WorldWideScience

Sample records for fungal secretory laca

  1. Quantitative Y2H screening: cloning and signal peptide engineering of a fungal secretory LacA gene and its application to yeast two-hybrid system as a quantitative reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takuma; Ojima, Teruyo; Sugimoto, Kanoko; Nakano, Hideo; Kawarasaki, Yasuaki

    2010-04-15

    A quantitative protein/peptide screening system amenable to high-throughput screening has been developed by furnishing conventional yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system with an engineered fungal secretory beta-galactosidase gene (designated LacA3). We describe the molecular cloning and signal peptide-optimization of the original fungal LacA gene of which extracellular expression was initially toxic to the host cell. The engineered LacA, LacA3, showed less toxicity, resulting in improved cultural properties of the host. The release of the enzyme to the medium was constant to the cell density under a certain induction condition and independent of the growth phase. The released enzyme kept the wild type properties, was highly glycosylated, stable in a wide pH range and high temperature, and had an acidic pH optimum. In the Y2H system with the novel reporter in combination with the conventional Y2H reporters, the yeast colonies are visibly stained in blue, white or red in the growth context, according to the interaction intensity. The clones with the more stable interactions are easily found as colonies with the larger blue halos, due to the increased extracellular LacA3 expression. A quantitative, high-throughput Y2H screening of cDNA library based on the novel reporter was demonstrated. An application of the novel Y2H system to directed evolution of a peptide fragment was also exemplified. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Widespread Occurrence of Expressed Fungal Secretory Peroxidases in Forest Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J.; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R.; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g....

  3. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek J; Barbi, Florian; Kapturska, Danuta; Krüger, Dirk; Zak, Donald R; Marmeisse, Roland; Vandenbol, Micheline; Hofrichter, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin) and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase), dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase). Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp.), which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  4. Widespread occurrence of expressed fungal secretory peroxidases in forest soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Kellner

    Full Text Available Fungal secretory peroxidases mediate fundamental ecological functions in the conversion and degradation of plant biomass. Many of these enzymes have strong oxidizing activities towards aromatic compounds and are involved in the degradation of plant cell wall (lignin and humus. They comprise three major groups: class II peroxidases (including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, versatile peroxidase and generic peroxidase, dye-decolorizing peroxidases, and heme-thiolate peroxidases (e.g. unspecific/aromatic peroxygenase, chloroperoxidase. Here, we have repeatedly observed a widespread expression of all major peroxidase groups in leaf and needle litter across a range of forest ecosystems (e.g. Fagus, Picea, Acer, Quercus, and Populus spp., which are widespread in Europe and North America. Manganese peroxidases and unspecific peroxygenases were found expressed in all nine investigated forest sites, and dye-decolorizing peroxidases were observed in five of the nine sites, thereby indicating biological significance of these enzymes for fungal physiology and ecosystem processes. Transcripts of selected secretory peroxidase genes were also analyzed in pure cultures of several litter-decomposing species and other fungi. Using this information, we were able to match, in environmental litter samples, two manganese peroxidase sequences to Mycena galopus and Mycena epipterygia and one unspecific peroxygenase transcript to Mycena galopus, suggesting an important role of this litter- and coarse woody debris-dwelling genus in the disintegration and transformation of litter aromatics and organic matter formation.

  5. Machine Learning of Protein Interactions in Fungal Secretory Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kludas, Jana; Arvas, Mikko; Castillo, Sandra; Pakula, Tiina; Oja, Merja; Brouard, Céline; Jäntti, Jussi; Penttilä, Merja; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we apply machine learning methods for predicting protein interactions in fungal secretion pathways. We assume an inter-species transfer setting, where training data is obtained from a single species and the objective is to predict protein interactions in other, related species. In our methodology, we combine several state of the art machine learning approaches, namely, multiple kernel learning (MKL), pairwise kernels and kernelized structured output prediction in the supervised graph inference framework. For MKL, we apply recently proposed centered kernel alignment and p-norm path following approaches to integrate several feature sets describing the proteins, demonstrating improved performance. For graph inference, we apply input-output kernel regression (IOKR) in supervised and semi-supervised modes as well as output kernel trees (OK3). In our experiments simulating increasing genetic distance, Input-Output Kernel Regression proved to be the most robust prediction approach. We also show that the MKL approaches improve the predictions compared to uniform combination of the kernels. We evaluate the methods on the task of predicting protein-protein-interactions in the secretion pathways in fungi, S.cerevisiae, baker's yeast, being the source, T. reesei being the target of the inter-species transfer learning. We identify completely novel candidate secretion proteins conserved in filamentous fungi. These proteins could contribute to their unique secretion capabilities.

  6. Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of the beta-galactosidase-encoding gene (lacA) from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Takashi; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Kumagai, Chieko; Takahashi, Kohjiro; Gomi, Katsuya; Tamura, Gakuzo

    2002-06-01

    lacA coding for beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) was cloned from the genomic DNA of Aspergillus oryzae RIB40. There were 9 exons in lacA and the coding region of 3,015 bp encoded a protein of 1,005 aa with a deduced molecular mass of 109,898. A. oryzae lacA was highly homologous to fungal beta-gals, with the highest aa identity of 70.7% to A. niger lacA, and also showed significant identity to acid beta-gals belonging to family 35 glycosyl hydrolases. Approximately 10 copies of lacA under control of A. oryzae glaA promoter were integrated into the chromosome of A. oryzae M-2-3. The recombinant strain expressed more than 700-fold of the beta-gal activity as compared to the wild type strain under induction by maltose.

  7. High abundance of Serine/Threonine-rich regions predicted to be hyper-O-glycosylated in the secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Mario

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background O-glycosylation of secretory proteins has been found to be an important factor in fungal biology and virulence. It consists in the addition of short glycosidic chains to Ser or Thr residues in the protein backbone via O-glycosidic bonds. Secretory proteins in fungi frequently display Ser/Thr rich regions that could be sites of extensive O-glycosylation. We have analyzed in silico the complete sets of putatively secretory proteins coded by eight fungal genomes (Botrytis cinerea, Magnaporthe grisea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Ustilago maydis, Aspergillus nidulans, Neurospora crassa, Trichoderma reesei, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in search of Ser/Thr-rich regions as well as regions predicted to be highly O-glycosylated by NetOGlyc (http://www.cbs.dtu.dk. Results By comparison with experimental data, NetOGlyc was found to overestimate the number of O-glycosylation sites in fungi by a factor of 1.5, but to be quite reliable in the prediction of highly O-glycosylated regions. About half of secretory proteins have at least one Ser/Thr-rich region, with a Ser/Thr content of at least 40% over an average length of 40 amino acids. Most secretory proteins in filamentous fungi were predicted to be O-glycosylated, sometimes in dozens or even hundreds of sites. Residues predicted to be O-glycosylated have a tendency to be grouped together forming hyper-O-glycosylated regions of varying length. Conclusions About one fourth of secretory fungal proteins were predicted to have at least one hyper-O-glycosylated region, which consists of 45 amino acids on average and displays at least one O-glycosylated Ser or Thr every four residues. These putative highly O-glycosylated regions can be found anywhere along the proteins but have a slight tendency to be at either one of the two ends.

  8. Enhanced resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to vanillin by expression of lacA from Trametes sp. AH28-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lei; Shen, Yu; Xu, Lili; Peng, Bingyin; Xiao, Yazhong; Bao, Xiaoming

    2011-09-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is affected by the presence of certain phenolic compounds such as vanillin during fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Since vanillin can be polymerized in the presence of laccase into compounds with lower toxicity, the laccase gene, lacA, from Trametes sp. AH28-2 was fused to the α-factor signal sequence and transferred into S. cerevisiae CEN.PK strains for secretory expression. Furthermore, the chaperone gene, KAR2, was overexpressed to promote the translocation of laccase. In the presence of 8 mmol/L vanillin, a shorter lag phase was observed in the lacA gene expressing strains. The vanillin-specific conversion rate of the lacA-expressing strain BSJX0A2 was 0.069 g g(-1)biomass h(-1), while it was 0.065 g g(-1)biomass h(-1) in the reference strain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Realizations of AF-algebras as graph algebras, Exel-Laca algebras, and ultragraph algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Katsura, Takeshi; Sims, Aidan; Tomforde, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We give various necessary and sufficient conditions for an AF-algebra to be isomorphic to a graph C*-algebra, an Exel-Laca algebra, and an ultragraph C*-algebra. We also explore consequences of these results. In particular, we show that all stable AF-algebras are both graph C*-algebras and Exel-Laca algebras, and that all simple AF-algebras are either graph C*-algebras or Exel-Laca algebras. In addition, we obtain a characterization of AF-algebras that are isomorphic to the C*-algebra of a ro...

  10. DNA sequence of the lactose operon: the lacA gene and the transcriptional termination region.

    OpenAIRE

    Hediger, M A; Johnson, D F; Nierlich, D P; Zabin, I

    1985-01-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli spans approximately 5300 base pairs and includes the lacZ, lacY, and lacA genes in addition to the operator, promoter, and transcription termination regions. We report here the sequence of the lacA gene and the region distal to it, confirming the sequence of thiogalactoside transacetylase and completing the sequence of the lac operon. The lacA gene is characterized by use of rare codons, suggesting an origin from a plasmid, transposon, or virus gene. UUG is ...

  11. [Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus gene cluster containing the alpha- and beta-galactosidases genes melA and lacA, and properties of recombinant lacA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, I Iu; Lunina, N A; Berezina, O V; Velikodvorskaia, G A; Zverlov, V V

    2005-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 4936 bp Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus genomic DNA fragment containing the thermostable beta-galactosidase gene lacA and two incomplete open reading frames has been determined. The product of the first frame is highly homologous to alpha-galactosidases (melibiases), the product of the third frame is homologous to the alpha-D-mannosidases. The terminal area of the lacA, immediately following the stop-codon, harbors presumably a transcription termination site. Based on the location of the putative alpha-galactosidase gene melA and of the beta-galactosidase gene lacA on the T. ethanolicus chromosome, their combined transcription could be presumed. The calculated molecular mass of LacA is 86 kDa. LacA belongs to GH family 2 (GH2). Maximal activity of the purified recombinant enzyme was observed between pH values of 5.7 and 6.0 and temperatures of 75-80 degrees C. The highest activity, 480 units mg(-1), was found on lactose (Km 30 mM), the activities on pNPhGal and oNPhGal amounting to 330 and 420 units mg(-1), respectively. Immobilization on aldehyde silochrome increases the thermostability of the enzyme and keeps its high activity.

  12. DNA sequence of the lactose operon: the lacA gene and the transcriptional termination region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hediger, M A; Johnson, D F; Nierlich, D P; Zabin, I

    1985-10-01

    The lac operon of Escherichia coli spans approximately 5300 base pairs and includes the lacZ, lacY, and lacA genes in addition to the operator, promoter, and transcription termination regions. We report here the sequence of the lacA gene and the region distal to it, confirming the sequence of thiogalactoside transacetylase and completing the sequence of the lac operon. The lacA gene is characterized by use of rare codons, suggesting an origin from a plasmid, transposon, or virus gene. UUG is the translation initiation codon. A preliminary examination of 3' end of the lac messenger in the region distal to the lacA gene indicates several endpoints. A predominant one is located at the 3' end of a G + C-rich hairpin structure, which may be involved in termination of transcription or in post-transcriptional processing. An open reading frame of 702 base pairs is present on the complementary strand downstream from lacA.

  13. The synthesis and characterisation of LaCa2Fe2GaO8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kun; Hayward, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of LaCa2Fe2GaO8 is described. Neutron powder diffraction data reveal LaCa2Fe2GaO8 adopts an anion-vacancy ordered, 'triple layer' structure consisting of an OOTLOOTR stacking sequence of layers of (Fe/Ga)O6 octahedra (O) and (Fe/Ga)O4 tetrahedra (T), related to that of the 4-layer brownmillerite structures (a=5.4784(1) Å, b=22.6780(4) Å, c=5.6007(1) Å, space group Pbma). The apex-linked chains of tetrahedra within structure of LaCa2Fe2GaO8 exhibit a cooperative twisting distortion which alternates in direction between adjacent layers of tetrahedra, the first time such an arrangement has been seen in a triple-layer phase. Magnetisation and neutron diffraction data reveal that LaCa2Fe2GaO8 exhibits two magnetic ordering transitions. On cooling below 550 K the phase adopts a state with short range antiferromagnetic coupling within each double layer of (Fe/Ga)O6 octahedra, but only weak coupling between layers. On cooling below 470 K full three-dimensional, G-type antiferromagnetic order is observed.

  14. Isolation and characterization of the lacA gene encoding beta-galactosidase in Bacillus subtilis and a regulator gene, lacR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, R A; Haiech, J; Denizot, F; Errington, J

    1997-09-01

    We have isolated transposon insertions in the lacA gene encoding an endogenous beta-galactosidase of Bacillus subtilis. Upstream of the putative operon containing lacA is a negative regulator, lacR, which encodes a product related to a family of regulators that includes the lactose repressor, lacI, of Escherichia coli. New strains with insertions in the lacA gene should be of use in studies using lacZ fusions in B. subtilis.

  15. Isolation and characterization of the lacA gene encoding beta-galactosidase in Bacillus subtilis and a regulator gene, lacR.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, R A; Haiech, J; Denizot, F; Errington, J

    1997-01-01

    We have isolated transposon insertions in the lacA gene encoding an endogenous beta-galactosidase of Bacillus subtilis. Upstream of the putative operon containing lacA is a negative regulator, lacR, which encodes a product related to a family of regulators that includes the lactose repressor, lacI, of Escherichia coli. New strains with insertions in the lacA gene should be of use in studies using lacZ fusions in B. subtilis.

  16. The effect of the proline analogue l-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (LACA) on epidermal and dermal wound repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, O M; Mertz, P M; Eaglstein, W H

    1982-02-01

    To evaluate epidermal-dermal interdependency during the wound-healing process, the proline analogue L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (LACA) was topically applied to split-thickness skin wounds in young domestic pigs. LACA is incorporated into collagen and the collagen containing this analogue is extruded from the cell at a decreased rate. Wounds were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control (no treatment), LACA (0.2 mg in 0.1ml of water), and placebo (0.1 ml of water). On days 2 through 10 after wounding, several wounds from each treatment group were excised and the epidermis was separated from the dermis. The epidermal sheet containing the wound was evaluated for integrity and the underlying dermis was assayed for hydroxyproline. LACA was found to decrease both the rate of reepithelialization and the hydroxyproline levels. LACA did not seem to directly affect the epidermis, since epidermal collagen did not differ markedly. These results suggest that during wound healing, the migrating epithelium is partially dependent on the underlying connective tissue.

  17. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Todd M; Parekh, Vishwas

    2016-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that shares the same histologic appearance and ETV6 gene (12p13) rearrangement as secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to its recognition, MASC cases were commonly labeled acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. Despite distinctive histologic features, MASC may be difficult to distinguish from other salivary gland tumors, in particular zymogen-poor acinic cell carcinoma and low-grade salivary duct carcinoma. Although characteristic morphologic and immunohistochemical features form the basis of a diagnosis of MASC, the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion is confirmatory. Given its recent recognition the true prognostic import of MASC is not yet clearly defined.

  18. Growth and spectroscopic properties of Er 3+/Yb 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Hu, Zushu; Lin, Zhoubin; Wang, Guofu

    2003-02-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Er 3+/Yb 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3. The Er 3+/Yb 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 crystal with diameter 30 mm and length 40 mm was obtained using the Czochralski method. The absorption and emission spectra of Er 3+/Yb 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 crystal have been investigated. The strong absorption band with absorption coefficient 13 cm -1 at 900-1050 nm was observed in Er 0.05/Yb 0.5:Ca 4La 0.45O(BO 3) 3 crystal. The emission band in 1510-1580 was observed, and its fluorescence lifetime is about 1.22 ms at 300 K.

  19. Fungal Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Fungal Keratitis Sections What is Fungal Keratitis? Fungal Keratitis Causes ... Keratitis Symptoms Fungal Keratitis Treatment What is Fungal Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Fúngica? ...

  20. Electromagnetic properties of LaCa3Fe5Oi2 in the microwave range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golenkina, V. V.; Ghyngazov, S. A.; Suslyaev, V. I.; Korovin, E. Yu; Kuleshov, G. E.; Kaykenov, D. A.; Mustafin, E. S.; Mylnikova, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    The X-ray diffraction analysis of the LaCa3Fe5O12 ferrite (lanthanum ferrite) prepared through high-temperature synthesis via ceramic technology was performed. It was found that ferrites belong to tetragonal system. The electromagnetic response from a flat layer of the composite based on this material under electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range of 0.01-18 GHz was investigated. It is shown that the developed material effectively interacts with electromagnetic radiation. The interaction effectiveness is directly proportional to ferrite concentration. Increased concentration of ferrite leads to growth of the reflection coefficient due to high conductivity of the material and visible decrease in the transmission coefficient in the frequency range of 4-14 GHz.

  1. [Fungal sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, H

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of fungal sinusitis is subjected to significant geographical variation. Basically, invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis is distinguished. Invasive fungal sinusitis is observed mainly in immunocompromised hosts. The diagnopsis is based on positive fungus detection combined with characteristic clinical features. The treatment of invasive fungal sinusitis is based on surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy. Non-invasive fungal sinusitis is either treated with surgery alone or surgery combined with systemic steroid therapy. The majority of studies showed no benefit of postoperative antimycotic medical treatment in patients with non-invasive fungal sinusitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  3. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  4. lac operon induction in Escherichia coli: Systematic comparison of IPTG and TMG induction and influence of the transacetylase LacA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Anja; Bettenbrock, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Most commonly used expression systems in bacteria are based on the Escherichia coli lac promoter. Furthermore, lac operon elements are used today in systems and synthetic biology. In the majority of the cases the gratuitous inducers IPTG or TMG are used. Here we report a systematic comparison of lac promoter induction by TMG and IPTG which focuses on the aspects inducer uptake, population heterogeneity and a potential influence of the transacetylase, LacA. We provide induction curves in E. coli LJ110 and in isogenic lacY and lacA mutant strains and we show that both inducers are substrates of the lactose permease at low inducer concentrations but can also enter cells independently of lactose permease if present at higher concentrations. Using a gfp reporter strain we compared TMG and IPTG induction at single cell level and showed that bimodal induction with IPTG occurred at approximately ten-fold lower concentrations than with TMG. Furthermore, we observed that lac operon induction is influenced by the transacetylase, LacA. By comparing two Plac-gfp reporter strains with and without a lacA deletion we could show that in the lacA(+) strain the fluorescence level decreased after few hours while the fluorescence further increased in the lacA(-) strain. The results indicate that through the activity of LacA the IPTG concentration can be reduced below an inducing threshold concentration-an influence that should be considered if low inducer amounts are used. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth and characterization of a LaCa4O(BO3)3 crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Jiang, H. D.; Wang, J. Y.; Hu, X. B.; Yu, G. W.; Yu, W. T.; Gao, L.; Liu, J. A.; Zhang, S. J.; Jiang, M. H.

    The non-linear optical (NLO) crystal LaCa4 O(BO3)3 (LaCOB ) has been grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray diffraction experiments show that LaCOB crystal possesses the space group Cm, and its unit cell constants have been measured to be a=0.8168(3) nm,b=1.6081(7) nm and c=0.3630(6) nm, with an angle β=101.39°. The thermal properties of LaCOB have been studied; the specific heat of the crystal is 321.9 J/molK at 330 K, and the three principal coefficients of thermal expansion of the principal axes have been calculated from the measured data to be 5.61×10-6 K-1, 7.21×10-6 K-1 and 11.01×10-6 K-1, respectively. The transmission spectrum shows that LaCOB crystal has a wide transparency wavelength range, and may be used as a NLO crystal.

  6. Optical and thermal properties of nonlinear optical crystal LaCa4O( BO3) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaidong; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Keqin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Jiyang

    2003-05-01

    The nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal LaCa4O( BO3) 3 (LaCOB), with a large size and a good optical quality, has been grown from the melt by the Czochralski pulling method. The structure of LaCOB belongs to the monoclinic system with space group Cm, the unit cell constants are a=0.8168(3), b=1.6081(7), c=0.3630(6) nm, and β=101.38(9)°. The crystal possesses a wide transmission range from UV to IR, which is advantageous for applications as a NLO material. The orientation relationship between the crystallographic axes and the optical indicatrix axes was determined and the refractive indices were measured. The specific heat of the crystal is 308.3 J/mol K at 300 K. The three principal coefficients of thermal expansion are 5.61×10 -6, 7.21×10 -6, and 11.01×10 -6 K-1, respectively.

  7. Nonlinear optical properties of LaCa(4)O(BO(3))(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J J; Ebbers, C A; Schaffers, K I; Payne, S A

    2001-02-15

    We have grown LaCa(4)O (BO(3))(3) (LaCOB), an isostructural member of GdCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (GdCOB) family and characterized its nonlinear optical properties. At 1064nm, d(eff) of 0.52+/-0.05 pm /V and an angular sensitivity of 1224+/-184(cm rad)(-1) for type I frequency doubling in LaCOB were determined relative to those of KTiOPO(4) , beta-BaB(2)O(4) , KD(2)PO(4) , LiB(3)O(5) , YCa(4)O(BO(3))(3) (YCOB), and GdCOB. The d(alphabetabeta) and d(gammabetabeta) coefficients of the nonlinear optical tensor for LaCOB, GdCOB, and YCOB were determined to be equivalent within the experimental uncertainty and have values of ?0.26+/-0.04?pm/V and ?1.69+/-0.17?pm /V , respectively. From phase-matching angle measurements at 1064 and 1047nm, we predict that LaCOB is noncritically phase matched at 1042+/-1.5 nm .

  8. Growth and thermal properties of LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaidong; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huaijin; Hu, Xiaobo; Liu, Hong

    2003-07-01

    A nonlinear optical crystal of LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 (LaCOB) of large size and good optical quality has been grown by the Czochralski method. X-ray diffraction experiments show that the crystal has the same structure as that of YCa 4O(BO 3) 3 and its unit cell constants have been measured to be a=0.8168(3) nm, b=1.6081(7) nm, and c=0.3630(6) nm with an angle β=101.39°. The thermal properties of LaCOB have to our knowledge been studied for the first time. The specific heat of the crystal has been measured to be 308.3 J/mol K at 300 K. The three principal coefficients of thermal expansion of the crystal and the orientation of the principal axes have been calculated from the measured data to be 5.61×10 -6, 7.21×10 -6, 11.01×10 -6 K -1 and 4.4°, respectively.

  9. [The microbiology of secretory otitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacosta, J L; Infante, J C; Undabeitia, E; Gastañares, M J

    1995-01-01

    The AA. realize a comparative study on the differences between the nasopharyngeal microbial flora of 50 children suffering a secretory otitis and other 40 children without middle ear disease. In nasopharyngeal cultures the pathogenic flora (Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus beta hemoliticus group A, Staphilococcus aureus) amounted for 96 percent in children with secretory otitis, which figure was reduced to 80 percent in healthy infants (p < 0.05). Haemophilus influenzae was the most identified microorganism in a both nasopharyngeal and otic flora. We have found a significative association (p < 0.001) among nasopharyngeal and otic flora of each individual.

  10. Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Guofu

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports the growth and spectral properties of Nd 3+:LaCa 4O(BO 3) 3. Large crystals of Nd 3+:Ca 4LaO(BO 3) 3 with dimension φ30×40 mm 2 and few cleave were grown by the Czochralski method. The absorption cross section σa is 1.32×10 -19 cm 2 at 812 nm. The absorption transition at 812 nm has an FWHM of 21 nm, the radiative lifetime is 65.5 μs and the emission cross section at 1060 nm wavelength is 1.48×10 -19 cm 2.

  11. Taller de elaboración de pieles de laca en la enseñanza de Sedimentología

    OpenAIRE

    Morales González, Juan Antonio; Borrego Flores, José

    2012-01-01

    El presente trabajo presenta el proceso técnico para la elaboración de una piel de laca sobre un perfil de sedimento en el medio natural o en testigos en caja. Estas pieles de laca son reproducciones fieles del original y fáciles de transportar y conservar y en ellas se resalta la estructura interna de tal forma que ésta se visualiza mejor que en el propio perfil sedimentario. El análisis de los perfiles obtenidos mediante la aplicación de esta técnica ofrece una posibilidad de...

  12. Fungal keratitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-01-01

    What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis? Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast...

  13. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus Anticoagulant Testing Luteinizing ... at http://www.thoracic.org/education/breathing-in-america/resources/chapter-9-fungal-lung-disease.pdf. Accessed ...

  14. Fungal Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... September 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  15. Synthesis and Structure of a New Quinary Sulfide Halide: LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitzendanner, Robert L.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    1996-04-24

    A new quinary rare earth sulfide-halide compound has been synthesized and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3) crystallizes in the noncentrosymmetric hexagonal space group -P6(3)mc (No. 186) with Z = 2, a = 9.731(1) Å, and c = 6.337(1) Å. Lanthanum and calcium are mixed on a pseudo-trigonal prismatic site, coordinated to three sulfur atoms on one triangular face and three chlorine atoms on the other. Isolated, slightly distorted tetrahedra of GeS(4) are oriented with a tetrahedral 3-fold axis aligned along the crystallographic 3-fold rotation axis. Preliminary optical studies indicate that this material has a useful optical window extending approximately from 0.5 to 10 &mgr;m. Nonlinear optical activity of LaCa(2)GeS(4)Cl(3) is demonstrated by the generation of green light when pumped with a 1.064 &mgr;m Nd:YAG laser.

  16. Fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal S Tuli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sonal S TuliUniversity of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA  Clinical question: What is the most appropriate management of fungal keratitis?Results: Traditionally, topical Natamycin is the most commonly used medication for filamentous fungi while Amphotericin B is most commonly used for yeast. Voriconazole is rapidly becoming the drug of choice for all fungal keratitis because of its wide spectrum of coverage and increased penetration into the cornea.Implementation: Repeated debridement of the ulcer is recommended for the penetration of topical medications. While small, peripheral ulcers may be treated in the community, larger or central ulcers, especially if associated with signs suggestive of anterior chamber penetration should be referred to a tertiary center. Prolonged therapy for approximately four weeks is usually necessary.Keywords: fungal keratitis, keratomycosis, antifungal medications, debridement

  17. The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa2Fe3-xMxO8 (M=Al, Ga, In)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, D. J.; Henderson, L. S. F.; Trevena, S.; Hudspeth, J. M.; Avdeev, M.; Hester, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    LaCa2Fe3O8 (A3B3O8) is an example of a layered structure in that it consists of pairs of octahedral, perovskite-like layers alternating with a single tetrahedral layer. This work explores the doping of non-magnetic group 13 elements, M=Al, Ga and In, onto the B-site of LaCa2Fe3-xMxO8 as a function of x. The structural and magnetic effects are examined using a combination of neutron and X-ray diffraction. Solubility limits are established. It is found that for M=Ga the solubility limit occurs between x=1.0 and x=1.25, for the synthesis conditions used, while there is evidence for low (xLaCa2Fe2GaO8 has been examined using neutron diffraction at 3.2 K and room temperature. At low temperature the staggered moment per Fe3+ is 3.8(1)μB in LaCa2Fe3O8 and 4.8(1)μB in LaCa2Fe2GaO8. The magnetic space group (P2b21‧ma‧) and moment direction (along c) does not appear to change with Ga substitution.

  18. La laca japonesa de exportación en España. Del estilo Namban al pictórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawamura, Yayoi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies styles and techniques of three cabinets of Japanese lacquer of the 16th and 17th centuries.

    Se estudias los estilos y técnicas de tres escritorios de laca japonesa de los siglos XVI y XVII.

  19. Fungal Morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaorong; Alspaugh, J. Andrew; Liu, Haoping; Harris, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Morphogenesis in fungi is often induced by extracellular factors and executed by fungal genetic factors. Cell surface changes and alterations of the microenvironment often accompany morphogenetic changes in fungi. In this review, we will first discuss the general traits of yeast and hyphal morphotypes and how morphogenesis affects development and adaptation by fungi to their native niches, including host niches. Then we will focus on the molecular machinery responsible for the two most fundamental growth forms, yeast and hyphae. Last, we will describe how fungi incorporate exogenous environmental and host signals together with genetic factors to determine their morphotype and how morphogenesis, in turn, shapes the fungal microenvironment. PMID:25367976

  20. The behavior of photoinduced charge delocalization in bilayer manganite LaCa 2Mn 2O 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J. M.; Yuan, G. Y.; Song, W. H.; Sun, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    The properties of electrical and magnetic transport in bilayer perovskite manganite LaCa 2Mn 2O 7, were investigated by the measurements of resistivity and magnetization. A distinct increasing in resistivity at low temperatures, which is in good agreement with an obvious decreasing in magnetization at the corresponding temperature region was observed. It was suggested that the sample undergoes a transition from ferromagnetic metallic to charge localization state caused by the antiferromagnetic charge ordering (CO). The behavior of photoinduced charge delocalization was observed under irradiation of He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) at the low temperatures. It can be explained in terms of the effect of photoinduced charge transfer from O-2p to Mn 4+-3d e g orbital state resulting in the partial melting of CO state.

  1. Growth and Characterization of Lanthanum Calcium Oxoborate LaCa4O(BO3)3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroaki; Sako, Hideki; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kaoru; Nishida, Masahiro; Nakao, Hiroshi; Nishida, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro; Shikida, Takashi; Shiosaki, Tadashi

    2003-09-01

    Lanthanum calcium oxoborate LaCa4O(BO3)3 (LaCOB) bulk single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. The crystals have almost constant transmittances between 320 and 2500 nm. The relationship between the growth habit and crystallographic abc - rectangular XYZ axes was clarified. Some dielectric and piezoelectric constants as well as elastic compliance constants of the LaCOB crystals were evaluated. The surface acoustic wave (SAW) and pseudo-SAW (PSAW) parameters of the LaCOB crystals were also measured. For the SAW, the largest electromechanical coupling coefficient of approximately 0.26% and a velocity of 3550 m/s were obtained for the YX orientation. For the PSAW, these parameters were approximately 0.6% and 4000 m/s for the ZY orientation.

  2. Muscle as a secretory organ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent...... evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists...... of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many...

  3. [Inducing synthesis of LacA from Trametes sp. AH28-2 and cloning & analysis of 5'-terminal sequence of transcription control of the gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yu-Zhi; Xiao, Ya-Zhong; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Shu-Xiang; Cha, Xiang-Dong; Li, Jian-Feng; Zhou, Hong-Min

    2005-07-01

    Copper ion was necessary for the transcription of all laccase isozyme genes from Trametes sp. AH28-2, with higher concentrations of Cu2+ (1-2 mmol/L) being more favorable to the synthesis of laccase. In the glucose media containing 0.5 mmol/L Cu2+, the laccase activity of the supernate was rather low (44.3 u/L) and had an increase of 60.3% (71.0 u/L) when 4.0 mmol/L o-toluidine was added. Moreover, the activity reached up to 2584 u/L as the glucose was replaced by cellobiose. And Native-PAGE showed that LacA was the main laccase component if fungus was induced by o-toluidine or copper ions. It had been demonstrated by quantitative RT-PCR that the regulation of lacA expression, induced by o-toluidine, occurred at the transcriptional level, with the accumulation of mRNA transcripts being accompanied by the increase of laccase activity of the culture fluid. In addition, the structural gene of lacA interrupted by 10 introns was 2110 bp in length and the corresponding cDNA sequence was 1560 bp encoding a 520 aa protein, which had high similarities with other laccases from basidiomycetes. Furthermore, a length of 1881 bp of 5'-terminal sequence of transcription control of lacA, amplified by the improved inverse PCR, contained a TATA box, seven CAAT boxes as well as a number of putative cis-acting elements important for its expression, including five MREs, nine CreA-binding sites, four XREs, two STREs and seven nitrogen factor binding sites. The existence of these elements was well in agreement with the data obtained from Trametes sp. AH28-2 shaken-flask cultures.

  4. Terahertz spectroscopy in pulsed laser deposited LaCa 0.7Mn 0.3O 3/MgO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, F.; Chen, J.; Dou, S. X.; Zhang, X. C.

    2008-03-01

    The electrical and magnetic properties of perovskite structures have great scientific interest. In this report we present a spectroscopy study of LaCa 0.7Mn 0.3O 3/MgO thin film to determine its optical properties. Terahertz time-domain measurements were performed to obtain THz transmission and emission spectra. The LaCa 0.7Mn 0.3O 3/MgO thin film used in this work was grow on single crystal substrate MgO (100) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique and the transport measurement has shown that the thin is a colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) material. The insulator to metal transition temperature, T IM is about 150K according to the temperature dependence of the resistivity measurement. On the THz transmission measurement, the spectra of the MgO and the thin film were taken in both air and N II to determine the effect of water absorption. In the emission measurement, the femto-second laser is incident on either the LaCa 0.7Mn 0.3O 3/MgO thin film or on the InAs wafer. The emitted THz signals in both cases were obtained and compared.

  5. Porosome: The Universal Secretory Portal in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Bhanu

    2012-10-01

    In the past 50 years it was believed that during cell secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles completely merge at the cell plasma membrane resulting in the diffusion of intra-vesicular contents to the cell exterior and the compensatory retrieval of the excess membrane by endocytosis. This explanation made no sense or logic, since following cell secretion partially empty vesicles accumulate as demonstrated in electron micrographs. Furthermore, with the ``all or none'' mechanism of cell secretion by complete merger of secretory vesicle membrane at the cell plasma membrane, the cell is left with little regulation and control of the amount of content release. Moreover, it makes no sense for mammalian cells to possess such `all or none' mechanism of cell secretion, when even single-cell organisms have developed specialized and sophisticated secretory machinery, such as the secretion apparatus of Toxoplasma gondii, the contractile vacuoles in paramecium, or the various types of secretory structures in bacteria. Therefore, in 1993 in a News and Views article in Nature, E. Neher wrote ``It seems terribly wasteful that, during the release of hormones and neurotransmitters from a cell, the membrane of a vesicle should merge with the plasma membrane to be retrieved for recycling only seconds or minutes later.'' This conundrum in the molecular mechanism of cell secretion was finally resolved in 1997 following discovery of the ``Porosome,'' the universal secretory machinery in cells. Porosomes are supramolecular lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where membrane-bound secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release inravesicular contents to the outside during cell secretion. In the past decade, the composition of the porosome, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, and its functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have all been elucidated. Since porosomes in exocrine and neuroendocrine cells measure 100-180 nm

  6. Cellular responses to the expression of unstable secretory proteins in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Jun-Ichi; Shiro, Daisuke; Tanaka, Mizuki; Onozaki, Yasumichi; Mizutani, Osamu; Kakizono, Dararat; Ichinose, Sakurako; Shintani, Tomoko; Gomi, Katsuya; Shintani, Takahiro

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are often used as cell factories for recombinant protein production because of their ability to secrete large quantities of hydrolytic enzymes. However, even using strong transcriptional promoters, yields of nonfungal proteins are generally much lower than those of fungal proteins. Recent analyses revealed that expression of certain nonfungal secretory proteins induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), suggesting that they are recognized as proteins with folding defects in filamentous fungi. More recently, however, even highly expressed endogenous secretory proteins were found to evoke the UPR. These findings raise the question of whether the unfolded or misfolded state of proteins is selectively recognized by quality control mechanisms in filamentous fungi. In this study, a fungal secretory protein (1,2-α-D-mannosidase; MsdS) with a mutation that decreases its thermostability was expressed at different levels in Aspergillus oryzae. We found that, at moderate expression levels, wild-type MsdS was secreted to the medium, while the mutant was not. In the strain with a deletion for the hrdA gene, which is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, mutant MsdS had specifically increased levels in the intracellular fraction but was not secreted. When overexpressed, the mutant protein was secreted to the medium to a similar extent as the wild-type protein; however, the mutant underwent hyperglycosylation and induced the UPR. Deletion of α-amylase (the most abundant secretory protein in A. oryzae) alleviated the UPR induction by mutant MsdS overexpression. These findings suggest that misfolded MsdS and unfolded species of α-amylase might act synergistically for UPR induction.

  7. Use of the L-proline analog, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (LACA) to analyse embryonic growth and determination and expression of the chondrogenic phenotype in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B K

    1978-02-01

    The L-proline analog, L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, (LACA) was injected into embryonated eggs of the common fowl, Gallus domesticus at daily doses of 350 microgram/egg on one or several days betweeh 8 and 12 days of incubation. Treatment at nine-days of incubation preferentially retarded embryonic growth to the twelfth day but recovery of growth rate occurred by 15 days of incubation. Relationships between growth and LACA-inhibited aspects of collagenogenesis are discussed. The earliest aged embryos from which isolated stem cells from membrane bones will form secondary cartilage is ten days of incubation. Secondary chondrogenesis on the quadratojugal, a membrane bone of the skull, was inhibited by treatment of whole embryos with LACA at nine days of incubation but not by treatment at eight days. We concluded that an event involving collagen began at nine days of incubation, was blocked by LACA and was part of the process of chondrogenic determination of these stem cells. Addition of LACA to the medium in which already determined stem cells from the quadratojugal were cultured prevented expression of the chondrogenic phenotype. This proline analog is then a useful probe for events relating both to determination and to expression of the differentiated state, and allows conclusions to be drawn regarding the role of collagenogenesis in these events.

  8. The structure and specificity of Escherichia coli maltose acetyltransferase give new insight into the LacA family of acyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Leggio, Leila; Dal Degan, Florence; Poulsen, Peter; Andersen, Søren Møller; Larsen, Sine

    2003-05-13

    The crystallographic three-dimensional structure of the Escherichia coli maa gene product, previously identified as a maltose O-acetyltransferase (MAT) [Brand, B., and Boos, W. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 14113-14118] has been determined to 2.15 A resolution by the single anomalous dispersion method using data from a crystal cocrystallized with trimethyllead acetate. It is shown here that MAT acetylates glucose exclusively at the C6 position and maltose at the C6 position of the nonreducing end glucosyl moiety. Furthermore, MAT shows higher affinity toward artificial substrates containing an alkyl or hydrophobic chain as well as a glucosyl unit. The presence of a long hydrophobic patch near the acceptor site provides the structural explanation for this preference. The three-dimensional structure reveals the expected trimeric left-handed parallel beta-helix structure found in all other known hexapeptide repeat enzymes. In particular, the structure shows similarities both overall and at the putative active site to the recently determined structure of galactoside acetyltransferase (GAT), the lacA gene product [Wang, X.-G., Olsen, L. R., and Roderick, S. L. (2002) Structure 10, 581-588]. The structure, together with the new biochemical data, suggests that GAT and MAT are more closely related than previously thought and might have similar cellular functions. However, while GAT is specific for acetylation of galactosyl units, MAT is specific for glucosyl units and is able to acetylate maltooligosaccharides, an important property for biotechnological applications. Structural differences at the acceptor site reflect the differences in substrate specificity.

