharides into simple sugars. This study compares the ability of two species of white rot fungi, Pycnoporous sanguineus and Oxyporus latemarginatus FRIM 31, to degrade lignin in kenaf chips. The white rot fungi were originally isolated from the tropical forest in Malaysia. Kenaf chips were first inoculated with each fungus separately using corn steep liquor as a fungal growth promoter. The kenaf chips were inoculated with white rot fungus for a period of 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, after which they were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Chemical analyses were conducted following TAPPI Standard Methods and Fourier Transmission Infra Red (FTIR. SEM observations showed evidence of fungal colonization. When calculating weight loss, both P. sanguineus and O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 showed the greatest reduction. Amounts by mass of cellulose, hemicelluloses, extractives, and lignin in the treated kenaf chips all were lowered. The results show that O. latemarginatus FRIM 31 had a greater ability to degrade lignin when compared to P. sanguineus.

  12. Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences.

  13. Baeuveria bassiana (BalsVuill y Metarhizium anisioplae (Metsch. Sorokin para el control de pupas de Prodiplosis longifila Gagné en el cultivo de esparrago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cedano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de los hongos entomopatógenos Baeuveria bassiana y Metarhizium anisioplae sobre la s pupas de Prodiplosis longifila para reducir la población de adultos de este insecto. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de dos concentraciones diferentes de propágulos (micelio y conidias de cada entomopatógeno, una fue de 1x10 6 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 25 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno y la otra de 1x10 7 propágulos /mililitro (provenientes de 40 kilos de arroz colonizado por el entomopatógeno más un testigo sin aplicación. La aplicación se realizó a través del sistema de riego y se inició 15 días después del desaporque (término de cosecha, repitiéndose cada 5 días durante un mes coincidiendo con la etapa de mayor caída de pupas al suelo. El tratamiento de Baeuveria bassiana a la concentración de 1 x10 7 propágulos /mililitro presentó el 5 3 . 4 % de las pupas en el suelo con micelio del hongo. Estos resultados permiten indicar a B. bassiana como un biocontrolador promisorio de esta plaga.

  14. Potential Antiviral Agents from Marine Fungi: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity of the marine world is only partially subjected to detailed scientific scrutiny in comparison to terrestrial life. Life in the marine world depends heavily on marine fungi scavenging the oceans of lifeless plants and animals and entering them into the nutrient cycle by. Approximately 150 to 200 new compounds, including alkaloids, sesquiterpenes, polyketides, and aromatic compounds, are identified from marine fungi annually. In recent years, numerous investigations demonstrated the tremendous potential of marine fungi as a promising source to develop new antivirals against different important viruses, including herpes simplex viruses, the human immunodeficiency virus, and the influenza virus. Various genera of marine fungi such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were subjected to compound isolation and antiviral studies, which led to an illustration of the strong antiviral activity of a variety of marine fungi-derived compounds. The present review strives to summarize all available knowledge on active compounds isolated from marine fungi with antiviral activity.

  15. Community assembly and coexistence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vályi, Kriszta; Mardhiah, Ulfah; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are asexual, obligately symbiotic fungi with unique morphology and genomic structure, which occupy a dual niche, that is, the soil and the host root. Consequently, the direct adoption of models for community assembly developed for other organism groups is not evident. In this paper we adapted modern coexistence and assembly theory to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We review research on the elements of community assembly and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, highlighting recent studies using molecular methods. By addressing several points from the individual to the community level where the application of modern community ecology terms runs into problems when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are concerned, we aim to account for these special circumstances from a mycocentric point of view. We suggest that hierarchical spatial structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities should be explicitly taken into account in future studies. The conceptual framework we develop here for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is also adaptable for other host-associated microbial communities.

  16. The geographical distribution of tremellaceous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysław Wojewoda

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The geographical distribution of the Polish tremellaceous fungi is discussed in this paper. The list of localities and the maps of the distribution of 60 Polish species (45 of Tremellales, 13 of Auriculariales and 2 of Septobasidiales are given. The author distinguishes several geographical elements, and describes the vertical distribution of these fungi. This paper is a supplement to "Fungi (Mycota", vol. 8, Polish Flora (Wojewoda 1977.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on fungi in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainal Abidin Mior Ahmad.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on fungi infecting rice stored in various packaging materials. The agar plate test method was used. It was observed that the percentage of fungi did not appear to decrease with the increase of irradiation up to 2 kGy and also no indication of any significant reduction in percentage of fungi isolated with increasing time of storage at all levels of radiation treatment. The majority of the fungi isolated were Aspergillus and Penicillium species. (A.J.)

  18. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    OpenAIRE

    E. Kusdiyantini; T. Yudiarti; V. D.Yunianto; R. Murwani

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung). The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two ...

