WorldWideScience

Sample records for fungal species chrysosporium

  1. A series of Xerophilic Chrysosporium species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1992-01-01

    Xerophilic Chrysosporium species related to C. farinicola were often isolated from uneaten provisions (pollen-and-nectar mixture) of mason bees (Osmia spp.). The fungi have an optimal growth rate on media which are 2 to 3 molar in regard to glucose, exhibit some growth up to 3.6 molar glucose, an......, and initiate a new increased growth rate when the glucose crystallizes out from these supersaturated media. Seven of these species and three varieties are described and separated into a Farinicola series of Chrysosporium species....

  2. Dermatomycosis in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by a Chrysosporium species related to Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Martorell, J; Castellá, G; Ramis, A; Cabañes, F J

    2009-08-01

    A Chrysosporium sp. related to Nannizziopsis vriesii was isolated in pure culture from squames and biopsies of facial lesions in a pet inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) in Spain. The presence in histological sections of morphologically consistent fungal elements strongly incriminates this fungus as the aetiological agent of infection. Lesions regressed following treatment with oral ketoconazole and topical chlorhexidine and terbinafine until the lizard was lost to follow up 1 month later. The ITS-5.8S rRNA gene of the isolate was sequenced and a search on the GenBank database revealed a high match with the sequences of two Chrysosporium sp. strains recently isolated from green iguanas (Iguana iguana) with dermatomycosis, also in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences revealed that all these strains are related to N. vriesii. This is the first report of dermatomycoses caused by a Chrysosporium species related to N. vriesii in a bearded dragon outside North America.

  3. Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in captive coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R S P; Sangster, C R; Sigler, L; Hambleton, S; Paré, J A

    2011-12-01

    Deep fungal dermatitis caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) was diagnosed in a group of coastal bearded dragons (Pogona barbata). The outbreak extended over a 6-month period, with four of six lizards from the same zoological outdoor enclosure succumbing to infection. A fifth case of dermatomycosis was identified in a pet lizard originally sourced from the wild. Diagnosis of infection with the CANV was based on similar clinical signs and histopathology in all animals and confirmed by culture and sequencing of the fungus from one animal. This is the first report of the CANV causing disease in a terrestrial reptile species in Australia and the first in the coastal bearded dragon. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  4. Fungal pretreatment by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for enhancement of biogas production from corn stover silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Li, Xin; Wu, Shubiao; He, Jing; Pang, Changle; Deng, Yu; Dong, Renjie

    2014-11-01

    Corn stover silage (CSS) was pretreated by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid-state fermentation (SSF), to enhance methane production via subsequent anaerobic digestion (AD). Effects of washing of corn stover silage (WCSS) on the lignocellulosic biodegradability in the fungal pretreatment step and on methane production in the AD step were investigated with comparison to the CSS. It was found that P. chrysosporium had the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin of CSS up to 19.9, 32.4, and 22.6 %, respectively. Consequently, CSS pretreated by 25 days achieved the highest methane yield of 265.1 mL/g volatile solid (VS), which was 23.0 % higher than the untreated CSS. However, the degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in WCSS after 30 days of SSF increased to 45.9, 48.4, and 39.0 %, respectively. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses also demonstrated that the WCSS improved degradation of cell wall components during SSF. Correspondingly, the pretreatment of WCSS improved methane production by 19.6 to 32.6 %, as compared with untreated CSS. Hence, washing and reducing organic acids (such as lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid) present in CSS has been proven to further improve biodegradability in SSF and methane production in the AD step.

  5. [Keratinophilic fungal flora isolated from small wild mammals and rabbit-warren in France. Discussion on the fungal species found].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Guiguen, C; Couatarmanac'h, A; Launay, H; Reecht, V; de Bièvre, C

    1987-01-01

    The occurrence of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi was investigated in 237 small wild mammals and 125 european rabbit. The purpose of the investigation was to determine what were the species of fungi present in the these animals. Four species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton ajelloi, Trichophyton terrestre, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum persicolor. Trichophyton terrestre was the most frequently isolated and it occurred more frequently than its presence could be explained by the contamination from soil. Members of the genus Chrysosporium were found in many animals: Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Chrysosporium multifidum, Chrysosporium pannorum, Chrysosporium georgii, Chrysosporium merdarium, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma curreyi, Chrysosporium anamorph of Arthroderma cuniculi, Anixiopsis stercoraria, Chrysosporium parvum. Wild small mammals and european rabbits in France, not only act as carrier of keratinophilic fungi and allied dermatophytes but also provide a suitable habitat for their survival as saprophytes. The recurrence of numerous species present on the coat, isolated fort the first time in France was remarkable.

  6. Biodegradation of volatile organic compounds by five fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, B.; Moe, W.M. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kinney, K.A. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Five fungal species, Cladosporium resinae (ATCC 34066), Cladosporium sphaerospermum (ATCC 200384), Exophiala lecanii-corni (CBS 102400), Mucor rouxii (ATCC 44260), and Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725), were tested for their ability to degrade nine compounds commonly found in industrial off-gas emissions. Fungal cultures inoculated on ceramic support media were provided with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) via the vapor phase as their sole carbon and energy sources. Compounds tested included aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and styrene), ketones (methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and methyl propyl ketone), and organic acids (n-butyl acetate, ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate). Experiments were conducted using three pH values ranging from 3.5 to 6.5. Fungal ability to degrade each VOC was determined by observing the presence or absence of visible growth on the ceramic support medium during a 30-day test period. Results indicate that E. lecanii-corni and C. sphaerospermum can readily utilize each of the nine VOCs as a sole carbon and energy source. P. chrysosporium was able to degrade all VOCs tested except for styrene under the conditions imposed. C. resinae was able to degrade both organic acids, all of the ketones, and some of the aromatic compounds (ethylbenzene and toluene); however, it was not able to grow utilizing benzene or styrene under the conditions tested. With the VOCs tested, M. rouxii produced visible growth only when supplied with n-butyl acetate or ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate. Maximum growth for most fungi was observed at a pH of approximately 5.0. The experimental protocol utilized in these studies is a useful tool for assessing the ability of different fungal species to degrade gas-phase VOCs under conditions expected in a biofilter application. (orig.)

  7. Fungal biodegradation of lignopolystyrene graft copolymers. [Pleurotus ostreatus; Phanerochaete chrysosporium; Trametes versicolor; Gloeophyllum trabeum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstein, O.; Gersonde, R.; Huttermann, A. (Forstbotanisches Inst. der Univ. Gottingen (Germany)); MengJiu Chen; Meister, J.J (Univ. of Detroit Mercy, MI (United States))

    1992-10-01

    White rot basidiomycetes were able to biodegrade styrene (1-phenylethene) graft copolymers of lignin containing different proportions of lignin and polystyrene (poly(1-phenylethylene)). The biodegradation tests were run on lignin-styrene copolymerization products which contained 10.3, 32.2, and 50.4{percent} (wt/wt) lignin. The polymer samples were incubated with the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Trametes versicolor and the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. White rot fungi degraded the plastic samples at a rate which increased with increasing lignin content in the copolymer sample. Both polystyrene and lignin components of the copolymer were readily degraded. Polystyrene pellets were not degradable in these tests. Degradation was verified for both incubated and control samples by weight loss, quantitative UV spectrophotometric analysis of both lignin and styrene residues, scanning electron microscopy of the plastic surface, and the presence of enzymes active in degradation during incubation. Brown rot fungus did not affect any of the plastics. White rot fungi produced and secreted oxidative enzymes associated with lignin degradation in liquid media during incubation with lignin-polystyrene copolymer.

  8. Deep fungal dermatitis in three inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Michelle R; Paré, Jean A; Sigler, Lynne; Naeser, John P; Sladky, Kurt K; Hanley, Chris S; Helmer, Peter; Phillips, Lynette A; Brower, Alexandra; Porter, Robert

    2007-06-01

    The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV), a keratinophilic fungus that naturally and experimentally causes severe and often fatal dermatitis in multiple reptile species, was isolated in pure culture from skin samples of three inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) with deep granulomatous dermatomycosis. The first animal presented with a focal maxillary swelling involving the skin and gingiva. This lizard died while undergoing itraconazole and topical miconazole therapy. The second presented with focally extensive discoloration and thickening of the skin of the ventrum and was euthanized after 10 weeks of itraconazole therapy. A third lizard presented with hyperkeratotic exudative dermatitis on a markedly swollen forelimb. Amputation and itraconazole therapy resulted in a clinical cure. Histopathology of tissue biopsies in all cases demonstrated granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional hyphae morphologically consistent with those produced by the CANV. The second lizard also had granulomatous hepatitis with intralesional hyphae. Evidence in this report suggests that the CANV is the etiologic agent of an emerging condition in captive bearded dragons that has been called 'yellow fungus disease'.

  9. Enhanced oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts produced during interspecific fungal interaction of Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbo Qian; Baoliang Chen

    2012-01-01

    The effects of interspecific fungal interactions between Trametes versicolor and Phanerochaete chrysosporium on laccase activity and enzymatic oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated.A deadlock between the two mycelia rather than replacement of one fungus by another was observed on an agar medium.The laccase activity in crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached a maximum after a 5-day incubation,which was significantly higher than that from regions of T.versicolor or P.chrysosporium alone.The enhanced induction of laccase activity lasted longer in half nutrition than in normal nutrition.A higher potential to oxidize benzo[a]pyrene by a crude enzyme preparation extracted from the interaction zones was demonstrated.After a 48 hr incubation period,the oxidation of benzo[a]pyrene by crude enzyme extracts from interaction zones reached 26.2%,while only 9.5% of benzo[a]pyrene was oxidized by crude extracts from T.versicolor.The oxidation was promoted by the co-oxidant 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate diammonium salt (ABTS).These findings indicate that the application of co-culturing of white-rot fungi in bioremediation is a potential ameliorating technique for the restoration of PAH-contaminated soil.

  10. Relationship between lignin degradation and production of reduced oxygen species by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faison, B.D.; Kirk, T.K.

    1983-11-01

    The relationship between the production of reduced oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/), superoxide (O/sub 2//sup -/), and hydroxyl radical (.OH), and the oxidation of synthetic lignin to CO/sub 2/ was studied in whole cultures of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. The kinetics of the synthesis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ coincided with the appearance of the ligninolytic system; also, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production was markedly enhanced by growth under 100% O/sub 2/, mimicing the increase in ligninolytic activity characteristic of cultures grown under elevated oxygen tension. Lignin degradation by whole cultures was inhibited by a specific H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ scavenger, catalase, implying a role for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in the degradative process. Superoxide dismutase also inhibited lignin degradation, suggesting that O/sub 2//sup -/ is also involved in the breakdown of lignin. The production of .OH was assayed in whole cultures by a benzoate decarboxylation assay. Neither the kinetics of .OH synthesis nor the final activity of its producing system obtained under 100% O/sub 2/ correlated with that of the lignin-degrading system. However, lignin degradation was inhibited by compounds which react with .OH. It is concluded that H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, and perhaps O/sub 2//sup -/, are involved in lignin degradation; because these species are relatively unreactive per se, their role must be indirect. Conclusions about a role for .OH in ligninolysis could not be reached. (Refs. 28).

  11. Evaluation of Potential Fungal Species for the in situ Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF of Cellulosic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeuwen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three fungal species were evaluated for their abilities to saccharify pure cellulose. The three species chosen represented three major wood-rot molds; brown rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum, white rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium and soft rot (Trichoderma reesei. After solid state fermentation of the fungi on the filter paper for four days, the saccharified cellulose was then fermented to ethanol by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efficiency of the fungal species in saccharifying the filter paper was compared against a low dose (25 FPU/g cellulose of a commercial cellulase. Total sugar, cellobiose and glucose were monitored during the fermentation period, along with ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid. Results indicated that the most efficient fungal species in saccharifying the filter paper was T. reesei with 5.13 g/100 g filter paper of ethanol being produced at days 5, followed by P. chrysosporium at 1.79 g/100 g filter paper. No ethanol was detected for the filter paper treated with G. trabeum throughout the five day fermentation stage. Acetic acid was only produced in the sample treated with T. reesei and the commercial enzyme, with concentration 0.95 and 2.57 g/100 g filter paper, respectively at day 5. Lactic acid production was not detected for all the fungal treated filter paper after day 5. Our study indicated that there is potential in utilizing in situ enzymatic saccharification of biomass by using T. reesei and P. chrysosporium that may lead to an economical simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process for the production of fuel ethanol.

  12. EPICHLOE SPECIES: fungal symbionts of grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schardl, C L

    1996-01-01

    Epichloë species and their asexual descendants (Acremonium endophytes) are fungal symbionts of C3 grasses that span the symbiotic continuum from antagonism to mutualism depending on the relative importance, respectively, of horizontal transmission of sexual spores versus vertical clonal transmission in healthy grass seeds. At least seven sexual Epichloë species are identifiable by mating tests, and many asexual genotypes are interspecific hybrids. Benefits conferred by the symbionts on host plants include protection from biotic factors and abiotic stresses such as drought. Four classes of beneficial alkaloids are associated with the symbionts: ergot alkaloids, indolediterpenes (lolitrems), peramine, and saturated aminopyrrolizidines (lolines). These alkaloids protect host plants from insect and vertebrate herbivores, including livestock. Genetic engineering of the fungal symbionts as more suitable biological protectants for forage grasses requires identification of fungal genes for alkaloid biosynthesis, and DNA-mediated transformation of the fungi.

  13. Effects of selenium oxyanions on the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    KAUST Repository

    Espinosa-Ortiz, Erika J.

    2014-10-24

    The ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to reduce the oxidized forms of selenium, selenate and selenite, and their effects on the growth, substrate consumption rate, and pellet morphology of the fungus were assessed. The effect of different operational parameters (pH, glucose, and selenium concentration) on the response of P. chrysosporium to selenium oxyanions was explored as well. This fungal species showed a high sensitivity to selenium, particularly selenite, which inhibited the fungal growth and substrate consumption when supplied at 10 mg L−1 in the growth medium, whereas selenate did not have such a strong influence on the fungus. Biological removal of selenite was achieved under semi-acidic conditions (pH 4.5) with about 40 % removal efficiency, whereas less than 10 % selenium removal was achieved for incubations with selenate. P. chrysosporium was found to be a selenium-reducing organism, capable of synthesizing elemental selenium from selenite but not from selenate. Analysis with transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and a 3D reconstruction showed that elemental selenium was produced intracellularly as nanoparticles in the range of 30–400 nm. Furthermore, selenite influenced the pellet morphology of P. chrysosporium by reducing the size of the fungal pellets and inducing their compaction and smoothness.

  14. Chrysosporium zonatum, a new Keratinophilic fungus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Musallam, A.; Tan, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Chrysosporium zonatum, spec, nov., a keratinophilic and cellulolytic species, is described from horse dung in Kuwait. It was found in association with Microsporum gypseum (Bodin) Guiart & Grigorakis, both species colonizing horse hair.

  15. Effects of lignin modification on wheat straw cell wall deconstruction by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao; Singh, Deepak; Gao, Difeng; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    A key focus in sustainable biofuel research is to develop cost-effective and energy-saving approaches to increase saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass. Numerous efforts have been made to identify critical issues in cellulose hydrolysis. Aerobic fungal species are an integral part of the carbon cycle, equip the hydrolytic enzyme consortium, and provide a gateway for understanding the systematic degradation of lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose. This study attempts to reveal the complex biological degradation process of lignocellulosic biomass by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in order to provide new knowledge for the development of energy-efficient biorefineries. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a fungal biodegradation model, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, in wheat straw through comprehensive analysis. We isolated milled straw lignin and cellulase enzyme-treated lignin from fungal-spent wheat straw to determine structural integrity and cellulase absorption isotherms. The results indicated that P. chrysosporium increased the total lignin content in residual biomass and also increased the cellulase adsorption kinetics in the resulting lignin. The binding strength increased from 117.4 mL/g to 208.7 mL/g in milled wood lignin and from 65.3 mL/g to 102.4 mL/g in cellulase enzyme lignin. A detailed structural dissection showed a reduction in the syringyl lignin/guaiacyl lignin ratio and the hydroxycinnamate/lignin ratio as predominant changes in fungi-spent lignin by heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectroscopy. P. chrysosporium shows a preference for degradation of phenolic terminals without significantly destroying other lignin components to unzip carbohydrate polymers. This is an important step in fungal growth on wheat straw. The phenolics presumably locate at the terminal region of the lignin moiety and/or link with hemicellulose to form the lignin-carbohydrate complex. Findings may inform the development of a biomass hydrolytic enzyme

  16. Assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Efaq Ali; Al-Gheethi, A A; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Nagao, H; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media. Among all fungal isolates, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri 10.2 %, Aspergillus niger 9.5 %, Aspergillus fumigatus 8.8 %, Penicillium. simplicissium 8 %, Aspergillus tubingensis 7.3 %, Aspergillus terreus var. terreus 6.6 %, Penicillium waksmanii 5.9 % and Curvularia lunata 6.5 % were the most frequent. Among five sections of the Wellness Centre, the clinical wastes collected from the diagnostic labs of haematology section had the highest numbers of fungal species (29 species). Glove wastes had the highest numbers of fungal species (19 species) among 17 types of clinical wastes screened. Among all fungal species, Aspergillus spp. exhibited higher growth at 37 °C than at 28 °C, indicating the potential of these opportunistic fungi to cause diseases in human. These results indicated the potential of hospital wastes as reservoirs for fungal species.

  17. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  18. Ectomycorrhizal fungal richness declines towards the host species' range edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankau, Richard A; Keymer, Daniel P

    2016-07-01

    Plant range boundaries are generally considered to reflect abiotic conditions; however, a rise in negative or decline in positive species interactions at range margins may contribute to these stable boundaries. While evidence suggests that pollinator mutualisms may decline near range boundaries, little is known about other important plant mutualisms, including microbial root symbionts. Here, we used molecular methods to characterize root-associated fungal communities in populations of two related temperate tree species from across the species' range in the eastern United States. We found that ectomycorrhizal fungal richness on plant roots declined with distance from the centre of the host species range. These patterns were not evident in nonmycorrhizal fungal communities on roots nor in fungal communities in bulk soil. Climatic and soil chemical variables could not explain these biogeographic patterns, although these abiotic gradients affected other components of the bulk soil and rhizosphere fungal community. Depauperate ectomycorrhizal fungal communities may represent an underappreciated challenge to marginal tree populations, especially as rapid climate change pushes these populations outside their current climate niche.

  19. Heterologous expression of fungal cytochromes P450 (CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Functionalization with cytochrome b5 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Mayumi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Ichinose, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    Cytochromes P450 from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium, CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3, are capable of catalyzing oxygenation reactions of a wide variety of exogenous compounds, implying their significant roles in the metabolism of xenobiotics by the fungus. It is therefore interesting to explore their biochemistry to better understand fungal biology and to enable the use of fungal enzymes in the biotechnology sector. In the present study, we developed heterologous expression systems for CYP5136A1 and CYP5136A3 using the T7 RNA polymerase/promoter system in Escherichia coli. Expression levels of recombinant P450s were dramatically improved by modifications and optimization of their N-terminal amino acid sequences. A CYP5136A1 reaction system was reconstructed in E. coli whole cells by coexpression of CYP5136A1 and a redox partner, NADPH-dependent P450 reductase (CPR). The catalytic activity of CYP5136A1 was significantly increased when cytochrome b5 (Cyt-b5) was further coexpressed with CPR, indicating that Cyt-b5 supports electron transfer reactions from NAD(P)H to CYP5136A1. Notably, P450 reaction occurred in E. coli cells that harbored CYP5136A1 and Cyt-b5 but not CPR, implying that the reducing equivalents required for the P450 catalytic cycle were transferred via a CPR-independent pathway. Such an "alternative" electron transfer system in CYP5136A1 reaction was also demonstrated using purified enzymes in vitro. The fungal P450 reaction system may be associated with sophisticated electron transfer pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fungal conservation: Protected species of fungi in South Serbia region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiković, D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection and conservation of fungi has only recently became an issue of concern. Main motives for increased attention are uncontrolled, mass collecting of edible wild mushrooms and environmental pollution which leads to the rapid decline of their natural habitats, some of which are rich with rare and endangered species. By Serbian Nature Conservation Law 2010. there are 38 strictly protected fungal species of which 17 species are recorded in this paper. 11 of those recorded species are on European and/or National Red List of endangered fungal species. All investigated territories were in South Serbia region. This study is a contribution to conservation of protected and threatened fungi and their respective habitats in Serbia.

  1. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  2. Experimental soil warming at the treeline shifts fungal communities species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solly, Emily; Lindahl, Björn; Dawes, Melissa; Peter, Martina; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, fungi play a major role in decomposition processes, plant nutrient uptake and nutrient cycling. In high elevation ecosystems in Alpine and Arctic regions, the fungal community may be particularly sensitive to climate warming due to the removal of temperature limitation in the plant and soil system, faster nutrient cycling and changes in plant carbon allocation to maintain roots systems and sustain the rhizosphere. In our study, we estimated the effects of 9 years CO2 enrichment and three years of experimental soil warming on the community structure of fungal microorganisms in an alpine treeline ecosystem. In the Swiss Alps, we worked on a total of 40 plots, with c. 40-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus mugo ssp. uncinata trees (20 plots for each tree species). Half of the plots with each tree species were randomly assigned to an elevated CO2 treatment (ambient concentration +200 ppm), whereas the remaining plots received no supplementary CO2. Five individual plots for each combination of CO2 concentration and tree species were heated by an average of 4°C during the growing season with heating cables at the soil surface. At the treeline, the fungal diversity analyzed by high-throughput 454-sequencing of genetic markers, was generally low as compared to low altitude systems and mycorrhizal species made a particularly small contribution to the total fungal DNA. Soil warming led to a shift in the structure and composition of the fungal microbial community, with an increase of litter degraders and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We further observed changes in the productivity of specific fungal fruiting bodies (i.e. more Lactarius rufus sporocarps and less Hygrophorus lucorum sporocarps) during the course of the experiment, that were consistent with the 454-sequencing data. The warming effect was more pronounced in the Larix plots. These shifts were accompanied by an increased soil CO2 efflux (+40%), evidence of increased N availability and a

  3. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  4. Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial properties in vermicompost of water hyacinth as affected by pre-composting and fungal inoculation: a comparative study of ergosterol and chitin for estimating fungal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, P

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, three different fungal species, viz. Trichoderma viridae, Aspergillus niger and Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were inoculated in 7 day and 15 day partially decomposed water hyacinth to study their effect on enzymatic activities, microbial respiration and fungal biomass of the final stabilized product. The results suggested that increasing the duration of pre-composting from 7 days to 15 days did not show any significant effect on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes. Inoculation of fungi significantly (P vermicomposts. Inoculation of P. chrysosporium in initial organic waste registered the highest chitin content in vermicompost. A comparison of fungal biomass and chitin content revealed a conversion factor of 2.628 with a standard deviation of 0.318. Due to significant correlation (r = 0.864), this conversion factor allows for the calculation of fungal biomass from chitin, which is comparatively more stable than ergosterol.

  5. Molecular characterization of some lignicolous species from fungal culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture collections of microorganisms, including fungi, are strain deposits recognised as Biological Resource Centers (BRCs with a great importance in science, industry and education. Their objective is to preserve the purity, viability and genomic integrity of every single strain as a member of such collection. Since improvement of molecular methods nowadays brought many novel approaches in manipulation with strains of microorganisms, they can also be useful for characterization of existing stored strains. ITS1 region in nuclear DNA is preferred barcoding marker for taxon identification, which can be explained by its great inter-species variability. This paper presents results from analysing ITS1 region sequences (17 obtained from fungal DNA of culture collection of autochthonous, lignicolous genera Piptoporus, Pleurotus, Ganoderma and Schizophyllum cultured on malt agar plates for 14 days at 25°C. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool was used for comparison with online databases, while alignment of sequences was made with MEGA 5.10 software. Morphological determination of species or genus was confirmed for 13 cultures, while the others were disproved. The resulting alignment indicated small intra-species variability of ITS1 region and pointed to it as an ideal marker for verification of fungal culture collections' authenticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Vojvodina, Serbia APV 114-4513592/2013-03: Molecular and phenotypic diversity of taxa of economical and epidemiological importance, and endangered and endemic species in Europe

  6. Disseminated Chrysosporium infection in a German shepherd dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Chrysosporium spp. infection was diagnosed in a German shepherd dog based on a positive fungal culture and cytological findings of intralesional fungi associated with granulomatous splenitis and neutrophilic lymphadenitis. The clinical presentation that could mimic a multicentric lymphoma, including markedly enlarged lymph nodes and a very abnormal splenic appearance on ultrasound makes this case even more atypical. The patient showed rapid clinical improvement on oral posaconazole and remains clinically stable ten months after diagnosis.

  7. Pathogenicity of fungal species in aroid ( Colocasia and Xanthosoma rhizomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaurys Dávila Martínez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Among the diseases affecting aroids is rhizome rot caused by various pathogen fungi. These rots usually appear in poorly drained heavy soils with high organic matter content. These diseases appear more during the rainy season because it is a fungus complex living in the soil and is favored by high humidity. In order to know the virulence of different pathogens involved in this syndrome, cross-species inoculations were performed. Species of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Sclerotiun rolfsii Sacc were used in croos inoculations as they showed a higher percentage of appearance in the analyzed samples. The pathogenicity of the major fungal species was confirmed in Xanthosoma: S. rolfsii, F. sulphureum and F. chlamydosporum and in Colocasia: Phoma sp, Diplodia sp.and S. rolfsii. In the combined inoculations, Rhizoctonia solani showed synergism in the fungus Phoma sp in Xanthosoma and F. chlamydosporum in Colocasia and an antagonistic effect with the rest of the species. S. rolfsii showed synergism with all fungi in Colocasia except with Diplodia sp. and Phoma sp. while in Xanthosoma it showed antagonism with all species.

  8. Influence Of Chrysosporium Spp. In The Prevalence Of Dermatophytes in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Gokul S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty two soil samples were screened for the prevalence of Chrysosporium and dermatophytes. Out of the 75 positive samples 2 were M. gypseum and 73 were Chrysosporium spp.None of the soil samples yielded both Chrysosporium spp. and M. gypseum. The co- inoculation of Chrysosporium spp. with different species of dermatophytes (T. rubrum. T. Mentagrophytes. E. floccosum and M. gypseum in sterilized soil revealed that none of the dermatophytes except M. gypseum could be recovered after the 15th day of co- inoculation. Whereas, these organisms when inoculated alone in sterilized soil, could be recovered even upto 25 days. In the light of the above finding, we suggest that Chrysosporium spp. might pose a definite challenge to dermatophytes in their saprophytic existence in soil.

  9. EDXRF Analysis of Some Fungal Species for the Uptake Capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb Metal Ions From Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUNIL KUMAR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF analysis of eight fungi species, namely, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Trichoderma fasciculatum, Penicillin Janthinellum, Aspergillus awamori, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Rhizopus arrhizus for the uptake capacity of 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb metals ions from aqueous solution have been reported. Fungal samples having superior ion removal capacity through bioaccumulation and biosorption were obtained from sites contaminated with heavy metals. The detection limit in EDXRF set up was improved considerably using selective absorbers in the path of incident photons from the X-ray tube to reduce the background in the desired energy region. It has been observed that all fungi species under present study have greater affinity for 82Pb ions as compared to 28Ni and 48Cd metal ions. The Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Trichoderma fasciculatum fungi species were identified to be more efficient for removal of heavy metal ions from waste water. The measured uptake capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum for 28Ni, 48Cd, and 82Pb ions from aqueous solution is 0.52 mg/g, 0.97 mg/g, and 6.4 mg/g, respectively, and for Trichoderma fasciculatum it is 0.43 mg/g, 0.79 mg/g, and 3.5 mg/g, respectively. This indicated the potential of these identified fungi species as biosorbent for removal of high metal ions from waste water and industrial effluents.

  10. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, E.; Ruiz-Duenas, F.J.; Ferreira, P.; Floudas, D.; Hibbett, D.S.; Canessa, P.; Larrondo, L.F.; James, T.Y.; Seelenfreund, D.; Lobos, S.; Polanco, R.; Tello, M.; Honda, Y.; Watanabe, T.; Ryu, J.S.; Kubicek, C.P.; Schmoll, M.; Gaskell, J.; Hammel, K.E.; St John, F.J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, A.; Sabat, G.; Splinter BonDurant, S.; Syed, K.; Yadav, J.S.; Doddapaneni, H.; Subramanian, V.; Lavin, J.L.; Oguiza, J.A.; Perez, G.; Pisabarro, A.G.; Ramirez, L.; Santoyo, F.; Master, E.; Coutinho, P.M.; Henrissat, B.; Lombard, V.; Magnuson, J.K.; Kues, U.; Hori, C.; Igarashi, K.; Samejima, M.; Held, B.W.; Barry, K.W.; LaButti, K.M.; Lapidus, A.; Lindquist, E.A.; Lucas, S.M.; Riley, R.; Salamov, A.A.; Hoffmeister, D.; Schwenk, D.; Hadar, Y.; Yarden, O.; de Vries, R.P.; Wiebenga, A.; Stenlid, J.; Eastwood, D.; Grigoriev, I.V.; Berka, R.M.; Blanchette, R.A.; Kersten, P.; Martinez, A.T.; Vicuna, R.; Cullen, D.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do

  11. Cladosporium lebrasiae, a new fungal species isolated from milk bread rolls in France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Razafinarivo, Josiane; Jany, Jean-Luc; Crous, Pedro W.; Looten, Rachelle; Gaydou, Vincent; Barbier, Georges; Mounier, Jerôme; Vasseur, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The fungal genus Cladosporium (Cladosporiaceae, Dothideomycetes) is composed of a large number of species, which can roughly be divided into three main species complexes: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium herbarum, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The aim of this study was to characterize s

  12. Data on the fungal species consumed by mammal species in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuske, S J; Vernes, K; May, T W; Claridge, A W; Congdon, B C; Krockenberger, A; Abell, S E

    2017-06-01

    The data reported here support the manuscript Nuske et al. (2017) [1]. Searches were made for quantitative data on the occurrence of fungi within dietary studies of Australian mammal species. The original location reported in each study was used as the lowest grouping variable within the dataset. To standardise the data and compare dispersal events from populations of different mammal species that might overlap, data from locations were further pooled and averaged across sites if they occurred within 100 km of a random central point. Three locations in Australia contained data on several (>7) mycophagous mammals, all other locations had data on 1-3 mammal species. Within these three locations, the identity of the fungi species was compared between mammal species' diets. A list of all fungi species found in Australian mammalian diets is also provide along with the original reference and fungal synonym names.

  13. Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat.

  14. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of fungal biomass degradation is important for understanding the turnover of biological materials in nature and has important implications for industrial biomass conversion. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in elucidating the biological role of thermophilic fungi...... and in characterization of their industrially useful enzymes. In the present study we investigated the cellulolytic potential of 16 thermophilic fungi from the three ascomycete orders Sordariales, Eurotiales and Onygenales and from the zygomycete order Mucorales thus covering all fungal orders that include thermophiles....... Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45 ºC. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we...

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF SEQUENCE SPECIFIC PCR PRIMERS FOR DETECTION OF THE TOXIGENIC FUNGAL SPECIES STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nucleotide sequence of a 936 bp segment of the nuclear rRNA gene operon was determined for the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum and for other species of Stachybotrys and the related genus Memnoniella. This information was used to infer the phylogenitic relati...

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF PUTATIVE SEQUENCE SPECIFIC PCR PRIMERS FOR DETECTION OF THE TOXIGENIC FUNGAL SPECIES STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nucleotide sequence of a c 936 bp segment of the nuclear rRNA gene operon was determined for the toxigenic fungal species Stachybotrys chartarum and for other species of Stachbotrys and the related genus Memnoniella. This information was used to infer the phylogenetic relatio...

  17. Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium produces gibberellins and promotes plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayun, Muhammad; Khan, Sumera Afzal; Iqbal, Ilyas; Na, Chae-In; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hwang, Young-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Hyun; Lee, In-Jung

    2009-08-01

    We isolated 10 endophytic fungi from the roots of drought stressed soybean cultivar Hwangkeumkong and bioassayed on waito-c rice and soybean seedlings, in order to identify plant growth-promoting fungi. The fungal isolate D-2-1 provided the best result for plant height and biomass promotion as compared to wild type Gibberella fujikuroi. The D-2-1 culture filtrate (CF) was analyzed for the presence of gibberellins (GAs) and it was observed that all physiologically active GAs, especially gibberellic acid, were present in higher amounts (GA1, 0.24 ng/ml; GA3, 8.99 ng/ml; GA4, 2.58 ng/ml and GA7, 1.39 ng/ml) in conjunction with physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA15, GA19, and GA24. The fungal isolate D-2-1 was identified as a new strain of Chrysosporium pseudomerdarium through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Plant growth promotion and GAs production capacity of genus Chrysosporium have been reported for the first time in this study.

  18. Fungal species and multiple mycotoxin contamination of cultivated forage crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kononenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grass samples used for animal feed by combining mycotoxin measures and mycological determination of mycobiota were explored. The samples of the plant material were collected in 2014 in two stages: before the first mowing (May–June and before the second one (July–August from the fields of stock-farms located in northwestern part of the Russia. All samples were divided into three types: grasses, mixture of different grasses and clover, alfalfa mixed with timothy. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1, alternariol, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, emodin, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A, PR-toxin, roridin A, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone were determined using ELISA. The multiple fungal and mycotoxin contaminations are already formed in plant tissues by the moment of first mowing. The complexes of mycotoxins including up to 14–16 components and the combined character of plant contamination quite correspond to the taxonomic variety of mycobiota.

  19. Ecological constraints limit the fitness of fungal hybrids in the Heterobasidion annosum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbelotto, Matteo; Gonthier, Paolo; Nicolotti, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    The ability of two closely related species to maintain species boundaries in spite of retained interfertility between them is a documented driving force of speciation. Experimental evidence to support possible interspecific postzygotic isolation mechanisms for organisms belonging to the kingdom Fungi is still missing. Here we report on the outcome of a series of controlled comparative inoculation experiments of parental wild genotypes and F(1) hybrid genotypes between closely related and interfertile taxa within the Heterobasidion annosum fungal species complex. Results indicated that these fungal hybrids are not genetically unfit but can fare as well as parental genotypes when inoculated on substrates favorable to both parents. However, when placed in substrates favoring one of the parents, hybrids are less competitive than the parental genotypes specialized on that substrate. Furthermore, in some but not all fungus x plant combinations, a clear asymmetry in fitness was observed between hybrids carrying identical nuclear genomes but different cytoplasms. This work provides some of the first experimental evidence of ecologically driven postzygotic reinforcement of isolation between closely related fungal species characterized by marked host specificity. Host specialization is one of the most striking traits of a large number of symbiotic and parasitic fungi; thus, we suggest the ecological mechanism proven here to reinforce isolation among Heterobasidion spp. may be generally valid for host-specialized fungi. The validity of this generalization is supported by the low number of known fungal hybrids and by their distinctive feature of being found in substrates different from those colonized by parental species.

  20. Determination of fungal pathogens of common weed species in the vicinity of Tokat, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioğlu, I; Karamanli, N; Yanar, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the fungal pathogens on Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Delphinium consolida L., Portulaca oleracea L., Rumex crispus L., Solanum nigrum L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. which were common weed species of agricultural areas. Surveys were conducted in May-June and August-September in 2004-2005 growing seasons. During the surveys density and frequency of the above mentioned weed species were also determined and number of infected plants was counted in each sampling area. Infected weed samples were collected from each sampling point and brought to the laboratory in polyethylene bags and the pathogens were identified at genus or species level. As a result of two year surveys, ten fungal pathogens were determined on eight weed species. The most important fungal pathogens determined on common weed species were as follow; Peronospora farinosa (Fr.) Fr. on C. album, and Septoria convolvuli DC., Erysiphe convolvuli DC., and Puccinia punctiformis (Strauss) Roehrl. on C. arvensis. These fungal diseases were observed mainly on the weeds located at the borders of fields. Infection rates of these pathogens reached up to 21.2% in some of the survey areas. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy of these pathogen under in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  1. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Fueyo, Elena; Ruiz-Duenas, Francisco J.; Ferreira, Patrica; Floudas, Dimitrios; HIbbett, David S.; Canessa, Paulo; Larrondo, Luis F.; James, Tim Y.; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Lobos, Sergio; Polanco, Ruben; Tello, Mario; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takahito; Watanabe, Takashi; Ryu, Jae San; Kubicek, Christian P.; Schmoll, Monika; Gaskell, Jill; Hammel, Kenneth E.; John, Franz J.; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber; Sabat, Grzegorz; Splinter BonDurant, Sandra; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Yadav, Jagjit S.; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Lavin, Jose L.; Oguiza, Jose A.; Perez, Gumer; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramirez, Lucia; Santoyo, Francisco; Master, Emma; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Henrissat, Bernard; Lombard, Vincent; Magnuson, Jon Karl; Kues, Ursula; Hori, Chiaki; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro; Held, Benjamin W.; Barry, Kerrie W.; LaButti, Kurt M.; Lapidus, Alla; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan M.; Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf A.; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Schwenk, Daniel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Yarden, Oded; de Vries, Ronald P.; Wiebenga, Ad; Stenlid, Jan; Eastwood, Daniel; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Berka, Randy M.; Blanchette, Robert A.; Kersten, Phil; Martinez, Angel T.; Vicuna, Rafael; Cullen, Dan

    2011-12-06

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little cellulose degradation. To investigate the basis for selective ligninolysis, we conducted comparative genome analysis of C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium. Genes encoding manganese peroxidase numbered 13 and five in C. subvermispora and P. chrysosporium, respectively. In addition, the C. subvermispora genome contains at least seven genes predicted to encode laccases, whereas the P. chrysosporium genome contains none. We also observed expansion of the number of C. subvermispora desaturase-encoding genes putatively involved in lipid metabolism. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis showed substantial up-regulation of several desaturase and MnP genes in wood-containing medium. MS identified MnP proteins in C. subvermispora culture filtrates, but none in P. chrysosporium cultures. These results support the importance of MnP and a lignin degradation mechanism whereby cleavage of the dominant nonphenolic structures is mediated by lipid peroxidation products. Two C. subvermispora genes were predicted to encode peroxidases structurally similar to P. chrysosporium lignin peroxidase and, following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli, the enzymes were shown to oxidize high redox potential substrates, but not Mn2. Apart from oxidative lignin degradation, we also examined cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems in both fungi. In summary, the C. subvermispora genetic inventory and expression patterns exhibit increased oxidoreductase potential and diminished cellulolytic capability relative to P. chrysosporium.

  2. Survey of fungal infestation of some fish species from Tagwai dam, Minna, Niger State

    OpenAIRE

    Tsadu, S.M.; Ojutiku, R.O.; Ayanwale, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Survey of Fungal infestation of some species of fish in Tagwai Dam Minna was carried out from March to June 2002. Fungi were isolated from the scale/skin, gills and fins. Twenty-one fungi species were identified from 18 species of fish microbial growth was measured by direct cell count using Stuart colony counter. Most of the fungi encountered were of the mould group and infestation occurred among all the species sampled. The infestation was predominantly by Aspergillus species and the scale/...

  3. Importance of resolving fungal nomenclature: the case of multiple pathogenic species in the Cryptococcus genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptococcosis is a major fungal disease caused by members of the Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans species complexes. After more than 15 years of molecular genetic and phenotypic studies and much debate, a proposal for a taxonomic revision was made. The two varieties within C. neoform...

  4. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  5. Species richness, abundance and phenology of fungal fruit bodies over 21 years in a Swiss forest plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.; Ayer, F.; Egli, S.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal fruit bodies were surveyed on a plot area of 1500 m2 from 1975¿99 (excluding 1980¿83) in the fungal reserve La Chaneaz in western Switzerland. Fruit bodies were identified and counted on a weekly basis. Species richness and abundances varied strongly between years. More than 400 species were

  6. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  7. Biodegradation of polycyclic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are present in anthracene oil (a distillation product obtained from coal tar) was demonstrated. Analysis by capillary gas chromatography and high-performance li...

  8. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  9. Infection with Devriesea agamarum and Chrysosporium guarroi in an inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Ukaj, Silvana; Loncaric, Igor; Klang, Andrea; Spergser, Joachim; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Knotek, Zdenek

    2014-12-01

    Description of clinical, microbiological and histopathological findings in a case of deep dermatitis in an inland bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) caused by Devriesea agamarum and Chrysosporium guarroi. A 4-year-old male inland bearded dragon, weighing 497 g, was presented at the clinic because the animal was suffering from dysecdysis and chronic skin lesions. Large numbers of bacilli, cocci and hyphal elements were diagnosed during the microscopic examination of the wound exudate. Microbiological analysis of a skin specimen revealed a moderate growth of Enterococcus sp. and D. agamarum. The condition of the bearded dragon improved with combined therapy consisting of ceftiofur hydrochloride, voriconazole and meloxicam. However, 3 months later recrudescence was observed. This time, Clostridium sp. and Chrysosporium sp. were isolated in large numbers. The bearded dragon was euthanized. Histopathology confirmed a severe granulomatous dermatitis with associated fungal hyphae and a severe granulomatous hepatitis with intralesional hyphae. Chrysosporium guarroi was identified by PCR and sequencing in two organs (skin and liver). This is the first case of an infection with D. agamarum and C. guarroi in an inland bearded dragon (P. vitticeps). It emphasizes the importance of mycological cultures and specific treatment. Samples of suspected Chrysosporium sp. should be cultured at 30°C for 10-14 days. Early antifungal treatment is necessary to prevent systemic and potentially fatal infection with C. guarroi. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    . Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45 ºC. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we...... found that some fungi such as Melanocarpus albomyces readily grew on crystalline cellulose and produced cellulases. These results indicate that there are large differences in the cellulolytic potential of different isolates of the same species. Furthermore, all the selected species were able to degrade...... cellulose but the differences in cellulolytic potential and thermostability of the secretome did not correlate to the taxonomic position. PCR amplification and sequencing of 22 cellulase genes from the fungi showed that the level of thermostability of the cellulose-degrading activity could not be inferred...

  11. Dominant Tree Species and Soil Type Affect the Fungal Community Structure in a Boreal Peatland Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Terhonen, Eeva; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Tuovila, Hanna; Chen, Hongxin; Oghenekaro, Abbot O; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Kohler, Annegret; Kasanen, Risto; Vasander, Harri; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2016-05-01

    Boreal peatlands play a crucial role in global carbon cycling, acting as an important carbon reservoir. However, little information is available on how peatland microbial communities are influenced by natural variability or human-induced disturbances. In this study, we have investigated the fungal diversity and community structure of both the organic soil layer and buried wood in boreal forest soils using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We have also compared the fungal communities during the primary colonization of wood with those of the surrounding soils. A permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) confirmed that the community composition significantly differed between soil types (Pstructure (Psoil nutrients (Ca [P= 0.002], Fe [P= 0.003], and P [P= 0.003]) within the site was an important factor in the fungal community composition. The species richness in wood was significantly lower than in the corresponding soil (P< 0.004). The results of the molecular identification were supplemented by fruiting body surveys. Seven of the genera of Agaricomycotina identified in our surveys were among the top 20 genera observed in pyrosequencing data. Our study is the first, to our knowledge, fungal high-throughput next-generation sequencing study performed on peatlands; it further provides a baseline for the investigation of the dynamics of the fungal community in the boreal peatlands.

  12. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt:related species and risk factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AA Gharamah; AM Moharram; MA Ismail; AK AL-Hussaini

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study risk factors, contributing factors of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt, test the isolated species sensitive to some therapeutic agents, and to investigate the air-borne bacteria and fungi in opthalmology operating rooms. Methods: Thirty one cases of endophthalmitis were clinically diagnosed and microbiologically studied. Indoor air-borne bacteria and fungi inside four air-conditioned operating rooms in the Ophthalmology Department at Assiut University Hospitals were also investigated. The isolated microbes from endophthalmitis cases were tested for their ability to produce some extracellular enzymes including protease, lipase, urease, phosphatase and catalase. Also the ability of 5 fungal isolates from endophthalmitis origin to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to some therapeutic agents were studied. Results: Results showed that bacteria and fungi were responsihle for infection in 10 and 6 cases of endophthalmitis, respectively and only 2 cases produced a mixture of bacteria and fungi. Trauma was the most prevalent risk factor of endophthalmitis where 58.1% of the 31 cases were due to trauma. In ophthalmology operating rooms, different bacterial and fungal species were isolated. 8 bacterial and 5 fungal isolates showed their ability to produce enzymes while only 3 fungal isolates were able to produce mycotoxins. Terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. Conclusions: The ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues. Microbial contamination of operating rooms with air-borne bacteria and fungi in the present work may be a source of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  13. Ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sodium hydroxide treated corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-04-01

    Ethanol was produced via the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of dilute sodium hydroxide treated corn stover. Saccharification was achieved by cultivating either Phanerochaete chrysosporium or Gloeophyllum trabeum on the treated stover, and fermentation was then performed by using either Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Escherichia coli K011. Ethanol production was highest on day 3 for the combination of G. trabeum and E. coli K011 at 6.68 g/100g stover, followed by the combination of P. chrysosporium and E. coli K011 at 5.00 g/100g stover. SSF with S. cerevisiae had lower ethanol yields, ranging between 2.88 g/100g stover at day 3 (P. chrysosporium treated stover) and 3.09 g/100g stover at day 4 (G. trabeum treated stover). The results indicated that mild alkaline pretreatment coupled with fungal saccharification offers a promising bioprocess for ethanol production from corn stover without the addition of commercial enzymes.

  14. Isolation of dermatophytes and related species from domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sayaka; Sano, Ayako; Hiruma, Midori; Murata, Michiko; Kaneshima, Takashi; Murata, Yoshiteru; Takahashi, Hideo; Takahashi, Sana; Takahashi, Yoko; Chibana, Hiroji; Touyama, Hidemi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Nakazato, Yasutomo; Uehara, You; Hirakawa, Morihiko; Imura, Yoshimi; Terashima, Yoshie; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Keji; Sugiyama, Kazutoshi; Hiruma, Masataro; Murakami, Masaru; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Uezato, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated 793 bird combs [645 chickens and 148 fighting cocks (Shamo)] to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The targeted fungal species were recovered from 195 of the 793 examined birds (24.6 %). Prevalence ratios were compared in temperate (the mainland) and subtropical (Nansei Islands) areas, genders, strains, breeding scale (individual and farm), and housing system (in cage and free ranging). The frequency of the fungal species in the mainland, males, fighting cocks, breeding scale by individual nursing, and free-range housing system exhibited significantly higher positive ratios than that in the other groups. A total of 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated, including 101 Arthroderma (Ar.) multifidum, 83 Aphanoascus (Ap.) terreus, five Uncinocarpus queenslandicus, two U. reesii, two Ap. pinarensis, one Amauroascus kuehnii, one Ar. simii, one Gymnoascus petalosporus, one Microsporum gallinae, and 28 Chrysosporium-like (Chrysosporium spp.) isolates, which were identified using internal transcribed spacer regions of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The predominant fungal species in the mainland was Ap. terreus and that in the Nansei Islands was Ar. multifidum. Pathogenic fungal species to humans and animals were limited to M. gallinae and Ar. simii, which corresponded to 0.025 % of the isolates in this study.

  15. Confirmation of Two Undescribed Fungal Species from Dokdo of Korea Based on Current Classification System Using Multi Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Won; Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Mun, Hye Yeon; Lee, Haengsub; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2015-12-01

    Using dilution plating method, 47 fungal isolates were obtained from a soil sample collected from Dokdo in the East Sea of Korea in 2013. In this study, two fungal isolates, EML-MFS30-1 and EML-DDSF4, were confirmed as undescribed species, Metarhizium guizhouense and Mortierella oligospora in Korea based on current classification system using multi loci including rDNA internal transcribed spacer, large subunit, small subunit, and β-tubulin (BTUB) genes. Herein, detailed morphological descriptions on characters of the undescribed fungal species as well as their molecular phylogenetic status are provided with comparisons to related species.

  16. Successful crosses between fungal-resistant wild species of Arachis (section Arachis and Arachis hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Pereira Fávero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peanut (Arachis hypogaea is the fifth most produced oil crop worldwide. Besides lack of water, fungal diseases are the most limiting factors for the crop. Several species of Arachis are resistant to certain pests and diseases. This study aimed to successfully cross the A-genome with B-K-A genome wild species previously selected for fungal disease resistance, but that are still untested. We also aimed to polyplodize the amphihaploid chromosomes; cross the synthetic amphidiploids and A. hypogaea to introgress disease resistance genes into the cultivated peanut; and analyze pollen viability and morphological descriptors for all progenies and their parents. We selected 12 A-genome accessions as male parents and three B-genome species, one K-genome species, and one A-genome species as female parents. Of the 26 distinct cross combinations, 13 different interspecific AB-genome and three AA-genome hybrids were obtained. These sterile hybrids were polyploidized and five combinations produced tetraploid flowers. Next, 16 combinations were crossed between A. hypogaea and the synthetic amphidiploids, resulting in 11 different hybrid combinations. Our results confirm that it is possible to introgress resistance genes from wild species into the peanut using artificial hybridization, and that more species than previously reported can be used, thus enhancing the genetic variability in peanut genetic improvement programs.

  17. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt: related species and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study risk factors, contributing factors of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt, test the isolated species sensitive to some therapeutic agents, and to investigate the air-borne bacteria and fungi in opthalmology operating rooms. Methods: Thirty one cases of endophthalmitis were clinically diagnosed and microbiologically studied. Indoor air-borne bacteria and fungi inside four air-conditioned operating rooms in the Ophthalmology Department at Assiut University...