  9. The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa2Fe3O8 and NdCa2Fe3O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, J M; Goossens, D J; Studer, A J; Withers, R L; Norén, L

    2009-03-01

    The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa2Fe3O8 and NdCa2Fe3O8 have been established using a combination of x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction. It was already considered likely that LaCa2Fe3O8 and NdCa2Fe3O8 were made up of stacked perovskite-like layers of FeO6 octahedra, with every third layer being replaced by a layer of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe, rather like a variation on the Brownmillerite (Ca2Fe2O5) structure type. We have gone further and determined a likely space group for this Grenier phase and determined the magnetic structure of the compounds at room temperature. The space group is found to be P 21ma (b axis as the long axis), and the crystal structure has been refined, subject to the stacking faulting along the long axis that is apparent in electron diffraction patterns. The magnetic structure of LaCa2Fe3O8 is shown to consist of antiferromagnetically ordered Fe3+ ions on a collinear G-type antiferromagnetic structure, with the magnetic moments most likely (anti)parallel with the c axis, and of magnitude 3.4 ± 0.2μB (3.6 ± 0.2μB for NdCa2Fe3O8). The result is reasonable given the magnetic structures of the end members of the La1-xCaxFeO3 series, LaFeO3 (x = 0) and Ca2Fe2O5 (x = 1).

  10. The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) and NdCa(2)Fe(3)O(8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, J M; Goossens, D J; Studer, A J; Withers, R L; Norén, L

    2009-03-25

    The crystal and magnetic structures of LaCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) and NdCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) have been established using a combination of x-ray, neutron and electron diffraction. It was already considered likely that LaCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) and NdCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) were made up of stacked perovskite-like layers of FeO(6) octahedra, with every third layer being replaced by a layer of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe, rather like a variation on the Brownmillerite (Ca(2)Fe(2)O(5)) structure type. We have gone further and determined a likely space group for this Grenier phase and determined the magnetic structure of the compounds at room temperature. The space group is found to be P 2(1)ma (b axis as the long axis), and the crystal structure has been refined, subject to the stacking faulting along the long axis that is apparent in electron diffraction patterns. The magnetic structure of LaCa(2)Fe(3)O(8) is shown to consist of antiferromagnetically ordered Fe(3+) ions on a collinear G-type antiferromagnetic structure, with the magnetic moments most likely (anti)parallel with the c axis, and of magnitude 3.4 ± 0.2μ(B) (3.6 ± 0.2μ(B) for NdCa(2)Fe(3)O(8)). The result is reasonable given the magnetic structures of the end members of the La(1-x)Ca(x)FeO(3) series, LaFeO(3) (x = 0) and Ca(2)Fe(2)O(5) (x = 1).

  11. Characterization and treatment of persistent hepatocellular secretory failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Remco; Kremer, Andreas E.; Smit, Wouter; van den Elzen, Bram; van Gulik, Thomas; Gouma, Dirk; Lameris, Johan S.; Bikker, Hennie; Enemuo, Valentine; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Feist, Mark; Bosma, Piter; Jansen, Peter L. M.; Beuers, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular secretory failure induced by drugs, toxins or transient biliary obstruction may sometimes persist for months after removal of the initiating factor and may then be fatal without liver transplantation. We characterized patients with severe persistent hepatocellular secretory failure

  12. Synaptic Control of Secretory Trafficking in Dendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Hanus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Localized signaling in neuronal dendrites requires tight spatial control of membrane composition. Upon initial synthesis, nascent secretory cargo in dendrites exits the endoplasmic reticulum (ER from local zones of ER complexity that are spatially coupled to post-ER compartments. Although newly synthesized membrane proteins can be processed locally, the mechanisms that control the spatial range of secretory cargo transport in dendritic segments are unknown. Here, we monitored the dynamics of nascent membrane proteins in dendritic post-ER compartments under regimes of low or increased neuronal activity. In response to activity blockade, post-ER carriers are highly mobile and are transported over long distances. Conversely, increasing synaptic activity dramatically restricts the spatial scale of post-ER trafficking along dendrites. This activity-induced confinement of secretory cargo requires site-specific phosphorylation of the kinesin motor KIF17 by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK. Thus, the length scales of early secretory trafficking in dendrites are tuned by activity-dependent regulation of microtubule-dependent transport.

  13. Psychological distress and salivary secretory immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engeland, C.G.; Hugo, F.N.; Hilgert, J.B.; Nascimento, G.G.; Junges, R.; Lim, H.-J.; Marucha, P.T.; Bosch, J.A.

    Stress-induced impairments of mucosal immunity may increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The present study investigated the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and loneliness with salivary levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), the subclasses S-IgA1, S-IgA2, and

  14. Predicting Secretory Proteins with SignalP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    SignalP is the currently most widely used program for prediction of signal peptides from amino acid sequences. Proteins with signal peptides are targeted to the secretory pathway, but are not necessarily secreted. After a brief introduction to the biology of signal peptides and the history...

  15. Enzymes and fungal virulence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    may be common across a variety of fungal pathogens. Most fungal pathogens and ... Fungi utilize the food substances in their immediate vicinity to .... digestion of the fungal secreted enzymes thereby denying access to the host cell. For a pathogen to be successful, it mttst be able to circumvent or overcome these antifungal ...

  16. Improved biomass saccharification by Trichoderma reesei through heterologous expression of lacA gene from Trametes sp. AH28-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiwei; Qu, Yinbo; Xiao, Peng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Tianhong; He, Feng

    2012-06-01

    The Trametes sp. AH28-2 laccase gene lacA fused to cellobiohydrolase I signal peptide coding sequence was heterologously expressed in T. reesei. The lacA cDNA was under the control of the Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. Native PAGE analysis indicated that two transformants, L8 and L38, were able to secrete recombinant laccase A, and their laccase activities corresponding to ABTS oxidation reached 3.62 IUml(-1) and 1.50 IUml(-1) respectively. Most of the characteristics of the recombinant laccase were similar to those of the native enzyme. Reducing sugar yields of L8 and L38 obtained from saccharification of corn residue by crude enzyme increased by 31.3% and 71.6% respectively compared to the host strain. These results indicated that the engineering strains developed in this work could be potentially used for laccase production and tailoring cellulase properties with laccase proteins through genetic manipulation would be a feasible strategy to improve saccharification efficiency of biomass by cellulase preparation. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Docking of secretory vesicles is syntaxin dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi de Wit

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles dock at the plasma membrane before they undergo fusion. Molecular docking mechanisms are poorly defined but believed to be independent of SNARE proteins. Here, we challenged this hypothesis by acute deletion of the target SNARE, syntaxin, in vertebrate neurons and neuroendocrine cells. Deletion resulted in fusion arrest in both systems. No docking defects were observed in synapses, in line with previous observations. However, a drastic reduction in morphologically docked secretory vesicles was observed in chromaffin cells. Syntaxin-deficient chromaffin cells showed a small reduction in total and plasma membrane staining for the docking factor Munc18-1, which appears insufficient to explain the drastic reduction in docking. The sub-membrane cortical actin network was unaffected by syntaxin deletion. These observations expose a docking role for syntaxin in the neuroendocrine system. Additional layers of regulation may have evolved to make syntaxin redundant for docking in highly specialized systems like synaptic active zones.

  18. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma Mimicking Salivary Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid g...

  19. Interactions between Melanin Enzymes and Their Atypical Recruitment to the Secretory Pathway by Palmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Srijana; Xu, Xinping; Lin, Xiaorong

    2016-11-22

    Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered "atypical" secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS) Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) in A. fumigatus Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism. Subcellular compartmentalization is increasingly recognized as an important aspect of fungal secondary metabolism. It facilitates sequential enzymatic reactions, provides

  20. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xi; Peng, Jianxin [College of Life Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei (China); Xu, Pingyong, E-mail: pyxu@ibp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Huan, Shuangyan, E-mail: shuangyanhuan@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Mingshu, E-mail: mingshu1984@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  1. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  2. Fungal pulmonary complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S F; Sarosi, G A

    1996-12-01

    With AIDS has come a new level of T-cell immunosuppression, beyond that previously seen. The impact of the HIV pandemic on the field of fungal infections includes a major increase in the number of serious fungal infections, an increase in the severity of those infections, and even some entirely new manifestations of fungal illness. In this article fungal pulmonary complications of AIDS are discussed. T-cell opportunists including Cryptococcus neoformans and the endemic mycoses are the most important pathogens. Phagocyte opportunists, including Aspergillus species and agents of mucormycosis, are less important.

  3. Excretory/secretory products of anisakid nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    as intermediate or transport hosts and mammals or birds as final hosts. Human consumption of raw or underprocessed seafood containing third stage larvae of anisakid parasites may elicit a gastrointestinal disease (anisakidosis) and allergic responses. Excretory and secretory (ES) compounds produced...... a therapeutic potential in immune-related diseases....... by the parasites are assumed to be key players in clinical manifestation of the disease in humans, but the molecules are likely to play a general biological role in invertebrates and lower vertebrates as well. ES products have several functions during infection, e.g. penetration of host tissues and evasion of host...

  4. ATP: The crucial component of secretory vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez-Herrera, Judith; Domínguez, Natalia; Pardo, Marta R; González-Santana, Ayoze; Westhead, Edward W; Borges, Ricardo; Machado, José David

    2016-07-12

    The colligative properties of ATP and catecholamines demonstrated in vitro are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary accumulation of solutes inside chromaffin cell secretory vesicles, although this has yet to be demonstrated in living cells. Because functional cells cannot be deprived of ATP, we have knocked down the expression of the vesicular nucleotide carrier, the VNUT, to show that a reduction in vesicular ATP is accompanied by a drastic fall in the quantal release of catecholamines. This phenomenon is particularly evident in newly synthesized vesicles, which we show are the first to be released. Surprisingly, we find that inhibiting VNUT expression also reduces the frequency of exocytosis, whereas the overexpression of VNUT drastically increases the quantal size of exocytotic events. To our knowledge, our data provide the first demonstration that ATP, in addition to serving as an energy source and purinergic transmitter, is an essential element in the concentration of catecholamines in secretory vesicles. In this way, cells can use ATP to accumulate neurotransmitters and other secreted substances at high concentrations, supporting quantal transmission.

  5. Secretory proteins in the saliva of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Thiruvanamalai; Hand, Arthur R; Mednieks, Maija

    2009-12-01

    The protein composition of oral fluid is modulated by environmental factors and physiological states, i.e. chemical, mechanical and pharmacologic stimuli, pathologic conditions, and psychological stress. Secretory protein concentrations in samples of whole saliva (WS) from children were measured and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Protein expression was determined using electrophoresis and Western blotting. Protein profiles of children were significantly different from those of adults (n = 50, P saliva from children contained a group of high-molecular-weight (>90 kDa) proteins, whereas fewer than 5% of samples from adults had comparable bands. The ratio of the regulatory subunits (RII) of type II protein kinase A (an enzyme that regulates secretion) to total protein was stable in children's saliva, but variable in saliva from adults. Alpha amylase (alpha-amylase), an enzyme that digests carbohydrates, was less degraded in WS of children than in that of adults. Gingival crevicular fluid of both children and adults did not contain alpha-amylase or RII. No significant gender-based differences were found, but Caucasian children had higher salivary protein levels than children with an African background. Saliva collection is rapid, painless, non-invasive, economical, and yields findings that are reproducible. Objective, biochemical monitoring of secretory proteins in oral fluid of children may reveal responses to stressful stimuli.

  6. Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    nocturnal Indian catfish, ultrastructural indications for the presence of secretory activity in the pinealocytes of the pineal parenchyma were reported and two morpho- logical cell types: light and dark cells representing diffe- rent phases of the secretory process were demonstrated. (Srivastava 1999). The aim of the present ...

  7. Ameloblast transcriptome changes from secretory to maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, James P; Richardson, Amelia S; Wang, Shih-Kai; Reid, Bryan M; Bai, Yongsheng; Hu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Jan C-C

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major molecular components in the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis through transcriptome analyses. Ameloblasts (40 sections per age group) were laser micro-dissected from Day 5 (secretory stage) and Days 11-12 (maturation stage) first molars. PolyA+ RNA was isolated from the lysed cells, converted to cDNA, and amplified to generate a cDNA library. DNA sequences were obtained using next generation sequencing and analyzed to identify genes whose expression had increased or decreased at least 1.5-fold in maturation stage relative to secretory stage ameloblasts. Among the 9198 genes that surpassed the quality threshold, 373 showed higher expression in secretory stage, while 614 genes increased in maturation stage ameloblasts. The results were cross-checked against a previously published transcriptome generated from tissues overlying secretory and maturation stage mouse incisor enamel and 34 increasing and 26 decreasing expressers common to the two studies were identified. Expression of F2r, which encodes protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) that showed 10-fold higher expression during the secretory stage in our transcriptome analysis, was characterized in mouse incisors by immunohistochemistry. PAR1 was detected in secretory, but not maturation stage ameloblasts. We conclude that transcriptome analyses are a good starting point for identifying genes/proteins that are critical for proper dental enamel formation and that PAR1 is specifically expressed by secretory stage ameloblasts.

  8. Influence of continuous light and darkness on the secretory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... but not secretory active and dark cells showed a necrotic condition. Phagocytotic activity of the dark cells was also seen. Intense neural activity was also observed during exposure to both the artificial photoperiods. The results highlight the role of light on the secretory activities of the pinealocytes of the catfish pineal organ.

  9. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.......This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease....

  10. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  11. Fungal DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are ubiquitous in both natural and human-made environments. They play important roles in the health of plants, animals, and humans, and in broad ecosystem functions. Thus, having an efficient species-level identification system could significantly enhance our ability to treat fungal diseases and to monitor the spatial and temporal patterns of fungal distributions and migrations. DNA barcoding is a potent approach for rapid identification of fungal specimens, generating novel species hypothesis, and guiding biodiversity and ecological studies. In this mini-review, I briefly summarize (i) the history of DNA sequence-based fungal identification; (ii) the emergence of the ITS region as the consensus primary fungal barcode; (iii) the use of the ITS barcodes to address a variety of issues on fungal diversity from local to global scales, including generating a large number of species hypothesis; and (iv) the problems with the ITS barcode region and the approaches to overcome these problems. Similar to DNA barcoding research on plants and animals, significant progress has been achieved over the last few years in terms of both the questions being addressed and the foundations being laid for future research endeavors. However, significant challenges remain. I suggest three broad areas of research to enhance the usefulness of fungal DNA barcoding to meet the current and future challenges: (i) develop a common set of primers and technologies that allow the amplification and sequencing of all fungi at both the primary and secondary barcode loci; (ii) compile a centralized reference database that includes all recognized fungal species as well as species hypothesis, and allows regular updates from the research community; and (iii) establish a consensus set of new species recognition criteria based on barcode DNA sequences that can be applied across the fungal kingdom.

  12. Secretory Structure, Histochemistry and Phytochemistry Analyses of Stimulant Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umah, C.; Dorly; Sulistyaningsih, Y. C.

    2017-03-01

    Plants that are used as stimulant supposed to contains various metabolit compounds that are produced or secreted by secretory structures. This study aimed to identify the secretory structure of plant used as stimulant and chemical compounds accumulated in it. The secretory structure and its histochemistry were observed on plant material that are used as herbal ingredient. Phytochemical content was analyzed by using a qualitative test. The result showed that the idioblast cells and secretory cavities were found in the leaves of Decaspermum fruticosum, and Polyalthia rumphii. Most idioblast cells contained lipophilic substances and terpenoids or alkaloids, while secretory cavity contained alkaloid. Phytochemical analysis for D. fruticosum, and P. rumphii contain terpenoids, phenols, steroids, and flavonoids

  13. Electroimmunodiffusion Studies of alpha Chain, Secretory Piece and Secretory IgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    V of proteins in biological flui ds collected in wt amounts~ ‘thus eliminating the need for stimulation of secretions and sample concentration...useful for determining levels of iminunoglobulins in unconcentrated saliva . The main immuno- glc ulin in saliva and other external secretions is...throughout this study (Behring Diagnostics , Somerville, N.J.). According to the manufacturer antiserum to free secretory piece was produced by immunization

  14. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  15. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  16. Who Gets Fungal Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  17. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  18. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... December 6, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  19. High efficiency angular non-critical phase matching for Ti:sapphire laser realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. Q.; Yu, F. P.; Qi, H. W.; Han, S.; Zhang, F.; Wang, Z. P.; Yu, X. Q.; Zhao, X.; Xu, X. G.

    2014-09-01

    Angular non-critical phase-matching (A-NCPM) second harmonic generation (SHG) for a Ti:sapphire laser was realized on LaCa4O(BO3)3 (LaCOB) single crystals, grown by the Czochralski pulling method. Properties including the wavelength, bandwidth, effective nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficient (deff), and acceptance angle were evaluated. At ambient temperature of 20 °C, the type-I NCPM (808 nm wavelength) was obtained along the y axis of LaCOB crystals, where the effective nonlinear optical coefficient (deff), PM waveband, and angular acceptance were found to be of the order of 0.59 pm/V, 803~818 nm and 50.6 mrad cm1/2 (ΔϕL), respectively. Moreover, high single-pass SHG conversion efficiency (44.6%) was achieved for 24.8 mm long Y-cut samples at 808 nm, using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire fundamental laser.

  20. Evaluation of Material Constants and Temperature Properties in Lanthanum Calcium Oxoborate LaCa4O(BO3)3 Single Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Kaoru; Takeda, Hiroaki; Nishida, Takashi; Shikida, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro; Shiosaki, Tadashi

    2004-09-01

    Lanthanum calcium oxoborate LaCa4O(BO3)3 (LaCOB) single crystals were successfully grown by the Czochralski technique. It was found that LaCOB crystals belong to the monoclinic system (point group m) and the total number of independent material constants that should be determined is 27. Twenty-four of the 27 material constants at room temperature were determined by the resonance-antiresonance method. The normalized first-order temperature coefficients of some constants e.g., {\\varepsilon11}T, {\\varepsilon22}T, {\\varepsilon33}T and {\\varepsilon13}T determined at 10 kHz were 56.30, -273.6, 135.8 and -258.4 and d11 and d12 were -408.3 and 83.60 ppm/°C, respectively. Additionally, the thermal expansion coefficients e.g., α11, α22 and α33 determined on a single crystal cut along the X, Y and Z rectangular directions by the thermodilatometry measurement were 7.36× 10-6, 8.17× 10-6 and 11.4× 10-6/°C, respectively. As a result of the evaluation, most of the material constants and temperature properties necessary for investigating the properties of piezoelectric devices typified by SAW were obtained.

  1. The secretory synapse: the secrets of a serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, Giovanna; Trambas, Christina; Booth, Sarah; Clark, Richard; Stinchcombe, Jane; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2002-11-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) destroy their targets by a process involving secretion of specialized granules. The interactions between CTLs and target can be very brief; nevertheless, adhesion and signaling proteins segregate into an immunological synapse. Secretion occurs in a specialized secretory domain. Use of live and fixed cell microscopy allows this secretory synapse to be visualized both temporally and spatially. The combined use of confocal and electron microscopy has produced some surprising findings, which suggest that the secretory synapse may be important both in delivering the lethal hit and in facilitating membrane transfer from target to CTL. Studies on the secretory synapse in wild-type and mutant CTLs have been used to identify proteins involved in secretion. Further clues as to the signals required for secretion are emerging from comparisons of inhibitory and activating synapses formed by natural killer cells.

  2. Secretory products of helminth parasites as immunomodulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, William

    2014-07-01

    Parasitic helminths release molecules into their environment, which are generally referred to as excretory-secretory products or ES. ES derived from a wide range of nematodes, trematodes and cestodes have been studied during the past 30-40 years, their characterization evolving from simple biochemical procedures such as SDS-PAGE in the early days to sophisticated proteomics in the 21st century. Study has incorporated investigation of ES structure, potential as vaccines, immunodiagnostic utility, functional activities and immunomodulatory properties. Immunomodulation by ES is increasingly the area of most intensive research with a number of defined helminth products extensively analyzed with respect to the nature of their selective effects on cells of the immune system as well as the molecular mechanisms, which underlie these immunomodulatory effects. As a consequence, we are now beginning to learn the identities of the receptors that ES employ and are increasingly acquiring detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways that they interact with and subvert. Such information is contributing to the growing idea that the anti-inflammatory properties of a number of ES products makes them suitable starting points for the development of novel drugs for treating human inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma mimicking salivary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsay; Chiosea, Simion I

    2013-12-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor characterized by ETV6 translocation. It appears that prior studies have identified MASC by reviewing salivary gland carcinomas, such as acinic cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified. To address the possibility of MASC mimicking benign salivary neoplasms we reviewed 12 salivary gland (cyst)adenomas diagnosed prior to the discovery of MASC. One encapsulated (cyst)adenoma of the parotid gland demonstrated features of MASC. The diagnosis was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an ETV6 break-apart probe. An unusual complex pattern of ETV6 rearrangement with duplication of the telomeric/distal ETV6 probe was identified. This case illustrates that MASC may mimic salivary (cyst)adenomas. To more accurately assess true clinical and morphologic spectrum of MASC, future studies may have to include review of salivary (cyst)adenomas. The differential diagnosis of MASC may have to be expanded to include cases resembling salivary (cyst)adenomas.

  4. NON-SECRETORY MYELOMA: READY FOR A NEW DEFINITION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Corso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-secretory myeloma is a myeloma subtype whose diagnosis, until a few years ago, was established by demonstration of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and by negative results on serum and urine electrophoresis and immunofixation studies. However, this type of myeloma could be misdiagnosed if the workup does not include an accurate study of serum free light chain test since some of the patients diagnosed as non-secretory could be light chain only with small amounts monoclonal proteinuria. Due to this limit in classification, all the information available today, generally coming from retrospective studies including patients studied in a complete and incomplete fashion, could be misleading. A new definition is thus needed to distinguish between the true non-secretory, with a possible better prognosis, and the other forms of oligosecretory myeloma with a prognosis more similar to the secretory form of myeloma. With all the data of the literature, the availability of laboratory and radiological tools, times are mature to depict a new definition of non-secretory myeloma which deserves, a peculiar work up and different response evaluation and, maybe, a different therapeutic approach.   Keywords: Non-secretory myeloma; Free light chain; Myeloma subtype.

  5. Superficial Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Pujalte, George G A; Reese, Stephanie T

    2015-12-01

    Superficial fungal infections grow in dark and moist areas and invade various parts of the body. These infections are easily treatable in immunocompetent individuals. In immunosuppressed individuals, the presentation can be quite severe, requiring use of more potent antifungal agents. The treatment for these conditions consists of topical antifungal agents, creams, and oral systemic medications. The use of prednisone can alter the appearance of superficial fungal infections, making them difficult to diagnose. It is important for primary care providers to become adept at understanding the epidemiology, transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis techniques, and treatment options available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... 16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics of North America ...

  7. Cytopathologic features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Justin A; Yonescu, Raluca; Batista, Denise A S; Westra, William H; Ali, Syed Z

    2013-05-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland neoplasm that is defined by ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. To the best of the authors' knowledge, only rare case reports of the cytopathologic features of MASC have been published to date. A wide variety of archival salivary gland tumors were tested for ETV6 translocation by break-apart fluorescent in situ hybridization. Positive cases with preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens or intraoperative touch preparations were retrieved from the archives of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. All smears were reviewed and the cytologic characteristics were described. Five cases of MASC with cytopathologic material (4 FNA specimens and 1 touch preparation) were identified. The cases occurred in 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 21 years to 78 years (mean, 52 years). On the cytologic smears, the MASCs were variably cellular and exhibited 2 different architectural patterns: 1) intact tissue fragments with isomorphic cells arranged in a sheet-like or papillary configuration; and 2) dispersed and dissociated cells with a mostly "histiocyte-like" appearance with large cells containing abundant vacuolated cytoplasm. No matrix tissue or stromal spindled cells were present. The cells did not display acinic differentiation in the form of cytoplasmic zymogen granules. In each case, the preoperative FNA correctly identified a neoplasm, and the most frequent diagnostic considerations were acinic cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and pleomorphic adenoma. MASC is a newly described salivary gland tumor that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of low-grade salivary gland neoplasms. Its cytologic features overlap considerably with those of other tumors, especially acinic cell carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  8. Secretory structure and histochemistry test of some Zingiberaceae plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyani, Serafinah

    2017-11-01

    A secretory structure is a structure that produces a plant's metabolite substances. Secretory structures are grouped into an internal and external. Zingiberaceae plants are known as traditional medicine plants and as spice plants due to secretory structures in their tissues. The objective of the research were to describe the secretory structure of Zingiberaceae plants and to discover the qualitatively primary metabolite substances in plant's tissues via histochemistry test. The research was conducted by observation descriptive design, quantitative data including the density of secretory cells per mm². The quantitative data were analyzed by ANOVA and continued by Duncan at α = 5 %. The results showed that the secretory structures in leaves, rhizome, and the root of 14 species of Zingiberaceae plants are found in the mesophyll of leaves and cortex, and also pith in rhizome and roots. The type of secretory structure is internal. Within the root of Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.(bengle), Curcuma domestica Val. (kunyit), Curcuma zedoaria (Berg.) Roscoe (kunyit putih), Zingiber zerumbet (L.) J.E. Smith (lempuyang), Alpiniapurpurata K. Schum (lengkuas merah), and Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng) were found amylum grains, while in Kaemferia galanga L. (kencur), Boesen bergiapandurata L. (temu kunci), and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (temulawak) there were no amylum grains in the root as well as in the leaves. The roots of bengle had the greatest density of amylum grain, it had 248.1 ± 9.8 secretory cells of amylum grains per mm². Lipids (oil droplets) were found in the root of bengle, Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. emprit (jahe emprit), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Gajah (jahe gajah), Zingiber officinale Roxb. Var. Rubrum (jahe merah), Keampferia angustifolia L. (kunci pepet), kunyit, kunyit putih, lempuyang, lengkua smerah, Curcuma aeruginosa Val. (temu ireng), and Curcuma mangga Val. and van Zijp (temu mangga); the root of lempuyang had the greatest density of oil

  9. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  10. Thai marine fungal diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattaket Choeyklin

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The marine fungal diversity of Thailand was investigated and 116 Ascomycota, 3 Basidiomycota, 28 anamorphic fungi, 7 Stramenopiles recorded, with 30 tentatively identified. These species have primarily been collected from driftwood and attached decayed wood of mangrove trees. The holotype number of 15 taxa is from Thailand and 33 are new records from the country.

  11. Oral fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease.

  12. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  13. Stress modulates intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael eCampos-Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a response of the central nervous system to environmental stimuli perceived as a threat to homeostasis. The stress response triggers the generation of neurotransmitters and hormones from the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic axis and brain gut axis, and in this way modulates the intestinal immune system. The effects of psychological stress on intestinal immunity have been investigated mostly with the restraint/immobilization rodent model, resulting in an up or down modulation of SIgA levels depending on the intensity and time of exposure to stress. SIgA is a protein complex formed by dimeric (dIgA or polymeric IgA (pIgA and the secretory component (SC, a peptide derived from the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR. The latter receptor is a transmembrane protein expressed on the basolateral side of gut epithelial cells, where it uptakes dIgA or pIgA released by plasma cells in the lamina propria. As a result, the IgA-pIgR complex is formed and transported by vesicles to the apical side of epithelial cells. pIgR is then cleaved to release SIgA into the luminal secretions of gut. Down modulation of SIgA associated with stress can have negative repercussions on intestinal function and integrity. This can take the form of increased adhesion of pathogenic agents to the intestinal epithelium and/or an altered balance of inflammation leading to greater intestinal permeability. Most studies on the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stress response have focused on systemic immunity. The present review analyzes the impact of stress (mostly by restraint/immobilization, but also with mention of other models on the generation of SIgA, pIgR and other humoral and cellular components involved in the intestinal immune response. Insights into these mechanisms could lead to better therapies for protecting against pathogenic agents and avoiding epithelial tissue damage by modulating intestinal inflammation.

  14. Role of acidic stores in secretory epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, Julia; Peng, Shuang; Gerasimenko, Oleg

    2014-06-01

    There is growing evidence that intracellular calcium plays a primary role in the pathophysiology of the pancreas in addition to its crucial importance in major physiological functions. Pancreatic acinar cells have a remarkably large amount of Ca(2+) stored in both the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the acidic stores. The vast majority of the classical ER Ca(2+) store is located in the basal part of the acinar cells with extensions protruding into the apical area, however, the acidic stores are exclusively located in the secretory granular area of the cells. Both types of Ca(2+) store respond to all three intracellular Ca(2+) messengers - inositol trisphosphate (InsP3), cyclic-ADP-ribose (cADPR) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). The two stores interact with each other via calcium-induced calcium release; however, they can be separated using pharmacological tools. The ER relies on sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) that can be blocked by the specific inhibitor thapsigargin. The acidic store requires a low pH that can be modified by blocking vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. The acidic store is particularly important for pathological processes in the pancreas. Acute pancreatitis is initiated as a result of calcium overload in the apical pole, which leads to trypsinogen activation; two major causes are gall bladder stones and excessive alcohol consumption. Excessive Ca(2+) release from the acidic stores plays a major role in both scenarios; however NAADP-induced calcium release from acidic stores is particularly important for bile-induced pancreatitis. Cell-permeable calmodulin (CaM) activators such as CALP3 boost the natural protective effect of CaM by inhibiting excessive calcium release from the internal stores through inositol trisphosphate (InsP3R) and ryanodine receptors (RyR). Alternatively calcium overload can be dramatically reduced by inhibiting Ca(2+)-release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) currents that are required to reload the

  15. Unusual fungal niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, S A; Dianese, J C; Fell, J; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Zalar, P

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are found in all aerobic ecosystems, colonizing a diversity of substrates and performing a wide diversity of functions, some of which are not well understood. Many spices of fungi are cosmopolitan and generalists or habitats. Unusual fungal niches are habitats where extreme conditions would be expected to prevent the development of a mycobiota. In this review we describe five unusual fungal habitats in which fungi occupy poorly understood niches: Antarctic dry valleys, high Arctic glaciers, salt flats and salterns, hypersaline microbial mats and plant trichomes. Yeasts, black yeast-like fungi, melanized filamentous species as well as representatives of Aspergillus and Penicillium seem to be dominant among the mycobiota adapted to cold and saline niches. Plant trichomes appear to be a taxa. The advent of new sequencing technologies is helping to elucidate the microbial diversity in many ecosystems, but more studies are needed to document the functional role of fungi in the microbial communities thriving in these unusual environments.

  16. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Correll, Daniel P.; Luzi, Scott A.; Nelson, Brenda L.

    2014-01-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot–Leyden crystal...

  17. The Essential Oil Secretory Structures of Prostanthera ovalifolia (Lamiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERSBACH, P. V.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the essential oil secretory tissues of Prostanthera ovalifolia R.Br was investigated using bright‐ and dark‐field optical microscopy, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The leaves of P. ovalifolia have glandular trichomes of the peltate type common to many Lamiaceae species. The trichomes consist of a basal cell embedded in the epidermis, a stalk cell with heavily cutinized walls and a 16‐celled secretory head, but they differ from those of many previously reported Lamiaceae species in their morphological form defined by the elevated cuticle. The sub‐cuticular space contains a mixture of lipid and aqueous phases. Secretory cells have dense cytoplasm with many leucoplasts present. Volatile terpenoids are eliminated from the cytoplasm into the sub‐cuticular space, the site of essential oil accumulation, via granulocrine secretion. PMID:12096737

  18. Fungal diseases of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanong, Roy P E

    2003-05-01

    Fungal diseases of fish have become increasingly important over the past 20 years. The traditional "fungi" are comprised of members from several different taxonomic kingdoms. Saprolegnia and other typical water molds are the "classic" secondary invaders, infecting more superficial areas of the body and requiring compromise of the exterior of the fish, poor water quality, or general immunosuppression. An increasing number of other environmental fungi are being reported from diseased fish, further testament to the opportunistic nature of many fungi. Common procedures such as air bladder deflation for many marine species collected at depth under nonsterile conditions may result in fungal infections of the swim bladder. Some fungi such as Aphanomyces and Fusarium can cause more invasive or systemic disease, often associated with changes in environmental factors such as temperature and salinity. Other fungi such as I. hoferi can be even more insidious and chronic, mimicking mycobacteriosis to a degree. Fungal diseases, in general, are very difficult to control or treat once they have taken hold. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Increased knowledge of basic biology will help guide treatment and control methods. Further research on general predisposing factors, species susceptibilities, immune system effects and other protective mechanisms in fish and more effective chemotherapeutics for external and systemic infections are needed.

  19. Remodeling of bovine oviductal epithelium by mitosis of secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sayaka; Kobayashi, Yoshihiko; Yamamoto, Yuki; Kimura, Koji; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-11-01

    Two types of oviductal epithelial cells, secretory and ciliated, play crucial roles in the first days after fertilization in mammals. Secretory cells produce various molecules promoting embryo development, while ciliated cells facilitate transport of oocytes and zygotes by ciliary beating. The proportions of the two cell types change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of ciliated cells on the oviductal luminal surface is abundant at the follicular phase, whereas the proportion of secretory cells gradually increases with the formation of the corpus luteum. In the present study, we hypothesize that the proportions of ciliated and secretory epithelial cells are regulated by mitosis. The proportion of the cells being positive for FOXJ1 (a ciliated cell marker) or Ki67 (a mitosis marker) in epithelial cells during the estrous cycle were immunohistochemically examined. Ki67 and FOXJ1 or PAX8 (a secretory cell marker), were double-stained to clarify which types of epithelial cells undergo mitosis. In the ampulla, the percentage of FOXJ1-positive cells was highest at the day of ovulation (Day 0) and decreased by about 50 % by Days 8-12, while in the isthmus it did not change during the estrous cycle. The proportion of Ki67-positive cells was highest at around the time of ovulation in both the ampulla and isthmus. All the Ki67-positive cells were PAX8-positive and FOXJ1-negative in both the ampulla and isthmus. These findings suggest that epithelial remodeling, which is regulated by differentiation and/or proliferation of secretory cells of the oviduct, provides the optimal environment for gamete transport, fertilization and embryonic development.

  20. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B S Jackson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA. To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  1. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Pratt, T L; Van Rooyen, A

    2017-03-29

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare and recently described tumour of the salivary glands. MASC has similar histomorphological and immunohistochemical features of secretory carcinoma of the breast. MASC can be mistaken for other salivary gland tumours, especially acinic cell carcinoma. A 28-year-old man was diagnosed with a rare salivary gland tumour in Pretoria, South Africa (SA). To our knowledge, a report of MASC in SA has not previously been published. The surgeons dealing with salivary gland tumours should be aware of the clinical presentation. Current treatment is similar to that of other salivary gland malignancies.

  2. Matrix-dependent local retention of secretory vesicle cargo in cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.; Toonen, R.F.G.; Verhage, M.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons secrete many diffusible signals from synaptic and other secretory vesicles. We characterized secretion of guidance cues, neuropeptides, neurotrophins, and proteases from single secretory vesicles using pHluorin-tagged cargo in cortical neurons. Stimulation triggered transient and persistent

  3. Medical interventions for fungal keratitis.

    OpenAIRE

    FlorCruz, NV; Evans, JR

    2015-01-01

    Fungal keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea. It is common in lower income countries, particularly in agricultural areas but relatively uncommon in higher income countries. Although there are medications available, their effectiveness is unclear. To assess the effects of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Othe...

  4. Secretory proteins are delivered to the septin-organized penetration interface during root infection by Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Yun-Long

    2017-01-01

    Successful infection of the host requires secretion of effector proteins to evade or suppress plant immunity. Secretion of effectors in root-infecting fungal pathogens, however, remains unexplored. We previously reported that Verticillium dahliae, a root-infecting phytopathogenic fungus, develops a penetration peg from a hyphopodium to infect cotton roots. In this study, we report that a septin ring, requiring VdSep5, partitions the hyphopodium and the invasive hypha and form the specialized fungus-host interface. The mutant strain, VdΔnoxb, in which NADPH oxidase B (VdNoxB) is deleted, impaired formation of the septin ring at the hyphal neck, indicating that NADPH oxidases regulate septin ring organization. Using GFP tagging and live cell imaging, we observed that several signal peptide containing secreted proteins showed ring signal accumulation/secretion at the penetration interface surrounding the hyphal neck. Targeted mutation for VdSep5 reduced the delivery rate of secretory proteins to the penetration interface. Blocking the secretory pathway by disrupting the vesicular trafficking factors, VdSec22 and VdSyn8, or the exocyst subunit, VdExo70, also arrested delivery of the secreted proteins inside the hyphopodium. Reduced virulence was observed when cotton roots were infected with VdΔsep5, VdΔsec22, VdΔsyn8 and VdΔexo70 mutants compared to infection with the isogenic wild-type V592. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the hyphal neck is an important site for protein secretion during plant root infection, and that the multiple secretory routes are involved in the secretion. PMID:28282450

  5. Fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo

    2012-01-01

    Pretreatment is a crucial step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars and biofuels. Compared to thermal/chemical pretreatment, fungal pretreatment reduces the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass by lignin-degrading microorganisms and thus potentially provides an environmentally-friendly and energy-efficient pretreatment technology for biofuel production. This paper provides an overview of the current state of fungal pretreatment by white rot fungi for biofuel production. The specific topics discussed are: 1) enzymes involved in biodegradation during the fungal pretreatment; 2) operating parameters governing performance of the fungal pretreatment; 3) the effect of fungal pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production; 4) efforts for improving enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production through combinations of fungal pretreatment and physical/chemical pretreatment; 5) the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass with lignin-degrading enzymes isolated from fungal pretreatment, with a comparison to fungal pretreatment; 6) modeling, reactor design, and scale-up of solid state fungal pretreatment; and 7) the limitations and future perspective of this technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...... feature of vesicles carrying PM cargo and suggests a common lipid-based mechanism for their formation....

  7. Proteolytic processing in the secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jalving, R.

    2005-01-01

    A number of filamentous fungi are saprophytes and they secrete a wide spectrum of enzymes to degrade their complex substrates. Many secreted proteins enter the secretory pathway as proproteins and need some form of proteolytic processing before they obtain their mature active state. As described in

  8. Secretory phospholipase A(2) in newborn infants with sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, A. J. J.; De Beaufort, A. J.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; Berger, H. M.; Walther, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate secretory phospholipase A(2) ( sPLA(2)) activity in neonatal sepsis. Study Design: Plasma sPLA(2) activity, C- reactive protein ( CRP) concentration, leukocyte count and immature/ total neutrophil ( I/ T) ratio were assessed in a group of 156 infants admitted for neonatal

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: A rare salivary gland tumour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salivary gland malignancy is rare, with a global annual incidence of. 3 per 100 000 people.[1,2] A rare salivary gland tumour, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), has only recently been described.[3] The few reports and studies concerning MASC have been published in several pathology journals. We report ...