  19. Detection of fungi colony growth on bones by dynamic speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincitorio, F. M.; Budini, N.; Mulone, C.; Spector, M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this work we have studied the dynamic speckle patterns of mucor fungi colonies, which were inoculated on different samples. We were interested in analyzing the development of fungi colonies in bones, since during the last two years, a series of infections by mucor fungi have been reported on patients from different hospitals in Argentina. Coincidentally, all of these infections appeared on patients that were subjected to a surgical intervention for implantation of a titanium prosthesis. Apparently, the reason of the infection was a deficient sterilization process in conjunction with an accidental contamination. We observed that fungi growth, activity and death can be distinguished by means of the dynamic speckle technique.

  20. Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antifungal activity and molecular identification of endophytic fungi from the angiosperm Rhodomyrtus tomentosa. Juthatip Jeenkeawpieam, Souwalak Phongpaichit, Vatcharin Rukachaisirikul, Jariya Sakayaroj ...

  1. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  2. Mysterious Mycorrhizae? A Field Trip & Classroom Experiment to Demystify the Symbioses Formed between Plants & Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nancy C.; Chaudhary, V. Bala; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Moore, John C.; Pringle, Anne; Umbanhowar, James A.; Wilson, Gail W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Biology curricula cover fungi in units on bacteria, protists, and primitive plants, but fungi are more closely related to animals than to bacteria or plants. Like animals, fungi are heterotrophs and cannot create their own food; but, like plants, fungi have cell walls, and are for the most part immobile. Most species of fungi have a filamentous…

  3. Current perspectives on mitochondrial inheritance in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Jianping Xu,1,2 He Li2 1Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; 2The Key Laboratory for Non-Wood Forest Cultivation and Conservation of the Federal Ministry of Education, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The mitochondrion is an essential organelle of eukaryotes, generating the universal energy currency, adenosine triphosphate, through oxidative phosphorylation. However, aside from generation of adenosine triphosphate, mitochondria have also been found to impact a diversity of cellular functions and organ system health in humans and other eukaryotes. Thus, inheriting and maintaining functional mitochondria are essential for cell health. Due to the relative ease of conducting genetic and molecular biological experiments using fungi, they (especially the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been used as model organisms for investigating the patterns of inheritance and intracellular dynamics of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA. Indeed, the diversity of mitochondrial inheritance patterns in fungi has contributed to our broad understanding of the genetic, cellular, and molecular controls of mitochondrial inheritance and their evolutionary implications. In this review, we briefly summarize the patterns of mitochondrial inheritance in fungi, describe the genes and processes involved in controlling uniparental mitochondrial DNA inheritance in sexual crosses in basidiomycete yeasts, and provide an overview of the molecular and cellular processes governing mitochondrial inheritance during asexual budding in S. cerevisiae. Together, these studies reveal that complex regulatory networks and molecular processes are involved in ensuring the transmission of healthy mitochondria to the progeny. Keywords: uniparental inheritance, biparental inheritance, mating type, actin cable, mitochore, mitochondrial partition 

  4. Commensal Fungi in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Jose J; Skalski, Joseph H; Underhill, David M

    2017-08-09

    Fungi are increasingly being recognized as common members of the microbiomes found on nearly all mucosal surfaces, and interest is growing in understanding how these organisms may contribute to health and disease. In this review, we investigate recent developments in our understanding of the fungal microbiota or "mycobiota" including challenges faced in characterizing it, where these organisms are found, their diversity, and how they interact with host immunity. Growing evidence indicates that, like the bacterial microbiota, the fungal microbiota is often altered in disease states, and increasingly studies are being designed to probe the functional consequences of such fungal dysbiosis on health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel fungi from an ancient niche: lachnoid and chalara-like fungi on ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guatimosim, E.; Schwartsburd, P. B.; Crous, P. W.; Barreto, R. W.

    2016-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Brazil to collect fungi on ferns. Based on morphology and inferred phylogeny from DNA sequences of two loci, namely the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (LSU), several species belonging to chalara-like genera and

  6. Calcium homeostasis and signaling in fungi and their relevance for pathogenicity of yeasts and filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tisi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Though fungi show peculiarities in the purposes and specific traits of calcium signaling pathways, the general scheme and the most important players are well conserved if compared to higher eukaryotes. This provides a powerful opportunity either to investigate shared features using yeast as a model or to exploit fungal specificities as potential targets for antifungal therapies. The sequenced genomes from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa were already published more than ten years ago. More recently the genome sequences of filamentous fungi of Aspergillus genus, some of which threatening pathogens, and dimorphic fungi Ustilago maydis were published, giving the chance to identify several proteins involved in calcium signaling based on their homology to yeast or mammalian counterparts. Nonetheless, unidentified calcium transporters are still present in these organisms which await to be molecularly characterized. Despite the relative simplicity in yeast calcium machinery and the availability of sophisticated molecular tools, in the last years, a number of new actors have been identified, albeit not yet fully characterized. This review will try to describe the state of the art in calcium channels and calcium signaling knowledge in yeast, with particular attention to the relevance of this knowledge with respect to pathological fungi.