  18. Comparative genomics of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Phanerochaete chrysosporium provide insight into selective ligninolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena Fernandez-Fueyo; Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas; Patricia Ferreira; Dimitrios Floudas; David S. Hibbett; Paulo Canessa; Luis F. Larrondo; Tim Y. James; Daniela Seelenfreund; Sergio Lobos; Rubén Polanco; Mario Tello; Yoichi Honda; Takahito Watanabe; Takashi Watanabe; Jae San Ryu; Christian P. Kubicek; Monika Schmoll; Jill Gaskell; Kenneth E. Hammel; Franz J. St. John; Amber Vanden Wymelenberg; Grzegorz Sabat; Sandra Splinter BonDurant; Khajamohiddin Syed; Jagjit S. Yadav; Harshavardhan Dodapaneni; Venkataramanan Subramanian; José L. Lavin; José A. Oguiza; Gumer Perez; Antonio G. Pisabarro; Lucia Ramirez; Francisco Santoyo; Emma Master; Pedro M. Coutinho; Bernard Henrissat; Vincent Lombard; Jon Karl Magnuson; Ursula Kües; Chiaki Hori; Kiyohiko Igarashi; Masahiro Samejima; Benjamin W. Held; Kerrie W. Barry; Kurt M. LaButti; Alla Lapidus; Erika A. Lindquist; Susan M. Lucas; Robert Riley; Asaf A. Salamov; Dirk Hoffmeister; Daniel Schwenk; Yitzhak Hadar; Oded Yarden; Ronald P. de Vries; Ad Wiebenga; Jan Stenlid; Daniel Eastwood; Igor V. Grigoriev; Randy M. Berka; Robert A. Blanchette; Phil Kersten; Angel T. Martinez; Rafael Vicuna; Daniel Cullen

    2012-01-01

    Efficient lignin depolymerization is unique to the wood decay basidiomycetes, collectively referred to as white rot fungi. Phanerochaete chrysosporium simultaneously degrades lignin and cellulose, whereas the closely related species, Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, also depolymerizes lignin but may do so with relatively little...

  19. Cladosporium lebrasiae, a new fungal species isolated from milk bread rolls in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razafinarivo, Josiane; Jany, Jean-Luc; Crous, Pedro W; Looten, Rachelle; Gaydou, Vincent; Barbier, Georges; Mounier, Jerôme; Vasseur, Valérie

    2016-08-01

    The fungal genus Cladosporium (Cladosporiaceae, Dothideomycetes) is composed of a large number of species, which can roughly be divided into three main species complexes: Cladosporium cladosporioides, Cladosporium herbarum, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The aim of this study was to characterize strains isolated from contaminated milk bread rolls by phenotypic and genotypic analyses. Using multilocus data from the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA (rDNA), partial translation elongation factor 1-α, actin, and beta-tubulin gene sequences along with Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and morphological observations, three isolates were identified as a new species in the C. sphaerospermum species complex. This novel species, described here as Cladosporium lebrasiae, is phylogenetically and morphologically distinct from other species in this complex.

  20. High-yield production of manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and versatile peroxidase in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Guzmán-Ortiz, Doralinda A; Fernández, Francisco; Loske, Achim M; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium secretes extracellular oxidative enzymes during secondary metabolism, but lacks versatile peroxidase, an enzyme important in ligninolysis and diverse biotechnology processes. In this study, we report the genetic modification of a P. chrysosporium strain capable of co-expressing two endogenous genes constitutively, manganese peroxidase (mnp1) and lignin peroxidase (lipH8), and the codon-optimized vpl2 gene from Pleurotus eryngii. For this purpose, we employed a highly efficient transformation method based on the use of shock waves developed by our group. The expression of recombinant genes was verified by PCR, Southern blot, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and assays of enzymatic activity. The production yield of ligninolytic enzymes was up to four times higher in comparison to previously published reports. These results may represent significant progress toward the stable production of ligninolytic enzymes and the development of an effective fungal strain with promising biotechnological applications.

  1. Heavy metals species affect fungal-bacterial synergism during the bioremediation of fluoranthene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-Kui; Ding, Ning; Peterson, Eric Charles; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with heavy metals (HMs) is very common in contaminated soils, but the influence of HMs on fungal-bacterial synergism during PAH bioremediation has not been investigated. The bioremediation of fluoranthene-contaminated sand using co-cultures of Acremonium sp. P0997 and Bacillus subtilis showed increases of 109.4 and 9.8 % in degradation compared to pure bacterial and fungal cultures, respectively, removing 64.1 ± 1.4 % fluoanthene in total. The presence of Cu(2+) reduced fluoranthene removal to 53.7 ± 1.7 %, while inhibiting bacterial growth, and reducing translocation of bacteria on fungal hyphae by 49.5 %, in terms of the bacterial translocation ratio. Cu(2+) reduced bacterial diffusion by 46.8 and 31.9 %, as reflected by D (a bulk random motility diffusional coefficient) and D eff (the effective one-dimensional diffusion coefficient) compared to the control without HM supplementation, respectively. However, Mn(2+) resulted in a 78.2 ± 1.9 % fluoranthene degradation, representing an increase of 21.9 %, while enhancing bacterial growth and bacterial translocation on fungal hyphae, showing a 12.0 % increase in translocation ratio, with no observable impact on D and D eff. Hence, the presence of HMs has been shown to affect fungal-bacterial synergism in PAH degradation, and this effect differs with HM species.

  2. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A...

  3. In vivo confocal microscopy appearance of Fusarium and Aspergillus species in fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Jaya Devi; Prajna, Namperumalsamy Venkatesh; Larke, Natasha; Macleod, David; Srikanthi, Palepu; Lanjewar, Shruti; Shah, Manisha; Lalitha, Prajna; Elakkiya, Shanmugam; Burton, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Clinical outcomes in fungal keratitis vary between Fusarium and Aspergillus spp, therefore distinguishing between species using morphological features such as filament branching angles, sporulation along filaments (adventitious sporulation) or dichotomous branching may be useful. In this study, we assessed these three features within Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture-positive Fusarium and Aspergillus spp keratitis participants. Prospective observational cohort study in Aravind Eye Hospital (February 2011-February 2012). Eligibility criteria: age ≥18 years, stromal infiltrate ≥3 mm diameter, Fusarium or Aspergillus spp culture-positive. previous/current herpetic keratitis, visual acuity 80% corneal thinning. IVCM was performed and images analysed for branch angle, presence/absence of adventitious sporulation or dichotomous branching by a grader masked to the microbiological diagnosis. 98 participants were included (106 eligible, 8 excluded as no measurable branch angles); 68 were positive for Fusarium spp, 30 for Aspergillus spp. Mean branch angle for Fusarium spp was 59.7° (95% CI 57.7° to 61.8°), and for Aspergillus spp was 63.3° (95% CI 60.8° to 65.8°), p=0.07. No adventitious sporulation was detected in Fusarium spp ulcers. Dichotomous branching was detected in 11 ulcers (7 Aspergillus spp, 4 Fusarium spp). There was very little difference in the branching angle of Fusarium and Aspergillus spp. Adventitious sporulation was not detected and dichotomous branching was infrequently seen. Although IVCM remains a valuable tool to detect fungal filaments in fungal keratitis, it cannot be used to distinguish Fusarium from Aspergillus spp and culture remains essential to determine fungal species. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Exploitation of reactive oxygen species by fungi: roles in host-fungus interaction and fungal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-11-28

    In the past, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been considered a harmful byproduct of aerobic metabolism. However, accumulating evidence implicates redox homeostasis, which maintains appropriate ROS levels, in cell proliferation and differentiation in plants and animals. Similarly, ROS generation and signaling are instrumental in fungal development and host-fungus interaction. In fungi, NADPH oxidase, a homolog of human gp91(phox), generates superoxide and is the main source of ROS. The mechanism of activation and signaling by NADPH oxidases in fungi appears to be largely comparable to those in plants and animals. Recent studies have shown that the fungal NADPH oxidase homologs NoxA (Nox1), NoxB (Nox2), and NoxC (Nox3) have distinct functions. In particular, these studies have consistently demonstrated the impact of NoxA on the development of fungal multicellular structures. Both NoxA and NoxB (but not NoxC) are involved in host-fungus interactions, with the function of NoxA being more critical than that of NoxB.

  5. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on

  6. Lignocellulose degradation during solid-state fermentation: Pleurotus ostreatus versus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerem, Z.; Friesem, D.; Hadar, Y. (Hebrew Univ., Rehovot (Israel))

    1992-04-01

    Lignocellulose degradation and activities related to lignin degradation were studied in the solid-state fermentation of cotton stalks by comparison two white rot fungi, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium grew vigorously, resulting in rapid, nonselective degradation of 55% of the organic components of the cotton stalks within 15 days. In contrast, P. ostreatus grew more slowly with obvious selectivity for lignin degradation and resulting in the degradation of only 20% of the organic matter after 30 days of incubation. The kinetics of {sup 14}C-lignin mineralization exhibited similar differences. In cultures of P. chrysosporium, mineralization ceased after 18 days, resulting in the release of 12% of the total radioactivity as {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. In P. ostreatus, on the other hand, 17% of the total radioactivity was released in a steady rate throughout a period of 60 days of incubation. Laccase activity was only detected in water extracts of the P. ostreatus fermentation. No lignin peroxidase activity was detected in either the water extract or liquid cultures of this fungus. 2-Keto-4-thiomethyl butyric acid cleavage to ethylene correlated to lignin degradation in both fungi. A study of fungal activity under solid-state conditions, in contrast to those done under defined liquid culture, may help to better understand the mechanism involved in lignocellulose degradation.

  7. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic bioma

  8. Fungal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass: Importance of fungal species, colonization and time on chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, van S.J.A.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Baars, J.J.P.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate fungal treatments to improve in vitro rumen degradability of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study four selective lignin degrading fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii and Pleurotus ostreatus, were used to pre-treat lignocellulosic

  9. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigu, Nomathemba Loice; Hirosue, Sinji; Nakamura, Chie; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) involved in anthracene metabolism by the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were identified by comprehensive screening of both catalytic potentials and transcriptomic profiling. Functional screening of P. chrysosporium P450s (PcCYPs) revealed that 14 PcCYP species catalyze stepwise conversion of anthracene to anthraquinone via intermediate formation of anthrone. Moreover, transcriptomic profiling explored using a complementary DNA microarray system demonstrated that 12 PcCYPs are up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of anthracene. Among the up-regulated PcCYPs, five species showed catalytic activity against anthracene. Based upon both catalytic and transcriptional properties, these five species are most likely to play major roles in anthracene metabolic processes in vivo. Thus, the combination of functional screening and a microarray system may provide a novel strategy for obtaining a thorough understanding of the catalytic functions and biological impacts of PcCYPs.

  10. Differential responses of three fungal species to environmental factors and their role in the mycorrhization of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duñabeitia, Miren K; Hormilla, Susana; Garcia-Plazaola, Jose I; Txarterina, Kepa; Arteche, Unai; Becerril, Jose M

    2004-02-01

    Three ectomycorrhizal (ECM) isolates of Rhizopogon luteolus, R. roseolus and Scleroderma citrinum were found to differ markedly in their in vitro tolerance to adverse conditions limiting fungal growth, i.e. water availability, pH and heavy metal pollution. S. citrinum was the most sensitive, R. luteolus intermediate and R. roseolus the most tolerant species. Pinus radiata D. Don seedlings were inoculated in the laboratory and in a containerised seedling nursery with spore suspensions of the three ECM species. Colonisation percentage was considerably lower under nursery conditions, probably due to competition by native fungi. The effects of nursery ECM inoculation on seedling growth depended on the fungal species. Only R. roseolus-colonised plants showed a significantly higher shoot growth than non-mycorrhizal plants. All three fungi induced significantly higher root dry weights relative to control plants. Despite the low mycorrhizal colonisation, mycorrhization with all three species improved the physiological status of nursery-grown seedlings, e.g. enhanced root enzyme activity, shoot nutrient and pigment content, net photosynthesis rate and water use efficiency. Of the three fungal species, R. roseolus was the most effective; this species was also the most adaptable and showed the greatest range of tolerance to adverse environmental conditions in pure culture. It is, therefore, proposed as a promising fungal species for ECM inoculation of P. radiata in the nursery.

  11. Fungal secretomes--nature's toolbox for white biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouws, Henning; Wattenberg, Andreas; Zorn, Holger

    2008-09-01

    Adapting their metabolism to varying carbon and nitrogen sources, saprophytic fungi produce an arsenal of extracellular enzymes, the secretome, which allows for an efficient degradation of lignocelluloses and further biopolymers. Based on fundamental advances in electrophoretic, chromatographic, and mass spectrometric techniques on the one hand and the availability of annotated fungal genomes and sophisticated bioinformatic software tools on the other hand, a detailed analysis of fungal secretomes has become feasible. While a number of reports on ascomycetous secretomes of, e.g., Aspergillus, Trichoderma, and Fusarium species are already available, studies on basidiomycetes have been mainly focused on the two model organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinopsis cinerea so far. Though an impressive number and diversity of fungal biocatalysts has been revealed by secretome analyses, the identity and function of many extracellular proteins still remains to be elucidated. A comprehensive understanding of the qualitative and quantitative composition of fungal secretomes, together with their synergistic actions and kinetic expression profiles, will allow for the development of optimized enzyme cocktails for white biotechnology.

  12. A fungal endophyte reinforces population adaptive differentiation in its host grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Anaïs; Volaire, Florence; Barre, Philippe; Hazard, Laurent

    2012-04-01

    Hereditary symbioses between fungal endophytes and grasses are relatively recent in the history of plant life. Given endophyte Neotyphodium lolii in the adaptive differentiation of its host species Lolium perenne. Endophyte frequency in 22 natural L. perenne populations was established across a water availability gradient. Adaptive differentiation among five populations, and between symbiotic (S) and nonsymbiotic (NS) plants, was examined in a glasshouse experiment under nonlimiting and limiting water conditions. Genetic differentiation was subsequently assessed among populations, and between S and NS individuals, using 14 simple sequence repeats (SSR). Symbiosis frequencies were positively correlated to water availability. Adaptive population differentiation occurred following a trade-off between biomass production under nonlimiting water conditions and survivorship under water stress. Endophytic symbiosis increased plant survival in xeric populations, and reinforced competitiveness in mesic populations. No genetic difference was detected between S and NS plants within populations. Therefore, we conclude that the endophyte relationship is responsible for these effects. Local adaptation of the host plant, appears to be supported by the fungal endophyte.

  13. Pulsed light for the inactivation of fungal biofilms of clinically important pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Andrade Fernandes, Joao Paulo; Rowan, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are naturally found as biofilm communities more than planktonic free-floating cells; however, planktonic culture remains the current model for microbiological studies, such as disinfection techniques. The presence of fungal biofilms in the clinical setting has a negative impact on patient mortality, as Candida biofilms have proved to be resistant to biocides in numerous in vitro studies; however, there is limited information on the effect of pulsed light on sessile communities. Here we report on the use of pulsed UV light for the effective inactivation of clinically relevant Candida species. Fungal biofilms were grown by use of a CDC reactor on clinically relevant surfaces. Following a maximal 72 h formation period, the densely populated biofilms were exposed to pulsed light at varying fluences to determine biofilm sensitivity to pulsed-light inactivation. The results were then compared to planktonic cell inactivation. High levels of inactivation of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms were achieved with pulsed light for both 48 and 72 h biofilm structures. The findings suggest that pulsed light has the potential to provide a means of surface decontamination, subsequently reducing the risk of infection to patients. The research described herein deals with an important aspect of disease prevention and public health.

  14. Carbon isotope labeling in boreal forests to assess roles of fungal species in decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treseder, K. K.; Czimczik, C. I.; Trumbore, S. E.; Allison, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    We used 14C and 13C labeling to assess the in situ respiration of alanine-, starch-, and lignocellulose-derived carbon from the sporocarps of particular fungal species fruiting in a boreal forest in Alaska. By measuring isotopically-labeled respiration of sporocarps, which can be identified to species, we were able to attribute turnover of carbon compounds to specific fungal groups. Moreover, collection of sporocarp respiration is non-destructive, so we could return to the same sporocarps to collect a time series of measurements that spanned hours to days. We tested the hypotheses that alanine and starch turn over more quickly than lignocellulose, and that saprotrophic fungi would use starch-C and lignocellulose-C but ectomycorrhizal fungi would not. Small amounts of 14C-labeled alanine (about 100,000 permil) were dispensed into the soil within three meters of sporocarps of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Lactarius alnicola. Δ14CO2 values of sporocarp respiration climbed from 75.8 +/- 6.3 permil to 7855 +/- 3940 permil within one hour of additions, indicating that the fungus quickly acquired, transported, and transformed the alanine-C. In a separate approach, a mixture of 13C-labeled starch (about 15,000 permil) and 14C-labeled lignocellulose (about 36,000 permil) was applied in 9 m2 plots containing sporocarps of the ectomycorrhizal genera Phellodon and Sarcodon and the saprotrophic genera Lycoperdon and Polyporus. An unlabeled control plot was also established. We observed no detectable increase in 14CO2 or 13CO2 over a 144 hour period, suggesting that neither ectomycorrhizal nor saprotrophic fungi significantly broke down starch or lignocellulose during this time. The alanine experiment is one of the first to indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi can influence the spatial distribution and storage of soil carbon over short time scales. This influence may be restricted to carbon of organic compounds like amino acids. In contrast, starch was not transformed quickly even

  15. Seasonal study of the fungal biota of the fur of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F J; Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G

    1996-01-01

    During a one year period, 944 dogs from the Municipal kennel of Barcelona were examined to detect animals with suspected dermatophytosis. Only a few animals (1.8%) presented skin lesions but none of them had dermatophytosis. A representative number of dogs without visible skin lesions (n = 172), selected at random, were used to carry out a seasonal study of the mycobiota of their fur. Fifteen isolates belonging to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton were isolated from 14 of the 172 (8.1%) dogs without lesions. The identity of these fungi was Microsporum gypseum (6/15), Trichophyton terrestre (4/15), M. canis (2/15), M. cookei (2/15) and Trichophyton ajelloi (1/15) (one strain each of M. gypseum and T. ajelloi were isolated from one dog). Species of Penicillium (% prevalence = 89.5%), Alternaria (86.6%), Cladosporium (84.9%), Aspergillus (77.3%), Scopulariopsis (65.7%) and Chrysosporium (64.5%) were the most prevalent. No significant differences in the fungal biota were observed with respect to age, gender, hair length or between mixed and pure breed dogs. A large number of isolates, including species belonging to the genera Beauveria, Chrysosporium, Malbranchea and Scopulariopsis, that macroscopically and/or microscopically resemble dermatophytes and may be mistaken for them, produced a red color change in Dermatophyte Test Medium. No significant seasonal difference was detected among the isolates belonging to the most frequently encountered genera, with the exception of Scopulariopsis (higher in summer and autumn) and Chrysosporium (higher in summer). Species from other genera, with lower occurrence also presented significant differences in their seasonal distribution. Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Chaetomium and Phoma spp. presented maximum prevalence peaks in spring, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Phoma and Rhizopus spp. in summer and Geotrichum and Mucor spp. in autumn. The Microsporum and Trichophyton species were more frequently isolated in summer.

  16. Changes in hyphal morphology due to chitosan treatment in some fungal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Nazaré de Oliveira Junior

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, changes in the hyphal morphology due to chitosan treatment in some fungal species were studied. Scanning electron microscope (SEM observations revealed that chitosans with molar fraction of acetyl groups (F A 0.16 and 0.18 and degree of polymerization (DP 1,089 and 1,242 had a direct effect on the morphology of the chitosan-treated fungi, reflecting its potential for causing a delay in the growth of Alternaria alternata (500 µg × mL-1, Botrytis cinerea (1,000 µg × mL-1, Penicillium expansum (1,000 µg × mL-1 and Rhizopus stolonifer (500 µg × mL-1. Mycelial aggregation and structural changes such as excessive branching, swelling of the cell wall and hyphae size reduction were observed in the micrographs.

  17. Transport, fate, and stimulating impact of silver nanoparticles on the removal of Cd(II) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Yanan [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Zhongwu; Yan, Ming [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Guo, Zhi; Huang, Zhenzhen; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Appropriate concentration of AgNPs can stimulate the biological removal of Cd(II). • Added AgNPs were oxidatively dissolved and transported to the surface of fungus. • AgNPs have undergone coarsening in the process of transport. • Amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing groups were involved in transportion. - Abstract: Despite the knowledge about increasing discharge of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into wastewater and its potential toxicity to microorganisms, the interaction of AgNPs with heavy metals in the biological removal process remains poorly understood. This study focused on the effect of AgNPs (hydrodynamic diameter about 24.3 ± 0.37 nm) on the removal of cadmium (Cd(II)) by using a model white rot fungus species, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Results showed that the biological removal capacity of Cd(II) increased with the concentration of AgNPs increasing from 0.1 mg/L to 1 mg/L. The maximum removal capacity (4.67 mg/g) was located at 1 mg/L AgNPs, and then decreased with further increasing AgNPs concentration, suggesting that an appropriate concentration of AgNPs has a stimulating effect on the removal of Cd(II) by P. chrysosporium instead of an inhibitory effect. Results of Ag{sup +} and total Ag concentrations in the solutions together with those of SEM and XRD demonstrated that added AgNPs had undergone oxidative dissolution and transported from the solution to the surface of fungal mycelia (up to 94%). FTIR spectra confirmed that amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl, and other reducing functional groups were involved in Cd(II) removal, AgNPs transportation, and the reduction of Ag{sup +} to AgNPs.

  18. New substrates and activity of Phanerochaete chrysosporium Omega glutathione transferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Morel, Mélanie; Lamant, Tiphaine; Gérardin, Philippe; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-02-01

    Omega glutathione transferases (GSTO) constitute a family of proteins with variable distribution throughout living organisms. It is notably expanded in several fungi and particularly in the wood-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, raising questions concerning the function(s) and potential redundancy of these enzymes. Within the fungal families, GSTOs have been poorly studied and their functions remain rather sketchy. In this study, we have used fluorescent compounds as activity reporters to identify putative ligands. Experiments using 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate as a tool combined with mass analyses showed that GSTOs are able to cleave ester bonds. Using this property, we developed a specific activity-based profiling method for identifying ligands of PcGSTO3 and PcGSTO4. The results suggest that GSTOs could be involved in the catabolism of toxic compounds like tetralone derivatives. Biochemical investigations demonstrated that these enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteine residue. To access the physiological function of these enzymes and notably during the wood interaction, recombinant proteins have been immobilized on CNBr Sepharose and challenged with beech wood extracts. Coupled with GC-MS experiments this ligand fishing method allowed to identify terpenes as potential substrates of Omega GST suggesting a physiological role during the wood-fungus interactions.

  19. Effect of Initial pH on Sulphate and Phosphate Uptake from Wastewater by Selected Bacterial and Fungal Species

    OpenAIRE

    Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor; S. O. Dahunsi; R. Aransiola

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effect of pH on sulphate and phosphate uptake from wastewater by selected bacterial and fungal species. A total of four each of bacterial and fungal isolates were used under shaking flasks conditions. The wastewater was supplemented with sodium acetate to serve as external carbon source at a concentration of 5 g/L. Immediately after inoculation with the respective isolates and at 24 h intervals, for the next 96 h, aliquot wastewater samples were taken...

  20. Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration contact time and the synergistic effect Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found 75 by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mgL while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found 86 by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mgL. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. was found to be 95 at the phenol concentration 25 mgL.

  1. Colletotrichum truncatum species complex: Treatment considerations and review of the literature for an unusual pathogen causing fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Squissato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of Colletotrichum truncatum species complex fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in an 87-year-old immunocompetent male in whom oral triazole antifungals were contraindicated. The patient had recently returned from 4 months in Jamaica with a one month history of progressively increasing pain and inflammation in his left eye. Corneal samples grew a filamentous fungus and internal transcribed spacer sequencing polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of C. truncatum species complex. Samples showed no microbial growth.

  2. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this

  3. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpo

  4. Studies on the production of fungal peroxidases in Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Punt, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    To get insight into the limiting factors existing for the efficient production of fungal peroxidase in filamentous fungi, the expression of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase H8 (lipA) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) H4 (mnp1) genes in Aspergillus niger has been studied. For this purpo

  5. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  6. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  7. 天麻种子与小菇属真菌共生萌发的研究%SYMBIOTIC GERMINATION BETWEEN GASTRODIA ELATA AND FUNGAL SPECIES OF MYCENA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐锦堂; 郭顺星; 范黎; 娜仁

    2001-01-01

    Four fungal species of Mycena were identificated from the strains isolated from the protocorm and roots of Orchidaceae species.M. osmundicola was isolated from the proocorm of G.elata, M. orchidicola, M.dendrobii and M. anoectochila respectively separated from the roots of Cymbidium sinense, Dendrobium candidum and Anoectochilus roxburghii. The symbiotic germination test beteen G. Elata seeds and the above fungal species demonstrated that these fungal species can stimulate the seed germination, which means the species of Mycena may be the key mycorrhizal fungi of G elata, because there were no reports about the other fungal species which stimulate G.elata seed germination. Besides G. elata, the above species of Mycena also distributed the roots of the other orchids.

  8. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  9. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  10. Comparative study of the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption on immobilized white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Viktor; Felinger, Attila; Hegedűsova, Alžbeta; Dékány, Imre; Pernyeszi, Tímea

    2013-03-01

    In this study the kinetics and equilibrium of phenol biosorption were studied from aqueous solution using batch technique at an initial pH of 5.5. The biosorption was studied on Ca-alginate beads, on non-living mycelial pellets of Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on Ca-alginate, and on free fungal biomass. Ph. chrysosporium was grown in a liquid medium containing mineral and vitamin materials with complex composition. The biosorption process followed pseudo second-order kinetics on all bioadsorbents. The bioadsorption-equilibrium on blank Ca-alginate, free and immobilized fungal biomass can be described by Langmuir, anti-Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models using nonlinear least-squares estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Alternaria genomes database: a comprehensive resource for a fungal genus comprised of saprophytes, plant pathogens, and allergenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ha X; Pryor, Barry; Peever, Tobin; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2015-03-25

    Alternaria is considered one of the most common saprophytic fungal genera on the planet. It is comprised of many species that exhibit a necrotrophic phytopathogenic lifestyle. Several species are clinically associated with allergic respiratory disorders although rarely found to cause invasive infections in humans. Finally, Alternaria spp. are among the most well known producers of diverse fungal secondary metabolites, especially toxins. We have recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of 25 Alternaria spp. including but not limited to many necrotrophic plant pathogens such as A. brassicicola (a pathogen of Brassicaceous crops like cabbage and canola) and A. solani (a major pathogen of Solanaceous plants like potato and tomato), and several saprophytes that cause allergy in human such as A. alternata isolates. These genomes were annotated and compared. Multiple genetic differences were found in the context of plant and human pathogenicity, notably the pro-inflammatory potential of A. alternata. The Alternaria genomes database was built to provide a public platform to access the whole genome sequences, genome annotations, and comparative genomics data of these species. Genome annotation and comparison were performed using a pipeline that integrated multiple computational and comparative genomics tools. Alternaria genome sequences together with their annotation and comparison data were ported to Ensembl database schemas using a self-developed tool (EnsImport). Collectively, data are currently hosted using a customized installation of the Ensembl genome browser platform. Recent efforts in fungal genome sequencing have facilitated the studies of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity as a whole system. The Alternaria genomes database provides a comprehensive resource of genomics and comparative data of an important saprophytic and plant/human pathogenic fungal genus. The database will be updated regularly with new genomes when they become available. The

  12. Primary Cutaneous Chrysosporium Infection following Ear Piercing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonkiat Suchonwanit

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chrysosporium is a large genus of saprophytic fungi that is commonly found in the soil. Infection caused by this organism is rare in humans and typically occurs in immunocompromised patients. Primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection is relatively rare and has been reported in a heart transplant patient. The prognosis is usually favorable, but very poor in the setting of persistent profound immunosuppression. We herein report a case of primary cutaneous Chrysosporium infection following ear piercing in an immunocompetent patient. It is important for clinicians to consider this condition in patients with slow-onset skin and soft tissue infection following cutaneous injury, even in an immunocompetent setting.

  13. Effects of substrate, ant and fungal species on plant fiber degradation in a fungus-gardening ant symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMilto, Alexandria M; Rouquette, Monte; Mueller, Ulrich G; Kellner, Katrin; Seal, Jon N

    2017-04-01

    Fungus-gardening or attine ants have outsourced most of their digestive function to a symbiotic fungus. The ants feed their fungus - essentially an external digestive organ - a variety of substrates of botanical origin, including fresh and dried flowers, leaves and insect frass (processed leaves). Although plant tissues are rich in fibers (lignocelluloses, hemicelluloses, pectins and starches) and the symbiotic fungus possesses the genetic and enzymatic machinery to metabolize these compounds, the highly derived attines, the leaf-cutters (Atta and Acromyrmex), are known to produce fiber-rich waste. While leaf-cutting ants are important consumers of primary plant tissue, there have been fewer studies on physiological activity of fungi grown by closely related ant species in the genus Trachymyrmex, which generally grow related species of fungi, have smaller colonies and consume a wider variety of fungal substrates in addition to fresh leaves and flowers. In this study, we measured the cellulase activity of the fungus-gardening ants Atta texana, Trachymyrmex arizonensis and T. septentrionalis. We then quantified fiber consumption of the fungus-gardening ants Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Trachymyrmex arizonensis by comparing the amounts and percentages present in their food and in fungus garden refuse during a controlled feeding experiment over the span of several months. Finally, we compared waste composition of T. arizonensis colonies growing different fungal strains, because this species is known to cultivate multiple strains of Leucoagaricus in its native range. The leaf-cutting ant A. texana was found to have lower cellulytic activity than T. arizonensis or T. septentrionalis. Total lignocellulose and hemicellulose amounts were significantly lower in refuse piles than in the substrates fed to the Trachymyrmex colonies, thus these fibers were consumed by the fungal symbionts of these ant species. Although lignocellulose utilization was similar in two distinct

  14. Hidden diversity before our eyes: Delimiting and describing cryptic lichen-forming fungal species in camouflage lichens (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Divakar, Pradeep K; Crespo, Ana; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2016-11-01

    Molecular data provide unprecedented insight into diversity of lichenized fungi, although morphologically cryptic species-level lineages circumscribed from sequence data often remain undescribed even in well-studies groups. Using diagnostic characters from DNA sequence data and support from the multispecies coalescent model, we formally describe a total of eleven new species and resurrect two others in the hyperdiverse lichen-forming fungal family Parmeliaceae. These include: four in the genus Melanelixia - M. ahtii sp. nov., M. epilosa comb. nov., M. hawksworthii sp. nov., and M. robertsoniorum sp. nov.; six in Melanohalea - M. austroamericana sp. nov., M. beringiana sp. nov., M. clari sp. nov., M. columbiana sp. nov., M. davidii sp. nov., and M. tahltan sp. nov.; and three species in Montanelia - M. occultipanniformis sp. nov., M. saximontana comb. nov., and M. secwepemc sp. nov. Morphological, ecological and geographical features were revised to corroborate species descriptions. These species can consistently be distinguished by differences in nucleotide position characters in the fungal barcoding marker (ITS) and high speciation probabilities. This study helps close the "taxonomic gap" between molecular species delimitation studies and formal taxonomy by incorporating statistical evaluation of lineage independence, diagnostic differences in DNA data, and additional consideration of differences in morphology and species distributions.

  15. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  16. Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03 secretes high titers of manganese peroxidase during decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL textile dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Razia; Asgher, Muhammad; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Batool, Shaheera; Asad, Muhammad Javaid

    2011-01-01

    A novel indigenous strain, Phanerochaete chrysosporium IBL-03, with high manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities was used for decolorization of a reactive textile dye, Drimarine Blue K2R, which is used extensively in textile units of Pakistan. The initial experiment was run for seven days with 0.01% (w/v) dye solution prepared in Kirk's basal nutrient medium. Samples were removed after every 24 h and the extent of dye decolorization was determined at lambda(max) of the dye. The study revealed that P. chrysosporium caused 65% decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL in seven days. By process optimization, 97% colour removal could be achieved in three days using 0.005% (w/v) Drimarine Blue K2RL solution at pH 4.0 and 30 degrees C in defined Kirk's medium with 0.9% (w/v) molasses and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium dihydrogen phosphate added as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Manganese peroxidase was found to be the major enzyme (560 IU/mL) involved in dye decolorization of Drimarine Blue K2RL by P. chrysosporium. The dye adsorption studies showed that the dye initially adsorbed on fungal mats disappeared later on, possibly by the action of MnP secreted by the fungus in secondary metabolism.

  17. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalewska B

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beata Kowalewska,1 Katarzyna Zorena,2 Małgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko,3 Piotr Wąż,4 Małgorzata Myśliwiec3 1Department of Tropical Medicine and Epidemiology, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Immunology and Environmental Microbiology, 3Clinic of Paediatrics, Diabetology and Endocrinology, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland Objective: To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease.Materials and methods: The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity.Results: The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068, duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787, or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432 and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823, systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483, or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345.Conclusion: Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. Keywords: children, diabetes mellitus type 1

  18. Biodegradation pathway and detoxification of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayatizamir, Naeimeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Rodríguez-Couto, Susana; Yakhchali, Bagher; Alikhani, Hossein A; Mohammadi, Leila

    2011-11-01

    The in vivo biodegradation of the diazo dye Reactive Black 5 (RB5) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilised on cubes of nylon sponge and on sunflower-seed shells (SS) in laboratory-scale bioreactors was investigated. The SS cultivation led to the best results with a decolouration percentage of 90.3% in 72 h for an initial RB5 concentration of 100 mg/L. It was found that the addition of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol (VA) into the medium considerably increased the decolouration rate in SS cultivation. However, the addition of VA had no effect in the nylon cultivation. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed that RB5 was transformed into one metabolite after 24 h. UV-vis spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) also confirmed the biodegradation of RB5. Toxicity of RB5 solutions before and after fungal treatment was assayed using Sinorhizobium meliloti as a sensitive soil microorganism. P. chrysosporium transformed the toxic dye RB5 into a non-toxic product.

  19. Transformation of low rank coal by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other wood-rot fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, J.P.; Catcheside, D.E.A. [Flinders University of South Australia, Bedford Park, SA (Australia). School of Biological Sciences

    1997-11-01

    There is evidence that the organic fraction of low rank coal (LRC) is chemically transformed by wood-rot fungi. These fungi and the oxidases they secrete have variously been shown to solubilise, polymerise, depolymerise and decolourise macromolecules derived from LRC. The white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is able to depolymerise and decolourise alkali-soluble acid-precipitable LRC macromolecules (AS-coal), converting them to a form not recoverable by alkali washing. Transformation of AS-coal is enhanced in N-limiting media under hyperbaric oxygen and is believed to be due, at least in part, to oxidation by manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP). The precise role these enzymes play is not yet clear but enzyme and mutant studies show AS-coal can be both polymerised and depolymerised by MnP and its mimetic Mn(III), without change to its absorbance at 400 nm. LiP decolourises AS-coal without apparently altering its molecular mass. Culture filtrates containing MnP and LiP acting on methylated AS-coal yield an array of low molecular mass moieties. Coal-derived monometers have not been recovered from cultures of P. chrysosporium, consistent with them being taken-up by the fungal cells. This suggests that cellular transformations may permit the diverse catabolic products derived from LRC to be converted to specific low molecular mass compounds in usable yield. 43 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netkovski, J; Shirgoska, B

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are a major part of the ecosystem. In fact, over 250 fungal species have been reported to produce human infections. More than ever, fungal diseases have emerged as major challenges for physicians and clinical microbiologists. The aim of this study was to summarize the diagnostic procedures and endoscopic surgical treatment of patients with fungal rhinosinusitis. Eleven patients, i.e. 10% of all cases with chronic inflammation of paranasal sinuses, were diagnosed with fungal rhinosinusitis. Ten of them were patients with a noninvasive form, fungus ball, while only one patient was classified in the group of chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis which was accompanied with diabetes mellitus. All patients underwent nasal endoscopic examination, skin allergy test and had preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of the sinuses in axial and coronal plane. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed in 10 patients with fungus ball, while a combined approach, endoscopic and external, was done in the immunocompromised patient with the chronic invasive form of fungal rhinosinusitis. Most cases (9/11) had unilateral infection. In 9 cases infection was restricted to a single sinus, and here the maxillary sinus was most commonly affected (8/9) with infections in other patients being restricted to the sphenoid sinus (1/9). Two patients had infections affecting two or more sinuses. In patients with an invasive form of the fungal disease there was involvement of the periorbital and orbital tissues. In patients with fungus ball the mycelia masses were completely removed from the sinus cavities. Long-term outcome was positive in all the operated patients and no recurrence was detected. The most frequent fungal agent that caused rhinosinusitis was Aspergillus. Mucor was identified in the patient with the invasive form. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavity and CT scanning of paranasal sinuses followed by endoscopic sinus surgery were represented as valuable

  1. Degradation of wheat straw cell wall by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jijiao

    -GC-MS), thermogravimetric (TG) /differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Finally, the fungal secretomes and composition, functional groups, and structural changes of the fungal spent wheat straw lignin were determined. Milled wood lignin (MWL) was extracted from biological treated and untreaed wheat straw. Detailed structural analysis through two dimentional heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonances (2D HMQC NMR) of the pretreated lignin (acetylated) revealed low abundances of the substructures dibenzodioxacin and cinnamyl alcohol. Further analysis of lignin by Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR) and pyrolysis gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) demonstrated the significant decrease of guaiacyl units. The results support previous findings on the biodegradation of wheat straw as analyzed by 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). Revealing the characteristic behavior of P. chrysosporium-mediated biomass degradation, the information presented in this paper offers new insight into the understanding of biological lignin degradation of wheat straw by P. chrysosporium.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species differ in their effect on nutrient leaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, Luise; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to play a crucial role in nutrient cycling and can reduce nutrient losses after rain induced leaching events. It is still unclear whether nutrient leaching losses vary depending on the AM fungal taxa that are present in soil. Using experimental

  3. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt: related species and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Gharamah

    2012-08-01

    Conclusions: The ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues. Microbial contamination of operating rooms with air-borne bacteria and fungi in the present work may be a source of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  4. The novel Cladosporium fulvum lysin motif effector Ecp6 is a virulence factor with orthologues in other fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Melvin D; van Esse, H Peter; Vossen, Jack H; de Jonge, Ronnie; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Stulemeijer, Iris J E; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Borrás-Hidalgo, Orlando; Dekker, Henk L; de Koster, Chris G; de Wit, Pierre J G M; Joosten, Matthieu H A J; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2008-07-01

    During tomato leaf colonization, the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum secretes several effector proteins into the apoplast. Eight effectors have previously been characterized and show no significant homology to each other or to other fungal genes. To discover novel C. fulvum effectors that might play a role in virulence, we utilized two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to visualize proteins secreted during C. fulvum-tomato interactions. Three novel C. fulvum proteins were identified: CfPhiA, Ecp6 and Ecp7. CfPhiA shows homology to proteins found on fungal sporogenous cells called phialides. Ecp6 contains lysin motifs (LysM domains) that are recognized as carbohydrate-binding modules. Ecp7 encodes a small, cysteine-rich protein with no homology to known proteins. Heterologous expression of Ecp6 significantly increased the virulence of the vascular pathogen Fusarium oxysporum on tomato. Furthermore, by RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing we demonstrate that Ecp6 is instrumental for C. fulvum virulence on tomato. Hardly any allelic variation was observed in the Ecp6 coding region of a worldwide collection of C. fulvum strains. Although none of the C. fulvum effectors identified so far have obvious orthologues in other organisms, conserved Ecp6 orthologues were identified in various fungal species. Homology-based modelling suggests that the LysM domains of C. fulvum Ecp6 may be involved in chitin binding.

  5. Impact of water regimes on an experimental community of four desert arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) species, as affected by the introduction of a non-native AMF species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symanczik, Sarah; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres; Al-Yahya'ei, Mohamed N

    2015-11-01

    Field studies have revealed the impact of changing water regimes on the structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities, but it is not known what happens to the abundance of individual AMF species within the community when the water conditions in the rhizosphere change. The behavior of four AMF species isolated from the Arabian desert (Diversispora aurantia, Diversispora omaniana, Septoglomus africanum, and an undescribed Paraglomus species) was investigated when assembled in microcosms containing Sorghum bicolor as host plant, and treated with various water regimes. Furthermore, the impact of invasion of these assemblages by Rhizophagus irregularis, an AMF species widely used in commercial inocula, was studied. The abundance of each AMF species in sorghum roots was measured by determining the transcript numbers of their large ribosomal subunit (rLSU) by real-time PCR, using cDNA and species-specific primers. Plant biomass and length of AMF extraradical hyphae were also measured. The abundance of each AMF species within the sorghum roots was influenced by both the water regime and the introduction of R. irregularis. Under dry conditions, the introduction of R. irregularis reduced the total abundance of all native AMF species in roots and also led to a reduction in the amount of extraradical mycelium, as well as to a partial decrease in plant biomass. The results indicate that both water regime and the introduction of an invasive AMF species can strongly alter the structure of an AMF native assemblage with a consequent impact on the entire symbiotic mycorrhizal relationship.

  6. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  7. Structure and species composition of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities colonizing seedlings and adult trees of Pinus montezumae in Mexican neotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Ortega-Larrocea, María del Pilar; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; Pérez-Moreno, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Mexico is a center of diversity for pines, but few studies have examined the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities associated with pines in this country. We investigated the ECM communities associated with Pinus montezumae seedlings and mature trees in neotropical forests of central Mexico and compared their structure and species composition. Root tips were sampled on both planted seedlings and naturally occurring adult trees. A total of 42 ECM operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found on P. montezumae. Diversity and similarity indices showed that community structure was similar for both plant growth stages, but phylogenetic diversity and Chao-estimated richness were higher for seedlings. Species composition differed between communities. The dominant OTUs belonged to the families Atheliaceae, Cortinariaceae, and Sebacinaceae, although different taxa appeared to colonize seedlings and adults. Only 12 OTUs were shared between seedlings and adults, which suggests that ECM fungi which colonize seedlings are still not fully incorporated into mycelial networks and that ECM taxa colonizing young individuals of P. montezumae are likely to come from fungal propagules. Intra-generic diversity could be an insurance mechanism to maintain forest productivity under stressed conditions. This is the first report describing the abundance of Atheliaceae in tree roots in neotropical ecosystems. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Co-existing ericaceous plant species in a subarctic mire community share fungal root endophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Olsrud, Maria; Michelsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, culture-independent identification tools have widened our knowledge of fungi colonizing ericaceous roots including ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. One focal interest has been to identify fungi, which simultaneously can establish ericoid and ectomycorrhiza, while knowledge about......, was studied. From each of these plants, in each of five plots, clone libraries were established using fungal specific ITS-PCR followed by cloning, PCR–RFLP and sequencing. The clone libraries were dominated by potential ericoid mycorrhizal fungi, particularly Rhizoscyphus ericae, fungi belonging...

  9. Fungal contamination in swine: a potential occupational health threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2013-01-01

    Poor air quality in a pig-confinement building may potentially place farmers at higher health risk than other workers for exposure to airborne pollutants that may reach infectious levels. The aim of this study was to assess worker exposure to fungi in indoor environments in Portuguese swine buildings. Air samples from 7 swine farms were collected at a flow rate of 140 L/min, at 1 m height, onto malt extract agar supplemented with chloramphenicol (MEA). Surfaces samples of the same indoor sites were obtained by swabbing the surfaces. Samples from the floor covering were also collected from four of seven swine farms. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5-7 days. After lab processing and incubation of obtained samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU)/m(3), CFU/cm(2), and CFU/g and qualitative results were determined with identification of isolated fungal species. Aspergillus versicolor was the most frequent species found in air (21%), followed by Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17%) and Penicillium sp. (14%). Aspergillus versicolor was also the most frequent species noted on surfaces (26.6%), followed by Cladosporium sp. (22.4%) and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis (17.5%). Chrysosporium was the most frequently found genera in the new floor covering (38.5%), while Mucor was the most prevalent genera (25.1%) in used floor covering. Our findings corroborate a potential occupational health threat due to fungi exposure and suggest the need for a preventive strategy.

  10. Potential of Some Fungal and Bacterial Species in Bioremediation of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms including fungi and bacteria have been reported to extract heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate bacteria and fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal from wastewater. Bacterial and fungal isolates were obtained from the samples collected from Karnal, Ambala and Yamunanagar districts of Haryana using enrichment culture technique. Bacterial and fungal isolates with tolerant up to 100 ppm concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr were tested for their removal from liquid media containing 50 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd and Cr each. Five fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspegillus nidulans, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus arrhizus, Trichoderma viride were also included in this study. Fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Rhizopus arrhizus and Trichoderma viride showed maximum uptake capacity of 25.67 mg/g for Pb, 13.15 mg/g for Cd and 2.55 mg/g of Cr, respectively. The maximum uptake capacity of tolerant bacterial isolates - BPb12 and BPb16, BCd5 and BCr14 were observed to be ~ 45 mg/g for Pb, 2.12 mg/g for Cd and 3.29 mg/g for Cr, respectively. This indicated the potential of these identified fungi and bacteria as biosorbent for removal of high concentration metals from wastewater and industrial effluents.

  11. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream fungal isolates in paediatric patients in Mexico: a nationwide surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Gloria M; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; Palma-Nicolás, José P; Martínez, César; González, J Gerardo; Ayala, Jacobo; Caballero, Amílcar; Morfín-Otero, Rayo; Rodríguez-Noriega, E; Velarde, Fernando; Ascencio, Elba P; Tinoco, Juan C; Vázquez, Jorge A; Cano, Manuel A; León-Sicairos, Nidia; González, Rocío; Rincón, Joaquín; Elías, Miguel A; Bonifaz, Alexandro

    2013-12-01

    To establish the species distribution and in vitro susceptibilities of 358 bloodstream fungal isolates from paediatric patients in Mexico. Isolates were collected during a 2 year surveillance programme in 14 medical centres in 10 Mexican states. A molecular approach was used to determine the Candida parapsilosis species complex. In vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin was determined according to CLSI procedures. Species-specific clinical breakpoints for fluconazole, voriconazole and echinocandins were applied. Candida spp. accounted for 98.33% of fungaemias, including 127 Candida albicans isolates, 127 C. parapsilosis complex isolates (121 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 4 Candida orthopsilosis and 2 Candida metapsilosis strains) and 72 Candida tropicalis isolates. C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex were the species predominant in neonates (48 cases each; 41.02%). C. parapsilosis complex was also the predominant species in patients 1 month to <2 years of age (P = 0.007). In contrast, C. albicans was the most frequent species in patients aged 2 to <12 years (P = 0.003). Antifungal resistance was rare among the subset of isolates. Candida glabrata showed the highest resistance rate to amphotericin B (1/9 isolates), fluconazole (1/9 isolates) and itraconazole (2/9 isolates). The species distribution differed with the age of the patients, with C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex being the most commonly isolated species. C. glabrata showed the highest resistance rate to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. This is the first study of fungaemia episodes in Mexican children.

  12. Fungal Sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Fungal Sinusitis Fungal Sinusitis Patient Health Information News media interested ... sinusitis results. There Are Four Types Of Fungal Sinusitis: Mycetoma Fungal Sinusitis produces clumps of spores, a " ...

  13. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  14. Involvement of fungal species in bovine mastitis in and around Mathura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Pachauri

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the prevalence of mycotic mastitis in bovines of Mathura region. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 milk samples collected from seven different regions of Mathura were examined by cultural, morphological and biochemical methods. Results: Out of 100 milk samples processed 64 samples were found positive for fungal isolates. The most common isolates were Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that Candida spp and Aspergillus spp are the main fungi involved in bovine mastitis in this region. Good hygiene and sanitation practices of animal farm and judicious use of antibiotics will lower incidence of bovine mycotic mastitis. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 393-395

  15. Lignin-degrading enzyme from the hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, M.; Kirk, T.K.

    1983-08-12

    The extracellular fluid of ligninolytic cultures of the wood-decomposing basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds contains an enzyme that degrades lignin substructure model compounds as well as spruce and birch lignins. It has a molecular size of 42,000 daltons and requires hydrogen peroxide for activity. (Refs. 24).

  16. Fungal host specificity is not a bottleneck for the germination of Pyroleae species (Ericaceae) in a Bavarian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynson, Nicole A; Weiß, Michael; Preiss, Katja; Gebauer, Gerhard; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2013-03-01

    Plants that produce dust seeds can recruit fungi to meet their earliest requirements for carbon and other nutrients. This germination strategy, termed initial mycoheterotrophy, has been well investigated among the orchid family, but there are numerous other plant lineages that have independently evolved mycoheterotrophic germination strategies. One of these lineages is the tribe Pyroleae (Ericaceae). While the fungi associated with mature plants in Pyroleae have been fairly well documented, their mycobionts at the germination and seedling stages are largely unknown. Here, we use an in situ seed baiting experiment along with molecular fingerprinting techniques and phylogenetic tests to identify the fungi associated with seedlings of two Pyroleae species, Pyrola chlorantha and Orthilia secunda. Our results indicate that similar to adult plants, Pyroleae seedlings can associate with a suite of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Some seedlings harboured single mycobionts, while others may have been inhabited by multiple fungi. The dominant seedling mycobiont of both Pyroleae species was a fungus of unknown trophic status in the order Sebacinales. This taxon was also the only one shared among seedlings of both investigated Pyroleae species. We discuss these results juxtaposed to orchids and one additional Pyrola species in the context of ontogenetic shifts in fungal host specificity for mycoheterotrophic nutrition.

  17. Multigene phylogenetic analyses to delimit new species in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Tara L; Eggertson, Quinn A; Lévesque, C André

    2012-01-01

    Supporting the identification of unknown strains or specimens by sequencing a genetic marker commonly used for phylogenetics or DNA barcoding is now standard practice for mycologists and plant pathologists. Does one have a new species when a strain differs by a few base pairs when compared to reference sequences from taxonomically well-characterized species that do not differ morphologically from this new strain? If variation at the intra- and interspecific levels for the locus used for identification is already understood for all the closely related species, it is possible to make a reliable prediction of a new species status, but ultimately this question can only be properly addressed by determining the presence or absence of gene flow among a group of strains of the putative new species and strains of previously delimited species. The Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC) and its assessment using multigene phylogeny and Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) are the basis for this chapter. The theoretical framework and a variety of tools to apply these concepts are explained, to assist in the assessment of whether a species is distinct or new when confronted with some sequence divergence from reference data.