  10. Secretory ribonucleases in the primitive ruminant chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breukelman, HJ; Jekel, PA; Dubois, JYF; Mulder, PPMFA; Warmels, HW; Beintema, JJ

    Phylogenetic analyses of secretory ribonucleases or RNases 1 have shown that gene duplication events, giving rise to three paralogous genes (pancreatic, seminal and brain RNase), occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants. A higher number of paralogous sequences are present in chevrotain

  11. Secretory Phospholipase A(2)-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; Van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Pare, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2))-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Background Higher circulating levels of sPLA(2)-IIA mass or sPLA(2) enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not

  12. Aliskiren accumulates in renin secretory granules and binds plasma prorenin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Krop (Manne); I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); R.J.A. de Bruin (René); J.M. van Gool (Jeanette); N.D.L. Fisher (Naomi); N.K. Hollenberg (Norman); A.H.J. Danser (Jan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe vascular effects of aliskiren last longer than expected based on its half life, and this renin inhibitor has been reported to cause a greater renin rise than other renin-angiotensin system blockers. To investigate whether aliskiren accumulation in secretory granules contributes to

  13. Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism in natural ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Male accessory gland secretory protein polymorphism was analysed in natural populations of Drosophila nasuta nasuta and. D. sulfurigaster neonasuta for the first time, using SDS-PAGE to score polymorphism of these proteins in 2788 individuals of D. n. nasuta and 2232 individuals of D. s. neonasuta from 12 different ...

  14. Primary temporal bone secretory meningioma presenting as chronic otitis media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelissen, T.A.; Bondt, R.B.J de; Lammens, M.M.Y.; Manni, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    We report an extremely rare case of a secretory meningioma primarily involving the temporal bone. A 56-year old female patient presented to us with a history of a chronic otitis media and unilateral hearing loss. Diagnostic investigations revealed a tumor arising from the temporal bone without signs

  15. Plant expression of chicken secretory antibodies derived from combinatorial libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieland, W.H.; Lammers, A.; Schots, A.; Orzaéz, D.V.

    2006-01-01

    Delivery of secretory IgA antibodies (sIgA) to mucosal surfaces is a promising strategy to passively prevent infectious diseases. Plants have been proposed as biofactories for such complex immunoglobulin molecules. Recently, the molecular characterization of all four monomers of chicken sIgA (IgA

  16. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Daniel P; Luzi, Scott A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2015-12-01

    A 42 year old male presents with worsening pain and an increase in thick chronic drainage of the left sinus. Image studies show complete opacification of the left frontal sinus, left sphenoid sinus, and the left maxillary sinus. The patient was taken to the operating room and tissue for microscopic evaluation was obtained. The microscopic findings were classic for allergic fungal sinusitis: areas of alternating mucinous material and inflammatory cell debris and abundant Charcot-Leyden crystals. Cultures were performed and the patient began steroid therapy and desensitization therapy.

  17. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  18. Managing acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyhalo, Kristina M; Donald, Carrlene; Mendez, Anthony; Hoxworth, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis is the most aggressive form of fungal sinusitis and can be fatal, especially in patients who are immunosuppressed. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial and potentially lifesaving, so primary care providers must maintain a high index of suspicion for this disease. Patients may need to be admitted to the hospital for IV antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

  19. Serious fungal infections in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, K; Farooqi, J; Mirza, S; Denning, D; Zafar, A

    2017-06-01

    The true burden of fungal infection in Pakistan is unknown. High-risk populations for fungal infections [tuberculosis (TB), diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, cancer, transplant and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection] are numerous. Here, we estimate the burden of fungal infections to highlight their public health significance. Whole and at-risk population estimates were obtained from the WHO (TB), BREATHE study (COPD), UNAIDS (HIV), GLOBOCAN (cancer) and Heartfile (diabetes). Published data from Pakistan reporting fungal infections rates in general and specific populations were reviewed and used when applicable. Estimates were made for the whole population or specific populations at risk, as previously described in the LIFE methodology. Of the 184,500,000 people in Pakistan, an estimated 3,280,549 (1.78%) are affected by a serious fungal infection, omitting all cutaneous infection, oral candidiasis and allergic fungal sinusitis, which we could not estimate. Compared with other countries, the rates of candidaemia (21/100,000) and mucormycosis (14/100,000) are estimated to be very high, and are based on data from India. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis rates are estimated to be high (39/100,000) because of the high TB burden. Invasive aspergillosis was estimated to be around 5.9/100,000. Fungal keratitis is also problematic in Pakistan, with an estimated rate of 44/100,000. Pakistan probably has a high rate of certain life- or sight-threatening fungal infections.

  20. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  1. Angular distribution of cross-sectioned cell boundaries at the distal terminal web in differentiating preameloblasts, inner enamel secretory ameloblasts and outer enamel secretory ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaohong; Nishikawa, Sumio

    2014-02-01

    The cross-sectioned profiles of differentiating preameloblasts, inner enamel secretory ameloblasts and outer enamel secretory ameloblasts at the distal terminal web were quantitatively compared. First, the angles of each line constituting the sectioned cell polygons were measured, and the patterns of angular distribution histograms were compared. Second, all groups of line angles from one differentiating preameloblast population, two inner enamel secretory ameloblast and one outer enamel secretory ameloblast populations at the distal terminal web were compared statistically by the χ(2)-test using the multiple comparison method. The results showed that cell shapes between differentiating preameloblasts and inner enamel secretory ameloblasts were similar, but that those between differentiating preameloblasts and outer enamel secretory ameloblasts and between inner enamel secretory ameloblasts and outer enamel secretory ameloblasts were significantly different. Third, F-actin fluorescence microscopy in the distal terminal web was performed and was consistent with the angular distribution. These results suggest that cell shapes of inner enamel secretory ameloblasts and differentiating preameloblasts at the distal terminal web are specialized for sideways cell movement during decussating tooth enamel formation.

  2. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...... was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands...

  3. Analysis of Membrane Protein Topology in the Plant Secretory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinya; Miao, Yansong; Cai, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Topology of membrane proteins provides important information for the understanding of protein function and intermolecular associations. Integrate membrane proteins are generally transported from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi and downstream compartments in the plant secretory pathway. Here, we describe a simple method to study membrane protein topology along the plant secretory pathway by transiently coexpressing a fluorescent protein (XFP)-tagged membrane protein and an ER export inhibitor protein, ARF1 (T31N), in tobacco BY-2 protoplast. By fractionation, microsome isolation, and trypsin digestion, membrane protein topology could be easily detected by either direct confocal microscopy imaging or western-blot analysis using specific XFP antibodies. A similar strategy in determining membrane protein topology could be widely adopted and applied to protein analysis in a broad range of eukaryotic systems, including yeast cells and mammalian cells.

  4. Form and function in the trypanosomal secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jason S; Bangs, James D

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in secretory biology of African trypanosomes reveal both similarities and striking differences with other model eukaryotic organisms. Secretion is streamlined for rapid and selective transport of the major cargo, VSG. Selectivity in the early and post-Golgi compartments is dependent on glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchors. Streamlining includes reduced organellar abundance, and close association of ER exit sites with Golgi and with unique flagellar cytoskeletal elements that govern organellar replication and segregation. These elements include a novel centrin containing bilobe structure. Innate signals for post-Golgi sorting of biosynthetic lysosomal cargo trafficking have been defined, as have pathways for both biosynthetic and endocytic trafficking to the lysosome. Less well-defined secretory organelles such as the multivesicular body and acidocalcisomes are receiving closer scrutiny. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Unconventional secretion of FABP4 by endosomes and secretory lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julien; Bassaganyas, Laia; Lepreux, Sebastien; Chiritoiu, Marioara; Costet, Pierre; Ripoche, Jean; Malhotra, Vivek; Schekman, Randy

    2017-12-06

    An appreciation of the functional properties of the cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) has advanced with the recent demonstration that an extracellular form secreted by adipocytes regulates a wide range of physiological functions. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that mediate the unconventional secretion of FABP4. Here, we demonstrate that FABP4 secretion is mediated by a membrane-bounded compartment, independent of the conventional endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway. We show that FABP4 secretion is also independent of GRASP proteins, autophagy, and multivesicular bodies but involves enclosure within endosomes and secretory lysosomes. We highlight the physiological significance of this pathway with the demonstration that an increase in plasma levels of FABP4 is inhibited by chloroquine treatment of mice. These findings chart the pathway of FABP4 secretion and provide a potential therapeutic means to control metabolic disorders associated with its dysregulated secretion. © 2018 Villeneuve et al.

  6. Fungal transcriptomics from host samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eAmorim-Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans adaptation to the host requires a profound reprogramming of the fungal transcriptome as compared to in vitro laboratory conditions. A detailed knowledge of the C. albicans transcriptome during the infection process is necessary in order to understand which of the fungal genes are important for host adaptation. Such genes could be thought of as potential targets for antifungal therapy. The acquisition of the C. albicans transcriptome is however technically challenging due to the low proportion of fungal RNA in host tissues. Two emerging technologies were used recently to circumvent this problem. One consists of the detection of low abundance fungal RNA using capture and reporter gene probes which is followed by emission and quantification of resulting fluorescent signals (nanoString. The other is based first on the capture of fungal RNA by short biotinylated oligonucleotide baits covering the C. albicans ORFome permitting fungal RNA purification. Next, the enriched fungal RNA is amplified and subjected RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. Here we detail these two transcriptome approaches and discuss their advantages and limitations and future perspectives in microbial transcriptomics from host material.

  7. Isolation of intact sub-dermal secretory cavities from Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodger Jason QD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biosynthesis of plant natural products in sub-dermal secretory cavities is poorly understood at the molecular level, largely due to the difficulty of physically isolating these structures for study. Our aim was to develop a protocol for isolating live and intact sub-dermal secretory cavities, and to do this, we used leaves from three species of Eucalyptus with cavities that are relatively large and rich in essential oils. Results Leaves were digested using a variety of commercially available enzymes. A pectinase from Aspergillus niger was found to allow isolation of intact cavities after a relatively short incubation (12 h, with no visible artifacts from digestion and no loss of cellular integrity or cavity contents. Several measurements indicated the potential of the isolated cavities for further functional studies. First, the cavities were found to consume oxygen at a rate that is comparable to that estimated from leaf respiratory rates. Second, mRNA was extracted from cavities, and it was used to amplify a cDNA fragment with high similarity to that of a monoterpene synthase. Third, the contents of the cavity lumen were extracted, showing an unexpectedly low abundance of volatile essential oils and a sizeable amount of non-volatile material, which is contrary to the widely accepted role of secretory cavities as predominantly essential oil repositories. Conclusions The protocol described herein is likely to be adaptable to a range of Eucalyptus species with sub-dermal secretory cavities, and should find wide application in studies of the developmental and functional biology of these structures, and the biosynthesis of the plant natural products they contain.

  8. Characterization and treatment of persistent hepatocellular secretory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Remco; Kremer, Andreas E; Smit, Wouter; van den Elzen, Bram; van Gulik, Thomas; Gouma, Dirk; Lameris, Johan S; Bikker, Hennie; Enemuo, Valentine; Stokkers, Pieter C F; Feist, Mark; Bosma, Piter; Jansen, Peter L M; Beuers, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular secretory failure induced by drugs, toxins or transient biliary obstruction may sometimes persist for months after removal of the initiating factor and may then be fatal without liver transplantation. We characterized patients with severe persistent hepatocellular secretory failure (PHSF) and treated them with the pregnane X receptor (PXR) agonist, rifampicin. We also studied the effect of rifampicin on PXR-dependent expression of genes involved in biotransformation and secretion in vitro. Thirteen patients (age 18-81 years, 6 male) with hepatocellular secretory failure that persisted after removal of the inducing factor (drugs/toxin: 9) or biliary obstruction (4) were identified over 6 years. Six of these patients were screened for ATP8B1 or ABCB11 mutations. All were treated with rifampicin (300 mg daily) for 1-10 weeks. Expression of genes involved in biotransformation and secretion was determined by rtPCR in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells incubated with rifampicin (10 μmol/L). Serum bilirubin of patients with PHSF ranged from 264 to 755 μmol/L. Normal γGT was found in 10/13 patients of whom 3/6 tested positive for ATP8B1/ABCB11 mutations. Serum bilirubin declined to hepatocellular secretory failure may develop in carriers of transporter gene mutations. In severe cases, rifampicin may represent an effective therapeutic option of PHSF. PXR-dependent induction of CYP3A4, UGT1A1, MRP2 and OSTβ could contribute to the anticholestatic effect of rifampicin in PHSF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Glutamine on intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A secretion: A mechanistic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wenkai Ren; Kai Wang; jie yin; shuai chen; gang liu; bie tan; Guoyao Wu; Fuller Warren Bazer; Yunayi Peng; Yulong Yin

    2016-01-01

    Secretory IgA (SIgA) is one important line of defense in intestinal mucosal surface to protect the intestinal epithelium from enteric toxins and pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple factors, such as intestinal microbiota, intestinal cytokines and nutrients, are highly involved in intestinal production of SIgA. Recently, glutamine has been shown to affect intestinal SIgA production, however, the underlying mechanism by which glutamine promotes intestinal SIgA secretion remains to know. Here, we...

  10. Souffle/Spastizin Controls Secretory Vesicle Maturation during Zebrafish Oogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Dietmar; Schomburg, Christoph; Cerdà, Joan; Vollack, Nadine; Dosch, Roland

    2014-01-01

    During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf) mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15). We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research. PMID:24967841

  11. Souffle/Spastizin controls secretory vesicle maturation during zebrafish oogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsamy Kanagaraj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During oogenesis, the egg prepares for fertilization and early embryogenesis. As a consequence, vesicle transport is very active during vitellogenesis, and oocytes are an outstanding system to study regulators of membrane trafficking. Here, we combine zebrafish genetics and the oocyte model to identify the molecular lesion underlying the zebrafish souffle (suf mutation. We demonstrate that suf encodes the homolog of the Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP gene SPASTIZIN (SPG15. We show that in zebrafish oocytes suf mutants accumulate Rab11b-positive vesicles, but trafficking of recycling endosomes is not affected. Instead, we detect Suf/Spastizin on cortical granules, which undergo regulated secretion. We demonstrate genetically that Suf is essential for granule maturation into secretion competent dense-core vesicles describing a novel role for Suf in vesicle maturation. Interestingly, in suf mutants immature, secretory precursors accumulate, because they fail to pinch-off Clathrin-coated buds. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the abscission regulator Dynamin leads to an accumulation of immature secretory granules and mimics the suf phenotype. Our results identify a novel regulator of secretory vesicle formation in the zebrafish oocyte. In addition, we describe an uncharacterized cellular mechanism for Suf/Spastizin activity during secretion, which raises the possibility of novel therapeutic avenues for HSP research.

  12. Biochemical analysis of secretory trafficking in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roboti, Peristera; Witkos, Tomasz M; Lowe, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Protein trafficking within the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is amenable to analysis by biochemical methods. This can be achieved by monitoring posttranslational modifications that occur naturally within the secretory pathway, or by measuring the delivery of cargo to the cell surface or extracellular medium. These approaches can be combined with additional manipulations such as specific temperature blocks that permit analysis of distinct trafficking steps. Biochemical analysis is advantageous in that it permits both a sensitive and quantitative measure of trafficking along the pathway. The methods discussed in this chapter permit the analysis of trafficking of both endogenous cargo proteins and ectopically expressed model cargos, which can be followed using either Western blotting or metabolic pulse-chase approaches. These methods are relatively straightforward and suitable for use in most modern cell biology laboratories. In addition to the well-established methods that we describe here in detail, we also refer to the development of more recent tailored approaches that add further to the arsenal of tools that can be used to assess trafficking in the secretory pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unremitting Cell Proliferation in the Secretory Phase of Eutopic Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Murillo, Yanira; Miranda-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Rendón-Huerta, Erika; Montaño, Luis F.; Cornejo, Gerardo Velázquez; Gómez, Lucila Poblano; Valdez-Morales, Francisco Javier; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Endometriosis is linked to altered cell proliferation and stem cell markers c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) in ectopic endometrium. Our aim was to investigate whether c-kit/SCF also plays a role in eutopic endometrium. Design: Eutopic endometrium obtained from 35 women with endometriosis and 25 fertile eumenorrheic women was analyzed for in situ expression of SCF/c-kit, Ki67, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt), phosphorylated RAC-alpha serine/threonin-protein kinase (pAkt), Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (pGSK3β), throughout the menstrual cycle. Results: Expression of Ki67 and SCF was higher in endometriosis than in control tissue (P < .05) and greater in secretory rather than proliferative (P < .01) endometrium in endometriosis. Expression of c-kit was also higher in endometriosis although similar in both phases. Expression of Akt and GSK3β was identical in all samples and cycle phases, whereas pAkt and pGSK3β, opposed to control tissue, remained overexpressed in the secretory phase in endometriosis. Conclusion: Unceasing cell proliferation in the secretory phase of eutopic endometriosis is linked to deregulation of c-kit/SCF-associated signaling pathways. PMID:25194152

  14. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of LaCa0.143 (4O0.857 (4F0.143 (4Bi0.857 (4S2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongtie Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis, structure, and magnetic properties of lithium dibarium calcium oxide fluoride disulfide are reported. LaCa0.143 (4O0.857 (4F0.143 (4Bi0.857 (4S2 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/nmm. The structure exhibits disorder of the Ca2+ and Bi3+ cations, and the O2− and F− anions. The structure is composed of a stacking of [(O,F2La2] layers and double [(Bi,CaS2] layers. Magnetic property measurements indicate a very small magnetization at 300 K and the existence of weak ferromagnetism at 2 K.

  15. Immunohistochemical study on the secretory host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 throughout rat respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Natsumi; Mantani, Youhei; Yoshitomi, Chiaki; Yuasa, Hideto; Nishida, Miho; Arai, Masaya; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-12-08

    The host defense system with lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) was immunohistochemically investigated in rat respiratory tract under healthy conditions. In the nasal epithelium, a large number of non-ciliated and non-microvillous cells (NC) and a small number of goblet cells (GC) were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2. A few acinar cells and almost all epithelial cells of intercalated ducts were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances in the nasal glands. In the laryngeal and tracheal epithelia, few NC and GC were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In the laryngeal and tracheal glands, a few acinar cells and most ductal epithelial cells were immunopositive for both bactericidal substances. In extra-pulmonary bronchus, small numbers of NC and GC were immunopositive for lysozyme and sPLA2, whereas few NC and no GC were immunopositive in the intra-pulmonary bronchus. No secretory source of either bactericidal substance was located in the bronchioles. In the alveolus, many glandular epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were immunopositive for lysozyme but immunonegative for sPLA2. Moreover, lysozyme and sPLA2 were detected in the mucus layer and in the periciliary layer from the nose to the extra-pulmonary bronchus. These findings suggest that secretory sources of lysozyme and sPLA2 are distributed in almost all the respiratory tract. Their secretory products are probably transported to the pharynx and contribute to form the first line of defense against inhaled bacteria throughout the respiratory tract.

  16. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  17. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... August 16, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  18. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious that the a......Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...... that the application of the existing methods of genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis to other fungi has enormous potential, especially for the production of food and food ingredients. The developments in the past year demonstrate that we have only just started to exploit this potential....

  19. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Objective The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Design Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. Results We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Conclusions Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. PMID:26843508

  20. Fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Harry; Leducq, Valentin; Aschard, Hugues; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Jegou, Sarah; Landman, Cecilia; Cohen, David; Liguori, Giuseppina; Bourrier, Anne; Nion-Larmurier, Isabelle; Cosnes, Jacques; Seksik, Philippe; Langella, Philippe; Skurnik, David; Richard, Mathias L; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2017-06-01

    The bacterial intestinal microbiota plays major roles in human physiology and IBDs. Although some data suggest a role of the fungal microbiota in IBD pathogenesis, the available data are scarce. The aim of our study was to characterise the faecal fungal microbiota in patients with IBD. Bacterial and fungal composition of the faecal microbiota of 235 patients with IBD and 38 healthy subjects (HS) was determined using 16S and ITS2 sequencing, respectively. The obtained sequences were analysed using the Qiime pipeline to assess composition and diversity. Bacterial and fungal taxa associated with clinical parameters were identified using multivariate association with linear models. Correlation between bacterial and fungal microbiota was investigated using Spearman's test and distance correlation. We observed that fungal microbiota is skewed in IBD, with an increased Basidiomycota/Ascomycota ratio, a decreased proportion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increased proportion of Candida albicans compared with HS. We also identified disease-specific alterations in diversity, indicating that a Crohn's disease-specific gut environment may favour fungi at the expense of bacteria. The concomitant analysis of bacterial and fungal microbiota showed a dense and homogenous correlation network in HS but a dramatically unbalanced network in IBD, suggesting the existence of disease-specific inter-kingdom alterations. Besides bacterial dysbiosis, our study identifies a distinct fungal microbiota dysbiosis in IBD characterised by alterations in biodiversity and composition. Moreover, we unravel here disease-specific inter-kingdom network alterations in IBD, suggesting that, beyond bacteria, fungi might also play a role in IBD pathogenesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  2. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (<200 CD4 cell counts) is ∼10,000, with a rate of 11.1% (1100) of histoplasma, 7% (700) of cryptococcal meningitis, and 11% (1070) of Pneumocystis pneumonia. The burden of candidemia is 1037. Recurrent Candida vaginitis (≥4 episodes per year) affects 307,593 women aged 15-50 years. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis probably affects ∼476 patients following tuberculosis (TB). Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 748 patients (∼5.5/100,000). In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in asthma and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS) were estimated to affect 26,642 and 45,013 people, respectively. Our estimates indicate that 433,856 (3%) of the population in Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  3. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandtzaeg, Per

    2013-01-01

    The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA) and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs) in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), also named membrane secretory component (SC). Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT) and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials. PMID:23487566

  4. Secretory immunity with special reference to the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Brandtzaeg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two principal antibody classes present in saliva are secretory IgA (SIgA and IgG; the former is produced as dimeric IgA by local plasma cells (PCs in the stroma of salivary glands and is transported through secretory epithelia by the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR, also named membrane secretory component (SC. Most IgG in saliva is derived from the blood circulation by passive leakage mainly via gingival crevicular epithelium, although some may be locally produced in the gingiva or salivary glands. Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT and nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT do not contribute equally to the pool of memory/effector B cells differentiating to mucosal PCs throughout the body. Thus, enteric immunostimulation may not be the best way to activate the production of salivary IgA antibodies although the level of specific SIgA in saliva may still reflect an intestinal immune response after enteric immunization. It remains unknown whether the IgA response in submandibular/sublingual glands is better related to B-cell induction in GALT than the parotid response. Such disparity is suggested by the levels of IgA in submandibular secretions of AIDS patients, paralleling their highly upregulated intestinal IgA system, while the parotid IgA level is decreased. Parotid SIgA could more consistently be linked to immune induction in palatine tonsils/adenoids (human NALT and cervical lymph nodes, as supported by the homing molecule profile observed after immune induction at these sites. Several other variables influence the levels of antibodies in salivary secretions. These include difficulties with reproducibility and standardization of immunoassays, the impact of flow rate, acute or chronic stress, protein loss during sample handling, and uncontrolled admixture of serum-derived IgG and monomeric IgA. Despite these problems, saliva is an easily accessible biological fluid with interesting scientific and clinical potentials.

  5. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Steffen; Novakovic, Valerie A.; Rasmussen, Jan Trige

    2013-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2’s do not bind to plasma membranes of quies......Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2’s do not bind to plasma membranes...

  6. Secretory Phospholipase A(2) Activity toward Diverse Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jesper Jonasson; Linderoth, Lars; Subramanian, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    We have studied secretory phospholipase A(2)-IIA (sPLA(2)) activity toward different phospholipid analogues by performing biophysical 1 characterizations and molecular dynamics simulations. The phospholipids were natural substrates, triple alkyl phospholipids, a prodrug anticancer etherlipid......, and an inverted ester. The latter were included to study head group-enzyme interactions. Our simulation results show that the lipids are optimally placed into the binding cleft and that water molecules can freely reach the active site through a well-defined pathway; both are indicative that these substrates...

  7. Secretory pattern and regulatory mechanism of growth hormone in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Etsuko

    2016-02-01

    The ultradian rhythm of growth hormone (GH) secretion has been known in several animal species for years and has recently been observed in cattle. Although the physiological significance of the rhythm is not yet fully understood, it appears essential for normal growth. In this review, previous studies concerning the GH secretory pattern in cattle, including its ultradian rhythm, are introduced and the regulatory mechanism is discussed on the basis of recent findings. © 2015 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. [Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the parotid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Maxime; Diedhiou, Abdoulaye; Nallet, Emmanuel; Duflo, Suzy; Laé, Marick; Wassef, Michel

    2014-10-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the parotid gland is a rare and recently described lesion. We report the case of a 46-year-old man with a tumor of the parotid gland which was carried to the diagnosis of MASC. Diagnostic was confirmed by highlighting the ETV6-NTRK3 gene translocation. However, some morphologic and immunohistochemical features are suggestive of this entity. This carcinoma should be distinguished from its main differential diagnoses: acinic cell carcinoma and low grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  10. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2013-12-01

    We review the primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. An increasing number of PIDs are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of interferon-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of interleukin-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), while inborn errors of caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9) immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. CMC, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by PIDs. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of PID. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases.

  11. Platelet immunology in fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Cornelia; Rambach, Günter; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2014-10-01

    Up to date, perception of platelets has changed from key players in coagulation to multitaskers within the immune network, connecting its most diverse elements and crucially shaping their interplay with invading pathogens such as fungi. In addition, antimicrobial effector molecules and mechanisms in platelets enable a direct inhibitory effect on fungi, thus completing their immune capacity. To precisely assess the impact of platelets on the course of invasive fungal infections is complicated by some critical parameters. First, there is a fragile balance between protective antimicrobial effects and detrimental reactions that aggravate the fungal pathogenesis. Second, some platelet effects are exerted indirectly by other immune mediators and are thus difficult to quantify. Third, drugs such as antimycotics, antibiotics, or cytostatics, are commonly administered to the patients and might modulate the interplay between platelets and fungi. Our article highlights selected aspects of the complex interactions between platelets and fungi and the relevance of these processes for the pathogenesis of fungal infections.

  12. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  13. Identification of secretory odontoblasts using DMP1-GFP transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-04-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue- and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  15. Optimization of Pathogenetic Treatment of Secretory Diarrhea in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to access clinical efficacy of oral rehydration therapy using III generation solutions in the treatment of secretory diarrhea in infants. To achieve this aim, on the basis of infectious box unit (enteric infections of regional clinical hospital (Chernivtsi we examined 116 infants, randomly selected, with acute gastroenteritis, who admitted to the hospital with signs of exycosis due to secretory diarrhea. Among examined patients, 73 (67.5 % children with the purpose of oral rehydration therapy received rehydration solutions, and 35 (32.4 % patients received other rehydration solutions. Monitoring of the dynamics of patients’ state enabled to state that, when we used III generation mixture as a main component of oral rehydration therapy, rate of positive dynamics in terms of clinical status of patients was significantly faster, in particular, body temperature, frequency and nature of bowel movements normalized significantly earlier, vomiting disappeared. In children treated with rehydration solutions, compared with patients receiving other rehydration solutions, odds ratio to confine only oral rehydration was 3.7 (95% CI 0.4–38.9 with an absolute risk to avoid the need for infusion therapy — 11 %.

  16. Non-secretory multiple myeloma: from biology to clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dupuis MM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Megan Murray Dupuis,1 Sascha A Tuchman2 1Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, 2Division of Hematology/Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the US. It is typically characterized by production of large amounts of defective immunoglobulin (Ig. Diagnosing MM and monitoring treatment response, including eventual relapse, are largely based on sequential measurements of Ig. However, a small subset of MM called non-secretory multiple myeloma (NSMM produces no detectable Ig. This subset of true NSMM has become even smaller over time, as the advent of the serum free light chain assay has resulted in the majority of NSMM patients being recategorized as light-chain MM – that is, MM cells that produce only the light-chain component of Ig. True forms of NSMM, meaning MM that secretes no monoclonal proteins whatsoever, constitute a distinct entity that is reviewed; definition of NSMM using current detection methods, discuss the biology underpinning NSMM development, and share recommendations for how NSMM should be managed clinically with respect to detection, treatment, and monitoring. Keywords: multiple myeloma, non-secretory, immunoglobulin

  17. Identification of Secretory Odontoblasts Using DMP1-GFP Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balic, Anamaria; Mina, Mina

    2011-01-01

    Terminal differentiation of odontoblasts from dental papilla is a long process involving several intermediate steps and changes in the transcriptional profile and expression of proteins secreted by cells in the odontoblast lineage. Transgenic mouse lines in which GFP expression is under the control of tissue-and stage specific promoters have provided powerful experimental tools for identification and isolation of cells at specific stages of differentiation along a lineage. Our previous studies showed utilization of pOBCol3.6GFP and pOBCol2.3GFP animals for identification of odontoblasts at early and late stages of polarization respectively. In the present study we used the DMP1-GFP transgenic animal as an experimental model to examine its expression during the differentiation of odontoblasts from progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro. Our observations showed that DMP1-GFP transgene is first activated in secretory/functional odontoblasts engaged in secretion of predentin and then transiently expressed at high levels in newly differentiated odontoblasts. Expression of DMP1-GFP was down-regulated in highly differentiated odontoblasts. The temporal and spatial pattern of expression of DMP1-GFP transgene closely mimics the expression of endogenous DMP1. This transgenic animal will facilitate studies of gene expression and biological functions in secretory/functional odontoblasts. PMID:21172466

  18. The spectrum of fungal allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Denk, Ursula; Pöll, Verena; Rid, Raphaela; Breitenbach, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fungi can be found throughout the world. They may live as saprophytes, parasites or symbionts of animals and plants in indoor as well as outdoor environment. For decades, fungi belonging to the ascomycota as well as to the basidiomycota have been known to cause a broad panel of human disorders. In contrast to pollen, fungal spores and/or mycelial cells may not only cause type I allergy, the most prevalent disease caused by molds, but also a large number of other illnesses, including allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses, allergic sinusitis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and atopic dermatitis; and, again in contrast to pollen-derived allergies, fungal allergies are frequently linked with allergic asthma. Sensitization to molds has been reported in up to 80% of asthmatic patients. Although research on fungal allergies dates back to the 19th century, major improvements in the diagnosis and therapy of mold allergy have been hampered by the fact that fungal extracts are highly variable in their protein composition due to strain variabilities, batch-to-batch variations, and by the fact that extracts may be prepared from spores and/or mycelial cells. Nonetheless, about 150 individual fungal allergens from approximately 80 mold genera have been identified in the last 20 years. First clinical studies with recombinant mold allergens have demonstrated their potency in clinical diagnosis. This review aims to give an overview of the biology of molds and diseases caused by molds in humans, as well as a detailed summary of the latest results on recombinant fungal allergens. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Genomic Organization of Fungal Plant Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent large scale genomic sequencing of fungal phytopathogens has revolutionized the study of plant pathogenesis. Initially, having whole genome sequence (WGS) data for individual fungal genomes has accelerated classical forward and reverse genetic approaches for identifying pathogenicity genes...

  20. Volume Density, Distribution, and Ultrastructure of Secretory and Basolateral Membranes and Mitochondria Predict Parietal Cell Secretory (Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid secretion in gastric parietal cells requires highly coordinated membrane transport and vesicle trafficking. Histologically, consensus defines acid secretion as the ratio of the volume density (Vd of canalicular and apical membranes (CAMs to tubulovesicular (TV membranes, a value which varies widely under normal conditions. Examination of numerous achlorhydric mice made it clear that this paradigm is discrepant when used to assess most mice with genetic mutations affecting acid secretion. Vd of organelles in parietal cells of 6 genetically engineered mouse strains was obtained to identify a stable histological phenotype of acid secretion. We confirmed that CAM to TV ratio fairly represented secretory activity in untreated and secretion-inhibited wild-type (WT mice and in NHE2−/− mice as well, though the response was significantly attenuated in the latter. However, high CAM to TV ratios wrongly posed as active acid secretion in AE2−/−, GHKA−/−, and NHE4−/− mice. Achlorhydric genotypes also had a significantly higher Vd of basolateral membrane than WT mice, and reduced Vd of mitochondria and canaliculi. The Vd of mitochondria, and ratio of the Vd of basolateral membranes/Vd of mitochondria were preferred predictors of the level of acid secretion. Alterations in acid secretion, then, cause significant changes not only in the Vd of secretory membranes but also in mitochondria and basolateral membranes.

  1. Volume density, distribution, and ultrastructure of secretory and basolateral membranes and mitochondria predict parietal cell secretory (dys)function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marian L; Andringa, Anastasia; Zavros, Yana; Bradford, Emily M; Shull, Gary E

    2010-01-01

    Acid secretion in gastric parietal cells requires highly coordinated membrane transport and vesicle trafficking. Histologically, consensus defines acid secretion as the ratio of the volume density (Vd) of canalicular and apical membranes (CAMs) to tubulovesicular (TV) membranes, a value which varies widely under normal conditions. Examination of numerous achlorhydric mice made it clear that this paradigm is discrepant when used to assess most mice with genetic mutations affecting acid secretion. Vd of organelles in parietal cells of 6 genetically engineered mouse strains was obtained to identify a stable histological phenotype of acid secretion. We confirmed that CAM to TV ratio fairly represented secretory activity in untreated and secretion-inhibited wild-type (WT) mice and in NHE2-/- mice as well, though the response was significantly attenuated in the latter. However, high CAM to TV ratios wrongly posed as active acid secretion in AE2-/-, GHKAalpha-/-, and NHE4-/- mice. Achlorhydric genotypes also had a significantly higher Vd of basolateral membrane than WT mice, and reduced Vd of mitochondria and canaliculi. The Vd of mitochondria, and ratio of the Vd of basolateral membranes/Vd of mitochondria were preferred predictors of the level of acid secretion. Alterations in acid secretion, then, cause significant changes not only in the Vd of secretory membranes but also in mitochondria and basolateral membranes.

  2. Low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta are associated with preterm birth and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Anna M; Fransson, Emma; Dubicke, Aurelija; Hjelmstedt, Anna K; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bohlin, Kajsa

    2018-03-01

    Anti-secretory factor is a protein that regulates secretory and inflammatory processes and preterm birth is associated with inflammation. Therefore, our hypothesis was that anti-secretory factor might play a role in immune reactivity and homeostasis during pregnancy. Following spontaneous onset of labor and preterm or term delivery, placenta biopsies were collected. The levels of anti-secretory factor and markers of inflammation (CD68, CD163) and vascularization (CD34, smooth muscle actin) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The 61 placental biopsies included 31 preterm (preterm placentas exhibited lower levels of anti-secretory factor (p = 0.008) and larger numbers of CD68-positive cells (p Preterm placentas had blood vessel of smaller diameter (p = 0.036) indicative of immaturity. The level of interleukin-6 in cord blood was higher after very preterm than term birth, suggesting a fetal inflammatory response. The placenta level of anti-secretory factor was positively correlated to the length of gestation (p = 0.025) and negatively correlated to the levels of the inflammatory markers CD68 (p = 0.015) and CD163 (p = 0.028). Preterm delivery is associated with low levels of anti-secretory factor in placenta. Inflammation, a potential trigger of preterm birth, is more pronounced in the preterm placenta and inversely related to the placental level of anti-secretory factor, suggesting both a link and a potential target for intervention. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. Increased biogenesis of glucagon-containing secretory granules and glucagon secretion in BIG3-knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Li

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Together with our previous studies, the current data reveal a conserved role for BIG3 in regulating alpha- and beta-cell functions. We propose that BIG3 negatively regulates hormone production at the secretory granule biogenesis stage and that such regulatory mechanism may be used in secretory pathways of other endocrine cells.

  4. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV is sorted to the secretory granules in pancreatic islet A-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mona Dam; Hansen, Gert Helge; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1993-01-01

    labeling using a monoclonal glucagon antibody as the second primary antibody. These results show that DP IV is sorted to secretory granules in the pig pancreatic islet A-cells. Furthermore, this secretory granule enzyme, as opposed to intestinal brush border DP IV, is suggested to be a soluble protein...

  5. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Damjanov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  6. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland: A new tumor entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanov, Ivan; Skenderi, Faruk; Vranic, Semir

    2016-08-02

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described low-grade malignant tumor of the salivary glands, biologically and morphologically equivalent to secretory breast carcinoma. We give a brief overview of this new entity, including morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular-genetic, clinical, epidemiologic features, differential diagnosis, and outcome results.

  7. Production of secretory IgA antibodies in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrick, J W; Yu, L; Naftzger, C; Jaiswal, S; Wycoff, K

    2001-10-15

    Functional antibodies produced in tobacco plants were first reported over a decade ago (1989). The basic protocol used to generate these 'plantibodies' involved the independent cloning of H and L chain antibody genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors, the transformation of plant tissue in vitro with the recombinant bacterium, the reconstitution of whole plants expressing individual chains, and their sexual cross. In a 'Mendelian' fashion, a fully assembled and functional antibody was recovered from plant tissue in some double-transgenic plants. In mammalian cells, the antibody H and L chains are produced as precursor proteins that are translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), under the guidance of signal sequences. Within the ER, the signal peptides are proteolytically cleaved, and several stress proteins act as chaperonins to bind the unassembled antibody chains, and direct subsequent folding and tetramer formation. A similar process occurs in plant cells, and expression can be directed via signal sequences (even of foreign origin) into the aqueous environment of the apoplasm, or to be accumulated in other specific plant tissues, including tubers, fruit, or seed. Plants can facilely assemble secretory IgA, which is comprised of four chains, H and L chains, J chain and secretory component. Plant 'bioreactors' are expected to yield over 10 kg of therapeutic antibody/acre in tobacco, maize, soybean, and alfalfa [(Ann. NY Acad. Sci.)721(1994)235; (Biotechnol. Bioeng.)20(1999)135]. Compared with conventional steel tank bioreactors using mammalian cells, or microorganisms, the costs of GMP plantibodies are expected to perhaps one tenth. The differences in glycosylation patterns of plant and mammalian cell produced antibodies apparently have no effect on antigen-binding or specificity, but there is some concern about potential immunogenicity in humans. N-linked glycans of plants differ from human by having fucose-linked alpha 1,3 and the sugar xylose. No

  8. Internal secretory structures in stems of Silphium perfoliatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Silphium perfoliatum L. (Asteraceae is a North American perennial used as a medicinal, fodder, honey-bearing, and ornamental plant as well as for remediation of degraded soils. The location and structure of secretory reservoirs in the stem were examined with the use of light microscopy in cup plant stems. The stems were analysed at various heights (0-2 cm above the root collar, ½ of the stem length, and 0-2 cm below the stem apex/inflorescence and in three vegetation phases (vegetative phase, full bloom, withering. The plants belonged to the collection of the Department of Vegetable Crops and Medicinal Plants of the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. It was found that the secretory canals formed two rings: an external ring situated at the height of sclerenchymatous sheaths and bundle phloem, and the internal ring located in an immediate proximity of the xylem. Two external secretory reservoirs, one on each side of the bundle, were present at larger bundles. No internal reservoirs were formed in the proximity of these bundles. At smaller bundles, there were reservoirs of the internal verticil, but there were no external reservoirs. The canals of the external verticil (23-29 were more numerous that in the internal verticil (17-19. In both cases, the largest number of reservoirs was observed at half the length of the stem, and the lowest number was in the apical part. The less numerous internal canals were larger in comparison with the external reservoirs. Depending on the plant developmental stage and location in the stem, the diameter of the external ring canals was 49-91 μm in cross section, and that of the canals of the internal verticil was 52-101 μm. The analysis of the different vegetation phases in the cup plant demonstrated that the canals had the largest diameters and were the most abundant in the withering phase. The canals evolved through gradual separation of cells (of schizogenous origin. In the cross section they exhibited a

  9. Microbiology of systemic fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrabarti A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased incidence of systemic fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Earlier, it was pathogenic dimorphic fungi, which were known to cause systemic infections. However, starting from the 1960s, opportunistic fungi started causing more number of infections, especially in the immunocompromised host. More recently, newer and less common fungal agents are being increasingly associated with infection in immunosuppressed hosts. Amongst dimorphic fungi, infections due to Histoplasma capsulatum and Penicillium marneffei are increasingly reported in patients with AIDS in India. H. capsulatum is found country wide, but P. marneffei remains restricted to Manipur state. Although both varieties of C. neoformans , C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotypes A & D, and C. neoformans var. gattii (serotypes B & C are reported in India, most of the cases reported are of serotype A. Increased incidence of cryptococcosis is reported from all centers with the emergence of AIDS. Systemic infection due to species under Candida , Aspergillus and zygomycetes is widely prevalent in nosocomial setting, and outbreaks due to unusual fungi are reported occasionally from tertiary care centers. This global change in systemic fungal infections has emphasized the need to develop good diagnostic mycology laboratories in this country and to recognize this increasingly large group of potential fungal pathogens.