  7. Skin Fungi from Colonization to Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Sybren; Monod, Michel; Dawson, Tom; Boekhout, Teun; Mayser, Peter; Gräser, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system. In a response-damage framework, all fungi are potentially able to cause disease, as a balance between their natural predilection and the immune status of the host. For this reason, we will not attribute a fixed ecological term to each species, but rather describe them as growing in a commensal state (A) or in a pathogenic state (B).

  8. Protease Production by Different Thermophilic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchione, Mariana M.; Merheb, Carolina W.; Gomes, Eleni; da Silva, Roberto

    A comparative study was carried out to evaluate protease production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) and submerged fermentation (SmF) by nine different thermophilic fungi — Thermoascus aurantiacus Miehe, Thermomyces lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus flavus 1.2, Aspergillus sp. 13.33, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, Rhizomucor pusillus 13.36 and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37 — using substrates containing proteins to induce enzyme secretion. Soybean extract (soybean milk), soybean flour, milk powder, rice, and wheat bran were tested. The most satisfactory results were obtained when using wheat bran in SSF. The fungi that stood out in SSF were T. lanuginosus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, Aspergillus sp. 13.34, Aspergillus sp. 13.35, and Rhizomucor sp. 13.37, and those in SmF were T. aurantiacus, T. lanuginosus TO.03, and 13.37. In both fermentation systems, A. flavus 1.2 and R. pusillus 13.36 presented the lowest levels of proteolytic activity.

  9. Linking plants, fungi and soil mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Anil; Graf, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Plants provide important functions in respect soil strength and are increasingly considered for slope stabilisation within eco-engineering methods, particularly to prevent superficial soil failure. The protective functions include hydrological regulation through interception and evapo-transpiration as well as mechanical stabilisation through root reinforcement and, to a certain extent, chemical stabilisation through sticky metabolites. The ever-growing application of plants in slope stabilisation demanded more precise information of the vegetation effects and, concomitant, led the models for quantifying the reinforcement shoot up like mushrooms. However, so far, the framework and interrelationships for both the role of plants and the quantification concepts have not been thoroughly analysed and comprehensively considered, respectively, often resulting in unsatisfactory results. Although it seems obvious and is implicitly presupposed that the plant specific functions related to slope stability require growth and development, this is anything but given, particularly under the often hostile conditions dominating on bare and steep slopes. There, the superficial soil layer is often characterised by a lack of fines and missing medium-sized and fine pores due to an unstable soil matrix, predominantly formed by coarse grains. Low water retention capacity and substantial leaching of nutrients are the adverse consequences. Given this general set-up, sustainable plant growth and, particularly, root development is virtually unachievable. At exactly this point mycorrhizal fungi, the symbiotic partners of almost all plants used in eco-engineering, come into play. Though, they are probably well-known within the eco-engineering community, mycorrhizal fungi lead a humble existence. This is in spite of the fact that they supply their hosts with water and nutrients, improving the plant's ability to master otherwise unbridgeable environmental conditions. However, in order to support

  10. Hijacked: Co-option of host behavior by entomophthoralean fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 700 species of fungi are known to infect and cause disease in insects and other arthropods. The majority of insect pathogenic fungi are classified in the phyla Entomophthoromycotina and Ascomycotina, and many are ecologically important in regulating insect populations. To summarize fungal-inse...

  11. Evolution of uni- and bifactorial sexual compatibility systems in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, B.P.S.; Billiard, S.; Vuilleumier, S.; Petit, E.; Hood, M.E.; Giraud, T.

    2013-01-01

    Mating systems, that is, whether organisms give rise to progeny by selfing, inbreeding or outcrossing, strongly affect important ecological and evolutionary processes. Large variations in mating systems exist in fungi, allowing the study of their origin and consequences. In fungi, sexual

  12. Biochemical changes induced by five pathogenic fungi on seeds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different biochemical analysis were carried out to determine the changes induced by some fungi inoculated on Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed for 14days. The inoculated fungi are Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Aspergillus flavus Link Ex fr, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht, Penicillium chrysogenum Thom and Penicillium ...

  13. Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with post-harvest deterioration of dried Clarias gariepinus vended in some ... Journal of Aquatic Sciences ... Results revealed that fish samples from okpokpo market contained highest number (10) of fungal isolates while samples from Afaha ... Key Words: Mycoflora, isolation, fungi, Fusarium, C. gariepinus ...

  14. Role of live autochthonous fungi in removing toxic metals from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... The fungi isolated from the tannery and textile effluents. S/N. List of fungi ... The experiment was set up in a completely randomized design. (Steel and Torrie, 1980). ..... Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy ...

  15. Fungi in Porites lutea: Association with healthy and diseased corals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, J.; Raghukumar, C.; Raghukumar, S.

    It is found that fungi to occur regularly in healthy, partially dead, bleached and pink-line syndrome (PLS)-affected scleractinian coral, Porites lutea, in the reefs of Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea. Mostly terrestrial species of fungi were isolated...