  18. The most relictual fungus-farming ant species cultivates the most recently evolved and highly domesticated fungal symbiont species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Ted R; Sosa-Calvo, Jeffrey; Brady, Seán G; Lopes, Cauê T; Mueller, Ulrich G; Bacci, Mauricio; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L

    2015-05-01

    Fungus-farming (attine) ant agriculture is made up of five known agricultural systems characterized by remarkable symbiont fidelity in which five phylogenetic groups of ants faithfully cultivate five phylogenetic groups of fungi. Here we describe the first case of a lower-attine ant cultivating a higher-attine fungus based on our discovery of a Brazilian population of the relictual fungus-farming ant Apterostigma megacephala, known previously from four stray specimens from Peru and Colombia. We find that A. megacephala is the sole surviving representative of an ancient lineage that diverged ∼39 million years ago, very early in the ∼55-million-year evolution of fungus-farming ants. Contrary to all previously known patterns of ant-fungus symbiont fidelity, A. megacephala cultivates Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a highly domesticated fungal cultivar that originated only 2-8 million years ago in the gardens of the highly derived and recently evolved (∼12 million years ago) leaf-cutting ants. Because no other lower fungus-farming ant is known to cultivate any of the higher-attine fungi, let alone the leaf-cutter fungus, A. megacephala may provide important clues about the biological mechanisms constraining the otherwise seemingly obligate ant-fungus associations that characterize attine ant agriculture.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species.

  20. Specialization and local adaptation of a fungal parasite on two host plant species as revealed by two fitness traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Delphine; Pennings, Pleuni S; Grandclément, Catherine; Acosta, Jorge; Kaltz, Oliver; Shykoff, Jacqui A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geographic pattern of adaptation of a fungal parasite, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, on two host species, Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus for two parasite fitness traits: infectivity (ability to attack a host individual) and aggressivity (degree of sporulation and leaf surface damage). Using a cross-inoculation experiment, we show specialization of the fungus on its host species of origin for both traits even when fungi, which originated from hosts growing in sympatry, were tested on sympatric host populations. Within the two host species, we compared infectivity and aggressivity on local versus allopatric plant-fungus combinations. We found evidence for local adaptation for the two traits on P. vulgaris but not on P. coccineus. There was no significant correlation between the degrees of local adaptation for infectivity and aggressivity, indicating that the genetic basis and the effect of selection may differ between these two traits. For the two fitness traits, a positive correlation between the degree of specialization and the degree of local adaptation was found, suggesting that specialization can be reinforced by local adaptation.

  1. Optimization of cultural conditions for protease production by a fungal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamath P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on a paddy soil fungal isolate identified to be a strain of Aspergillus niger from Manipal. The parameters that largely impact enzyme production viz., fermentation time, impeller speed, pH, temperature and nutrient supplements were studied. Optimization of production parameters for production of protease was done by the single-parameter mode. Casein served as substrate and proteolytic activity was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau method at 660 nm. A maximum yield of 71.3 mg tyrosine/g casein substrate was produced in 96 h on a soluble starch medium at pH 4 in shake flask experiments. Production was carried out on a 3-liter fermenter and 40.7 mg of tyrosine was liberated/g of substrate. The enzyme was extracted with 50% ammonium sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed two bands having mw 45.7 kDa and 38.5 kDa, respectively. The enzyme activity was found to be 147.84 U/ml.

  2. Comparative analysis of the repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus Trichoderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as sensors to connect to the environment. GPCRs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. Several species of the filamentous ascomycete Trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against fungal phytopathogens. The identification and characterization of GPCRs will provide insights into how Trichoderma communicates with its environment and senses the presence of host fungi. Results We mined the recently published genomes of the two mycoparasitic biocontrol agents Trichoderma atroviride and Trichoderma virens and compared the identified GPCR-like proteins to those of the saprophyte Trichoderma reesei. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in 14 classes and revealed differences not only among the three Trichoderma species but also between Trichoderma and other fungi. The class comprising proteins of the PAQR family was significantly expanded both in Trichoderma compared to other fungi as well as in the two mycoparasites compared to T. reesei. Expression analysis of the PAQR-encoding genes of the three Trichoderma species revealed that all except one were actually transcribed. Furthermore, the class of receptors with a DUF300 domain was expanded in T. atroviride, and T. virens showed an expansion of PTH11-like receptors compared to T. atroviride and T. reesei. Conclusions Comparative genome analyses of three Trichoderma species revealed a great diversity of putative GPCRs with genus- and species- specific differences. The expansion of certain classes in the mycoparasites T. atroviride and T. virens is likely to reflect the capability of these fungi to establish various ecological niches and interactions with other organisms such as fungi and plants. These

  3. Detection and Isolation of Epichloë Species, Fungal Endophytes of Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, Simona; Schardl, Christopher L; Hollin, Walter

    2015-08-03

    Epichloë species (including former Neotyphodium species) are endophytic fungi that significantly affect fitness of cool-season grass hosts, potentially by increasing nutrient uptake and resistance to drought, parasitism and herbivory. Epichloë species are obligately biotrophic, living in the intercellular spaces of their plant hosts, and spreading systemically throughout host aerial tissues. The reproduction of Epichloë species is versatile; some strains have both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction, but others are restricted to one or the other mode. The reproduction mode determines the dissemination mechanism, and the asexual species most important to agriculture are strictly seed-borne, cause no signs or symptoms, and are undetectable except by specialized microscopic, molecular or antigenic procedures. These procedures can be used to identify endophytes in a variety of plant tissues. Similar protocols can be modified to detect less common symbionts, such as the penicillate "p-endophytes," when they occur by themselves or together with Epichloë species.

  4. Species of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay: evidence of fungal host jumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, C A; Wingfield, M J; Altier, N; Blanchette, R A

    2013-02-01

    Mycosphaerella species are well-known causal agents of leaf diseases on many economically and ecologically important plant species. In Uruguay, a relatively large number of Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae are found on Eucalyptus, but nothing is known of these fungi on native Myrtaceae. The aim of this study was to identify Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae species associated with leaf diseases on native Myrtaceae in Uruguay and to consider whether host jumps by the pathogen from introduced Eucalyptus to native Myrtaceae have occurred. Several native forests throughout the country were surveyed with special attention given to those located close to Eucalyptus plantations. Five species belonging to the Mycosphaerellaceae and Teratosphaeriaceae clades were found on native Myrtaceous trees and three of these had previously been reported on Eucalyptus in Uruguay. Those occurring both on Eucalyptus and native Myrtaceae included Pallidocercospora heimii, Pseudocercospora norchiensis, and Teratosphaeria aurantia. In addition, Mycosphaerella yunnanensis, a species known to occur on Eucalyptus but not previously recorded in Uruguay, was found on leaves of two native Myrtaceous hosts. Because most of these species occur on Eucalyptus in countries other than Uruguay, it appears that they were introduced in this country and have adapted to be able to infect native Myrtaceae. These apparent host jumps have the potential to result in serious disease problems and they should be carefully monitored.

  5. Phytoremediation combined with biorefinery on the example of two agricultural crops grown on Ni soil and degraded by P. chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotenko, Maria; Coles, Stuart; Barker, Guy; Song, Lijiang; Jiang, Ying; Longhurst, Philip; Romanova, Tamara; Shuvaeva, Olga; Kirwan, Kerry

    2016-12-12

    During the last few decades, phytoremediation process has attracted much attention because of the growing concerns about the deteriorating quality of soil caused by anthropogenic activities. Here, a tandem phytoremediation/biorefinery process was proposed as a way to turn phytoremediation into a viable commercial method by producing valuable chemicals in addition to cleaned soil. Two agricultural plants (Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown in moderately contaminated soil with ca. 100 ppm of Ni and further degraded by a fungal lignin degrader - Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Several parameters have been studied: the viability of plants, biomass yield and their accumulating and remediating potentials. Further down-stream processing showed that up to 80% of Ni can be easily extracted from contaminated biomass by aqueous extraction at mild conditions. Finally, it was demonstrated that the grown onto contaminated soil plants can be degraded by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the effect of nickel and biomass pre-treatment on the solid state fermentation was studied. The proposed and studied in this work methodology can pave the way to successful commercialization of the phytoremediation process in the near future.

  6. Fungal assemblages associated with roots of halophytic and non-halophytic plant species vary differentially along a salinity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Ferraro, Valeria; Burruano, Santella; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2012-10-01

    Structure of fungal communities is known to be influenced by host plants and environmental conditions. However, in most cases, the dynamics of these variation patterns are poorly understood. In this work, we compared richness, diversity, and composition between assemblages of endophytic and rhizospheric fungi associated to roots of two plants with different lifestyles: the halophyte Inula crithmoides and the non-halophyte I. viscosa (syn. Dittrichia viscosa L.), along a spatially short salinity gradient. Roots and rhizospheric soil from these plants were collected at three points between a salt marsh and a sand dune, and fungi were isolated and characterized by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were classified in a total of 90 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to 17 fungal orders within Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Species composition of endophytic and soil communities significantly differed across samples. Endophyte communities of I. crithmoides and I. viscosa were only similar in the intermediate zone between the salt marsh and the dune, and while the latter displayed a single, generalist association of endophytes, I. crithmoides harbored different assemblages along the gradient, adapted to the specific soil conditions. In the lower salt marsh, root assemblages were strongly dominated by a single dark septate sterile fungus, also prevalent in other neighboring salt marshes. Interestingly, although its occurrence was positively correlated to soil salinity, in vitro assays revealed a strong inhibition of its growth by salts. Our results suggest that host lifestyle and soil characteristics have a strong effect on endophytic fungi and that environmental stress may entail tight plant-fungus relationships for adaptation to unfavorable conditions.

  7. How interacting fungal species and mineral nitrogen inputs affect transfer of nitrogen from litter via arbuscular mycorrhizal mycelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuejun; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Zhong, Zhangcheng; Dong, Ming; Jiang, Changhong

    2017-04-01

    In the karst landscape, widespread in the world including southern China, soil nutrient supply is strongly constrained. In such environments, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may facilitate plant nutrient uptake. However, the possible role of different AM fungal species, and their interactions, especially in transferring nitrogen (N) from litter to plant, is poorly understood. We conducted two microcosm experiments to investigate the role that two karst soil AM fungi, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus mosseae, play in the transfer of N from decomposing litter to the host plant and to determine how N availability influences these processes. In experiment 1, Cinnamomum camphora tree seedlings were grown in compartments inoculated with G. etunicatum. Lolium perenne leaf litter labeled with δ(15)N was added to the soil in unplanted compartments. Compartments containing the δ(15)N labeled litter were either accessible to hyphae but not to seedling roots or were not accessible to hyphae or roots. The addition of mineral N to one of the host compartments at the start of the experiment significantly increased the biomass of the C. camphora seedlings, N content and N:P ratio, AM mycelium length, and soil microbial biomass carbon and N. However, significantly, more δ(15)N was acquired, from the leaf litter by the AM hyphae and transferred to the host when mineral N was not added to the soil. In experiment 2, in which C. camphora seedlings were inoculated with both G. etunicatum and G. mosseae rather than with G. mosseae alone, there was a significant increase in mycelial growth (50.21%), in soil microbial biomass carbon (417.73%) in the rhizosphere, and in the amount of δ(15)N that was transferred to the host. These findings suggest that maintaining AM fungal diversity in karst soils could be important for mediating N transfer from organic material to host plants in N-poor soils.

  8. Fungal Antagonism Assessment of Predatory Species and Producers Metabolites and Their Effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3. Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma esau, and Arthrobotrys musiformis; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA on L3 of H. contortus. D. flagrans (Assay A produced 5.3 × 106 spores and associated with T. esau, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 107 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 109 spores and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 108 conidia and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.

  9. Fungal Antagonism Assessment of Predatory Species and Producers Metabolites and Their Effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus Infective Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manoel Eduardo; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; de Gives, Pedro Mendoza; Millán-Orozco, Jair; Uriostegui, Miguel Angel Mercado; Marcelino, Liliana Aguilar; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Araújo, Andréia Luiza; Vargas, Thainá Souza; Aguiar, Anderson Rocha; Senna, Thiago; Rodrigues, Maria Gorete; Froes, Frederico Vieira; de Araújo, Jackson Victor

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L3). Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans, Clonostachys rosea, Trichoderma esau, and Arthrobotrys musiformis; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA) on L3 of H. contortus. D. flagrans (Assay A) produced 5.3 × 10(6) spores and associated with T. esau, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 10(7) conidia and associated with D. flagrans, A. musiformis, or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 10(9) spores and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 10(8) conidia and associated with D. flagrans, T. esau, or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.

  10. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.;

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...

  11. What determines species richness of parasitic organisms? A meta-analysis across animal, plant and fungal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Tsukushi; O'Dwyer, Katie; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Poulin, Robert

    2014-02-01

    Although a small set of external factors account for much of the spatial variation in plant and animal diversity, the search continues for general drivers of variation in parasite species richness among host species. Qualitative reviews of existing evidence suggest idiosyncrasies and inconsistent predictive power for all proposed determinants of parasite richness. Here, we provide the first quantitative synthesis of the evidence using a meta-analysis of 62 original studies testing the relationship between parasite richness across animal, plant and fungal hosts, and each of its four most widely used presumed predictors: host body size, host geographical range size, host population density, and latitude. We uncover three universal predictors of parasite richness across host species, namely host body size, geographical range size and population density, applicable regardless of the taxa considered and independently of most aspects of study design. A proper match in the primary studies between the focal predictor and both the spatial scale of study and the level at which parasite species richness was quantified (i.e. within host populations or tallied across a host species' entire range) also affected the magnitude of effect sizes. By contrast, except for a couple of indicative trends in subsets of the full dataset, there was no strong evidence for an effect of latitude on parasite species richness; where found, this effect ran counter to the general latitude gradient in diversity, with parasite species richness tending to be higher further from the equator. Finally, the meta-analysis also revealed a negative relationship between the magnitude of effect sizes and the year of publication of original studies (i.e. a time-lag bias). This temporal bias may be due to the increasing use of phylogenetic correction in comparative analyses of parasite richness over time, as this correction yields more conservative effect sizes. Overall, these findings point to common underlying

  12. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciani Gaspar De Toledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC, time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic and MRC-5 (fibroblast cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL. The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred

  13. Anthracnose disease of centipedegrass turf caused by Colletotrichum eremochloae, a new fungal species closely related to Colletotrichum sublineola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Tomaso-Peterson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Colletotrichum is a cosmopolitan, anamorphic fungal genus responsible for anthracnose disease in hundreds of plant species worldwide, including members of the Poaceae. Anthracnose disease of the widely planted, non-native, warm-season lawn grass, Eremochloae ophiuroides (centipedegrass), is commonly encountered in the southern United States, but the causal agent has never been identified. We use DNA sequence data from modern cultures and archival fungarium specimens in this study to determine the identity of the fungus responsible for centipedegrass anthracnose disease and provide experimental confirmation of pathogenicity. C. eremochloae sp. nov., a pathogen of centipedegrass, is proposed based on phylogenetic evidence from four sequence markers (Apn2, Apn2/ Mat1, Sod2, ITS). C. eremochloae isolates from centipedegrass shared common morphology and phenotype with C. sublineola, a destructive pathogen of cultivated sorghum and Johnsongrass weeds (Sorghum halepense, S. vulgaris). Molecular phylogenetic analysis identified C. eremochloae and C. sublineola as closely related sister taxa, but genealogical concordance supported their distinction as unique phylogenetic species. Fixed nucleotide differences between C. eremochloae and C. sublineola were observed from collections of these fungi spanning 105 y, including the 1904 lectotype specimen of C. sublineola. C. eremochloae was identified from a fungarium specimen of centipedegrass intercepted at a USA port from a 1923 Chinese shipment; the multilocus sequence from this specimen was identical to modern samples of the fungus. Thus, it appears that the fungus might have migrated to the USA around the same time that centipedegrass first was introduced to the USA in 1916 from China, where the grass is indigenous. The new species C. eremochloae is described and illustrated, along with a description and discussion of C. sublineola based on the lectotype and newly designated epitype.

  14. Manganese regulates expression of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J A; Glenn, J K; Gold, M H

    1990-01-01

    The appearance of manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is dependent on the presence of manganese. Cultures grown in the absence of Mn developed normally and produced normal levels of the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol but produced no MnP activity. Immunoblot analysis indicated that appearance of MnP protein in the extracellular medium was also dependent on the presence of Mn. Intracellular MnP protein was detectable only in cel...

  15. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Lucas, S; Ornat, C; Sorribas, F J; Stchiegel, A

    2002-12-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería-M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P parasites were found in 37% and 45% of the sites in Almería and Barcelona, respectively, but percent parasitism was never greater than 5%. Nine fungal species were isolated from single eggs of the nematode. The fungi included Verticillium chlamydosporium, V. catenulatum, Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, Fusarium spp., Acremonium strictum, Gliocladium roseum, Cylindrocarpon spp., Engiodontium album, and Dactylella oviparasitica. Two sterile fungi and five unidentified fungi also were isolated from Meloidogyne spp. eggs.

  16. Penicillium arizonense, a new, genome sequenced fungal species, reveals a high chemical diversity in secreted metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijseels, Sietske; Nielsen, Jens Christian; Randelovic, Milica;

    2016-01-01

    confirmed the grouping of P. arizonense within section Canescentia. Compared to related species, P. arizonense proved to encode a high number of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, in particular hemicellulases. Mining the genome for genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis resulted...... of biosynthetic gene clusters in P. arizonense responsible for the synthesis of all detected compounds except curvulinic acid. The capacity to produce biomass degrading enzymes and the identification of a high chemical diversity in secreted bioactive secondary metabolites, offers a broad range of potential...

  17. Anthracnose disease of switchgrass caused by the novel fungal species Colletotrichum navitas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Jo Anne; Beirn, Lisa A; Cortese, Laura M; Bonos, Stacy A; Clarke, Bruce B

    2009-12-01

    In recent years perennial grasses such as the native tallgrass prairie plant Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) have taken on a new role in the North American landscape as a plant-based source of renewable energy. Because switchgrass is a native plant, it has been suggested that disease problems will be minimal, but little research in this area has been conducted. Recently, outbreaks of switchgrass anthracnose disease have been reported from the northeastern United States. Incidences of switchgrass anthracnose are known in North America since 1886 through herbarium specimens and disease reports, but the causal agent of this disease has never been experimentally determined or taxonomically evaluated. In the present work, we evaluate the causal agent of switchgrass anthracnose, a new species we describe as Colletotrichum navitas (navitas=Latin for energy). Multilocus molecular phylogenetics and morphological characters show C. navitas is a novel species in the falcate-spored graminicolous group of the genus Colletotrichum; it is most closely related to the corn anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola. We present a formal description and illustrations for C. navitas and provide experimental confirmation that this organism is responsible for switchgrass anthracnose disease.

  18. Microbial pretreatment of cotton stalks by Phanerochaete chrysosporium for bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian

    .04% for SmC and SSC pretreated samples, respectively) compared with untreated cotton stalk samples (17.93%). Washing of pretreated cotton stalks alone caused no significant increase in cellulose conversion. However, a heat treatment (autoclaving) followed by washing remarkably improved (Penzyme production, and oxygen uptake associated with the growth of P. chrysosporium during 14 days fungal pretreatment were developed. For SmC pretreatment, model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression and validated using an independent set of experimental data. Models yielded sufficiently accurate predictions for holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9772 and 0.9837, 1d and 3d oxygen flushing, respectively), lignin degradation (R2=0.9879 and 0.8682) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.8135 and 0.9693) under both 1 and 3d oxygen flushing conditions. However, the prediction capabilities for fungal growth (1d and 3d), cellulase production (3d) and oxygen uptake (3d) were limited. For SSC, the models were established in three phases (I: day 0-4, II: day 4-7, III: day 7-14). After validation it was shown that the developed models can yield sufficiently accurate predictions for fungal growth (R 2=0.9724), holocellulose consumption (R2=0.9686), lignin degradation (R2=0.9309) and ligninolytic enzyme production (R2=0.9203); however predictions of cellulase production were fair (R2=0.6133). Although significant delignification occurred during fungal pretreatment indicating the presence of ligninolytic enzymes, common spectrophotometric enzyme assays failed to detect lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) activities in fungal pretreatment cultures. Efforts were made to overcome the drawbacks of standardized assays by performing protein gel electrophoresis and crude enzyme delignification studies. Results from this research are expected to be beneficial in the development of pretreatment technologies that are environment friendly and utilize naturally occurring

  19. Fumigant antifungal activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils and citronellal against three fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S; Ootani, Marcio A; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P S; Dos Santos, Manoel M; dos Santos, Gil R

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg · mL(-1) for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg · mL(-1) only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg · mL(-1) of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg · mL(-1) with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  20. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oils and Citronellal against Three Fungal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner de S. Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL−1 for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL−1 only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL−1 of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL−1 with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  1. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

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    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  2. Fungal colonization of seeds of three lupine species in different regions of Poland

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    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The health status of seeds of three lupine species (white lupine, narrow-leaved lupine, and yellow lupine from different regions of Poland was investigated. Seeds were analyzed by microscopic method and PCR. The examined lupine seeds were colonized by saprotrophic fungi of the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, and Penicillium, and pathogenic fungi of the genera Fusarium, Botrytis, Mycosphaerella, and Colletotrichum. The relative frequency (RF of fungi detected on lupine seeds from the regions of Kujawy, Wielkopolska, Lower Silesia, and Warmia and Mazury was determined. The highest RF values of pathogenic fungi were noted in Lower Silesia in 2012 and 2013, and in Warmia and Mazury in 2011. The RF values of pathogenic and saprotrophic fungi on lupine seeds harvested in different regions of Poland were affected by weather conditions. PCR analyses revealed the presence of Tri genes in the seeds of narrow-leaved lupine. The analyzed seeds were relatively free of pathogenic fungi and could be used for sowing and feed production.

  3. Polyphosphate present in DNA preparations from fungal species of Collectotrichum inhibits restriction endonucleases and other enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    During the development of a procedure for the isolation of total genomic DNA from filamentous fungi (Rodriguez, R. J., and Yoder, 0. C., Exp. Mycol. 15, 232-242, 1991) a cell fraction was isolated which inhibited the digestion of DNA by restriction enzymes. After elimination of DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids, the active compound was purified by gel filtration to yield a single fraction capable of complete inhibition of restriction enzyme activity. The inhibitor did not absorb uv light above 220 nm, and was resistant to alkali and acid at 25°C and to temperatures as high as 100°C. More extensive analyses demonstrated that the inhibitor was also capable of inhibiting T4 DNA ligase and TaqI DNA polymerase, but not DNase or RNase. Chemical analyses indicated that the inhibitor was devoid of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids but rich in phosphorus. A combination of nuclear magnetic resonance, metachromatic shift of toluidine blue, and gel filtration indicated that the inhibitor was a polyphosphate (polyP) containing approximately 60 phosphate molecules. The mechanism of inhibition appeared to involve complexing of polyP to the enzymatic proteins. All species of Colletotrichum analyzed produced polyP equivalent in chain length and concentration. A modification to the original DNA extraction procedure is described which eliminates polyP and reduces the time necessary to obtain DNA of sufficient purity for restriction enzyme digestion and TaqI polymerase amplification.

  4. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-07-13

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  5. Fatal cutaneous mycosis in tentacled snakes caused by the chrysosporium anamorph of nannizziposis vriesii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Crawshaw, Graham J.; Sigler, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes......The fungus Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii was identified as the caurse of fatal, multifocal, heterophilic dermatitis in for freshwater aquatic captive-bred tentacled snakes...

  6. Potential extinction of Antarctic endemic fungal species as a consequence of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selbmann, Laura, E-mail: selbmann@unitus.it [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Isola, Daniela; Fenice, Massimiliano; Zucconi, Laura [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Sterflinger, Katja [Department of Biotechnology, Austrian Center of Biological Resources and Applied Mycology (ACBR), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Onofri, Silvano [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extinction of threatened species previously living in confined niches may occur.

  7. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  8. Transcriptional effect of a calmodulin inhibitor, W-7, on the ligninolytic enzyme genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takaiku; Kitaura, Hironori; Minami, Masahiko; Honda, Yoichi; Watanabe, Takashi; Ueda, Akio; Suzuki, Kazumi; Irie, Toshikazu

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of a calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor, W-7, on the expression of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes in Phanerochaete chrysosporium to consider the role of cam gene, which was upregulated in parallel with the total activities of LiP and MnP in our previous transcriptomic analysis. The addition of 100 μM W-7 to the fungal cultures repressed the total activities of LiP and MnP, whereas the addition of 100 μM W-5, which is a control drug of W-7, retained approximately half of them, indicating that the effect of W-7 was attributable to CaM inhibition. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that most of lip and mnp isozyme genes predicted from whole-genome data were significantly inhibited by W-7 at the transcription level (P ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that CaM has an important role for the expression of isozyme genes of LiP and MnP at the transcription level.

  9. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  10. DNA barcode identification of lichen-forming fungal species in the Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanorales, Lecanoraceae, including five new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Leavitt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies using sequence data from multiple loci and coalescent-based species delimitation have revealed several species-level lineages within the phenotypically circumscribed taxon Rhizoplaca melanophthalma sensu lato. Here, we formally describe five new species within this group, R. occulta, R. parilis, R. polymorpha, R. porterii, and R. shushanii, using support from the coalescent-based species delimitation method implemented in the program Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP as the diagnostic feature distinguishing new species. We provide a reference DNA sequence database using the ITS marker as a DNA barcode for identifying species within this complex. We also assessed intraspecific genetic distances within the six R. melanophthalma sensu lato species. While intraspecific genetic distances within the five new species were less than or equal to the lowest interspecific pairwise comparison values, an overlap in genetic distances within the R. melanophthalma sensu stricto clade suggests the potential for additional phenotypically cryptic lineages within this broadly distributed lineage. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential for accurately identifying species within the R. melanophthalma group by using molecular-based identification methods.

  11. Volatiles Emitted from Maize Ears Simultaneously Infected with Two Fusarium Species Mirror the Most Competitive Fungal Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Mohammed; Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass, and the concentration of the oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e., sesquiterpenoids) and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions. PMID:27729923

  12. Volatiles emitted from maize ears simultaneously infected with two Fusarium species mirror the most competitive fungal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sherif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with barley and rice, maize provides staple food for more than half of the world population. Maize ears are regularly infected with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus, which, besides reducing yield, also taint grains with toxic metabolites. In an earlier work, we have shown that maize ears infection with single Fusarium strains was detectable through volatile sensing. In nature, infection most commonly occurs with more than a single fungal strain; hence we tested how the interactions of two strains would modulate volatile emission from infected ears. For this purpose, ears of a hybrid and a dwarf maize variety were simultaneously infected with different strains of F. graminearums and F. verticillioides and, the resulting volatile profiles were compared to the ones of ears infected with single strains. Disease severity, fungal biomass and the concentration of an oxylipin 9-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid, a signaling molecule involved in plant defense, were monitored and correlated to volatile profiles. Our results demonstrate that in simultaneous infections of hybrid and dwarf maize, the most competitive fungal strains had the largest influence on the volatile profile of infected ears. In both concurrent and single inoculations, volatile profiles reflected disease severity. Additionally, the data further indicate that dwarf maize and hybrid maize might emit common (i.e. sesquiterpenoids and specific markers upon fungal infection. Overall this suggests that volatile profiles might be a good proxy for disease severity regardless of the fungal competition taking place in maize ears. With the appropriate sensitivity and reliability, volatile sensing thus appears as a promising tool for detecting fungal infection of maize ears under field conditions.

  13. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Stchigel, Alberto Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode ...

  14. 温室土壤中分离的三个中国新记录种%Three newly recorded fungal species from greenhouse soil in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓东; 杨瑞秀; 杨红; 吕国忠

    2006-01-01

    @@ More than 260 samples of greenhouse soil were collected from about 30 sites in Liaoning, Heilongjiang and Jilin Provinces. Most of these samples were rhizosphere soil in vegetable farm. Soil from nearby normal crop fields was also collected as a check. Spore solution was made by diluting soil samples 1000 times with sterilized water and dropped onto Petri dishes containing Martin medium for culture. Nearly one hundred species have been identified,among these species, Acrernonium cerealis, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scytalidium japonicum are newly recorded in China. All the fungal isolates were stored in the culture collection of Dalian Nationalities University with IBE (Institute of Bioresources and Environmental Science) number.

  15. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Raziye Ozturk Urek; Nurdan Kasikara Pazarlioglu

    2007-01-01

    Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725) was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF), oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v) and Mn2+ (174 µM) resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximatel...

  16. Ligninolytic System Formation by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in Air

    OpenAIRE

    Rothschild, N.; Hadar, Y.; Dosoretz, C

    1995-01-01

    This study characterizes the effect of oxygen concentration on the synthesis of ligninolytic enzymes by Phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam cubes in a nonimmersed liquid culture system and maintained under different carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratios and levels. Lignin peroxidase (LIP) activity was obtained in cultures exposed to air when the C/N ratio was low (7.47), i.e., when nitrogen levels were high (C/N = 56/45 mM) or carbon levels were low (C/N = 5.6/4.5 mM). At t...

  17. High functional diversity within species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is associated with differences in phosphate and nitrogen uptake and fungal phosphate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Jerry A; Koch, Alexander M; Antunes, Pedro M; Kiers, E Toby; Hart, Miranda; Bücking, Heike

    2015-10-01

    Plant growth responses following colonization with different isolates of a single species of an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus can range from highly beneficial to detrimental, but the reasons for this high within-species diversity are currently unknown. To examine whether differences in growth and nutritional benefits are related to the phosphate (P) metabolism of the fungal symbiont, the effect of 31 different isolates from 10 AM fungal morphospecies on the P and nitrogen (N) nutrition of Medicago sativa and the P allocation among different P pools was examined. Based on differences in the mycorrhizal growth response, high, medium, and low performance isolates were distinguished. Plant growth benefit was positively correlated to the mycorrhizal effect on P and N nutrition. High performance isolates increased plant biomass by more than 170 % and contributed substantially to both P and N nutrition, whereas the effect of medium performance isolates particularly on the N nutrition of the host was significantly lower. Roots colonized by high performance isolates were characterized by relatively low tissue concentrations of inorganic P and short-chain polyphosphates and a high ratio between long- to short-chain polyphosphates. The high performance isolates belonged to different morphospecies and genera, indicating that the ability to contribute to P and N nutrition is widespread within the Glomeromycota and that differences in symbiotic performance and P metabolism are not specific for individual fungal morphospecies.

  18. Attraction, Oviposition and Larval Survival of the Fungus Gnat, Lycoriella ingenua, on Fungal Species Isolated from Adults, Larvae, and Mushroom Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Kevin R.; Andreadis, Stefanos S.; Chen, Haibin; Jenkins, Nina E.; Baker, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously showed that the females of the mushroom sciarid, Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour, 1839) (Diptera: Sciaridae), one of the most severe pests of the cultivated white button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricaceae), are attracted to the mushroom compost that mushrooms are grown on and not to the mushrooms themselves. We also showed that females are attracted to the parasitic green mold, Trichoderma aggressivum. In an attempt to identify what is in the mushroom compost that attracts female L. ingenua, we isolated several species of fungi from adult males and females, third instar larvae, and mushroom compost itself. We then analyzed the attraction of females to these substrates using a static-flow two choice olfactometer, as well as their oviposition tendencies in another type of assay under choice and no-choice conditions. We also assessed the survival of larvae to adulthood when first instar larvae were placed on each of the isolated fungal species. We found that female flies were attracted most to the mycoparasitic green mold, T. aggressivum, to Penicilium citrinum isolated from adult female bodies, and to Scatylidium thermophilium isolated from the mushroom compost. Gravid female flies laid the most eggs on T. aggressivum, Aspergillus flavus isolated from third instar larval frass, Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from adult male bodies, and on P. citrinum. This egg-laying trend remained consistent under no-choice conditions as females aged. First instar larvae developed to adulthood only on S. thermophilium and Chaetomium sp. isolated from mushroom compost, and on P. citrinum. Our results indicate that the volatiles from a suite of different fungal species act in tandem in the natural setting of mushroom compost, with some first attracting gravid female flies and then others causing them to oviposit. The ecological context of these findings is important for creating an optimal strategy for using possible

  19. Fungal Peritonitis Due to Fusarium solani Species Complex Sequential Isolates Identified with DNA Sequencing in a Kidney Transplant Recipient in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison Plinio; Zuza-Alves, Diana Luzia; Melo, Analy Salles de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2015-12-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare serious complication most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients under peritoneal dialysis. Nevertheless, this clinical condition is more difficult to treat than bacterial peritonitis. Bacterial peritonitis followed by the use of antibiotics is the main risk factor for developing fungal peritonitis. Candida spp. are more frequently isolated, and the isolation of filamentous fungi is only occasional. Here we describe a case of Fusarium solani species complex peritonitis associated with bacterial peritonitis in a female kidney transplant recipient with previous history of nephrotic syndrome. The patient has had Enterobacter sp. endocarditis and was hypertensive and diabetic. Two sequential isolates of F. solani were recovered from cultures and identified with different molecular techniques. She was successfully treated with 50 mg daily amphotericin B for 4 weeks.

  20. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saniasiaya, Jeyasakthy; Salim, Rosdan; Mohamad, Irfan; Harun, Azian

    2017-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL) using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger (p Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger.

  1. Antifungal Effect of Malaysian Aloe vera Leaf Extract on Selected Fungal Species of Pathogenic Otomycosis Species in In Vitro Culture Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyasakthy Saniasiaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aloe barbadensis miller or Aloe vera has been used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times with antifungal activity known to be amongst its medicinal properties. We conducted a pilot study to determine the antifungal properties of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf extract on otomycosis species including Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Methods: This laboratory-controlled prospective study was conducted at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf was prepared in ethanol and solutions via the Soxhlet extraction method. Sabouraud dextrose agar cultured with the two fungal isolates were inoculated with the five different concentrations of each extract (50 g/mL, 25 g/mL, 12.5 g/mL, 6.25 g/mL, and 3.125 g/mL using the well-diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was measured followed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Results: For A. niger, a zone of inhibition for alcohol and aqueous extract was seen for all concentrations except 3.125 g/mL. There was no zone of inhibition for both alcohol and aqueous extracts of Aloe vera leaf for C. albicans. The MIC values of aqueous and alcohol extracts were 5.1 g/mL and 4.4 g/mL for A. niger and since no zone of inhibition was obtained for C. albicans the MIC was not determined. Conclusions: The antifungal effect of alcohol extracts of Malaysian Aloe vera leaf is better than the aqueous extract for A. niger (p < 0.001. Malaysian Aloe vera has a significant antifungal effect towards A. niger.

  2. Fungal arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000444.htm Fungal arthritis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fungal arthritis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of a joint ...

  3. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of endemic plant species of Tenerife (Canary Islands): relationship to vegetation zones and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge about fungal diversity scaling relationships relative to that of plants is important to understand ecosystem functioning. Tenerife Island, a natural laboratory to study terrestrial biodiversity, is represented by six different vegetation zones characterized by specific abiotic conditions...... and plant communities with a high proportion of endemic plants. Little is known about the biodiversity of associated fungi. To understand the relationship between plant and fungal communities, we analysed soil/rhizosphere fungi from all vegetation zones. From 12 sampling points dispersed on the whole island...

  5. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  6. PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR KERATINASE BY CHRYSOSPORIUM TROPICUM AND TRICHOPHYTON AJELLOI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Kačinová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Keratinous wastes constitute a troublesome environmental contaminant that is produced in large quantities in companies processing of poultry and their further use has ecological significance. We can use for degradation of keratinous wastes enzymes or strains, which produce these enzymes. The aim of this study was isolation of keratinophilic fungi from the soil samples and optimalization of culture conditions of keratinase producing strains in vitro. For the isolation of our strains, we used hair - baiting method. From the all isolated strains, we used for other screening Chrysosporium tropicum (JK39 and Trichophyton ajelloi (JK82. Production of keratinase we monitored with different time of cultivation (7th, 14th, 21th days, sources of carbon (glucose, fructose, mannitol, sucrose, concentration of carbon sources (1%, 2% and cultivation temperature (20, 25, 30, 37ºC. Keratinase production was studied in a liquid medium containing chicken feathers as a source of keratin. We recorded the maximum production of keratinase (10.51 KU/ml by Chrysosporium tropicum on 21th day of incubation with 1% glucose at 25ºC.

  7. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Granzow

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating

  8. The Effects of Cropping Regimes on Fungal and Bacterial Communities of Wheat and Faba Bean in a Greenhouse Pot Experiment Differ between Plant Species and Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granzow, Sandra; Kaiser, Kristin; Wemheuer, Bernd; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Daniel, Rolf; Vidal, Stefan; Wemheuer, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    Many bacteria and fungi in the plant rhizosphere and endosphere are beneficial to plant nutrient acquisition, health, and growth. Although playing essential roles in ecosystem functioning, our knowledge about the effects of multiple cropping regimes on the plant microbiome and their interactions is still limited. Here, we designed a pot experiment simulating different cropping regimes. For this purpose, wheat and faba bean plants were grown under controlled greenhouse conditions in monocultures and in two intercropping regimes: row and mixed intercropping. Bacterial and fungal communities in bulk and rhizosphere soils as well as in the roots and aerial plant parts were analyzed using large-scale metabarcoding. We detected differences in microbial richness and diversity between the cropping regimes. Generally, observed effects were attributed to differences between mixed and row intercropping or mixed intercropping and monoculture. Bacterial and fungal diversity were significantly higher in bulk soil samples of wheat and faba bean grown in mixed compared to row intercropping. Moreover, microbial communities varied between crop species and plant compartments resulting in different responses of these communities toward cropping regimes. Leaf endophytes were not affected by cropping regime but bacterial and fungal community structures in bulk and rhizosphere soil as well as fungal community structures in roots. We further recorded highly complex changes in microbial interactions. The number of negative inter-domain correlations between fungi and bacteria decreased in bulk and rhizosphere soil in intercropping regimes compared to monocultures due to beneficial effects. In addition, we observed plant species-dependent differences indicating that intra- and interspecific competition between plants had different effects on the plant species and thus on their associated microbial communities. To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating microbial communities in

  9. Plant species richness and productivity determine the diversity of soil fungal guilds in temperate coniferous forest and bog habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiiesalu, Indrek; Bahram, Mohammad; Tedersoo, Leho

    2017-09-01

    Fungi have important roles as decomposers, mycorrhizal root symbionts and pathogens in forest ecosystems, but there is limited information about their diversity and composition at the landscape scale. This work aimed to disentangle the factors underlying fungal richness and composition along the landscape-scale moisture, organic matter and productivity gradients. Using high-throughput sequencing, we identified soil fungi from 54 low-productivity Pinus sylvestris-dominated plots across three study areas in Estonia and determined the main predictors of fungal richness based on edaphic, floristic and spatial variables. Fungal richness displayed unimodal relationship with organic matter and deduced soil moisture. Plant richness and productivity constituted the key predictors for taxonomic richness of functional guilds. Composition of fungi and the main ectomycorrhizal fungal lineages and hyphal exploration types was segregated by moisture availability and soil nitrogen. We conclude that plant productivity and diversity determine the richness and proportion of most functional groups of soil fungi in low-productive pine forests on a landscape scale. Adjacent stands of pine forest may differ greatly in the dominance of functional guilds that have marked effects on soil carbon and nitrogen cycling in these forest ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Comparative Phylogenomics of Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Whiston

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Ascomycete Onygenales order embraces a diverse group of mammalian pathogens, including the yeast-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides spp. and Blastomyces dermatitidis, the dermatophytes Microsporum spp. and Trichopyton spp., the spherule-forming dimorphic fungal pathogens in the genus Coccidioides, and many nonpathogens. Although genomes for all of the aforementioned pathogenic species are available, only one nonpathogen had been sequenced. Here, we enhance comparative phylogenomics in Onygenales by adding genomes for Amauroascus mutatus, Amauroascus niger, Byssoonygena ceratinophila, and Chrysosporium queenslandicum—four nonpathogenic Onygenales species, all of which are more closely related to Coccidioides spp. than any other known Onygenales species. Phylogenomic detection of gene family expansion and contraction can provide clues to fungal function but is sensitive to taxon sampling. By adding additional nonpathogens, we show that LysM domain-containing proteins, previously thought to be expanding in some Onygenales, are contracting in the Coccidioides-Uncinocarpus clade, as are the self-nonself recognition Het loci. The denser genome sampling presented here highlights nearly 800 genes unique to Coccidiodes, which have significantly fewer known protein domains and show increased expression in the endosporulating spherule, the parasitic phase unique to Coccidioides spp. These genomes provide insight to gene family expansion/contraction and patterns of individual gene gain/loss in this diverse order—both major drivers of evolutionary change. Our results suggest that gene family expansion/contraction can lead to adaptive radiations that create taxonomic orders, while individual gene gain/loss likely plays a more significant role in branch-specific phenotypic changes that lead to adaptation for species or genera.

  11. The effect of heavy metal-induced oxidative stress on the enzymes in white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qihua; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Yan, Min; Chen, Anwei; Du, Jianjian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Ying; He, Xiaoxiao; He, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 μM cadmium and 25 μM lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 μM cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 μM; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 μM taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 μM cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 μM cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic degrading fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Ahmed, Safia; Robson, Geoff; Javed, Imran; Ali, Naeem; Atiq, Naima; Hameed, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrant nature of polyvinyl chloride creates serious environmental concerns during manufacturing and waste disposal. The present study was aimed to isolate and screen different soil fungi having potential to biodegrade PVC films. After 10 months of soil burial experiment, it was observed that a number of fungal strains were flourishing on PVC films. On morphological as well as on 18rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic basis they were identified as Phanerochaete chrysosporium PV1, Lentinus tigrinus PV2, Aspergillus niger PV3, and Aspergillus sydowii PV4. The biodegradation ability of these fungal isolates was further checked in shake flask experiments by taking thin films of PVC (C source) in mineral salt medium. A significant change in color and surface deterioration of PVC films was confirmed through visual observation and Scanning electron microscopy. During shake flask experiments, P. chrysosporium PV1 produced maximum biomass of about 2.57 mg ml(-1) followed by A. niger PV3. P. chrysosporium PV1 showed significant reduction (178,292 Da(-1)) in Molecular weight of the PVC film than control (200,000 Da(-1)) by gel permeation chromatography. Furthermore more Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance also revealed structural changes in the PVC. It was concluded that isolated fungal strains have significant potential for biodegradation of PVC plastics.

  13. A kingdom-specific protein domain HMM library for improved annotation of fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stephen G

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pfam is a general-purpose database of protein domain alignments and profile Hidden Markov Models (HMMs, which is very popular for the annotation of sequence data produced by genome sequencing projects. Pfam provides models that are often very general in terms of the taxa that they cover and it has previously been suggested that such general models may lack some of the specificity or selectivity that would be provided by kingdom-specific models. Results Here we present a general approach to create domain libraries of HMMs for sub-taxa of a kingdom. Taking fungal species as an example, we construct a domain library of HMMs (called Fungal Pfam or FPfam using sequences from 30 genomes, consisting of 24 species from the ascomycetes group and two basidiomycetes, Ustilago maydis, a fungal pathogen of maize, and the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. In addition, we include the Microsporidion Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate intracellular parasite, and two non-fungal species, the oomycetes Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum, both plant pathogens. We evaluate the performance in terms of coverage against the original 30 genomes used in training FPfam and against five more recently sequenced fungal genomes that can be considered as an independent test set. We show that kingdom-specific models such as FPfam can find instances of both novel and well characterized domains, increases overall coverage and detects more domains per sequence with typically higher bitscores than Pfam for the same domain families. An evaluation of the effect of changing E-values on the coverage shows that the performance of FPfam is consistent over the range of E-values applied. Conclusion Kingdom-specific models are shown to provide improved coverage. However, as the models become more specific, some sequences found by Pfam may be missed by the models in FPfam and some of the families represented in the test set are not present in FPfam

  14. Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Evódia de Sousa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28ºC for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%, Microsporum gypseum (6%, Penicillium spp. (6%, Curvularia spp. (5%, Candida spp. (3%, Fusarium spp. (3%, Acremonium spp. (2%, Bipolaris sp. (1%, Cladosporium sp. (1%, Chrysosporium sp. (1%, Rhodotorula sp. (1%, Aureobasidium sp. (1% and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%. There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses' ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species.

  15. Fungal microbiota from ocular conjuctiva of clinically healthy horses belonging to the military police cavalry of alagoas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Maria Evódia; Araújo, Maria Anilda Dos Santos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Souza, Aryanna Kelly Pinheiro; Dos Santos, Josimeire Lima; da Silva, Patrícia Paes

    2011-07-01

    Normal fungal conjunctiva microbiota of horses remains stable in healthy animals, free from ocular and/or systemic diseases which may, eventually, cause ocular alterations. The knowledge of the fungal microbiota is of great importance due to the reduced number of studies reported in the literature and also to the large occurrence of ocular alterations, mainly keratomycosis, in these animals. The aim of this study was to isolate and to identify the fungi present in the ocular conjunctiva of healthy horses belonging to the Military Police Cavalry of Alagoas. Samples from both conjunctival sacks from 50 horses were taken using a sterile swab and submitted to fungal cultures. These samples were seeded by radial spreading of the swabs on the Sabouraud agar surface with chloramphenicol, at a concentration of 50mg/L, in Petri dishes. Next, dishes were incubated at room temperature (± 28°C) for 15 days. Horses conjunctival fungal microbiota was found to be composed by Aspergillus spp. (62%), Microsporum gypseum (6%), Penicillium spp. (6%), Curvularia spp. (5%), Candida spp. (3%), Fusarium spp. (3%), Acremonium spp. (2%), Bipolaris sp. (1%), Cladosporium sp. (1%), Chrysosporium sp. (1%), Rhodotorula sp. (1%), Aureobasidium sp. (1%) and Scopulariopsis sp. (1%). There is a wide variety of yeast-like and filamentous fungi colonizing the clinically healthy horses' ocular conjunctiva, out of which Aspergillus sp. is predominant. Although this was a straightforward study and have not recorded any ocular lesions that suggest fungi infections, these fungi might eventually be involved in this type of ocular pathology for the studied species.

  16. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Da-wen; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase(Mnp) and laccase(Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  17. Effect of nitrogen concentration in culture mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Qian, Yi

    2005-01-01

    Effect of different nitrogen concentration in the mediums on growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied when glucose concentration was 10 g/L. The results showed that the medium contained 0.8 g/L ammonium tartrate is the best. It not only supply abundant nutrients for the growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which make mycelia the best grow compared with the other medium, but also produce higher manganese-dependent peroxidase (Mnp) and laccase (Lac) activity. In addition, it is observed that the variation of mycelia surface is related to ligninolytic enzyme secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When the surface of mycelium pellets appeared burs, it predicts secondary metabolism begin. This experimentation demonstrated that when the ratio of carbon and nitrogen in nitrogen limited medium is equal to 100:8, growth and enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is the best, it could achieve the maximum Mnp and Lac activity.

  18. Populations of selected microbial and fungal species growing on the surface of rape seeds following treatment with desiccants or plant growth regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frac, Magdalena; Jezierska-Tys, Stefania; Tys, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of desiccants and plant growth regulators on selected microbial species affecting rape seeds, with special emphasis on the growth of fungi and identification of the genus and species composition. The experimental material in the study was seeds of winter rape cv. Californium that were collected from the field during combine harvest. The chemical agents applied, both desiccants and growth regulators, generally decreased the populations of bacteria occurring on the surface of rape seeds. The responses of fungi depended upon the type of agent applied and were manifested as either stimulation or inhibition of the growth of the fungal species. The fungi isolated from the surface of rape seeds were characteristic of those found in the field environment (Cladosporium and Penicillium) and typical for those present on the surface of rape seeds (Alternaria).

  19. Isolation and characterization of a new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, from carapace keratitis of a Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra microphyes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, D A; Marín, Y; Thompson, E H; Wickes, B L; Fu, J; García, D; Swinford, A; de Maar, T; Guarro, J

    2013-02-01

    A new fungal genus and species, Aphanoascella galapagosensis, recovered from carapace keratitis in a Galapagos tortoise residing in a south Texas zoological collection, is characterized and described. The presence of a pale peridium composed of textura epidermoidea surrounded by scarce Hülle cell-like chlamydospores, and the characteristic reticulate ascospores with an equatorial rim separates it from other genera within the Onygenales. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the analysis of D1/D2 sequences demonstrates that this fungus represents a new lineage within that order. As D1/D2 and ITS sequence data also shows a further separation of Aphanoascus spp. into two monophyletic groups, we propose to retain the generic name Keratinophyton for species whose ascospores are pitted and display a conspicuous equatorial rim, and thereby propose new combinations in this genus for four Aphanoascus species.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  1. A Ca-alginate particle co-immobilized with Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-linked enzyme aggregates from Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanchun; Wang, Zhi; Xu, Xudong; Jin, Liqiang

    2015-12-01

    For improving stability of immobilized white-rot fungus to treat various effluents, Phanerochaete chrysosporium cells and the combined cross-link enzyme aggregates (combi-CLEAs) prepared from Trametes versicolor were co-immobilized into the Ca-alginate gel particles in this paper. The activity yields of obtained combi-CLEAs were 42.7% for lignin peroxidases (LiPs), 31.4% for manganese peroxidases (MnPs) and 40.4% for laccase (Lac), respectively. And their specific activities were 30.2U/g as combi-CLEAs-LiPs, 9.5 U/g as combi-CLEAs-MnPs and 28.4 U/g as combi-CLEAs-Lac. Further, the present of the combi-CLEAs in the particles extremely improved their ability to degrade the dyes. Compared to the immobilized Ph. chrysosporium without the combi-CLEAs, the co-immobilized particles enhanced the decolorized rate of Acid Violet 7 (from 45.2% to 93.4%) and Basic Fuchsin (from 12.1% to 67.9%). In addition, the addition of the combi-CLEAs improved the adaptability of the white-rot fungal particles to adverse environmental conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Residues; Opportunities & Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dashtban, Heidi Schraft, Wensheng Qin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative energy technology is critically important because of the rising prices of crude oil, security issues regarding the oil supply, and environmental issues such as global warming and air pollution. Bioconversion of biomass has significant advantages over other alternative energy strategies because biomass is the most abundant and also the most renewable biomaterial on our planet. Bioconversion of lignocellulosic residues is initiated primarily by microorganisms such as fungi and bacteria which are capable of degrading lignocellulolytic materials. Fungi such as Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger produce large amounts of extracellular cellulolytic enzymes, whereas bacterial and a few anaerobic fungal strains mostly produce cellulolytic enzymes in a complex called cellulosome, which is associated with the cell wall. In filamentous fungi, cellulolytic enzymes including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases (exoglucanases and β-glucosidases work efficiently on cellulolytic residues in a synergistic manner. In addition to cellulolytic/hemicellulolytic activities, higher fungi such as basidiomycetes (e.g. Phanerochaete chrysosporium have unique oxidative systems which together with ligninolytic enzymes are responsible for lignocellulose degradation. This review gives an overview of different fungal lignocellulolytic enzymatic systems including extracellular and cellulosome-associated in aerobic and anaerobic fungi, respectively. In addition, oxidative lignocellulose-degradation mechanisms of higher fungi are discussed. Moreover, this paper reviews the current status of the technology for bioconversion of biomass by fungi, with focus on mutagenesis, co-culturing and heterologous gene expression attempts to improve fungal lignocellulolytic activities to create robust fungal strains.