  10. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  11. File list: ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube secret...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 All antigens Uterus Fallopian tube...hg19/assembled/ALL.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  14. Immune Recognition of Fungal Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan D. Snarr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of fungal infections has dramatically increased in recent years, in large part due to increased use of immunosuppressive medications, as well as aggressive medical and surgical interventions that compromise natural skin and mucosal barriers. There are relatively few currently licensed antifungal drugs, and rising resistance to these agents has led to interest in the development of novel preventative and therapeutic strategies targeting these devastating infections. One approach to combat fungal infections is to augment the host immune response towards these organisms. The polysaccharide-rich cell wall is the initial point of contact between fungi and the host immune system, and therefore, represents an important target for immunotherapeutic approaches. This review highlights the advances made in our understanding of the mechanisms by which the immune system recognizes and interacts with exopolysaccharides produced by four of the most common fungal pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Work to date suggests that inner cell wall polysaccharides that play an important structural role are the most conserved across diverse members of the fungal kingdom, and elicit the strongest innate immune responses. The immune system senses these carbohydrates through receptors, such as lectins and complement proteins. In contrast, a greater diversity of polysaccharides is found within the outer cell walls of pathogenic fungi. These glycans play an important role in immune evasion, and can even induce anti-inflammatory host responses. Further study of the complex interactions between the host immune system and the fungal polysaccharides will be necessary to develop more effective therapeutic strategies, as well as to explore the use of immunosuppressive polysaccharides as therapeutic agents to modulate inflammation.

  15. Visualization of peptide secretory vesicles in living nerve cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joshua J; Loh, Y Peng

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of real-time movements of peptidergic vesicles in live neurons provides insight into molecular mechanism(s) supporting the activity-dependent secretion of neurotrophins and neuropeptides. We examined the effect of overexpression of exogenous peptides comprising of the cytoplasmic tail sequence of vesicular carboxypeptidase E (CPE), proposed to be involved in the mechanism of trafficking of peptidergic secretory vesicles, in live hippocampal neurons. E16 rat hippocampal neurons were transfected with the peptidergic vesicle markers, CPE C-terminally tagged with red or green fluorescent protein, or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) tagged with green fluorescent protein, and grown on dishes specialized for real-time live cell visualization. Movements of peptidergic vesicles were imaged in a temperature-controlled chamber on a confocal inverted microscope and analyzed with respect to their velocity, displacement distance, and processivity.

  16. Novel distribution of the secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor in kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Ohlsson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI is a low molecular weight, tissue-specific inhibitor of, for example, elastase and cathepsin G, which also have antimicrobial capacity. SLPI has been localised to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital tracts, but so far not to the kidney. The presence of SLPI in renal tubuli cells was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry and, by means of in situ hybridisation on human renal biopsies, we were able to demonstrate SLPI production. In various inflammatory conditions in the kidneys, the protease-antiprotease balance is disturbed. For this reason, as well as the possible role in the defence against ascending urinary tract infections, it is interesting to establish a source of SLPI in renal tubuli cells.

  17. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... approximately 10 to 50% of the granules in each cell. These granules were not seen in hormonally active tumors and considered therefore diagnostic of silent pituitary adenomas....... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...

  18. Statistical analysis of the quantal basis of secretory granule formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křepelová-Dror, Marika; Hammel, Ilan; Meilijson, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    The size distribution of vesicles exocytosed from secretory cells displays quantal nature, vesicle volume is periodic multi-modal, suggesting that these heterogeneous vesicles are aggregate sums of a variable number of homogeneous basic granules. Whether heterogeneity is a lumping-together artifact of the measurement or an inherent intra-cell feature of the vesicles is an unresolved question. Recent empirical evidence will be provided for the quantal nature of intra-cell vesicle volume, supporting the controversial paradigm of homotypic fusion: basic cytoplasmic granules fuse with each other to create heterogeneously sized vesicles. An EM-algorithm-based method is presented for the conversion of multi-modal to quantal data that provides as by-product estimates of means and variances of basic granule packaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Secretory expression of a heterologous nattokinase in Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Lixin; Zhong, Jin; Huan, Liandong

    2007-05-01

    Nattokinase has been reported as an oral health product for the prevention of atherosclerosis. We developed a novel strategy to express a nattokinase from Bacillus subtilis in a live delivery vehicle, Lactococcus lactis. Promoter P( nisZ) and signal peptide SP(Usp) were used for inducible and secretory expression of nattokinase in L. lactis. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that nattokinase was successfully expressed, and about 94% of the enzyme was secreted to the culture. The recombinant nattokinase showed potent fibrinolytic activity, equivalent to 41.7 urokinase units per milliliter culture. Expression and delivery of such a fibrinolytic enzyme in the food-grade vehicle L. lactis would facilitate the widespread application of nattokinase in the control and prevention of thrombosis diseases.

  20. Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of thyroid: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Aaron P; Bocklage, Thèrése J

    2017-01-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described rare neoplasm that was first reported in the salivary gland with an associated ETV6-NTRK3 fusion. We present a case of MASC involving and presumably arising in the thyroid, which was originally diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma on fine needle aspiration and surgical resection. The later correct diagnosis of MASC was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular studies. The cytopathological features of MASC in the salivary gland are previously described; however, we present the first cytopathological description of MASC arising in the thyroid with the unique feature of prominent nuclear grooves. Differentiating MASC from overlapping features of cytopathologic mimics such as papillary thyroid carcinoma may carry crucial therapeutic implications. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:45-50. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Crofelemer, a novel agent for treatment of secretory diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchley, Rustin D; Miller, Jennifer; Garey, Kevin W

    2010-05-01

    To review the chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of crofelemer. A literature search using the terms SP-303, Provir, and crofelemer was performed with PubMed (up to April 2010), Google Scholar, and selected Ovid bibliography searches. Additional references from the bibliographies of articles included in the search, as well as company and Food and Drug Administration Web sites, were also assessed. English-language in vitro and clinical studies associated with the safety and efficacy of crofelemer were included. Crofelemer is a first-in-class agent that may be useful for different types of secretory diarrhea, since it prevents chloride and fluid secretion into the bowel by directly inhibiting 2 distinct intestinal chloride channels. Crofelemer significantly brought about faster symptom resolution in patients with traveler's diarrhea, along with lower rates of treatment failure compared to placebo-treated patients. In a post hoc analysis, crofelemer compared to placebo also appears to have reduced abnormal stool weight and frequency in patients with AIDS-associated diarrhea. In a third trial, crofelemer did not offer a significant benefit in improving stool consistency after 12 weeks of treatment in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. However, a significant increase in pain-free days was noted in female patients. Preliminary studies also show that crofelemer may reduce watery stool output in patients with infectious diarrhea such as cholera. Oral crofelemer seemed to be well tolerated in clinical trials, with adverse effect profiles comparable to those with placebo. Crofelemer possesses a novel mechanism of action that shows promise in treating secretory diarrhea of several etiologies. However, results from further Phase 3 clinical trials are still needed in order to fully evaluate the efficacy and safety of this agent.

  2. Ancestry and evolution of a secretory pathway serpin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragg Hermann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The serpin (serine protease inhibitor superfamily constitutes a class of functionally highly diverse proteins usually encompassing several dozens of paralogs in mammals. Though phylogenetic classification of vertebrate serpins into six groups based on gene organisation is well established, the evolutionary roots beyond the fish/tetrapod split are unresolved. The aim of this study was to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of serpins involved in surveying the secretory pathway routes against uncontrolled proteolytic activity. Results Here, rare genomic characters are used to show that orthologs of neuroserpin, a prominent representative of vertebrate group 3 serpin genes, exist in early diverging deuterostomes and probably also in cnidarians, indicating that the origin of a mammalian serpin can be traced back far in the history of eumetazoans. A C-terminal address code assigning association with secretory pathway organelles is present in all neuroserpin orthologs, suggesting that supervision of cellular export/import routes by antiproteolytic serpins is an ancient trait, though subtle functional and compartmental specialisations have developed during their evolution. The results also suggest that massive changes in the exon-intron organisation of serpin genes have occurred along the lineage leading to vertebrate neuroserpin, in contrast with the immediately adjacent PDCD10 gene that is linked to its neighbour at least since divergence of echinoderms. The intron distribution pattern of closely adjacent and co-regulated genes thus may experience quite different fates during evolution of metazoans. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the analysis of microsynteny and other rare characters can provide insight into the intricate family history of metazoan serpins. Serpins with the capacity to defend the main cellular export/import routes against uncontrolled endogenous and/or foreign proteolytic activity represent an

  3. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanmahel Davila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions

  4. Effect of immune system imagery on secretory IgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, M S; Achterberg, J; Lawlis, G F; Goven, A; Toledo, R; Butler, J R

    1990-12-01

    This study was an investigation of the effects of physiologically-oriented mental imagery on immune functioning. College students with normal medical histories were randomly selected to one of three groups. Subjects in Group 1 participated in short educational training on the production of secretory immunoglobulin A. They were then tested on salivary IgA, skin temperature, and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) before and after listening to a 17-minute tape of imagery instructions with specially composed background "entrainment" music designed to enhance imagery. Subjects in Group 2 (placebo controls) listened to the same music but received nor formal training on the immune system. Group 3 acted as a control and subjects were tested before and after 17 minutes of no activity. Treatment groups listened to their tapes at home on a bi-daily basis for six weeks. All groups were again tested at Weeks 3 and 6. Secretory IgA was analyzed using standard radial immunodiffusion techniques. Repeated measures analyses of variance with planned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate the data. Significant overall increases (p less than 0.05) were found between pre- and posttests for all three trials. Groups 1 and 2 combined (treatment groups) yielded significantly greater increases in sIgA over Group 3 (control) for all three trials. Group 1 (imagery) was significantly higher than Group 2 (music) in antibody production for Trials 2 and 3. Symptomatology, recorded by subjects at Weeks 3 and 6, was significantly lower for three symptoms (rapid heartbeat, breathing difficulty, and jaw clenching), favoring both treatment groups over the control group.

  5. Secretory immunoglobulin purification from whey by chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlschweiger, Alexander; Engelmaier, Hannah; Himmler, Gottfried; Hahn, Rainer

    2017-08-15

    Secretory immunoglobulins (SIg) are a major fraction of the mucosal immune system and represent potential drug candidates. So far, platform technologies for their purification do not exist. SIg from animal whey was used as a model to develop a simple, efficient and potentially generic chromatographic purification process. Several chromatographic stationary phases were tested. A combination of two anion-exchange steps resulted in the highest purity. The key step was the use of a small-porous anion exchanger operated in flow-through mode. Diffusion of SIg into the resin particles was significantly hindered, while the main impurities, IgG and serum albumin, were bound. In this step, initial purity was increased from 66% to 89% with a step yield of 88%. In a second anion-exchange step using giga-porous material, SIg was captured and purified by step or linear gradient elution to obtain fractions with purities >95%. For the step gradient elution step yield of highly pure SIg was 54%. Elution of SIgA and SIgM with a linear gradient resulted in a step yield of 56% and 35%, respectively. Overall yields for both anion exchange steps were 43% for the combination of flow-through and step elution mode. Combination of flow-through and linear gradient elution mode resulted in a yield of 44% for SIgA and 39% for SIgM. The proposed process allows the purification of biologically active SIg from animal whey in preparative scale. For future applications, the process can easily be adopted for purification of recombinant secretory immunoglobulin species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rac1 Regulates Endometrial Secretory Function to Control Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Juanmahel; Laws, Mary J.; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Li, Quanxi; Taylor, Robert N.; Bagchi, Milan K.; Bagchi, Indrani C.

    2015-01-01

    During placenta development, a succession of complex molecular and cellular interactions between the maternal endometrium and the developing embryo ensures reproductive success. The precise mechanisms regulating this maternal-fetal crosstalk remain unknown. Our study revealed that the expression of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is markedly elevated in mouse decidua on days 7 and 8 of gestation. To investigate its function in the uterus, we created mice bearing a conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in uterine stromal cells. Ablation of Rac1 did not affect the formation of the decidua but led to fetal loss in mid gestation accompanied by extensive hemorrhage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways affected by the loss of Rac1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed that Rac1 signaling regulates the expression of Rab27b, another GTPase that plays a key role in targeting vesicular trafficking. Consequently, the Rac1-null decidual cells failed to secrete vascular endothelial growth factor A, which is a critical regulator of decidual angiogenesis, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, which regulates the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors that promote proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages in the ectoplacental cone. The lack of secretion of these key factors by Rac1-null decidua gave rise to impaired angiogenesis and dysregulated proliferation of trophoblast cells, which in turn results in overexpansion of the trophoblast giant cell lineage and disorganized placenta development. Further experiments revealed that RAC1, the human ortholog of Rac1, regulates the secretory activity of human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization, supporting the concept that this signaling G protein plays a central and conserved role in controlling endometrial secretory function. This study provides unique insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating endometrial secretions that mediate stromal

  7. File list: Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  10. File list: DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  11. File list: Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  18. File list: Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 DNase-seq Uterus Fallopian tube secret...ory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 RNA polymerase Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  3. File list: Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 TFs and others Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 No description Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Unclassified Uterus Fallopian tube... secretory epithelial cell http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  6. Fungal Exopolysaccharide: Production, Composition and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Subhadip; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2013-01-01

    Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs. PMID:24826070

  7. Partitioning and Exocytosis of Secretory Granules during Division of PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolay Vassilev Bukoreshtliev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The biogenesis, maturation, and exocytosis of secretory granules in interphase cells have been well documented, whereas the distribution and exocytosis of these hormone-storing organelles during cell division have received little attention. By combining ultrastructural analyses and time-lapse microscopy, we here show that, in dividing PC12 cells, the prominent peripheral localization of secretory granules is retained during prophase but clearly reduced during prometaphase, ending up with only few peripherally localized secretory granules in metaphase cells. During anaphase and telophase, secretory granules exhibited a pronounced movement towards the cell midzone and, evidently, their tracks colocalized with spindle microtubules. During cytokinesis, secretory granules were excluded from the midbody and accumulated at the bases of the intercellular bridge. Furthermore, by measuring exocytosis at the single granule level, we showed, that during all stages of cell division, secretory granules were competent for regulated exocytosis. In conclusion, our data shed new light on the complex molecular machinery of secretory granule redistribution during cell division, which facilitates their release from the F-actin-rich cortex and active transport along spindle microtubules.

  8. Changes of middle ear mucosa in secretory otitis media treated with ventilation tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiroglu, F; Kaya, M; Ozşahinoglu, C; Soylu, L; Polat, S

    1990-01-01

    The present study was designed to obtain the precise ultrastructural status of the middle ear mucosa of patients to whom ventilation tubes were applied for the treatment of secretory otitis media (SOM). This study comprised 14 children with SOM aged 5-11. Normal epithelium obtained from otosclerotic patients as controls was composed of three main cell types; basal, ciliated, and secretory. Electron microscopic observations revealed that ciliated cells were almost completely absent in the epithelium of patients with SOM. Secretory cells, on the other hand, were noted to be increased in number with cytoplasmic features indicating active secretory phase; abundant secretory granules in these cells featured both serous and mucoid characteristics. Following the application of ventilation tubes, the micrographs exhibited a vast number of ciliated cells. Furthermore, the secretory cells were less conspicuous and the secretory granules were mostly serous in type. The ultrastructural findings of this investigation strongly suggest that the application of ventilation tubes in cases of SOM stimulates ciliated cell regeneration, inhibits secretion of mucoid material, and activates serous secretion; all of which eventually shorten the recovery period.

  9. Pathogenesis of indoor fungal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Michael R

    2004-04-01

    Mold growth within homes and other buildings has been associated to varying degrees with human health problems. These problems vary from allergenic disease to toxicosis. Case definitions for mold exposure have not been adequately defined to allow for a pathognomonic diagnosis of mold-caused disease following indoor exposure. Some important factors that may contribute to the pathogenesis of indoor mold induced disease include beta (1,3)-D-glucans, outer cell wall fungal hydrophobins, 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin, fungal volatile organic compounds, mycotoxins, and stachylysin. The information in this contribution was presented as the ISHAM Presidential address as a means to clarify some of the confusing surrounding indoor mold-related health issues.

  10. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  11. Cells in 3D-reconstitutued eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into gross cystic disease fluid protein 15-expressing dark secretory cells and carbonic anhydrase II-expressing clear secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haihong; Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Mingjun; Zhang, Bingna

    2017-07-01

    Secretory coils of eccrine sweat glands are composed of myoepithelial cells, dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells. The two types of cells play important roles in sweat secretion. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids differentiate into secretory coil-like structures. However, whether the secretory coil-like structures further differentiate into dark secretory cells and clear secretory cells were is still unknown. In this study, we detected the differentiation of clear and dark secretory cells in the 3D-reconstituted eccrine sweat gland cell spheroids using the dark secretory cell-specific marker, GCDFP-15, and clear secretory cell-specific marker, CAII by immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that there were both GCDFP-15- and CAII-expressing cells in 12-week-old 3D spheroids, similar to native eccrine sweat glands, indicating that the spheroids possess a cellular structure capable of sweat secretion. We conclude that the 12-week 3D spheroids may have secretory capability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  13. Fungal Biofilms and Polymicrobial Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, Caroline B; Sardi, Janaina C O; Pitangui, Nayla S; de Oliveira, Haroldo C; Scorzoni, Liliana; Galeane, Mariana C; Medina-Alarcón, Kaila P; Melo, Wanessa C M A; Marcelino, Mônica Y; Braz, Jaqueline D; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S

    2017-05-10

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important. A key feature of resistance is the extracellular matrix, which covers and protects biofilm cells from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete quorum-sensing molecules that control their biological activities and behaviors and play a role in fungal resistance and pathogenicity. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to study fungal biofilms, from colorimetric methods to omics approaches that aim to identify new therapeutic strategies by developing new compounds to combat these microbial communities as well as new diagnostic tools to identify these complex formations in vivo. In this review, recent advances related to pathogenic fungal biofilms are addressed.

  14. Fungal Biofilms and Polymicrobial Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Orlandi, Caroline B.; Sardi, Janaina C. O.; Pitangui, Nayla S.; de Oliveira, Haroldo C.; Scorzoni, Liliana; Galeane, Mariana C.; Medina-Alarcón, Kaila P.; Melo, Wanessa C. M. A.; Marcelino, Mônica Y.; Braz, Jaqueline D.; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Marisa; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José S.

    2017-01-01

    Biofilm formation is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi. Both yeasts and filamentous fungi can adhere to biotic and abiotic surfaces, developing into highly organized communities that are resistant to antimicrobials and environmental conditions. In recent years, new genera of fungi have been correlated with biofilm formation. However, Candida biofilms remain the most widely studied from the morphological and molecular perspectives. Biofilms formed by yeast and filamentous fungi present differences, and studies of polymicrobial communities have become increasingly important. A key feature of resistance is the extracellular matrix, which covers and protects biofilm cells from the surrounding environment. Furthermore, to achieve cell–cell communication, microorganisms secrete quorum-sensing molecules that control their biological activities and behaviors and play a role in fungal resistance and pathogenicity. Several in vitro techniques have been developed to study fungal biofilms, from colorimetric methods to omics approaches that aim to identify new therapeutic strategies by developing new compounds to combat these microbial communities as well as new diagnostic tools to identify these complex formations in vivo. In this review, recent advances related to pathogenic fungal biofilms are addressed. PMID:29371540

  15. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Madsen, Kenneth L; Jansen, Anna M

    2013-01-01

    by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate...... for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis....

  16. Periodic activity of secretory glands of stomach in ulcer erosion of gastro-duodenal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rudenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.

  17. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Sandeep; Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. This was a prospective study in which evaluation of 100 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis was done. Specimens collected were subjected to both microbiology and pathologic examination; data collected, including clinical and radiologic features, were analyzed by the Pearson χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis in our study was 30% (n = 30). Mucor was the most commonly isolated species (n = 15 [50%]) of fungus. Pathologic examination had a higher sensitivity (76.67%) compared with microbiology tests (50%) in the diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. Fungus ball (n = 14 [46.6%]) was the most prevalent entity in the spectrum of fungal rhinosinusitis. Forty percent of cases (n = 12) were of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. The prevalence of fungal rhinosinusitis was higher among individuals who were immunocompetent (n = 17 [56.6%]). Of patients who were immunocompromised, 84.6% (n = 11) had mucormycosis. Unilateral involvement of paranasal sinuses was more in favor of fungal etiology. Complications were more common in fungal rhinosinusitis caused by Mucor species. Mucormycosis, a rare clinical entity, in subjects who were immunocompetent, had a high prevalence in our study.

  18. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  19. Secretory Aspartyl Proteinases Cause Vaginitis and Can Mediate Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pericolini, Eva; Gabrielli, Elena; Amacker, Mario; Kasper, Lydia; Roselletti, Elena; Luciano, Eugenio; Sabbatini, Samuele; Kaeser, Matthias; Moser, Christian; Hube, Bernhard; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Cassone, Antonio

    2015-06-02

    Vaginal inflammation (vaginitis) is the most common disease caused by the human-pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Secretory aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are major virulence traits of C. albicans that have been suggested to play a role in vaginitis. To dissect the mechanisms by which Sap play this role, Sap2, a dominantly expressed member of the Sap family and a putative constituent of an anti-Candida vaccine, was used. Injection of full-length Sap2 into the mouse vagina caused local neutrophil influx and accumulation of the inflammasome-dependent interleukin-1β (IL-1β) but not of inflammasome-independent tumor necrosis factor alpha. Sap2 could be replaced by other Sap, while no inflammation was induced by the vaccine antigen, the N-terminal-truncated, enzymatically inactive tSap2. Anti-Sap2 antibodies, in particular Fab from a human combinatorial antibody library, inhibited or abolished the inflammatory response, provided the antibodies were able, like the Sap inhibitor Pepstatin A, to inhibit Sap enzyme activity. The same antibodies and Pepstatin A also inhibited neutrophil influx and cytokine production stimulated by C. albicans intravaginal injection, and a mutant strain lacking SAP1, SAP2, and SAP3 was unable to cause vaginal inflammation. Sap2 induced expression of activated caspase-1 in murine and human vaginal epithelial cells. Caspase-1 inhibition downregulated IL-1β and IL-18 production by vaginal epithelial cells, and blockade of the IL-1β receptor strongly reduced neutrophil influx. Overall, the data suggest that some Sap, particularly Sap2, are proinflammatory proteins in vivo and can mediate the inflammasome-dependent, acute inflammatory response of vaginal epithelial cells to C. albicans. These findings support the notion that vaccine-induced or passively administered anti-Sap antibodies could contribute to control vaginitis. Candidal vaginitis is an acute inflammatory disease that affects many women of fertile age, with no definitive cure and, in

  20. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  1. A rare case of extensive ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with secretory features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Sugihara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a very rare case of extensive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS of the breast with secretory features in a 30-year old Japanese woman. The patient presented with a nodule in the lower inner quadrant of the left breast measuring approximately 2-3 cm, accompanied by an irregular tumor shadow with segmental microcalcification on mammography. These findings suggested malignancy, and excisional biopsy was performed following core needle biopsy. Pathological diagnosis was that of DCIS with secretory features. A treatment plan of simple mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy was chosen. Most previous reports have only described invasive secretory carcinoma of the breast. We have only been able to find 2 case reports of non-invasive secretory lesion in the English literature to date. Because the characteristics of this lesion are not widely known, we thought it important to share our findings.

  2. Chronic regulation of colonic epithelial secretory function by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toumi, F

    2011-02-01

    Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.

  3. Mapping organelle motion reveals a vesicular conveyor belt spatially replenishing secretory vesicles in stimulated chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maucort, Guillaume; Kasula, Ravikiran; Papadopulos, Andreas; Nieminen, Timo A; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Meunier, Frederic A

    2014-01-01

    How neurosecretory cells spatially adjust their secretory vesicle pools to replenish those that have fused and released their hormonal content is currently unknown. Here we designed a novel set of image analyses to map the probability of tracked organelles undergoing a specific type of movement (free, caged or directed). We then applied our analysis to time-lapse z-stack confocal imaging of secretory vesicles from bovine Chromaffin cells to map the global changes in vesicle motion and directionality occurring upon secretagogue stimulation. We report a defined region abutting the cortical actin network that actively transports secretory vesicles and is dissipated by actin and microtubule depolymerizing drugs. The directionality of this "conveyor belt" towards the cell surface is activated by stimulation. Actin and microtubule networks therefore cooperatively probe the microenvironment to transport secretory vesicles to the periphery, providing a mechanism whereby cells globally adjust their vesicle pools in response to secretagogue stimulation.

  4. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: update on a new diagnosis of salivary gland malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Roshan; Kozin, Elliott; Remenschneider, Aaron; Meier, Josh; VanderLaan, Paul; Faquin, William; Deschler, Daniel; Frankenthaler, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To review the known histopathologic findings and clinical behavior of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC). PubMed. Literature search using the terms "Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma," "Mammary analog secretory carcinoma," and "MASC" to identify all relevant publications. MASC is an unusual and rare malignant salivary gland tumor first described in 2010. It shares histologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic features with secretory carcinoma of the breast. The clinical behavior of MASC ranges from slowly growing tumors that infrequently recur after surgical resection to aggressive tumors that cause widespread metastasis and death. Many cases of MASC were discovered in archived cases previously classified as acinic cell carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified. MASC is a newly recognized variant of salivary gland malignancy. Further research is needed to better delineate its overall prevalence and to define an appropriate treatment algorithm for this new clinical entity. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Role of NBCe1 and AE2 in Secretory Ameloblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Michael L.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Wang, HongJun; Abuladze, Natalia; Pushkin, Alexander; Liu, Weixin; Kao, Li Yo; Wall, Susan M.; Kim, Young-Hee; Kurtz, Ira

    2008-01-01

    The H+/base transport processes that control the pH of the microenvironment adjacent to ameloblasts are not currently well understood. Mice null for the AE2 anion exchanger have abnormal enamel. In addition, patients with mutations in the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 and mice lacking NBCe1 have enamel abnormalities. These observations suggest that AE2 and NBCe1 play important roles in amelogenesis. The present study aimed to understand the roles of AE2 and NBC1 in ameloblasts. The data showed that NBCe1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of secretory ameloblasts, whereas AE2 is expressed at the apical membrane. Transcripts for AE2a and NBCe1-B were detected in RNA isolated from cultured ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Our data are the first evidence that AE2 and NBCe1 are expressed in ameloblasts in vivo in a polarized fashion thereby providing a mechanism for ameloblast transcellular bicarbonate secretion in the process of enamel formation and maturation. PMID:18362326

  6. Innate secretory antibodies protect against natural Salmonella typhimurium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijburg, Odilia L C; Uren, Tania K; Simpfendorfer, Kim; Johansen, Finn-Eirik; Brandtzaeg, Per; Strugnell, Richard A

    2006-01-23

    The production of IgA is induced in an antigen-unspecific manner by commensal flora. These secretory antibodies (SAbs) may bind multiple antigens and are thought to eliminate commensal bacteria and self-antigens to avoid systemic recognition. In this study, we addressed the role of "innate" SAbs, i.e., those that are continuously produced in normal individuals, in protection against infection of the gastrointestinal tract. We used polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR-/-) knock-out mice, which are unable to bind and actively transport dimeric IgA and pentameric IgM to the mucosae, and examined the role of innate SAbs in protection against the invasive pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. In vitro experiments suggested that innate IgA in pIgR-/- serum bound S. typhimurium in a cross-reactive manner which inhibited epithelial cell invasion. Using a "natural" infection model, we demonstrated that pIgR-/- mice are profoundly sensitive to infection with S. typhimurium via the fecal-oral route and, moreover, shed more bacteria that readily infected other animals. These results imply an important evolutionary role for innate SAbs in protecting both the individual and the herd against infections, and suggest that the major role of SAbs may be to prevent the spread of microbial pathogens throughout the population, rather than protection of local mucosal surfaces.

  7. Academic stress, social support, and secretory immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemmott, J B; Magloire, K

    1988-11-01

    We examined the relation of academic stress and social support to salivary concentrations of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA), an antibody class that plays an important role in mucosal defense against acute upper respiratory tract infections. We assayed whole, unstimulated saliva samples collected from 15 healthy undergraduates 5 days before their final exam period, during their exam period, and 14 days after their last final exam for S-IgA concentrations by single radial immunodiffusion. The students rated the university's general psychological climate as being more stressful during the exam period compared with the two other periods. Paralleling this, their salivary concentrations of S-IgA were lower during the exam period. Students who reported more adequate social support at the preexam period had consistently higher S-IgA levels than did their peers reporting less adequate social support. This latter finding is consonant with the social support direct effects hypothesis, which states that social support enhances health outcomes irrespective of whether the individual is exposed to stressful experiences.

  8. Correlation between CT and tympanogram in secretory otitis media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Sakurai, Tokio; Taniguchi, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kuniaki (Iwaki-Kyoritsu General Hospital, Iwaki, Fukushima (Japan)); Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Kawamoto, Kazutomo

    1984-11-01

    In an attempt to evaluate the feasibility of the tympanometry in detecting the middle ear effusion (MEE) in secretory otitis media (SOM) in childhood, the findings of the computed tomography (CT) were evaluated whether they were compatible with that of tympanometry in 27 cases (51 ears) of SOM. Tympanometry (tympanogram, static compliance measurement and stapedial reflex test), pure tone audiometry and high resolution CT were performed sequentially, and the CT findings were compared with the results of the other tests. The conclusions obtained were summarized as follows. 1. Among the tests performed, tympanogram appeared to be the most reliable measure in detection of MEE. 2. Fifteen ears out of 16 with type B tympanograms and 6 ears out of 15 with type C/sub 2/ tympanograms, were diagnosed by CT as having MEE. MEE occupied the entire middile ear space in most ears with type B tympanograms. By contrast, in the ears with type C/sub 2/ tympanograms, air containing space of varying size were always observed even in the ears with MEE.

  9. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status of a healthy malay population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahmood, Abu Kholdun; Ismail, Aziz Al-Safi; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Wan Bebakar, Wan Mohamad

    2006-07-01

    Insulin insensitivity is a common finding in several metabolic disorders including glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and hypertension. Most of the previous studies on insulin sensitivity were performed on diabetic or obese population. So our knowledge about insulin sensitivity of healthy population remains limited. Rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is a serious issue in Malaysia and some other rapidly developing countries. So it is important to look at the insulin sensitivity status of healthy Malaysian subjects and to compare it in future with those of diabetic, obese or metabolic syndrome patients. In this study we sampled subjects who were independent of confounding factors such as obesity (including abdominal obesity), hypertension and glucose intolerance (diabetes, IGT or IFG) which may influence insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin and lipid profile were determined. Insulin sensitivity and secretory status were calculated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) software (HOMA%S, HOMA%B and HOMA-IR). The insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) of healthy Malay subjects aged between 30-60 years was 155.17%, HOMA-IR was 1.05 and HOMA%B was 116.65% (values adjusted for age, sex, BMI and waist circumference). It was seen that non-obese Malaysians can prevent age related lowering of insulin sensitivity if they can retain their BMI within limit.

  10. Platelet secretory products inhibit lipoprotein metabolism in macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David R.; Arnold, Kay; Innerarity, Thomas L.

    1985-08-01

    Macrophages possess a receptor that binds low-density lipoproteins (LDL) containing lysine residues modified by acetylation (Ac LDL), acetoacetylation (AcAc LDL) or malondialdehyde treatment1-3. This receptor (referred to as the Ac LDL receptor or scavenger receptor) internalizes the bound lipoprotein. As a consequence, massive amounts of cholesteryl esters accumulate so that macrophages in culture resemble foam cells found in atherosclerotic lesions4,5. In an effort to identify an unmodified mammalian macromolecule that binds to the Ac LDL receptor, we investigated whether platelet secretory products affect the receptor-mediated endocytosis of chemically modified lipoproteins. Platelets are a potential source of such activity because they exist in close association with foam cells in developing atherosclerotic lesions6,7. Our study demonstrates that human blood platelets secrete a product that inhibits the binding and uptake of AcAc LDL by mouse peritoneal macrophages and the subsequent accumulation of cholesteryl esters. This is the first indication that an endogenous macromolecule interacts with Ac LDL receptor on macrophages.

  11. Role of NBCe1 and AE2 in secretory ameloblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, M L; Snead, M L; Wang, H J; Abuladze, N; Pushkin, A; Liu, W; Kao, L Y; Wall, S M; Kim, Y-H; Kurtz, I

    2008-04-01

    The H(+)/base transport processes that control the pH of the microenvironment adjacent to ameloblasts are not currently well-understood. Mice null for the AE2 anion exchanger have abnormal enamel. In addition, persons with mutations in the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate co-transporter NBCe1 and mice lacking NBCe1 have enamel abnormalities. These observations suggest that AE2 and NBCe1 play important roles in amelogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to understand the roles of AE2 and NBCe1 in ameloblasts. Analysis of the data showed that NBCe1 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of secretory ameloblasts, whereas AE2 is expressed at the apical membrane. Transcripts for AE2a and NBCe1-B were detected in RNA isolated from cultured ameloblast-like LS8 cells. Our data are the first evidence that AE2 and NBCe1 are expressed in ameloblasts in vivo in a polarized fashion, thereby providing a mechanism for ameloblast transcellular bicarbonate secretion in the process of enamel formation and maturation.

  12. Clinicopathological characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I; Griffith, Christopher; Assaad, Adel; Seethala, Raja R

    2012-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described tumour with ETV6 translocation. We aimed to characterize the clinical significance of recognizing MASC. Thirty-six patients with MASC (27 identified retrospectively and nine prospectively) are presented. Historically, MASC mimicked other salivary tumours, as follows: 14 of 37 (37.8%) adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified, 11 of 89 (12.4%) acinic cell carcinomas (AciCC), one of five (20%) mucin-producing signet ring adenocarcinomas, and one of 165 (0.6%) mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Demographically, MASC affected males more commonly (1.4:1). The average age at diagnosis was 45.7 years. Parotid gland was the most common site of involvement (26 of 36, 72.2%), although other head and neck sites, including the base of tongue, were affected. Of 18 patients with neck dissection, lymph node involvement was identified in four patients (four of 18, 22.2%). Survival analysis of MASC cases presented here, combined with those reported previously, revealed a mean disease-free survival for patients with MASC of 92 months [n = 29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 71-115 months], compared with a mean DFS of 121 months for patients with AciCC (n = 38; 95% CI 92-149, P = 0.43). Although perhaps slightly more aggressive, MASC clinical outcome mimics that of AciCC. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Subcellular Compartmentalization and Trafficking of the Biosynthetic Machinery for Fungal Melanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijana Upadhyay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Protection by melanin depends on its subcellular location. Although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. Using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. We find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recruited to endosomes through a non-conventional secretory pathway. In contrast, late melanin enzymes accumulate in the cell wall. Such subcellular compartmentalization of the melanin biosynthetic machinery occurs in both A. fumigatus and A. nidulans. Thus, fungal melanin biosynthesis appears to be initiated in endosomes with exocytosis leading to melanin extracellular deposition, much like the synthesis and trafficking of mammalian melanin in endosomally derived melanosomes.

  14. Prevalence and clinical profile of fungal rhinosinusitis

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sandeep; Arumugam, Dayanand; Zacharias, George; Palaninathan, Sengottaiah; Vishwanathan, Ravisankar; Venkatraman, Vaidyanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are only a few landmark studies from the Indian subcontinent on fungal rhinosinusitis. The lack of awareness among clinicians regarding the varying clinical presentations of fungal rhinosinusitis prompted us to undertake this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence, etiologic basis, clinical features, radiologic features, and microscopic features of fungal rhinosinusitis, and to evaluate the various treatment modalities available. Methods: This was a prospective study ...

  15. Multi-method analysis of calcium localization in the secretory ameloblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, D.R.; Ashrafi, S.; Zaki, A.E.

    1982-12-01

    X-ray micro-analysis and electron energy loss analysis were used to confirm cytochemical localization by potassium pyro-antimonate of calcium in secretory ameloblasts. Neither intercellular calcium concentration between ameloblasts nor over-all calcium levels of the enamel organ were lowered during a period of inhibition of enamel mineralization by injected fluoride. Calcium concentrations in mitochondria and secretory granules were reduced.

  16. Therapeutic Effects of Mycobacterial Secretory Proteins Against Established Asthma in BALB/c Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Eui-Ryoung; Choi, Inseon S.; Choi, Han-Gyu; Kim, Hwa-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Live/killed mycobacteria and culture supernatants can suppress asthmatic reactions. This study investigated whether mycobacterial secretory proteins have therapeutic effects on asthma. Methods Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG; 2×105 CFUs) and mycobacterial secretory proteins (Ag85 complex, 38-kDa protein or MPB70; 4 or 20 µg) were administered intraperitoneally to female BALB/c mice with established airway hyperresponsiveness. One week after treatment, the mice underwe...

  17. Identification of Secretory Structure, Histochemistry and Phytochemical Compounds of Medicinal Plant Hyptis Capitata Jacq.