  16. Elucidating the nutritional dynamics of fungi using stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan R. Mayor; Edward A.G. Schuur; Terry W. Henkel

    2009-01-01

    Mycorrhizal and saprotrophic (SAP) fungi are essential to terrestrial element cycling due to their uptake of mineral nutrients and decomposition of detritus. Linking these ecological roles to specific fungi is necessary to improve our understanding of global nutrient cycling, fungal ecophysiology, and forest ecology. Using discriminant analyses of nitrogen and carbon...

  17. Interaction between some fungi living on cereal seeding material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Łacicowa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The biotic relations were evaluated between saprophytic fungi genera Fusarium and Helmithosporium. Most of the saprophytic fungi restricted the development of Helmihthosporium sativum and H. triseptatum more than that of Fusarium nivale and F. avenaceum. Sordaria fimicola was the only fungus which restricted the growth of Helminthosporium sativum, H. triseptatum, Fusarium nivale and F. avenaceum.

  18. Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Latijnhouwers, M.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Govers, F.

    2003-01-01

    Fungi and Oomycetes are the two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens. Fungi form a separate kingdom and are evolutionarily related to animals. Oomycetes are classified in the kingdom Protoctista and are related to heterokont, biflagellate, golden-brown algae. Fundamental differences

  19. Annotated checklist of fungi in Cyprus Island. 1. Larger Basidiomycota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Torrejón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An annotated checklist of wild fungi living in Cyprus Island has been compiled broughting together all the information collected from the different works dealing with fungi in this area throughout the three centuries of mycology in Cyprus. This part contains 363 taxa of macroscopic Basidiomycota.

  20. Effect of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the protection of Uapaca kirkiana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigations carried out on the use of ectomycorhhizal fungi in the management of Uapaca kirkiana root diseases caused by three pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Phytophthora parasitica and Pseudomonas solani) revealed that different mycorrhizal fungi vary in their ability to protect roots against these respective ...

  1. Screening and assessment of laccase producing fungi isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... enzyme is found in many plant species and is widely distributed in fungi including wood-rotting fungi .... mat and weight of only filter paper represented biomass of fungal mat. ... substrate conversion/s) (Das et al., 1997).

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis of Genomic and Transcriptomic Variation in Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehrmann, T.

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are microorganisms whose astounding variety can be found in every conceivable ecosystem on the planet. Fungi are nutrient recyclers, playing an irreplaceable role in the carbon cycle. They grow on land and in the sea, on plants and animals and in the soil. They feed us as mushrooms, and drive

  3. [Keratinophilic fungi in soils of parks of Corrientes city, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, María Mercedes; Mangiaterra, Magdalena; Bojanich, María Viviana; Basualdo, Juan Ángel; Giusiano, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    The soil is a natural reservoir of keratinophilic fungi, which are a small but important group of filamentous fungi, some of which typically develop on keratinized tissues of living animals. There are numerous species of saprophytic fungi with recognized keratinophilic abilities, and several studies have been undertaken in order to link their presence to possible human disease. To know the biota of geophilic fungi in general and of keratinophilic fungi particularly in soils from two public parks. Soil samples from two public parks of Corrientes city, Argentina, were studied during two seasons, using the hook technique and serial dilutions for fungal isolation. Using the hook technique, 170 isolates were classified into 17 genera and 21 species, among which it is worth mentioning the presence of Microsporum canis. Shannon index for keratinophilic fungi in autumn was 2.27, and 1.92 in spring. By means of the serial dilutions technique, 278 fungi isolated were identified into 33 genera and 71 species. Shannon index in autumn was 3.9, and 3.5 in spring. The soils studied have particularly favorable conditions for the survival of pathogens and opportunistic geophilic fungi for humans and animals. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Rate Growth comparison of basidiomycetous fungi isolated in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rios, J. M.; Cruz Ramirez, M. G.; Cruz Madrid, L. C.; Medina Moreno, S. A.; Tellez-Jurado, A.; Mercado-Flores, Y.; Arana-Cuenca, A.

    2009-01-01

    Huejutla de Reyes is a place with a warm-humid climate and counts on an annual average temperature of 30 degree centigrade. We collected fungi that growth in wood or trees with the purpose of isolation this lignionolytic fungi in two seasons (one is spring, before raining station and another one in autumn, during raining station). (Author)

  5. Regulation and diversity of plant polysaccharide utilisation in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, E.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi obtain their nutrients by degrading dead or living plant material. Plant material consists of different cell wall and storage polysaccharides. Due to the complex structure and the variety of plant polysaccharides, filamentous fungi secrete a wide range of plant polysaccharide

  6. Freeze-drying of filamentous fungi and yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimize the freeze-drying protocol for fungi in general and for those genera that do not survive this preservation method, in particular. To this end, the influence of the cooling rate, the lyoprotectant and the drying process itself was examined. Since most fungi

  7. Utilization of fungi for biotreatment of raw wastewaters | Coulibaly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the detoxification rates seem to be dependent on media and culture conditions. The postreatement by anaerobic bioprocesses of effluents that have been pretreated with fungi can lead to higher biogas than the original effluents. In addition to the degradation of organic pollutants, fungi produce added-value ...