  3. Direct and indirect influences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on phosphorus uptake by two root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species: do the fungal partners matter at low colonization levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-Rong; Guan, Kai-Yun; Stonor, Rebecca; Smith, Sally E.; Smith, F. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Because most parasitic plants do not form mycorrhizal associations, the nutritional roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in them have hardly been tested. Some facultative root hemiparasitic Pedicularis species form AM associations and hence are ideal for testing both direct and indirect effects of AM fungi on their nutrient acquisition. The aim of this study was to test the influence of AM inoculation on phosphorus (P) uptake by Pedicularis rex and P. tricolor. Methods 32P labelling was used in compartmented pots to assess the contribution of the AM pathway and the influence of AM inoculation on P uptake from a host plant into the root hemiparasites. Laboratory isolates of fungal species (Glomus mosseae and G. intraradices) and the host species (Hordeum vulgare ‘Fleet’) to which the two Pedicularis species showed obvious responses in haustorium formation and growth in previous studies were used. Key Results The AM colonization of both Pedicularis spp. was low (<15 % root length) and only a very small proportion of total plant P (<1 %) was delivered from the soil via the AM fungus. In a separate experiment, inoculation with AM fungi strongly interfered with P acquisition by both Pedicularis species from their host barley, almost certainly because the numbers of haustoria formed by the parasite were significantly reduced in AM plants. Conclusions Roles of AM fungi in nutrient acquisition by root parasitic plants were quantitatively demonstrated for the first time. Evidence was obtained for a novel mechanism of preventing root parasitic plants from overexploiting host resources through AM fungal-induced suppression of the absorptive structures in the parasites. PMID:23946322

  4. Enhanced production of manganese peroxidase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziye Ozturk Urek

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Production of manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP by the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 (ATCC 24725 was monitored during growth in different media and growth conditions. The effect of some activators of MnP production, Mn2+, Tween 80, phenylmethylsulphonylfloride (PMSF, oxygen, temperature, pH, glycerol and nitrogen was studied. Supplementing the cultures with Tween 80 (0.05 %, v/v and Mn2+ (174 µM resulted a maximum MnP activity of 356 U/L which was approximately two times higher than that obtained in the control culture (without Tween 80. Decolourisation of Direct Blue 15 and Direct Green 6 (50 mg/L was also achieved with MnP.

  5. A Simple Structure Model for Enzyme Production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑沛霖; 郑重鸣; FOOYinDin; JefferyPhilipObbard; 林建平

    2003-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium, study on time courses and a mathematical model for the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) of the fungi was undertaken. Based on the Monod-Jacob operon model, the ligninolytic enzyme would be synthesized in the absence of a related repressor. The repressor is assumed to be active in the presence of ammonia nitrogen, and as combined as co-repressor, it causes the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. The model can explain the mechanism of extracellular ligninolytic enzyme production by white rot fungi. The results,as predicted by the model, correspond closely to those observed in experimental studies. In addition, some light is also shed on unmeasured variables, such as the concentrations of repressor and mRNA that are related to the enzyme synthesis.

  6. [Fungal keratitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier, T; Sauer, A; Letscher-Bru, V; Candolfi, E

    2011-10-01

    Fungal keratitis (keratomycosis) is a rare but severe cause of infectious keratitis. Its incidence is constant, due to steroids or immunosuppressive treatments and contact lenses. Pathogens often invade corneas with chronic diseases of the ocular surface but fungal keratitis is also observed following injuries with plant foreign objects. The poor prognosis of these infections is related both to fungal virulence, decreased host defense, as well as delays in diagnosis. However, new antimycotic treatments allow better management and prognosis.

  7. Is Quorum Signaling by Mycotoxins a New Risk-Mitigating Strategy for Bacterial Biocontrol of Fusarium verticillioides and Other Endophytic Fungal Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Charles W; Hinton, Dorothy M; Mitchell, Trevor R

    2017-08-23

    Bacterial endophytes are used as biocontrol organisms for plant pathogens such as the maize endophyte Fusarium verticillioides and its production of fumonisin mycotoxins. However, such applications are not always predictable and efficient. In this work, we hypothesize and review work that quorum sensing inhibitors are produced either by fungi or by pathogenic bacteria for competitive purposes, altering the efficiency of the biocontrol organisms. Recently, quorum sensing inhibitors have been isolated from several fungi, including Fusarium species, three of which are mycotoxins. Thus, we further postulate that other mycotoxins are inhibitors or quenching metabolites that prevent the protective abilities and activities of endophytic biocontrol bacteria within intercellular spaces. To test the aforementioned suppositions, we review work detailing the use of bioassay bacteria for several mycotoxins for quorum activity. We specifically focus on the quorum use of endophytic bacteria as biocontrols for mycotoxic fungal endophytes, such as the Fusarium species and the fumonisin mycotoxins.

  8. Incidence of crown rot disease of wheat caused by Fusarium pseudograminearum as a new soil born fungal species in north west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, H; Ammarellou, A; Jafary, H

    2007-10-15

    Root rot and crown rot is one of the main important fungal diseases on wheat in North West Iran. The disease was studied during 1999-2004 growing seasons in four provinces including Qazvin, Zanjan, East Azarbyjan and Ardabil. Different wheat fields in the areas studied were visited and samples of the plants showing symptoms like chlorosis, withering, whiting of spikes, growth reduction and white heads were collected and transferred to the laboratory. Samples were surface sterilized with sodium hypochlorite and then cultured on common media (PDA) and specific media (PPA and CLA). Totally 155 fungal isolates belonging to five genera were identified and the pathogen most frequently isolated was Fusarium pseudograminearum (formerly known as F. graminearum Group 1). This species normally causes crown rot resulting in severe damage in several locations under dry spring conditions. The disease caused losses from 18-45.5% in the fields where the season and crop rotation allowed the disease to build up. Prolonged moisture stresses coupled with relatively high soil temperature in the fall enhanced early disease development on the roots and sub crown internodes. Environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility of cultivars were the two main factors affecting diseases incidence.

  9. A single mating-type locus composed of homeodomain genes promotes nuclear migration and heterokaryosis in the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Timothy Y; Lee, Maria; van Diepen, Linda T A

    2011-02-01

    The white-rot basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Agaricomycetes) is a model species that produces potent wood-degrading enzymes. The mating system of the species has been difficult to characterize due to its cryptic fruiting habit and lack of clamp connections in the heterokaryotic phase. By exploiting the draft genome sequence, we reevaluated the mating system of P. chrysosporium by studying the inheritance and segregation of putative mating-type gene homologues, the homeodomain transcription factor genes (MAT-A) and the pheromone receptors (MAT-B). A pattern of mating incompatibility and fructification consistent with a bipolar system with a single MAT locus was observed, but the rejection response was much weaker than that seen in other agaricomycete species, leading to stable heterokaryons with identical MAT alleles. The homeodomain genes appear to comprise the single MAT locus because they are heterozygous in wild strains and hyperpolymorphic at the DNA sequence level and promote aspects of sexual reproduction, such as nuclear migration, heterokaryon stability, and basidiospore formation. The pheromone receptor loci that might constitute a MAT-B locus, as in many other Agaricomycetes, are not linked to the MAT-A locus and display low levels of polymorphism. This observation is inconsistent with a bipolar mating system that includes pheromones and pheromone receptors as mating-type determinants. The partial uncoupling of nuclear migration and mating incompatibility in this species may be predicted to lead to parasexual recombination and may have contributed to the homothallic behavior observed in previous studies.

  10. Nitric oxide mediates the fungal elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of Taxus chinensis suspension cells through the reactive oxygen species-dependent and-independent signal pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Maojun; DONG Jufang

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are two important signal molecules that play key roles in plant defense responses. Nitric oxide generation and oxidative burst and accumulation of reactive oxygen species are the early reactions of Taxus chinensis suspension cells to fungal elicitor prepared from the cell walls of Penicillium citrinum. In order to investigate the relationship and/or interactions of nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells, we treated the cells with nitric oxide specific scavenger 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetra- methylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPITO), nitric oxide synthase inhibitor S,S(-1,3-phenylene-bis(1,2-eth- anediyl)-bis-isothiourea (PBITU), membrane NAD(P) H oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI), superoxide dismutases (SOD) and catalase. The results show that pretreatment of T. chinensis cells with cPITO and DPI inhibited not only the elicitor-induced nitric oxide biosynthesis and oxidative burst, but also the elicitor-induced Taxol production, suggesting that both nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species are involved in elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis. Furthermore, pretreatment of the cells with cPITO and PBITU suppressed the elicitor-induced oxidative burst, indicating that the oxidative burst might be dependent on NO. Application of nitric oxide via its donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) triggered Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis cells. The nitric oxide-induced Taxol production was suppressed by DPI, showing that the oxidative burst is involved in NO-triggered Taxol biosynthesis. However, nitric oxide and the fungal elicitor induced Taxol biosynthesis even though the accumulation of reactive oxygen species wass completely abolished in T. chinensis cells. Our data show that nitric oxide may mediate the elicitor-induced Taxol biosynthesis of T. chinensis suspension cells through both reactive oxygen species-dependent and -independent signal

  11. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  12. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  13. Fungal pathogens of Proteaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Summerell, B.A.; Swart, L.; Denman, S.; Taylor, J.E.; Bezuidenhout, C.M.; Palm, M.E.; Marincowitz, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Leucadendron, Leucospermum and Protea (Proteaceae) are in high demand for the international floriculture market due to their brightly coloured and textured flowers or bracts. Fungal pathogens, however, create a serious problem in cultivating flawless blooms. The aim of the present study

  14. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mathieu

    Full Text Available Glutathione transferases (GSTs form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  15. Diversification of fungal specific class a glutathione transferases in saprotrophic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Favier, Frédérique; Harvengt, Luc; Didierjean, Claude; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie; Gelhaye, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Coprinus cinereus demonstrated functional diversity in saprotrophic fungi. The three-dimensional structures of three P. chrysosporium isoforms feature structural differences explaining the functional diversity of these enzymes. Competition experiments between fluorescent probes, and various molecules, showed that these GSTs function as ligandins with various small aromatic compounds, derived from lignin degradation or not, at a L-site overlapping the glutathione binding pocket. By combining genomic data with structural and biochemical determinations, we propose that this class of GST has evolved in response to environmental constraints induced by wood chemistry.

  16. Influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xiaoyan; WEN Xianghua; FENG Yan

    2007-01-01

    The present work studied the influence of glucose feeding on the ligninolytic enzyme production of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a nitrogen-limited(C/N ratio is 56/8.8 mmol/L)medium.Several sets of shaking flask experiments were conducted.The results showed that 2g/L glucose feeding on the first day of the culture(24 h after the inoculation)stimulated both fungal biomass growth and enzyme production.The manganese peroxidase(MnP)activity was 2.5 times greater than that produced in cultures without glucose feeding.Furthermore,the glucose feeding mode in fed-batch culture was also investigated.Compared to cultures with glucose feeding every 48 h,cultures with glucose feeding of 1.5 g/L(final concentration)every 24 h produced more enzymes.The peak and total yield of MnP activity were 2.7 and 3 times greater compared to the contrast culture,respectively,and the enzyme was kept stable for 4 days with an activity of over 200 U/L.

  17. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  18. Manganese peroxidase production from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation and its decolorization of indigo carmine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huixing Li; Ruijing Zhang; Lei Tang; Jianhua Zhang; Zhonggui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes to higher value products through fungal fermentation has economic and ecological benefits. In this study, to develop an effective strategy for production of manganese peroxidase (MnP) from cassava residue by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in solid state fermentation, the stimulators of MnP produc-tion were screened and their concentrations were optimized by one-at-a-time experiment and Box–Behnken design. The maximum MnP activity of 186.38 nkat·g−1 dry mass of the sample was achieved after 6 days of fer-mentation with the supplement of 79.5 mmol·L−1·kg−1 acetic acid, 3.21 ml·kg−1 soybean oil, and 28.5 g·kg−1 alkaline lignin, indicating that cassava residue is a promising substrate for MnP production in solid state fermen-tation. Meanwhile, in vitro decolorization of indigo carmine by the crude MnP was also carried out, attaining the ratio of 90.18%after 6 h of incubation. An oxidative mechanism of indigo carmine decolorization by MnP was pro-posed based on the analysis of intermediate metabolites with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Using the crude MnP produced from cassava residue for indigo carmine decolorization gives an effective approach to treat dyeing effluents.

  19. Who's getting around? Assessing species diversity and phylogeography in the widely distributed lichen-forming fungal genus Montanelia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Divakar, Pradeep K; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Wang, Li-Song; Esslinger, Theodore L; Lumbsch, H Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    Brown parmelioid lichens comprise a number of distinct genera in one of the most species-rich families of lichen-forming fungi, Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). In spite of their superficial similarity, a number of studies of brown parmelioids have provided important insight into diversification in lichen-forming fungi with cosmopolitan distributions. In this study we assess species diversity, biogeography and diversification of the genus Montanelia, which includes alpine to temperate saxicolous species. We sampled each of the five known species, four of which are known from broad, intercontinental distributions. In order to identify potential biogeographical patterns, each broadly distributed species was represented by individuals collected across their intercontinental distributions. Molecular sequence data were generated for six loci, including three nuclear protein-coding markers (MCM7, RPB1, and RPB2), two nuclear ribosomal markers (ITS and nrLSU), and a fragment of the mitochondrial small subunit. We used three sequence-based species delimitations methods to validate traditional, phenotype-based species and circumscribe previously unrecognized species-level lineages in Montanelia. Relationships among putative lineages and divergence times were estimated within a coalescent-based multi-locus species tree framework. Based on the results of the species delimitation analyses, we propose that the genus Montanelia is likely comprised of six to nine species-level lineages, including previously unrecognized species-level diversity in the nominal taxa M. panniformis and M. tominii. In contrast, molecular sequence data suggest that M. predisjuncta may be conspecific with the widespread taxon M. disjuncta in spite of distinct morphological differences. The rate-based age estimation of the most recent common ancestor of Montanelia (ca. 23.1Ma) was similar to previous estimates based on the fossil record. Furthermore, our data suggest that diversification in Montanelia occurred

  20. Native mycorrhizal fungi replace introduced fungal species on Virginia pine and American chestnut planted on reclaimed mine sites of Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivanand Hiremath; Kirsten Lehtoma; Jenise M. Bauman

    2014-01-01

    Plant-microbe community dynamics influence the natural succession of plant species where pioneer vegetation facilitates the establishment of a distantly related, later successional plant species. This has been observed in the case of restoration of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) on abandoned mine land where Virginia pine (Pinus...

  1. Fungal allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Airborne fungal spores occur widely and often in far greater concentrations than pollen grains. Immunoglobulin E-specific antigens (allergens) on airborne fungal spores induce type I hypersensitivity (allergic) respiratory reactions in sensitized atopic subjects, causing rhinitis and/or asthma. The prevalence of respiratory allergy to fungi is imprecisely known but is estimated at 20 to 30% of atopic (allergy-predisposed) individuals or up to 6% of the general population. Diagnosis and immuno...

  2. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens--discovering and delimiting cryptic fungal species in the lichen-forming Rhizoplaca melanophthalma species-complex (Lecanoraceae, Ascomycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Fankhauser, Johnathon D; Leavitt, Dean H; Porter, Lyndon D; Johnson, Leigh A; St Clair, Larry L

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that in some cases morphology-based species circumscription of lichenized fungi misrepresents the number of existing species. The cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichen (Rhizoplaca melanophthalma) species-complex includes a number of morphologically distinct species that are both geographically and ecologically widespread, providing a model system to evaluate speciation in lichen-forming ascomycetes. In this study, we assembled multiple lines of evidence from nuclear DNA sequence data, morphology, and biochemistry for species delimitation in the R. melanophthalma species-complex. We identify a total of ten candidate species in this study, four of which were previously recognized as distinct taxa and six previously unrecognized lineages found within what has been thus far considered a single species. Candidate species are supported using inferences from multiple empirical operational criteria. Multiple instances of sympatry support the view that these lineages merit recognition as distinct taxa. Generally, we found little corroboration between morphological and chemical characters, and previously unidentified lineages were morphologically polymorphic. However, secondary metabolite data supported one cryptic saxicolous lineage, characterized by orsellinic-derived gyrophoric and lecanoric acids, which we consider to be taxonomically significant. Our study of the R. melanophthalma species-complex indicates that the genus Rhizoplaca, as presently circumscribed, is more diverse in western North American than originally perceived, and we present our analyses as a working example of species delimitation in morphologically cryptic and recently diverged lichenized fungi.

  3. Optimization of Culture Conditions for Some Identified Fungal Species and Stability Profile of α-Galactosidase Produced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, A S; Srivastava, N; Kehri, H K; Sharma, B

    2013-01-01

    Microbial α-galactosidase preparations have implications in medicine and in the modification of various agricultural products as well. In this paper, four isolated fungal strains such as AL-3, WF-3, WP-4 and CL-4 from rhizospheric soil identified as Penicillium glabrum (AL-3), Trichoderma evansii (WF-3), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (WP-4) and Penicillium flavus (CL-4) based on their morphology and microscopic examinations, are screened for their potential towards α-galactosidases production. The culture conditions have been optimized and supplemented with specific carbon substrates (1%, w/v) by using galactose-containing polysaccharides like guar gum (GG), soya casein (SC) and wheat straw (WS). All strains significantly released galactose from GG, showing maximum production of enzyme at 7th day of incubation in rotary shaker (120 rpm) that is 190.3, 174.5, 93.9 and 28.8 U/mL, respectively, followed by SC and WS. The enzyme activity was stable up to 7days at -20°C, then after it declines. This investigation reveals that AL-3 show optimum enzyme activity in guar gum media, whereas WF-3 exhibited greater enzyme stability. Results indicated that the secretion of proteins, enzyme and the stability of enzyme activity varied not only from one strain to another but also differed in their preferences of utilization of different substrates.

  4. Optimization of Culture Conditions for Some Identified Fungal Species and Stability Profile of α-Galactosidase Produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial α-galactosidase preparations have implications in medicine and in the modification of various agricultural products as well. In this paper, four isolated fungal strains such as AL-3, WF-3, WP-4 and CL-4 from rhizospheric soil identified as Penicillium glabrum (AL-3, Trichoderma evansii (WF-3, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (WP-4 and Penicillium flavus (CL-4 based on their morphology and microscopic examinations, are screened for their potential towards α-galactosidases production. The culture conditions have been optimized and supplemented with specific carbon substrates (1%, w/v by using galactose-containing polysaccharides like guar gum (GG, soya casein (SC and wheat straw (WS. All strains significantly released galactose from GG, showing maximum production of enzyme at 7th day of incubation in rotary shaker (120 rpm that is 190.3, 174.5, 93.9 and 28.8 U/mL, respectively, followed by SC and WS. The enzyme activity was stable up to 7days at −20°C, then after it declines. This investigation reveals that AL-3 show optimum enzyme activity in guar gum media, whereas WF-3 exhibited greater enzyme stability. Results indicated that the secretion of proteins, enzyme and the stability of enzyme activity varied not only from one strain to another but also differed in their preferences of utilization of different substrates.

  5. Characterization of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium glutathione transferase reveals a novel structural and functional class with ligandin properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Yann; Prosper, Pascalita; Buée, Marc; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Gérardin, Philippe; Harvengt, Luc; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Lamant, Tiphaine; Meux, Edgar; Mathiot, Sandrine; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie

    2012-11-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes. A new fungal specific class of GST has been highlighted by genomic approaches. The biochemical and structural characterization of one isoform of this class in Phanerochaete chrysosporium revealed original properties. The three-dimensional structure showed a new dimerization mode and specific features by comparison with the canonical GST structure. An additional β-hairpin motif in the N-terminal domain prevents the formation of the regular GST dimer and acts as a lid, which closes upon glutathione binding. Moreover, this isoform is the first described GST that contains all secondary structural elements, including helix α4' in the C-terminal domain, of the presumed common ancestor of cytosolic GSTs (i.e. glutaredoxin 2). A sulfate binding site has been identified close to the glutathione binding site and allows the binding of 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid. Competition experiments between 8-anilino-1-naphtalene sulfonic acid, which has fluorescent properties, and various molecules showed that this GST binds glutathionylated and sulfated compounds but also wood extractive molecules, such as vanillin, chloronitrobenzoic acid, hydroxyacetophenone, catechins, and aldehydes, in the glutathione pocket. This enzyme could thus function as a classical GST through the addition of glutathione mainly to phenethyl isothiocyanate, but alternatively and in a competitive way, it could also act as a ligandin of wood extractive compounds. These new structural and functional properties lead us to propose that this GST belongs to a new class that we name GSTFuA, for fungal specific GST class A.

  6. Antagonism of Microsporum species by soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I; Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K S

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen fungi isolated from soil by hair bating method were tested against soil inhabiting Microsporum equinum, Microsporum fulvum, Microsporum gypseum and Microsporum racemosum for their antagonistic interactions. Colony inhibition during dual cultures showed inhibition of all the four Microsporum species. The maximum inhibition of M. equinum, M. fulvum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum was caused by Chrysosporium keratinophilum, Chrysosporium tropicum, Curvularia lunata and Chrysosporium lucknowense in dual cultures. On the other hand, M. fulvum showed maximum inhibition of Macrophomina phaseolina (70.1%) while M. equinum, M. gypseum and M. racemosum showed maximum inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeosporoides. Staling products of C. lucknowense accelerated growth of all Microsporum species, C. keratinophilum 3 and Chrysosporium evolceaunui and M. phaseolina accelerated growth of two species of Microsporum. Staling product of Alternaria alternata was most inhibitory. Culture filtrates of Trichophyton vanbreseughemii accelerated the growth of all the four Microsporum species and C. tropicum, C. lucknowense accelerated growth of two species, while Botryotrichum piluliferum accelerated growth of three species of Microsporum. Volatiles showed inhibition of all the Microsporum species ranging from 0.33 to 57.2% except in case of M. fulvum. Lysis of Microsporum mycelium was the most common feature.

  7. In vitro ecology of Seiridium cardinale and allied species: the effect of solute stress and water potential on fungal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TURCO

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Defining the potential implications of global climate change on Mediterranean forest ecosystems requires a basic knowledge on the ecology of fungal pathogens under conditions that would stress host plants. The Mediterranean cypress (Cupressus sempervirens-Seiridium spp. pathosystem represents an important case study. In the last century, epidemics of cypress canker have killed historical plantations and the decades-long host resistance will probably break down in the future as a result of both host and pathogen adaptation to increasing temperature and decreasing summer precipitation. In this study, the effect of osmotic water stress on mycelial growth of Seiridium cardinale, S. unicorne and S. cupressi in culture was examined and compared to that of Diplodia cupressi, which is a pathogen of cypress known to be favoured by host water stress. Growth responses were evaluated on potato sucrose agar amended with KCl or NaCl to give water potentials in the range of -0.34 to -15 MPa. Mycelial growth decreased with decreasing water potential and ceased at -15 MPa, although the mycelium remained alive. Histochemical analysis conducted on S. cardinale grown at -12 MPa revealed melanization and thickening of hyphal walls, in addition to abundance of lipid-rich organelles. These results suggest that the three Seiridium spp. might survive drying cycles in cypress wood, but their tolerance is different. Successful survival strategies may partly result from changes in mycelium structure. Furthermore, S. unicorne was positively stimulated by a water potential of -3 MPa, suggesting that it may have high adaptive potential for life in a drier Mediterranean ecosystem, which is predicted to occur under scenarios of global warming. Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  8. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  9. Biotechnological interventions for harnessing podophyllotoxin from plant and fungal species: current status, challenges, and opportunities for its commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anita; Singh, Dharam; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-09-20

    Podophyllotoxin is an aryltetralin lignan synthesized in several plant species, which is used in chemotherapies for cancers and tumor treatment. More potent semisynthetic derivatives of podophyllotoxin such as etoposide and teniposide are being developed and evaluated for their efficacy. To meet the ever increasing pharmaceutical needs, species having podophyllotoxin are uprooted extensively leading to the endangered status of selective species mainly Sinopodophyllum hexandrum. This has necessitated bioprospection of podophyllotoxin from different plant species to escalate the strain on this endangered species. The conventional and non-conventional mode of propagation and bioprospection with the integration of biotechnological interventions could contribute to sustainable supply of podophyllotoxin from the available plant resources. This review article is focused on the understanding of different means of propagation, development of genomic information, and its implications for elucidating podophyllotoxin biosynthesis and metabolic engineering of pathways. In addition, various strategies for sustainable production of this valuable metabolite are also discussed, besides a critical evaluation of future challenges and opportunities for the commercialization of podophyllotoxin.

  10. Detection of Bacterial and Yeast Species with the Bactec 9120 Automated System with Routine Use of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Fungal Media▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarini, Alfredo; Palmeri, Angelo; Amato, Teresa; Immordino, Rita; Distefano, Salvatore; Giammanco, Anna

    2008-01-01

    During the period 2006 and 2007, all blood cultures required by four units at high infective risk and most of those required by other units of the University Hospital of Palermo, Palermo, Italy were performed using a Bactec 9120 automated blood culture system with a complete set of Plus Aerobic/F, Plus Anaerobic/F, and Mycosis IC/F bottles. The aim of the study was to enable the authors to gain firsthand experience of the culture potentialities of the three different media, to obtain information regarding the overall and specific recovery of bacteria and yeasts from blood cultures in the hospital, and to reach a decision as to whether and when to utilize anaerobic and fungal bottles. Although very few bloodstream infections (1.8%) were associated with obligate anaerobes, the traditional routine use of anaerobic bottles was confirmed because of their usefulness, not only in the detection of anaerobes, but also in that of gram-positive cocci and fermentative gram-negative bacilli. In this study, Mycosis IC/F bottles detected 77.4% of all the yeast isolates, 87.0% of yeasts belonging to the species Candida albicans, and 45.7% of nonfermentative gram-negative bacilli resistant to chloramphenicol and tobramycin. In order to improve the diagnosis of fungemia in high-risk patients, the additional routine use of fungal bottles was suggested when, as occurred in the intensive-care unit and in the hematology unit of the University Hospital of Palermo, high percentages of bloodstream infections are associated with yeasts, and/or antibiotic-resistant bacteria and/or multiple bacterial isolates capable of inhibiting yeast growth in aerobic bottles. PMID:18923011

  11. Differences in numbers of termicins expressed in two termite species affected by fungal contamination of their environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, P; Shi, M; Lai, R; Chen, X-X

    2012-08-13

    Termicin is a defensin-like antimicrobial peptide of termites that has strong antifungal activity. Fifty-six different termicin mRNAs encoding 46 different peptides were amplified and identified from Odontotermes formosanus (Termitidae), a species that inhabits environments with a large variety of microbial fauna. In contrast, only 38 different termicin mRNAs encoding 21 different peptides were amplified and identified from Reticulitermes chinensis (Rhinotermitidae). All mRNAs were amplified by reverse transcript PCR, with primers designed from reported termicin mRNA sequences. All of these genes showed high intraspecific sequence identity and were found to be highly homologous with other reported termicin genes. These two termite species live in different environments; the latter encounters relatively fewer pathogens in its habitat. We conclude that differences in microenvironmental pressure can affect the number of termicin genes expressed in termite species.

  12. Plant Host Species and Geographic Distance Affect the Structure of Aboveground Fungal Symbiont Communities, and Environmental Filtering Affects Belowground Communities in a Coastal Dune Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Aaron S; Seabloom, Eric W; May, Georgiana

    2016-05-01

    Microbial symbionts inhabit tissues of all plants and animals. Their community composition depends largely on two ecological processes: (1) filtering by abiotic conditions and host species determining the environments that symbionts are able to colonize and (2) dispersal-limitation determining the pool of symbionts available to colonize a given host and community spatial structure. In plants, the above- and belowground tissues represent such distinct habitats for symbionts that we expect different effects of filtering and spatial structuring on their symbiont communities. In this study, we characterized above- and belowground communities of fungal endophytes--fungi living asymptomatically within plants--to understand the contributions of filtering and spatial structure to endophyte community composition. We used a culture-based approach to characterize endophytes growing in leaves and roots of three species of coastal beachgrasses in dunes of the USA Pacific Northwest. For leaves, endophyte isolation frequency and OTU richness depended primarily on plant host species. In comparison, for roots, both isolation frequency and OTU richness increased from the nutrient-poor front of the dune to the higher-nutrient backdune. Endophyte community composition in leaves exhibited a distance-decay relationship across the region. In a laboratory assay, faster growth rates and lower spore production were more often associated with leaf- than root-inhabiting endophytes. Overall, our results reveal a greater importance of biotic filtering by host species and dispersal-limitation over regional geographic distances for aboveground leaf endophyte communities and stronger effects of abiotic environmental filtering and locally patchy distributions for belowground root endophyte communities.

  13. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  14. Potential Use of Essential oils from Four Tunisian Species of Lamiaceae: Biological Alternative for Fungal and Weed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Hanana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs of four Lamiaceae (Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. , Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L. and Mentha pulegium L. growing wild in Tunisia was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Obtained results showed significant variations among the different species. The major constituents identified for each species were respectively carvacrol (69% and δ-terpinene (17% for T. capitatus, 1,8-cineole (41% and α-pinene (24% for R. officinalis, menthol (39% and 1.8-cineole (17% for M. pulegium , thymol (30%, p-cymene (30% and δ-terpinene (27% for O. vulgare . EO herbicidal effects were evaluated against three invasive weed species in most cultivated crops: Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris paradoxa L. and Lolium rigidum Gaud. The study of herbicidal activity was carried out on seed germination and seedling vigor and growth. All tested EOs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of weeds in a dose dependent manner and their herbicidal activity could be attributed mainly to their high content in oxygenated monoterpenes. The antifungal ability of EOs was assessed by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi affecting crops and stored foods. The EOs displayed strong inhibitory effect on all tested fungi. Our results on EOs chemical composition and biological activities showed properties that could be valorized in managing biocontrol of weeds and plant fungi.

  15. Fusion of two divergent fungal individuals led to the recent emergence of a unique widespread pathogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva Holtgrewe; Christiansen, Freddy Bugge; Hansen, Troels Toftebjerg; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2012-01-01

    In a genome alignment of five individuals of the ascomycete fungus Zymoseptoria pseudotritici, a close relative of the wheat pathogen Z. tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola), we observed peculiar diversity patterns. Long regions up to 100 kb without variation alternate with similarly long regions of high variability. The variable segments in the genome alignment are organized into two main haplotype groups that have diverged ∼3% from each other. The genome patterns in Z. pseudotritici are consistent with a hybrid speciation event resulting from a cross between two divergent haploid individuals. The resulting hybrids formed the new species without backcrossing to the parents. We observe no variation in 54% of the genome in the five individuals and estimate a complete loss of variation for at least 30% of the genome in the entire species. A strong population bottleneck following the hybridization event caused this loss of variation. Variable segments in the Z. pseudotritici genome exhibit the two haplotypes contributed by the parental individuals. From our previously estimated recombination map of Z. tritici and the size distribution of variable chromosome blocks untouched by recombination we estimate that the hybridization occurred ∼380 sexual generations ago. We show that the amount of lost variation is explained by genetic drift during the bottleneck and by natural selection, as evidenced by the correlation of presence/absence of variation with gene density and recombination rate. The successful spread of this unique reproductively isolated pathogen highlights the strong potential of hybridization in the emergence of pathogen species with sexual reproduction. PMID:22711811

  16. Variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuous membrane bioreactor for Reactive Brilliant Red X3-B treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shang; CHEN Cheng; TAO Fang; HUANG Minsheng; MA Lihua; WANG Zhonghua; WU Linhui

    2009-01-01

    The influence of a Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B (RBR X-3B) dye on the peroxidase isoenzyme of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was determined, and the biofilm structure in a white rot fungal continuous membrane bioreactor (MBR) was also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate in the continuous MBR were evaluated. The results showed that the 100 mg/L RBR X-3B could stimulate the production of the peroxidase isoenzyme in the shaking-flask culture. In addition, two new peroxidase isoenzyme bands with relative mobility (Rf) value of 0.27 and 0.28 appeared, but the activity was lower than the blank control of 11 d. In the continuous MBR, the system worked stably during the first 60 d, the main peroxidase isoenzyme bands existed and three new bands with Rf value of 0.10, 0.27, and 0.28 appeared. Meanwhile, the biofilm grew well and the average decolorization rate could reach 90.6%. But the bands of peroxidase isoenzyme decreased rapidly at day 65, only two bands with Rf value 0.24 and 0.26 existed, and the decolorization rate decreased to 78.3%. Therefore, 5 bottles of P. chrysosporium mycelial pellet were added into the MBR, and then the activity of the peroxidase isoenzyme and the decolorization rate had a slight recovery. Finally, the decolorization rate finally decreased to 75.2%. These results contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the variation of peroxidase isoenzyme and biofilm in continuous MBR by white rot fungi.

  17. Mode of action of Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnel, S.; Westphal, Y.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The mode of action of four Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 a-l-arabinohydrolases was determined to enable controlled and effective degradation of arabinan. The active site of endoarabinanase Abn1 has at least six subsites, of which the subsites -1 to +2 have to be occupied for hydrolysis. Abn1 was able

  18. Pyranose 2-oxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium : expression in E. coli and biochemical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines Pisanelli; Magdalena Kujawa; Oliver Spadiut; Roman Kittl; Petr Halada; Jindrich Volc; Michael D. Mozuch; Philip Kersten; Dietmar Haltrich; Clemens Peterbauer

    2009-01-01

    The presented work reports the isolation and heterologous expression of the p2ox gene encoding the flavoprotein pyranose 2-oxidase (P2Ox) from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The p2ox cDNA was inserted into the bacterial expression vector pET21a(+) and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. We obtained active, fully flavinylated recombinant P2Ox in...

  19. A combined biological removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meihua; Zhang, Chaosheng; Zeng, Guangming; Cheng, Min; Liu, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The removal of Cd(2+) from aqueous solutions by agricultural residues rice straw combined with white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was investigated. The results showed that over 99% of the total Cd(2+) (initial concentration of 150mgL(-1)) was removed at the optimal operating conditions (pH 5.0 at 35°C). We also found that P. chrysosporium could survive under Cd(2+) stress even with an initial Cd(2+) concentration of 250mgL(-1). But when Cd(2+) concentration increased to 250mgL(-1), fungus growth and reproduction were remarkably restrained, and as a result, Cd(2+) removal dropped to 59.2%. It was observed that the fungus biomass and activities of ligninolytic enzymes decreased at some degree under high concentration of Cd(2+) (above 100mgL(-1)). Also, we found that a moderate Cd(2+) stress (below 150mgL(-1)) could stimulate P. chrysosporium's production of the heavy metals chelator - oxalate. This study will provide useful information for the application of biological removal of heavy metal irons from wastewater.

  20. Biodegradation of pentachlorophenol by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (1988)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by the disappearance and mineralization of [14C]PCP in nutrient nitrogen-limited culture. Mass balance analyses demonstrated the formation of water-soluble met...

  1. Fungal prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniforth, Gemma L; Tuite, Mick F

    2012-01-01

    For both mammalian and fungal prion proteins, conformational templating drives the phenomenon of protein-only infectivity. The conformational conversion of a protein to its transmissible prion state is associated with changes to host cellular physiology. In mammals, this change is synonymous with disease, whereas in fungi no notable detrimental effect on the host is typically observed. Instead, fungal prions can serve as epigenetic regulators of inheritance in the form of partial loss-of-function phenotypes. In the presence of environmental challenges, the prion state [PRION(+)], with its resource for phenotypic plasticity, can be associated with a growth advantage. The growing number of yeast proteins that can switch to a heritable [PRION(+)] form represents diverse and metabolically penetrating cellular functions, suggesting that the [PRION(+)] state in yeast is a functional one, albeit rarely found in nature. In this chapter, we introduce the biochemical and genetic properties of fungal prions, many of which are shared by the mammalian prion protein PrP, and then outline the major contributions that studies on fungal prions have made to prion biology.

  2. Fungal Entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal entomopathogens are important biological control agents worldwide and have been the subject of intense research for more than100 years. They exhibit both sexual and asexual reproduction and produce different types of infective propagules. Their mode of action against insects involves attachme...

  3. Functional diversity in arbuscular mycorrhizas: Exploitation of soil patches with different phosphate enrichment differs among fungal species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavagnaro, T.R.; Smith, F.A.; Smith, S.E.;

    2005-01-01

    Most terrestrial plant species form associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that transfer soil P to the plant via their external hyphae. The distribution of nutrients in soils is typically patchy (heterogeneous) but little is known about the ability of AMF to exploit P patches in soi...... by decreased P uptake by other parts of the mycelium. This is the first demonstration of variation in growth and nutrient uptake by an AMF as influenced by a localized P enrichment of the soil. The results are discussed in the context of functional diversity of AMF....

  4. The Chemical Basis of Fungal Bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Konstantin V; Petushkov, Valentin N; Baranov, Mikhail S; Mineev, Konstantin S; Rodionova, Natalja S; Kaskova, Zinaida M; Tsarkova, Aleksandra S; Petunin, Alexei I; Bondar, Vladimir S; Rodicheva, Emma K; Medvedeva, Svetlana E; Oba, Yuichi; Oba, Yumiko; Arseniev, Alexander S; Lukyanov, Sergey; Gitelson, Josef I; Yampolsky, Ilia V

    2015-07-06

    Many species of fungi naturally produce light, a phenomenon known as bioluminescence, however, the fungal substrates used in the chemical reactions that produce light have not been reported. We identified the fungal compound luciferin 3-hydroxyhispidin, which is biosynthesized by oxidation of the precursor hispidin, a known fungal and plant secondary metabolite. The fungal luciferin does not share structural similarity with the other eight known luciferins. Furthermore, it was shown that 3-hydroxyhispidin leads to bioluminescence in extracts from four diverse genera of luminous fungi, thus suggesting a common biochemical mechanism for fungal bioluminescence.

  5. Impacts of simulated climate change and fungal symbionts on survival and growth of a foundation species in sand dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-12-01

    For many ecosystems, one of the primary avenues of climate impact may be through changes to foundation species, which create habitats and sustain ecosystem services. For plants, microbial symbionts can often act as mutualists under abiotic stress and may mediate foundational plant responses to climate change. We manipulated the presence of endophytes in Ammophila breviligulata, a foundational sand dune species, to evaluate their potential to influence plant responses to climate change. We simulated projected climate change scenarios for temperature and precipitation using a growth chamber experiment. A 5 °C increase in temperature relative to current climate in northern Michigan reduced A. breviligulata survival by 45 %. Root biomass of A. breviligulata, which is critical to dune stabilization, was also strongly reduced by temperature. Plants inoculated with the endophyte had 14 % higher survival than endophyte-free plants. Contrary to our prediction, endophyte symbiosis did not alter the magnitude or direction of the effects of climate manipulations on A. breviligulata survival. However, in the absence of the endophyte, an increase in temperature increased the number of sand grains bound by roots by 80 %, while in symbiotic plants sand adherence did not significantly respond to temperature. Thus, plant-endophyte symbiosis actually negated the benefits in ecosystem function gained under a warmer climate. This study suggests that heat stress related to climate change in the Great Lakes may compromise the ability of A. breviligulata to stabilize dune ecosystems and reduce carbon storage and organic matter build-up in these early-successional systems due to reduced plant survival and root growth.

  6. A new in vitro method to detect growth and ochratoxin A-producing ability of multiple fungal species commonly found in food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Cabañes, F J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a new screening method to detect growth and ochratoxin A (OTA) production by multiple fungi growing in a small quantity of culture media, using microtiter plates. Eight ochratoxigenic species were included in the study. The strains were inoculated in sterile 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates containing Yeast Extract Sucrose broth and Czapek Yeast Extract broth and incubated at 25 °C. Growth was daily monitored by absorbance measurements for 4 days and extended to 7 and 10 days for Penicillium spp. The entire experiment was repeated twice on different days. On each sampling time, five of the seven replicate wells inoculated for each strain and culture media were randomly selected and the content of each well was removed, extracted and injected into the HPLC. No statistically significant differences were observed for absorbance and OTA values, neither between replicates nor between experiments. Quantifiable OTA levels were detected after 48 h of incubation in Aspergillus alliaceus, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus niger, after 72 h in Aspergillus flocculosus, Aspergillus steynii and Aspergillus westerdijkiae and after 7 days in Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum. The method offers the necessary tools for a rapid detection of growth and OTA production avoiding the use of plate cultures and can be very useful when many fungal isolates need to be screened.

  7. INSITU LOCALIZATION OF THE SECRETION OF LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN COLONIES OF PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM USING A SANDWICHED MODE OF CULTURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    1993-01-01

    Protein secretion and growth were investigated in Phanerochaete chrysosporium by using cultures sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Labelling of colonies with radioactive N-acetylglucosamine and L-methionine indicated a close correlation between growth and general protein secretio

  8. OPTIMASI BIOKRAFT JAMUR Phanerochaete chrysosporium TERHADAP KOMPONEN KIMIA CAMPURAN BATANG DAN LIMBAH CABANG MANGIUM SEBAGAI BAHAN BAKU PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Silsia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimation biokraft of fungi P. Chrysosporium through elongated incubation time on mixed stem and branch waste mangium is a solution to solve the environmental pollution problem, low quality of pulp and limited raw material. Effect of P. Chrysosporium 10 % concentration and 45 days incubation time on pre research could not decrease lignin optimally and exstractive degradation had not occured yet. The aims of the study were to observe the effect of incubation time extension, and to determine the best incubation time of P. Chrysosporium applied at 10 % concentration based on the chemical component percentage, 45, 60 and 75 days on mixed stem and branch as raw material for pulp. Results showed that increasing incubation time decreased extractive and lignin content and increased holocelulosa and alpha celulosa content. Mixed stem and branch with 10% amount and 75 day incubation time of P. Chrysosporium gave the best results for raw material of pulp.

  9. Optimization and kinetics evaluation of biodegradation of synthetic azo reactive dye by fungal consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, V; Sivakumar, V

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater containing direct dyes discharged from various industries, in particular, textile industry, often cause many environmental problems. Among the various effluent treatment methods, biological methods found to be cost effective and do not end up in secondary pollutants. In this study, an attempt has been made to study the decolorization of cibacron yellow S-3R, an azo reactive dye by using fungal cultures such as Coriolus versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Myrothecium verrucaria. The fungi were able to decolorize individually the azo reactive dye cibacron yellow S-3R to an extent of nearly in the range 75 - 85%, whereas the mixed fungal consortium was able to decolorize to an extent of nearly 95%.The study is extended with the kinetics of decolorization of Cibacron yellow S-3R using mixed fungal consortium containing equal proportions of the cultures. The experimental results show that decolorization kinetics follow second order rate equation.

  10. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Thuillier; Ngadin, Andrew A.; Cécile Thion; Patrick Billard; Jean-Pierre Jacquot; Eric Gelhaye; Mélanie Morel

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to c...

  11. Snake fungal disease: an emerging threat to wild snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M; Knowles, Susan; Lankton, Julia S; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L; Kapfer, Joshua M; Staffen, Richard A; Wild, Erik R; Schmidt, Katie Z; Ballmann, Anne E; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M; Glorioso, Brad M; Last, Lisa A; Price, Steven J; Schuler, Krysten L; Smith, Christopher E; Wellehan, James F X; Blehert, David S

    2016-12-05

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'.

  12. 2个欧美杨品种树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化%Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Populus × euramericana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 贺伟; 常聚普; 王海明; 郭立民; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand predominant species,seasonal dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.‘74/76' and P.× euramericana cv.‘ Zhonglin46',fungal endophytes were isolated from the barks by tissue isolation method,and identified by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and by morphological characteristics of microscopic observation.A total of 1 252 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 32 different fungal taxa belonging to 17 genera of Ascomycota.The predominant species included Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,Diaporthe spp.,among which A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks.The predominant fungal endophytes in the bark tissue varied in different seasons.%利用组织分离法从欧美杨2品种欧美杨107杨、中林46杨中(996块组织)分离内生真菌1 252株,107杨和中林46杨分别分离出645株和607株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为17个属、32个分类单元,包括担子菌2个分类单元,子囊菌30个分类单元均为子囊菌.在基于ITS构建的系统进代树上、2杨树品种内生菌均形成5个稳定的分支,包括在囊菌纲2个分支,包括散囊菌纲、类壳菌纲等.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢菌、间座壳菌等,其中链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群,2品种内生菌的优势种群会随季节变化而发生变化.

  13. Lignin degradation and lignin peroxidase production in cultures of phanerochaete chrysosporium immobilized on porous ceramic supports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwell, K.L.; Tinland-Butez, M.F.; Tardone, P.J.; Cabasso, I.; Hammel, K.E.

    1990-01-01

    The ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been proposed as a biocatalyst for the degradation of aromatic pollutants in wastewaters. Application of the organism for this purpose will benefit from improved methods for immobilization in culture. In the investigation, P. chrysosporium was grown in rotary-shaken immobilized culture on 1.3-cm diameter porous alumina spheres. These cultures degraded a synthetic (14)C-labeled guaiacyllignin at the same rate that conventional nonimmobilized cultures did, and produced ligninolytic peroxidases at levels comparable to those previously reported for nonimmobilized agitated cultures. Immobilization of the fungus greatly facilitated periodic replacement of the extracellular medium, and the porous supports were reusable after removal of the spent mycelium.

  14. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment & Outcomes Statistics More Resources Fungal Nail Infections Histoplasmosis Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ... CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis Histoplasmosis ... Resistance Resources Laboratory Submission Information Reportable Fungal ...

  15. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water‐activity limit for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G.; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J.; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su‐Lin L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the most‐extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0–64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water‐activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores−1). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water‐activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water‐activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water‐activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water‐activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water‐activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease‐causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function. PMID:27631633

  16. Glycerol enhances fungal germination at the water-activity limit for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Andrew; Hamill, Philip G; Medina, Ángel; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Timson, David J; Magan, Naresh; Leong, Su-Lin L; Hallsworth, John E

    2017-03-01

    For the most-extreme fungal xerophiles, metabolic activity and cell division typically halts between 0.700 and 0.640 water activity (approximately 70.0-64.0% relative humidity). Here, we investigate whether glycerol can enhance xerophile germination under acute water-activity regimes, using an experimental system which represents the biophysical limit of Earth's biosphere. Spores from a variety of species, including Aspergillus penicillioides, Eurotium halophilicum, Xerochrysium xerophilum (formerly Chrysosporium xerophilum) and Xeromyces bisporus, were produced by cultures growing on media supplemented with glycerol (and contained up to 189 mg glycerol g dry spores(-1) ). The ability of these spores to germinate, and the kinetics of germination, were then determined on a range of media designed to recreate stresses experienced in microbial habitats or anthropogenic systems (with water-activities from 0.765 to 0.575). For A. penicillioides, Eurotium amstelodami, E. halophilicum, X. xerophilum and X. bisporus, germination occurred at lower water-activities than previously recorded (0.640, 0.685, 0.651, 0.664 and 0.637 respectively). In addition, the kinetics of germination at low water-activities were substantially faster than those reported previously. Extrapolations indicated theoretical water-activity minima below these values; as low as 0.570 for A. penicillioides and X. bisporus. Glycerol is present at high concentrations (up to molar levels) in many types of microbial habitat. We discuss the likely role of glycerol in expanding the water-activity limit for microbial cell function in relation to temporal constraints and location of the microbial cell or habitat. The findings reported here have also critical implications for understanding the extremes of Earth's biosphere; for understanding the potency of disease-causing microorganisms; and in biotechnologies that operate at the limits of microbial function. © 2016 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology

  17. Biodegradation of colorants in refinery effluents : potential use of the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Carla; Bento, Luis San Miguel; Mota, M.

    1999-01-01

    The degradative ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium towards each of the four;main types of colorants present in regeneration effluents from ion exchange resins was investigated. The fungus was able to decolorise melanoidin, caramel and HADP (hexose alkaline degradation product) solutions by 74%, 87% and 80%,. respectively, and to reduce levels of phenolic compounds by 72%. Gel permeation chromatography studies showed that decolorisation was accompanied by effective degradation of the color...

  18. Lignin peroxidase-negative mutant of the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Boominathan, K; Dass, S B; Randall, T A; Kelley, R.L.; Reddy, C A

    1990-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces two classes of extracellular heme proteins, designated lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases, that play a key role in lignin degradation. In this study we isolated and characterized a lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) that showed 16% of the ligninolytic activity (14C-labeled synthetic lignin----14CO2) exhibited by the wild type. The lip mutant did not produce detectable levels of lignin peroxidase, whereas the wild type, under identical...

  19. Overproduction of lignin-degrading enzymes by an isolate of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, A B; Denny, M.; Tien, M

    1991-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a white rot fungus which secretes a family of lignin-degrading enzymes under nutrient limitation. PSBL-1 is a mutant of this organism that generates the ligninolytic system under nonlimiting conditions during primary metabolism. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and glyoxal oxidase activities for PSBL-1 under nonlimiting conditions were 4- to 10-fold higher than those of the wild type (WT) under nitrogen-limiting conditions. PSBL-1 was still in the log ph...

  20. Expression of lignin peroxidase H2 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by multi-copy recombinant Pichia strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WEN Xianghua

    2009-01-01

    The lipH2 gene, encoding the expression of lignin peroxidase, was cloned from Phanerochaete chrysosporium BKM-F-1767 and expressed in Pichia pastoris X-33, a yeast.The cDNA of LiPH2 was generated from total RNA extracted from P.chrysosporium by PCR with primers that do not contain a P.chrysosporium lignin peroxidase secretion signal.The gene was then successfully inserted into the expression vector pPICZα, resulting in the recombinant vector pPICZα-lipH2.The transformation was conducted in two ways.One was using the wild Pichia pastoris as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with single or low lipH2 gene copy.The second was using P.pastoris and single or low lipH2 gene copy as the recipients, which results in the recombinant P.pastoris with multi-copies of lipH2 genes.This study first expressed the gene lipH2 in P.pastoris and achieved the successful expression of the LiPH2 depending upon the generation of a recombinant strain that contains multiple copies.The lignin peroxidase activity reached a maximum of 15 U/L after 12 h induction.