    OpenAIRE

    Rupa, Darius; Sulistyaningsih, Yohana Caecilia; Dorly, Dorly; Ratnadewi, Diah

    2017-01-01

    Hyptis capitata Jacq. (common name: Knobweed or False Ironwort) belongs to Lamiaceae family and is among known traditional medicine. The Anak Dalam Tribe of Jambi Province uses the leaves of H. capitata to cure external and internal wounds. This study was aimed at identifying and analyzing secretory structure, histochemistry and phytochemical content of H. capitata leaves. The results showed that H. capitata leaves have secretory structures in the form of peltate, capitate and uniseriate gla...

  18. Allergic fungal sinusitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Brian D; McKinney, Kibwei A; Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S

    2012-06-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a subtype of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) characterized by type I hypersensitivity, nasal polyposis, characteristic computed tomography scan findings, eosinophilic mucus, and the presence of fungus on surgical specimens without evidence of tissue invasion. This refractory subtype of CRS is of the great interest in the pediatric population, given the relatively early age of onset and the difficulty in managing AFS through commercially available medical regimens. Almost universally, a diagnosis of AFS requires operative intervention. Postoperative adjuvant medical therapy is a mainstay in the treatment paradigm of pediatric AFS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  1. Highlights in pathogenic fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina De Cássia Orlandi; Pitangui, Nayla De Souza; Rodríguez-Arellanes, Gabriela; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Fusco-Almeida, Ana Maria; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of fungi have demonstrated the ability to colonize surfaces and form biofilms. Most studies on fungal biofilms have focused on Candida albicans and more recently, several authors have reported the involvement of other genera of yeasts and Candida species, as well as of filamentous fungi in the formation of biofilms, including: Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii, Rhodotorula species, Aspergillus fumigatus, Malassezia pachydermatis, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Pneumocystis species, Coccidioides immitis, Fusarium species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii, Mucorales and Blastoschizomyces. There is a current interest in describing the particular characteristics of the biofilm formation by of these fungi. A major concern is the control of biofilms, requiring knowledge of the biofilm mechanisms. However, our knowledge of these microbial communities is limited, due to the complexity of these systems and metabolic interactions that remain unknown. This mini-review aims to highlight recently discovered fungal biofilms and to compare them with the current knowledge on biofilms. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Fungal infections of the orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipasha Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the orbit can lead to grave complications. Although the primary site of inoculation of the infective organism is frequently the sinuses, the patients can initially present to the ophthalmologist with ocular signs and symptoms. Due to its varied and nonspecific clinical features, especially in the early stages, patients are frequently misdiagnosed and even treated with steroids which worsen the situation leading to dire consequences. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with the clinical spectrum of disease and the variable presentation of this infection, as early diagnosis and rapid institution of appropriate therapy are crucial elements in the management of this invasive sino-orbital infection. In this review, relevant clinical, microbiological, and imaging findings are discussed along with the current consensus on local and systemic management. We review the recent literature and provide a comprehensive analysis. In the immunocompromised, as well as in healthy patients, a high index of suspicion must be maintained as delay in diagnosis of fungal pathology may lead to disfiguring morbidity or even mortality. Obtaining adequate diagnostic material for pathological and microbiological examination is critical. Newer methods of therapy, particularly oral voriconazole and topical amphotericin B, may be beneficial in selected patients.

  3. Tattooing to "Toughen up": Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Christopher D; Dominguez, Johnna T; DeCaro, Jason A

    2016-09-10

    A costly signaling model suggests tattooing inoculates the immune system to heightened vigilance against stressors associated with soft tissue damage. We sought to investigate this "inoculation hypothesis" of tattooing as a costly honest signal of fitness. We hypothesized that the immune system habituates to the tattooing stressor in repeatedly tattooed individuals and that immune response to the stress of the tattooing process would correlate with lifetime tattoo experience. Participants were 24 women and 5 men (aged 18-47). We measured immune function using secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and cortisol (sCORT) in saliva collected before and after tattoo sessions. We measured tattoo experience as a sum of number of tattoos, lifetime hours tattooed, years since first tattoo, percent of body covered, and number of tattoo sessions. We predicted an inverse relationship between SIgA and sCORT and less SIgA immunosuppression among those with more tattoo experience. We used hierarchical multiple regression to test for a main effect of tattoo experience on post-tattoo SIgA, controlling for pretest SIgA, tattoo session duration, body mass, and the interaction between tattoo experience and test session duration. The regression model was significant (P = 0.006) with a large effect size (r(2)  = 0.711) and significant and positive main (P = 0.03) and interaction effects (P = 0.014). Our data suggest that the body habituates over time to the tattooing stressor. It is possible that individuals with healthy immune systems heal faster, making them more likely to get multiple tattoos. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:603-609, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Secretory ribonucleases in the primitive ruminant chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukelman, H J; Jekel, P A; Dubois, J Y; Mulder, P P; Warmels, H W; Beintema, J J

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of secretory ribonucleases or RNases 1 have shown that gene duplication events, giving rise to three paralogous genes (pancreatic, seminal and brain RNase), occurred during the evolution of ancestral ruminants. A higher number of paralogous sequences are present in chevrotain (Tragulus javanicus), the earliest diverged taxon within the ruminants. Two pancreatic RNase sequences were identified, one encoding the pancreatic enzyme, the other encoding a pseudogene. The identity of the pancreatic enzyme was confirmed by isolation of the protein and N-terminal sequence analysis. It is the most acidic pancreatic ribonuclease identified so far. Formation of the mature enzyme requires cleavage by signal peptidase of a peptide bond between two glutamic acid residues. The seminal-type RNase gene shows features of a pseudogene, like orthologous genes in other ruminants investigated with the exception of the bovine species. The brain-type RNase gene of chevrotain is expressed in brain tissue. A hybrid gene with a pancreatic-type N-terminal and a brain-type C-terminal sequence has been identified but nothing is known about its expression. Phylogenetic analysis of RNase 1 sequences of six ruminant, three other artiodactyl and two whale species support previous findings that two gene duplications occurred in a ruminant ancestor. Three distinct groups of pancreatic, seminal-type and brain-type RNases have been identified and within each group the chevrotain sequence it the first to diverge. In taxa with duplications of the RNase gene (ruminants and camels) the gene evolved at twice as fast than in taxa in which only one gene could be demonstrated; in ruminants there was an approximately fourfold increase directly after the duplications and then a slowing in evolutionary rate.

  5. [Clinicopathologic features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X P; Ni, H; Wang, X; Chen, H; Shi, S S; Yu, B; Zhou, X J; Rao, Q

    2017-01-08

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands, and its diagnosis, differential diagnosis, immunohistochemistry and molecular pathology. Methods: Seventeen cases of MASC were enrolled, with 9 cases of salivary acinar cell carcinoma and 18 cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma as control groups from Nanjing General Hospital from 1997 to 2014 were included in this retrospective study, combined with immunohistochemistry and molecular detection of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. All cases were histologically reviewed with immunohistochemical staining (EnVision) for S-100 protein, SOX10, GATA3, CD117 expression in each group. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. Results: The age of MASC patients ranged from 27 to 74 years with mean age of 47 and ratio of male and female was 4∶3. All cases showed infiltrative growth and diverse cytology and histology, including lobular (8 cases), cystic papillary (3 cases), cribriform mixed with papillary and glandular structures (6 cases) at various proportions. Some tumors of MASC also exhibited solid growth areas with occasional microcystic honeycombed pattern composed of small cysts merged into larger cysts resembling thyroid follicles. S-100 protein and SOX10 were strongly positive in all MASC cases (17/17). In addition, there was insignificant positivity for GATA3 (3/17) and CD117 (4/17). ETV6 gene fusion detection was informative in 12 MASC cases by FISH with 10 positive cases and 2 negative cases. Conclusions: Combined immunohistochemical positivity of S-100 protein, CD117 and SOX10 are useful in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of MASC. FISH detection of ETV6-NTRK3 fusion offers an additional molecular diagnostic marker for the diagnosis.

  6. Secretory pathway Ca2+/Mn2+-ATPase isoform 2 and lactation: specific localization of plasmalemmal and secretory pathway Ca2+ pump isoforms in the mammary gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faddy, Helen M.; Smart, Chanel E.; Xu, Ren; Lee, Genee Y.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Feng, Mingye; Rao, Rajini; Brown, Melissa A.; Bissell, Mina J.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2008-04-09

    The supply of calcium to the developing neonate via milk is an important physiological process. Until recently the mechanism for the enrichment of milk with calcium was thought to be almost entirely mediated via the secretory pathway. However, recent studies suggest that a specific isoform of the plasma membrane calcium ATPase, PMCA2, is the primary mechanism for calcium transport into milk, highlighting a major role for apical calcium transport. We compared the expression of the recently identified secretory calcium ATPase, SPCA2, and SPCA1, in the mouse mammary gland during different stages of development. SPCA2 levels increased over 35 fold during lactation, while SPCA1 increased only a modest two fold. The potential importance of SPCA2 in lactation was also highlighted by its localization to luminal secretory cells of the mammary gland during lactation, while SPCA1 was expressed throughout the cells of the mammary gland. We also observed major differences in the localization of PMCA2 and PMCA1 during lactation. Using the SCp2 mouse mammary epithelial cell 3D culture model, differences in the sub-cellular distribution of PMCA2 and PMCA1 were clear. These studies highlight the likely specific roles of PMCA2 and SPCA2 in lactation, and link the recently characterized SPCA2 calcium pump to the supply of calcium into milk and the regulation of Golgi resident enzymes important in lactation. They also indicate that calcium transport into milk is a complex interplay between apical and secretory pathways.

  7. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  8. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  9. The burden of fungal disease in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Klaus L; Denning, David W; Arendrup, Maiken C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to calculate the burden of fungal disease in Denmark. We identified all published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates in Denmark. Where no data existed, we used numbers of specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in those populations to estimate national incidence or prevalence. Approximately, one in six Danes will suffer from a fungal infection each year, most of which are skin or mucosal diseases causing disability but no deaths. Good data exist on candidaemia where a national voluntary reporting system is in place and have shown a high rate (9.6 per 100,000 inhabitants) compared other European countries. We present estimates of invasive aspergillosis and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with rates of 4.4 per 100,000 and 3.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Further studies are needed in order to better ascertain high-burden fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (~1350 cases in 100,000 women) as well as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (~131 cases in 100,000 inhabitants) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (cases in 100,000 inhabitants). In conclusion, more than 93,000 Danes or about 2% of Denmark's population will have a non-trivial fungal infection during 1 year, which underscores the magnitude of the fungal burden. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Tropospheric ozone as a fungal elicitor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tropospheric ozone has been proven to trigger biochemical plant responses that are similar to the ones induced by an attack of fungal pathogens, i.e. it resembles fungal elicitors. This suggests that ozone can represent a valid tool for the study of stress responses and induction of resistance to pathogens. This review ...

  11. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elton

    indicated for mucosal candidiasis. AST may be requested in treatment-refractory cases,9 if the laboratory has the capacity to perform testing using a standardised method. FUNGAL INFECTIONS – LABORATORY. HIV-associated opportunistic fungal infections: a guide to using the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  12. Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging shows spatial segregation of secondary metabolites in Eucalyptus secretory cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, A M; Lincoln, C N; Goodger, J Q D; Woodrow, I E; Smith, T A

    2012-07-01

    Multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging provides an excellent tool for imaging deep within plant tissues while providing a means to distinguish between fluorophores with high spatial and temporal resolution. Ideal candidates for the application of multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to plants are the embedded secretory cavities found in numerous species because they house complex mixtures of secondary metabolites within extracellular lumina. Previous investigations of this type of structure have been restricted by the use of sectioned material resulting in the loss of lumen contents and often disorganization of the delicate secretory cells; thus it is not known if there is spatial segregation of secondary metabolites within these structures. In this paper, we apply multiphoton fluorescence lifetime imaging to investigate the spatial arrangement of metabolites within intact secretory cavities isolated from Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker leaves. The secretory cavities of this species are abundant (up to 10 000 per leaf), large (up to 6 nL) and importantly house volatile essential oil rich in the monoterpene 1,8-cineole, together with an immiscible, non-volatile component comprised largely of autofluorescent oleuropeic acid glucose esters. We have been able to optically section into the lumina of secretory cavities to a depth of ∼80 μm, revealing a unique spatial organization of cavity metabolites whereby the non-volatile component forms a layer between the secretory cells lining the lumen and the essential oil. This finding could be indicative of a functional role of the non-volatile component in providing a protective region of low diffusivity between the secretory cells and potentially autotoxic essential oil. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2012 Royal Microscopical Society.

  13. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-12-11

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Functional Characterization of Monomeric GTPase Rab1 in the Secretory Pathway of Leishmania*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Surbhi; Parashar, Smriti; Malhotra, Himanshu; Raje, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania secretes a large number of its effectors to the extracellular milieu. However, regulation of the secretory pathway in Leishmania is not well characterized. Here, we report the cloning, expression, and characterization of the Rab1 homologue from Leishmania. We have found that LdRab1 localizes in Golgi in Leishmania. To understand the role of LdRab1 in the secretory pathway of Leishmania, we have generated transgenic parasites overexpressing GFP-LdRab1:WT, GFP-LdRab1:Q67L (a GTPase-deficient dominant positive mutant of Rab1), and GFP-LdRab1:S22N (a GDP-locked dominant negative mutant of Rab1). Surprisingly, our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N does not disrupt the trafficking and localization of hemoglobin receptor in Leishmania. To determine whether the Rab1-dependent secretory pathway is conserved in parasites, we have analyzed the role of LdRab1 in the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase and Ldgp63 in Leishmania. Our results have shown that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N significantly inhibits the secretion of secretory acid phosphatase by Leishmania. We have also found that overexpression of GFP-LdRab1:Q67L or GFP-LdRab1:S22N retains RFP-Ldgp63 in Golgi and blocks the secretion of Ldgp63, whereas the trafficking of RFP-Ldgp63 in GFP-LdRab1:WT-expressing cells is unaltered in comparison with control cells. Taken together, our results have shown that the Rab1-regulated secretory pathway is well conserved, and hemoglobin receptor trafficking follows an Rab1-independent secretory pathway in Leishmania. PMID:26499792

  15. Histological and histochemical characterization of the secretory cells of Choeradoplana iheringi Graff, 1899 (Platyhelminthes: Tricladida: Terricola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. de Souza

    Full Text Available The present study aims at providing a detailed description of the histology, as well as the first histochemical characterization, of the secretory cells of the epidermis, pharynx, and copulatory organs of Choeradoplana iheringi, in order to give further support to studies on the physiology of these organs. The secretory cells are distinguished on the basis of secretion morphology and its staining properties, using trichrome methods and histochemical reactions. Four cell types open through the epidermis of Ch. iheringi, three of them secreting basic protein and a fourth containing glycosaminoglycan mucins. The epidermal lining cells store glycogen. In the pharynx, four secretory cell types were distinguished. Two types produce glycoprotein, a third type secretes basic protein, and another one produces glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the male copulatory organs, the prostatic vesicle receives four secretory cell types containing basic protein, except for one type which produces glycoprotein. The two secretory cell types opening into the male atrium secrete, respectively, glycoprotein, and glycosaminoglycan mucins. In the female copulatory organs, the female atrium and its proximal diverticulum, the vagina, receive two types of secretory cells producing, respectively, basic protein and glycosaminoglycan mucins. Another secretory cell type constitutes the so-called shell glands which open into the common glandular duct, secreting basic protein. The lining cells of the male and female atria produce a mucous secretion containing glycosaminoglycans. In addition, the lining epithelium of the female atrium presents an apical secretion of a proteic nature. The occurrence of a kind of spermatophore is reported for the first time for a species of Choeradoplana. This structure is located in the male or female atria in different specimens, and characterized by erythrophil, xanthophil, and/or mixed secretions associated with sperm.

  16. Allergic fungal sinusitis causing nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Charles; Kacker, Ashutosh; Chee, Ru-Ik; Lelli, Gary J

    2013-04-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis is thought to represent a chronic autoimmune reaction directed against fungal elements within the sinuses, and is commonly seen in individuals with a history of chronic sinusitis that is refractory to medical therapy. The authors present a case of allergic fungal sinusitis involving the lacrimal drainage system. A 54-year-old woman initially presented with recurrent erythema and induration of the left nasolacrimal sac due to dacryocystitis, which was unresponsive to treatment with topical and systemic antibiotics. Radiological evaluation demonstrated the presence of multiple soft tissue masses along the medial canthi. During subsequent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, significant amounts of allergic mucin were found within the sinuses and marked eosinophilia was present within tissue obtained from the lacrimal sac, findings highly suggestive of allergic fungal sinusitis. A diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis should be considered in patients presenting with epiphora in the appropriate clinical context. However, involvement of the lacrimal drainage system is an exceedingly unusual presentation.

  17. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  18. Industrial fungal enzymes: an occupational allergen perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brett J; Beezhold, Donald H

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

  19. Industrial Fungal Enzymes: An Occupational Allergen Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett J. Green

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to high-molecular-weight allergens is a risk factor for the development and pathogenesis of IgE-mediated respiratory disease. In some occupational environments, workers are at an increased risk of exposure to fungal enzymes used in industrial production. Fungal enzymes have been associated with adverse health effects in the work place, in particular in baking occupations. Exposure-response relationships have been demonstrated, and atopic workers directly handling fungal enzymes are at an increased risk for IgE-mediated disease and occupational asthma. The utilization of new and emerging fungal enzymes in industrial production will present new occupational exposures. The production of antibody-based immunoassays is necessary for the assessment of occupational exposure and the development of threshold limit values. Allergen avoidance strategies including personal protective equipment, engineering controls, protein encapsulation, and reduction of airborne enzyme concentrations are required to mitigate occupational exposure to fungal enzymes.

  20. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  1. Hydrodynamics, Fungal Physiology, and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Carreón, L; Galindo, E; Rocha-Valadéz, J A; Holguín-Salas, A; Corkidi, G

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous cultures, such as fungi and actinomycetes, contribute substantially to the pharmaceutical industry and to enzyme production, with an annual market of about 6 billion dollars. In mechanically stirred reactors, most frequently used in fermentation industry, microbial growth and metabolite productivity depend on complex interactions between hydrodynamics, oxygen transfer, and mycelial morphology. The dissipation of energy through mechanically stirring devices, either flasks or tanks, impacts both microbial growth through shearing forces on the cells and the transfer of mass and energy, improving the contact between phases (i.e., air bubbles and microorganisms) but also causing damage to the cells at high energy dissipation rates. Mechanical-induced signaling in the cells triggers the molecular responses to shear stress; however, the complete mechanism is not known. Volumetric power input and, more importantly, the energy dissipation/circulation function are the main parameters determining mycelial size, a phenomenon that can be explained by the interaction of mycelial aggregates and Kolmogorov eddies. The use of microparticles in fungal cultures is also a strategy to increase process productivity and reproducibility by controlling fungal morphology. In order to rigorously study the effects of hydrodynamics on the physiology of fungal microorganisms, it is necessary to rule out the possible associated effects of dissolved oxygen, something which has been reported scarcely. At the other hand, the processes of phase dispersion (including the suspended solid that is the filamentous biomass) are crucial in order to get an integral knowledge about biological and physicochemical interactions within the bioreactor. Digital image analysis is a powerful tool for getting relevant information in order to establish the mechanisms of mass transfer as well as to evaluate the viability of the mycelia. This review focuses on (a) the main characteristics of the two most

  2. Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis: detection of fungal DNA in sinus aspirate using polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Morsy, S M; Khafagy, Y W; El-Naggar, M M; Beih, A A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, and aimed to compare the detection of fungi in sinus aspirate by culture and by polymerase chain reaction assay, and to relate the presence of fungi in the nasal sinuses to the type of fungal allergen causing disease. Sixty-eight cases of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis underwent fungal culture and polymerase chain reaction assay for universal fungal, aspergillus and bipolaris DNA. Aspergillus-specific immunoglobulin E levels were measured in sinus aspirate, and total serum immunoglobulin E levels were calculated. A control group of 10 cases was included in the study. Of the 68 allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases, only 42 (61.7 per cent) had positive fungal cultures; of the 10 controls, only three (30 per cent) had positive cultures. Species from the dematiaceous family were most commonly grown, being isolated in 30 cases (71.4 per cent). Bipolaris was the most commonly isolated species (18 cases) followed by curvularia (11 cases) and alternaria (one case). Polymerase chain reaction assay detected fungal DNA in all the allergic fungal rhinosinusitis cases and also in four controls (40 per cent). Ten patients (of 68; 14.7 per cent) were positive for Aspergillus fumigatus specific immunoglobulin E. The mean concentration of this immunoglobulin was 11.32 +/- 4.12 IU/ml in patients and 0 IU/ml in controls, a statistically significant difference. Detection of fungal DNA in nasal aspirate by polymerase chain reaction was superior to fungal cultures as a method of detecting fungal growth. In allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal growth is not always accompanied by an allergic reaction.

  3. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-05-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  4. Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes. PMID:19898490

  5. Establishing human lacrimal gland cultures with secretory function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Tiwari

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Dry eye syndrome is a multifactorial chronic disabling disease mainly caused by the functional disruptions in the lacrimal gland. The treatment involves palliation like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. Cell therapy involving replacement of the gland is a promising alternative for providing long-term relief to patients. This study aimed to establish functionally competent lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro and explore the presence of stem cells in the native gland and the established in-vitro cultures. METHODS: Fresh human lacrimal gland from patients undergoing exenteration was harvested for cultures after IRB approval. The freshly isolated cells were evaluated by flow cytometry for expression of stem cell markers ABCG2, high ALDH1 levels and c-kit. Cultures were established on Matrigel, collagen and HAM and the cultured cells evaluated for the presence of stem cell markers and differentiating markers of epithelial (E-cadherin, EpCAM, mesenchymal (Vimentin, CD90 and myofibroblastic (α-SMA, S-100 origin by flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. The conditioned media was tested for secretory proteins (scIgA, lactoferrin, lysozyme post carbachol (100 µM stimulation by ELISA. RESULTS: Native human lacrimal gland expressed ABCG2 (mean±SEM: 3.1±0.61%, high ALDH1 (3.8±1.26% and c-kit (6.7±2.0%. Lacrimal gland cultures formed a monolayer, in order of preference on Matrigel, collagen and HAM within 15-20 days, containing a heterogeneous population of stem-like and differentiated cells. The epithelial cells formed 'spherules' with duct like connections, suggestive of ductal origin. The levels of scIgA (47.43 to 61.56 ng/ml, lysozyme (24.36 to 144.74 ng/ml and lactoferrin (32.45 to 40.31 ng/ml in the conditioned media were significantly higher than the negative controls (p<0.05 for all comparisons. CONCLUSION: The study reports the novel finding of establishing functionally competent human lacrimal gland cultures in-vitro. It also

  6. Medical interventions for fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FlorCruz, Nilo Vincent; Evans, Jennifer R

    2015-04-09

    Fungal keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea. It is common in lower income countries, particularly in agricultural areas but relatively uncommon in higher income countries. Although there are medications available, their effectiveness is unclear. To assess the effects of different antifungal drugs in the management of fungal keratitis. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to March 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to March 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (January 1982 to March 2015), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 16 March 2015. We included randomised controlled trials of medical therapy for fungal keratitis. Two review authors selected studies for inclusion in the review, assessed trials for risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was clinical cure at two to three months. Secondary outcomes included best-corrected visual acuity, time to clinical cure, compliance with treatment, adverse outcomes and quality of life. We included 12 trials in this review; 10 trials were conducted in India, one in Bangladesh and one in Egypt. Seven of these trials were at high risk of bias in one or more domains, two of these studies were at low risk of bias in all domains. Participants were randomised to the following comparisons: topical 5% natamycin compared to topical 1% voriconazole; topical 5% natamycin compared to topical 2% econazole; topical 5% natamycin compared to topical chlorhexidine gluconate (0

  7. Ionizing radiation effects on the secretory-stage ameloblasts and enamel organic extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Ramos-Perez, Flávia Maria; do Espírito Santo, Alexandre Ribeiro; da Cruz Perez, Danyel Elias; Novaes, Pedro Duarte; Bóscolo, Frab Norberto; Line, Sérgio Roberto Peres; de Almeida, Solange Maria

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on eruption rate, odontogenic region morphology, secretory-stage ameloblasts, and enamel organic extracellular matrix (EOECM) of rat maxillary incisors. For the study, 30 male rats were divided into three experimental groups: control (non-irradiated), irradiated by 15 Gy, and irradiated by 25 Gy. Irradiated groups received a single dose of 15 or 25 Gy of X-rays in the head and neck region. The maxillary incisor eruption rate was measured. Sections of 5-µm thickness of the maxillary incisor odontogenic regions were evaluated using bright field light microscopy. Ultrathin sections of secretory ameloblasts and their EOECM were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Irradiated groups showed significantly diminished eruption rate values at the 4th and at the 6th day after irradiation. Reduced optical retardation values were observed in the irradiated groups. The odontogenic region of maxillary incisors from irradiated rats exhibited altered and poorly organized preameloblasts. TEM showed degeneration areas in the secretory-stage EOECM and several autophagosomes in the secretory ameloblasts from irradiated animals. In conclusion, high radiation doses delay eruption and induce disturbances in secretory ameloblasts and EOECM of rat maxillary incisors. These findings may be associated with structural defects of mature enamel.

  8. Fungal genome sequencing: basic biology to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna Kant

    2016-08-01

    The genome sequences provide a first glimpse into the genomic basis of the biological diversity of filamentous fungi and yeast. The genome sequence of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with a small genome size, unicellular growth, and rich history of genetic and molecular analyses was a milestone of early genomics in the 1990s. The subsequent completion of fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and genetic model, Neurospora crassa initiated a revolution in the genomics of the fungal kingdom. In due course of time, a substantial number of fungal genomes have been sequenced and publicly released, representing the widest sampling of genomes from any eukaryotic kingdom. An ambitious genome-sequencing program provides a wealth of data on metabolic diversity within the fungal kingdom, thereby enhancing research into medical science, agriculture science, ecology, bioremediation, bioenergy, and the biotechnology industry. Fungal genomics have higher potential to positively affect human health, environmental health, and the planet's stored energy. With a significant increase in sequenced fungal genomes, the known diversity of genes encoding organic acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and their pathways has increased exponentially. Currently, over a hundred fungal genome sequences are publicly available; however, no inclusive review has been published. This review is an initiative to address the significance of the fungal genome-sequencing program and provides the road map for basic and applied research.

  9. Isolated secondary fungal infections of pleural cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Ergin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pleural fungal infections are rare, but the incidence has been increasing with immunosuppressant diseases and use of immunosuppressive medications. In this report, we present 6 patients with pleural effusions that have been determined fungal infection. Methods: The medical records of patients with followed and treated due to fungal infection of the pleural were retrospectively reviewed. Result: The 6 cases whom was 58 of the value median for age were treated as surgical and medical due to fungal infection of the pleural cavity. Dyspnea, cough and chest pain were the most common symptoms. Fever, night sweats and expectoration are relatively rare. In 4 patients, the infections of pleural cavity developed on the bases of rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, pleural mesothelioma and esophagopleural fistula. In two patients had isolated fungal infections. Cultural positivity was seen in 5 patients. Fungal hyphae were determined by cytopathology in all of the patients. As a surgical procedure, all of the patients underwent decortication or pleural biopsy and pleural irrigation. In all patients, antifungal agents were added to surgical procedures. Full recovery of infection was seen in 5 patients. One patient died. Conclusion: In immunosuppressive patients, the incidence of pleural effusions due to or associated with fungal infections are more common. Addition to culture of pleural fluid, histopathological evaluation of pleura will aid diagnosis. J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (4: 443-446

  10. Presentation and diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirullah; Nawaz, Ghareeb; Sattar, Syed Fazle

    2010-01-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a form of fungal disease that has recently been considered a distinct clinicopathologic entity. Other forms of fungal sinusitis include acute-fulminant (invasive), chronic indolent (invasive) and mycetoma (non-invasive). Objectives were to assess the presentation and to describe the diagnostic techniques for allergic fungal sinusitis in our setup. Descriptive study was conducted in the Department of ENT and Head & Neck Surgery, Khyber Medical College and Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 2002 to April 2008. Twenty-three cases of allergic fungal sinusitis (ASF) were selected for the study. Data like, name, age, sex, address, clinical features, labs (Eosinophil count) and imaging studies (CT and/or MRI) were recorded, including the pre- and postoperative treatment, operative findings and postoperative results, recurrence of disease were also recorded. Surgical procedures were performed on all cases followed by medical treatment. Study revealed that AFS is a disease of younger age, mainly occurring in 2nd & 3rd decade of life, with male to female ratio 1:1.3. Allergic rhinitis (91%) and nasal polyposis (91%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (96%), nasal discharge (91%), post-nasal discharge (87%) and unilateral multi sinus extension were important clinical features. Increased eosinophil count and increased IgE level was found in 78% cases. Histopathological analysis showed fungal hyphae in all cases and aspergillus was predominant organism on culture. Orbital erosion was seen in 78% and skull base erosion was observed in 9%. Recurrence of disease was seen in nine cases. Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a disease of young immunocompetent adults. Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, nasal allergy and proptosis were the most common presentations. Initial diagnosis of allergic fungal sinusitis requires high index of suspicion in patients presenting with chronic rhinosinusitis, such cases should be

  11. Proteome of cell wall-extracts from pathogenic Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Comparison among morphological phases, isolates, and reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa V.G. Longo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We identified non-covalently linked cell wall proteins from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeasts and mycelia, with focus on the yeast pathogenic phase, and correlated them with reported fungal extracellular vesicle proteins. We studied isolates Pb3 and Pb18, which evoke distinct patterns of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis and represent two phylogenetic groups. Proteins were extracted mildly with dithiothreitol, trypsinized, and peptides analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Among 132 yeast-exclusive sequences, 92 were Pb18-exclusive. About 80% of total proteins were classified as secretory, mostly showing non-conventional signals. Extracellular vesicular transportation could be involved, since 60% had orthologs reported in fungal extracellular vesicles.

  12. Effect of Semen on Vaginal Fluid Cytokines and Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Agnew

    2008-01-01

    Methods: 138 pregnant women had vaginal fluid collected for Gram stain, acid phosphatase detection by colorimetric assay, and interleukin 1-Beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor measurement by enzyme immunoassay. Results for women with and without acid phosphatase were compared by Mann-Whitney test. Results: of 138 subjects, 28 (20% had acid phosphatase detected; of these, only 19 (68% reported recent intercourse and 3 (11% had sperm seen on Gram stain. There were no significant differences in proinflammatory cytokine concentrations; however, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor concentrations were significantly higher among women with acid phosphatase. Conclusions: proinflammatory cytokine measurement does not appear to be affected by the presence of semen, but secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor is significantly higher when semen is present. Detection of semen by acid phosphatase was associated with higher vaginal SLPI concentrations, however, the presence of semen did not appear to influence vaginal proinflammatory cytokine concentrations.

  13. Expanding Fungal Diets Through Synthetic Algal-Fungal Mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alaisha; Galazka, Jonathan (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    Fungi can synthesize numerous molecules with important properties, and could be valuable production platforms for space exploration and colonization. However, as heterotrophs, fungi require reduced carbon. This limits their efficiency in locations such as Mars, where reduced carbon is scarce. We propose a system to induce mutualistic symbiosis between the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the filamentous fungi Neurospora crassa. This arrangement would mimic natural algal-fungal relationships found in lichens, but have added advantages including increased growth rate and genetic tractability. N. crassa would metabolize citrate (C6H5O7 (sup -3)) and release carbon dioxide (CO2) that C. reinhardtii would assimilate into organic sugars during photosynthesis. C. reinhardtii would metabolize nitrate (NO3-) and release ammonia (NH3) as a nitrogen source for N. crassa. A N. crassa mutant incapable of reducing nitrate will be used to force this interaction. This system eliminates the need to directly supply its participants with carbon dioxide and ammonia. Furthermore, the release of oxygen by C. reinhardtii via photosynthesis would enable N. crassa to respire. We hope to eventually create a system closer to lichen, in which the algae transfers not only nitrogen but reduced carbon, as organic sugars, to the fungus for growth and production of valuable compounds.

  14. Radial secretory glia conserved in the postnatal vertebrate brain: a study in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehweg, J; Naumann, W W

    1996-10-01

    Secretory glial cells in the roof of the last diencephalic prosomer, ependymocytes and hypendymocytes, form the subcommissural organ. The cells of this complex were labelled immunocytochemically, using an antiserum against their specific secretory products. The study aims at the characterization of this cell type in the rat as an anatomical model situation. Radially oriented secretory glial cells remain after birth behind the posterior commissure in the mesencephalic aqueduct. At about postnatal day 10, the cell bodies descend into the conventional ependyma and at postnatal day 25 they assume a compact, rounded appearance. The secretory product they release is involved in the formation of Reissner's fiber. This differentiation in phenotype is not accompanied by a change of the intermediate filament expression. In the adult rat these cells had been labelled immunopositive for cytokeratins 8 and 18 as well as vimentin but not for glial fibrillary acidic protein. DiI-marking from the third ventricle and from the dorsal surface of the brain shows that the basal processes of ependymocytes and hypendymocytes project to the external and internal glial limiting membrane, respectively, through the commissural fiber bundles. Also the subependymal located hypendymocytes have apical processes with contacts to the cerebrospinal fluid. When this secretory cell population is studied with respect to cyto-architectonical changes during ontogeny the results lead to a new understanding of the subcommissural cells. They are not specialized ependymal cells in a regionally restricted and secondary differentiated ependymal area, but rather descendants of an ontogenetically ancient, specific type of radial glia. Characteristic features for all subcommissural cells are that they: (1) appear very early during ontogeny, (2) are derived from a radial oriented glial cell type, (3) carry at least one kinocilium, (4) possess an original intermediate filament pattern, (5) release a secretory

  15. A highly sensitive assay for monitoring the secretory pathway and ER stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E Badr

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The secretory pathway is a critical index of the capacity of cells to incorporate proteins into cellular membranes and secrete proteins into the extracellular space. Importantly it is disrupted in response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum that can be induced by a variety of factors, including expression of mutant proteins and physiologic stress. Activation of the ER stress response is critical in the etiology of a number of diseases, such as diabetes and neurodegeneration, as well as cancer. We have developed a highly sensitive assay to monitor processing of proteins through the secretory pathway and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in real-time based on the naturally secreted Gaussia luciferase (Gluc.An expression cassette for Gluc was delivered to cells, and its secretion was monitored by measuring luciferase activity in the conditioned medium. Gluc secretion was decreased down to 90% when these cells were treated with drugs that interfere with the secretory pathway at different steps. Fusing Gluc to a fluorescent protein allowed quantitation and visualization of the secretory pathway in real-time. Expression of this reporter protein did not itself elicit an ER stress response in cells; however, Gluc proved very sensitive at sensing this type of stress, which is associated with a temporary decrease in processing of proteins through the secretory pathway. The Gluc secretion assay was over 20,000-fold more sensitive as compared to the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP, a well established assay for monitoring of protein processing and ER stress in mammalian cells.The Gluc assay provides a fast, quantitative and sensitive technique to monitor the secretory pathway and ER stress and its compatibility with high throughput screening will allow discovery of drugs for treatment of conditions in which the ER stress is generally induced.

  16. Differential protein expression in the secretory fluids of maxillary sinusitis and maxillary retention cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soung Min; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Kim, Yeon Sook; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-01-01

    Both maxillary sinusitis (MS) and maxillary retention cyst (MRC) involve the maxillary sinus and show similar clinical features. Clinically, differentiating between MS and MRC is sometimes difficult in asymptomatic patients, despite their quite different pathogenic behaviors. To identify differential protein expressions in the secretory fluids of MS and MRC, 25 cases of asymptomatic MS and 15 cases of asymptomatic MRC were examined pathologically in this study. All patients underwent routine endoscopic sinus surgery or modified Caldwell-Luc procedure and the sinus mucosal specimens obtained during these procedures with the approval of the Institutional Review Board. Their secretory fluids were analyzed via immunoprecipitation-based high-performance liquid chromatography (IP-HPLC) using 25 types of antiserum, including inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial proteins, and mucosal protective proteins. In the histological examinations, MS and MRC showed similar features in the secretory columnar epithelial lining and thick submucosal connective tissue, both of which contained few inflammatory cells infiltrates. The IP-HPLC analysis revealed that TNFα, IL-1, -8, MMP-3, -10, α1-antitrypsin, cathepsin C, lysozyme, lactoferrin, β-defensin-1, -3, LL-37, mucocidin, and mucin-1 were more intensely expressed in MS than in MRC; whereas IgA, cystatin A, and proline-rich proteins were more strongly expressed in MRC than in MS. These data indicate that the secretory fluid of MS is indicative of a more robust inflammatory reaction to certain bacteria compared to that of MRC, while the secretory fluid of MRC contains more abundant mucosal protective proteins compared to that of MS. Taken together, the IP-HPLC analysis of MS and MRC secretory fluid revealed that MRC showed a weaker inflammatory reaction but a stronger mucosal protective function than MS.

  17. The secretory membrane system studied in real-time. Robert Feulgen Prize Lecture, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott-Schwartz, J

    2001-08-01

    The discovery and development of green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the jellyfish, Aequorea victoria, has revolutionized studies on protein localization and dynamics by allowing direct observation of a protein's life history and pathway in living cells, previously only deduced from genetic, biochemical, or immunolabeling studies. Applied to the secretory membrane system, which regulates delivery of newly synthesized proteins and lipids to the cell surface, GFP-based studies are providing important new insights into the maintenance and biogenesis of organelles, as well as the origin, pathway, and fate of secretory transport intermediates.

  18. Ca(2+)-independent fusion of secretory granules with phospholipase A2-treated plasma membranes in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, T.; Kubo, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Nishio, H; Takeuchi, T.; Hata, F.

    1995-01-01

    The fusion of secretory granules with plasma membranes prepared from rat parotid gland was studied in vitro to clarify the mechanism of exocytosis. Fusion of the granules with plasma membranes was measured by a fluorescence-dequenching assay with octadecyl rhodamine B, and release of amylase was also measured to confirm the fusion as a final step of the secretory process. Plasma membranes that had been pretreated with porcine phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the presence of 20 microM Ca2+ fused wit...

  19. Synthesis of sn-1 functionalized phospholipids as substrates for secretory phospholipase A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderoth, Lars; Peters, Günther H.J.; Jørgensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) represents a family of small water-soluble enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids in the sn-2 position liberating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Herein we report the synthesis of two new phospholipids (1 and 2) with bulky allyl-substituen......Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) represents a family of small water-soluble enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids in the sn-2 position liberating free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Herein we report the synthesis of two new phospholipids (1 and 2) with bulky allyl...