  8. What we know about arbuscular mycorhizal fungi and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mycorrhizal fungi are common soil microorganisms and are well known for their symbiotic association with the roots of host plants. The soil is a complex environment harbouring a wide diversity of microorganisms. The interaction between soil bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi has been shown in several studies to ...

  9. Use of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi for improved crop production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), endophytic fungi reputed for their ability to enhance P uptake can be used to alleviate P deficiencies and improve crop productivity. Although the technology has been used in developed countries, it has not been applied in crop production systems in Africa to any significant level. This is ...

  10. antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from conifers needles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ravnikar, Matjaž

    2015-03-11

    Mar 11, 2015 ... taxonomically place fungi producing ones to determined active metabolites. Seventy three strains of endophytic fungi were isolated ... great number of diverse bioactive compounds (Devaraju and Satish, 2010), which have been ... closed with a glass stopper. The extraction solvents utilized were methanol ...

  11. Proteomics of industrial fungi: trends and insights for biotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, J.M.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2011-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are widely known for their industrial applications, namely, the production of food-processing enzymes and metabolites such as antibiotics and organic acids. In the past decade, the full genome sequencing of filamentous fungi increased the potential to predict encoded proteins

  12. Dermatophytes and other pathogenic fungi from hospital staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospital staff apparel from protective gown, face- shields and hand gloves were tested for the presence of fungi. Examined samples were collected using the swab culture method. Results: Of a total of 110 swab samples of hospital staff apparel, 56 (51 %) showed fungi contamination including 31 (66 %) of 47 samples from ...

  13. The distribution of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, R; Mukerji, K G

    1990-01-01

    Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are widely distributed throughout the area studied including different altitudes ranging from sea level to 2500 ft above sea level. VAM fungi were recorded from 88% of the sites examined with Glomus fasciculatum and Glomus macrocarpum being the most commonly recorded. Mean species diversity was found to be maximum in the areas thickly vegetated and undisturbed.

  14. Fungi associated with base rot disease of aloe vera ( Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi associated with base rot disease of Aloe vera (syn. Aloe barbadensis) were investigated in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. Fungi and their percentage frequency were Aspergillus verocosa 28.03%, Fusarium oxysporium 24.24%, Plectosphaerella cucumerina 16.67%, Mammeria ehinobotryoides 15.91% and Torula ...

  15. Growth of fungi on volatile aromatic hydrocarbons: environmental technology perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenafeta Boldú, F.X.

    2002-01-01

    The present study aimed the better understanding of the catabolism of monoaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. This knowledge can be used to enhance the biodegradation of BTEX pollutants. Fungi with the capacity of using toluene as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated by enriching

  16. Decolorization of laundry effluent by filamentous fungi | Miranda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After selecting, the best fungi were subjected to an experimental design and evaluation of the production of the ligninolytics enzymes. Fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporum CCT 1999, Lentinula edodes CCT 4519 and Curvularia lunata UFPEDA 885 reduced 100% the color of the effluent during growth under agitation while ...

  17. Preliminary study of aquatic fungi biodiversity of Rooro and Orisa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodiversity of aquatic fungi were investigated in two rivers; Rooro and Orisa located at Omu- Aran and Olla in Kwara State, Nigeria. Water samples and decayed debris were collected at the mid and lower courses of the two rivers and analysed for fungi and physicochemical parameters. Identification was by microscopic ...

  18. Safety evaluation of filamentous fungi isolated from industrial doenjang koji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Hee; Jo, Eun Hye; Hong, Eun Jin; Kim, Kyung Min; Lee, Inhyung

    2014-10-01

    A few starters have been developed and used for doenjang fermentation but often without safety evaluation. Filamentous fungi were isolated from industrial doenjang koji, and their potential for mycotoxin production was evaluated. Two fungi were isolated; one was more dominantly present (90%). Both greenish (SNU-G) and whitish (SNU-W) fungi showed 97% and 95% internal transcribed spacer sequence identities to Aspergillus oryzae/flavus, respectively. However, the SmaI digestion pattern of their genomic DNA suggested that both belong to A. oryzae. Moreover, both fungi had morphological characteristics similar to that of A. oryzae. SNU-G and SNU-W did not form sclerotia, which is a typical characteristic of A. oryzae. Therefore, both fungi were identified to be A. oryzae. In aflatoxin gene cluster analysis, both fungi had norB-cypA genes similar to that of A. oryzae. Consistent with this, aflatoxins were not detected in SNU-G and SNU-W using ammonia vapor, TLC, and HPLC analyses. Both fungi seemed to have a whole cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) gene cluster based on PCR of the maoA, dmaT, and pks-nrps genes, which are key genes for CPA biosynthesis. However, CPA was not detected in TLC and HPLC analyses. Therefore, both fungi seem to be safe to use as doenjang koji starters and may be suitable fungal candidates for further development of starters for traditional doenjang fermentation.