  1. Simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol degradation from aqueous solutions by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Anwei; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Guiqiu; Fan, Jiaqi; Zou, Zhengjun; Li, Hui; Hu, Xinjiang; Long, Fei [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China). College of Environmental Science and Engineering; Ministry of Education, Changsha (CN). Key Lab. of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan Univ.)

    2011-08-15

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been recognised as an effective bioremediation agent due to its unique degradation to xenobiotic and biosorption ability to heavy metals. However, few studies have focused on the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organic pollutants. The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of simultaneous cadmium removal and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in P. chrysosporium liquid cultures. The removal efficiencies were pH dependent and the maximum removal efficiencies were observed at pH 6.5 under an initial cadmium concentration of 5 mg/L and an initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 20 mg/L. The removal efficiencies for cadmium and 2,4-DCP reached 63.62% and 83.90%, respectively, under the optimum conditions. The high production levels of lignin peroxidase (7.35 U/mL) and manganese peroxidase (8.30 U/mL) resulted in an increase in 2,4-DCP degradation. The protein content decreased with increasing cadmium concentration. The surface characteristics and functional groups of the biomass were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a Fourier-transformed infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the use of P. chrysosporium is promising for the simultaneous removal of cadmium and 2,4-DCP from liquid media. (orig.)

  2. Potensi kapang pelapuk putih Phanerochaeta chrysosporium dalam pengolahan limbah industri tekstil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulinah Trihadiningrum

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Phanerochaete chrysosporium was known as white rot mold which could biodegrade persistent organic pollutants. In this researchthe ability of the mold in biodegrading textile dye direct orange S and rhemazol yellow, which contained naphtol functional group, wasstudied. This research included characterization of the waste water and determination of optimum concentration of the waste water forbiodegradation. The optimum concentration for biodegradation was determined by measuring the radial growth of the mold in agarmedium containing various concentrations of textile dye. The final stage was the application of the mold for biodegrading the textiledye in aerobic batch reactor using the selected concentration.This research showed that P. chrysosporium could grow satisfactorily in minimum medium containing synthetic textile wastewaterin various concentrations. The highest colour removal efficiency of 93% was achieved in 3 days in the waste water with highest colorintensity (absorbance value l520 = 4.00, and 48% in the waste water with absorbance value l520 = 1.22. COD removal efficiency of87% was achieved within 12 days in the wastewater of 30% concentration, and 83% in the waste water of 100% concentration. The pHvalues decreased to 3.23 in the waste water with lower dye concentration and to 3.42 in the higher color intensity, from the initialvalues of 5.0-6.0. This research concluded that P. chrysosporium was capable to biodegrade naphtol textile dye with reasonably highefficiency.

  3. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by fungal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, Sarabjeet Singh [Department of Biotechnology, General Shivdev Singh Diwan Gurbachan Singh Khalsa College, Patiala, Punjab (India); Goyal, Dinesh [Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2010-10-15

    Chromium compounds are released by industrial processes including leather production, mining, petroleum refining, in textile industry and dyeing. They are a significant threat to the environment and public health because of their toxicity. Removal of hexavalent chromium by living biomass of different fungi was effective in the order of Aspergillus terricola>Aspergillus niger>Acremonium strictum>Aureobasidium pullulans>Paecilomyces variotii>Aspergillus foetidus>Cladosporium resinae>Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Non-living dried fungal biomass showed higher potential for metal removal than living cells. Among all fungi dead biomass of P. chrysosporium, C. resinae and P. variotii had the maximum specific chromium uptake capacity, which was 11.02, 10.69 and 10.35 mg/g of dry biomass respectively at pH 4.0-5.0 in batch sorption. Removal of Cr(VI) by P. chrysosporium from multi-metallic synthetic solution as well as chrome effluent was significant by bringing down the residual concentration to 0.1 mg/L in the effluent, which falls within the permissible range and its removal was not affected by the presence of other metal ions such as Fe, Zn and Ni. Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis revealed the presence of carboxylate (C=O) and amine (-NH{sup +}{sub 3}-NH{sup +}{sub 2}) functional groups commonly present on the cell surface of all fungi, with possible involvement in chromium binding. The result indicates that non-living fungal biomass either obtained as a by-product of fermentation industry or mass produced using inexpensive culture media can be used for bioremediation of Cr(VI) from chrome effluent on large scale. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The biodegradation of Olive Oil Mill Wastewaters by Sawdust and by a Phanerochaetae chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez, J.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses decolorization and chemical oxygen demand (COD abatement in olive mill wastewaters (OMW by Phanerochaetae chrysosporium grown in static, stirred and immobilized cultures. When P. Chrysosporium is used in cultures, no decolorization of crude OMW is observed. Decolorization occurs only after the removal of polyphenols by adsorption in sawdust, which allows a 39% polyphenol removal. The use of a High lignin peroxides (Lip producing medium, yields the highest OMW decolorization and COD removal efficiencies. The use of P. Chrysosporium immobilized on polyurethane foam leads to significant abatements of OMW polluting characteristics. And COD abatement reached 70%. The reduction of polyphenols reached its highest level at 62%. A significant effluent decolorization is apparent.Este trabajo describe la decoloración y la disminución de la demanda química de oxígeno del alpechín (OMW por Phanerochaetae chrysosporium, crecido en cultivos estáticos, agitados e inmovilizados. Cuando P. chrysosporium fue cultivado en agitación, no se observa ninguna decoloración de OMW crudo, la decoloración ocurre solamente después de eliminar los polifenoles mediante adsorción en el serrín (Disminución del 39% del contenido en polifenoles. La utilización de la lignina peroxidasa generada en el medio da lugar a la mayor decoloración de alpechín y a las eficiencias de eliminación de DQO más altas. Las pruebas de la decoloración realizadas en las muestras de OMW que fueron pretratadas por la adsorción de madera del serrín, y usaron cultivos inmovilizadas demostraron resultados mejores. Por tanto, la eficiencia de eliminación de DQO alcanzó un 70%. La reducción de los polifenoles alcanzó los niveles más altos siempre, i.e. 62%. Se observó una decoloración significativa del efluente.

  5. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  6. Antibiosis and dark-pigments secretion by the phytopathogenic and environmental fungal species after interaction in vitro with a Bacillus subtilis isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Paulo Machado

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, different reactions in vitro between an environmental bacterial isolate and fungal species were related. The Gram-positive bacteria had terminal and subterminal endospores, presented metabolic characteristics of mesophilic and acidophilic growth, halotolerance, positive to nitrate reduction and enzyme production, as caseinase and catalase. The analysis of partial sequences containing 400 to 700 bases of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene showed identity with the genus Bacillus. However, its identity as B. subtilis was confirmed after analyses of the rpoB, gyrA, and 16S rRNA near-full-length sequences. Strong inhibitory activity of environmental microorganisms, such as Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and phytopathogens, such as Colletotrichum sp, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum f.sp vasinfectum, was shown on co-cultures with B. subtilis strain, particularly on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA and DNase media. Red and red-ochre color pigments, probably phaeomelanins, were secreted by A. alternata and A. niger respectively after seven days of co-culture.Na presente investigação, nosso objetivo principal foi relatar diferentes interações in vitro de um isolado bacteriano ambiental com espécies fúngicas. Através da identificação clássica, nós verificamos que o bacilo ambiental apresentava endósporos terminais e subterminais, características metabólicas de mesofilia, acidofilia, halotolerância, redução de nitrato e produção de enzimas, como caseinase e catalase. Análise de seqüências parciais do gene 16S RNAr contendo de 400 a 700 bases revelou identidade com gênero Bacillus. No entanto, a espécie Bacillus subtilis foi confirmada somente depois da análise de seqüências dos genes rpoB, gyrA, and 16S RNAr. Intensa atividade inibitória aos fungos ambientais, como Penicillium sp, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, e fitopatogênicos, como Colletotrichum sp, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani

  7. Predominant Species Dynamic and Diversity of Fungal Endophytes in Barks of Two Populus Cultivars%两种杨树树皮内生真菌多样性及优势种群动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 朴春根; 郭利民; 常聚普; 王海明; 贺伟; 谢守江; 郭民伟

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the predominant species dynamic and diversity of fungal endophytes in barks of Populus × euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,the fungal endophytes were isolated from barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa by tissue isolation,and identified based on sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and morphological characterization by microscopic observations.A total of 1 175 fungal endophytes were isolated from 996 bark tissues.The fungal endophytes were classified into 35fungal taxa belonging to 15 genera,including 1 species of Basidiomycota and 34 taxa of Ascomycota.And Alternaria alternata,Botryosphaeria dothidea,Fusarium spp.,and Diaporthe conorum were the predominant species of fungal endophytes in barks of P.× euramericana cv.Robusta 94 and triploid of P.tomentosa,while A.alternata and B.dothidea were the most common predominant species in the barks of the two cultivars.The variation of predominant fungal endophytes of two poplar species in different seasons was detected.%为了解健杨94(转基因抗虫杨94)、三倍体毛白杨2个杨树品种干部树皮内生真菌区系及其优势种群的季节变化情况,本研究利用组织分离法从2个杨树品种996块组织中分离内生真菌1 175株,健杨94和三倍体毛白杨分别分离612、563株.利用形态特征和分子生物学方法鉴定为15个属、35个分类单元,包括担子菌1个分类单元,子囊菌34个分类单元.2个杨树品种内生真菌优势种群包括链格孢、葡萄座腔菌、镰孢属真菌、间座壳属真菌等,其中,仅有链格孢、葡萄座腔菌和桑砖红镰孢是两品种共有的优势种群种类,而且优势种群会随季节变化而变化.在两品种的内生真菌中,链格孢、葡萄座腔菌是最为常见的优势种群.

  8. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Knowles, Susan N.; Lankton, Julia S.; Michell, Kathy; Edwards, Jaime L.; Kapfer, Joshua M.; Staffen, Richard A.; Wild, Erik R.; Schmidt, Katie Z.; Ballmann, Anne; Blodgett, Doug; Farrell, Terence M.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Last, Lisa A.; Price, Steven J.; Schuler, Krysten L.; Smith, Christopher E.; Wellehan, James F. X.; Blehert, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused byOphidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV). Here we review the current state of knowledge about O. ophiodiicola and SFD. In addition, we provide original findings which demonstrate that O. ophiodiicola is widely distributed in eastern North America, has a broad host range, is the predominant cause of fungal skin infections in wild snakes and often causes mild infections in snakes emerging from hibernation. This new information, together with what is already available in the scientific literature, advances our knowledge of the cause, pathogenesis and ecology of SFD. However, additional research is necessary to elucidate the factors driving the emergence of this disease and develop strategies to mitigate its impacts.

  9. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  10. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. Functional Diversification of Fungal Glutathione Transferases from the Ure2p Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Thuillier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione-S-transferase (GST proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  12. Functional diversification of fungal glutathione transferases from the ure2p class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Ngadin, Andrew A; Thion, Cécile; Billard, Patrick; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Gelhaye, Eric; Morel, Mélanie

    2011-01-01

    The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have rapidly diversified among fungal phyla. We have focused our analysis on Basidiomycetes and used Phanerochaete chrysosporium as a model to correlate the sequence diversity with the functional diversity of these glutathione transferases. The results show that among the nine isoforms found in P. chrysosporium, two belonging to Ure2pA subclass are exclusively expressed at the transcriptional level in presence of polycyclic aromatic compounds. Moreover, we have highlighted differential catalytic activities and substrate specificities between Ure2pA and Ure2pB isoforms. This diversity of sequence and function suggests that fungal Ure2p sequences have evolved rapidly in response to environmental constraints.

  13. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  14. postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    the effect of some fungal species on the nutritional worth of tomatoes .... flask and then boiled for another 30minutes under the cold-finger condenser rotating the ..... mycotoxicoses, liver damage, suppression of the immune system and death ...

  15. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  16. Polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium and its application in the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhenzhen [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Guiqiu, E-mail: gqchen@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Zeng, Guangming, E-mail: zgming@hnu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Chen, Anwei [College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Zuo, Yanan; Guo, Zhi; Tan, Qiong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China); Song, Zhongxian [Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650500 (China); Niu, Qiuya [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control (Hunan University), Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2015-05-30

    Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram of polyvinyl alcohol-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal and 2,4-DCP degradation. - Highlights: • PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) were fit for wastewater treatment. • Removal rates of Cd(II) and 2,4-DCP at optimum conditions were up to 78% and 95.4%. • 2,4-DCP removal rates were beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. • PVA was vital to Cd(II) removal besides the function groups in P. chrysosporium. • Maximum recovery of the Cd(II)-laden PPBs after reuse three times was 98.9%. - Abstract: A novel biosorbent, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium, was applied to the bioremediation of composite-polluted wastewater, containing both cadmium and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The optimum removal efficiency achieved was 78% for Cd(II) and 95.4% for 2,4-DCP at initial concentrations of 20 mg/L Cd(II) and 40 mg/L 2,4-DCP. PPBs had significantly enhanced the resistance of P. chrysosporium to 2,4-DCP, leading to the degradation rates of 2,4-DCP beyond 90% with varying initial 2,4-DCP concentrations. This research demonstrated that 2,4-DCP and secreted proteins might be used as carbon and nitrogen sources by PVA-immobilized P. chrysosporium beads (PPBs) for Cd(II) removal. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups on the surface of PPBs were dominant in Cd(II) binding. The mechanism underlying the degradation of 2,4-DCP into fumaric acid and 1-hexanol was investigated. The adsorption–desorption studies indicated that PPBs kept up to 98.9% of desorption efficiency over three cycles.

  17. Biodegradation, biosorption of phenanthrene and its trans-membrane transport by Massilia sp. WF1 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping eGu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing phenanthrene (PHE in the environment is critical to ecosystem and human health. Biodegradation, biosorption and the trans-membrane transport mechanism of PHE by a novel strain, Massilia sp. WF1, and an extensively researched model fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium were investigated in aqueous solutions. Results showed that the PHE residual concentration decreased with incubation time and the data fitted well to a first-order kinetic equation, and the t1/2 of PHE degradation by WF1, spores and mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium were about 2 hours, 87 days, and 87 days, respectively. The biosorbed PHE was higher in P. Chrysosporium than that in WF1, and it increased after microorganisms were inactivated and inhibited, especially in mycelial pellets. The detected intracellular auto-fluorescence of PHE by two-photon excitation microscopy also proved that PHE indeed entered into the cells. Based on regression, the intracellular (Kdin and extracellular (Kdout dissipation rate constants of PHE by WF1 were higher than those by spores and mycelial pellets. In addition, the transport rate constant of PHE from outside solution into cells (KinS/Vout for WF1 were higher than the efflux rate constant of PHE from cells to outside solution (KoutS/Vin, while the opposite phenomena were observed for spores and mycelial pellets. The amount of PHE that transported from outside solution into cells was attributed to the rapid degradation and active PHE efflux in the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium, respectively. Besides, the results under the inhibition treatments of 4 °C, and the presence of sodium azide, colchicine and cytochalasin B demonstrated that a passive trans-membrane transport mechanism was involved in PHE entering into the cells of WF1 and P. Chrysosporium.

  18. Enzyme activities during degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Li, Jieming; Li, Yimeng; Zhang, Qingmin

    2009-10-01

    The degradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene in soils by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) produced during degradation, were analyzed. The results showed that the 19-d percentage degradation ranged from 72.77+/-1.39% to 25.50+/-3.41% for the three compounds, and the maximum LiP and MnP activities ranged from 0.16+/-0.005 to 0.05+/-0.002 U g(-1) and from 1.92+/-0.03 to 0.54+/-0.03 U g(-1), respectively. Degradation percentage and enzyme activities both exhibited inverse relationships with the octanol/water partition coefficient (K(ow)) of the compounds, indicating that LiP and MnP from P. chrysosporium may be the primary enzymes responsible for PAH degradation in soil. As the soil organic matter (SOM) content increased from 0.3% for Soil 1 to 19% for Soil 4, the 19-d degradation percentage of pyrene decreased from 66.20+/-2.72% to 32.42+/-1.05%, and correspondingly, the maximum of LiP and MnP activities increased from 0.05+/-0.002 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1) and from 0.34+/-0.03 to 1.78+/-0.15 U g(-1), respectively. Hence, it is plausible to conclude that the P. chrysosporium appeared to degrade not only the PAHs with small molecular size but also the macromolecular SOM. When SOM differences are large, as in this study, SOM has greater influence on enzyme activity than low-level exotic pollutants.

  19. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Hervé

    Full Text Available Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  20. Impact of Phanerochaete chrysosporium on the Functional Diversity of Bacterial Communities Associated with Decaying Wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Vincent; Ketter, Elodie; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Gelhaye, Eric; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria and fungi naturally coexist in various environments including forest ecosystems. While the role of saprotrophic basidiomycetes in wood decomposition is well established, the influence of these fungi on the functional diversity of the wood-associated bacterial communities has received much less attention. Based on a microcosm experiment, we tested the hypothesis that both the presence of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the wood, as a growth substrate, impacted the functional diversity of these bacterial communities. Microcosms containing sterile sawdust were inoculated with a microbial inoculum extracted from a forest soil, in presence or in absence of P. chrysosporium and subsequently, three enrichment steps were performed. First, bacterial strains were isolated from different microcosms previously analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. Strains isolated from P. chrysosporium mycosphere showed less antagonism against this fungus compared to the strains isolated from the initial forest soil inoculum, suggesting a selection by the fungus of less inhibitory bacterial communities. Moreover, the presence of the fungus in wood resulted in a selection of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacterial strains, highlighting the role of mycospheric bacteria in wood decomposition. Additionally, the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria increased along the enrichment steps, suggesting an important role of bacteria in iron mobilization in decaying-wood. Finally, taxonomic identification of 311 bacterial isolates revealed, at the family level, strong similarities with the high-throughput sequencing data as well as with other studies in terms of taxonomic composition of the wood-associated bacterial community, highlighting that the isolated strains are representative of the wood-associated bacterial communities.

  1. Biotransformation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: oxidation of alkyl side-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Lawrence, D L; Nuck, B A; Federle, T W; Reddy, C A

    2001-01-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which generally mineralizes substituted aromatics to CO2, transformed linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) surfactants mainly at their alkyl side chain. Degradation of LAS was evidenced by a zone of clearing on LAS-containing agar plates and colorimetric analysis of liquid cultures. Disappearance of LAS was virtually complete within 10 days in low nitrogen (2.4 mM N), high nitrogen (24 mM N) and malt extract (ME) liquid media. After 5 days of incubation in ME medium, transformation of LAS was complete at concentrations < or = 4 mg l(-1), but decreased at higher concentrations. The LAS degradation was not dependent on lignin peroxidases (LiPs) and manganese-dependent peroxidases (MnPs). Mineralization of 14C-ring-LAS to 14CO2 by P. chrysosporium was < 1% regardless of the culture conditions used. Thin layer chromatography and mass spectral analyses indicated that P. chrysosporium transformed LAS to sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPCs) through oxidative shortening of the alkyl side-chains. While LAS disappearance in the cultures was not dependent on LiPs and MnPs, transformation of the parent LAS moieties to SPCs was more extensive in low N medium that favors expression of these enzymes. The SPCs produced in LN cultures were shorter in chain- length than those produced in ME cultures. Also there was a notable shift in the relative abundance of odd and even chain length metabolites compared to the starting LAS particularly in the low N cultures suggesting the possible involvement of processes other than or in addition to beta-oxidation in the chain-shortening process.

  2. Characterization of lignin and Mn peroxidases from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Long-term objectives are to elucidate the role and mechanism of the various isozymes in lignin biodegradation. Work is described on electrochemical studies on lignin and Mn peroxidases. This study was performed to investigate the structural aspects which confer the lignin and Mn peroxidases with their high reactivity. The experimentally determined redox potential of the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple for the lignin peroxidase isozymes H1, H2, H8 and H10 are very similar, near-130 mV. The redox potential for the Mn peroxidase isozymes H3 and H4 are similar to each other ({minus}88 mV and {minus}95 mV, respectively) and are more positive than the lignin peroxidases. The higher redox potential for the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is consistent with the heme active site of these fungal peroxidases being more electron deficient. To investigate the accessibility of the heme active site to the substrate which is oxidized (veratryl alcohol and Mn (II)), we investigated whether these substrates had any affect on the redox potential of the heme. The E{sub m7} value for lignin and Mn peroxidases are not affected by their respective substrates, veratryl alcohol and Mn (II). These results suggest that substrates do not directly interact with the ferric heme-iron as axial ligands. This is consistent with the present model for peroxidase catalysis. Suicide inhibitor (1) and nmr studies (2) indicate that the heme-iron of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is not fully accessible to bulky substrates occur at the periphery of the heme.

  3. Heat Shock Induction of Manganese Peroxidase Gene Transcription in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Julie A.; Li, Dan; Alic, Margaret; Gold, Michael H.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of manganese peroxidase (MnP) in nitrogen-limited cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium is regulated by heat shock at the level of gene transcription. Nitrogen limitation and manganous ion [Mn(II)] previously have been shown to regulate mnp gene transcription. Northern (RNA) blot analysis demonstrates that 45°C heat shock results in the accumulation of mnp mRNA, even in cells grown in the absence of Mn. Heat shock induces mnp gene transcription in 4- or 5-day-old cells, and m...

  4. Application of Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 - Enzyme Complex and Laccase in Biobleaching of Flax Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotova L.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching processes in textile industry require to keep fibers tenacity, partially to preserve the pectin and reducing the lignin content, that gives color to row flax fibers. The use of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes from basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium 1038 strain and pure Laccase from Biocatalyst in flax fibers treatment was studied. The whiteness of enzymatically-processed fibers was significantly improved and the residual quantity of nondegraded lignin was less than obtained with chemical processing. The structural changes in the flax fibers during enzyme treatment were determined with IR spectroscopy, which confirmed the lignin degradation.

  5. Invasive fungal infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2011-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are a significant and often lethal problem in transplant patients. Infections caused by geographically limited endemic fungi are infrequent, and Aspergillus species, Mucorales species, Candida species, and Cryptococcus neoformans are the opportunistic fungi responsible for most such infections. The symptoms of systemic fungal infections are nonspecific, particularly in their early stages. The high rates of mortality and graft loss owing to fungal infections render early diagnosis and treatment imperative in immunosuppressed patients. Current methods for the diagnosis of systemic fungal infections include imaging procedures, endoscopic methods and biopsies, microscopic and culture techniques, antibody and antigen-based serologic testing, and the detection (via polymerase chain reaction) of fungal deoxyribonucleic acid in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as the careful analysis of signs and symptoms. Antifungal therapy should be initiated early in patients with a suspected fungal infection (even before laboratory findings have confirmed that diagnosis) and should be administered with appropriate adjustment of immunosuppressive regimens. To manage fungal infections in patients with renal failure, optimizing the pharmacokinetics of antifungal drugs to reduce the risk of nephrotoxicity is crucial.

  6. [Effect of pH on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-wen; Wen, Xiang-hua; Zhou, Xiao-yan; Zeng, Yong-gang; Qian, Yi

    2005-11-01

    Effect of different pH value on suppressing the growth of other bacteria and fungi in culturing Phanerochaete chrysosporium in liquid medium under non-sterile were investigated in agitated Erlenmeyer flasks. Results showed that nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH3.6 and pH4.4 were contaminated only by yeast fungi when the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated with spore inoculation under non-sterile condition for one day; however, nitrogen-limited liquid medium with pH5.6 was contaminated not only by yeast, but also by bacteria. These contaminated yeast and bacteria reduced the dye decolorizing ability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium . If after the Phanerochaete chrysosporium was incubated under sterile condition for 5 days, it can decolorize over 70% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP within 45 hours under non-sterile condition, and this removal rate was close to or even higher than that under sterile condition. Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultured in the liquid medium with pH4.4 have the best decolorizing effect under non-sterile condition, and can decolorize up to 80% of the reactive brilliant red K-2BP in 24 hours. In additions, it was observed that by using the Phanerochaete chrysosporium incubated in above nitrogen-limited liquid medium with different pH under sterile condition for 5 days, the system were also contaminated by the other bacteria and yeast during decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP under non-sterile condition, but the amount of these bacteria and yeast in liquid medium were too little to influence the Phanerochaete chrysosporium decolorizing reactive brilliant red K-2BP. So that, when Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to decolorize reactive dyes under non-sterile condition, the incubation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium must be operated under sterile condition in order to achieve the higher decolorization.

  7. Inoculation of drought-stressed strawberry with a mixed inoculum of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: effects on population dynamics of fungal species in roots and consequential plant tolerance to water deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Louisa Robinson; Brain, Philip; Xu, Xiang-Ming; Jeffries, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The effect of inoculation with two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and drought tolerance of cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was studied. Three treatments (a single treatment either of Funneliformis mosseae BEG25, Funneliformis geosporus BEG11 or a 50:50 mixed inoculation treatment of both species) were compared to uninoculated plants. Species-specific primers for qPCR quantification of F. geosporus and F. mosseae DNA were developed to quantify the relative abundance of each fungus in roots of strawberry under different conditions of water stress. Co-occupation of the same root by both species was shown to commonly occur, but their relative abundance varied with water stress (reduced irrigation of up to 40%). Greater root colonisation was observed microscopically under water stress, but this increased colonisation was often accompanied with decreased amounts of fungal DNA in the root. F. mosseae tended to become more abundant under water stress relative to F. geosporus. There was significant correlation in the fungal colonisation measurements from the microscopic and qPCR methods under some conditions, but the nature of this relationship varied greatly with AMF inoculum and abiotic conditions. Single-species inoculation treatments gave similar benefits to the host to the mixed inoculation treatment regardless of irrigation regime; here, amount of colonisation was of greater importance than functional diversity. The addition of AMF inocula to plants subjected to reduced irrigation restored plant growth to the same or higher values as the non-mycorrhizal, fully-watered plants. The water use efficiency of plants was greater under the regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) regime and in AMF-inoculated plants, but there were no significant differences between plants inoculated with the single or combined inoculum. This study demonstrated that the increase in plant growth was directly influenced by an increase in root colonisation by AMF when

  8. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  9. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ACCUMULATION OF MESSENGER-RNAS ENCODING 2 COMMON LIGNIN PEROXIDASES IN PHANEROCHAETE-CHRYSOSPORIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOUKHA, SM; WOSTEN, HAB; MYLIUS, EJ; ASTHER, M; WESSELS, JGH

    Accumulation of peroxidases and their mRNAs was localized in colonies of Phanerochaete chrysosporium sandwiched between perforated polycarbonate membranes. Northern (RNA) blot analyses of colonial rings and in situ hybridizations with specific probes for manganese(II)-dependent peroxidase (MnP-1)

  10. EFECTO DEL COBRE Y HIERRO SOBRE LA EXPRESION Y ACTIVIDAD ENZIMATICA DE LAS OXIDASAS MULTICOBRE DEL HONGO BASIDIOMICETE PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM.

    OpenAIRE

    CANESSA AGUILA, PAULO FRANCISCO

    2009-01-01

    Los basidiomicetes como Phanerochaete chrysosporium son un grupo de hongos filamentosos capaces de degradar la lignina, un biopolimero de estructura y composición altamente compleja, presente en la pared celular de las plantas leñosas. Durante la degradac 125p.

  11. ICU内侵袭性真菌感染临床分析及药敏情况%Clinical features and species distribution of invasive fungal infections in comprehensive ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱平; 郭远愉; 汪敏; 杨国绘

    2013-01-01

    Objective To Investigate the current clinical features, species' characteristics and distribution of invasive fungal infections in ICU in order to provide evidences for clinical treatment and elimination of invasive fungal infections. Methods Retrospective analysis of the cases of inpatients with positive fungal culture results in the recent 3 years were performed with regard to the infected body parts, species distribution, drug resistance and risk factors. Results The rate of invasive fungal infection was 8. 6% in ICU. The isolating rates from urine, sputum and blood were 36. 6% , 28. 8% and 11.8% respectively. The most common invasive fungal infection was caused by Candida (94. 3% ), among which Candida albicans accounted for 51. 6%. The susceptibility rate to amphotericin was the highest (99.8% ) , followed by voriconazole. Conclusion The rate of invasive fungal infections in ICU increased in recent years and Candida albicans are still the main pathogens; Amphotericin and voriconazole have good antibacterial activity against five kinds of Candida.%目的 分析重症加强病房(ICU)内侵袭性真菌感染的临床状况、病原菌菌群分布及耐药情况,为临床治疗及减少真菌感染提供参考依据.方法 回顾性分析3年来真菌培养阳性住院患者病例资料,从感染部位、菌种分布、真菌耐药情况等方面进行分析.结果 ICU中侵袭性真菌感染发生率为8.6%;尿液、痰液和血液分别为36.6%、28.8%和11.8%;真菌感染以假丝酵母菌为主要菌属(94.3%),白色假丝酵母菌占51.6%,是感染主要菌种;5种常见抗真菌药物敏感率最高的是两性霉素平均为99.8%,其次为伏立康唑;光滑念珠菌及热带念珠菌耐药比较严重,氟康唑(FLU)的敏感率分别为41.1%、17.6%,伊曲康唑的敏感性分别为6.1%、35.3%.结论 白色假丝酵母菌是ICU侵袭性真菌感染感染的主要病原菌;两性霉素及伏立康唑对5种念珠菌有较好的抗菌活性.

  12. Pemanfaatan Serbuk Kayu untuk Produksi Etanol dengan Perlakuan Pendahuluan Delignifikasi Menggunakan Jamur Phanerochaete Chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Irawati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of Sawdust to Produce Ethanol Using Delignification Pre-treatment with White Rot Fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium Currently, Indonesia is in the middle ofpetroleum crisis. One ofthe alternative fuels which can be used as a petroleum substitute is ethanol. Ethanol can be produced from timber waste (sawdust. Indonesia in 2003 had timber waste potency of about 3-4 millions m3. However, ethanol production from sawdust has problems due to its lignin content. Therefore, research on bio-delignification treatment of sawdust prior to ethanol making process is required. In the present study ethanol was produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF using crude cellulose from Trichoderma viride and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The raw materials for ethanol production are sengon (Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen syn., meranti (Shorea sp. and teak (Tectona grandis LIIVN.f. sawdust after pretreatment with white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium for 10, 20 and 30 days incubation time. The yield of ethanol was between 1.65-44.83 g/1. The best combination treatment is sengon sawdust with 30 day incubation time.

  13. Use of steam explosion liquor from sugar cane bagasse for lignin peroxidase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Maria Antonieta; Bon, Elba P S; Araujo Neto, Julio Silva

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of using two by-products of the sugar cane industry, molasses and bagasse steam explosion liquor (SEL), for lignin peroxidase (LiP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated. For comparison, the fungus was initially cultivated in synthetic media containing either glucose, sucrose, xylose, or xylan as sole carbon sources. The effect of veratryl alcohol (VA) was also investigated in relation to the enzyme activity levels. Results showed that sucrose was not metabolized by this fungus, which precluded the use of molasses as a carbon source. Glucose, xylose, and xylan promoted equivalent cell growth. Enzyme levels in the absence of VA were lower than 28 UI/L and in the presence of VA reached 109 IU/L with glucose and 85 IU/L with xylose or xylan. SEL was adequate for P. chrysosporium LiP production as LiP activity reached 90 IU/L. When VA was added to this medium, enzyme concentration increased to 155 IU/L.

  14. Degradation of azo dyes by the lignin-degrading fungus Phaerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spadaro, J.T.; Gold, M.H.; Renganathan, V. (Oregon Graduate Inst. of Science and Technology, Beaverton (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Under nitrogen-limiting, secondary metabolic conditions, the white rat basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium extensively mineralized the specifically [sup 14]C-ring-labeled azo dyes 4-phenylazophenol, 4-phenylazo-2-methoxyphenol, Disperse Yellow 3 [2-(4[prime]-acetamidophenylaso)-4-methylphenol], 4-phenylazoaniline, N,N-dimethyl-4-phenylazoaniline, Disperse Orange 3 [4-(4[prime]-nitrophenylazo)-aniline], and Solvent Yellow 14 (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol). Twelve days after addition to cultures, the dyes had been mineralized 23.1 to 48.1%. Aromatic rings with substituents such as hydroxyl, amino, acetamido, or nitro functions were mineralized to a greater extent than unsubstituted rings. Most of the dyes were degraded extensively only under nitrogen-limiting, ligninolytic conditions. However, 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] phenol and 4-phenylazo-[U-[sup 14]C] 2-methoxyphenol were mineralized to a lesser extent under nitrogen-sufficient, nonligninolytic conditions as well. These results suggest that P. chrysosporium has potential applications for the cleanup of textile mill effluents and for the bioremediation of dye-contaminated soil.

  15. Lignin peroxidase-negative mutant of the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boominathan, K.; Dass, S.B.; Randall, T.A.; Kelley, R.L.; Reddy, C.A. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces two classes of extracellular heme proteins, designated lignin peroxidases and manganese peroxidases, that play a key role in lignin degradation. In this study the authors isolated and characterized a lignin peroxidase-negative mutant (lip mutant) that showed 16% of the ligninolytic activity ({sup 14}C-labeled synthetic lignin {yields}{sup 14}CO{sub 2}) exhibited by the wild type. The lip mutant did not produce detectable levels of lignin peroxidase, whereas the wild type, under identical conditions, produced 96 U of lignin peroxidase per liter. Both the wild type and the mutant produced comparable levels of manganese peroxidase and glucose oxidases, a key H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-generating secondary metabolic enzyme in P. chrysosporium. Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the concentrated extracellular fluid of the lip mutant confirmed that it produced only heme proteins with manganese peroxidase activities were produced by the wild type. The lip mutant appears to be a regulatory mutant that is defective in the production of all the lignin peroxidases.

  16. Effect of agitation on ligninase activity and ligninase production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatadri, R.; Irvine, R.L. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces extracellular ligninases as part of its idiophasic ligninolytic system. Agitation has been widely reported to suppress both ligninase production and lignin degradation. Results show that mechanical inactivation of ligninase is possibly the reason why ligninase accumulation is low or absent in agitated shake-flask cultures. Agitation seems to affect the catalytic activity of ligninase and has no apparent effect on either the rate of ligninase production or the physiology of P. chrysosporium. The detergents Tween 20, Tween 40, Tween 60, Tween 80, and 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesuflonate (CHAPS) are able to protect both purified ligninase and extant ligninase in culture fluids (free of biomass) against mechanical inactivation due to agitation. Addition of Tween 80 at the end of primary growth to agitated shake flasks containing either pelleted or immobilized mycelial cultures results in production and maintenance of high levels of ligninase activity over several days under conditions of high agitation. Possible mechanisms by which the detergents could protect ligninase are discussed.

  17. Degradation of Diuron by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: Role of Ligninolytic Enzymes and Cytochrome P450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline da Silva Coelho-Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated for its capacity to degrade the herbicide diuron in liquid stationary cultures. The presence of diuron increased the production of lignin peroxidase in relation to control cultures but only barely affected the production of manganese peroxidase. The herbicide at the concentration of 7 μg/mL did not cause any reduction in the biomass production and it was almost completely removed after 10 days. Concomitantly with the removal of diuron, two metabolites, DCPMU [1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-methylurea] and DCPU [(3,4-dichlorophenylurea], were detected in the culture medium at the concentrations of 0.74 μg/mL and 0.06 μg/mL, respectively. Crude extracellular ligninolytic enzymes were not efficient in the in vitro degradation of diuron. In addition, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, significantly inhibited both diuron degradation and metabolites production. Significant reduction in the toxicity evaluated by the Lactuca sativa L. bioassay was observed in the cultures after 10 days of cultivation. In conclusion, P. chrysosporium can efficiently metabolize diuron without the accumulation of toxic products.

  18. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal endophytes are quite common in nature and some of them have been shown to have adverse effects against insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens. An introduction to fungal endophytes will be presented, followed by a discussion of research aimed at introducing Beauveria bassiana as a fungal endo...

  19. Biodiversity of keratinophilic fungal flora in university campus, jaipur, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neetu; Sharma, Meenakshi

    2012-01-01

    Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animals Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique. Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83%) was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10%) was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%), T. simii (9.37%), C.evolceanui (8.83%) T. terrestre (4.68%) and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68%) were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur. Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds.

  20. Biodiversity of Keratinophilic Fungal Flora in University Campus, Jaipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soil is well known to support the transient or ongoing existence of keratinophilic fungi and potential source of infection for human and animalsMethods: Samples were collected from 67 sites of university campus like PG study centers, playgrounds, gardens, hostels, administrative blocks, library, bank, canteen and road side for the estimation of keratinophilic fungi using the hair baiting technique.Results: Totally, 192 isolates belonging to 14 genera and 21 species were reported. Soil pH range varies from 6.5 to 9.0 pH. Most of the fungi isolated from neutral to slightly alkaline soil. Chrysosporium tropicum (20.83% was the most predominant fungi reported from all sites. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.10% was the second most commonly reported fungi. Chrysosporium indicum (11.45%, T. simii (9.37%, C.evolceanui (8.83% T. terrestre (4.68% and Cephaliophora irregularies (4.68% were frequently reported. Microsporum audouinii, Paceliomyces sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sporothrix schenckii were isolated for the first time from Jaipur.Conclusion: Road sides were found most suitable for the occurrence of all most all keratinophilic fungi. Higher incidence of keratinophilic fungi was found in hostel sides followed by road sides, PG study centers and play grounds.

  1. Degradation of linuron in soil by two fungal strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Gordana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fungal strains were applied to soil polluted with herbicide in order to determine their degradation potential. Three experimental setups were used. In the first setup, the soil in pots was contaminated by linuron in final concentration of 1 ppm. Suspensions of Phanerocheate chrysosporium and Trichoderma asperellum were applied sepa­rately or in combination. Tomato plantlets were transplanted and chlorophyll content in their leaves was determined at two time points during plant growth. In the second setup in pots, the final concentration of linuron was lower, 0.45 ppm. In the third setup 0.1 ppm of linuron was applied in the field plot. Plantlets of lettuce were transplanted and chlorophyll content was measured as indicator of plant stress. The content of linuron in soil was determined by HPLC. The applied fungal strains significantly reduced toxic effect of 0.45 ppm linuron on plants, which was not the case for 1 ppm linuron. Both fungi, applied separately or in combination, were effective in decreasing the linuron content in the soil. However, in field conditions the combination of both fungi was the most effective. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43010

  2. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  3. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K.; Bennett, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom. PMID:21496492

  4. Fungal mating pheromones: choreographing the dating game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephen K; Bennett, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence from this model system is compared amongst the ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, which reveals the wealth of information that has been gleaned from studying pheromone-driven processes across a wide spectrum of the fungal kingdom.

  5. Root fungal associations in some non-orchidaceous vascular lithophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thangavelu Muthukumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant roots in natural ecosystems are colonized by a diverse group of fungi among which the most common and widespread are arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungi. Though AM and DSE fungal associations are well reported for terricolous plant species, they are rather poorly known for lithophytic plant species. In this study, we examined AM and DSE fungal association in 72 non-orchidaceous vascular plant species growing as lithophytes in Siruvani Hills, Western Ghats of Tamilnadu, India. Sixty-nine plant species had AM and 58 species had DSE fungal associations. To our knowledge, we report AM fungal association in 42 and DSE fungal association in 53 plant species for the first time. There were significant differences in total root length colonization and root length colonized by different AM and DSE fungal structures among plant species. In contrast, the differences in AM and DSE fungal colonization among plants in various life-forms and lifecycles were not significant. AM morphology reported for the first time in 56 plant species was dominated by intermediate type AM morphology. A significant negative relationship existed between total root length colonized by AM and DSE fungi. These results clearly suggest that AM and DSE fungal associations are widespread in lithophytes.

  6. Complex patterns of speciation in cosmopolitan "rock posy" lichens - an integrative approach to discovering and delimiting fungal species in the lichen-forming rhizoplaca melanophthalma speciescomplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    A growing body of evidence indicates that morphology-based species circumspection of lichenized ascomycetes greatly misrepresents the number of existing species. Recently it has been demonstrated that population-level processes operating within diverging populations can facilitate the identification...

  7. Fungal Mating Pheromones: Choreographing the Dating Game

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Pheromones are ubiquitous from bacteria to mammals - a testament to their importance in regulating inter-cellular communication. In fungal species, they play a critical role in choreographing interactions between mating partners during the program of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how fungal pheromones are synthesized, their interactions with G protein-coupled receptors, and the signals propagated by this interaction, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reference point. Divergence fro...

  8. A composite microbial agent containing bacterial and fungal species: Optimization of the preparation process, analysis of characteristics, and use in the purification for volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuowei; Lu, Lichao; Kennes, Christian; Ye, Jiexu; Yu, Jianming; Chen, Dongzhi; Chen, Jianmeng

    2016-10-01

    Proper preservation of microbial activity over long periods poses a considerable challenge for pollutant biopurification. A composite microbial agent, mainly composed of bacteria and fungi isolated by the current research team, was constructed in this study and its performance in the removal of mixed waste gases (containing α-pinene, n-butyl acetate and o-xylene) was investigated. According to the removal efficiency in the first 24h and the response to starvation, the optimal ratio of selected carriers (activated carbon, wheat bran and sawdust) was found to be 1:2:1. In some cases of storages, the removal capability of the microbial agent was more than twice that of the suspension. Microbial analysis showed that the inoculated bacterial and fungal strains dominated the agent preparation and utilization. These results indicated that the agent has potential for use in biopurification of mixed waste gas, favoring the reduction of environmental passives and longer retention of microbial activity.

  9. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  10. Multilocus phylogeny of the lichen-forming fungal genus Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota): insights on diversity, distributions, and a comparison of species tree and concatenated topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Steven D; Esslinger, Theodore L; Spribille, Toby; Divakar, Pradeep K; Thorsten Lumbsch, H

    2013-01-01

    Accurate species circumscriptions are central for many biological disciplines and have critical implications for ecological and conservation studies. An increasing body of evidence suggests that in some cases traditional morphology-based taxonomy have underestimated diversity in lichen-forming fungi. Therefore, genetic data play an increasing role for recognizing distinct lineages of lichenized fungi that it would otherwise be improbable to recognize using classical phenotypic characters. Melanohalea (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) is one of the most widespread and common lichen-forming genera in the northern Hemisphere. In this study, we assess traditional phenotype-based species boundaries, identify previously unrecognized species-level lineages and discuss biogeographic patterns in Melanohalea. We sampled 487 individuals worldwide, representing 18 of the 22 described Melanohalea species, and generated DNA sequence data from mitochondrial, nuclear ribosomal, and protein-coding markers. Diversity previously hidden within traditional species was identified using a genealogical concordance approach. We inferred relationships among sampled species-level lineages within Melanohalea using both concatenated phylogenetic methods and a coalescent-based multilocus species tree approach. Although lineages identified from genetic data are largely congruent with traditional taxonomy, we found strong evidence supporting the presence of previously unrecognized species in six of the 18 sampled taxa. Strong nodal support and overall congruence among independent loci suggest long-term reproductive isolation among most species-level lineages. While some Melanohalea taxa are truly widespread, a limited number of clades appear to have much more restricted distributional ranges. In most instances the concatenated gene tree and multilocus species tree approaches provided similar estimates of relationships. However, nodal support was generally higher in the phylogeny estimated from

  11. [Function of nitric oxide in initiating production of lignin degrading peroxidases by Phanerochaete chrysosporium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaotong; Qiu, Ailian; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Feng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yaqing; Zheng, Gang; Zou, Yanqiong

    2013-03-04

    By analyzing the function and mechanism of nitric oxide in initiating producing lignin peroxidases by phanerochaete chrysosporium, we studied the regulation mechanism triggering the secondary metabolism of white-rot fungi. Mutant (pcR5305) and wild-type (pc530) strains of phanerochaete chrysosporium were respectively cultured under both the conditions of nitrogen limitation and nitrogen sufficiency. To compare their lignin peroxidases (LiP)-production and nitric oxide(NO)-production kinetics and their different influences on producing LiP after the NO donor Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) and scavenger cPTIO were respectively added to the nitrogen limitation or sufficiency culture medium to show the function and mechanism of nitric oxide in initiating production of lignin peroxidases by white-rot fungi. Both strains produced nitric oxide (NO) under the two opposite nutritional conditions, but the levels of NO produced were related with the type of strain and the nutritional conditions. Strain pc530 produced NO requiring nutrition depletion and producing of NO was strongly delayed and reduced when it was cultured under nitrogen sufficiency condition. On the contrary, pcR5305 did not require nitrogen depletion to trigger and the levels of NO were higher than that of pc530. The results indicate that LiP content had positive correlation with NO value except the occurrence time of LiP peak value was later than that of NO. The ability of producing LiP was promoted after the NO donor SNP added, but SNP affected more on pc530 than pcR5305 in promoting producing LiP. 15mM cPTIO would greatly repress producing LiP, but could not completely restrain the synthesis of LiP for both strains. By producing NO, Phanerochaete chrysosporium triggers LiP synthesis. However, the evidences do not indicate that NO participates or effect directly in LiP synthesis. It is more likely that NO is reacting as an upstream signal molecule. Besides NO, there are other signal molecules that have a

  12. [Breeding and characterization of laccase-producing Phanerochaete chrysosporium mutant resistant to nutritional repression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ailian; Li, Wenyan; Zheng, Yaotong; Fan, Xiaojing; Ye, Youxian; Meng, Yan

    2011-03-01

    To screen Phanerochaete chrysosporium mutants resisting nutritional repression and to characterize laccase produced by the mutants. We used repeated UV mutagenesis and screened the mutant strains by using the guaiacol nitrogen sufficient differential medium. We characterized enzymes production mechanism of the nutritional regulation through comparing the differences of cell growth and enzyme-production kinetics under different nutritional conditions; We validated production of laccase by Phanerochaete chrysosporium through measurements of the heat treatment, removal of manganese ion and addition of the catalase. Three different methods were validated that both strains of pcR5305 and pcR5324 can produce laccase under the nitrogen limitation (N-L) and nitrogen sufficient (N-S) conditions. Under the N-L conditions, pcR5305 can produce 203.5 U/L laccase and pcR5324 can produce 187.6 U/L laccase; Under the N-S conditions, pcR5305 can produce 220.6 U/L laccase and pcR5324 can produce 183.9 U/L laccase. The original strain pc530 only can produce very little laccase under either conditions. The laccase-production regulation mechanisms of the two strains are different: Production of laccase and the cell growth by pcR5305 are in synchronism. However production of the laccase by pcR5324 is repressed by nutrition. Both strains have the capacity of resisting nutritional repression and produce lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase with high yield. (LiP 1343.2, MnP 252.2 U/L and LiP 1169.5, MnP 172.4 U/L respectively). The mutants of Phanerochaete chrysosporium can produce laccase. At same time they showed the capacity of resisting nutritional repression and production of laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Our results possess high value for production, application and fundamental research. We provided new strains and established a very good foundation for the further research of metabolic regulation of ligninolytic enzymes production.

  13. Fungal symbionts alter plant drought response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worchel, Elise R; Giauque, Hannah E; Kivlin, Stephanie N

    2013-04-01

    Grassland productivity is often primarily limited by water availability, and therefore, grasslands may be especially sensitive to climate change. Fungal symbionts can mediate plant drought response by enhancing drought tolerance and avoidance, but these effects have not been quantified across grass species. We performed a factorial meta-analysis of previously published studies to determine how arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and endophytic fungal symbionts affect growth of grasses under drought. We then examined how the effect of fungal symbionts on plant growth was influenced by biotic (plant photosynthetic pathway) and abiotic (level of drought) factors. We also measured the phylogenetic signal of fungal symbionts on grass growth under control and drought conditions. Under drought conditions, grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than those without mycorrhizal symbionts. The increased growth of grasses conferred from fungal symbionts was greatest at the lowest soil moisture levels. Furthermore, under both drought and control conditions, C3 grasses colonized by AM fungi grew larger than C3 grasses without symbionts, but the biomass of C4 grasses was not affected by AM fungi. Endophytes did not increase plant biomass overall under any treatment. However, there was a phylogenetically conserved increase in plant biomass in grasses colonized by endophytes. Grasses and their fungal symbionts seem to interact within a context-dependent symbiosis, varying with biotic and abiotic conditions. Because plant-fungal symbioses significantly alter plant drought response, including these responses could improve our ability to predict grassland functioning under global change.

  14. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪微; 温海; 廖万清

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation.Data sources An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990-2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles.Study selection Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose.Results Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: ① disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; ② opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient ’s conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. Conclusions It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  15. Global food and fibre security threatened by current inefficiencies in fungal identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W.; Groenewald, Johannes Z.; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens severely impact global food and fibre crop security. Fungal species that cause plant diseases have mostly been recognized based on their morphology. In general, morphological descriptions remain disconnected from crucially important knowledge such as mating types, host specificity,

  16. Comparison of the heavy metal biosorption capacity of active, heat-inactivated and NaOH-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium biosorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerisik, E.; Bektas, S.; Genc, Oe. [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, 06532 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Arica, M.Y. [Kirikkale University, Department of Biology, Yahsihan, Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2004-02-05

    Three different kinds of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (NaOH-treated, heat-inactivated and active) biosorbent were used for the removal of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions from aquatic systems. The biosorption of Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions on three different forms of Phanerochaete chrysosporium was studied in aqueous solutions in the concentration range of 50-700 mg/L. Maximum biosorption capacities of NaOH-treated, heat-inactivated and active Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass were found to be 148.37 mg/g, 78.68 mg/g and 68.56 mg/g for Cd(II) as well as 224.67 mg/g, 122.37 mg/g and 88.26 mg/g for Hg(II), respectively. For Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions, the order of affinity of the biosorbents was arranged as NaOH-treated > heat-inactivated > active. The order of the amount of metal ions adsorbed was established as Hg(II) > Cd(II) on a weight basis, and as Cd(II) > Hg(II) on a molar basis. Biosorption equilibriums were established in about 60 min. The effect of the pH was also investigated, and maximum rates of biosorption of metal ions on the three different forms of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were observed at pH 6.0. The reusability experiments and synthetic wastewater studies were carried out with the most effective form, i.e., the NaOH-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium biomass. It was observed that the biosorbent could be regenerated using 10 mM HCl solution, with a recovery of up to 98%, and it could be reused in five biosorption-desorption cycles without any considerable loss in biosorption capacity. The alkali-treated Phanerochaete chrysosporium removed 73% of Cd(II) and 81% of Hg(II) ions from synthetic wastewater. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  17. Atypical features of a Ure2p glutathione transferase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Anne; Roret, Thomas; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Didierjean, Claude; Morel-Rouhier, Mélanie

    2013-07-11

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are known to transfer glutathione onto small hydrophobic molecules in detoxification reactions. The GST Ure2pB1 from Phanerochaete chrysosporium exhibits atypical features, i.e. the presence of two glutathione binding sites and a high affinity towards oxidized glutathione. Moreover, PcUre2pB1 is able to efficiently deglutathionylate GS-phenacylacetophenone. Catalysis is not mediated by the cysteines of the protein but rather by the one of glutathione and an asparagine residue plays a key role in glutathione stabilization. Interestingly PcUre2pB1 interacts in vitro with a GST of the omega class. These properties are discussed in the physiological context of wood degrading fungi.