  20. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prashant; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Singh, Shuchita; Kinra, Prateek; Ray, Ruma; Thakar, Alok

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  1. Cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma arising in the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Urrego, Paula A; Dogan, Snjezana; Lin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland, first described by Skálová et al in 2010, is a tumor that morphologically and genetically resembles breast secretory carcinoma harboring ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. To date, only seven cases of primary thyroid MASC have been described. The overall findings are similar to those seen in the salivary gland counterpart including the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This is the second report describing the cytologic features of MASC at this primary location, which also showed a classical type papillary carcinoma component. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:552-556. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  3. The structure and function of fungal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The structure and function of fungal cell walls were studied with particular emphasis on dermatophytes. Extraction, isolation, analysis, and observation of the cell wall structure and function were performed. The structure is described microscopically and chemically.

  4. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  5. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you for a fungal infection. Where you live (geography) matters. Some disease-causing fungi are more common ... which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. 8 In Latin America, histoplasmosis is one of the most common opportunistic ...

  6. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  7. Foreword: Special issue on fungal grapevine diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    An impressively large proportion of fungicides applied in European, North American and Australian agriculture has been used to manage grapevine powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator), grapevine downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), and botrytis bunch rot (Botrytis cinerea). These fungal and oomycetous plan...

  8. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  9. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal ... January 25, 2017 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic ...

  10. Fungal peroxisomes as biosynthetic organelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Thorsten; Sandrock, Björn; Ast, Julia; Freitag, Johannes

    2014-12-01

    Peroxisomes are nearly ubiquitous single-membrane organelles harboring multiple metabolic pathways beside their prominent role in the β-oxidation of fatty acids. Here we review the diverse metabolic functions of peroxisomes in fungi. A variety of fungal metabolites are at least partially synthesized inside peroxisomes. These include the essential co-factor biotin but also different types of secondary metabolites. Peroxisomal metabolites are often derived from acyl-CoA esters for example β-oxidation intermediates. In several ascomycetes a subtype of peroxisomes has been identified that is metabolically inactive but is required to plug the septal pores of wounded hyphae. Thus, peroxisomes are versatile organelles that can adapt their function to the life style of an organism. This remarkable variability suggests that the full extent of the biosynthetic capacity of peroxisomes is still elusive. Moreover, in fungi peroxisomes are non-essential under laboratory conditions making them attractive organelles for biotechnological approaches and the design of novel metabolic pathways in customized peroxisomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomics of Fungal Disease Resistance in Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Panthee, Dilip R.; Chen, Feng

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Often times, its production is hindered by fungal diseases. Important fungal diseases limiting tomato production are late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, early blight, caused by Alternaria solanii, and septoria leaf spot, caused by Septoria lycopersici, fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporium fsp. oxysporium, and verticilium wilt caused by Verticilium dahlea. The Phytophthora infestans is the same fungus tha...

  12. Fungal Endophthalmitis Associated with Compounded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mikosz, Christina A.; Smith, Rachel M.; Kim, Moon; Tyson, Clara; Lee, Ellen H.; Adams, Eleanor; Straif-Bourgeois, Susanne; Sowadsky, Rick; Arroyo, Shannon; Grant-Greene, Yoran; Duran, Julie; Vasquez, Yvonne; Robinson, Byron F.; Harris, Julie R.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare but serious infection. In March 2012, several cases of probable and laboratory-confirmed fungal endophthalmitis occurring after invasive ocular procedures were reported nationwide. We identified 47 cases in 9 states: 21 patients had been exposed to the intraocular dye Brilliant Blue G (BBG) during retinal surgery, and the other 26 had received an intravitreal injection containing triamcinolone acetonide. Both drugs were produced by Franck’s Compounding Lab (Oc...

  13. File list: His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2681,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2689,SRX1002688 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2688,SRX1002689 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Histone Uterus Fallopian tube secret...2680,SRX1002681 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Utr.20.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube secret...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.05.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.10.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell hg19 Input control Uterus Fallopian tube...iencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Utr.50.AllAg.Fallopian_tube_secretory_epithelial_cell.bed ...

  1. Structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto-Bergter Eliana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. In fungal cells, CMHs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-Methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebrosides, but the recent description of a ceramide dihexoside (CDH presenting phytosphingosine in Magnaporthe grisea suggests the existence of alternative pathways of ceramide glycosylation in fungal cells. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. In Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus nidulans, A. fumigatus, and Schizophyllum commune, CMHs are apparently involved in morphological transitions and fungal growth. The elucidation of structural and functional aspects of fungal cerebrosides may therefore contribute to the design of new antifungal agents inhibiting growth and differentiation of pathogenic species.

  2. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U; Ivarsen, A; Mortensen, K L; Hjortdal, J

    2013-09-01

    Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69), 6 out of 17 (35%) cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86%) IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  3. Fungal Keratitis - Improving Diagnostics by Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esben Nielsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12-69, 6 out of 17 (35% cultures were positive and a total of 6/7 (86% IVCM scans were positive. Three different categories of IVCM results for the grading of diagnostic certainty were formed. Conclusion: IVCM is a valuable tool for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis. In order to improve the reliability of IVCM, we suggest implementing a simple and clinically applicable grading system for aiding the interpretation of IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis.

  4. Estimated burden of fungal infections in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Markus; Groll, Andreas H; Mayser, Peter; Ullmann, Andrew J; Mendling, Werner; Hof, Herbert; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    In the late 1980's, the incidence of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in Germany was estimated with 36.000 IFDs per year. The current number of fungal infections (FI) occurring each year in Germany is still not known. In the actual analysis, data on incidence of fungal infections in various patients groups at risk for FI were calculated and mostly estimated from various (mostly national) resources. According to the very heterogenous data resources robust data or statistics could not be obtained but preliminary estimations could be made and compared with data from other areas in the world using a deterministic model that has consistently been applied in many countries by the LIFE program ( www.LIFE-worldwide.org). In 2012, of the 80.52 million population (adults 64.47 million; 41.14 million female, 39.38 million male), 20% are children (0-14 years) and 16% of population are ≥65 years old. Using local data and literature estimates of the incidence or prevalence of fungal infections, about 9.6 million (12%) people in Germany suffer from a fungal infection each year. These figures are dominated (95%) by fungal skin disease and recurrent vulvo-vaginal candidosis. In general, considerable uncertainty surrounds the total numbers because IFDs do not belong to the list of reportable infectious diseases in Germany and most patients were not hospitalised because of the IFD but a distinct underlying disease. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Golgi apparatus: finally mechanics comes to play in the secretory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egea, Gustavo; Serra-Peinado, Carla

    2014-08-18

    New findings report a mechanical role for actin in Golgi organization and vesicular trafficking. An elegant study uses optical tweezers and live-cell imaging to demonstrate the effects of a mechanical constraint on the dynamics of secretory membrane trafficking, combining physical experimental approaches with in cellulo studies of endomembranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the sorting signal motif within pro-opiomelanocortin for the regulated secretory pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cool, D R; Fenger, M; Snell, C R

    1995-01-01

    amino acid residues (Asp10-Leu11-Glu14-Leu1). Thus the sorting signal for POMC to the regulated secretory pathway appears to be encoded by a specific conformational motif comprised of a 13-amino acid amphipathic loop structure stabilized by a disulfide bridge, located at the NH2 terminus of the molecule....

  7. Morphological, histochemical and immunohistochemical characterization of secretory production of the ciliary glands in the porcine eyelid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Yasui

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In addition to performing general histology and cytology of the ciliary glands of the miniature pig, we studied the localization of glycoconjugates and b-defensins in these glands with the use of carbohydrate histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells of the glands were equipped with non-homogeneous secretory granules, a welldeveloped Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory epithelium and luminal secretion of the glands contained large amounts of neutral and acidic glycoconjugates with various saccharide residues (a-L-Fuc, b-DGal, a-D-GalNAc and sialic acid. The sebaceous glands and tarsal glands also exhibited positive reactions to most of the histochemical methods. Additionally, the antimicrobial peptide group of b-defensins was demonstrated to be products of the ciliary glands, as well as the sebaceous glands and tarsal glands. The results obtained are discussed with regard to the specific function of the ciliary glandular secretions. These secretory products may be related to the moistening and general protection of the skin surface of the eyelid and ocular surface.

  8. Lactadherin inhibits secretory phospholipase A2 activity on pre-apoptotic leukemia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Nyegaard

    Full Text Available Secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 is a critical component of insect and snake venoms and is secreted by mammalian leukocytes during inflammation. Elevated secretory PLA2 concentrations are associated with autoimmune diseases and septic shock. Many sPLA2's do not bind to plasma membranes of quiescent cells but bind and digest phospholipids on the membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells. The capacity of these phospholipases to digest membranes of stimulated or apoptotic cells correlates to the exposure of phosphatidylserine. In the present study, the ability of the phosphatidyl-L-serine-binding protein, lactadherin to inhibit phospholipase enzyme activity has been assessed. Inhibition of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on phospholipid vesicles exceeded 90%, whereas inhibition of Naja mossambica sPLA2 plateaued at 50-60%. Lactadherin inhibited 45% of activity of Naja mossambica sPLA2 and >70% of human secretory phospholipase A2-V on the membranes of human NB4 leukemia cells treated with calcium ionophore A23187. The data indicate that lactadherin may decrease inflammation by inhibiting sPLA2.

  9. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  10. Human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in squamous metaplastic epithelium of bronchial airways.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarbiou, J.; Schadewijk, A. van; Stolk, J.; Sont, J.K.; Boer, W.I.; Rabe, K.F.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Mauad, T.; Hiemstra, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze a possible contribution of human neutrophil defensins and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) to the induction of airway epithelial changes such as squamous cell metaplasia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presence of these molecules and the

  11. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Faroldi, Gianni; Rodríguez, Carlos E; Urdiales, José L; Pérez-Pomares, José M; Dávila, José C; Pejler, Gunnar; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Fajardo, Ignacio

    2010-11-30

    Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG) present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules. Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system. Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  12. Polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and are important for granule homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni García-Faroldi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mast cell secretory granules accommodate a large number of components, many of which interact with highly sulfated serglycin proteoglycan (PG present within the granules. Polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine are absolutely required for the survival of the vast majority of living cells. Given the reported ability of polyamines to interact with PGs, we investigated the possibility that polyamines may be components of mast cell secretory granules.Spermidine was released by mouse bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs after degranulation induced by IgE/anti-IgE or calcium ionophore A23187. Additionally, both spermidine and spermine were detected in isolated mouse mast cell granules. Further, depletion of polyamines by culturing BMMCs with α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO caused aberrant secretory granule ultrastructure, impaired histamine storage, reduced serotonin levels and increased β-hexosaminidase content. A proteomic approach revealed that DFMO-induced polyamine depletion caused an alteration in the levels of a number of proteins, many of which are connected either with the regulated exocytosis or with the endocytic system.Taken together, our results show evidence that polyamines are present in mast cell secretory granules and, furthermore, indicate an essential role of these polycations during the biogenesis and homeostasis of these organelles.

  13. Resin secretory structures of Boswellia papyrifera and implications for frankincense yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolera, Motuma; Menger, David; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Sterck, Frank J; Copini, Paul; Bongers, Frans

    2013-01-01

    Frankincense, a gum-resin, has been tapped from Boswellia papyrifera trees for centuries. Despite the intensive tapping and economic interest of B. papyrifera, information on the resin secretory structures, which are responsible for synthesis, storage and transport of frankincense, is virtually absent. This study describes the type, architecture and distribution of resin secretory structures of B. papyrifera and its relevance for the ecophysiology and economic use of the tree. The type and architecture of resin secretory structures present in bark and wood was investigated from transversal, tangential and radial sections of bark and wood samples. The diameter and density (number of resin canals mm(-2)) of axial resin canals were determined from digital images of thin sections across the different zones of inner bark. Resin canals form a three-dimensional network within the inner bark. Yet, the intact resin-conducting and producing network is on average limited to the inner 6·6 mm of the inner bark. Within the inner bark, the density of non-lignified axial resin canals decreases and the density of lignified resin canals increases from the vascular cambium towards the outer bark. In the wood, only radial resin canals were encountered. Frankincense tapping techniques can be improved based on knowledge of bark anatomy and distribution and architecture of resin secretory structures. The suggested new techniques will contribute to a more sustainable frankincense production that enhances the contribution of frankincense to rural livelihoods and the national economy.

  14. Resin secretory structures of Boswellia papyrifera and implications for frankincense yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolera, M.; Menger, D.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Copini, P.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Frankincense, a gum-resin, has been tapped from Boswellia papyrifera trees for centuries. Despite the intensive tapping and economic interest of B. papyrifera, information on the resin secretory structures, which are responsible for synthesis, storage and transport of frankincense, is virtually

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of excretory/secretory compounds from Contracaecum osculatum larvae in a zebrafish inflammation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Kania, Per Walter; Nazemi, Sasan

    2017-01-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) compounds isolated from third-stage larvae of the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum parasitizing liver of Baltic cod were investigated for effects on immune gene expression in a zebrafish LPS-induced inflammation model. ES products containing a series of proteins...

  16. Secretory phospholipase A2 potentiates glutamate-induced rat striatal neuronal cell death in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) OS2 (10, 20 and 50 pmol) or OS1, (50 pmol) purified from taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus venom, and the excitatory amino acid glutamate (Glu) (2.5 and 5.0 micromol) were injected into the right striatum of male Wistar rats. Injection of 10 an...

  17. Synaptotagmin 1 Negatively Controls the Two Distinct Immune Secretory Pathways to Powdery Mildew Fungi in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeran; Kwon, Hyeokjin; Kim, Soohong; Kim, Mi Kyung; Botella, Miguel A; Yun, Hye Sup; Kwon, Chian

    2016-06-01

    PEN1, one of the plasma membrane (PM) syntaxins, comprises an immune exocytic pathway by forming the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex with SNAP33 and VAMP721/722 in plants. Although this secretory pathway is also involved in plant growth and development, how plants control their exocytic activity is as yet poorly understood. Since constitutive PEN1 cycling between the PM and endocytosed vesicles is critical for its immune activity, we studied here the relationship of PEN1 to synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) that is known to regulate endocytosis at the PM. Interestingly, syt1 plants showed enhanced disease resistance to the Arabidopsis-adapted Golovinomyces orontii fungus, and elevated protein but not transcript levels of PEN1 Calcium-dependent promotion of PEN1-SYT1 interaction suggests that SYT1 controls defense activities of the PEN1-associated secretory pathway by post-translationally modulating PEN1. Increased PEN1-SYT1 interaction and inhibited PEN1 SNARE complex induction by G. orontii additionally suggest that the adaption of phytopathogens to host plants might partly result from effective suppression of the PEN1-related secretory pathway. Further genetic analyses revealed that SYT1 also regulates the atypical peroxisomal myrosinase PEN2-associated secretory pathway. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A highway for war and peace: the secretory pathway in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Dong, Xinnian

    2011-07-01

    Secretion of proteins and other molecules is the primary means by which a cell interacts with its surroundings. The overall organization of the secretory system is remarkably conserved among eukaryotes, and many of the components have been investigated in detail in animal models. Plant cells, because of their sessile lifestyle, are uniquely reliant on the secretory pathway to respond to changes in their environments, either abiotic, such as the absence of nutrients, or biotic, such as the presence of predators or pathogens. In particular, most plant pathogens are extracellular, which demands a robust and efficient host secretory system directed at the site of attack. Here, we present a summary of recent advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the secretory pathway during plant-microbe interactions. Secretion is required not only for the delivery of antimicrobial molecules, but also for the biogenesis of cell surface sensors to detect microbes. The deposition of extracellular material is important in the defense against classical bacterial pathogens as well as in the so-called 'non-host' resistance. Finally, boosting the protein secretion capacity is vital for avoiding infection as well as for achieving symbiosis, even though in the latter case, the microbes are engulfed in intracellular compartments. The emerging evidence indicates that secretion provides an essential interface between plant hosts and their associated microbial partners.

  19. Anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti-spasmodic and antiulcer activities of

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In isolated tissue (rabbit jejunum), Am.Cr concentration-dependently (0.01 - 3.0 mg/mL) produced relaxation of K+ (80 mM)-induced and spontaneous contractions at ... anti-secretory, antispasmodic and anti-ulcer activities, probably mediated through dual mechanisms, including Ca2+ influx and PDE enzyme(s) inhibition.

  20. Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, Michael V.; Simon, Tabassome; Exeter, Holly J.; Folkersen, Lasse; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guardiola, Montse; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Carruthers, Kathryn F.; Horne, Benjamin D.; Brunisholz, Kimberly D.; Mega, Jessica L.; van Iperen, Erik P. A.; Li, Mingyao; Leusink, Maarten; Trompet, Stella; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Dehghan, Abbas; Nelson, Christopher P.; Kotti, Salma; Danchin, Nicolas; Scholz, Markus; Haase, Christiane L.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Staines-Urias, Eleonora; Goel, Anuj; van 't Hooft, Ferdinand; Gertow, Karl; de Faire, Ulf; Panayiotou, Andrie G.; Tremoli, Elena; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Holdt, Lesca M.; Beutner, Frank; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Navis, Gerjan J.; Mateo Leach, Irene; Breitling, Lutz P.; Brenner, Hermann; Thiery, Joachim; Dallmeier, Dhayana; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Stephens, Jeffrey W.; Hofker, Marten H.; Tedgui, Alain; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Adamkova, Vera; Pitha, Jan; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cramer, Maarten J.; Nathoe, Hendrik M.; Spiering, Wilko; Klungel, Olaf H.; Kumari, Meena; Whincup, Peter H.; Morrow, David A.; Braund, Peter S.; Hall, Alistair S.; Olsson, Anders G.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Trip, Mieke D.; Tobin, Martin D.; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Koenig, Wolfgang; Nicolaides, Andrew N.; Teupser, Daniel; Day, Ian N. M.; Carlquist, John F.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Morris, Richard W.; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Poledne, Rudolf; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Keating, Brendan J.; van der Harst, Pim; Price, Jackie F.; Mehta, Shamir R.; Yusuf, Salim; Witteman, Jaqueline C. M.; Franco, Oscar H.; Jukema, J. Wouter; de Knijff, Peter; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Rader, Daniel J.; Farrall, Martin; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Fox, Keith A. A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Anderson, Jeffrey L.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Palmer, Tom M.; Eriksson, Per; Paré, Guillaume; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Sabatine, Marc S.; Mallat, Ziad; Casas, Juan P.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease. Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is

  1. Interactions between Melanin Enzymes and Their Atypical Recruitment to the Secretory Pathway by Palmitoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijana Upadhyay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Melanins are biopolymers that confer coloration and protection to the host organism against biotic or abiotic insults. The level of protection offered by melanin depends on its biosynthesis and its subcellular localization. Previously, we discovered that Aspergillus fumigatus compartmentalizes melanization in endosomes by recruiting all melanin enzymes to the secretory pathway. Surprisingly, although two laccases involved in the late steps of melanization are conventional secretory proteins, the four enzymes involved in the early steps of melanization lack a signal peptide or a transmembrane domain and are thus considered “atypical” secretory proteins. In this work, we found interactions among melanin enzymes and all melanin enzymes formed protein complexes. Surprisingly, the formation of protein complexes by melanin enzymes was not critical for their trafficking to the endosomal system. By palmitoylation profiling and biochemical analyses, we discovered that all four early melanin enzymes were strongly palmitoylated during conidiation. However, only the polyketide synthase (PKS Alb1 was strongly palmitoylated during both vegetative hyphal growth and conidiation when constitutively expressed alone. This posttranslational lipid modification correlates the endosomal localization of all early melanin enzymes. Intriguingly, bioinformatic analyses predict that palmitoylation is a common mechanism for potential membrane association of polyketide synthases (PKSs and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs in A. fumigatus. Our findings indicate that protein-protein interactions facilitate melanization by metabolic channeling, while posttranslational lipid modifications help recruit the atypical enzymes to the secretory pathway, which is critical for compartmentalization of secondary metabolism.

  2. Molecular characterization and expression of two putative protective excretory secretory proteins of Haemonchus contortus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Cornelissen, A. W.

    1997-01-01

    It has been shown that vaccination with two low molecular mass excretory secretory (ES) antigens of 15 and 24 kDa, respectively, afforded a substantial degree of protection against Haemonchus contortus to sheep. In vitro cultivation of the parasite usually yields a limited amount of these proteins

  3. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98...

  4. Anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti-spasmodic and anti- ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ethanol-induced gastric ulceration in rats. In acute toxicity testing Am.Cr did not produce any mortality up to 5 g/kg dose. Conclusion: These results show that Acacia modesta possesses anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti- spasmodic and anti-ulcer activities, probably mediated through dual mechanisms, including Ca2+ influx.

  5. Anti-ulcer and gastric anti-secretory activities of seed extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol extract of Buchholzia coriacea seed was evaluated for anti-ulcer as well as anti-secretory activity in rats because of its use in Nigerian folk medicine as an anti-ulcer agent. Standard pharmacological methods were used to carry out phytochemical analysis of the plant. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the ...

  6. Secretory phospholipase A(2) induces delayed neuronal COX-2 expression compared with glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Nielsen, Marianne; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2002-01-01

    Agonists of the binding site for secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) potentiate glutamate-induced neuronal cell death in primary cell cultures and in vivo (Kolko et al. [1996] J. Biol. Chem. 271:32722; Kolko et al. [1999] Neurosci. Lett. 274:167]. Here, we tested the hypothesis that COX-2...

  7. Characterization of a foldase, protein disulfide isomerase A, in the protein secretory pathway of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngiam, C.; Jeenes, D.J.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Archer, D.B.

    2000-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is important in assisting the folding and maturation of secretory proteins in eukaryotes. A gene, pdiA, encoding PDIA was previously isolated from Aspergillus niger, and we report its functional characterization here. Functional analysis of PDIA showed that it

  8. Differential testosterone secretory capacity of the testes of aggressive and nonaggressive house mice during ontogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, Anne J H; Koolhaas, Jaap M; van Oortmerssen, Geert A; Bohus, Bela

    1992-01-01

    In this study, testosterone secretory capacity of testicular Leydig cells during ontogeny was determined in males of an aggressive and a nonaggressive genetic selection line of wild house mice. Neonates, 23-day-old prepubertals, and adult male mice were studied. A morphometric method was used to

  9. THE ROLE OF SECRETORY GRANULES IN RADIATION-INDUCED DYSFUNCTION OF RAT SALIVARY-GLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PETER, B; VANWAARDE, MAWH; VISSINK, A; SGRAVENMADE, EJ; KONINGS, AWT

    To investigate the possible role of secretory granules in radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction, rats were pretreated with isoproterenol (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to degranulate salivary gland acini, At maximal depletion, salivary glands were locally irradiated with a single dose of 15 Gy

  10. ETV6 rearrangement in a case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Michael D; Arthur, Allison K; García, Joaquín J; Sukov, William R; Shon, Wonwoo

    2016-11-01

    Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary glands is a relatively recently recognized entity that harbors the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. To date, only rare cases of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin have been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a 6.0 cm cystic mass in the axilla, involving the dermis and superficial subcutis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited nodular aggregation of tubular and microcystic structures embedded in the dense fibrotic and hyalinized stroma. Characteristic 'colloid-like' eosinophilic secretory material was present within intraluminal spaces. Tumor cells were largely characterized by vesicular nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli and pink vacuolated cytoplasm. With respect to immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were intensely positive for AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, and CK7, whereas Ber-EP4 and CEA were completely negative. A dual color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probe identified rearrangement of the ETV6 gene locus on chromosome 12. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrent disease or metastasis 3 years after the initial surgery. In conclusion, we report a rare example of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin with ETV6 rearrangement. Awareness of this unique cutaneous tumor and subsequent reporting of additional cases is necessary for better characterization of its completely clinicopathologic spectrum. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane ...

  12. PICK1 deficiency impairs secretory vesicle biogenesis and leads to growth retardation and decreased glucose tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Holst

    Full Text Available Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1 as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of

  13. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  14. Etiological Analysis of Fungal Keratitis and Rapid Identification of Predominant Fungal Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dan; Hao, Jilong; Gao, Song; Wan, Xue; Wang, Wanting; Shan, Qiushi; Wang, Li

    2016-02-01

    Fungal keratitis is a worldwide-distributed refractory and potentially blinding ocular infection caused by various fungi. It is necessary to investigate the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of this disease and establish a rapid and specific pathogenic identification method. Here, we isolated and identified fungal pathogens of 275 patients with presumed fungal keratitis from Jilin Province, China, and conducted statistical analyses of epidemiological information. The positive rate of fungal culture was 72.0 %. Fusarium sp. was the most common genus among 210 fungal isolates. The predominant species were Fusarium solani, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida glabrata, which accounted for over 50 % of the isolated organisms. Corneal trauma and previous use of drugs were the most important predisposing factors. In addition, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was designed with species-specific primers of the three species that could identify them with amplicons of approximately 330 bp from F. solani, 275 bp from A. fumigatus, and 230 bp from C. glabrata. Additionally, PCR with fungal universal primers and multiplex PCR were performed using DNA prepared by an improved DNA extraction method from corneal scrapings. With this method, fungal pathogens from corneal scrapings could be specifically and rapidly identified within 8 h. The culture-independent rapid identification of corneal scrapings may have great significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of fungal keratitis.

  15. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  16. Effect of nicotine on exocytotic pancreatic secretory response: role of calcium signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Parimal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a risk factor for pancreatitis resulting in loss of pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms of nicotine-induced secretory response measured in primary pancreatic acinar cells isolated from Male Sprague Dawley rats. The study examines the role of calcium signaling in the mechanism of the enhanced secretory response observed with nicotine exposure. Methods Isolated and purified pancreatic acinar cells were subjected to a nicotine exposure at a dose of 100 μM for 6 minutes and then stimulated with cholecystokinin (CCK for 30 min. The cell’s secretory response was measured by the percent of amylase released from the cells in the incubation medium Calcium receptor antagonists, inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers, mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitors and specific nicotinic receptor antagonists were used to confirm the involvement of calcium in this process. Results Nicotine exposure induced enhanced secretory response in primary cells. These responses remained unaffected by mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK’s inhibitors. The effects, however, have been completely abolished by nicotinic receptor antagonist, calcium channel receptor antagonists and inositol trisphosphate (IP3 receptor blockers. Conclusions The data suggest that calcium activated events regulating the exocytotic secretion are affected by nicotine as shown by enhanced functional response which is inhibited by specific antagonists… The results implicate the role of nicotine in the mobilization of both intra- and extracellular calcium in the regulation of stimulus-secretory response of enzyme secretion in this cell system. We conclude that nicotine plays an important role in promoting enhanced calcium levels inside the acinar cell.

  17. Tracheobronchial epithelium of the sheep: IV. Lectin histochemical characterization of secretory epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariassy, A T; Plopper, C G; St George, J A; Wilson, D W

    1988-09-01

    Conventional histochemical characterization of the mucus secretory apparatus is often difficult to reconcile with the biochemical analysis of respiratory secretions. This study was designed to examine the secretory glycoconjugates in airways using lectins with biochemically defined affinities for main sugar residues of mucus. We used five biotinylated lectins--DBA (Dolichos biflorus) and SBA (Glycine max) for N-acetyl galactosamine (galNAc), BSA I (Bandeiraea simplicifolia) and PNA (Arachis hypogea) for galactose (gal), and UEA I (Ulex europeus)--for detection of fucose (fuc) in HgCl2-fixed, paraffin-embedded, serially sectioned trachea, lobar and segmental bronchi and bronchioles of nine sheep. Lectins selectively localized the carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, on epithelial cell surfaces, and in secretory cells. In proximal airways, the major carbohydrate residues in luminal secretions, cell surfaces, goblet cells, and glands were fuc and gal-NAc. PNA reacted mainly with apical granules of less than 10% of goblet cells, and gal residues were only detected in some of the mucous cells and on basolateral cell surfaces. Distal airways contained sparse secretion in the lumen, mucous cells contained weakly reactive fuc and gal-NAc, and the epithelial surfaces of Clara cells contained gal. Sugars abundant in the airway secretions were also the major component of cells in glands. We conclude that there is a correlation between specific sugar residues in secretory cells, glycocalyx, and luminal secretions in proximal and distal airways. This suggests that lectins may be used to obtain information about airway secretory cell composition from respiratory secretions.

  18. Burden of fungal infections in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    We report for the first time in Algeria and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the National Office of Statistics (Office National des Statistiques: ONS), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants, and probably at least 568,900 (1.41%) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems, as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2,020 people, invasive aspergillosis in 2,865 people, and intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people; these are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer including 1,500 in children), nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients, of whom 20.3% are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria.

  19. Towards a Cancer Drug of Fungal Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Alexander; Evidente, Antonio; Vurro, Maurizio; Mathieu, Véronique; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; van Otterlo, Willem A. L.; Dasari, Ramesh; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Although fungi produce highly structurally diverse metabolites, many of which have served as excellent sources of pharmaceuticals, no fungi-derived agent has been approved as a cancer drug so far. This is despite a tremendous amount of research being aimed at the identification of fungal metabolites with promising anticancer activities. This review discusses the results of clinical testing of fungal metabolites and their synthetic derivatives, with the goal to evaluate how far we are from an approved cancer drug of fungal origin. Also, because in vivo studies in animal models are predictive of the efficacy and toxicity of a given compound in a clinical situation, literature describing animal cancer testing of compounds of fungal origin is reviewed as well. Agents showing the potential to advance to clinical trials are also identified. Finally, the technological challenges involved in the exploitation of fungal biodiversity and procurement of sufficient quantities of clinical candidates are discussed and potential solutions that could be pursued by researchers are highlighted. PMID:25850821

  20. Toward a Cancer Drug of Fungal Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Alexander; Evidente, Antonio; Vurro, Maurizio; Mathieu, Véronique; Cimmino, Alessio; Evidente, Marco; van Otterlo, Willem A L; Dasari, Ramesh; Lefranc, Florence; Kiss, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Although fungi produce highly structurally diverse metabolites, many of which have served as excellent sources of pharmaceuticals, no fungi-derived agent has been approved as a cancer drug so far. This is despite a tremendous amount of research being aimed at the identification of fungal metabolites with promising anticancer activities. This review discusses the results of clinical testing of fungal metabolites and their synthetic derivatives, with the goal to evaluate how far we are from an approved cancer drug of fungal origin. Also, because in vivo studies in animal models are predictive of the efficacy and toxicity of a given compound in a clinical situation, literature describing animal cancer testing of compounds of fungal origin is reviewed as well. Agents showing the potential to advance to clinical trials are also identified. Finally, the technological challenges involved in the exploitation of fungal biodiversity and procurement of sufficient quantities of clinical candidates are discussed, and potential solutions that could be pursued by researchers are highlighted. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  2. Burden of serious fungal infections in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrou, Katrien; Maertens, Johan; Van Even, Ellen; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to estimate the total number of serious fungal infections occurring yearly in Belgium. The number of cryptococcal infections was retrieved from the National Reference Center for Mycosis. Populations at risk and fungal infections frequencies in these populations were used to estimate incidence or prevalence of other fungal infections. The Belgian population consists of 11.10 million people. Cryptococcal meningitis is rare. In all, 15 of the 1227 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases presented with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. This accounts for ±14% of total PCP cases (n = 120). The incidence of candidaemia is estimated as 5/100,000 resulting in 555 cases and 213 deaths. A total number of 675 invasive aspergillosis cases and ≥169 deaths attributed to this infection were calculated. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis is estimated to be prevalent in 662 cases. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis cases were estimated to be 23,119 applying a 2.5% and 15% rate in adult asthma and cystic fibrosis patients respectively. Severe asthma with fungal sensitisation cases was estimated to be 30,402. There were 174,760 women with recurrent Candida vaginitis assuming a 6% rate in women aged between 15 and 50. Approximately 233,000 people of the Belgian population (2.1%) are estimated to suffer from a fungal infection on a yearly basis. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  4. Potential Roles of Fungal Extracellular Vesicles during Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Luna S.; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by virtually all cell types. Within the past few years, work in this field has revealed more information about fungal EVs. Fungal EVs have been shown to carry proteins, lipids, pigments, polysaccharides, and RNA; these components are known virulence factors, a fact which supports the hypothesis that fungal EVs concentrate pathogenic determinants. Additionally, recent studies have demonstrated that fungal EVs stimulate the host immune system. In this review, putative roles of fungal EVs are discussed, including their potential as vaccination tools and their possible contribution to pathogenesis in invasive fungal diseases. PMID:27390779

  5. Marsupialized fungal mycetoma masquerading as conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyad, Fouad E; Karp, Carol L; Wong, James R; Weiss, Matthew J; Bermudez-Magner, J Antonio; Dubovy, Sander

    2014-07-01

    To report a case of a fungal mass misdiagnosed as a pigmented conjunctival melanoma. Case report. A 38-year-old woman was referred for a pigmented conjunctival lesion that was diagnosed as a melanoma. She had a history of a scleral buckle in that eye for retinal detachment 2 years before presentation. Slit-lamp examination revealed a pigmented mass from the 11- to 2-o'clock position. This was noted to be imbricated within the invagination of a conjunctival fold from the previous surgery. The mass was removed, cultured, and confirmed to be a fungal infection from Scytalidium sp. Scleral buckles can cause folds in the conjunctiva, which can be foci for fungal infection.

  6. Population genetics of fungal diseases of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraud T.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Although parasitism is one of the most common lifestyles among eukaryotes, population genetics on parasites lag far behind those on free-living organisms. Yet, the advent of molecular markers offers great tools for studying important processes, such as dispersal, mating systems, adaptation to host and speciation. Here we highlight some studies that used molecular markers to address questions about the population genetics of fungal (including oomycetes plant pathogens. We conclude that population genetics approaches have provided tremendous insights into the biology of a few fungal parasites and warrant more wide use in phytopathology. However, theoretical advances are badly needed to best apply the existing methods. Fungi are of prime interest not only because they are major parasites of plants and animals, but they also constitute tractable and highly useful models for understanding evolutionary processes. We hope that the emerging field of fungal evolution will attract more evolutionary biologists in the near future.

  7. Molecular Diagnostics for Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Paplomatas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.

  8. The immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shmuel; Levitz, Stuart M

    2005-06-01

    During the past two decades, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a major threat to immunocompromised hosts. Patients with neoplastic diseases are at significant risk for such infections as a result of their underlying illness and its therapy. Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus and emerging pathogens, such as the zygomycetes, dark walled fungi, Trichosporon and Fusarium, are largely opportunists, causing infection when host defences are breached. The immune response varies with respect to the fungal species and morphotype encountered. The risk for particular infections differs, depending upon which aspect of immunity is impaired. This article reviews the current understanding of the role and relative importance of innate and adaptive immunity to common and emerging fungal pathogens. An understanding of the host response to these organisms is important in decisions regarding use of currently available antifungal therapies and in the design of new therapeutic modalities.

  9. [The burden of fungal infections in Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekiri-Talbi, M; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    In Algeria, superficial mycoses are very commonly diagnosed. Deep fungal infections are less often observed. Few data from Algeria are found in the literature. We report for the first time the main causes of these diseases in our country and provide burden estimates. We searched for existing data and estimated the incidence and prevalence of fungal diseases based on the population at risk and available epidemiological data. Demographic data were derived from the Service (Office) of the Statistics (ONES), World Health Organization (WHO), The Joint Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national published reports. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. Algeria has 40.4 million inhabitants and probably at least 568,900 (1.41 %) of Algerians have a serious fungal infection each year. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (485,000) and fungal asthma (72,000) are probably the commonest problems as there are over 1 million adult asthmatics. Candidaemia is estimated in 2020, invasive aspergillosis in 2865, intra-abdominal candidiasis in 303 people and are the most common life-threatening problems. AIDS is uncommon, but cancer is not (45,000 new cases of cancer among including 1500 in children) and nor is COPD (an estimated 317,762 patients of whom 20.3 % are admitted to hospital each year). A focus on improving the diagnosis and epidemiological data related to fungal infection is necessary in Algeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Fungal infections in burns: Diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capoor Malini

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Burn wound infection (BWI is a major public health problem and the most devastating form of trauma worldwide. Fungi cause BWI as part of monomicrobial or polymicrobial infection, fungaemia, rare aggressive soft tissue infection and as opportunistic infections. The risk factors for acquiring fungal infection in burns include age of burns, total burn size, body surface area (BSA (30-60%, full thickness burns, inhalational injury, prolonged hospital stay, late surgical excision, open dressing, artificial dermis, central venous catheters, antibiotics, steroid treatment, long-term artificial ventilation, fungal wound colonisation (FWC, hyperglycaemic episodes and other immunosuppressive disorders. Most of the fungal infections are missed owing to lack of clinical awareness and similar presentation as bacterial infection coupled with paucity of mycology laboratories. Expedient diagnosis and treatment of these mycoses can be life-saving as the mortality is otherwise very high. Emergence of resistance in non-albicans Candida spp., unusual yeasts and moulds in fungal BWI, leaves very few fungi susceptible to antifungal drugs, leaving many patients susceptible. There is a need to speciate fungi as far as the topical and systemic antifungal is concerned. Deep tissue biopsy and other relevant samples are processed by standard mycological procedures using direct microscopy, culture and histopathological examination. Patients with FWC should be treated by aggressive surgical debridement and, in the case of fungal wound infection (FWI, in addition to surgical debridement, an intravenous antifungal drug, most commonly amphotericin B or caspofungin, is prescribed followed by de-escalating with voriconazole or itraconazole, or fluconazole depending upon the species or antifungal susceptibility, if available. The propensity for fungal infection increases, the longer the wound is present. Therefore, the development of products to close the wound more rapidly

  11. Airway Secretory microRNAome Changes during Rhinovirus Infection in Early Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J Gutierrez

    Full Text Available Innate immune responses are fine-tuned by small noncoding RNA molecules termed microRNAs (miRs that modify gene expression in response to the environment. During acute infections, miRs can be secreted in extracellular vesicles (EV to facilitate cell-to-cell genetic communication. The purpose of this study was to characterize the baseline population of miRs secreted in EVs in the airways of young children (airway secretory microRNAome and examine the changes during rhinovirus (RV infection, the most common cause of asthma exacerbations and the most important early risk factor for the development of asthma beyond childhood.Nasal airway secretions were obtained from children (≤3 yrs. old during PCR-confirmed RV infections (n = 10 and age-matched controls (n = 10. Nasal EVs were isolated with polymer-based precipitation and global miR profiles generated using NanoString microarrays. We validated our in vivo airway secretory miR data in an in vitro airway epithelium model using apical secretions from primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC differentiated at air-liquid interface (ALI. Bioinformatics tools were used to determine the unified (nasal and bronchial signature airway secretory miRNAome and changes during RV infection in children.Multiscale analysis identified four signature miRs comprising the baseline airway secretory miRNAome: hsa-miR-630, hsa-miR-302d-3p, hsa- miR-320e, hsa-miR-612. We identified hsa-miR-155 as the main change in the baseline miRNAome during RV infection in young children. We investigated the potential biological relevance of the airway secretion of hsa-mir-155 using in silico models derived from gene datasets of experimental in vivo human RV infection. These analyses confirmed that hsa-miR-155 targetome is an overrepresented pathway in the upper airways of individuals infected with RV.Comparative analysis of the airway secretory microRNAome in children indicates that RV infection is associated with airway

  12. MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery for secretory pituitary adenomas: experience in 347 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shubin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretory pituitary adenomas are very common brain tumors. Historically, the treatment armamentarium for secretory pituitary adenomas included neurosurgery, medical management, and fractionated radiotherapy. In recent years, MASEP gamma knife radiosurgery (MASEP GKRS has emerged as an important treatment modality in the management of secretory pituitary adenomas. The goal of this research is to define accurately the efficacy, safety, complications, and role of MASEP GKRS for treatment of secretory pituitary adenomas. Methods Between 1997 and 2007 a total of 347 patients with secretory pituitary adenomas treated with MASEP GKRS and with at least 60 months of follow-up data were identified. In 47 of these patients some form of prior treatment such as transsphenoidal resection, or craniotomy and resection had been conducted. The others were deemed ineligible for microsurgery because of body health or private choice, and MASEP GKRS served as the primary treatment modality. Endocrinological, ophthalmological, and neuroradiological responses were evaluated. Results MASEP GKRS was tolerated well in these patients under the follow-up period ranged from 60 to 90 months; acute radioreaction was rare and 17 patients had transient headaches with no clinical significance. Late radioreaction was noted in 1 patient and consisted of consistent headache. Of the 68 patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting(ACTH adenomas, 89.7% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 27.9% experienced normalization of hormone level. Of the 176 patients with prolactinomas, 23.3% had normalization of hormone level and 90.3% showed tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged. Of the 103 patients with growth hormone-secreting(GH adenomas, 95.1% experienced tumor volume decrease or remain unchanged and 36.9% showed normalization of hormone level. Conclusion MASEP GKRS is safe and effective in treating secretory pituitary adenomas. None of the

  13. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  14. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  15. Proteomic analysis of excretory secretory products from Clonorchis sinensis adult worms: molecular characterization and serological reactivity of a excretory-secretory antigen-fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Minghui; Hu, Kunhua; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xuchu; Hu, Fengyu; Huang, Lisi; Wang, Peng; Hu, Yue; Huang, Yan; Li, Wenfang; Liang, Chi; Yin, Xingfeng; He, Qingyu; Yu, Xinbing

    2011-09-01

    Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne zoonotic parasite that resides in bile ducts and causes clonorchiasis, which may result in cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, hepatic fibrosis, and liver tumors. Although total excretory secretory products (ESP) of C. sinensis adults induce hepatic fibrosis in vivo in rats, the causative mechanism is not well understood. To study components of the ESP, C. sinensis culture medium was collected and analyzed using shotgun LC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 110 proteins, including glycometabolic enzymes (such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and enolase), detoxification enzymes (such as glutamate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and cathepsin B endopeptidase), and a number of RAB family proteins. To identify a potential causative agent for hepatic fibrosis, we expressed and purified a recombinant FBPase, a 1,041-bp gene product that encodes a 41.7-kDa protein with prototypical FBPase domains and that can form a tetramer with a molecular mass of 166.8 kDa. In addition, we found that FBPase is an antigen present in the ESP and in circulation. Immunofluorescence showed that FBPase localizes to the intestinal cecum and vitellarium in C. sinensis adults. Our results describe the components of the excretory secretory products from C. sinensis adult worms and suggest that FBPase may be an important antigen present in the ESP of C. sinensis and may lay the foundation for additional studies on the development of clonorchiasis-associated hepatic fibrosis.