  19. Forest management and the diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Glen R. Stanosz; Harold H. Burdsall

    1999-01-01

    Since the summer of 1996, a project has been underway at the University of Wisconsin-Madison,Dept. of Plant Pathology, to determine how different forest management regimes can affect the diversity of fungi found in northern hardwood forests. This report is an introduction to this project's goals, objectives and methods. A particular group of fungi, the wood-...

  20. The Utilization of Fungi and Their Products to Increase Livestock Production

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Zainuddin Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Fungi as part of eukaryotic organisms play an important role for livestock. Some fungi are detrimental because they cause animal diseases, and some fungi are beneficial because they can improve animal productivity. The use of fungi that benefit from starting he has done as agents of biological control and to be as probiotics.Within the fungi, the use of simple technologies to high level degree for the benefit of cattle is developed. This paper describes some fungi that are beneficial and dire...

  1. Black yeast-like fungi in skin and nail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D M; Tarazooie, B; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Black yeast-like fungi are rarely reported from superficial infections. We noticed a consistent prevalence of these organisms as single isolations from mycological routine specimens. To investigate the prevalence of black yeast-like fungi in skin, hair and nail specimens and to discuss...... the probability of these species to be involved in disease. Slow-growing black yeast-like fungi in routine specimens were prospectively collected and identified. A questionnaire regarding patient information was sent to physicians regarding black yeast-like fungus positive patients. A total of 20 746...... dermatological specimens were examined by culture. Black yeast-like fungi accounted for 2.2% (n = 108) of the positive cultures. Only 31.0% of the samples, culture positive for black yeast-like fungi were direct microscopy positive when compared with overall 68.8% of the culture positive specimens. The most...

  2. Fungi in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančević Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and protection of fungi have lately been considered as extremely important elements of the environmental conservation, and numerous environmental, scientific, medical, economic, cultural, ethical, and other reasons for such attitude exist today. This paper presents an overview of official regulations on the protection of fungi in the Republic of Serbia from the Act of Protection of 1991 until today. The paper lists and analyses the good and bad provisions of individual legal regulations. It registers the effects of the adopted regulations on the actual efficiency of protection of endangered species of fungi (macrofungi, mushrooms, and considers the impact of chronological development of legislation on the population of fungi in nature, and presents general measures to improve protection of mushrooms in the future. These measures primarily include reliable information and study of fungi as a basis for their effective protection based on scientific knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-179079

  3. Fungi associated with free-living soil nematodes in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabörklü Salih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Free-living soil nematodes have successfully adapted world-wide to nearly all soil types from the highest to the lowest of elevations. In the current study, nematodes were isolated from soil samples and fungi associated with these free-living soil nematodes were determined. Large subunit (LSU rDNAs of nematode-associated fungi were amplified and sequenced to construct phylogenetic trees. Nematode-associated fungi were observed in six nematode strains belonging to Acrobeloides, Steinernema and Cephalobus genera in different habitats. Malassezia and Cladosporium fungal strains indicated an association with Acrobeloides and Cephalobus nematodes, while Alternaria strains demonstrated an association with the Steinernema strain. Interactions between fungi and free-living nematodes in soil are discussed. We suggest that nematodes act as vectors for fungi.

  4. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  5. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  6. SENSITIVITY OF THE CUMIN SEEDS ASSOCIATED FUNGI TO GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOTROS, H.W.; HELAL, I.M.; EL TOBGY, K.M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the sensitivity of fungi associated to cumin seeds for gamma radiation. In this regard, the isolated seed associated fungi from the cumin seeds were fifteen fungal species belonging to five genera. The fungal species concerning, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporium and Aspergillus flavus were the predominant fungi in percentages of 17.8, 15.83 and 12.78 %, respectively. Aspergillus ochraceus was the most effective prevalent fungi on the seed germination causing highest percentage of seed invasion followed by Fusarium oxysporium and Aspergillus flavus. The amylolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic activity and mycotoxin production of the three predominant fungi were negatively influenced by gamma radiation when exposed to doses of 1.0 , 1.5 , 2.5 , 3.5 , 5.0 and 7.5 kGy a behaviour which was parallel to the inhibition in the amount of growth by gamma irradiation