  18. Noncovalent immobilization of manganese peroxidases from P. chrysosporium on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaxi LI; Xianghua WEN

    2009-01-01

    Manganese peroxidases (MnP) from Phaner-ochaete chrysosporium were adsorbed onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Four different loadings of MnP on MWNTs were investigated, and the maximum enzyme loading of 47.5 μg/mg of MWNTs was obtained in 12 h. The adsorbed MnP showed a catalytic activity of up to 0.1 U/mg of the weight of the system of MnP/MWNTs,with 23% of its original activity retained. The AFM image of the adsorbed enzymes indicated that a layer of MnP covered the surface of the MWNTs and retained its original three-dimensional shape. Amino-based nonspecific inter-actions may play the dominant role in the adsorption of MnP on MWNTs.

  19. Effects of Pluronic F68 on Manganese peroxidase production by pelletized Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Min; Liu, Yan; Chi, Zhan-You; Chen, Shu-lin

    2011-06-01

    In this study, a new process was developed for manganese peroxidase (MnP) production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium under an agitated and aerated cultivation condition. It was found that change of the inoculum from spore suspension to pellets resulted in enhanced MnP production of 200 U/L in rotated shake flasks. Several additives, including Pluronic F68, Tween 80, and PEG8000, significantly increased the enzyme production. With an optimal concentration in 125 mL flasks, Pluronic F68 increased MnP productivity by 180%. Moreover, successful enzyme production was achieved in a 5-L fermentor at an agitation speed of 300 rpm with the addition of 0.1% Pluronic F68.

  20. Organization and Differential Regulation of a Cluster of Lignin Peroxidase Genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip; Cullen, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    The lignin peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium are encoded by a minimum of 10 closely related genes. Physical and genetic mapping of a cluster of eight lip genes revealed six genes occurring in pairs and transcriptionally convergent, suggesting that portions of the lip family arose by gene duplication events. The completed sequence of lipG and lipJ, together with previously published sequences, allowed phylogenetic and intron/exon classifications, indicating two main branches within the lip family. Competitive reverse transcription-PCR was used to assess lip transcript levels in both carbon- and nitrogen-limited media. Transcript patterns showed differential regulation of lip genes in response to medium composition. No apparent correlation was observed between genomic organization and transcript levels. Both constitutive and upregulated transcripts, structurally unrelated to peroxidases, were identified within the lip cluster. PMID:10348854

  1. Purification of major lignin peroxidase isoenzymes from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollikka, P; Leppänen, V M; Anttila, T; Suominen, I

    1995-06-01

    The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces several isoforms of lignin peroxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative depolymerization of lignin To date, ion-exchange chromatography and preparative isoelectric focusing (IEF) have been commonly used for isolation of lignin peroxidase isoenzymes. In this work we have purified major lignin peroxidases to high purity by a one-step chromatographic method, chromatofocusing. The purified isoenzymes were identified by analytical IEF using isoenzymes purified by preparative IEF as standards. The specific activities and spectral properties of the isoenzymes were comparable with the previously published data. The predominant isoenzyme under the growth conditions used was LiP 4.65. Almost 50% of the lignin peroxidase activity applied into the column was recovered in the LiP 4.65 fraction. The total recovery of the lignin peroxidase activity was over 80%.

  2. Biosorption of lead by phanerochaete chrysosporium in the form of pellets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (ATCC 24725) in pellets was influenced by culture time, medium pH, C/N, surfactant concentration, spore number in inoculum, and shaking rate. The removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solution by this kind of mycelial pellets was studied. The results indicated that many factors affected biosorption. These factors included pH, Pb2+ concentration, co-ion, adsorption time, and chemical pretreatments of biomass. Under optimum biosorption conditions (pH 4.5, 27℃, 16h), the highest lead uptake of 108 mg/g, was observed with mycelial pellets of 1.5-1.7 mm in diameter which were treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH solution before adsorption. Pretreatment of biomass with NaOH further increased its biosorption capacity.

  3. Factors involved in the regulation of a ligninase activity in Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faison, B.D.; Kikr, T.K.

    1985-02-01

    The regulation of an H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-dependent ligninolytic activity was examined in the wood decay fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The ligninase appears in cultures upon limitation of nitrogen or carbohydrate and is suppressed by excess nutrients, by cycloheximide, or by culture agitation. Activity is increased by idiophasic exposure of cultures to 100% O/sub 2/. Elevated levels of ligninase and in some cases, of extracellular H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production are detected after brief incubation of cultures with lignins or lignin substructure models, with the secondary metabolite veratryl alcohol, or with other related compounds. It is concluded that lignin degradation (lignin to CO/sub 2/) by this organism is regulated in part at the level of the ligninase, which is apparently inducible by its substrates or their degradation products. 29 references.

  4. Motif-independent prediction of a secondary metabolism gene cluster using comparative genomics: application to sequenced genomes of Aspergillus and ten other filamentous fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Itaru; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Asai, Kiyoshi; Machida, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    Despite their biological importance, a significant number of genes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis (SMB) remain undetected due largely to the fact that they are highly diverse and are not expressed under a variety of cultivation conditions. Several software tools including SMURF and antiSMASH have been developed to predict fungal SMB gene clusters by finding core genes encoding polyketide synthase, nonribosomal peptide synthetase and dimethylallyltryptophan synthase as well as several others typically present in the cluster. In this work, we have devised a novel comparative genomics method to identify SMB gene clusters that is independent of motif information of the known SMB genes. The method detects SMB gene clusters by searching for a similar order of genes and their presence in nonsyntenic blocks. With this method, we were able to identify many known SMB gene clusters with the core genes in the genomic sequences of 10 filamentous fungi. Furthermore, we have also detected SMB gene clusters without core genes, including the kojic acid biosynthesis gene cluster of Aspergillus oryzae. By varying the detection parameters of the method, a significant difference in the sequence characteristics was detected between the genes residing inside the clusters and those outside the clusters. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  5. [Fungal infections in children with malignant disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, G

    2011-05-01

    Intensified chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation result in severe and prolonged granulocytopenia with an increased risk of invasive fungal infections. The major fungal species that cause serious infections in cancer patients are Candida species and Aspergillus species. The main features of Candida infection in this context are oropharyngeal candidiasis and Candida esophagitis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, also known as hepatosplenic candidiasis, and candidemia. Aspergillus can cause severe lung infection but also sinusal or CNS infection. Because invasive fungal infections are severe and often life-threatening, preventive and empirical managements have become standard practice. An increasing number of antifungal drugs is now available, notably lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B), new azoles with broad spectrum of activity and echinocandin.

  6. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  7. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  8. Analysis of Fungal Pellets by UV-Visible Spectrum Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestan, D; Podgornik, H; Perdih, A

    1993-12-01

    The application of the UV-visible spectrum diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the determination of intracellular pH in vivo, for determination of cytochrome content, and for the noninvasive in vivo detection of the redox state of fungal mitochondrial cytochromes in filamentous fungi is introduced. The time course of the intracellular pH values, mitochondrial cytochromes, and CO-binding pigments content and the correlations between the actual redox state of cytochrome aa(3) and saturation of growth medium with oxygen in pellets of the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium were determined. As the test microorganism, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. UV-visible spectrum diffuse reflectance spectroscopy proved to be a promising method for the quick and simple analysis of light-impermeable biological structures for which the classical transmittance spectrophotometric methods are difficult to implement.

  9. Evaluation of two conservation methods of filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Ladino Rey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Research about filamentous fungal oil palm pathogens is as essential for the maintenance and the sustainability of the crop as the conservation of these identified fungi itself because it allows its uses for former researches or as a guide for identify fungi through time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two methods of conservation, one of them in three times sterilized distilled water (ADTE and with Glicerol 10 %. By four months, with a monthly review of fungi isolated from plant tissue palm oil affected by Aspergillus sp., Chrysosporium sp., Curvularia sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Six of the seven fungi strains conserved were successfully recovered from the Treatment with Glicerol 10 %, while five of the seven strains conserved ADTE were recovered after the four evaluation months of this study.

  10. Phylogenetic Distribution of Fungal Sterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, John D.; Abril, Maritza; Blackwell, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Background Ergosterol has been considered the “fungal sterol” for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. Methodology/Principal Findings The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Δ5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Δ5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade), and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28)-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. Conclusions/Significance Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol), and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles) target reactions in the synthesis of

  11. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  12. Direct determination of lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium by in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Airi; Sasaki, Keiko; Kaneta, Takashi

    2016-04-01

    Here we describe the application of an in-capillary enzyme assay using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in the determination of enzyme activity in a crude culture medium containing lignin peroxidase released from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). The method consists of a plug-plug reaction between lignin peroxidase and its substrate, veratryl alcohol, the separation of the product, veratraldehyde, from the other components including the enzyme and the culture medium, and the determination of the enzyme activity from the peak area of veratraldehyde produced by the plug-plug reaction. This method is more sensitive than conventional spectrophotometry since the background originates from the enzyme and the culture medium can be removed via MEKC separation. Veratraldehyde was separated at -10kV in a background electrolyte containing 50mM tartrate buffer (pH 2.5) and 50mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) after a plug-plug reaction in the capillary for 5min. The calibration curve of veratraldehyde was linear up to 4pmol (500μM) with a limit to quantification of 0.026pmol (3.2μM) (SN=10). The activity of lignin peroxidase was directly measured from the peak area of veratraldehyde. The activity of lignin peroxidase released from P. chrysosporium into the medium for 7 days was successfully determined to be 3.40UL(-1).

  13. Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Batisson, Isabelle; Fick, Jerker; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Grabic, Roman

    2010-09-01

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  14. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.

  15. A review on the research of nematophagous fungal species%食线虫真菌资源研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 李国红; 张克勤

    2011-01-01

    Nematophagous fungi are those fungi with the capacity to capture, parasitise or paralyse nematodes at all stages of their life cycles. They play an important role as antagonists of plant-parasitic and animal-parasitic nematodes, therefore, there is a great interest in using these fungi as model samples in adaptative evolution researches and as biological control agents against parasitic nematodes. This review presents progress made in the field of fungal antagonists of parasitic nematodes, including trapping fungi, endoparasitic fungi, toxin-producing fungi and opportunistic fungi.%食线虫真菌是指寄生、捕捉、定殖和毒害线虫的一类真菌,这类真菌是自然界中线虫种群控制的重要因子,也是动植物病害生物防治的重要研究材料,具有特殊的研究意义和经济价值.目前全世界共报道700余种食线虫真菌,包括捕食线虫真菌380余种,线虫内寄生真菌120余种,产毒真菌270余种和大量机会真菌.针对丰富的食线虫真菌资源,近年来世界各国尤其是中国科学家对其进行了广泛研究,在捕食线虫真菌资源的分类、系统进化、生态分布、有性无性联系等方面的研究取得了重要进展,在线虫内寄生真菌侵染宿主的方式及产毒真菌的次生代谢产物挖掘等方面也进行了广泛研究,文章综述了以上研究进展并简述了食线虫真菌资源的生物防治应用概况.

  16. Hypopyon in patients with fungal keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ling-juan; SONG Xiu-sheng; ZHAO Jing; SUN Shi-ying; XIE Li-xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypopyon is common in eyes with fungal keratitis.The evaluation of the clinical features,culture results and the risk factors for hypopyon and of the possible correlation between hypopyon and the treatment outcome could be helpful for making treatment decisions.Methods The medical records of 1066 inpatients (1069 eyes) with fungal keratitis seen at the Shandong Eye Institute from January 2000 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively for demographic features,risk factors,clinical characteristics,laboratory findings and treatment outcomes.The incidence of hypopyon,the fungal culture positivity for hypopyon,risk factors for hypopyon and the effect of hypopyon on the treatment and prognosis were determined.Results We identified 1069 eyes with fungal keratitis.Of the 850 fungal culture-positive eyes,the Fusarium species was the most frequent (73.6%),followed by Altemaria (10.0%) and Aspergillus (9.0%).Upon admission,562 (52.6%)eyes with hypopyon were identified.The hypopyon of 66 eyes was evaluated via fungal culturing,and 31 eyes (47.0%)were positive.A total of 194 eyes had ocular hypertension,and 172 (88.7%) of these eyes had hypopyon (P <0.001).Risk factors for incident hypopyon included long duration of symptoms (P <0.001),large lesion size (P <0.001) and infection caused by the Fusarium and Aspergillus species (P <0.001).The positivity of fungal culture for hypopyon was associated with duration of symptoms and lesion size.Surgical intervention was more common in cases with hypopyon (P <0.001).Hypopyon was a risk factor for the recurrence of fungal keratitis after corneal transplantation (P=0.002).Conclusions Hypopyon is common in patients with severe fungal keratitis and can cause ocular hypertension.About half of the hypopyon cases were positive based on fungal culture.Long duration of symptoms,large lesion size and infection with the Fusarium and Aspergillus species were risk factors for hypopyon.The presence of hypopyon

  17. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  18. Comparison of sequencing the D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (MicroSEQ®) versus the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions using two public databases for identification of common and uncommon clinically relevant fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbefeville, S; Harris, A; Ferrieri, P

    2017-09-01

    Fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid and accurate identification of fungi is essential to guide accurately targeted antifungal therapy. With the advent of molecular methods, clinical laboratories can use new technologies to supplement traditional phenotypic identification of fungi. The aims of the study were to evaluate the sole commercially available MicroSEQ® D2 LSU rDNA Fungal Identification Kit compared to the in-house developed internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions assay in identifying moulds, using two well-known online public databases to analyze sequenced data. 85 common and uncommon clinically relevant fungi isolated from clinical specimens were sequenced for the D2 region of the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene with the MicroSEQ® Kit and the ITS regions with the in house developed assay. The generated sequenced data were analyzed with the online GenBank and MycoBank public databases. The D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene identified 89.4% or 92.9% of the 85 isolates to the genus level and the full ITS region (f-ITS) 96.5% or 100%, using GenBank or MycoBank, respectively, when compared to the consensus ID. When comparing species-level designations to the consensus ID, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene aligned with 44.7% (38/85) or 52.9% (45/85) of these isolates in GenBank or MycoBank, respectively. By comparison, f-ITS possessed greater specificity, followed by ITS1, then ITS2 regions using GenBank or MycoBank. Using GenBank or MycoBank, D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene outperformed phenotypic based ID at the genus level. Comparing rates of ID between D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene and the ITS regions in GenBank or MycoBank at the species level against the consensus ID, f-ITS and ITS2 exceeded performance of the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene, but ITS1 had similar performance to the D2 region of the LSU rRNA gene using MycoBank. Our results indicated that the MicroSEQ® D2 LSU r

  19. Species distribution and drug-resistance analysis of urinary fungal infections in older adults%老年患者泌尿系真菌感染菌群分布与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振祥; 赖慧英; 胡云建; 胡继红; 陶凤蓉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the detection rates,species distribution and drug-resistance of urinary fungal infection in elderly patients at Beijing Hospital from 2011 to 2013,in order to provide the basis for the reasonable clinical use of anti-epiphyte medicines.Methods Totally 263 patients with an average of 79.6 years old were collected from Beijing Hospital.The urine from freshly voided midstream or bladder puncture was collected under aseptic condition for fungal culture,then the strains of epiphytes were identified by using API 20C AUX.The drug sensitivity was tested with ATB fungus3.Results 263 strains of epiphytes were isolated from the 2 983 urine samples,of which 92 were C.tropicalis,85 were C.glabrata,77 were Candida albican,and 9 were other fungus candida.The rates of drug resistance to fluconazole were 14.1 % (13 strains),37.6 % (32 strains) and 15.6% (12 strains),and to itraconazole were 16.3%(15 strains),35.3%(30 strains) and 9.1%(7 strains),respectively.All of the 263 strains were not found to have drug resistance to amphotericin.Conclusions The isolation rate of urinary fungal infections is 8.8% in Beijing Hospital.The majority of the tested fungal are C.glabrata,C.tropicalis and Candida albican,the former has higher resistance rate to azoles,and the two latter have better sensitivity to azole,and all of them have the sensitivity to amphotericin.%目的 分析北京医院2011 2013年门诊入院60岁以上患者泌尿系统感染真菌的检出率、菌种分布和耐药性,为临床合理使用抗真菌药物提供依据. 方法 选取我院老年患者263例,平均年龄79.6岁,用无菌方法留取患者中段尿或膀胱穿刺尿进行真菌培养,采用API20C AUX进行鉴定,用梅里埃药敏试剂条测定药敏试验. 结果 2983份尿液样本中,共分离真菌263株,其中热带念珠菌92株,光滑念珠菌85株,白色念珠菌77株,其他念珠菌9珠;对氟康唑的耐药率分别为13株(14.1%)、32株(37.6%)和12株(15.6

  20. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  1. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry for Differentiation of the Dimorphic Fungal Species Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Negro, Gilda M. B.; Grenfell, Rafaella C.; Vidal, Monica S. M.; Thomaz, Danilo Y.; de Figueiredo, Dulce S. Y.; Bagagli, Eduardo; Juliano, Luiz; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Isolates of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Paracoccidioides lutzii, previously characterized by molecular techniques, were identified for the first time by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All isolates were correctly identified, with log score values of >2.0. Thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a new tool for differentiating species of the genus Paracoccidioides. PMID:25631803

  2. {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in fruiting bodies of different fungal species collected in a single forest in southern Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietelski, Jerzy W., E-mail: Jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.p [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Dubchak, Sergiy [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Blazej, Sylwia [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Fruiting bodies of fungi belonging to more than 70 species were collected within a few thousand square meter area of one forest during 2006 and 2007. The soil profile was collected to check the cumulative deposition of {sup 137}Cs, which was relatively high, equal to 64 {+-} 2 kBq/m{sup 2} (calculated for October 2006). The majority of this activity was in the first 6 cm. Fruitbodies were analyzed for radiocesium and {sup 40}K by means of gamma-spectrometry. The highest {sup 137}Cs activity was 54.1 {+-} 0.7 kBq/kg (dry weight) for a sample of Lactarius helvus collected in 2006. The results for 2006 were higher than those for 2007. In a few cases the traces of short-lived (T{sub 1/2} = 2.06 a) {sup 134}Cs were still found in samples. The importance of mycorrhizal fungi for radiocesium accumulation is confirmed. The differences in activity among the species are discussed in relation to observations and predictions from previous studies, where the change in relative accumulation between fruiting bodies of different species was at least partially explained by the differences in the depth of the mycelium localization in a litter/soil system. It is concluded that in some cases, such as Boletus edulis and Xerocomus badius, this prediction is fulfilled and therefore this explanation confirmed.

  3. The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities differs among the roots, spores and extraradical mycelia associated with five Mediterranean plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Cervero, Sara; Vasar, Martti; Davison, John; Barea, José Miguel; Öpik, Maarja; Azcón-Aguilar, Concepción

    2015-08-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are essential constituents of most terrestrial ecosystems. AMF species differ in terms of propagation strategies and the major propagules they form. This study compared the AMF community composition of different propagule fractions - colonized roots, spores and extraradical mycelium (ERM) - associated with five Mediterranean plant species in Sierra de Baza Natural Park (Granada, Spain). AMF were identified using 454 pyrosequencing of the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 96 AMF phylogroups [virtual taxa (VT)] were detected in the study site, including 31 novel VT. After per-sample sequencing depth standardization, 71 VT were recorded from plant roots, and 47 from each of the spore and ERM fractions. AMF communities differed significantly among the propagule fractions, and the root-colonizing fraction differed among host plant species. Indicator VT were detected for the root (13 Glomus VT), spore (Paraglomus VT281, VT336, Pacispora VT284) and ERM (Diversispora VT62) fractions. This study provides detailed evidence from a natural system that AMF taxa are differentially allocated among soil mycelium, soil spores and colonized root propagules. This has important implications for interpreting AMF diversity surveys and designing applications of AMF in vegetation restoration.

  4. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  5. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-05-12

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  6. Candida Infections: An Update on Host Immune Defenses and Anti-Fungal Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Gao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Infections by fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species are becoming increasing prevalent in the human population. Such pathogens cause life-threatening diseases with high mortality, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Host defenses against fungal infections are provided by an exquisite interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses. However, effective anti-fungal agents for Candida infections are limited, and fungal drug resistance is a significant treatment challenge. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of host–fungal interactions, discuss the modes action of anti-fungal drugs, explore host defense mechanisms, and define the new challenges for treating Candida infections.

  7. Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Rakhi; Hadley, Susan

    2005-12-01

    Fungal arthritis and osteomyelitis are uncommon diseases and generally present in an indolent fashion. The incidence of fungal bone and joint dis-ease is increasing with an increase in the prevalence of factors predisposing to invasive fungal disease, such as the use of central venous catheters, broad spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, and abdominal surgery. Definitive diagnosis relies on bone or synovial culture or biopsy. Successful management has traditionally consisted of amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement. Given the rarity of this disease, treatment is not well defined, but reports of success with the use of azole antifungal agents, including itraconazole, fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole, are promising.

  8. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  9. Insect pathology and fungal entomopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungi that occur inside asymptomatic plant tissues are known as fungal endophytes. Different genera of fungal entomopathogens have been reported as naturally occurring fungal endophytes, and it has been shown that it is possible to inoculate plants with fungal entomopathogens, making them endophytic...

  10. Fungicide effects on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The fungicides used to control diseases in cereal production can have adverse effects on non-target fungi, with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. This study examined fungicide effects on fungal communities on winter wheat leaves in two areas of Sweden. High-throughput 454 sequencing of the fungal ITS2 region yielded 235 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the species level from the 18 fields studied. It was found that commonly used fungicides had moderate but significant effect on fungal community composition in the wheat phyllosphere. The relative abundance of several saprotrophs was altered by fungicide use, while the effect on common wheat pathogens was mixed. The fungal community on wheat leaves consisted mainly of basidiomycete yeasts, saprotrophic ascomycetes and plant pathogens. A core set of six fungal OTUs representing saprotrophic species was identified. These were present across all fields, although overall the difference in OTU richness was large between the two areas studied.

  11. A CAPS test allowing a rapid distinction of Penicillium expansum among fungal species collected on grape berries, inferred from the sequence and secondary structure of the mitochondrial SSU-rRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carole; La Guerche, Stéphane; Mouhamadou, Bello; Férandon, Cyril; Labarère, Jacques; Blancard, Dominique; Darriet, Philippe; Barroso, Gérard

    2006-10-01

    Penicillium expansum is a fungal species highly damageable for the postharvest conservation of numerous fruits. In vineyards, this fungus is sometimes isolated from grape berries where its presence may lead to the production of geosmin, a powerful earthy odorant, which can impair grapes and wines aromas. However, the discrimination of P. expansum from related fungi is difficult because it is based on ambiguous phenotypic characters and/or expensive and time-consuming molecular tests. In this context, the complete sequences and secondary structures of Penicillium expansum and Penicillium thomii mitochondrial SSU-rRNAs were achieved and compared with those of two other phylogenetically related Ascomycota: Penicillium chrysogenum and Emericella nidulans. The comparison has shown a high conservation in size and sequence of the core and of the variable domains (more than 80% of nt identity) of the four SSU-rRNAs, arguing for a close phylogenetic relationship between these four species of the Trichocomaceae family. Large (from 10 to 18 nt) inserted/deleted (indel) sequences were evidenced in the V1, V5 and V6 variable domains. The size variations (10 to 18 nt) of the V1 indel sequence allowed the distinction of the four species; the V5 indel (15 nt) was specifically recovered in E. nidulans; the V6 indel (16 nt), shared by the three Penicillium species, was lacking in E. nidulans. A couple of conserved primers (UI/R2) were defined to generate a PCR product containing the V1 to V5 variable domains. This product contained the two regions of the four SSU-rRNAs showing the highest rates of nt substitutions, namely the V2 variable domain and, surprisingly, a helix (H17) of the core. The H17 sequence was shown to specifically possess in P. expansum a recognition site for the ClaI restriction endonuclease. Hence, this enzyme generates a digestion pattern of the PCR product with two bands (350 bp+500 bp), specific to P. expansum and easily separable by agarose gel

  12. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  13. [Pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi

    2012-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections remain a life-threatening disease. The development of invasive fungal disease is dependent on multiple factors, such us colonization and efficient host immune response. We aimed to review the pathogenesis of invasive fungal infections, in particular, those caused by Candida and Aspergillus. For this we propose, to describe the fungal characteristics, to detail the host defence mechanisms against fungus and to analyse the host risk factors for invasive fungal infection.

  14. Microbial pretreatment of corn stovers by solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Wu, Shubiao; Pang, Changle; Li, Wei; Dong, Renjie

    2014-02-01

    The microbial pretreatment of corn stover and corn stover silage was achieved via the solid-state cultivation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium; pretreatment effects on the biodegradability and subsequent anaerobic production of biogas were investigated. The peak levels of daily biogas production and CH₄ yield from corn stover silage were approximately twice that of corn stover. Results suggested that ensiling was a potential pretreatment method to stimulate biogas production from corn stover. Surface morphology and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses demonstrated that the microbial pretreatment of corn stover silage improved biogas production by 10.5 to 19.7% and CH4 yield by 11.7 to 21.2% because pretreatment could decrease dry mass loss (14.2%) and increase substrate biodegradability (19.9% cellulose, 32.4% hemicellulose, and 22.6% lignin). By contrast, the higher dry mass loss in corn stover (55.3%) after microbial pretreatment was accompanied by 54.7% cellulose, 64.0% hemicellulose, and 61.1% lignin degradation but did not significantly influence biogas production.

  15. Biochemical characterization and transcriptional analysis of the epoxide hydrolase from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian Li; Yizheng Zhang; Hong Feng

    2009-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a model fungus used to investigate the sec-ondary metabolism and lignin degradation. Genomic sequencing reveals the presence of at least 18 genes encoding putative epoxide hydrolases (EHs). One cDNA encoding EH (designated as PchEHA) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated that the transcripts of PchEHA could be detected under the ligninolytic and nonligninolytic con-ditions as well as amended with anthracene. The recom-binant enzyme exhibits broad hydrolytic activity toward several racemic epoxides including styrene oxide, epichlorohydrin, and 1,2-epoxybutane, but with different specificity. Using racemic styrene oxide as the substrate, the optimal pH and temperature are pH 9.0 and 40℃, respectively. The enzyme is not sensitive to EDTA, and is inhibited by H2O2, and several metal ions including Zn2+, Cd2+, and Hg2+ at various extents. Several organic cosoivents including acetone, dimethylsulfoxide, formamide, glycerol and ethanol at 10% (v/v) cause slight or no inhibition of the hydrolytic reaction. More importantly, the recombinant enzyme displays distinct enantioselective preference to several chiral epoxides. The enzyme showed good enantioselec-tivity toward chiral styrene oxide with preferential hydrolysis of (R)-enantiomer. PchEHA is likely a novel soluble EH based on the sequence analysis and catalytic properties, and is a great potential biocatalyst for the preparation of enantiopure styrene oxide in racemic kinetic resolution.

  16. Electrochemical evidence of self-substrate inhibition as functions regulation for cellobiose dehydrogenase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Leonard; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Gorton, Lo

    2009-09-01

    The reaction mechanism of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, adsorbed on graphite electrodes, was investigated by following its catalytic reaction with cellobiose registered in both direct and mediated electron transfer modes between the enzyme and the electrode. A wall-jet flow through amperometric cell housing the CDH-modified graphite electrode was connected to a single line flow injection system. In the present study, it is proven that cellobiose, at concentrations higher than 200 microM, competes for the reduced state of the FAD cofactor and it slows down the transfer of electrons to any 2e(-)/H(+) acceptors or further to the heme cofactor, via the internal electron transfer pathway. Based on and proven by electrochemical results, a kinetic model of substrate inhibition is proposed and supported by the agreement between simulation of plots and experimental data. The implications of this kinetic model, called pseudo-ping-pong mechanism, on the possible functions CDH are also discussed. The enzyme exhibits catalytic activity also for lactose, but in contrast to cellobiose, this sugar does not inhibit the enzyme. This suggests that even if some other substrates are coincidentally oxidized by CDH, however, they do not trigger all the possible natural functions of the enzyme. In this respect, cellobiose is regarded as the natural substrate of CDH.

  17. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (< 2 U/L) was detected in free culture with nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2 mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44 mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  18. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  19. Effects of culture conditions on ligninolytic enzymes and protease production by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoping; Wen, Xianghua; Bai, Yanan; Qian, Yi

    2008-01-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes and protease by Phanerochaete chrysosporium was investigated under different culture conditions. Different amounts of medium were employed in free and immobilized culture, together with two kinds of medium with different C/N ratios. Little lignin peroxidase (LiP) (nitrogen-limited medium (C/N ratio: 56/2.2, in mmol/L), while manganese peroxidase (MnP) maximum activity was 231 and 240 U/L in 50 and 100 ml medium culture, respectively. Immobilized culture with 50 ml nitrogen-limited medium gave the highest MnP and LiP production with the maximum values of 410 and 721 U/L separately on the day 5; however, flasks containing 100 ml nitrogen-limited medium only produced less MnP with a peak value of 290 U/L. Comparatively, carbon-limited medium (C/N ratio: 28/44, in mmol/L) was adopted in culture but produced little MnP and LiP. Medium type had the greatest impact on protease production. Large amount of protease was produced due to glucose limitation. Culture type and medium volume influence protease activity corporately by affecting oxygen supply. The results implied shallow immobilized culture was a possible way to gain high production of ligninolytic enzymes.

  20. Activity of a peptidase secreted by Phanerochaete chrysosporium depends on lysine to subsite S'1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ronivaldo Rodrigues; de Oliveira, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves; Juliano, Maria Aparecida; Juliano, Luiz; Rosa, Jose C; Cabral, Hamilton

    2017-01-01

    Peptidases are enzymes that catalyze the rupture of peptide bonds. Catalytic specificity studies of these enzymes have illuminated their modes of action and preferred hydrolysis targets. We describe the biochemical characteristics and catalytic specificity of a lysine-dependent peptidase secreted by the basidiomycete fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We attained 5.7-fold purification of a ∼23-kDa neutral peptidase using size-exclusion (Sephadex G-50 resin) and ion-exchange (Source 15S resin) chromatography. Using the Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer substrate Abz-KLRSSKQ-EDDnp, we detected maximal activity at pH 7.0 and 45-55°C. The peptidase retained ∼80% of its enzymatic activity for a wide range of conditions (pH 4-9; temperatures up to 50°C for 1h). The peptidase activity was lowered by the ionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; the reducing agent, dithiothreitol; the chaotrope, guanidine; copper (II) ion; and the cysteine peptidase-specific inhibitors, iodoacetic acid and N-ethylmaleimide. The peptidase preferred the basic amino acids K and R and high selectivity on S'1 subsite, exhibiting a condition of lysine-dependence to catalysis on anchoring of this subsite. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and extracellular enzyme secretion in agitated and stationary cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The extracellular enzyme secretion and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in agitated and shallow stationary liquid cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Veratryl alcohol and Tween80 were added to cultures as lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) inducer, respectively. Shallow stationary cultures were suitable for the production of enzyme, whereas agitated cultures enhanced overall biodegradation by facilitating interphase mass transfer of PAH into aqueous phases. The use of a LiP stimulator, veratryl alcohol, did not increase PAH degradation but significantly enhanced LiP activity. In contrast, Tween80 increased both MnP secretion and PAH degradation in shallow stationary cultures. On the other hand, high PAH degradation was observed in agitated cultures in the absence of detectable LiP and MnP activities. The results suggested that extracellular peroxidase activities are not directly related to the PAH degradation, and the increased solubility rather than enzyme activity may be more important in the promotion of PAH degradation.

  2. The RT-PCR Analysis of Lignocellulytic Biodegradation-related Gene Expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Mingfeng(江明锋); Zhang Yizheng

    2004-01-01

    Expression of lignocellulytic biodegradation-related genes of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in 10 kinds of defined media for 5 days and on fir wood chip for 2 to 8 weeks is analyzed by using the RT-PCR method. The result shows that an individual gene of lip gene family responds differently to different nutrient factors. The expression of lipD gene can be promoted by molecular O2 but suppressed by Mn2+. The influence of nitorgen is not the controlling factor for lipD gene expression. No clear relationship is found between nutrient factors and the expression of lipA gene which may be regulated by several nutrient factors through a complex system. Mnp3 gene is not strongly regulated by Mn2+ and other nutrient factors. It can be expressed in different media. CBHI gene family can not be expressed in the presence of glucose as the sole carbon source. Glx expression is regulated by Mn2+ and molecular O2, and depressed when Mn2+ concerntration goes up to 300 mg/L. The transcription patterns of lip gene family grown on fir wood chip are shown to be markedly different from those patterns in defined media. The expression of single lip gene changes with colonized time. No difference is observed between the expression pattern of mnp, cbh, glx gene in defined media and fir wood chips.

  3. Oxygen mass transfer for an immobilised biofilm of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a membrane gradostat reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. O. Ntwampe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel system, the membrane gradostat reactor (MGR, designed for the continuous production of secondary metabolites, has been shown to have higher production per reactor volume than batch culture systems. The MGR system mimics the natural environment in which wild occurring microorganism biofilms flourish. The biofilms are immobilised on the external surface of an ultrafiltration membrane where substrate distribution gradients are established across the biofilm. The hypothesis that, dissolved oxygen (DO mass transfer parameters obtained in submerged pellets can be used to describe and model DO mass transfer parameters in the MGR, was refuted. Phanerochaete chrysosporium biofilms, immobilised on ultrafiltration capillary membranes in the MGR systems were used to quantify DO distribution using a Clark-type microsensor. The DO penetration depth decreased with increasing biofilm thickness, which resulted in the formation of anaerobic zones in the biofilms. Oxygen flux values of 0.27 to 0.7 g/(m².h were obtained during the MGR operation. The consumption of oxygen and the Monod saturation constants used in the modelling of oxygen distribution in immobilised biofilms were in the range of 894.53 to 2739.70 g/(m³.h and 0.041 to 0.999 g/m³, respectively.

  4. Overproduction of lignin-degrading enzymes by an isolate of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, A.B.; Denny, M.; Ming Tien (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium is a white rot fungus which secretes a family of lignin-degrading enzymes under nutrient limitation. PSBL-1 is a mutant of this organism that generates the ligninolytic system under nonlimiting conditions during primary metabolism. Lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and glyoxal oxidase activities for PSBL-1 under nonlimiting conditions were 4- to 10-fold higher than those of the wild type (WT) under nitrogen-limiting conditions. PSBL-1 was still in the log phase of growth while secreting the enzymes, whereas the WT had ceased to grow by this time. As in the WT, manganese(II) increased manganese peroxidase activity in the mutant. However, manganese also caused in increase in lignin peroxidase and glyoxal oxidase activities in PSBL-1. Addition of veratryl alcohol to the culture medium stimulated lignin peroxidase activity, inhibited glyoxal oxidase activity, and had little effect on manganese peroxidase activity in PSBL-1, as in the WT. Fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) analysis shows production of larger amounts of isozyme H2 in PSBL-1 than in the WT. These properties make PSBL-1 very useful for isolation of large amounts of all ligninolytic enzymes for biochemical study, and they open the possibility of scale-up production for practical use.

  5. Genetic dissection of a TIR-NB-LRR locus from the wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia identifies paralogous genes conferring resistance to major fungal and oomycete pathogens in cultivated grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feechan, Angela; Anderson, Claire; Torregrosa, Laurent; Jermakow, Angelica; Mestre, Pere; Wiedemann-Merdinoglu, Sabine; Merdinoglu, Didier; Walker, Amanda R; Cadle-Davidson, Lance; Reisch, Bruce; Aubourg, Sebastien; Bentahar, Nadia; Shrestha, Bipna; Bouquet, Alain; Adam-Blondon, Anne-Françoise; Thomas, Mark R; Dry, Ian B

    2013-11-01

    The most economically important diseases of grapevine cultivation worldwide are caused by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator syn. Uncinula necator) and the oomycete pathogen downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola). Currently, grapegrowers rely heavily on the use of agrochemicals to minimize the potentially devastating impact of these pathogens on grape yield and quality. The wild North American grapevine species Muscadinia rotundifolia was recognized as early as 1889 to be resistant to both powdery and downy mildew. We have now mapped resistance to these two mildew pathogens in M. rotundifolia to a single locus on chromosome 12 that contains a family of seven TIR-NB-LRR genes. We further demonstrate that two highly homologous (86% amino acid identity) members of this gene family confer strong resistance to these unrelated pathogens following genetic transformation into susceptible Vitis vinifera winegrape cultivars. These two genes, designated resistance to Uncinula necator (MrRUN1) and resistance to Plasmopara viticola (MrRPV1) are the first resistance genes to be cloned from a grapevine species. Both MrRUN1 and MrRPV1 were found to confer resistance to multiple powdery and downy mildew isolates from France, North America and Australia; however, a single powdery mildew isolate collected from the south-eastern region of North America, to which M. rotundifolia is native, was capable of breaking MrRUN1-mediated resistance. Comparisons of gene organization and coding sequences between M. rotundifolia and the cultivated grapevine V. vinifera at the MrRUN1/MrRPV1 locus revealed a high level of synteny, suggesting that the TIR-NB-LRR genes at this locus share a common ancestor. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Especies de hongos formadores de Micorrizas Arbusculares: nuevas citas para la República Argentina Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species: new records for Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Irrazabal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la presencia de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares asociados a plantas colectadas en un agroecosistema y en un bosque nativo de tala, en la provincia de Buenos Aires. Las especies que constituyen un nuevo registro para la Argentina son: Scutellospora dipapillosa (Walker & Koske Walker & Sanders y Scutellospora fulgida Koske & Walker halladas en la rizósfera de Triticum aestivum L.; Scutellospora gilmorei (Trappe & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, en la rizósfera de Celtis tala Gill. Ex Planch., Scutia buxifolia Reiss. y plantas herbáceas; Acaulospora delicata Walker, Pfeiffer & Bloss. y Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, halladas en ambos sitios. Estas especies son citadas, descriptas e ilustradas por primera vez para Argentina. Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann ha sido citada pero no descripta e ilustrada para nuestro país.The presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants from an agroecosystem and a native forest, in Buenos Aires province is studied. The species that correspond a new register for Argentina are: Scutellospora dipapillosa (Walker & Koske Walker & Sanders and Scutellospora fulgida Koske & Walker found in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L.; Scutellospora gilmorei (Trappe & Gerd. Walker & Sanders, in the rhizosphere of Celtis tala Gill. Ex Planch., Scutia buxifolia Reiss. and herbaceous plants; Acaulospora delicata Walker, Pfeiffer & Bloss. and Glomus clarum Nicolson & Schenck, occurred in both sites. They are cited, described and illustrated for the first time from Argentina. Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann was previously cited although it was not described and illustrated from Argentina.

  7. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z

    2013-12-01

    (Poland) and Stachybotrys oleronensis from Iris (France). Two species of Chrysosporium are described from Antarctica, namely C. magnasporum and C. oceanitesii. Finally, Licea xanthospora is described from Australia, Hypochnicium huinayensis from Chile and Custingophora blanchettei from Uruguay. Novel genera of Ascomycetes include Neomycosphaerella from Pseudopentameris macrantha (South Africa), and Paramycosphaerella from Brachystegia sp. (Zimbabwe). Novel hyphomycete genera include Pseudocatenomycopsis from Rothmannia (Zambia), Neopseudocercospora from Terminalia (Zambia) and Neodeightoniella from Phragmites (South Africa), while Dimorphiopsis from Brachystegia (Zambia) represents a novel coelomycetous genus. Furthermore, Alanphillipsia is introduced as a new genus in the Botryosphaeriaceae with four species, A. aloes, A. aloeigena and A. aloetica from Aloe spp. and A. euphorbiae from Euphorbia sp. (South Africa). A new combination is also proposed for Brachysporium torulosum (Deightoniella black tip of banana) as Corynespora torulosa. Morphological and culture characteristics along with ITS DNA barcodes are provided for all taxa.

  8. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  9. Key Determinants of the Fungal and Bacterial Microbiomes in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettleson, Eric M.; Adhikari, Atin; Vesper, Stephen; Chatterjee, Kanistha; Indugula, Reshmi; Reponen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Backgroundy The microbiome of the home is of great interest because of its possible impact on health. Our goal was to identify some of the factors that determine the richness, evenness and diversity of the home's fungal and bacterial microbiomes. Methods Vacuumed settled dust from homes (n=35) in Cincinnati, OH, were analyzed by pyrosequencing to determine the fungal and bacterial relative sequence occurrence. The correlation coefficients between home environmental characteristics, including age of home, Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) values, occupant number, relative humidity and temperature, as well as pets (dog and cat) were evaluated for their influence on fungal and bacterial communities. In addition, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used for identifying fungal and bacterial genera and species associated with those housing determinants found to be significant. Results The fungal richness was found to be positively correlated with age of home (p=0.002), ERMI value (p=0.003), and relative humidity (p=0.015) in the home. However, fungal evenness and diversity were only correlated with the age of home (p=0.001). Diversity and evenness (not richness) of the bacterial microbiome in the homes were associated with dog ownership. Linear discriminant analysis showed total of 39 putative fungal genera/species with significantly higher LDA scores in high ERMI homes and 47 genera/species with significantly higher LDA scores in homes with high relative humidity. When categorized according to the age of the home, a total of 67 fungal genera/species had LDA scores above the significance threshold. Dog ownership appeared to have the most influence on the bacterial microbiome, since a total of 130 bacterial genera/species had significantly higher LDA scores in homes with dogs. Conclusions Some key determinants of the fungal and bacterial microbiome appear to be excess moisture, age of the home and dog ownership. PMID:25707017

  10. Fungal endocarditis: current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, Pierre; Revest, Matthieu; Lefort, Agnès; Michelet, Christian; Lortholary, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    Whilst it used to affect mostly intravenous drug users and patients who underwent valvular surgery with suboptimal infection control procedures, fungal endocarditis is now mostly observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (onco-haematology), in association with chronic central venous access and broad-spectrum antibiotic use. The incidence of fungal endocarditis has probably decreased in most developed countries with access to harm-reduction policies (i.e. needle exchange programmes) and with improved infection control procedures during cardiac surgery. Use of specific blood culture bottles for diagnosis of fungal endocarditis has decreased due to optimisation of media and automated culture systems. Meanwhile, the advent of rapid techniques, including fungal antigen detection (galactomannan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies and β-1,3-d-glucans) and PCR (e.g. universal fungal PCR targeting 18S rRNA genes), shall improve sensitivity and reduce diagnostics delays, although limited data are available on their use for the diagnosis of fungal endocarditis. New antifungal agents available since the early 2000s may represent dramatic improvement for fungal endocarditis: (i) a new class, the echinocandins, has the potential to improve the management of Candida endocarditis owing to its fungicidal effect on yeasts as well as tolerability of increased dosages; and (ii) improved survival in patients with invasive aspergillosis with voriconazole compared with amphotericin B, and this may apply to Aspergillus sp. endocarditis as well, although its prognosis remains dismal. These achievements may allow selected patients to be cured with prolonged medical treatment alone when surgery is considered too risky.

  11. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driessen Arnold JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. Results We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Conclusions Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  13. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  14. Novel promoter sequence required for manganese regulation of manganese peroxidase isozyme 1 gene expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Mayfield, Mary B; Godfrey, Bruce J; Gold, Michael H

    2004-06-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is a major, extracellular component of the lignin-degrading system produced by the wood-rotting basidiomycetous fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The transcription of MnP-encoding genes (mnps) in P. chrysosporium occurs as a secondary metabolic event, triggered by nutrient-nitrogen limitation. In addition, mnp expression occurs only under Mn2+ supplementation. Using a reporter system based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp), we have characterized the P. chrysosporium mnp1 promoter by examining the effects of deletion, replacement, and translocation mutations on mnp1 promoter-directed egfp expression. The 1,528-bp mnp1 promoter fragment drives egfp expression only under Mn2+-sufficient, nitrogen-limiting conditions, as required for endogenous MnP production. However, deletion of a 48-bp fragment, residing 521 bp upstream of the translation start codon in the mnp1 promoter, or replacement of this fragment with an unrelated sequence resulted in egfp expression under nitrogen limitation, both in the absence and presence of exogenous Mn2+. Translocation of the 48-bp fragment to a site 120 bp downstream of its original location resulted in Mn2+-dependent egfp expression under conditions similar to those observed with the wild-type mnp1 promoter. These results suggest that the 48-bp fragment contains at least one Mn2+-responsive cis element. Additional promoter-deletion experiments suggested that the Mn2+ element(s) is located within the 33-bp sequence at the 3' end of the 48-bp fragment. This is the first promoter sequence containing a Mn2+-responsive element(s) to be characterized in any eukaryotic organism. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  15. [1st cases of adiaspiromycosis observed in small mammals in Turkey. 3 new host species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau-Lebreuil, M T; Orhan, V

    1985-01-01

    The authors examine the lungs of 193 small mammals caught in different places in West Turkey and belonging to 11 different species. Six species have one or many adiaspores in their lungs. Those are Microtus arvalis, Apodemus flavicollis and A. sylvaticus already found parasited by Chrysosporium parvum in many countries particularly France. These are M. guentheri, Pitymys majori and A. mystacinus which have never been mentioned before this day having adiaspiromycosis.

  16. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity: seperating the wheat from the chaff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinaldi, A.C.; Comandini, O.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal species exist, but estimates of global species richness of ECM fungi differ widely. Many genera have been proposed as being ECM, but ill a number of studies evidence for the hypothesized ECM habit is lacking. Progress in estimating ECM species richness is th

  17. Fungal contamination of poultry litter: a public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Carolino, E; Malta-Vacas, J; Sabino, R; Viegas, S; Veríssimo, C

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on microbial contaminants associated with various stages related to poultry and meat products processing, only a few reported on fungal contamination of poultry litter. The goals of this study were to (1) characterize litter fungal contamination and (2) report the incidence of keratinophilic and toxigenic fungi presence. Seven fresh and 14 aged litter samples were collected from 7 poultry farms. In addition, 27 air samples of 25 litters were also collected through impaction method, and after laboratory processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative colony-forming units (CFU/m³) and qualitative results were obtained. Twelve different fungal species were detected in fresh litter and Penicillium was the most frequent genus found (59.9%), followed by Alternaria (17.8%), Cladosporium (7.1%), and Aspergillus (5.7%). With respect to aged litter, 19 different fungal species were detected, with Penicillium sp. the most frequently isolated (42.3%), followed by Scopulariopsis sp. (38.3%), Trichosporon sp. (8.8%), and Aspergillus sp. (5.5%). A significant positive correlation was found between litter fungal contamination (CFU/g) and air fungal contamination (CFU/m³). Litter fungal quantification and species identification have important implications in the evaluation of potential adverse health risks to exposed workers and animals. Spreading of poultry litter in agricultural fields is a potential public health concern, since keratinophilic (Scopulariopsis and Fusarium genus) as well as toxigenic fungi (Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium genus) were isolated.

  18. Untangling above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks in tropical orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, J R; Cameron, D D

    2012-10-01

    Orchids typically depend on fungi for establishment from seeds, forming mycorrhizal associations with basidiomycete fungal partners in the polyphyletic group rhizoctonia from early stages of germination, sometimes with very high specificity. This has raised important questions about the roles of plant and fungal phylogenetics, and their habitat preferences, in controlling which fungi associate with which plants. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Martos et al. (2012) report the largest network analysis to date for orchids and their mycorrhizal fungi, sampling a total of over 450 plants from nearly half the 150 tropical orchid species on Reunion Island, encompassing its main terrestrial and epiphytic orchid genera. The authors found a total of 95 operational taxonomic units of mycorrhizal fungi and investigated the architecture and nestedness of their bipartite networks with 73 orchid species. The most striking finding was a major ecological barrier between above- and belowground mycorrhizal fungal networks, despite both epiphytic and terrestrial orchids often associating with closely related taxa across all three major lineages of rhizoctonia fungi. The fungal partnerships of the epiphytes and terrestrial species involved a diversity of fungal taxa in a modular network architecture, with only about one in ten mycorrhizal fungi partnering orchids in both groups. In contrast, plant and fungal phylogenetics had weak or no effects on the network. This highlights the power of recently developed ecological network analyses to give new insights into controls on plant-fungal symbioses and raises exciting new hypotheses about the differences in properties and functioning of mycorrhiza in epiphytic and terrestrial orchids.

  19. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Alice E W; Borish, Larry; Gurrola, José; Payne, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the history of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis and the clinical, pathologic, and radiographic criteria necessary to establish its diagnosis and differentiate this disease from other types of chronic rhinosinusitis. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis is a noninvasive fungal form of sinus inflammation characterized by an often times unilateral, expansile process in which the typical allergic "peanut-butter-like" mucin contributes to the formation of nasal polyps, hyposmia/anosmia, and structural changes of the face. IgE sensitization to fungi is a necessary, but not sufficient, pathophysiologic component of the disease process that is also defined by microscopic visualization of mucin-containing fungus and characteristic radiological imaging. This article expounds on these details and others including the key clinical and scientific distinctions of this diagnosis, the pathophysiologic mechanisms beyond IgE-mediated hypersensitivity that must be at play, and areas of current and future research.