  16. Comparison of Excretory-Secretory and Somatic Antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum in Agar Gel Diffusion Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Miranzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ornithobilharziosis as one of the parasitic infections may give rise to serious economic problems in animal husbandry. The Aim of the study was to prepare and compare the somatic and excretory-secretory (ES antigens of O. tur­kestanicum in gel diffusion test. Methods: Excretory-secretory (ES and somatic antigens of Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum were prepared from collected worms from mesentric blood vessels of infected sheep. The laboratory bred rabbits were immunized with antigens and then antisera were prepared. The reaction of antigens and antisera was observed in gel diffusion test. Results: ES antigens of this species showed positive reaction with antisera raised against ES and also somatic antigens. Somatic antigens also showed positive reaction with antisera raised against somatic and also ES antigens. Conclusion: The antigenicity of O. turkestanicum ES and somatic antigens is the same in gel diffusion test.

  17. Planar cell polarity protein localization in the secretory ameloblasts of rat incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Sumio; Kawamoto, Tadafumi

    2012-05-01

    The localization of the planar cell polarity proteins Vang12, frizzled-3, Vang11, and Celsr1 in the rat incisors was examined using immunocytochemistry. The results showed that Vang12 was localized at two regions of the Tomes' processes of inner enamel-secretory ameloblasts in rat incisors: a proximal and a distal region. In contrast, frizzled-3 was localized at adherens junctions of the proximal and distal areas of inner enamel- and outer enamel-secretory ameloblasts, where N-cadherin and β-catenin were localized. frizzled-3 was also localized in differentiating inner enamel epithelial cells. Vang11 was localized sparsely in differentiating preameloblasts and extensively at the cell boundary of stratum intermedium. Celsr1 was not localized in ameloblasts but localized in odontoblasts extensively. These results suggest the involvement of planar cell polarity proteins in odontogenesis.

  18. Large lipid-rich mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of parotid gland: An unusual case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC of the salivary gland is a malignant tumor which bears morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular features similar to those of mammary secretory carcinoma. The tumor is considered as a low-grade malignancy perhaps slightly more aggressive than acinic cell carcinoma. High-grade transformation with recurrences, regional nodal involvement, metastases, and cancer-related death has been reported in a few cases. We report an unusual case of large MASC of the parotid gland in a young patient without regional lymph node involvement. To the best of our knowledge till date such a large MASC of the salivary gland has not been reported in the English literature.

  19. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages...... and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD m......RNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA...

  20. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma of Parotid Gland in a Teenage Boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Humera; Fatima, Hadia; Faheem, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare salivary gland malignancy that exhibits resemblance with secretory carcinoma of the breast (SC) due to the presence of ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion, formerly classified as acinic cell carcinoma. It is a slowly growing painless tumor that exhibits wide range of clinical behavior. This tumor typically affects middle aged people. Less than 100 such cases have been reported in the literature so far with only 8 case reports of patients less than 19 years of age. Very little is known about the clinical management of such cases. We hereby report a case of 15-year boy who had been managed for MASC of left parotid gland with exision.

  1. Cytopathological features of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma--review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Maiko; Kasai, Takahiko; Morita, Kohei; Takeuchi, Mao; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Akinori; Mikami, Shinji; Hosoi, Hiroshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho

    2015-02-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described salivary gland tumor that morphologically resembles mammary secretory carcinoma and carries the identical ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. We report a surgical resected case of MASC in the parotid gland of a 41-year-old man. The cytological smears of a preoperative fine-needle aspiration showed many sheets and crowded clusters of monotonous epithelioid cells with mild atypia, suggestive of monomorphic tumor. Histologically, the tumor was composed of cuboidal cells with follicular, tubular, and solid structures, reminiscent of acinic cell carcinoma of follicular variant, which had been previously classified. This case had ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene transcript confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the cytological and histopathological diagnosis of monomorphic tumor of salivary gland, MASC needs to be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis. Further immunohistochemical and gene analyses are needed in diagnosis of MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary glands: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindocha, N; Wilson, M H; Pring, M; Hughes, C W; Thomas, S J

    2017-04-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently identified salivary gland neoplasm that can mimic other salivary gland tumours such as acinic cell carcinoma and cystadenocarcinoma. It is distinguished from these by differences in immunohistochemical profile and the identification of an ETV6-NTRK3 translocation (12;15)(p13;q25), which is also found in secretory carcinomas of the breast. Previous publications have suggested that MASC tumours have similar biological behaviour to acinic cell carcinoma. We report two cases of MASC that affected the upper lip, and showed an infiltrative and locally aggressive growth pattern that required several operations to ensure clearance of microscopic tumour cells. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Arginine-specific gingipains from Porphyromonas gingivalis deprive protective functions of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor in periodontal tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Into, T; Inomata, M; Kanno, Y; Matsuyama, T; Machigashira, M; Izumi, Y; Imamura, T; Nakashima, M; Noguchi, T; Matsushita, K

    2006-01-01

    .... In this study, we found that the expression of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous inhibitor for neutrophil-derived proteases, was reduced in gingival tissues with chronic periodontitis associated with P...

  4. An Alternative Terminal Step of the General Secretory Pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craney, Arryn; Dix, Melissa M; Adhikary, Ramkrishna; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2015-08-18

    Type I signal peptidase (SPase) is essential for viability in wild-type bacteria because the terminal step of the bacterial general secretory pathway requires its proteolytic activity to release proteins from their membrane-bound N-terminal leader sequences after translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. Here, we identify the Staphylococcus aureus operon ayrRABC (SA0337 to SA0340) and show that once released from repression by AyrR, the protein products AyrABC together confer resistance to the SPase inhibitor arylomycin M131 by providing an alternate and novel method of releasing translocated proteins. Thus, the derepression of ayrRABC allows cells to bypass the essentiality of SPase. We demonstrate that AyrABC functionally complements SPase by mediating the processing of the normally secreted proteins, albeit in some cases with reduced efficiency and either without cleavage or via cleavage at a site N-terminal to the canonical SPase cleavage site. Thus, ayrRABC encodes a secretion stress-inducible alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway. IMPORTANCE : Addressing proteins for proper localization within or outside a cell in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes is often accomplished with intrinsic signals which mediate membrane translocation and which ultimately must be removed. The canonical enzyme responsible for the removal of translocation signals is bacterial type I signal peptidase (SPase), which functions at the terminal step of the general secretory pathway and is thus essential in wild-type bacteria. Here, we identify a four-gene operon in S. aureus that encodes an alternate terminal step of the general secretory pathway and thus makes SPase nonessential. The results have important implications for protein secretion in bacteria and potentially for protein trafficking in prokaryotes and eukaryotes in general. Copyright © 2015 Craney et al.

  5. Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and secretory vesicles from human neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kevin P

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN constitute an essential cellular component of innate host defense against microbial invasion and exhibit a wide array of responses both to particulate and soluble stimuli. As the cells recruited earliest during acute inflammation, PMN respond rapidly and release a variety of potent cytotoxic agents within minutes of exposure to microbes or their products. PMN rely on the redistribution of functionally important proteins, from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane and phagosome, as the means by which to respond quickly. To determine the range of membrane proteins available for rapid recruitment during PMN activation, we analyzed the proteins in subcellular fractions enriched for plasma membrane and secretory vesicles recovered from the light membrane fraction of resting PMN after Percoll gradient centrifugation and free-flow electrophoresis purification using mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods. Results To identify the proteins light membrane fractions enriched for plasma membrane vesicles and secretory vesicles, we employed a proteomic approach, first using MALDI-TOF (peptide mass fingerprinting and then by HPLC-MS/MS using a 3D ion trap mass spectrometer to analyze the two vesicle populations from resting PMN. We identified several proteins that are functionally important but had not previously been recovered in PMN secretory vesicles. Two such proteins, 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP and dysferlin were further validated by immunoblot analysis. Conclusion Our data demonstrate the broad array of proteins present in secretory vesicles that provides the PMN with the capacity for remarkable and rapid reorganization of its plasma membrane after exposure to proinflammatory agents or stimuli.

  6. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  7. Spatial partitioning of secretory cargo from Golgi resident proteins in live cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Jamie

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To maintain organelle integrity, resident proteins must segregate from itinerant cargo during secretory transport. However, Golgi resident enzymes must have intimate access to secretory cargo in order to carry out glycosylation reactions. The amount of cargo and associated membrane may be significant compared to the amount of Golgi membrane and resident protein, but upon Golgi exit, cargo and resident are efficiently sorted. How this occurs in live cells is not known. Results We observed partitioning of the fluorescent Golgi resident T2-CFP and fluorescent cargo proteins VSVG3-YFP or VSVG3-SP-YFP upon Golgi exit after a synchronous pulse of cargo was released from the ER. Golgi elements remained stable in overall size, shape and relative position as cargo emptied. Cargo segregated from resident rapidly by blebbing into micron-sized domains that contained little or no detectable resident protein and that appeared to be continuous with the parent Golgi element. Post-Golgi transport carriers (TCs exited repeatedly from these domains. Alternatively, entire cargo domains exited Golgi elements, forming large TCs that fused directly with the plasma membrane. However, domain formation did not appear to be an absolute prerequisite for TC exit, since TCs also exited directly from Golgi elements in the absence of large domains. Quantitative cargo-specific photobleaching experiments revealed transfer of cargo between Golgi regions, but no discrete intra-Golgi TCs were observed. Conclusions Our results establish domain formation via rapid lateral partitioning as a general cellular strategy for segregating different transmembrane proteins along the secretory pathway and provide a framework for consideration of molecular mechanisms of secretory transport.

  8. Morphological and secretory characterization of extrafloral nectaries in plants of coastal Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castelazo, Cecilia; Rico-Gray, Victor; Ortega, Fernando; Angeles, Guillermo

    2005-12-01

    Morphological descriptions of the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory attributes. In this study a morphological/secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on several plant species in a tropical coastal community is made and the implications of gland attributes discussed from a functional perspective. The morphology and nectar secretion of the EFNs of 20 plant species are characterized through scanning electron microscopy, histochemical detection of reducing sugars (Fehling's reagent) and nectar volume/concentration estimates. Sixty-five per cent of plant species in coastal communities had EFNs on vegetative structures and 35 % of species had glands on reproductive and vegetative organs. The Fabaceae is the plant family with the most species with EFNs and most diversity of gland morphologies. Four types of vascularized nectaries and four of glandular trichomes are described; sugar-secreting trichomes are characterized using Fehling's technique, and the first descriptions of unicellular and peltate trichomes functioning as EFNs are provided. Glands of ten plant species and six genera are described for the first time. Four plant species possess more than one morphological type of EFN. Eleven species have EFNs in more than one location or organ. More complex glands secrete more nectar, but are functionally homologous to the aggregations of numerous secretory trichomes on specific and valuable plant organs. Important diversity of EFN morphology was foundin the coastal plant community studied. Both vascularized and non-vascularized EFNs are observed in plants and, for the latter, previously non-existent morpho-secretory characterizations are provided with a methodological approach to study them. It is recommended that studies relating EFN attributes (i.e. morphology, distribution) with their differential visitation by insects (i.e. ants

  9. Secretory carcinoma in a 79-year-old woman: an exceptionally rare type of breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Montalvo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Secretory breast carcinoma is an exceptionally rare mammary gland neoplasia described mainly in adult females and children of both sexes, and very rarely in the elderly. It has particular histopathological and immunohistochemical features and a favorable prognosis. We report the case of a 79-year-old Hispanic woman with a palpable breast mass. Currently, the patient is disease free after a follow- up period of 6 years without local recurrence or axillary lymph-nodes nor distant metastases.

  10. Distribution of immunoglobulin G antibody secretory cells in small intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wang-Dong; WANG, Wen-hui; Jia, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Background To explore the morphological evidence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) participating in intestinal mucosal immunity, 8 healthy adult Bactrian camels used. First, IgG was successfully isolated from their serum and rabbit antibody against Bactrian camels IgG was prepared. The IgG antibody secretory cells (ASCs) in small intestine were particularly observed through immumohistochemical staining, then after were analyzed by statistical methods. Results The results showed that the IgG ASCs were...

  11. Morphological and Secretory Characterization of Extrafloral Nectaries in Plants of Coastal Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    DÍAZ-CASTELAZO, CECILIA; RICO-GRAY, VICTOR; ORTEGA, FERNANDO; ÁNGELES, GUILLERMO

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Morphological descriptions of the extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of certain plant species are common in the literature, but they rarely relate morphology with histology, gland distribution and secretory attributes. In this study a morphological/secretory characterization of EFNs occurring on several plant species in a tropical coastal community is made and the implications of gland attributes discussed from a functional perspective. • Methods The morphology and nectar secretion of the EFNs of 20 plant species are characterized through scanning electron microscopy, histochemical detection of reducing sugars (Fehling's reagent) and nectar volume/concentration estimates. • Key Results Sixty-five per cent of plant species in coastal communities had EFNs on vegetative structures and 35 % of species had glands on reproductive and vegetative organs. The Fabaceae is the plant family with the most species with EFNs and most diversity of gland morphologies. Four types of vascularized nectaries and four of glandular trichomes are described; sugar-secreting trichomes are characterized using Fehling's technique, and the first descriptions of unicellular and peltate trichomes functioning as EFNs are provided. Glands of ten plant species and six genera are described for the first time. Four plant species possess more than one morphological type of EFN. Eleven species have EFNs in more than one location or organ. More complex glands secrete more nectar, but are functionally homologous to the aggregations of numerous secretory trichomes on specific and valuable plant organs. • Conclusion Important diversity of EFN morphology was foundin the coastal plant community studied. Both vascularized and non-vascularized EFNs are observed in plants and, for the latter, previously non-existent morpho-secretory characterizations are provided with a methodological approach to study them. It is recommended that studies relating EFN attributes (i.e. morphology

  12. Clinicopathologic and molecular characterization of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary gland origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghai, F; Yazdani, F; Etebarian, A; Garajei, A; Skalova, A

    2017-09-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly recognized salivary gland tumor that harbors a characteristic balanced chromosomal translocation t (12; 15) (p13; q25) resulting in an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Retrospective study of 111 salivary gland carcinomas revealed 37 cases with secretory features and growth patterns resembling secretory carcinoma of breast. These 37 cases were originally diagnosed as acinic cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified and cystadenocarcinoma. Positive immunostaining for S-100 protein and mammaglobin, followed by detection of ETV6 gene rearrangement by FISH and/or ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript by RT-PCR were used to identify MASCs. In the cohort of 37 salivary carcinomas with secretory features we have identified 10 cases of MASC. All 10 MASCs were positive for mammaglobin, S-100 protein and SOX10, while staining for DOG1 and p63 protein were mostly absent. In 7/10 cases, both FISH and RT-PCR were positive while three remaining cases showed break of ETV6 gene by FISH analysis and the RT-PCR was negative. Clinical follow-up data were obtained in 6 out of 10 patients with MASC. In 3 patients cervical lymph node metastases developed, one patient with high grade transformed MASC died with multiple distant bone metastases, and local recurrence was observed in three patients. Our clinicopathological data are in keeping with previous studies; in most cases, MASC is a low-grade malignancy with overall favorable prognosis. In rare cases, however, MASC with high-grade transformation may behave aggressively, and these patients could benefit from targeted biological treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Do Neural Cells Communicate with Endothelial Cells via Secretory Exosomes and Microvesicles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R. Smalheiser

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurons, glial, cells, and brain tumor cells tissues release small vesicles (secretory exosomes and microvesicles, which may represent a novel mechanism by which neuronal activity could influence angiogenesis within the embryonic and mature brain. If CNS-derived vesicles can enter the bloodstream as well, they may communicate with endothelial cells in the peripheral circulation and with cells concerned with immune surveillance.

  14. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550...

  15. Rumen fungal degradation of Digitaria pentzii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blades was determined by using an Instron Universal Testing. Instrument. Observations of plant structure and fungal col- onization were made by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Bacterial counts were performed as described previously (Akin, 1980; Joblin, l98l). Results and Discussion. As is usual with ...

  16. Standard methods for fungal brood disease research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Aronstein, Kathrine; Manuel Flores, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Chalkbrood and stonebrood are two fungal diseases associated with honey bee brood. Chalkbrood, caused by Ascosphaera apis, is a common and widespread disease that can result in severe reduction of emerging worker bees and thus overall colony productivity. Stonebrood is caused by Aspergillus spp. ...

  17. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Yáňez-Morales, J.; Duong, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Heykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Levesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, Alena; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Peréz-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, December (2015), s. 264-327 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * novel fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.725, year: 2015

  18. Pre- and postharvest fungal apple diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domesticated apple (Malus domestica) is the most significant pome fruit grown and consumed worldwide. China is the largest producer followed by the United States on a global scale. However, fungal plant pathogens cause significant economic losses in the field and in storage which negatively impa...

  19. Pb2+ Biosorption by Pretreated Fungal Biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Çabuk,Ahmet; İLHAN, Semra; FİLİK, Cansu; ÇALIŞKAN, Figen

    2005-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment on the Pb2+ biosorption capacity of fungal biomasses, Aspergillus versicolor, Metarrhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae, and Penicillium verrucosum, was investigated. For this purpose, the biomasses were subjected to physical treatments such as heat and autoclaving, and chemical treatments such as sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde, gluteraldehyde, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, commercial laundry detergent, orthophosphoric acid and dimethyl sulfoxide. Dimethyl sulfoxid...

  20. Fungal peroxidases : molecular aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductases that utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidative reactions. A large number of peroxidases have been identified in fungal species and are being characterized at the molecular level. In this manuscript we review the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of this

  1. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...

  2. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  3. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Le Roux, J. J.; Strasberg, D.; Edwards, J.; Roets, F.; Hubka, V.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Heykoop, M.; Martín, M.P.; Moreno, G.; Sutton, D.A.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Barnes, C.W.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Gené, J.; Giraldo, A.; Guarnaccia, V.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Manjón, J.L.; Pascoe, I.G.; Popov, E.S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Acharya, K.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alvarado, P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Burgess, T.I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Čmoková, A.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dyakov, M.Yu.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Fedosova, A.G.; Fournier, J.; Gamboa, P.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Grebenc, T.; Groenewald, M.; Hanse, B.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Held, B.W.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kaewgrajang, T.; Latha, K.P.D.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lysková, P.; Mallátová, N.; Manimohan, P.; Miller, A.N.; Mirabolfathy, M.; Morozova, O.V.; Obodai, M.; Oliveira, N.T.; Otto, E.C.; Paloi, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Phosri, C.; Roux, J.; Salazar, W.A.; Sánchez, A.; Sarria, G.A.; Shin, H.-D.; Silva, B.D.B.; Silva, G.A.; Smith, M.Th.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Sulzbacher, M.A.; Telleria, M.T.; Toapanta, C.; Traba, J.M.; Valenzuela-Lopez, N.; Watling, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, July (2016), s. 316-458 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  4. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Paula Monteiro; Bittencourt, Mona Lisa de Assis; Caprara, Carolina Canielles; de Freitas, Marcela; de Almeida, Renata Paula Coppini; Silveira, Dâmaris; Fonseca, Yris Maria; Ferreira, Edivaldo Ximenes; Pessoa, Adalberto; Magalhães, Pérola Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications. PMID:26273247

  5. Fungal hydrophobins in medical and technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtmeijer, K; Wessels, JGH; Woster, HAB

    Class I and class II hydrophobins are small secreted fungal proteins that self-assemble at hydrophilic-hydrophobic interfaces into amphipathic films. Apart from eight conserved cysteine residues, the amino acid sequences between and within both classes have diverged considerably, and this is

  6. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  7. Meeting report : fungal its workshop (october 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bates, Scott T; Ahrendt, Steven; Bik, Holly M; Bruns, Thomas D; Caporaso, J Gregory; Cole, James; Dwan, Michael; Fierer, Noah; Gu, Dai; Houston, Shawn; Knight, Rob; Leff, Jon; Lewis, Christopher; Maestre, Juan P; McDonald, Daniel; Nilsson, R Henrik; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Robert, Vincent; Schoch, Conrad; Scott, James; Taylor, D Lee; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes a meeting held in Boulder, CO USA (19-20 October 2012) on fungal community analyses using ultra-high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. The meeting was organized as a two-day workshop, with the

  8. Role of fungal peroxidases in biological ligninolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Hammel; Dan Cullen

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of lignin by filamentous fungi is a major route for the recycling of photosynthetically fixed carbon, and the oxidative mechanisms employed have potential biotechnological applications. The lignin peroxidases (LiPs), manganese peroxidases (MnPs), and closely related enzymes of white rot basidiomycetes are likely contributors to fungal ligninolysis. Many...

  9. Invasive fungal infections in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya R; Viola, George M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is among the leading causes for morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia. In the past few decades, the incidence of IFI has increased dramatically. The certainty of diagnosis of IFI is based on host factors, clinical evidence, and microbiological examination. Advancement in molecular diagnostic modalities (e.g. non-culture-based serum biomarkers such as β-glucan or galactomannan assays) and high-resolution radiological imaging has improved our diagnostic approach. The early use of these diagnostic tests assists in the early initiation of preemptive therapy. Nonetheless, the complexity of IFI in patients with leukemia and the limitations of these diagnostic tools still mandate astute clinical acumen. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. zygomycosis) and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal pathogens. In addition, even though the antifungal armamentarium has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, the associated mortality remains high. The decision to initiate antifungal treatment and the choice of anti-fungal therapy requires careful consideration of several factors (e.g. risk stratification, local fungal epidemiologic patterns, concomitant comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, prior history of antifungal use, overall cost, and the pharmacologic profile of the antifungal agents). In order to optimize our diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFI in patients with acute leukemia, further basic research and clinical trials are desperately needed.

  10. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  11. Assessment of soil fungal communities using pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young Woon; Kim, Byung Kwon; Kim, Changmu; Jung, Hack Sung; Kim, Bong-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hak; Chun, Jongsik

    2010-06-01

    Pyrosequencing, a non-electrophoretic method of DNA sequencing, was used to investigate the extensive fungal community in soils of three islands in the Yellow Sea of Korea, between Korea and China. Pyrosequencing was carried out on amplicons derived from the 5' region of 18S rDNA. A total of 10,166 reads were obtained, with an average length of 103 bp. The maximum number of fungal phylotypes in soil predicted at 99% similarity was 3,334. The maximum numbers of phylotypes predicted at 97% and 95% similarities were 736 and 286, respectively. Through phylogenetic assignment using BLASTN, a total of 372 tentative taxa were identified. The majority of true fungal sequences recovered in this study belonged to the Ascomycota (182 tentative taxa in 2,708 reads) and Basidiomycota (172 tentative taxa in 6,837 reads). The predominant species of Ascomycota detected have been described as lichen-forming fungi, litter/wood decomposers, plant parasites, endophytes, and saprotrophs: Peltigera neopolydactyla (Lecanoromycetes), Paecilomyces sp. (Sordariomycetes), Phacopsis huuskonenii (Lecanoromycetes), and Raffaelea hennebertii (mitosporicAscomycota). The majority of sequences in the Basidiomycota matched ectomycorrhizal and wood rotting fungi, including species of the Agaricales and Aphyllophorales, respectively. A high number of sequences in the Thelephorales, Boletales, Stereales, Hymenochaetales, and Ceratobasidiomycetes were also detected. By applying high-throughput pyrosequencing, we observed a high diversity of soil fungi and found evidence that pyrosequencing is a reliable technique for investigating fungal communities in soils.

  12. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  13. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  14. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  15. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  16. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  17. Fungal infections in corn picker hand injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović-Tomašev Milana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hand injuries caused by corn pickers are relatively rare but in most cases extensive, with massive tissue destruction. Severe wounds sustained during agricultural work are contaminated, with high incidence of infection. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency and type of fungal infection in corn picker injuries and their impact on the course and outcome of treatment. Methods. Corn picker hand injuries for the period 2006-2012 were analyzed. After setting up clinical suspicion, direct examination of repeated swabs and histopathological analysis of biopsy material were done in order to detect fungi. Results. From the total number of 60 patients, there was a fungal infection in nine of them (which makes 15% of the total number of patients. Aspergillus spp. was isolated in seven patients, Candida spp. in three, and Mucor spp. in one patient. None of the patients had increased risk factors for developing a fungal infection. In most cases, there was loss of graft and tissue necrosis in previously normally looking wound, after seven or more days. All patients were treated with repeated surgical debridement and concomitant parenteral and topical application of appropriate antifungal agents. There was no need for reamputation in any patient. Conclusion. A high degree of suspicion and a multidisciplinary approach are needed for early diagnosis of fungal infection. Confirmation of diagnosis and the initiation of surgical and appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for a successful outcome.

  18. Genetics of fungal resistance to systemic fungicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Since the introduction of the systemic fungicides, fungicide resistance has become a serious problem in plant disease control. This study was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge about the genetics of fungal resistance to fungicides both from a practical and a fundamental

  19. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  20. Alteration in endometrial proteins during early- and mid-secretory phases of the cycle in women with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Khan, Huma; Sirohi, Vijay Kumar; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita; Siddiqui, Waseem Ahmad; Dwivedi, Anila

    2014-01-01

    Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2) to mid-secretory phase (LH+7), in women with unexplained infertility. 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8) and mid-secretory (n = 8) phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4) and mid-secretory (n = 4) phase endometrium of fertile women. Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1), Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran) were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women. De-regulation of the expression of Sorcin

  1. Alteration in endometrial proteins during early- and mid-secretory phases of the cycle in women with unexplained infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murli Manohar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Compromised receptivity of the endometrium is a major cause of unexplained infertility, implantation failure and subclinical pregnancy loss. In order to investigate the changes in endometrial protein profile as a cause of unexplained infertility, the current study was undertaken to analyze the differentially expressed proteins of endometrium from early-secretory (LH+2 to mid-secretory phase (LH+7, in women with unexplained infertility. METHODS: 2-D gel electrophoresis was performed to analyze the proteomic changes between early- (n = 8 and mid-secretory (n = 8 phase endometrium of women with unexplained infertility. The differentially expressed protein spots were identified by LC-MS analysis and validated by immunoblotting and immuno-histochemical analysis in early- (n = 4 and mid-secretory (n = 4 phase endometrium of infertile women. Validated proteins were also analyzed in early- (n = 4 and mid-secretory (n = 4 phase endometrium of fertile women. RESULTS: Nine proteins were found to be differentially expressed between early- and mid- secretory phases of endometrium of infertile women. The expression of Ras-related protein Rap-1b, Protein disulfide isomerase A3, Apolipoprotein-A1 (Apo-A1, Cofilin-1 and RAN GTP-binding nuclear protein (Ran were found to be significantly increased, whereas, Tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3, Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn], Sorcin, and Proteasome subunit alpha type-5 were significantly decreased in mid- secretory phase endometrium of infertile women as compared to early-secretory phase endometrium of infertile women. Validation of 4 proteins viz. Sorcin, Cofilin-1, Apo-A1 and Ran were performed in separate endometrial biopsy samples from infertile women. The up-regulated expression of Sorcin and down-regulated expression of Cofilin-1 and Apolipoprotein-A1, were observed in mid-secretory phase as compared to early-secretory phase in case of fertile women

  2. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  3. Homocysteine augments BK channel activity and decreases exocytosis of secretory granules in rat GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaifullina, Aisylu S; Yakovlev, Aleksey V; Mustafina, Alsu N; Weiger, Thomas M; Hermann, Anton; Sitdikova, Guzel F

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of L-homocysteine (Hcy) on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and on exocytosis of secretory granules in GH3 rat pituitary-derived cells. A major finding of our study indicates that short-term application of Hcy increased the open probability of oxidized BK channels in inside-out recordings. Whole-cell recordings show that extracellular Hcy also augmented BK currents during long-term application. Furthermore, Hcy decreased the exocytosis of secretory granules. This decrease was partially prevented by the BK channel inhibitor paxilline and fully prevented by N-acetylcysteine, a reactive oxygen species scavenger. Taken together, our data show that elevation of cellular Hcy level induces oxidative stress, increases BK channel activity, and decreases exocytosis of secretory granules. These findings may provide insight into some of the developmental impairments and neurotoxicity associated with Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), a disease arising due to abnormally elevated levels of Hcy in the plasma. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. Cysteine-Rich Atrial Secretory Protein from the Snail Achatina achatina: Purification and Structural Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Shabelnikov

    Full Text Available Despite extensive studies of cardiac bioactive peptides and their functions in molluscs, soluble proteins expressed in the heart and secreted into the circulation have not yet been reported. In this study, we describe an 18.1-kDa, cysteine-rich atrial secretory protein (CRASP isolated from the terrestrial snail Achatina achatina that has no detectable sequence similarity to any known protein or nucleotide sequence. CRASP is an acidic, 158-residue, N-glycosylated protein composed of eight alpha-helical segments stabilized with five disulphide bonds. A combination of fold recognition algorithms and ab initio folding predicted that CRASP adopts an all-alpha, right-handed superhelical fold. CRASP is most strongly expressed in the atrium in secretory atrial granular cells, and substantial amounts of CRASP are released from the heart upon nerve stimulation. CRASP is detected in the haemolymph of intact animals at nanomolar concentrations. CRASP is the first secretory protein expressed in molluscan atrium to be reported. We propose that CRASP is an example of a taxonomically restricted gene that might be responsible for adaptations specific for terrestrial pulmonates.

  5. Dual effect of neutrophils on secretory component production by human bronchial epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pilette

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A decreased bronchial expression of secretory component (SC was demonstrated in severe COPD, and correlated with neutrophils. Mechanisms of epithelial cell/neutrophils interactions remain however poorly understood. Calu-3 (human bronchial epithelial cells were incubated after confluence (in triplicate conditions with various ratios of activated neutrophils (0.5:1 to 15:1, neutrophils: Calu-3 cells. After 48hrs of co-culture supernatants were assayed for SC by ELISA. SC production by Calu-3 cells increased at intermediate neutrophil numbers (316±32 versus 193±19ng·ml–1, ratio of 5:1 versus control, mean±SEM of 3 experiments, p = 0.05. In contrast, a trend for decrease in SC was observed with high neutrophil numbers (111±19 versus 193±19ng·ml–1, ratio of 15:1 versus control, p = 0.06. The addition of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor further increased SC upregulation at intermediate ratios, and inhibited the SC decrease at high neutrophil numbers. The mechanism of SC up-regulation by neutrophils did not implicate TNF-alpha or IL-1beta. This study provides direct evidence of a dual effect of neutrophils on epithelial SC. Our data suggest that neutrophils could differently affect epithelial immune secretory function according to the extent of neutrophil influx and/or to the reactivity of airway epithelial cells.

  6. MicroRNA expression profiling of eutopic secretory endometrium in women with versus without endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, R O; Hamilton, A E; Aghajanova, L; Vo, K C; Nezhat, C N; Lessey, B A; Giudice, L C

    2009-10-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder characterized by pain and infertility. In addition to estrogen dependence, progesterone resistance is an emerging feature of this disorder. Specifically, a delayed transition from the proliferative to secretory phase as evidenced by dysregulation of progesterone target genes and maintenance of a proliferative molecular fingerprint in the early secretory endometrium (ESE) has been reported. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that collectively represent a novel class of regulators of gene expression. In an effort to investigate further the observed progesterone resistance in the ESE of women with endometriosis, we conducted array-based, global miRNA profiling. We report distinct miRNA expression profiles in the ESE of women with versus without endometriosis in a subset of samples previously used in global gene expression analysis. Specifically, the miR-9 and miR-34 miRNA families evidenced dysregulation. Integration of the miRNA and gene expression profiles provides unique insights into the molecular basis of this enigmatic disorder and, possibly, the regulation of the proliferative phenotype during the early secretory phase of the menstrual cycle in affected women.

  7. Snapin mediates insulin secretory granule docking, but not trans-SNARE complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somanath, Sangeeta [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Partridge, Christopher J. [Diabetes Research Laboratories, Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Churchill Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Marshall, Catriona [Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT (United Kingdom); Rowe, Tony [CSL Limited, 45 Poplar Road, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Turner, Mark D., E-mail: mark.turner@ntu.ac.uk [Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-29

    Secretory granule exocytosis is a tightly regulated process requiring granule targeting, tethering, priming, and membrane fusion. At the heart of this process is the SNARE complex, which drives fusion through a coiled-coil zippering effect mediated by the granule v-SNARE protein, VAMP2, and the plasma membrane t-SNAREs, SNAP-25 and syntaxin-1A. Here we demonstrate that in pancreatic β-cells the SNAP-25 accessory protein, snapin, C-terminal H2 domain binds SNAP-25 through its N-terminal Sn-1 domain. Interestingly whilst snapin binds SNAP-25, there is only modest binding of this complex with syntaxin-1A under resting conditions. Instead synataxin-1A appears to be recruited in response to secretory stimulation. These results indicate that snapin plays a role in tethering insulin granules to the plasma membrane through coiled coil interaction of snapin with SNAP-25, with full granule fusion competency only resulting after subsequent syntaxin-1A recruitment triggered by secretory stimulation. - Highlights: • Snapin mediates granule docking. • Snapin binds SNAP-25. • SNARE complex forms downstream.

  8. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  9. Bothrops jararaca venom gland secretory cells in culture: Effects of noradrenaline on toxin production and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Godoy; Valente, Richard Hemmi; Heluany, Cíntia Scucuglia; Souza-Imberg, Andreia; Luna, Milene Schmidt; Perales, Jonas; Yamanouye, Norma

    2017-07-01

    Primary culture of snake venom gland secretory cells could be a good model to study the mechanism(s) of toxin(s) production. These cells can produce and secrete venom to the medium with a hemorrhagic activity comparable to that induced by venom collected from snakes. Production of new venom is triggered by the sympathetic outflow, through the release of noradrenaline, but the importance of this neurotransmitter on toxin synthesis has not been addressed. This work led to the identification and comparison of the toxin panel produced by cultured secretory cells, during a 12-day time-course analysis, as well as to the effects of noradrenaline on the process. The results showed that in our culture model the synthesis of new toxins is asynchronous, mimicking data previously published from proteomic analyses of venom glands harvested from animal experimentation. Furthermore, noradrenaline did regulate the synthesis and/or secretion of venom toxins over the analyzed period. Finally, we demonstrated that snake venom metalloproteinases present in these cultured cells secretome were mostly in their zymogen forms; consequently, processing occurs after secretion to the gland lumen. Overall, the data support the use of venom gland secretory cells as a reliable model to investigate the mechanism(s) of toxin(s) synthesis and secretion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineered tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease active in the secretory pathway of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaratto, Francesca; López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R; Petris, Gianluca

    2015-10-20

    Tobacco etch virus protease (TEVp) is a unique endopeptidase with stringent substrate specificity. TEVp has been widely used as a purified protein for in vitro applications, but also as a biological tool directly expressing it in living cells. To adapt the protease to diverse applications, several TEVp mutants with different stability and enzymatic properties have been reported. Herein we describe the development of a novel engineered TEVp mutant designed to be active in the secretory pathway. While wild type TEVp targeted to the secretory pathway of mammalian cells is synthetized as an N-glycosylated and catalytically inactive enzyme, a TEVp mutant with selected mutations at two verified N-glycosylation sites and at an exposed cysteine was highly efficient. This mutant was very active in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of living cells and can be used as a biotechnological tool to cleave proteins within the secretory pathway. As an immediate practical application we report the expression of a complete functional monoclonal antibody expressed from a single polypeptide, which was cleaved by our TEVp mutant into the two antibody chains and secreted as an assembled and functional molecule. In addition, we show active TEVp mutants lacking auto-cleavage activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrastructure and immunohistochemical characterization of proteins concerned with the secretory machinery in goat ceruminous glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadashi Yasui

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The expression of soluble N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE proteins in apocrine glands has not been fully elucidated. In addition to performing ultrastructural observation of the ceruminous glands in goats, our study focuses on the demonstration of β-defensins, SNARE proteins and Rab3D in these glands with the use of immunohistochemical methods. The secretory cells were equipped with two types of vesicles, Golgi apparatus and abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Additionally, in some of them, the characteristic concentric structures composed of rough ER were observed in their circum- and infranuclear parts. The expression of phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme 1a was also detected. These findings may indicate their ability to produce numerous secretory proteins and the maintenance of homeostasis in the glandular cells. Furthermore, β-defensins were demonstrated as products of the ceruminous glands. The present investigation also revealed the presence of SNARE proteins and Rab3D. It is suggested that these proteins are concerned with the secretory machinery of this gland type.