  7. [Indiscriminate use of Latin name for natural Cordyceps sinensis insect-fungi complex and multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi-Sang; Zhu, Jia-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Natural Cordyceps sinensis(Dongchongxiacao) is an insect-fungi complex containing multiple Ophiocordyceps sinensis(≡Cordyceps sinensis) fungi and dead body of larva of the family of Hepialidae. But natural C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi use the same Latin name, resulting in uncertainty of the specific meaning, even disturbing the formulation and implementation of governmental policies and regulations, and influencing consumer psychology onthe market. This paper reviews the history and current status of the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O. sinensis for both the natural insect-fungi complex C. sinensis and O. sinensis fungi and lists the rename suggetions. Some scholars suggested using the term O. sinensis for the fungi and renaming the natural C. sinensis "Chinese cordyceps". Others suggested renaming the natural C. sinensis "Ophiocordyceps & Hepialidae". Both suggestions have not reached general consensus due to various academic concerns. This paper also reviews the exacerbation of the academic uncertainties when forcing implementing the 2011 Amsterdam Declaration "One Fungus=One Name" under the academic debate. Joint efforts of mycological, zoological and botany-TCM taxonomists and properly initiating the dispute systems offered by International Mycology Association may solve the debate on the indiscriminate use of the Latin name O.sinensis for the natural insect-fungi complex,the teleomorph and anamorph(s) of O. sinensis fungi. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. The Geomyces fungi: ecology and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is a devastating disease affecting hibernating bats, first documented in winter 2006 in eastern North America. Over 5.5 million bats of several species may have died as a result of this disease. The fungus Geomyces destructans is now considered the causal agent of WNS, and this species may have been recently introduced into North American bat hibernation habitats. This overview summarizes the ecology and distribution of Geomyces fungi. Species in this genus are common in the soils of temperate and high-latitude ecosystems and are capable of withstanding and thriving in cold, low-nutrient polar environments. These species are dispersed by wind, groundwater, arthropods, birds, and mammals and are carried by humans, their clothing, and their equipment. These characteristics present significant challenges to biologists, managers, and others charged with controlling the spread of WNS and G. destructans in other parts of North America and the biosphere.

  9. Deep-sea fungi: Occurrence and adaptations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damare, S.R.

    ) Digitatispora marina n.g., n.sp., Basidiomycet marin. C. R. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci., 254: 4336-8. Domsch KH, Gams W, Anderson TH (1980) Compendium of Soil Fungi. Academic Press, London . Durieu de Maisonneuve C, Montagne JFC (1869) Pyrenomycetes... and the absorbance was read at 260 nm. y = 0.0076x + 0.1259 R 2 = 0.9972 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 2040608010120 DNA concentration µg mL -1 A b so r b an c e 2 60 n m A-5 A – III. Protocol for the intracellular...

  10. Distribution of some lichenicolous fungi in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Czyżewska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen species of lichenicolous fungi collected in 129 localities in Poland in the years 1968 and 1970-2003 are reported in the paper. They are as follows: Athelia arachnoidea (Berk. Jülich, Tremella cladoniae Diederich et M.S. Chrst., T. hypogymniae Diederich et M.S. Chris., T. lichecola Diederich, Clypeococcum hypocenomycis D. Hawksw., Polycoccum superficiale D. Hawksw. et Miądlikowska, Nectria lecanodes Ces., Pronectria erythrinella (Nyl. Lowen, Cortocifraga fuckelii (Rehm D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., C. peltigerae (Nyl. D. Hawksw. et R. Sant., Libertiella malmedyensis Speg. et Roum., Lichenoconium erodens M.S. Christ. et D. Hawksw., L. lecanorae (Jaap D. Hawksw., L. pyxidatae (Oudem. Petrak et Sydow, Vouauxiella lichenicola (Lindsay Petrak et Sydow, Bispora christiansenii D. Hawksw., Illosporium carneum Fr., Karsteniomyces peltigerae (P. Karst. D. Hawksw. and Taeniolella beschiana Diederich.

  11. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    ), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni), is a major environmental concern. This work is part of the project ASHBACK (www.ashback.dk) which addresses the potentials and possible problems in re-distributing wood ash to the forest. The aim of this thesis was to determine the effects of biomass ash application...... in a Norway spruce forest where different amounts of wood ash were spread on the soil to study the effects on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, bioaccumulation of metals in sporocarps, and microbial communities. Laboratory microcosm experiments were run in parallel to the field studies, to compare the effects...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  12. Proposals to clarify and enhance the naming of fungi under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-three proposals to modify the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants adopted in 2011 with respect to the provisions for fungi are made, in accordance with the wishes of mycologists expressed at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in 2014, and with the support of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF), the votes of which are presented here. The proposals relate to: conditions for epitypification, registration of later typifications, protected lists of names, removal of exemptions for lichen-forming fungi, provision of a diagnosis when describing a new taxon, citation of sanctioned names, avoiding homonyms in other kingdoms, ending preference for sexually typified names, and treatment of conspecific names with the same epithet. These proposals are also being published in Taxon, will be considered by the Nomenclature Committee for Fungi and General Committee on Nomenclature, and voted on at the 19(th) International Botanical Congress in Shenzhen, China, in 2017.

  13. Fungi spores dimension matters in health effects: a methodology for more detail fungi exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Health effects resulting from dust inhalation in occupational environments may be more strongly associated with specific microbial components, such as fungi, than to the particles. The aim of the present study is to characterize the occupational exposure to the fungal burden in four different occupational settings (two feed industries, one poultry and one waste sorting industry), presenting results from two air sampling methods – the impinger collector and the use of filters. In addition, ...