  20. Enhanced bioprocessing of lignocellulose: Wood-rot fungal saccharification and fermentation of corn fiber to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand

    This research aims at developing a biorefinery platform to convert corn-ethanol coproduct, corn fiber, into fermentable sugars at a lower temperature with minimal use of chemicals. White-rot (Phanerochaete chrysosporium), brown-rot (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and soft-rot (Trichoderma reesei) fungi were used in this research to biologically break down cellulosic and hemicellulosic components of corn fiber into fermentable sugars. Laboratory-scale simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process proceeded by in-situ cellulolytic enzyme induction enhanced overall enzymatic hydrolysis of hemi/cellulose from corn fiber into simple sugars (mono-, di-, tri-saccharides). The yeast fermentation of hydrolyzate yielded 7.1, 8.6 and 4.1 g ethanol per 100 g corn fiber when saccharified with the white-, brown-, and soft-rot fungi, respectively. The highest corn-to-ethanol yield (8.6 g ethanol/100 g corn fiber) was equivalent to 42 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from starch and cellulose in corn fiber. Cellulase, xylanase and amylase activities of these fungi were also investigated over a week long solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber. G. trabeum had the highest activities for starch (160 mg glucose/mg protein.min) and on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. P. chrysosporium had the highest activity for xylan (119 mg xylose/mg protein.min) on day five and carboxymethyl cellulose (35 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day three of solid-substrate fermentation. T. reesei showed the highest activity for Sigma cell 20 (54.8 mg glucose/mg protein.min) on day 5 of solid-substrate fermentation. The effect of different pretreatments on SSF of corn fiber by fungal processes was examined. Corn fiber was treated at 30 °C for 2 h with alkali [2% NaOH (w/w)], alkaline peroxide [2% NaOH (w/w) and 1% H2O 2 (w/w)], and by steaming at 100 °C for 2 h. Mild pretreatment resulted in improved ethanol yields for brown- and soft-rot SSF, while white-rot and Spezyme CP SSFs showed

  1. Interpretation of "fungal spikes" in Permian-Triassic boundary sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochuli, Peter A.

    2016-09-01

    Abundant occurrences of the palynomorph Reduviasporonites have been described as ;fungal spike; from several Permian/Triassic boundary sections and related to the supposed destruction of woody vegetation by fungal pathogens during the Permian/Triassic extinction event. The biological affinity of this taxa considered by some authors of fungal origin is still controversially discussed since there is geochemical evidence that it is most probably related to algae. The abundance peak of this species is used by some authors as a stratigraphic marker, notably in terrestrial Permian/Triassic boundary sections from South China. Illustrations of the reported fungal remains however show potentially erroneous taxonomic identification of Reduviasporonites, and, based on differences in thermal maturation, they may represent recent contamination. Here Reduviasporonites chalastus of Early Triassic age is illustrated together with recent fungal remains originating from a strongly weathered and otherwise barren sample from a Middle Triassic section.

  2. Immunoglobulins in defense, pathogenesis, and therapy of fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Pirofski, Liise-Anne

    2012-05-17

    Only two decades ago antibodies to fungi were thought to have little or no role in protection against fungal diseases. However, subsequent research has provided convincing evidence that certain antibodies can modify the course of fungal infection to the benefit or detriment of the host. Hybridoma technology was the breakthrough that enabled the characterization of antibodies to fungi, illuminating some of the requirements for antibody efficacy. As discussed in this review, fungal-specific antibodies mediate protection through direct actions on fungal cells and through classical mechanisms such as phagocytosis and complement activation. Although mechanisms of antibody-mediated protection are often species-specific, numerous fungal antigens can be targeted to generate vaccines and therapeutic immunoglobulins. Furthermore, the study of antibody function against medically important fungi has provided fresh immunological insights into the complexity of humoral immunity that are likely to apply to other pathogens.

  3. To enhance the reproduction of Phanerochaete chrysosporium by adding natural lixiviums in liquid medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Gang; WEN Xiang-hua; QIAN Yi

    2003-01-01

    Great promotion to the reproduction of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporiurn by adding natural lixiviums such as from wood,maize core and potato in liquid medium was found in this research. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 10 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet reaches more than 80 g/L, which is 5 times more than that of without natural lixiviums. Incubated in the liquid medium contained 5 mg/L glucose as carbon source with natural lixiviums for three days, the production of mycelium pellet can reach 69.5 g/L, while the production in the medium without natural lixiviums is very low. When the liquid medium contained 1-20 g/L glucose as carbon source, the production of mycelium pellet in 3 d can only reach 12.5 g/L to 14.5 g/L. The fungus in the medium with potato lixiviums are easily contaminated by other microorganisms and in the medium with maize core lixiviums are easily bulking, while in the medium with wood lixiviums are neither easily contaminated nor bulking. Medium with wood lixiviums can produce more pellet than other medium, endure contamination and keep better sedimentation capacity. So that, wood lixivium is better additive to the culture of white rot fungi in liquid medium. Addition of the mixture of wood, maize core and potato lixiviums is of advantage to the production of mycelium pellet. The difference of the production in the medium with different amount of wood lixiviums showed little in the first 3 d, while it expanded after 3 d. Wood lixiviums stimulate the growth of P. chrysosporium instead of supply organics which fungi need.

  4. Immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Jose L; Garcia, Marta E

    2008-09-15

    of the disease is associated with a delayed hypersensitive response. There are many effective veterinary vaccines against dermatophytoses. Malassezia pachydermatis is an opportunistic yeast that needs predisposing factors to cause disease, often related to an atopic status in the animal. Two species can be differentiated within the genus Cryptococcus with immunologic consequences: C. neoformans infects predominantly immunocompromised hosts, and C. gattii infects non-immunocompromised hosts. Pneumocystis is a fungus that infects only immunosupressed individuals, inducing a host defence mechanism similar to that induced by other fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus.

  5. The Case of the Missing Ancient Fungal Polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A; Ganley, Austen R D; Gabaldón, Toni; Cox, Murray P

    2016-12-01

    Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events. Three hypotheses may explain this finding. First, ancient fungal polyploids are indeed rare, with unique aspects of fungal biology providing similar benefits without genome duplication. Second, fungal polyploids are not successful in the long term, leading to few extant species derived from ancient polyploidy events. Third, ancient fungal polyploids are difficult to detect, causing the real contribution of polyploidy to fungal evolution to be underappreciated. We consider each of these hypotheses in turn and propose that failure to detect ancient events is the most likely reason for the lack of observed ancient fungal polyploids. We examine whether existing data can provide evidence for previously unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events but discover that current resources are too limited. We contend that establishing whether unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events exist is important to ascertain whether polyploidy has played a key role in the evolution of the extensive complexity and diversity observed in fungi today and, thus, whether polyploidy is a driver of evolutionary diversifications across eukaryotes. Therefore, we conclude by suggesting ways to test the hypothesis that there are unrecognized polyploidy events in the deep evolutionary history of the fungi.

  6. Fungal symbionts alter plant responses to global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Emery, Sarah M; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    While direct plant responses to global change have been well characterized, indirect plant responses to global change, via altered species interactions, have received less attention. Here, we examined how plants associated with four classes of fungal symbionts (class I leaf endophytes [EF], arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi [AMF], ectomycorrhizal fungi [ECM], and dark septate endophytes [DSE]) responded to four global change factors (enriched CO2, drought, N deposition, and warming). We performed a meta-analysis of 434 studies spanning 174 publications to search for generalizable trends in responses of plant-fungal symbioses to future environments. Specifically, we addressed the following questions: (1) Can fungal symbionts ameliorate responses of plants to global change? (2) Do fungal symbiont groups differ in the degree to which they modify plant response to global change? (3) Do particular global change factors affect plant-fungal symbioses more than others? In all global change scenarios, except elevated CO2, fungal symbionts significantly altered plant responses to global change. In most cases, fungal symbionts increased plant biomass in response to global change. However, increased N deposition reduced the benefits of symbiosis. Of the global change factors we considered, drought and N deposition resulted in the strongest fungal mediation of plant responses. Our analysis highlighted gaps in current knowledge for responses of particular fungal groups and revealed the importance of considering not only the nonadditive effects of multiple global change factors, but also the interactive effects of multiple fungal symbioses. Our results show that considering plant-fungal symbioses is critical to predicting ecosystem response to global change.

  7. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This arti...

  8. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ground corn stover for the production of fuel ethanol using Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Escherichia coli K011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Micky; Pometto, Anthony L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2011-07-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of corn stover using Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Gloeophyllum trabeum and subsequent fermentation of the saccharification products to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli K011 were achieved. Prior to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production, solid-state fermentation was performed for four days on ground corn stover using either P. chrysosporium or G. trabeum to induce in situ cellulase production. During SSF with S. cerevisiae or E. coli, ethanol production was the highest on day 4 for all samples. For corn stover treated with P. chrysosporium, the conversion to ethanol was 2.29 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae as the fermenting organism, whereas for the sample inoculated with E. coli K011, the ethanol production was 4.14 g/100 g corn stover. Corn stover treated with G. trabeum showed a conversion 1.90 and 4.79 g/100 g corn stover with S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 as the fermenting organisms, respectively. Other fermentation co-products, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, were also monitored. Acetic acid production ranged between 0.45 and 0.78 g/100 g corn stover, while no lactic acid production was detected throughout the 5 days of SSF. The results of our experiment suggest that it is possible to perform SSF of corn stover using P. chrysosporium, G. trabeum, S. cerevisiae and E. coli K011 for the production of fuel ethanol.

  9. BIODEGRADATION OF DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4- CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of [14C]DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the form...

  10. Effect of inducers and culturing processes on laccase synthesis in Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 and the constitutive expression of laccase isozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manavalan, Arulmani

    2006-01-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium NCIM 1197 constitutively secretes considerable level of extracellular enzyme laccase in defined growth medium. Effect of several inducers on laccase production was attempted and found that copper sulphate alone at 30 mM concentration accelerate the laccase production...

  11. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  12. EFFECTS OF CULTURE PARAMETERS ON DDT [1,1,1-TRICHLO- RO-2,2-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL) ETHANE] BIODEGRADATION BY PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignin degrading system of the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade a wide variety of structurally diverse organopollutants to carbon dioxide. Current research is focused on ways to increase or optimize rates of biodegradation in order to a...

  13. Biodegradation of pyrene by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and enzyme activities in soils: effect of SOM, sterilization and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Sun, Hongwen; Liu, Haibin; Wang, Baolin

    2014-05-01

    The impacts of soil organic matter (SOM), aging and sterilization on the production of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium during the biodegradation of pyrene in soils were investigated. The biodegradation of pyrene by P. chrysosporium decreased with increasing SOM content, whereas the maximum activities of LiP and MnP increased, which indicates that SOM outweighed pyrene in controlling enzyme production. Sterilization enhanced the degradation of pyrene due to the elimination of competition from indigenous microbes, whereas aging led to a reduction in the degradation of pyrene primarily through changes in its sorbed forms. Both sterilization and aging could reduce SOM content and alter its structure, which also influenced the bioavailability of pyrene and the enzyme activity. The sterilization and aging processes caused changes in the degradation of pyrene, and the enzyme activities were greater in soils with high SOM contents. MnP was related to the degradation of pyrene to a greater extent, whereas LiP was more related to the decomposition of SOM.

  14. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  15. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  16. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  17. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored.

  18. Fungal responses to elevated temperature and soil nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, S.; Geyer, K.; Morrison, E. W.; Frey, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The soil microbial community controls decomposition of organic residues which constitute a large portion of soil organic matter. Microbial growth is impacted by global changes such as warming and soil nitrogen (N) availability. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is an important parameter that influences soil C dynamics by partitioning organic matter between soil C and CO2 pools. This research focuses on the growth of different fungal species' exposed to varying temperatures and N availabilities, while quantifying respiration (CO2 flux) and microbial growth. To assess individual fungal isolates, we constructed a sterilized artificial soil medium to mimic a sandy loam soil by mixing 70% sand, 20% silt, and 10% clay. Several fungal species of the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were individually grown in this media at different temperatures (15 and 25°C) and N levels. Soil respiration was measured over the incubation period. Fungal biomass was estimated by chloroform fumigation extraction and qPCR of the fungal ITS region. Our results indicate that fungi were able to grow effectively and reproducibly in the artificial soil medium, demonstrating that using an artificial soil is an effective method for assessing individual species responses. Temperature and N availability had a positive affect on C mineralization and biomass. CUE varied among fungal species and, in general, declined with temperature.

  19. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  20. Fungal natural products targeting chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Tanja Thorskov; Kildgaard, Sara; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults from the western world. No curative treatments of CLL are presently known so the treatment strategy today is primarily to prolong patient survival,1 why we have initiated new activities towards discovery of novel compounds...... with potential tumor specificity. Our starting point is a diverse fungal collection of thousands of Penicillium and Aspergillus species. These fungi have proven to be a very rich source of various bioactive compounds and yet our dereplication investigations have demonstrated that there are still numerous unknown...... compounds to be identified within these species. Until now we have found that 11 out of 289 fungal extracts are active against CLL cells. Using our established chemotaxonomic discovery approach we have dereplicated and fractionated these extracts to track the activity into single fractions/compounds.2...

  1. Differential expression in Phanerochaete chrysosporium of membrane- associated proteins relevant to lignin degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semarjit Shary; Alexander N. Kapich; Ellen A. Panisko; Jon K. Magnuson; Daniel Cullen; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2008-01-01

    Fungal lignin-degrading systems likely include membrane-associated proteins that participate in diverse processes such as uptake and oxidation of lignin fragments, production of ligninolytic secondary metabolites, and defense of the mycelium against ligninolytic oxidants. Little is known about the nature or regulation of these membrane-associated components. We grew...

  2. Evolution of Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    The attine ant symbiosis is characterized by ancient but varying degrees of diffuse co-evolution between the ants and their fungal cultivars. Domesticated fungi became dependent on vertical transmission by queens and the ant colonies came to rely on their symbiotic fungus for food and thus......, indirectly, on fungal enzymes to break down the plant material brought in by the ants as fungal substrate. The more than 210 extant fungus-growing ant species differ considerably in colony size, social complexity and substrate-use. Only the derived leaf-cutting ants are specialized on using fresh leaves...... enzyme activity across ant genera could indeed be partially explained by substrate differences. This implies that fungal enzyme activity has likely coevolved with the genus- or species-specific substrates that the ants use to manure their fungus garden. Plant decomposing enzymes are thus not only...

  3. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis.Methods: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their...

  4. Snake fungal disease: An emerging threat to wild snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of wild snakes in eastern North America caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola. The data presented here describe: 1) the types of fungi recovered in culture from the skin of snakes with and without fungal skin infections, 2) the presence or absence of skin lesions in populations of snakes surveyed at several sites in Wisconsin and Minnesota, and 3) the various species of snakes that have been found to harbor O. ophiodiicola.

  5. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  6. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  7. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Seerangan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and dark septate endophyte (DSE fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We reported for the first time AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in seven and five species, respectively. Intermediate-type AM morphology was common, and AM morphology is reported for the first time in 16 plant species. Both AM and DSE fungal colonization varied significantly across plant species and sites. Intact and identifiable AM fungal spores occurred in root zones of nine plant species, but AM fungal species richness was low. Though no clear relationship between AM and DSE fungal colonization was recognized, a significant negative correlation between AM colonization and spore numbers was established. Our study suggests that the occurrence of AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in plants growing in hydrophytic and wetland habitats is not as common as in terrestrial habitats.

  8. [Clinically documented fungal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2008-12-01

    Proven fungal infections are diagnosed by histological/microbiological evidence of fungi at the site of infection and positive blood culture (fungemia). However, invasive diagnosing examinations are not always applied for all of immunocompromised patients. Clinically documented invasive fungal infections are diagnosed by typical radiological findings such as halo sign on chest CT plus positive serological/molecular evidence of fungi. Serological tests of Aspergillus galactomannan antigen and beta-glucan for aspergillosis and cryptococcal glucuronoxylomannan antigen for cryptococcosis are useful. Hence, none of reliable serological tests for zygomycosis are available so far. In this article, risk factors, sign and symptoms, and diagnostic methods for clinically documented cases of invasive aspergillosis, pulmonary cryptococcosis, and zygomycosis with diabates, are reviewed.

  9. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, T; Pannu, S; Kumar, Mukesh; Gupta, G

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans.

  10. Trichosporon inkin, an unusual agent of fungal sinusitis: A report from south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Janagond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology of fungal sinusitis is diverse and changing. Aspergillus species has been the most common cause for fungal sinusitis, especially in dry and hot regions like India. Trichosporon species as a cause for fungal sinusitis has been very rarely reported the world over. Here, we report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Trichosporon inkin in a 28-year-old immunocompetent woman. Bilateral nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and loss of smell were her presenting complaints. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy showed bilateral multiple polyps. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed and many polyps were removed. Based on mycological and histopathological studies, the pathogen was identified as T. inkin.

  11. Chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis by Paecilomyces variotii: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Swami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognised entity, both in normal and immunocompromised individuals. The recent increase in mycotic nasal and paranasal infections is due to both improved diagnostic research and an increase in the conditions that favour fungal infection. Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species are the most common causative agents of fungal sinusitis, but infection with lesser known species have been reported across the world infrequently. This article reviews and presents a case report of chronic fungal sinusitis in an immunocompetent adult male infected with Paecilomyces variotii which is opportunistic soil saprophyte, uncommon to humans.

  12. Trichosporon inkin, an unusual agent of fungal sinusitis: a report from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janagond, Anand; Krishnan, K Mohana; Kindo, A J; Sumathi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aetiology of fungal sinusitis is diverse and changing. Aspergillus species has been the most common cause for fungal sinusitis, especially in dry and hot regions like India. Trichosporon species as a cause for fungal sinusitis has been very rarely reported the world over. Here, we report a rare case of allergic fungal sinusitis caused by Trichosporon inkin in a 28-year-old immunocompetent woman. Bilateral nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and loss of smell were her presenting complaints. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy showed bilateral multiple polyps. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed and many polyps were removed. Based on mycological and histopathological studies, the pathogen was identified as T. inkin.

  13. Fungal propagules and DNA in feces of two detritus-feeding amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Kandikere Ramaiah; Beaton, Margaret; Bärlocher, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic shredders (leaf-eating invertebrates) preferentially ingest and digest leaves colonized by aquatic hyphomycetes (fungi). This activity destroys leaf-associated fungal biomass and detritial resources in streams. Fungal counter-adaptations may include the ability to survive passage through the invertebrate's digestive tract. When fecal pellets of Gammarus tigrinus and Hyalella azteca were incubated with sterile leaves, spores of nine (G. tigrinus) and seven (H. azteca) aquatic hyphomycete species were subsequently released from the leaves, indicating the presence of viable fungal structures in the feces. Extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from feces revealed numerous fungal phylotypes, two of which could be assigned unequivocally to an aquatic hyphomycete. The estimated contributions of major fungal groups varied depending on whether 18S or ITS sequences were amplified and cloned. We conclude that a variable proportion of fungal DNA in the feces of detritivores may originate from aquatic hyphomycetes. Amplified DNA may be associated with metabolically active, dormant, or dead fungal cells.

  14. Review of fungal outbreaks and infection prevention in healthcare settings during construction and renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hajime; Rutala, William A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Weber, David J

    2015-08-01

    Hospital construction and renovation activities are an ever-constant phenomenon in healthcare facilities, causing dust contamination and possible dispersal of fungal spores. We reviewed fungal outbreaks that occurred during construction and renovation over the last 4 decades as well as current infection prevention strategies and control measures. Fungal outbreaks still occur in healthcare settings, especially among patients with hematological malignancies and those who are immunocompromised. The causative pathogens of these outbreaks were usually Aspergillus species, but Zygomycetes and other fungi were occasionally reported. Aspergillus most commonly caused pulmonary infection. The overall mortality of construction/renovation-associated fungal infection was approximately 50%. The minimal concentration of fungal spores by air sampling for acquisition of fungal infections remains to be determined. Performing infection control risk assessments and implementing the recommended control measures is essential to prevent healthcare-associated fungal outbreaks during construction and renovation.

  15. Fungal infections of the urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, J D; Vazquez, J A

    1999-12-01

    Funguria, fungal urinary tract infections, are most commonly caused by Candida species but may also be caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus species, and the endemic mycoses. Candiduria presents as an increasingly common nosocomial infection, which may involve all anatomic levels of the urinary tract, resulting in a spectrum of disease varying from asymptomatic candiduria to clinical sepsis. Although several successful systemic or local therapeutic options exist for the eradication of candiduria, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of candiduria has lagged. This has resulted in confusion among practitioners as to when antifungal therapy is indicated. Treatment guidelines have recently been formulated and are described herein.

  16. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot.

  18. Screening of static culture and comparison of batch and continuous culture for the textile dye biological decolorization by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Urra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of manganese dependent peroxidase (MnP by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the level of decolorization of 13 dyes were evaluated using static and agitated batch cultures and continuous cultures. A screening carried out under static conditions showed that the oxidative system has a certain affinity for azoic structures. For concentrations of 100 mg l-1 of Acid Black 1, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Orange 16 and Acid Red 27, decolorization percentages higher than 90% were obtained. In batch cultures with Acid Black 1 and Reactive Black 5 a significant increment in primary post-metabolism biomass was observed. For these last two dyes, it was possible to explore the response of the continuous system during 32 to 47 days, with concentrations between 25 to 400 mg l-1, obtaining decolorization percentages greater than 70% for 400 mg l-1.

  19. Evaluation of chicken manure, kenaf, and phanerochaete chrysosporium (white rot fungus) as enhancers of polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, K.; Borazjani, A.; Diehl, S.V. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this 150-day study, chicken manure, kenaf, and white rot fungus were added to soil microcosms in an attempt to enhance the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls. The soil was contaminated with commercial PCB mixtures. Dishes were ammended with 5% dry weight chicken manure, 1% dry weight kenaf, and 1% dry weight kenaf plus Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculant. PCB concentrations were determined at 30 day intervals by soxhlet extraction and gas chromatography analyses. Preliminary results of microbial populations and PCB degradation are presented. At 90 days, the microcosms amended with chicken manure had significantly higher populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. However, at 120 days, these soils underwent great reductions in actinomycete and bacterial populations. Through 60 days, the concentration of the PCBs Aroclor 1242 and 1248 had its greatest reduction in the kenaf amended soils. The concentration of Aroclor 1260 either increased or stayed at high levels for 30 days before stabilizing or decreasing by day 60.

  20. Variation in fungal enzyme spectra may affect mutualistic division of labour between ants and fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    range, and a paraphyletic assembly of Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species that cultivate more genetically diverse fungal symbionts. Leaf-decomposition productivity of colonies depends on the combined efforts of ant foragers collecting and macerating plant material and fungal enzymes excreted directly...... partners vary in metabolic performance, division of labour may not always be optimized and co-evolutionary trajectories become less predictable. The higher fungus-growing (attine) ants consist of the leafcutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta), which rear a single fungal species throughout their Latin American...... or indirectly via ant fecal fluid. We determined the interaction specificity between ant species and fungal strains across sympatric populations of six Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex species in Panama, and established that these ants jointly reared eight fungal haplotype groups that differed significantly...

  1. Fungal osteomyelitis and septic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariteau, Jason T; Waryasz, Gregory R; McDonnell, Matthew; Fischer, Staci A; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Christopher T

    2014-06-01

    Management of fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis is challenging, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency and conditions that require immunosuppression. Because fungal osteomyelitis and fungal septic arthritis are rare conditions, study of their pathophysiology and treatment has been limited. In the literature, evidence-based treatment is lacking and, historically, outcomes have been poor. The most common offending organisms are Candida and Aspergillus, which are widely distributed in humans and soil. However, some fungal pathogens, such as Histoplasma, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, and Sporothrix, have more focal areas of endemicity. Fungal bone and joint infections result from direct inoculation, contiguous infection spread, or hematogenous seeding of organisms. These infections may be difficult to diagnose and eradicate, especially in the setting of total joint arthroplasty. Although there is no clear consensus on treatment, guidelines are available for management of many of these pathogens.

  2. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  3. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon......Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  4. A novel knotted cotton-thread carrier:Its potential use in achieving the biomass renewal of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve an innovative strategy to renew the biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system which can maintain white-rot fungi biomass, a novel knotted cotton-thread carrier was designed and made. By using a high-speed stirring apparatus under the conditions of 1400 r/min stirring speed for 6 min, mycelia immobilized on the knotted cotton-thread carriers were exfoliated completely and homogenized to a proper size. Furthermore, the homogenized mycelia from the immobilized mycelia can resume their growth on the knotted cotton-thread carriers in agitated flask cultures. The average regrowth biomass on the new carriers and the reused carriers was 0.0171 g/carrier and 0.0314 g/carrier, respectively. It proves that the knotted cotton-thread carrier performs perfectly in homogening the immobilized mycelia to achieve the biomass renewal of P. chrysosporium in an immobilized growth system.

  5. Fungal Community Responses to Past and Future Atmospheric CO2 Differ by Soil Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. Christopher; Fay, Philip A.; Polley, H. Wayne; Jackson, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Soils sequester and release substantial atmospheric carbon, but the contribution of fungal communities to soil carbon balance under rising CO2 is not well understood. Soil properties likely mediate these fungal responses but are rarely explored in CO2 experiments. We studied soil fungal communities in a grassland ecosystem exposed to a preindustrial-to-future CO2 gradient (250 to 500 ppm) in a black clay soil and a sandy loam soil. Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing of the rRNA gene cluster revealed that fungal community composition and its response to CO2 differed significantly between soils. Fungal species richness and relative abundance of Chytridiomycota (chytrids) increased linearly with CO2 in the black clay (P 0.7), whereas the relative abundance of Glomeromycota (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) increased linearly with elevated CO2 in the sandy loam (P = 0.02, R2 = 0.63). Across both soils, decomposition rate was positively correlated with chytrid relative abundance (r = 0.57) and, in the black clay soil, fungal species richness. Decomposition rate was more strongly correlated with microbial biomass (r = 0.88) than with fungal variables. Increased labile carbon availability with elevated CO2 may explain the greater fungal species richness and Chytridiomycota abundance in the black clay soil, whereas increased phosphorus limitation may explain the increase in Glomeromycota at elevated CO2 in the sandy loam. Our results demonstrate that soil type plays a key role in soil fungal responses to rising atmospheric CO2. PMID:25239904

  6. Algal and fungal diversity in Antarctic lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chae Haeng; Kim, Kyung Mo; Elvebakk, Arve; Kim, Ok-Sun; Jeong, Gajin; Hong, Soon Gyu

    2015-01-01

    The composition of lichen ecosystems except mycobiont and photobiont has not been evaluated intensively. In addition, recent studies to identify algal genotypes have raised questions about the specific relationship between mycobiont and photobiont. In the current study, we analyzed algal and fungal community structures in lichen species from King George Island, Antarctica, by pyrosequencing of eukaryotic large subunit (LSU) and algal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domains of the nuclear rRNA gene. The sequencing results of LSU and ITS regions indicated that each lichen thallus contained diverse algal species. The major algal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) defined at a 99% similarity cutoff of LSU sequences accounted for 78.7-100% of the total algal community in each sample. In several cases, the major OTUs defined by LSU sequences were represented by two closely related OTUs defined by 98% sequence similarity of ITS domain. The results of LSU sequences indicated that lichen-associated fungi belonged to the Arthoniomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Leotiomycetes, and Sordariomycetes of the Ascomycota, and Tremellomycetes and Cystobasidiomycetes of the Basidiomycota. The composition of major photobiont species and lichen-associated fungal community were mostly related to the mycobiont species. The contribution of growth forms or substrates on composition of photobiont and lichen-associated fungi was not evident.

  7. In vitro and in vivo inhibitory effects of some fungicides on catalase produced and purified from white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavakçıoğlu, Berna; Tarhan, Leman

    2014-10-01

    In this study, in vitro and in vivo effects of some commonly used fungicides, antibiotics, and various chemicals on isolated and purified catalase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium were investigated. The catalase was purified 129.10-fold by using 60% ammonium sulfate and 60% ethanol precipitations, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange and Sephacryl-S-200 gel filtration chromatographies from P. chrysosporium growth in carbon- and nitrogen-limited medium for 12 days. The molecular weight of native purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was found to be 290 ± 10 kDa, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE results indicated that enzyme consisted of four apparently identical subunits, with a molecular weight of 72.5 ± 2.5 kDa. Kinetic characterization studies showed that optimum pH and temperature, Km and Vmax values of the purified catalase which were stable in basic region and at comparatively high temperatures were 7.5, 30°C, 289.86 mM, and 250,000 U/mg, respectively. The activity of purified catalase from P. chrysosporium was significantly inhibited by dithiothreitol (DTT), 2-mercaptoethanol, iodoacetamide, EDTA, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). It was found that while antibiotics had no inhibitory effects, 45 ppm benomyl, 144 ppm captan, and 47.5 ppm chlorothalonil caused 14.52, 10.82, and 38.86% inhibition of purified catalase, respectively. The inhibition types of these three fungicides were found to be non-competitive inhibition with the Ki values of 1.158, 0.638, and 0.145 mM and IC50 values of 0.573, 0.158, 0.010 mM, respectively. The results of in vivo experiments also showed that benomyl, captan and chlorothalonil caused 15.25, 1.96, and 36.70% activity decreases after 24-h treatments compared to that of the control.

  8. Fungal Infections in Some Economically Important Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Iqbal*, Uzma Sheikh and Rabia Mughal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate fungal infections in four species of carps including goldfish, Carassius (C. auratus L.; silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys (H. molitrix Richardsons; rahu, Labeo (L. rohita Hamilton and Ctenopharyngodon (C. idella Valenciennes. Nine specimens of each species were studied for the presence of fungal infections. Infected fishes showed clinical signs such as fungal growth on skin, fins, eyes, eroded fins and scales, hemorrhages on body surface and abdominal distension. The specimens from infected organs of fish were inoculated on each, malt extract, Sabouraud dextrose and potato dextrose agars. The fungal colonies of white, black, green, grey and brown colors were observed in the agar plates. Slides were prepared and stained with 0.05% Trypan blue in lactophenol. C. auratus showed the highest infection rate (44.4% followed by H. molitrix and L. rohita (11.1% each. Five fungal species viz. Aspergillus (33.3%, Penicillium (22.2%, Alternaria (27.7%, Blastomyces spp (11.1% and Rhizopus (5.5% were isolated. Posterior part of the fish had significantly (P=0.05 higher (62.5% infection as compared to anterior part (37.5%. The caudal fin with 31.25% infection was the single most affected area. This study showed that most of the fungi isolated from fishes are considered as normal mycoflora, yet many fungi can cause natural infections in ponds and aquarium.

  9. Fungal disease incidence along tree diversity gradients depends on latitude in European forests

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Diem; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Guyot, Virginie; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Valladares, Fernando; Stenlid, Jan; Boberg, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    International audience; European forests host a diversity of tree species that are increasingly threatened by fungal pathogens, which may have cascading consequences for forest ecosystems and their functioning. Previous experimental studies suggest that foliar and root pathogen abundance and disease severity decrease with increasing tree species diversity, but evidences from natural forests are rare. Here, we tested whether foliar fungal disease incidence was negatively affected by tree speci...

  10. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  11. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  12. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors o

  13. Biodegradation of ddt (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane) by the white rot fungus phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumpus, J.A.; Aust, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    Extensive biodegradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated by disappearance and mineralization of (14C) DDT in nutrient nitrogen-deficient cultures. Mass balance studies demonstrated the formation of polar and water-soluble metabolites during degradation. Hexane-extractable metabolites identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry included 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane(DDD), 2,2,2-trichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethanol (dicofol), 2,2-dichloro-1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethanol (FW-152), and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). DDD was the first metabolite observed; it appeared after 3 days of incubation and disappeared from culture upon continued incubation. This, as well as the fact that ((14)C) dicofol was mineralized, demonstrates that intermediates formed during DDT degradation are also metabolized. These results demonstrate that the pathway for DDT degradation in P. chrysosporium is clearly different from the major pathway proposed for microbial or environmental degradation of DDT. Like P. chrysosporium ME-446 and BKM-F-1767, the white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Phellinus weirii, and Polyporus versicolor also mineralized DDT.

  14. Endophytic Fungal Communities Associated with Vascular Plants in the High Arctic Zone Are Highly Diverse and Host-Plant Specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available This study assessed the diversity and distribution of endophytic fungal communities associated with the leaves and stems of four vascular plant species in the High Arctic using 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the ITS region. Endophytic fungal communities showed high diversity. The 76,691 sequences obtained belonged to 250 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Of these OTUs, 190 belonged to Ascomycota, 50 to Basidiomycota, 1 to Chytridiomycota, and 9 to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Pleosporales, Capnodiales, and Tremellales, whereas the common known fungal genera were Cryptococcus, Rhizosphaera, Mycopappus, Melampsora, Tetracladium, Phaeosphaeria, Mrakia, Venturia, and Leptosphaeria. Both the climate and host-related factors might shape the fungal communities associated with the four Arctic plant species in this region. These results suggested the presence of an interesting endophytic fungal community and could improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Assessment of fungal growth on sodium polyborate-treated cellulose insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José

    2005-12-01

    Cellulose insulation has rapidly gained a large market share among general contractors and homeowners. Recent interest regarding health effects of high concentrations of fungi within indoor environments (building-related illnesses or sick building syndrome) has promoted concern about susceptibility of building materials, including wood products (in general) and cellulose insulation (specifically), to fungal attack. This study reports an assessment of fungal growth on cellulose insulation made from recycled paper and treated with varying concentrations of sodium polyborate within half-scale wall units exposed to variable and high ambient temperatures and relative humidities throughout the summer. Boron-treated and untreated (control) cellulose insulation within the wall units were challenged with a suspension containing high concentrations of spores of five fungal species commonly found in indoor environments. Our results suggest that cellulose insulation treated with sodium polyborate (a) precludes the growth of the five common fungal species; (b) harbors fewer fungal species before and after being challenged with the fungal spore suspension; and (c) is likely having a cytotoxic or sporocidal effect on many, if not all, fungal species. These results suggest that cellulose insulation treated with sodium polyborate, when properly applied and installed, precludes fungal growth for at least 124 days at high temperatures and relative humidities.

  16. Filamentous fungal infections of the cornea: a global overview of epidemiology and drug sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Shobana, Coimbatore Subramanian; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Manikandan, Palanisamy

    2015-04-01

    Fungal keratitis is a serious suppurative, usually ulcerative corneal infection which may result in blindness or reduced vision. Epidemiological studies indicate that the occurrence of fungal keratitis is higher in warm, humid regions with agricultural economy. The most frequent filamentous fungal genera among the causal agents are Fusarium, Aspergillus and Curvularia. A more successful therapy of fungal keratitis relies on precise identification of the pathogen to the species level using molecular tools. As the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene cluster (rDNA) is not discriminative enough to reveal a species-level diagnosis for several filamentous fungal species highly relevant in keratitis infections, analysis of other loci is also required for an exact diagnosis. Molecular identifications may also reveal the involvement of fungal species which were not previously reported from corneal infections. The routinely applied chemotherapy of fungal keratitis is based on the topical and systemic administration of polyenes and azole compounds. Antifungal susceptibility testing of the causal agents is of special importance due to the emergence and spread of resistance. Testing the applicability of further available antifungals and screening for new, potential compounds for the therapy of fungal keratitis are of highlighted interest.

  17. Exo-metabolome of some fungal isolates growing on cork-based medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barreto, M. C.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld;

    2011-01-01

    are produced by the studied fungal species, both in cork medium or in cork medium added with C. sitophila extracts. However, the addition of C. sitophila extract to the cork medium enhanced the growth of the other studied fungal isolates and altered the respective exo-metabolome profile, leading...... they can be dependent of the remains of former colonizers. In fact, the production of the exo-metabolites by the studied fungal isolates suggests that, under the used experimental conditions, they appear to play an important role in fungal interactions amongst the cork mycoflora....

  18. Fungal LysM effectors: extinguishers of host immunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ronnie; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2009-04-01

    Lysin motifs (LysMs) have been recognized in prokaryotes and plants as carbohydrate-binding protein modules. Recently, a novel virulence factor with LysMs was characterized from the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. Here, we present a survey of public sequence data of 70 fungal species to demonstrate that putatively secreted LysM-containing proteins are widespread in the fungal kingdom, as they are found in mammalian and plant pathogenic species, in addition to saprophytes. We propose that these putative LysM effectors might have a role in sequestration of chitin oligosaccharides - breakdown products of fungal cell walls that are released during invasion and act as triggers of host immunity - to dampen host defence.

  19. Concentration of Petroleum-Hydrocarbon Contamination Shapes Fungal Endophytic Community Structure in Plant Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Guillaume; Roy-Bolduc, Alice; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous pattern of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of pollution reduce fungal

  20. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis.Methods: Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performedwith two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus.Results: Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3 , Aspergillus flavus (n=2, Penicillium sp (n=3 and Alternaria sp. (n=1. Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor.Conclusion: Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementarydiagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  1. Plasma membrane lipids and their role in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable evidence in recent years suggesting that plasma membrane lipids are important regulators of fungal pathogenicity. Various glycolipids have been shown to impart virulent properties in several fungal species, while others have been shown to play a role in host defense. In addition to their role as virulence factors, lipids also contribute to other virulence mechanisms such as drug resistance, biofilm formation, and release of extracellular vesicles. In addition, lipids also affect the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane through the formation of packed microdomains composed mainly of sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the composition of lipid microdomains have been shown to disrupt the localization of virulence factors and affect fungal pathogenicity. This review gathers evidence on the various roles of plasma membrane lipids in fungal virulence and how lipids might contribute to the different processes that occur during infection and treatment. Insight into the role of lipids in fungal virulence can lead to an improved understanding of the process of fungal pathogenesis and the development of new lipid-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  2. Ethanol production via in situ fungal saccharification and fermentation of mild alkali and steam pretreated corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prachand; Khanal, Samir Kumar; Pometto, Anthony L; Hans van Leeuwen, J

    2010-11-01

    The effect of mild alkali and steam pretreatments on fungal saccharification and sequential simultaneous-saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of corn fiber to ethanol was studied. The corn fiber was pretreated with: (i) 2% NaOH (w/w) at 30 degrees C for 2h and (ii) steaming at 100 degrees C for 2h. Ethanol yields were 2.6g, 2.9g and 5.5g ethanol/100g of corn fiber, respectively, for Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Trichoderma reesei saccharification and sequential SSFs. SSF with commercial cellulase enzyme - Spezyme-CP had 7.7g ethanol/100g corn fiber. Mild alkali pretreatment resulted in higher glucose yields following fungal saccharification of corn fiber. However, the ethanol yields were comparatively similar for untreated and mild alkali pretreated corn fiber. Solid-substrate fermentation of corn fiber with fungi can be improved to either eliminate or reduce the dosage of commercial cellulase enzymes during SSF.

  3. Loofa sponge immobilized fungal biosorbent: a robust system for cadmium and other dissolved metal removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M; Edyvean, R G J

    2005-10-01

    The potential of loofa sponge discs to immobilize fungal biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (a known biosorbent) was investigated as a low cost biosorbent for the removal of Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution. A comparison of the biosorption of Cd(II) by immobilized and free fungal biomass from 10 to 500 mg l(-1) aqueous solutions showed an increase in uptake of over 19% when the biomass is immobilized (maximum biosorption capacity of 89 and 74 mg Cd(II) g(-1) biomass for immobilized and free biomass respectively at a solution pH of 6). Equilibrium was established within 1h and biosorption was well defined by the Langmuir isotherm model. The immobilized biomass could be regenerated using 50 mM HCl, with up to 99% metal recovery and reused in ten biosorption-desorption cycles without significant loss of capacity. This study suggests that such an immobilized biosorbent system has the potential to be used in the industrial removal/recovery of cadmium and other pollutant metal ions from aqueous solution.

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Tayssir; Rouissi, Tarek; Kaur Brar, Satinder; Cledon, Maximiliano; Sarma, Saurabhjyoti; Verma, Mausam

    2017-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of chemicals. They represent an important concern due to their widespread distribution in the environment, their resistance to biodegradation, their potential to bioaccumulate and their harmful effects. Several pilot treatments have been implemented to prevent economic consequences and deterioration of soil and water quality. As a promising option, fungal enzymes are regarded as a powerful choice for degradation of PAHs. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus ostreatus and Bjerkandera adusta are most commonly used for the degradation of such compounds due to their production of ligninolytic enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase. The rate of biodegradation depends on many culture conditions, such as temperature, oxygen, accessibility of nutrients and agitated or shallow culture. Moreover, the addition of biosurfactants can strongly modify the enzyme activity. The removal of PAHs is dependent on the ionization potential. The study of the kinetics is not completely comprehended, and it becomes more challenging when fungi are applied for bioremediation. Degradation studies in soil are much more complicated than liquid cultures because of the heterogeneity of soil, thus, many factors should be considered when studying soil bioremediation, such as desorption and bioavailability of PAHs. Different degradation pathways can be suggested. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes having common catalytic cycles. One molecule of hydrogen peroxide oxidizes the resting enzyme withdrawing two electrons. Subsequently, the peroxidase is reduced back in two steps of one electron oxidation. Laccases are copper-containing oxidases. They reduce molecular oxygen to water and oxidize phenolic compounds.

  5. Effects of fungal pretreatment and steam explosion pretreatment on enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, T; Nakamura, Y; Kobayashi, F; Kuwahara, M; Watanabe, T

    1995-12-20

    The effects of consecutive treatments by a lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by steam explosion for the enzymatic saccharification of plant biomass were studied experimentally, and the optimal operational conditions for obtaining the maximum saccharification were evaluated. Beech wood-meal was treated by the fungus for 98 days and then by high steam temperatures of 170-230 degrees C with steaming times of 0-10 min. The treatment of the wood-meal by fungus prior to steam explosion enhanced the saccharification of wood-meal. The treated wood-meal was separated into holo-cellulose, water soluble material, methanol soluble lignin, and Klason lignin. The saccharification decreased linearly with the increase in the amount of Klason lignin. It was estimated by the equation for the saccharification of exploded wood-meal expressed as a function of steam temperature and steaming time that the maximum saccharification of wood-meal was obtained by consecutive treatments such as fungal treatment for 28 days and then steam explosion at a steam temperature of 215 degrees C and a steaming time of 6.5 min. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Endophytic Fungal Diversity in Medicinal Plants of Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monnanda Somaiah Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes constitute an important component of microbial diversity, and in the present investigation, seven plant species with rich ethnobotanical uses representing six families were analyzed for the presence of endophytic fungi from their natural habitats during monsoon (May/June and winter (November/December seasons of 2007. Fungal endophytes were isolated from healthy plant parts such as stem, root, rhizome, and inflorescence employing standard isolation methods. One thousand five hundred and twenty-nine fungal isolates were obtained from 5200 fragments. Stem fragments harbored more endophytes (80.37% than roots (19.22%. 31 fungal taxa comprised of coelomycetes (65%, hyphomycetes (32%, and ascomycetes (3%. Fusarium, Acremonium, Colletotrichum, Chaetomium, Myrothecium, Phomopsis, and Pestalotiopsis spp. were commonly isolated. Diversity indices differed significantly between the seasons (P<0.001. Species richness was greater for monsoon isolations than winter. Host specificity was observed for few fungal endophytes. UPGMA cluster analysis grouped the endophytes into distinct clusters on the basis of genetic distance. This study is the first report on the diversity and host-specificity of endophytic fungal taxa were from the semi evergreen forest type in Talacauvery subcluster of Western Ghats.

  7. 内生真菌对羽茅抗病性的影响%Effect of different species of endophytes on fungal disease resistance of Achnatherum si-biricum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛毅; 高远; 李隔萍; 任安芝; 高玉葆

    2016-01-01

    为探讨不同种类内生真菌对宿主植物羽茅(Achnatherum sibiricum)抗病性的影响,以感染不同内生真菌的天然禾草羽茅为实验材料,进行了体外纯培养的内生真菌、感染内生真菌的离体叶片和在体叶片对3种植物病原真菌的抑菌实验。结果表明:体外纯培养条件下,分离自羽茅的内生真菌Neotyphodium sibiricum、Neotyphodium gansuensis和Epichloë gansuensis对新月弯孢霉(Curvularia lunata)、根腐离蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)和枝孢霉(Cladosporium sp.)等3种病原真菌都具有抑制作用,其中N. sibiricum的抑制作用最强,对新月弯孢霉、根腐离蠕孢和枝孢霉的抑菌率分别为47.8%、40.1%、39.4%;内生真菌培养滤液也可以有效抑制这3种病原真菌的孢子萌发,其中N. gansuensis的抑制作用最强,新月弯孢、根腐离蠕孢和枝孢霉的孢子萌发率分别为9.8%、8.7%、8.5%。对于离体叶片, N. sibiricum和N. gansuensis感染可以有效降低叶片受3种病原真菌侵染后的病斑数和孢子浓度,其中N. sibiricum对根腐离蠕孢的抑制作用显著高于N. gansuensis,而E. gansuensis只降低新月弯孢和枝孢霉侵染的病斑数以及枝孢霉侵染的孢子浓度。在体条件下,内生真菌均可以显著降低病原真菌侵染羽茅后的病斑数、病斑长度和孢子浓度,其中E. gansuensis的抑菌作用趋于最弱,而N. sibiricum的抑菌作用趋于最强。%Aims Achnatherum sibiricum, a native grass species, is widely distributed in the steppe of Nei Mongol, China. In this study, three endophytic fungi, i.e., Neotyphodium sibiricum, N. gansuensis and Epichloë gansuensis, were isolated from A. sibiricum and examined the effect of the endophytes on the resistance of A. sibiricum to fungal disease. Methods Three fungi: Curvularia lunata, Bipolaris sorokiniana and Cladosporium sp. were chosen as the target pathogens. Three experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of endophytic

  8. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yuma; Taniguchi, Masami

    2015-10-01

    Exposure and sensitization to fungal allergens can promote the development and worsening of allergic diseases. Although numerous species of fungi have been associated with allergic diseases in the literature, the significance of fungi from the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Malassezia has been well documented. However, it should be emphasized that the contribution of different fungal allergens to allergic diseases is not identical, but species-specific. Alternaria and Cladosporium species are considered to be important outdoor allergens, and sensitization and exposure to species of these genera is related to the development of asthma and rhinitis, as well as epidemics of asthma exacerbation, including life-threatening asthma exacerbation. In contrast, xerophilic species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, excluding Aspergillus fumigatus, are implicated in allergic diseases as indoor allergens. A. fumigatus has a high capacity to colonize the bronchial tract of asthmatic patients, causing severe persistent asthma and low lung function, and sometimes leading to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Malassezia are common commensals of healthy skin, although they are also associated with atopic dermatitis, especially on the head and neck, but not with respiratory allergies. Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  9. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  10. Fungal LysM effectors: extinguishers of host immunity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lysin motifs (LysMs) have been recognized in prokaryotes and plants as carbohydrate-binding protein modules. Recently, a novel virulence factor with LysMs was characterized from the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. Here, we present a survey of public sequence data of 70 fungal species to

  11. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation in filamentous fungal pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic transformation is an essential tool in molecular biology for many purposes including the study of gene function and the genetic improvement of an organism. The genetic transformation of many fungal species is a well established process that can be carried out by utilizing different transform...

  12. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal-fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  13. [Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in lichens of different taxonomic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A A; Kononenko, G P

    2014-01-01

    Secondary fungal metabolites (mycotoxins) in 22 lichen species of the families Parmeliaceae, Nephromataceae, Umbilicariaceae, Ramalinaceae, Cladoniaceae, Peltigeraceae, and Teloschistaceae were identified determined by enzyme immunoassay enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The following mycotoxins were identified found in these lichens in a broad concentration range with a frequency of 70-100%: sterigmatocystin (7-2090 ng/g), alternariol (20-6460 ng/g), and emodin (45-94500 ng/g). Mycophenolic acid frequently occurred in 19 lichen species; citrinin, in 17 species; diacetoxyscirpenol, in 11 species; cyclopiazonic acid, in 10 species; and zearalenone, in 9 species. PR toxin was regularly detected in three lichen species; deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and ochratoxin A, in two species; and T-2 toxin and ergot alkaloids, in one species. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in only six species with a frequency of 2-42%, whereas roridin A was identified present in 10% of Hypogymnia physodes samples.

  14. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T; Koponen, Ismo K; Kling, Kirsten I; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder

    2016-04-01

    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 10(7)CFU of fungi/m(3)air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor,Chaetomium globosum,Cladosporium herbarum,Penicillium brevicompactum,Penicillium camemberti,Penicillium chrysogenum,Penicillium commune,Penicillium glabrum,Penicillium olsonii,Penicillium rugulosum,Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition.

  15. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These types of infections are called healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Hospital staff and healthcare providers do everything they can ... IV tube) can increase your risk for fungal infection. During your hospital stay you may need a central venous catheter, ...

  16. Fungal Entomopathogens in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomopathogenic fungi are found in a wide variety of fungal groups. The order Hypocreales contains the largest number of entomogenous fungi, including two of the most widely studied, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorok...

  17. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  18. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Manpreet K; Weir, Bevan S; Taylor, Michael W; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2013-01-01

    Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks). Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community closely associated

  19. Diverse honeydew-consuming fungal communities associated with scale insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet K Dhami

    Full Text Available Sooty mould fungi are ubiquitous, abundant consumers of insect-honeydew that have been little-studied. They form a complex of unrelated fungi that coexist and compete for honeydew, which is a chemically complex resource. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy in combination with T-RFLP community profiling and ITS-based tag-pyrosequencing to extensively describe the sooty mould community associated with the honeydews of two ecologically important New Zealand coelostomidiid scale insects, Coelostomidia wairoensis and Ultracoelostoma brittini. We tested the influence of host plant on the community composition of associated sooty moulds, and undertook limited analyses to examine the influence of scale insect species and geographic location. We report here a previously unknown degree of fungal diversity present in this complex, with pyrosequencing detecting on average 243 operational taxonomic units across the different sooty mould samples. In contrast, T-RFLP detected only a total of 24 different "species" (unique peaks. Nevertheless, both techniques identified similar patterns of diversity suggesting that either method is appropriate for community profiling. The composition of the microbial community associated with individual scale insect species varied although the differences may in part reflect variation in host preference and site. Scanning electron microscopy visualised an intertwined mass of fungal hyphae and fruiting bodies in near-intact physical condition, but was unable to distinguish between the different fungal communities on a morphological level, highlighting the need for molecular research. The substantial diversity revealed for the first time by pyrosequencing and our inability to identify two-thirds of the diversity to further than the fungal division highlights the significant gap in our knowledge of these fungal groups. This study provides a first extensive look at the community diversity of the fungal community

  20. A Fungal Endosymbiont Affects Host Plant Recruitment Through Seed- and Litter-mediated Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Many grass species are associated with maternally transmitted fungal endophytes. Increasing evidence shows that endophytes enhance host plant success under varied conditions, yet studies have rarely considered alternative mechanisms whereby these mutualistic symbionts may affect regeneration from...

  1. Environment, host, and fungal traits predict continental-scale white-nose syndrome in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T.S.; Pulliam, Juliet R.C.; Marshall, Jonathan C.; Cryan, Paul M.; Webb, Colleen T.

    2016-01-01

    White-nose syndrome is a fungal disease killing bats in eastern North America, but disease is not seen in European bats and is less severe in some North American species. We show that how bats use energy during hibernation and fungal growth rates under different environmental conditions can explain how some bats are able to survive winter with infection and others are not. Our study shows how simple but nonlinear interactions between fungal growth and bat energetics result in decreased survival times at more humid hibernation sites; however, differences between species such as body size and metabolic rates determine the impact of fungal infection on bat survival, allowing European bat species to survive, whereas North American species can experience dramatic decline.

  2. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  3. Pathogenic spectrum of fungal keratitis and specific identification of Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Yanqiu; Song, Wengang; Zhang, Yunfeng; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2011-04-25

    To investigate the predominant causative pathogens and epidemiologic features of fungal keratitis and establish a rapid, specific molecular method to detect fungal keratitis caused by Fusarium solani. A total of 174 patients with presumed fungal keratitis and 174 affected eyes were examined. Isolates from corneal specimens were identified according to morphologic and physiological characteristics. The primers that were designed for F. solani were tested to confirm whether they had species specificity. Multiplex PCR with universal fungal and F. solani-specific primers was performed with fungal and bacterial strains and was used to detect microorganisms in the clinical specimens. A total of 160 patients (92.0%) were diagnosed with fungal infection by either potassium hydroxide wet-mount or microbiologic culture. Fungal cultures were positive in 128 patients (73.6%) with 139 fungal isolates. Fusarium (48.2%) was the most frequently isolated genus, in which F. solani (35.2%) was the most common species, followed by the Aspergillus (18.7%) and Candida (16.6%) genera. The PCR results showed that the designed primers were species specific and suitable for specific identification of F. solani. The multiplex PCR of 3-day broth cultures could identify and distinguish F. solani from other pathogens rapidly and specifically from clinical specimens. Fusarium species, especially F. solani, were found to be the predominant cause of fungal keratitis in northeast China. The established multiplex PCR method could have potential advantages for rapid detection of F. solani. These findings might have significance for early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  4. Purification and characteristics of a low-molecular-weight peptide possessing oxidative capacity for phenol from Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Ming; ZHANG; Weican; LU; Xuemei; GAO; Peiji

    2006-01-01

    A new low-molecular-weight peptide with phenol oxidase activity, named Pc factor, was isolated and purified from liquid culture of a white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Its molecular weight was about 600 Da estimated by gel-filtration. Three amino acids Glu, Gly and Val were detected in hydrolysate. Absorption peaks corresponding to amino acids and peptide were observed by UV and IR spectra analysis. And the signal of Cα of amino acid was also detected by 13C-NMR method. Pc factor had high thermostability and remained active in weakly alkalescent pH range. It could chelate Fe3+ and reduce it to Fe2+, but no hydroxyl radical HO` could be detected during the reaction process. It could oxidize phenolic lignin-model compounds such as 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP), 2,2(-azinobis (3-ethylbenzathiazoline-6-sulfinic acid) (ABTS) and syringaldazine in the absence of Mn2+ and H2O2. These characteristics differed greatly from those of manganese peroxidases. The oxidative catalysis of Pc factor can be enhanced by certain metal ions such as Cu2+ and Mn2+ etc., and O2 molecule was necessary for this reaction. In summary, Pc factor may function as an electron carrier in this novel oxidation-reduction system.

  5. Biopulping of lignocarbohydrates residues of cymbopogon martini with phanerochaete chrysosporium: An approach towards energy conservation and waste utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, C. H.; Dharm, D.; Upadhyaya, J. S.; Upadhyay, A. K.; Garg, A. P. (Department of Paper Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Saharanpur (India))

    2007-07-01

    Lignocarbohydrates residue of Cymboogon martini (Palma rosa grass), cultivated for palma rosa oil, is used for land filling after steam distillation which creates environmental problems. This hitherto unexploited source of lignocarbohydrates biomass can successfully be used for the production of chemical grade pulp by soda and bio soda, alkali 02 and bio alkali 02 pulping processes. Lignocarbohydrates residue left after steam distillation was treated with P. chrysosporium at optimum conditions which degrades lignin, pentosan and holocellulose to 30.11, 62.25 and 18.60% respectively of the original composition of lignocarbohydrates residues of C. martini. Lignocellulosic residues of C. martini produces 44.73 % pulp yield with 22.12 kappa number at H factor 553.21, maximum cooking time 3 hours, maximum cooking temp 150 deg C, alkali dose 14 % (as Na{sub 2}0) and liquor to wood ratio of 5:1. The addition of 0.1 % AQ improves pulp yield by 0.72 % and reduces kappa number by 1.12 units. The 02 pressure 5 kg/cm2 improves pulp yield by 1.07 % and reduces kappa number by 1.65 units. The bio soda and bio alkali 02 pulping processes requires 11 % active alkali doses to get the same kappa number as for soda and alkali 02 pulps with a chemical saving of 3%. (orig.)

  6. Study of the degradation of dyes by MnP of Phanerochaete chrysosporium produced in a fixed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, D; Rodríguez Couto, S; Cameselle, C; Sanromán, M A

    2003-04-01

    The production of ligninolytic enzymes by the fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a fixed-bed tubular bioreactor, filled with cubes of nylon sponge, operating in semi-solid-state conditions, was studied. Maximum individual manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) activities of 1293 and 225 U/l were detected. The in vitro decolourisation of two structurally different dyes (Poly R-478, crystal violet) by the extracellular liquid obtained in the above-mentioned bioreactor was monitored in order to determine its degrading capability. The concentration of some compounds (sodium malonate, manganese sulphate) from the reaction mixture was optimised in order to maximise the decolourisation levels. A percentage of Poly R-478 decolourisation of 24% after 15 min of dye incubation was achieved. On the other hand, a methodology for a long treatment of these dyes based on the continuous addition of MnP enzyme and H(2)O(2) was developed. Moreover, this enzymatic treatment was compared with a photochemical decolourisation process. The former allowed to maintain the degradation rate almost constant for a long time, resulting in a decolourisation percentage of 70% and 30% for crystal violet and Poly R-478, respectively, after 2 h of treatment. As for the latter, it was not able to degrade Poly R-478, whereas crystal violet reached a degradation of 40% in 2 h.

  7. In vitro degradation of natural insoluble lignin in aqueous media by the extracellular peroxidases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, D.N.; Reddy, C.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Hames, B.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Biomass Analysis Group; Grethlein, H.E. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[Michigan Biotechnology Inst., Lansing, MI (United States)

    1998-03-20

    The lignin peroxidases (LIP) and manganese peroxidases (MNP) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyze a wide range of lignin depolymerization reactions with lignin models and synthetic lignins in solution. However, their ability to degrade insoluble natural lignin in aqueous media has not been demonstrated. Insoluble isolated poplar lignin similar to natural lignin was treated in vitro in aqueous media for 12 h with LIP, MNP, and both. Treatment with MNP alone slightly increased the solid mass and produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone and 2-methoxyhydroquinone but did not appreciably decrease the total lignin content. Treatment with LIP alone did not decrease the mass but produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid and slightly decreased the lignin content. Finally, treatment with LIP and MNP together decreased the solid mass by 11%, decreased the lignin content by 5%, and released low-concentration compounds with mass spectra containing the typical lignin-derived electron-impact fragments of mass 107, 137, 151, 167, and 181. These results suggest that MNP increases the effectiveness of LIP-mediated lignin degradation.

  8. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass from grass to bioethanol using materials pretreated with alkali and the white rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yee Liong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Grasses are abundant in many climatic regions of the world and have been regarded as weeds by many. This work investigated the use of Pennisetum purpureum (Napier grass in the production of bioethanol. Two pretreated grasses were compared as the initial substance in the hydrolysis process followed by bacteria fermentation. For the purpose of breaking down lignin, alkali pretreatment, where grass was soaked in 7% NaOH, was used. For biological pretreatment, grass was incubated for 3 weeks with the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both types of pretreated materials were subjected to Trichoderma reesei ATCC 26921 enzyme hydrolysis. Glucose content from alkali-pretreated samples was 1.6-fold higher than fungus-pretreated samples. Hydrolysates from the pretreatments were fermented using the ethanol insensitive strain Escherichia coli K011. After 24 hours of fermentation, the ethanol yield from alkali-pretreated material was 1.5 times higher than the biological-pretreated material. It can be concluded that NaOH-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had a better ethanol yield compared to biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate, but biological-pretreated enzyme hydrolysate had better ethanol conversion efficiency, which was 18.5 g/g. These results indicated that wild grass is capable of becoming an important biomass for small local bioethanol production.

  9. Glutathione transferases of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone reductase belongs to a new structural class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meux, Edgar; Prosper, Pascalita; Ngadin, Andrew; Didierjean, Claude; Morel, Mélanie; Dumarçay, Stéphane; Lamant, Tiphaine; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Favier, Frédérique; Gelhaye, Eric

    2011-03-18

    The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a saprophytic basidiomycete, possesses a large number of cytosolic glutathione transferases, eight of them showing similarity to the Omega class. PcGSTO1 (subclass I, the bacterial homologs of which were recently proposed, based on their enzymatic function, to constitute a new class of glutathione transferase named S-glutathionyl-(chloro)hydroquinone reductases) and PcGSTO3 (subclass II related to mammalian homologs) have been investigated in this study. Biochemical investigations demonstrate that both enzymes are able to catalyze deglutathionylation reactions thanks to the presence of a catalytic cysteinyl residue. This reaction leads to the formation of a disulfide bridge between the conserved cysteine and the removed glutathione from their substrate. The substrate specificity of each isoform differs. In particular PcGSTO1, in contrast to PcGSTO3, was found to catalyze deglutathionylation of S-glutathionyl-p-hydroquinone substrates. The three-dimensional structure of PcGSTO1 presented here confirms the hypothesis that it belongs not only to a new biological class but also to a new structural class that we propose to name GST xi. Indeed, it shows specific features, the most striking ones being a new dimerization mode and a catalytic site that is buried due to the presence of long loops and that contains the catalytic cysteine.

  10. Metabolism of cellulose by Phanerochaete chrysosporium in continuously agitated culture is associated with enhanced production of lignin peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacchi, L; Burla, G; Zuolong, D; Harvey, P J

    2000-03-10

    Production of the extracellular heme protein lignin peroxidase (LiP) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium is currently associated with a number of requirements, namely exposure of the cultures to oxygen; limiting nutrient nitrogen or carbon and static or semi-static culture conditions. To obtain LiP activity in continuously agitated liquid culture requires the inclusion of a surfactant. However, using cellulose as the carbon source, we obtained high titres (0.2-0.4 U ml(-1)) of LiP in submerged liquid cultures under conditions of continuous agitation, without substrate limitation or the need to add oxygen or surfactant. Comparison of the morphological and physiological traits of hyphae maintained on either cellulose or free glucose supports observations that the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide in the cultures grown on glucose, restricts oxygen diffusion into the hyphae, which is necessary for LiP induction. They also suggest that isozymes of LiP synthesised under these conditions may be triggered in response to oxidant stress.

  11. Decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium on synthetic dye bath effluent containing Amido black 10B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Senthilkumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic azo dyes are extensively used in textile industry and are not easily degraded into the environment due to their complex structure. Due to the low degree of fixation of these dyes to fabrics, more than 10–15% of the dye does not bind to fabrics during colour processing and release into water bodies as effluent cause serious environmental pollution. White-rot fungus is found to be capable of degrading lignin which has a complex structure similar to azo dyes. In this study, the decolourization potential of white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is capable of decolourizing synthetic dye bath effluent, was investigated. Maximum decolourization of 98% was achieved on the third day under normal conditions. The rate of decolourization carried out at different concentrations revealed that the increase in dye effluent concentration suppresses the percentage decolourization. The optimized amounts of nutrients were found to be 0.5%, 0.1% and 0.5% of glucose, manganese sulphate and ammonium salts, respectively. The addition of inducers such as starch and lignin increased enzyme production and the rate of decolourization.

  12. Voriconazole, a safe alternative for treating infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Waeyenberghe, L; Baert, K; Pasmans, F; van Rooij, P; Hellebuyck, T; Beernaert, L; de Backer, P; Haesebrouck, F; Martel, A

    2010-09-01

    Dermal and systemic infections caused by the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV) are highly prevalent in reptiles and may result in severe disease and high mortality. Due to the high incidence of therapeutic failures, optimizing treatment is required. We first determined in this study the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine against 32 CANV isolates. For voriconazole, amphotericin B and terbinafine a monomodal MIC distribution was seen, whereas a bimodal MIC distribution was present for itraconazole, indicating acquired resistance in one isolate. Fourteen naturally-infected bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps), from the same owner, were treated orally with either itraconazole (5 mg/kg q24h) or voriconazole (10 mg/kg q24h). The clinical condition, drug plasma concentrations and the presence of CANV in skin samples were followed. The animals were treated until complete clearance of the fungus. The plasma concentrations of voriconazole and itraconazole exceeded the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the CANV isolates. Elimination of CANV was achieved on average after 27 and 47 days of treatment with itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Whereas only 2 out of 7 survived after itraconazole treatment, only a single animal died in the voriconazole treated group. In conclusion, based on a limited number of animals, voriconazole applied at a regimen of 10 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) q24h seems to be a safe and effective antimycotic drug to eliminate CANV infections in bearded dragons.

  13. Ligninolytic enzyme system of Phanerochaete chrysosporium: synthesized in the absence of lignin in response to nitrogen starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, P.; Kirk, T.K.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1978-09-01

    The relationship between growth, nutrient nitrogen assimilation, and the appearance of ligninolytic activity was examined in stationary batch cultures of the wood-destroying hymenomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium Burds. grown under conditions optimized for lignin metabolism. A reproducible sequence of events followed inoculation: 0 to 24 h, germination, linear growth, and depletion of nutrient nitrogen; 24 to 48 h, cessation of linear growth and derepression of ammonium permease activity (demonstrating nitrogen starvation); 72 to 96 h, appearance of ligninolytic activity (synthetic /sup 14/C-lignin ..-->.. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/). Experiments with cycloheximide demonstrated that appearance of ligninolytic activity occurs irrespective of the presence of lignin; lignin did not induce additional activity. Addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to cultures immediately prior to the time of appearance of the ligninolytic system delayed its appearance, suggesting that the NH/sub 4//sup +/ led to interference with synthesis of the enzyme system. Addition of NH/sub 4//sup +/ to ligninolytic cultures resulted in an eventual, temporary decrease in ligninolytic activity. The results suggest that all or essential protein components of the ligniolytic enzyme system are synthesized as part of a series of physiological (secondary metabolic) events that are initiated by nutrient nitrogen starvation.

  14. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A G Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods.

  15. Indexing and Analysis of Fungal Phenotypes Using Morphology and Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    2005-01-01

    and identification of the fungi is considered difficult and laborious. Though visual expressions have been and still is used as phenotype markers in the classification and identification of fungal species, one of the most successful characters used has been the profile of the secondary metabolites. In order...... to evaluate the visual phenotypic characters, a method for visual clone identification of Penicillium commune { the most widespread and most frequently occurring spoilage fungus on cheese { was developed (Papers A, B and C). The method was based on images of fungal colonies acquired after growth on a standard...

  16. Sexual reproduction of human fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A; Dyer, Paul S; Soll, David R

    2014-08-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms.

  17. [Prevention of fungal infections in hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, H P; Schröter, G

    1984-06-01

    Hospital acquired infections due to fungi are primarily caused by yeast species of the genus Candida and mould species of the genus Aspergillus. Underlying disease with severely impaired defence mechanisms as well as certain forms of immunosuppressive and aggressive chemotherapy are the most important prerequisites for such secondary fungal infections. Aspergillus spec. usually infect man via exogenous routes, whereas Candida spec. mostly originate from the patient's own microbial flora. Under certain circumstances invasion of tissues follows (endomycosis). Exogenous Candida infections may likewise occur through contaminated hands of personnel and medical devices. The density of yeast cell distribution in hospital wards decreases with the distance from the primary source: the Candida infected human patient. Preventive measures protecting the patient at risk include: Permanent surveillance by routine cultural and serological examinations for the detection of an early infection of the skin, mouth, oesophagus, urinary tract, vagina and the bowel. Monitoring of patients is essential for early detection of dissemination and contributes to the control of fungal decontamination measures. Selective local decontamination is effected by the use of nonabsorbable compounds such as nystatin and amphotericin B in the gastrointestinal tract, and in oral and genital mucous membranes. Oral administration of ketoconazole has also been recommended. For the disinfection of skin appropriate chemicals are available. In the control of the environment of the endangered patient special attention must be paid to meticulous management of catheters. These measures are to be supported by careful disinfection policy concerning the hands of personnel and medical equipment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Dark Septate Endophyte Fungal Associations in South Indian Aquatic and Wetland Macrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Seerangan; Muthukumar Thangavelu

    2014-01-01

    Investigations on the prevalence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungal symbioses are limited for plants growing in tropical aquatic and wetland habitats compared to those growing on terrestrial moist or dry habitats. Therefore, we assessed the incidence of AM and DSE symbiosis in 8 hydrophytes and 50 wetland plants from four sites in south India. Of the 58 plant species examined, we found AM and DSE fungal symbiosis in 21 and five species, respectively. We rep...

  19. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities coinvading with Pinaceae host plants in Argentina: Gringos bajo el bosque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Jeremy; Horton, Thomas R; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-10-01

    Coinvasive ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi allow Pinaceae species to invade regions otherwise lacking compatible symbionts, but ECM fungal communities permitting Pinaceae invasions are poorly understood. In the context of Pinaceae invasions on Isla Victoria, Nahuel Huapi National Park, Argentina, we asked: what ECM fungi are coinvading with Pinaceae hosts on Isla Victoria; are some ECM fungal species or genera more prone to invade than others; and are all ECM fungal species that associate with Northern Hemisphere hosts also nonnative, or are some native fungi compatible with nonnative plants? We sampled ECMs from 226 Pinaceae host plant individuals, both planted individuals and recruits, growing inside and invading from plantations. We used molecular techniques to examine ECM fungal communities associating with these trees. A distinctive subset of the ECM fungal community predominated far from plantations, indicating differences between highly invasive and less invasive ECM fungi. Some fungal invaders reported here have been detected in other locations around the world, suggesting strong invasion potential. Fungi that were frequently detected far from plantations are often found in early-successional sites in the native range, while fungi identified as late-successional species in the native range are rarely found far from plantations, suggesting a means for predicting potential fungal coinvaders.

  20. Investigation of the indigenous fungal community populating barley grains: Secretomes and xylanolytic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sultan, Abida; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Andersen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The indigenous fungal species populating cereal grains produce numerous plant cell wall-degrading enzymes including xylanases, which could play important role in plant-pathogen interactions and in adaptation of the fungi to varying carbon sources. To gain more insight into the grain surface......-associated enzyme activity, members of the populating fungal community were isolated, and their secretomes and xylanolytic activities assessed. Twenty-seven different fungal species were isolated from grains of six barley cultivars over different harvest years and growing sites. The isolated fungi were grown...

  1. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  2. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  3. CFGP: a web-based, comparative fungal genomics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jongsun; Park, Bongsoo; Jung, Kyongyong; Jang, Suwang; Yu, Kwangyul; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kong, Sunghyung; Park, Jaejin; Kim, Seryun; Kim, Hyojeong; Kim, Soonok; Kim, Jihyun F; Blair, Jaime E; Lee, Kwangwon; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Since the completion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequencing project in 1996, the genomes of over 80 fungal species have been sequenced or are currently being sequenced. Resulting data provide opportunities for studying and comparing fungal biology and evolution at the genome level. To support such studies, the Comparative Fungal Genomics Platform (CFGP; http://cfgp.snu.ac.kr), a web-based multifunctional informatics workbench, was developed. The CFGP comprises three layers, including the basal layer, middleware and the user interface. The data warehouse in the basal layer contains standardized genome sequences of 65 fungal species. The middleware processes queries via six analysis tools, including BLAST, ClustalW, InterProScan, SignalP 3.0, PSORT II and a newly developed tool named BLASTMatrix. The BLASTMatrix permits the identification and visualization of genes homologous to a query across multiple species. The Data-driven User Interface (DUI) of the CFGP was built on a new concept of pre-collecting data and post-executing analysis instead of the 'fill-in-the-form-and-press-SUBMIT' user interfaces utilized by most bioinformatics sites. A tool termed Favorite, which supports the management of encapsulated sequence data and provides a personalized data repository to users, is another novel feature in the DUI.

  4. Isolation and structure identification of bioactive metabolite C3438A of psychrophilic fungi Chrysosporium sp. C3438 isolated from soil of south pole%南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438活性代谢产物C3438A的分离及结构鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁敏; 王文翔; 王丽萍; 胡继兰

    2002-01-01

    以对精原细胞法是否有活性作为筛选模型,对南极土壤嗜冷真菌Chrysosporium sp.C3438经低温发酵的活性产物进行了深入的化学研究,首次从南极土壤微生物代谢产物中分离得到Ferrichrome.

  5. [Fungal flora in houses (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallea, M; Renard, M; Charpin, J

    1982-01-01

    In certain cases, allergic respiratory phenomena appear to be connected with a particular dwelling place. This observations, if it is not explained by a specific allergen (eg. an animal), raises the possible contribution of domestic moulds. The author shows the results of a study on domestic moulds in 65 houses in the Bouches-du-Rhône by culture on Petri dishes. The species most often detected were Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria. In some houses identical fungi were found to those in the atmosphere, in others greater numbers were found inside than outside. The study of fungal spores is of great interest; it gives an idea of their numerical importance which can be considerable; in addition besides those fungi which are present in the routine battery of tests, it may show other species that should perhaps be considered in the diagnostic aetiology.

  6. Epidemiology of fungal infections and risk factors in newborn patients

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    Paolo Manzoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections among newborn babies is increasing, owing mainly to the in­creased ability to care and make survive immature infants at higher specific risk for fungal infections. The risk is higher in infants with very low and extremely low birth weight, in babies receiving total parenteral nutrition, in neonates with limited barrier effect in the gut, or with central venous catheter or other devices where fungal biofilms can originate. Also neonates receiving broad spectrum antibiotics, born through caesarian section or non-breastfed can feature an increased, specific risk. Most fungal infections in neonatology occur in premature children, are of nosocomial origin, and are due to Candida species. Colonization is a preliminary step, and some factors must be considered for the diagnosis and grading process: the iso­lation site, the number of colonized sites, the intensity of colonization, and the Candida subspecies. The most complicated patients are at greater risk of fungal infections, and prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy should often be considered. A consistent decisional tree in neonatology is yet to be defined, but some efforts have been made in order to identify characteristics that should guide the prophylaxis or treatment choices. A negative blood culture and the absence of symptoms aren’t enough to rule out the diagnosis of fungal infections in newborn babies. Similarly, laboratory tests have been validated only for adults. The clinical judgement is of utmost importance in the diagnostic process, and should take into account the presence of clinical signs of infection, of a severe clinical deterioration, as well as changes in some laboratory tests, and also the presence and characteristics of a pre-existing fungal colonization.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v14i1S.856

  7. Potential of small-molecule fungal metabolites in antiviral chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Biswajit G

    2017-08-01

    Various viral diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, influenza, and hepatitis, have emerged as leading causes of human death worldwide. Scientific endeavor since invention of DNA-dependent RNA polymerase of pox virus in 1967 resulted in better understanding of virus replication and development of various novel therapeutic strategies. Despite considerable advancement in every facet of drug discovery process, development of commercially viable, safe, and effective drugs for these viruses still remains a big challenge. Decades of intense research yielded a handful of natural and synthetic therapeutic options. But emergence of new viruses and drug-resistant viral strains had made new drug development process a never-ending battle. Small-molecule fungal metabolites due to their vast diversity, stereochemical complexity, and preapproved biocompatibility always remain an attractive source for new drug discovery. Though, exploration of therapeutic importance of fungal metabolites has started early with discovery of penicillin, recent prediction asserted that only a small percentage (5-10%) of fungal species have been identified and much less have been scientifically investigated. Therefore, exploration of new fungal metabolites, their bioassay, and subsequent mechanistic study bears huge importance in new drug discovery endeavors. Though no fungal metabolites so far approved for antiviral treatment, many of these exhibited high potential against various viral diseases. This review comprehensively discussed about antiviral activities of fungal metabolites of diverse origin against some important viral diseases. This also highlighted the mechanistic details of inhibition of viral replication along with structure-activity relationship of some common and important classes of fungal metabolites.

  8. A parts list for fungal cellulosomes revealed by comparative genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haitjema, Charles H.; Gilmore, Sean P.; Henske, John K.; Solomon, Kevin V.; de Groot, Randall; Kuo, Alan; Mondo, Stephen J.; Salamov, Asaf A.; LaButti, Kurt; Zhao, Zhiying; Chiniquy, Jennifer; Barry, Kerrie; Brewer, Heather M.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wright, Aaron T.; Hainaut, Matthieu; Boxma, Brigitte; van Alen, Theo; Hackstein, Johannes H. P.; Henrissat, Bernard; Baker, Scott E.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; O' Malley, Michelle A.

    2017-05-26

    Cellulosomes are large, multi-protein complexes that tether plant biomass degrading enzymes together for improved hydrolysis1. These complexes were first described in anaerobic bacteria where species specific dockerin domains mediate assembly of enzymes onto complementary cohesin motifs interspersed within non-catalytic protein scaffolds1. The versatile protein assembly mechanism conferred by the bacterial cohesin-dockerin interaction is now a standard design principle for synthetic protein-scale pathways2,3. For decades, analogous structures have been reported in the early branching anaerobic fungi, which are known to assemble by sequence divergent non-catalytic dockerin domains (NCDD)4. However, the enzyme components, modular assembly mechanism, and functional role of fungal cellulosomes remain unknown5,6. Here, we describe the comprehensive set of proteins critical to fungal cellulosome assembly, including novel, conserved scaffolding proteins unique to the Neocallimastigomycota. High quality genomes of the anaerobic fungi Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallimastix californiae and Piromyces finnis were assembled with long-read, single molecule technology to overcome their repeat-richness and extremely low GC content. Genomic analysis coupled with proteomic validation revealed an average 320 NCDD-containing proteins per fungal strain that were overwhelmingly carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), with 95 large fungal scaffoldins identified across 4 genera that contain a conserved amino acid sequence repeat that binds to NCDDs. Fungal dockerin and scaffoldin domains have no similarity to their bacterial counterparts, yet several catalytic domains originated via horizontal gene transfer with gut bacteria. Though many catalytic domains are shared with bacteria, the biocatalytic activity of anaerobic fungi is expanded by the inclusion of GH3, GH6, and GH45 enzymes in the enzyme complexes. Collectively, these findings suggest that the fungal cellulosome is an evolutionarily

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics and respiratory deposition of fungal fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Chul; Schmechel, Detlef; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Reponen, Tiina

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of fungal fragments and to estimate their respiratory deposition. Fragments and spores of three different fungal species ( Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium melinii, and Stachybotrys chartarum) were aerosolized by the fungal spore source strength tester (FSSST). An electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) measured the size distribution in real-time and collected the aerosolized fungal particles simultaneously onto 12 impactor stages in the size range of 0.3-10 μm utilizing water-soluble ZEF-X10 coating of the impaction stages to prevent spore bounce. For S. chartarum, the average concentration of released fungal fragments was 380 particles cm -3, which was about 514 times higher than that of spores. A. versicolor was found to release comparable amount of spores and fragments. Microscopic analysis confirmed that S. chartarum and A. versicolor did not show any significant spore bounce, whereas the size distribution of P. melinii fragments was masked by spore bounce. Respiratory deposition was calculated using a computer-based model, LUDEP 2.07, for an adult male and a 3-month-old infant utilizing the database on the concentration and size distribution of S. chartarum and A. versicolor aerosols measured by the ELPI. Total deposition fractions for fragments and spores were 27-46% and 84-95%, respectively, showing slightly higher values in an infant than in an adult. For S. chartarum, fragments demonstrated 230-250 fold higher respiratory deposition than spores, while the number of deposited fragments and spores of A. versicolor were comparable. It was revealed that the deposition ratio (the number of deposited fragments divided by that of deposited spores) in the lower airways for an infant was 4-5 times higher than that for an adult. As fungal fragments have been shown to contain mycotoxins and antigens, further exposure assessment should include the measurement of fungal fragments for

  10. Fungal-Fungal Interactions in Leaf-Cutting Ant Agriculture

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    Sunshine A. Van Bael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many organisms participate in symbiotic relationships with other organisms, yet studies of symbioses typically have focused on the reciprocal costs and benefits within a particular host-symbiont pair. Recent studies indicate that many ecological interactions involve alliances of symbionts acting together as mutualistic consortia against other consortia. Such interacting consortia are likely to be widespread in nature, even if the interactions often occur in a cryptic fashion. Little theory and empirical data exist concerning how these complex interactions shape ecological outcomes in nature. Here, we review recent work on fungal-fungal interactions between two consortia: (i leaf-cutting ants and their symbiotic fungi (the latter grown as a food crop by the former and (ii tropical plants and their foliar endophytes (the cryptic symbiotic fungi within leaves of the former. Plant characteristics (e.g., secondary compounds or leaf physical properties of leaves are involved in leaf-cutting ant preferences, and a synthesis of published information suggests that these plant traits could be modified by fungal presence. We discuss potential mechanisms for how fungal-fungal interactions proceed in the leaf-cutting ant agriculture and suggest themes for future research.

  11. Diagnosis of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornbusch, H J; Groll, A; Walsh, T J

    2010-09-01

    Early recognition and rapid initiation of effective treatment is a prerequisite for successful management of children with invasive fungal infections. The increasing diversity of fungal pathogens in high-risk patients, the differences in the antifungal spectra of available agents and the increasing rates of resistance call for identification of the infecting isolate at the species level and for information on drug resistance, in order to provide state-of-the-art patient care. Microscopy and culture of appropriate specimens remain the reference standard for mycological diagnosis, despite difficulties in obtaining appropriate and/or sufficient specimens, long durations of culture and false-negative results. Modern imaging studies and detection of circulating fungal cell wall components and DNA in blood and other body fluids or in affected tissues may improve the laboratory diagnosis of invasive mycoses.

  12. Heterologous production of fungal secondary metabolites in Aspergilli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    Fungal natural products comprise a wide range of compounds. Some are medically attractive as drugs and drug leads, some are used as food additives, while others are harmful mycotoxins. In recent years the genome sequence of several fungi has become available providing genetic information of a large...... number of putative biosynthetic pathways. However, compound discovery is difficult as the genes required for the production of the compounds often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions. Furthermore, the lack of available tools for genetic manipulation of most fungal species hinders...... pathway discovery. Heterologous expression of the biosynthetic pathway in model systems or cell factories facilitates product discovery, elucidation, and production. This review summarizes the recent strategies for heterologous expression of fungal biosynthetic pathways in Aspergilli....

  13. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  14. A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia

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    Fadzillah Mohd-Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27% were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41% cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40% patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34% cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future.

  15. Evolution of the chitin synthase gene family correlates with fungal morphogenesis and adaption to ecological niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ran; Xu, Chuan; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Wang, Shiyi; Fang, Weiguo

    2017-01-01

    The fungal kingdom potentially has the most complex chitin synthase (CHS) gene family, but evolution of the fungal CHS gene family and its diversification to fulfill multiple functions remain to be elucidated. Here, we identified the full complement of CHSs from 231 fungal species. Using the largest dataset to date, we characterized the evolution of the fungal CHS gene family using phylogenetic and domain structure analysis. Gene duplication, domain recombination and accretion are major mechanisms underlying the diversification of the fungal CHS gene family, producing at least 7 CHS classes. Contraction of the CHS gene family is morphology-specific, with significant loss in unicellular fungi, whereas family expansion is lineage-specific with obvious expansion in early-diverging fungi. ClassV and ClassVII CHSs with the same domain structure were produced by the recruitment of domains PF00063 and PF08766 and subsequent duplications. Comparative analysis of their functions in multiple fungal species shows that the emergence of ClassV and ClassVII CHSs is important for the morphogenesis of filamentous fungi, development of pathogenicity in pathogenic fungi, and heat stress tolerance in Pezizomycotina fungi. This work reveals the evolution of the fungal CHS gene family, and its correlation with fungal morphogenesis and adaptation to ecological niches. PMID:28300148

  16. Loss of diversity in wood-inhabiting fungal communities affects decomposition activity in Norway spruce wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValentin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of wood-inhabiting fungal species are now threatened, principally due to a lack of dead wood in intensively managed forests, but the consequences of reduced fungal diversity on ecosystem functioning are not known. Several experiments have shown that primary productivity is negatively affected by a loss of species, but the effects of microbial diversity on decomposition are less studied. We studied the relationship between fungal diversity and the in vitro decomposition rate of slightly, moderately and heavily decayed Picea abies wood with indigenous fungal communities that were diluted to examine the influence of diversity. Respiration rate, wood-degrading hydrolytic enzymes and fungal community structure were assessed during a 16-week incubation. Respiration rate increased between early- and late-decay stages. Reduced fungal diversity was associated with lower respiration rates during intermediate stages of decay, but no effects were detected at later stages. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes varied among decay stages and fungal dilutions. Our results suggest that functioning of highly diverse communities of the late-decay stage were more resistant to the loss of diversity than less diverse communities of early decomposers. This indicates the accumulation of functional redundancy during the succession of the fungal community in decomposing substrates.

  17. Age and gender affect the composition of fungal population of the human gastrointestinal tract

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    Francesco Strati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C, to acidic and oxidative stress and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals’ life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics

  18. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  19. Clinical experiences in fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium

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    Kim SJ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seong-Jae Kim,1,2 Yong-Wun Cho,1 Seong-Wook Seo,1,2 Sun-Joo Kim,2,3 Ji-Myong Yoo1,21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Gyeongsang Institute of Health Science, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, College of Medicine, Jinju, KoreaPurpose: To report the predisposing risk factors, clinical presentation, management, and therapeutic outcomes of fungal keratitis caused by Acremonium.Methods: This is a retrospective study of cases with Acremonium fungal keratitis that presented to our tertiary referral center between January 2006 and August 2012. Patient demographic and clinical details were determined and reported.Results: Five cases of fungal keratitis from Acremonium species were identified in five patients (three males, two females. The mean age of the patients was of 73.4±5.46 years, with a mean follow-up time of 124±72 days. All patients had a history of corneal trauma with vegetable matter. Four cases were unresponsive to initial treatment (0.2% fluconazole, 0.15% amphotericin B and required topical 5% natamycin, and, in two out of five cases, topical 1% voriconazole.Conclusion: The most common risk factors for Acremonium fungal keratitis was ocular trauma. When a corneal lesion is found to be unresponsive to the initial treatment, we should consider adding or substituting topical natamycin or voriconazole for treatment.Keywords: Acremonium, fungal keratitis, natamycin, prognosis, voriconazole

  20. Source strength of fungal spore aerosolization from moldy building material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorny, Rafa L.; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Willeke, Klaus [Cincinnati Univ., Dept. of Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The release of Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides, and Penicillium melinii spores from agar and ceiling tile surfaces was tested under different controlled environmental conditions using a newly designed and constructed aerosolization chamber. This study revealed that all the investigated parameters, such as fungal species, air velocity above the surface, texture of the surface, and vibration of contaminated material, affected the fungal spore release. It was found that typical indoor air currents can release up to 200 spores cm {sup -2} from surface with fungal spores during 30-min experiments. The release of fungal spores from smooth agar surfaces was found to be inadequate for accurately predicting the emission from rough ceiling tile surfaces because the air turbulence increases the spore release from a rough surface. A vibration of a frequency of 1Hz at a power level of 14W resulted in a significant increase in the spore release rate. The release appears to depend on the morphology of the fungal colonies grown on ceiling tile surfaces including the thickness of conidiophores, the length of spore chains, and the shape of spores. The spores were found to be released continuously during each 30-min experiment. However, the release rate was usually highest during the first few minutes of exposure to air currents and mechanical vibration. About 71-88% of the spores released during a 30-min interval became airborne during the first 10min. (Author)

  1. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions.

  2. Uncovering unseen fungal diversity from plant DNA banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Datlof

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the world DNA banks are used as storage repositories for genetic diversity of organisms ranging from plants to insects to mammals. Designed to preserve the genetic information for organisms of interest, these banks also indirectly preserve organisms’ associated microbiomes, including fungi associated with plant tissues. Studies of fungal biodiversity lag far behind those of macroorganisms, such as plants, and estimates of global fungal richness are still widely debated. Utilizing previously collected specimens to study patterns of fungal diversity could significantly increase our understanding of overall patterns of biodiversity from snapshots in time. Here, we investigated the fungi inhabiting the phylloplane among species of the endemic Hawaiian plant genus, Clermontia (Campanulaceae. Utilizing next generation DNA amplicon sequencing, we uncovered approximately 1,780 fungal operational taxonomic units from just 20 DNA bank samples collected throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. Using these historical samples, we tested the macroecological pattern of decreasing community similarity with decreasing geographic proximity. We found a significant distance decay pattern among Clermontia associated fungal communities. This study provides the first insights into elucidating patterns of microbial diversity through the use of DNA bank repository samples.

  3. Cloning, expression and characterization of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain BKM-F-1767

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    Yang Dong-Dong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is among the small group of fungi that can degrade lignin to carbon dioxide while leaving the crystalline cellulose untouched. The efficient lignin oxidation system of this fungus requires cyclic redox reactions involving the reduction of aryl-aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase. However, the biochemical properties of this enzyme have not been extensively studied. These are of most interest for the design of metabolic engineering/synthetic biology strategies in the field of biotechnological applications of this enzyme. Results We report here the cloning of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, its expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical characterization of the encoded GST and His6 tagged protein. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 37°C and at pH 6.4 for the reduction of aryl- and linear aldehydes with NADPH as coenzyme. NADH could also be the electron donor, while having a higher Km (220 μM compared to that of NADPH (39 μM. The purified recombinant enzyme was found to be active in the reduction of more than 20 different aryl- and linear aldehydes showing highest specificity for mono- and dimethoxylated Benzaldehyde at positions 3, 4, 3,4 and 3,5. The enzyme was also capable of oxidizing aryl-alcohols with NADP + at 30°C and an optimum pH of 10.3 but with 15 to 100-fold lower catalytic efficiency than for the reduction reaction. Conclusions In this work, we have characterized the biochemical properties of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show that this enzyme functions in the reductive sense under physiological conditions and that it displays relatively large substrate specificity with highest activity towards the natural compound Veratraldehyde.

  4. Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Diane; Halasz, Annamaria; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

    2004-08-01

    Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2 -), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using [14C]-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 micromol kg(-1)) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 micromol kg(-1)), and RDX (342 micromol kg(-1)) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.

  5. Characterization of lignin and Mn peroxidases from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Long-term objectives are to elucidate the role and mechanism of the various isozymes in lignin biodegradation. Work is described on electrochemical studies on lignin and Mn peroxidases. This study was performed to investigate the structural aspects which confer the lignin and Mn peroxidases with their high reactivity. The experimentally determined redox potential of the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple for the lignin peroxidase isozymes H1, H2, H8 and H10 are very similar, near-130 mV. The redox potential for the Mn peroxidase isozymes H3 and H4 are similar to each other ({minus}88 mV and {minus}95 mV, respectively) and are more positive than the lignin peroxidases. The higher redox potential for the Fe{sup 3+}/Fe{sup 2+} couple is consistent with the heme active site of these fungal peroxidases being more electron deficient. To investigate the accessibility of the heme active site to the substrate which is oxidized [veratryl alcohol and Mn (II)], we investigated whether these substrates had any affect on the redox potential of the heme. The E{sub m7} value for lignin and Mn peroxidases are not affected by their respective substrates, veratryl alcohol and Mn (II). These results suggest that substrates do not directly interact with the ferric heme-iron as axial ligands. This is consistent with the present model for peroxidase catalysis. Suicide inhibitor (1) and nmr studies (2) indicate that the heme-iron of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is not fully accessible to bulky substrates occur at the periphery of the heme.

  6. Phylogenetic structure of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of western hemlock changes with forest age and stand type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, SeaRa; Berbee, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    On Vancouver Island, British Columbia, fertilization with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) following clearcutting increases growth of western hemlock. To explore whether fertilization also resulted in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities that were more or less similar to neighboring unlogged stands, we sampled roots from western hemlock from three replicate plots from each of five different, well-characterized, forest stand types that differed in site type, and in logging and fertilization history. We harvested four samples of 100 ectomycorrhizal root tips from each plot, a total of 60 samples per stand type. From each sample, we analyzed fungal ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and 28S DNA, sequencing 15-29 clones per sample and 60-116 clones per plot. We detected 147 fungal operational taxonomic units among a total of 1435 sequences. Craterellus tubaeformis was frequently present and resulted in a pattern of phylogenetic overdispersion in the fungal communities. Fungal species composition was strongly correlated with foliar nitrogen concentration. However, other site quality factors were also important because the fertilized regenerating hemlock and mature hemlock-amabilis fir forests had similar foliar nitrogen content but little overlap in fungal species. Compared with unfertilized regenerating forests, fungal communities in N + P-fertilized regenerating forests had significantly more species overlap with old growth forests. However, the fungal communities of all regenerating forest were similar to one another and all differed significantly from older forests. By correlating fungal clades with habitats, this research improves understanding of how forest management can contribute to maintaining diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across a landscape.

  7. Plant and fungal diversity in gut microbiota as revealed by molecular and culture investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Gouba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies describing eukaryotic communities in the human gut microbiota have been published. The objective of this study was to investigate comprehensively the repertoire of plant and fungal species in the gut microbiota of an obese patient. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A stool specimen was collected from a 27-year-old Caucasian woman with a body mass index of 48.9 who was living in Marseille, France. Plant and fungal species were identified using a PCR-based method incorporating 25 primer pairs specific for each eukaryotic phylum and universal eukaryotic primers targeting 18S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS and a chloroplast gene. The PCR products amplified using these primers were cloned and sequenced. Three different culture media were used to isolate fungi, and these cultured fungi were further identified by ITS sequencing. A total of 37 eukaryotic species were identified, including a Diatoms (Blastocystis sp. species, 18 plant species from the Streptophyta phylum and 18 fungal species from the Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiocomycota phyla. Cultures yielded 16 fungal species, while PCR-sequencing identified 7 fungal species. Of these 7 species of fungi, 5 were also identified by culture. Twenty-one eukaryotic species were discovered for the first time in human gut microbiota, including 8 fungi (Aspergillus flavipes, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria farinosa, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium dipodomyicola, Penicillium camemberti, Climacocystis sp. and Malassezia restricta. Many fungal species apparently originated from food, as did 11 plant species. However, four plant species (Atractylodes japonica, Fibraurea tinctoria, Angelica anomala, Mitella nuda are used as medicinal plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Investigating the eukaryotic components of gut microbiota may help us to understand their role in human health.

  8. The Fungal Genetics Stock Center: a repository for 50 years of fungal genetics research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K McCluskey; A Wiest; M Plamann

    2010-03-01

    The Fungal Genetics Stock Center (FGSC) was established in 1960 to ensure that important strains used in early genetics research were available to subsequent generations of fungal geneticists. Originally, only mutant strains were held. At present, any organism that has had its genome sequenced is a genetic system and so the FGSC has added many new organisms. The FGSC is well integrated in its core community and, as research came to depend on cloned genes, vectors and gene libraries, the FGSC included these materials. When the community expanded to include plant and human pathogens, the FGSC adopted these systems as well. Wild isolates from around the world have also proven instrumental in answering important questions. The FGSC holds tremendous diversity of the Neurospora species, which form the core of the collection. The growth in the number of strains distributed illustrates the growth in research on fungi. Because of its position near the centre of the fungal genetics effort, the FGSC is also the first to see trends in research directions. One recent example is the 300% jump in requests for strains of Neurospora crassa carrying a mutation that makes them sensitive to high salt concentration. These strains were seldom requested over many years, but became among our most popular resources following the demonstration of their utility in studying fungicide resistance. This exemplifies why materials need to be preserved without regard to their immediate perceived value and reinforces the need for long-term support for preservation of a broad variety of genetic resources.

  9. The Bio-degradation of Atrazine by Chlamydospore of Phanerochaete chrysosporium%黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子降解阿特拉津的探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹; 秦雨; 李慧; 王海磊

    2016-01-01

    阿特拉津(atrazine)是一类普遍存在于环境中且难降解的污染物.本文探究了黄孢原毛平革菌(Phanerochaete chrysosporium)厚垣孢子对阿特拉津降解的最佳条件,包括温度、摇床转速、初始培养基pH及接种量.并在大田土壤盆栽实验中,研究P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子和土壤土著微生物对土壤中阿特拉津的降解情况.结果表明:P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子可以有效去除阿特拉津,在33℃、转速为180 r· min-1、pH值为7.0、接种量是4 g·L-1时,去除效果最好,去除率达90.77%.土壤盆栽实验结果表明:施用P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子28 d后,非灭菌土壤中阿特拉津去除率为97.8%,其中P.chrysosporium的降解贡献最为突出,去除能力为59.3%.而土著土壤微生物的去除率仅为20.7%,表明P.chrysosporium厚垣孢子对AT降解效果明显.

  10. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  11. Fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background With thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (SM) clusters 30–80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this SM wealth. Results Here we describe a novel system-level methodology for unbiased cloning of intact large SM clusters from a single fungal genome for one-step transformation and expression in a model host. All 56 intact SM clusters from Aspergillus terreus were individually captured in self-rep...

  12. Diverse ecological roles within fungal communities in decomposing logs of Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottosson, Elisabet; Kubartová, Ariana; Edman, Mattias; Jönsson, Mari; Lindhe, Anders; Stenlid, Jan; Dahlberg, Anders

    2015-03-01

    Fungal communities in Norway spruce (Picea abies) logs in two forests in Sweden were investigated by 454-sequence analyses and by examining the ecological roles of the detected taxa. We also investigated the relationship between fruit bodies and mycelia in wood and whether community assembly was affected by how the dead wood was formed. Fungal communities were highly variable in terms of phylogenetic composition and ecological roles: 1910 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected; 21% were identified to species level. In total, 58% of the OTUs were ascomycetes and 31% basidiomycetes. Of the 231 337 reads, 38% were ascomycetes and 60% basidiomycetes. Ecological roles were assigned to 35% of the OTUs, accounting for 62% of the reads. Wood-decaying fungi were the most common group; however, other saprotrophic, mycorrhizal, lichenized, parasitic and endophytic fungi were also common. Fungal communities in logs formed by stem breakage were different to those in logs originating from butt breakage or uprooting. DNA of specific species was detected in logs many years after the last recorded fungal fruiting. Combining taxonomic identification with knowledge of ecological roles may provide valuable insights into properties of fungal communities; however, precise ecological information about many fungal species is still lacking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imabayashi, Yumi; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Ieda, Shinsuke; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Tanaka, Akihiko; Maehara, Takashi; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Kubota, Keigo; Yamauchi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Noriko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in oral fungal biodiversity and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, the widespread use of empiric and prophylactic antifungal drugs has caused a shift in fungal biodiversity towards other Candida or yeast species. Recently, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has provided an improvement over conventional culture techniques, allowing rapid comprehensive analysis of oral fungal biodiversity. In this study, we used NGS to examine the oral fungal biodiversity of 27 patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 66 healthy controls. The total number of fungal species in patients with POC and healthy controls was 67 and 86, respectively. The copy number of total PCR products and the proportion of non-C. albicans, especially C. dubliniensis, in patients with POC, were higher than those in healthy controls. The detection patterns in patients with POC were similar to those in controls after antifungal treatment. Interestingly, the number of fungal species and the copy number of total PCR products in healthy controls increased with aging. These results suggest that high fungal biodiversity and aging might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that NGS is a useful technique for investigating oral candida infections.

  14. Identification for medically important yeast-like fungal species by sequence analysis of 18S rRNA gene%18S rRNA基因序列分析在临床常见酵母样真菌鉴定中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿佳靖; 袁梁; 鲁辛辛

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare sequence analysis of the yeast-like fungal isolates with traditional methods and analyze the feasibility of identification of common yeast-like fungal by sequence analysis of gene. Methods 115 yeast-like fungal isolates were collected in the clinical laboratory of Beijing Tongren Hospital. DNA of yeast-like fungal was extracted and then amplified with universal primers of part of 18S rRNA genes followed by sequencing directly. The sequences obtained were submitted to the GenBank (NCBI) to identify the fungi. At the same time, the CHROMagar Candida and Vitek 32 YBC were used to identify the fungi. The identification accuracy with three methods was compared to explore the feasibility of the identification of sequence analysis. Results 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis was compared with traditional method. There were some differences in the identification results of 13 strains. The coincidence rate between CHROMagar Candida and sequence analysis was 89. 2% (91/102) and the coincidence rate between Vitek 32 YBC and sequence analysis was 91.3% (105/115). The positivity rate of species-level identification by CHROMagar Candida , Vitek 32 YBC and the 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis were 88. 7 % ( 102/115 ), 100% ( 115/115 ), 100% ( 115/115 ). Conclusion Identification of medically important yeast-like fungal by sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene is reliability.%目的 应用18S rRNA基因序列分析技术对临床分离的常见酵母样真菌进行种的分类鉴定,且与传统方法比较,分析基因序列分析法鉴定临床常见酵母样真菌的可行性.方法 收集北京同仁医院微生物室菌库酵母样真菌115株,提取的DNA用18S rRNA通用引物进行PCR扩增,扩增产物直接测序,测序结果提交GenBank通过核酸序列比对对微生物种属进行鉴定,同时进行真菌显色培养基鉴定、Vitek 32 YBC鉴定,比较3种不同方法鉴定酵母样真菌的种鉴定准确率,阐明应用基因序列分析法鉴

  15. Fungal Community Associated with Dactylopius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Dactylopiidae) and Its Role in Uric Acid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Ponce de León, Arturo; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    We studied fungal species associated with the carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and other non-domesticated Dactylopius species using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Thirty seven fungi were isolated in various culture media from insect males and females from different developmental stages and Dactylopius species. 26S rRNA genes and ITS sequences, from cultured fungal isolates revealed different species of Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Debaryomyces, Trametes, and Penicillium, which are genera newly associated with Dactylopius. Uric acid (UA) and uricase activity were detected in tissues extracts from different insect developmental stages. However, accumulation of high UA levels and low uricase activities were found only after antifungal treatments, suggesting an important role of fungal species in its metabolism. Additionally, uricolytic fungal isolates were identified and characterized that presumably are involved in nitrogen recycling metabolism. After metagenomic analyses from D. coc