  14. Entomopathogens Isolated from Invasive Ants and Tests of Their Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Miori de Zarzuela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some ant species cause severe ecological and health impact in urban areas. Many attempts have been tested to control such species, although they do not always succeed. Biological control is an alternative to chemical control and has gained great prominence in research, and fungi and nematodes are among the successful organisms controlling insects. This study aimed to clarify some questions regarding the biological control of ants. Invasive ant species in Brazil had their nests evaluated for the presence of entomopathogens. Isolated entomopathogens were later applied in colonies of Monomorium floricola under laboratory conditions to evaluate their effectiveness and the behavior of the ant colonies after treatment. The entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp. and the fungi Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Paecilomyces sp. were isolated from the invasive ant nests. M. floricola colonies treated with Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis sp. showed a higher mortality of workers than control. The fungus Beauveria bassiana caused higher mortality of M. floricola workers. However, no colony reduction or elimination was observed in any treatment. The defensive behaviors of ants, such as grooming behavior and colony budding, must be considered when using fungi and nematodes for biological control of ants.

  15. Extracellular oxidative metabolism of wood decay fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel Cullen

    2010-04-21

    Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the fundamental physiology and genetics of wood decay fungi, microbes that are capable of degrading all major components of plant cell walls. Efficient utilization of lignocellulosic biomass has been hampered in part by limitations in our understanding of enzymatic mechanisms of plant cell wall degradation. This is particularly true of woody substrates where accessibility and high lignin content substantially complicate enzymatic 'deconstruction'. The interdisciplinary research has illuminated enzymatic mechanisms essential for the conversion of lignocellulosics to simple carbohydrates and other small molecular weight products. Progress was in large part dependent on substantial collaborations with the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute (JGI) in Walnut Creek and Los Alamos, as well as the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile, the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin and the Forest Products Laboratory. Early accomplishments focused on the development of experimental tools (2, 7, 22, 24-26, 32) and characterization of individual genes and enzymes (1, 3-5, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 27, 33). In 2004, the genome of the most intensively studied lignin-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was published (21). This milestone lead to additional progress on this important model system (6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 28-31) and was further complemented by genome analysis of other important cellulose-degrading fungi (19, 20). These accomplishments have been highly cited and have paved the way for whole new research areas.

  16. Natural Protection of Wood with Antagonism Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba ZAREMSKI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological environments contain a certain number of microbial populations which, within a givenecological niche, display various relations ranging from symbiosis to parasitism. Researchers have beeninterested in these types of relations for around fifty years, especially in one very particular type ofrelationship: the antagonism exerted between individuals of the same microbial population.Today, the role played by biological agents, bringing into play inhibitive or destructive antibioticsubstances, reveals a certain potential for their use in controlling microorganisms associated with suchdegradation processes.The work undertaken by HydroQuébec and CIRAD involved two types of experiment: 1 in Petri dishes toassess and characterize the antagonistic capacity of Trichoderma against white rot and brown rot fungi; 2on pieces taken from untreated poles in order to study confrontation between the basidiomycete and theantagonistic strain in wood.This study investigated the antagonism of three ascomycetes of the genus Trichoderma against two whiterot basidiomycetes, Pycnoporus sanguineus and Coriolus versicolor, and two brown rot basidiomycetes,Antrodia sp. and Coniophora puteana, through direct confrontation in Petri dishes and in the wood ofHydroQuébec poles.The results obtained seemed to complete each other coherently. They revealed that the Trichodermagroup of fungi was not aggressive to wood and the results obtained after direct confrontation in Petri disheswere confirmed in wood.By directly exposing the different basidiomycetes and antagonists to each other in Petri dishes, two bytwo, we effectively revealed an antagonism effect for a large majority of the pairs. However, there wassubstantial variability in reactions from one pair to the next.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borisade, OA. Vol 23, No 2 (2015) - Articles Rearing tomato whitefly and field evaluation of modified and unmodified conidia of Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Metarhizium anisopliae and low rates of Chlorpyrifos under tropical conditions. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2072-6589. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  18. CATALASE FROM A FUNGAL MICROBIAL PESTICIDE INDUCES A UNIQUE IGE RESPONSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BALB/c mice exposed by involuntary aspiration to Metarhizium anisopliae extract (MACA), a microbial pesticide, have shown responses characteristic of human allergic lung disease/asthma. IgE-binding proteins have been identified in MACA by Western blot analysis, 2-dimensio...

  19. Toxicity of the insect growth regulator lufenuron on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metarhizium anisopliae has been considered a promising alternative with low environmental impacts for the biological control of a variety of insect-pests. Another alternative is the use of biological pesticides such as insect growth regulators, including lufenuron. An assessment of the potential impact of fungicides on M.

  20. Effects of fungal infection on feeding and survival of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) on plant sugars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondiaka, S.N.; Masinde, E.W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Takken, W.; Mukabana, W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae shows great promise for the control of adult malaria vectors. A promising strategy for infection of mosquitoes is supplying the fungus at plant feeding sites. Methods We evaluated the survival of fungus-exposed Anopheles gambiae