  12. A pediatric case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma within the parotid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, S Craig; Roby, Brianne; Dishop, Megan K; Said, M Sherif; Chan, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently described entity in the differential diagnosis of salivary gland tumors. It is notable for a characteristic t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation that results in a unique fusion protein, ETV6-NTRK3. While several studies have retrospectively identified this translocation in cases previously diagnosed as a different salivary malignancy, there have been relatively few cases where this translocation was identified on initial pathology results, and fewer still in a pediatric population. We present a case of a 15 year old female with a slowly enlarging, painless, left facial mass. MRI demonstrated a cystic mass extending into the deep lobe of the parotid, and she underwent parotidectomy. The tumor cells stained positive for S100 and CK19. ETV6 translocation was present, confirming the diagnosis. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma is a recently described tumor of the salivary glands, which often masquerades as more common primary salivary gland tumors and cysts. More research is needed to characterize the typical behavior of this neoplasm and the optimal treatment regimen. With identification of its characteristic translocation, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma can be easily differentiated from its more prevalent counterparts, and should therefore remain within the differential of the pathologist and head and neck surgeon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Amyloid-like aggregation of provasopressin in diabetes insipidus and secretory granule sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuret, Nicole; Hasler, Franziska; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Birk, Julia; Rutishauser, Jonas; Spiess, Martin

    2017-01-26

    Aggregation of peptide hormone precursors in the trans-Golgi network is an essential process in the biogenesis of secretory granules in endocrine cells. It has recently been proposed that this aggregation corresponds to the formation of functional amyloids. Our previous finding that dominant mutations in provasopressin, which cause cell degeneration and diabetes insipidus, prevent native folding and produce fibrillar aggregates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) might thus reflect mislocalized amyloid formation by sequences that evolved to mediate granule sorting. Here we identified two sequences responsible for fibrillar aggregation of mutant precursors in the ER: the N-terminal vasopressin nonapeptide and the C-terminal glycopeptide. To test their role in granule sorting, the glycopeptide was deleted and/or vasopressin mutated to inactivate ER aggregation while still permitting precursor folding and ER exit. These mutations strongly reduced sorting into granules and regulated secretion in endocrine AtT20 cells. The same sequences - vasopressin and the glycopeptide - mediate physiological aggregation of the wild-type hormone precursor into secretory granules and the pathological fibrillar aggregation of disease mutants in the ER. These findings support the amyloid hypothesis for secretory granule biogenesis.

  14. The class V myosin motor, myosin 5c, localizes to mature secretory vesicles and facilitates exocytosis in lacrimal acini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchelletta, Ronald R; Jacobs, Damon T; Schechter, Joel E; Cheney, Richard E; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the role of the actin-based myosin motor, myosin 5c (Myo5c) in vesicle transport in exocrine secretion. Lacrimal gland acinar cells (LGAC) are the major source for the regulated secretion of proteins from the lacrimal gland into the tear film. Confocal fluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy revealed that Myo5c was associated with secretory vesicles in primary rabbit LGAC. Upon stimulation of secretion with the muscarinic agonist, carbachol, Myo5c was also detected in association with actin-coated fusion intermediates. Adenovirus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the tail domain of Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-tail) showed that this protein was localized to secretory vesicles. Furthermore, its expression induced a significant (P < or = 0.05) decrease in carbachol-stimulated release of two secretory vesicle content markers, secretory component and syncollin-GFP. Adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP appended to the full-length Myo5c (Ad-GFP-Myo5c-full) was used in parallel with adenovirus-mediated expression of GFP-Myo5c-tail in LGAC to compare various parameters of secretory vesicles labeled with either GFP-labeled protein in resting and stimulated LGAC. These studies revealed that the carbachol-stimulated increase in secretory vesicle diameter associated with compound fusion of secretory vesicles that was also exhibited by vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-full was impaired in vesicles labeled with GFP-Myo5c-tail. A significant decrease in GFP labeling of actin-coated fusion intermediates was also seen in carbachol-stimulated LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-tail relative to LGAC transduced with GFP-Myo5c-full. These results suggest that Myo5c participates in apical exocytosis of secretory vesicles.

  15. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal community assemblage on limestone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Morón-Ríos

    Full Text Available The assembly of fungal communities on stone materials is mainly influenced by the differential bioreceptivity of such materials and environmental conditions. However, little is known about the role of fungal interactions in the colonization and establishment of fungal species. We analyzed the effects of intra- and interspecific interactions between 11 species of fungi in oligotrophic and copiotrophic media and on limestone coupons. In a previous study, these species were the most frequently isolated in the epilithic biofilms of limestone walls exposed to a subtropical climate. In the culture media, we found a greater frequency of intra- and interspecific inhibitory effects in the oligotrophic medium than in the copiotrophic medium. On the limestone coupons, all fungi were able to establish; however, the colonization success rate varied significantly. Cladosporium cladosporioides had a less extensive colonization in isolation (control than in dual interactions (coexistence with other species. Phoma eupyrena exhibited the highest colonization success rate and competitive dominance among all tested species. X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses revealed that Pestalotiopsis maculans and Paraconiothyrium sp. produced calcium oxalate crystals during their growth on coupon surfaces, both in isolation and in dual interactions. Our results demonstrate that interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal colonization on substrates, the biomineralization and the fungal community assemblage growing in limestone biofilms.

  17. Interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal community assemblage on limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón-Ríos, Alejandro; Ortega-Morales, Benjamin Otto; De la Rosa-García, Susana; Partida-Martínez, Laila Pamela; Quintana, Patricia; Alayón-Gamboa, José Armando; Cappello-García, Silvia; González-Gómez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of fungal communities on stone materials is mainly influenced by the differential bioreceptivity of such materials and environmental conditions. However, little is known about the role of fungal interactions in the colonization and establishment of fungal species. We analyzed the effects of intra- and interspecific interactions between 11 species of fungi in oligotrophic and copiotrophic media and on limestone coupons. In a previous study, these species were the most frequently isolated in the epilithic biofilms of limestone walls exposed to a subtropical climate. In the culture media, we found a greater frequency of intra- and interspecific inhibitory effects in the oligotrophic medium than in the copiotrophic medium. On the limestone coupons, all fungi were able to establish; however, the colonization success rate varied significantly. Cladosporium cladosporioides had a less extensive colonization in isolation (control) than in dual interactions (coexistence) with other species. Phoma eupyrena exhibited the highest colonization success rate and competitive dominance among all tested species. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that Pestalotiopsis maculans and Paraconiothyrium sp. produced calcium oxalate crystals during their growth on coupon surfaces, both in isolation and in dual interactions. Our results demonstrate that interactions between abundant fungal species influence the fungal colonization on substrates, the biomineralization and the fungal community assemblage growing in limestone biofilms. PMID:29211748

  18. Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

    2004-08-01

    Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

  19. Initial fungal colonizer affects mass loss and fungal community development in Picea abies logs 6 yr after inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Lindner; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Ariana Kubartova; Johan Allmer; Hanna Johannesson; Mark T. Banik; Jan. Stenlid

    2011-01-01

    Picea abies logs were inoculated with Resinicium bicolor, Fomitopsis pinicola or left un-inoculated and placed in an old-growth boreal forest. Mass loss and fungal community data were collected after 6 yr to test whether simplification of the fungal community via inoculation affects mass loss and fungal community development. Three...

  20. Fungal and Bacterial Pigments: Secondary Metabolites with Wide Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Prabhu Narsing Rao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The demand for natural colors is increasing day by day due to harmful effects of some synthetic dyes. Bacterial and fungal pigments provide a readily available alternative source of naturally derived pigments. In contrast to other natural pigments, they have enormous advantages including rapid growth, easy processing, and independence of weather conditions. Apart from colorant, bacterial and fungal pigments possess many biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activity. This review outlines different types of pigments. It lists some bacterial and fungal pigments and current bacterial and fungal pigment status and challenges. It also focuses on possible fungal and bacterial pigment applications.

  1. Destructuring plant biomass: focus on fungal and extremophilic cell wall hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Gea; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Strauss, Joseph; Ertan, Haluk; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2015-05-01

    The use of plant biomass as feedstock for biomaterial and biofuel production is relevant in the current bio-based economy scenario of valorizing renewable resources. Fungi, which degrade complex and recalcitrant plant polymers, secrete different enzymes that hydrolyze plant cell wall polysaccharides. The present review discusses the current research trends on fungal, as well as extremophilic cell wall hydrolases that can withstand extreme physico-chemical conditions required in efficient industrial processes. Secretomes of fungi from the phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Neocallimastigomycota are presented along with metabolic cues (nutrient sensing, coordination of carbon and nitrogen metabolism) affecting their composition. We conclude the review by suggesting further research avenues focused on the one hand on a comprehensive analysis of the physiology and epigenetics underlying cell wall degrading enzyme production in fungi and on the other hand on the analysis of proteins with unknown function and metagenomics of extremophilic consortia. The current advances in consolidated bioprocessing, altered secretory pathways and creation of designer plants are also examined. Furthermore, recent developments in enhancing the activity, stability and reusability of enzymes based on synergistic, proximity and entropic effects, fusion enzymes, structure-guided recombination between homologous enzymes and magnetic enzymes are considered with a view to improving saccharification. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. A conserved co-chaperone is required for virulence in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Libera; López Díaz, Cristina; Turrà, David; Di Pietro, Antonio; Hampel, Martin; Heimel, Kai; Kahmann, Regine

    2016-02-01

    The maize pathogenic fungus Ustilago maydis experiences endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress during plant colonization and relies on the unfolded protein response (UPR) to cope with this stress. We identified the U. maydis co-chaperone, designated Dnj1, as part of this conserved cellular response to ER stress. ∆dnj1 cells are sensitive to the ER stressor tunicamycin and display a severe virulence defect in maize infection assays. A dnj1 mutant allele unable to stimulate the ATPase activity of chaperones phenocopies the null allele. A Dnj1-mCherry fusion protein localizes in the ER and interacts with the luminal chaperone Bip1. The Fusarium oxysporum Dnj1 ortholog contributes to the virulence of this fungal pathogen in tomato plants. Unlike the human ortholog, F. oxysporum Dnj1 partially rescues the virulence defect of the Ustilago dnj1 mutant. By enabling the fungus to restore ER homeostasis and maintain a high secretory activity, Dnj1 contributes to the establishment of a compatible interaction with the host. Dnj1 orthologs are present in many filamentous fungi, but are absent in budding and fission yeasts. We postulate a conserved and essential role during virulence for this class of co-chaperones. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Different types of fungal sinusitis occurring concurrently: implications for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, V; Thomas, Meera

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and histopathological features, management and outcome of a series of patients with simultaneous occurrence of invasive and non-invasive fungal sinusitis (mixed fungal sinusitis). The histopathological records of patients with fungal sinusitis seen over the last 6 years were reviewed. The clinical, histopathological, treatment and follow up details of all cases with mixed fungal sinusitis were noted. Six cases of mixed fungal sinusitis with concurrent occurrence of chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis and allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) were seen during the study period. Most (83.3 %) had bilateral disease. All patients had undergone prior endoscopic sinus surgery at least once within the previous 2 years. Histopathological features showed predominance of invasive disease in half the patients. Except for one patient who did not report for follow up, all patients with predominant chronic granulomatous fungal sinusitis received systemic antifungal therapy and inhaled steroids. Those with predominant features of AFS received oral and inhaled steroids. Five patients with mixed fungal sinusitis who had follow up ranging from 6 months to 5 years were disease free following treatment. Mixed fungal sinusitis should be recognized by the surgeon and pathologist as a separate category of fungal sinusitis whose treatment depends on accurate histological diagnosis. A good outcome may be expected with appropriate therapy.

  4. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  5. Overview of fungal lipase: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Mausumi

    2012-01-01

    Lipases (triacylglycerolacyl hydrolases, EC3.1.1.3) are class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. In this review paper, an overview regarding the fungal lipase production, purification, and application is discussed. The review describes various industrial applications of lipase in pulp and paper, food, detergent, and textile industries. Some important lipase-producing fungal genera include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Candida, etc. Current fermentation process techniques such as batch, fed-batch, and continuous mode of lipase production in submerged and solid-state fermentations are discussed in details. The purification of lipase by hydrophobic interaction chromatography is also discussed. The development of mathematical models applied to lipase production is discussed with special emphasis on lipase engineering.

  6. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham ThiLe Ha; Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen Quoc Hien [Nuclear Research Inst., No.1 Nguyen Tu Luc, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by {gamma}-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 {mu}g/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  7. Fungal invasion of the rhizosphere microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Emilie; Mendes, Rodrigo; Bakker, Peter A H M; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2016-01-01

    The rhizosphere is the infection court where soil-borne pathogens establish a parasitic relationship with the plant. To infect root tissue, pathogens have to compete with members of the rhizosphere microbiome for available nutrients and microsites. In disease-suppressive soils, pathogens are strongly restricted in growth by the activities of specific rhizosphere microorganisms. Here, we sequenced metagenomic DNA and RNA of the rhizosphere microbiome of sugar beet seedlings grown in a soil suppressive to the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. rRNA-based analyses showed that Oxalobacteraceae, Burkholderiaceae, Sphingobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were significantly more abundant in the rhizosphere upon fungal invasion. Metatranscriptomics revealed that stress-related genes (ppGpp metabolism and oxidative stress) were upregulated in these bacterial families. We postulate that the invading pathogenic fungus induces, directly or via the plant, stress responses in the rhizobacterial community that lead to shifts in microbiome composition and to activation of antagonistic traits that restrict pathogen infection.

  8. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  9. Saprotrophic fungal mycorrhizal symbionts in achlorophyllous orchids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Florent; Perry, Brian A; Padamsee, Mahajabeen; Roy, Mélanie; Pailler, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are achlorophyllous plants that obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi. They are usually considered to associate with fungi that are (1) specific of each mycoheterotrophic species and (2) mycorrhizal on surrounding green plants, which are the ultimate carbon source of the entire system. Here we review recent works revealing that some mycoheterotrophic plants are not fungal-specific, and that some mycoheterotrophic orchids associate with saprophytic fungi. A re-examination of earlier data suggests that lower specificity may be less rare than supposed in mycoheterotrophic plants. Association between mycoheterotrophic orchids and saprophytic fungi arose several times in the evolution of the two partners. We speculate that this indirectly illustrates why transition from saprotrophy to mycorrhizal status is common in fungal evolution. Moreover, some unexpected fungi occasionally encountered in plant roots should not be discounted as ‘molecular scraps’, since these facultatively biotrophic encounters may evolve into mycorrhizal symbionts in some other plants. PMID:20061806

  10. Rodentborne fungal pathogens in wetland agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have witnessed an overwhelming increase in the incidence of fungal infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Consequently, zoonotic diseases, especially through rodents constitute a prominent group among the emerging diseases. Rodents are commensal to man and related health risks are common. Water rats (Rattus norvegicus are typical to Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystems, where they can act as a good carrier nexus for pathogens. The present study evaluates the carrier status of water rats with respect to fungal pathogens. A total of fifty two fungi covering eighteen families were isolated. Among the isolates, eight were dermaptophytes and Chrysosporium sp. (89.18% was the frequent isolate. The source-wise analyses showed an increased isolation from ventral hair (67 isolates. Water rats of Vembanadu-Kol wetland agroecosystem are potent carrier of dermaptophytes and other opportunistic fungi, and strong carrier paths are existing too.

  11. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  12. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  13. Fungal aquaporins: cellular functions and ecophysiological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe; Dietz, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three aspects have to be taken into consideration when discussing cellular water and solute permeability of fungal cells: cell wall properties, membrane permeability, and transport through proteinaceous pores (the main focus of this review). Yet, characterized major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) can be grouped into three functional categories: (mainly) water transporting aquaporins, aquaglyceroporins that confer preferentially solute permeability (e.g., glycerol and ammonia), and bifunctional aquaglyceroporins that can facilitate efficient water and solute transfer. Two ancestor proteins, a water (orthodox aquaporin) and a solute facilitator (aquaglyceroporin), are supposed to give rise to today's MIPs. Based on primary sequences of fungal MIPs, orthodox aquaporins/X-intrinsic proteins (XIPs) and FPS1-like/Yfl054-like/other aquaglyceroporins are supposed to be respective sister groups. However, at least within the fungal kingdom, no easy functional conclusion can be drawn from the phylogenetic position of a given protein within the MIP pedigree. In consequence, ecophysiological prediction of MIP relevance is not feasible without detailed functional analysis of the respective protein and expression studies. To illuminate the diverse MIP implications in fungal lifestyle, our current knowledge about protein function in two organisms, baker's yeast and the Basidiomycotic Laccaria bicolor, an ectomycorrhizal model fungus, was exemplarily summarized in this review. MIP function has been investigated in such a depth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that a system-wide view is possible. Yeast lifestyle, however, is special in many circumstances. Therefore, L. bicolor as filamentous Basidiomycete was added and allows insight into a very different way of life. Special emphasis was laid in this review onto ecophysiological interpretation of MIP function.

  14. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Role of secretory granules in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-dependent Ca(2+) signaling: from phytoplankton to mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Hyun

    2011-08-01

    The majority of secretory cell calcium is stored in secretory granules that serve as the major IP(3)-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) store. Even in unicellular phytoplankton secretory granules are responsible for the IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release that triggers exocytosis. The number of secretory granules in the cell is directly related not only to the magnitude of IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release, which accounts for the majority of the IP(3)-induced cytoplasmic Ca(2+) release in neuroendocrine cells, but also to the IP(3) sensitivity of the cytoplasmic IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R)/Ca(2+) channels. Moreover, secretory granules contain the highest IP(3)R concentrations and the largest amounts of IP(3)Rs in any subcellular organelles in neuroendocrine cells. Secretory granules from phytoplankton to mammals contain large amounts of polyanionic molecules, chromogranins being the major molecules in mammals, in addition to acidic intragranular pH and high Ca(2+) concentrations. The polyanionic molecules undergo pH- and Ca(2+)-dependent conformational changes that serve as a molecular basis for condensation-decondensation phase transitions of the intragranular matrix. Likewise, chromogranins undergo pH- and Ca(2+)-dependent conformational changes with increased exposure of the structure and increased interactions with Ca(2+) and other granule components at acidic pH. The unique physico-chemical properties of polyanionic molecules appear to be at the center of biogenesis, and physiological functions of secretory granules in living organisms from primitive to advanced species. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Frederick; Hughson, William G

    2003-07-01

    Occupational and environmental health professionals are confronted with issues concerning the health effects of indoor fungal bioaerosol exposure. This article reviews current data on the health effects of indoor mold exposure and provides practical suggestions for occupational and environmental health practitioners regarding how best to manage these exposures based on published human studies. We conducted MEDLINE searches and reviewed all English language studies on indoor mold exposure (visible survey or objective sampling) and human health effects published from 1966 to November 2002. The main findings of the studies are analyzed in conjunction with plausible association of health effects and fungal exposure. Five case control studies, 17 cross-sectional surveys, and 7 case reports met the selection criteria. Current evidence suggests that excessive moisture promotes mold growth and is associated with an increased prevalence of symptoms due to irritation, allergy, and infection. However, specific human toxicity due to inhaled fungal toxins has not been scientifically established. Methods for measuring indoor bioaerosol exposure and health assessment are not well standardized, making interpretation of existing data difficult. Additional studies are needed to document human exposure-disease and dose-response relationships.

  17. Distribution of introns in fungal histone genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Soo Yun

    Full Text Available Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

  18. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Allergic Fungal Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Jonathan M; Driskill, Brent R; Clenney, Timothy L; Gessler, Eric M

    2015-10-01

    Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is a condition that has an allergic basis caused by exposure to fungi in the sinonasal tract leading to chronic inflammation. Despite standard treatment modalities, which typically include surgery and medical management of allergies, patients still have a high rate of recurrence. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) has been used as adjuvant treatment for AFS. Evidence exists to support the use of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a safe and efficacious method of treating allergies, but no studies have assessed the utility of SLIT in the management of allergic fungal sinusitis. A record review of cases of AFS that are currently or previously treated with sublingual immunotherapy from 2007 to 2011 was performed. Parameters of interest included serum IgE levels, changes in symptoms, Lund-McKay scores, decreased sensitization to fungal allergens associated with AFS, and serum IgE levels. Ten patients with diagnosed AFS were treated with SLIT. No adverse effects related to the use of SLIT therapy were identified. Decreases in subjective complaints, exam findings, Lund-McKay scores, and serum IgE levels were observed. Thus, sublingual immunotherapy appears to be a safe adjunct to the management of AFS that may improve patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Distribution of introns in fungal histone genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Choong-Soo; Nishida, Hiromi

    2011-01-27

    Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lack intron in their histone genes, except for an intron in one of histone H4 genes of Yarrowia lipolytica. On the other hand, Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina have introns in their histone genes. We compared the distributions of 81, 47, 79, and 98 introns in the fungal histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Based on the multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of histones, we identified 19, 13, 31, and 22 intron insertion sites in the histone H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 genes, respectively. Surprisingly only one hot spot of introns in the histone H2A gene is shared between Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina, suggesting that most of introns of Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina were acquired independently. Our findings suggest that the common ancestor of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota maybe had a few introns in the histone genes. In the course of fungal evolution, Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina lost the histone introns; Basidiomycota and Perizomycotina acquired other introns independently. In addition, most of the introns have sequence similarity among introns of phylogenetically close species, strongly suggesting that horizontal intron transfer events between phylogenetically distant species have not occurred recently in the fungal histone genes.

  20. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleine, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Ventura, Stefano; D'Acqui, Luigi Paolo; Onofri, Silvano; Zucconi, Laura

    2015-10-10

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  1. Fungal Biodiversity in the Alpine Tarfala Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Coleine

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological soil crusts (BSCs are distributed worldwide in all semiarid and arid lands, where they play a determinant role in element cycling and soil development. Although much work has concentrated on BSC microbial communities, free-living fungi have been hitherto largely overlooked. The aim of this study was to examine the fungal biodiversity, by cultural-dependent and cultural-independent approaches, in thirteen samples of Arctic BSCs collected at different sites in the Alpine Tarfala Valley, located on the slopes of Kebnekaise, the highest mountain in northern Scandinavia. Isolated fungi were identified by both microscopic observation and molecular approaches. Data revealed that the fungal assemblage composition was homogeneous among the BSCs analyzed, with low biodiversity and the presence of a few dominant species; the majority of fungi isolated belonged to the Ascomycota, and Cryptococcus gilvescens and Pezoloma ericae were the most frequently-recorded species. Ecological considerations for the species involved and the implication of our findings for future fungal research in BSCs are put forward.

  2. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns?Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns.Study Design: Prospective study.Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital.Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them.Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered.Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization.Statistical Analysis: By tests of significanceResults: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life.Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  3. Fungal diseases of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L

    2003-05-01

    Aspergillosis and candidiasis are ranked among the most common infectious diseases in birds of prey. The prevention of these fungal diseases is often easier than treatment. Thus the clinician should strive to prevent infection by minimizing stress, maintaining a healthy environment, limiting long-term use of antibiotics and corticosteroids, and reducing exposure to fungal organisms. Although less commonly diagnosed among wild, free-ranging birds of prey, a high incidence in a free-ranging population should make the clinician think of an immunocompromising factor (i.e., toxins, human encroachment or low prey base) that may be contributing to infection. The diagnosis of aspergillosis and candidiasis often requires more than just the identification of the agent, as these ubiquitous organisms often are cultured from healthy birds of prey. In those birds of prey in which a fungal infection is highly suspected or proven, antifungal drugs remain the mainstay of treatment, although available drugs and modes of delivery have improved in recent years.

  4. Delta1 expression, cell cycle exit, and commitment to a specific secretory fate coincide within a few hours in the mouse intestinal stem cell system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Stamataki

    Full Text Available The stem cells of the small intestine are multipotent: they give rise, via transit-amplifying cell divisions, to large numbers of columnar absorptive cells mixed with much smaller numbers of three different classes of secretory cells--mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-secreting enteroendocrine cells, and bactericide-secreting Paneth cells. Notch signaling is known to control commitment to a secretory fate, but why are the secretory cells such a small fraction of the population, and how does the diversity of secretory cell types arise? Using the mouse as our model organism, we find that secretory cells, and only secretory cells, pass through a phase of strong expression of the Notch ligand Delta1 (Dll1. Onset of this Dll1 expression coincides with a block to further cell division and is followed in much less than a cell cycle time by expression of Neurog3--a marker of enteroendocrine fate--or Gfi1--a marker of goblet or Paneth cell fate. By conditional knock-out of Dll1, we confirm that Delta-Notch signaling controls secretory commitment through lateral inhibition. We infer that cells stop dividing as they become committed to a secretory fate, while their neighbors continue dividing, explaining the final excess of absorptive over secretory cells. Our data rule out schemes in which cells first become committed to be secretory, and then diversify through subsequent cell divisions. A simple mathematical model shows how, instead, Notch signaling may simultaneously govern the commitment to be secretory and the choice between alternative modes of secretory differentiation.

  5. Systemic Fungal Infections in Donors for Corneal Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Sheila; Lindquist, Thomas D; Miller, Thomas D; Jeng, Bennie H

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of postkeratoplasty fungal infection when corneal tissue from donors with a recent medical history of oral thrush or respiratory, urine, wound, sputum, bronchial, tracheal, or throat culture positive for fungus is identified before recovery and after decontamination of the corneal tissue with 5% povidone-iodine flush to the donors' eyes during recovery. This is a prospective analysis of corneas from 42 donors with a documented medical history of fungus or positive fungal culture, which were recovered between January 2010 and November 2010. Standard aseptic swab of the donors' corneas before and after application of 5% povidone-iodine solution was performed. Culture results were analyzed in relationship to the donors' medical history and potential posttransplantation infections. Eighty-four eyes from 42 patients were swabbed for cultures during the study period. Seven eyes (8.3%) were positive for fungal growth before treatment with 5% povidone-iodine, whereas there were no positive fungal cultures after treatment (P = 0.007). Fifty-four corneas from this study group were used for corneal transplantation. There were no cases of fungal infection in any postkeratoplasty eyes transplanted from this study group. In this small study, the overall prevalence of fungal infections after corneal transplantation using corneal donor tissue from donors with a fungal-positive medical history is low. Corneal fungal contamination in donors with a history of fungal infection or a positive fungal culture can be significantly reduced with a 5% povidone-iodine flush.

  6. Molecular and functional evolution of the fungal diterpene synthase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Marc J C; Rustenhloz, Camille; Leh-Louis, Véronique; Perrière, Guy

    2015-10-19

    Terpenes represent one of the largest and most diversified families of natural compounds and are used in numerous industrial applications. Terpene synthase (TPS) genes originated in bacteria as diterpene synthase (di-TPS) genes. They are also found in plant and fungal genomes. The recent availability of a large number of fungal genomes represents an opportunity to investigate how genes involved in diterpene synthesis were acquired by fungi, and to assess the consequences of this process on the fungal metabolism. In order to investigate the origin of fungal di-TPS, we implemented a search for potential fungal di-TPS genes and identified their presence in several unrelated Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species. The fungal di-TPS phylogenetic tree is function-related but is not associated with the phylogeny based on housekeeping genes. The lack of agreement between fungal and di-TPS-based phylogenies suggests the presence of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGTs) events. Further evidence for HGT was provided by conservation of synteny of di-TPS and neighbouring genes in distantly related fungi. The results obtained here suggest that fungal di-TPSs originated from an ancient HGT event of a single di-TPS gene from a plant to a fungus in Ascomycota. In fungi, these di-TPSs allowed for the formation of clusters consisting in di-TPS, GGPPS and P450 genes to create functional clusters that were transferred between fungal species, producing diterpenes acting as hormones or toxins, thus affecting fungal development and pathogenicity.

  7. Secretory IgA (SIgA: designed for antimicrobial defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per eBrandtzaeg

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of infections by vaccination remains a compelling goal to improve public health. Mucosal vaccines would make immunization procedures easier, be better suited for mass administration, and most efficiently induce immune exclusion -- a term coined for non-inflammatory antibody shielding of internal body surfaces, mediated principally by secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA. The exported antibodies are polymeric, mainly IgA dimers (pIgA, produced by local plasma cells stimulated by antigens that target the mucosae. SIgA was early shown to be complexed with an epithelial glycoprotein -- the secretory component (SC. A common SC-dependent transport mechanism for pIgA and pentameric IgM was then proposed, implying that membrane SC acts as a receptor, now usually called the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR. From the basolateral surface, pIg-pIgR complexes are taken up by endocytosis and then extruded into the lumen after apical cleavage of the receptor -- bound SC having stabilizing and innate functions in the secretory antibodies. Mice deficient for pIgR show that this is the only receptor responsible for epithelial export of IgA and IgM. These knockout mice show a variety of defects in their mucosal defensce and changes in their intestinal microbiota. In the gut, induction of B cells occurs in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, particularly the Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles, but also in mesenteric lymph nodes. Plasma cell differentiation is accomplished in the lamina propria to which the activated memory/effector B cells home. The airways also receive such cells from nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT but by different homing receptors. This compartmentalization is a challenge for mucosal vaccination, as are the mechanisms used by the mucosal immune system to discriminate between commensal symbionts (mutualism, pathobionts and overt pathogens (elimination.

  8. Heterologous Secretory Expression and Characterization of Dimerized Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 in Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Hanif

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant human Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP2 has important applications in the spine fusion and ortho/maxillofacial surgeries. Here we first report the secretory expression of biological active dimerized rhBMP2 from Bacillus subtilis system. The mature domain of BMP2 gene was amplified from pTz57R/BMP2 plasmid. By using pHT43 expression vector two constructs, pHT43-BMP2-M (single BMP2 gene and pHT43-BMP2-D (two BMP2 genes coupled with a linker to produce a dimer, were designed. After primary cloning (DH5α strain and sequence analysis, constructs were transformed into Bacillus subtilis for secretory expression. Expression conditions like media (2xYT and temperature (30°C were optimized. Maximum 35% and 25% secretory expression of monomer (~13 kDa and dimer (~25 kDa, respectively, were observed on SDS-PAGE in SCK6 strain. The expression and dimeric nature of rhBMP2 were confirmed by western blot and native PAGE analysis. For rhBMP2 purification, 200 ml culture supernatant was freeze dried to 10 ml and dialyzed (Tris-Cl, pH 8.5 and Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (6 ml, Resource Q column was performed. The rhBMP2 monomer and dimer were eluted at 0.9 M and 0.6 M NaCl, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase assay of rhBMP2 (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ng/ml was analyzed on C2C12 cells and maximum 200 ng/ml activity was observed in dose dependent manner.

  9. Secretory clusterin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by attenuating M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bongkun; Kang, Soon-Suk [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang-Wook [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center and BMIT, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Bon-Hong [Department of Pharmacology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Da-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Min [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Youngsup [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center and BMIT, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung-Yong [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center and BMIT, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Eun-Ju, E-mail: ejchang@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Cell Dysfunction Research Center and BMIT, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We describe the expression and secretion of clusterin in osteoclasts. • Endogenous clusterin deficiency does not affect osteoclast formation. • Exogenous treatment with secretory clusterin decreases osteoclast differentiation. • Secretory clusterin attenuates osteoclast precursor cell proliferation by inhibiting M-CSF-mediated ERK activation. - Abstract: Secretory clusterin (sCLU)/apolipoprotein J is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Reduced sCLU in the joints of patients with bone erosive disease is associated with disease activity; however, its exact role has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLU is expressed and secreted during osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that are treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). CLU-deficient BMMs obtained from CLU{sup −/−} mice exhibited no significant alterations in OC differentiation in comparison with BMMs obtained from wild-type mice. In contrast, exogenous sCLU treatment significantly inhibited OC formation in both BMMs and OC precursor cultures. The inhibitory effect of sCLU was more prominent in BMMs than OC precursor cultures. Interestingly, treating BMMs with sCLU decreased the proliferative effects elicited by M-CSF and suppressed M-CSF-induced ERK activation of OC precursor cells without causing apoptotic cell death. This study provides the first evidence that sCLU reduces OC formation by inhibiting the actions of M-CSF, thereby suggesting its protective role in bone erosion.

  10. Ca(2+)-independent fusion of secretory granules with phospholipase A2-treated plasma membranes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, T; Kubo, T; Fujimoto, R; Nishio, H; Takeuchi, T; Hata, F

    1995-04-15

    The fusion of secretory granules with plasma membranes prepared from rat parotid gland was studied in vitro to clarify the mechanism of exocytosis. Fusion of the granules with plasma membranes was measured by a fluorescence-dequenching assay with octadecyl rhodamine B, and release of amylase was also measured to confirm the fusion as a final step of the secretory process. Plasma membranes that had been pretreated with porcine phospholipase A2 (PLA2) in the presence of 20 microM Ca2+ fused with the granules within 30 s, and induced amylase release by reacting with the membranes of granules, whereas without this pretreatment they had no significant effect. The fusion process accompanied by amylase release was induced in the presence of 10 mM EGTA, and therefore was apparently Ca(2+)-independent. On the other hand, the presence of EGTA or 100 microM quinacrine, an inhibitor of PLA2, during treatment of plasma membranes with PLA2 inhibited their fusogenic activity, suggesting the importance of activation of PLA2. Arachidonic acid and linoleic acid were released from the plasma membranes during the PLA2 treatment. The presence of albumin, an adsorbent of fatty acids, during the treatment also inhibited the activity. Pretreatment of the membranes with arachidonic acid or linoleic acid did not have any effect, but the presence of exogenously added arachidonic acid during PLA2 treatment enhanced the membrane-fusion-inducing effect of PLA2. Pretreatment of the membranes with lysophosphatidylcholine induced fusogenic activity. These findings suggest that the conformational change in the plasma-membrane phospholipids induced by PLA2 and the presence of arachidonic acid or linoleic acid produced by PLA2 are important in the process of fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membranes of rat parotid acinar cells and that the fusion process itself is independent of Ca2+.

  11. Ciliary and secretory differentiation of normal human middle ear epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Won-Sang; Kim, Hee-Nam; Song, Kyoung-Seob; Yoon, Joo-Heon

    2002-04-01

    Recent technical advances now permit the serial culture of normal human middle ear epithelial (NHMEE) cells. However, the ciliary differentiation of these cells has not been achieved. The purpose of this study was to establish a culture system in order to differentiate serially cultured NHMEE cells into ciliated cells. If ciliated cells developed, the percentages of ciliated cells and secretory cells were measured throughout the duration of culture. We also examined the levels of mucin and lysozyme secretion and their mRNAs in a time-dependent manner. Human middle ear mucosa with a normal appearance was harvested and serially cultured after enzymatic disaggregation. These cells were cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) culture system for 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after confluence. Ciliogenesis usually began 16-18 days after confluence. The percentage of ciliated cells detected by means of immunohistochemical staining increased over time up to a maximum of 10.6% but the percentage of secretory cells remained stable at approximately 40% throughout the duration of culture. By Day 14 after confluence, the amounts of mucin and lysozyme secretion, as measured by dot-blotting analysis, had increased significantly and then remained stable. The expression levels of mucin gene 5B (MUC5B), MUC8 and lysozyme increased with the duration of culture. MUC8 in particular showed a dramatic increase on Day 28 after confluence. In contrast, the level of MUC5AC mRNA peaked on Day 14 after confluence, and then decreased. In conclusion, ciliary differentiation of NHMEE cells can be induced using an ALI culture system. Our study also suggests that secretory function develops earlier than ciliogenesis, and that the expressions of MUC5B and MUC8 mRNAs increase as a function of differentiation.

  12. Comparison in gene expression of secretory human endometrium using laser microdissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Tadateru

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium prepares for implantation under the control of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that there are complicated interactions between the epithelium and stroma in the endometrium during menstrual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate a difference in gene expression between the epithelial and stromal areas of the secretory human endometrium using microdissection and macroarray technique. Methods The epithelial and stromal areas were microdissected from the human endometrium during the secretory phase. RNA was extracted and amplified by PCR. Macroarray analysis of nearly 1000 human genes was carried out in this study. Some genes identified by macroarray analysis were verified using real-time PCR. Results In this study, changes in expression 5-fold were WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (44.1 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (40.1 fold, homeo box B5 (19.8 fold, msh homeo box homolog (18.8 fold, homeo box B7 (12.7 fold and protein kinase C, theta (6.4 fold. On the other hand, decorin (55.6 fold, discoidin domain receptor member 2 (17.3 fold, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (9 fold, ribosomal protein S3A (6.3 fold, and tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domains (5.2 fold were strongly expressed in the stromal areas. WAP four-disulfide core domain 2 (19.4 fold, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (9.7-fold, decorin (16.3-fold and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (7.2-fold were verified by real-time PCR. Conclusions Some of the genes we identified with differential expression are related to the immune system. These results are telling us the new information for understanding the secretory human endometrium.

  13. Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary gland in four Mexican patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Domínguez-Malagón, Hugo; Michal, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The Clinco-pathological, immunohistochemical and molecular findings of four cases of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of salivary glands found in Mexico are described. The cases were extracted from 253 salivary gland tumors from a single institution in Mexico City. The 85 candidates for initial selection were: low grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) (N=70 ), acinic cell cancinoma (AciCC) (N=14), papillary cystadenocarcinoma (N=1), and adenocarcinoma NOS (N=0). Tumors with some histological features consistent with MASC (N= 17, 6.7%) were studied by immunohistochemistry for mammaglobin, STAT5, and S-100 protein and four cases were positive (1.5%), thus the diagnosis of MASC was established, and these were submitted for molecular studies for ETV6-NTRK3. Fusion gene was demonstrated in three cases, two had been erroneously diagnosed as poorly granulated AciCC, and one as low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Female gender predominated (3:1); one occurred in the parotid, two in minor salivary glands and one in the submaxillary gland; infiltrating borders, atypical mitosis and lymph node metastases were seen in the parotideal tumor. Two patients with major salivary gland tumors are alive and well at 10 and 20 months respectively, the two patients with minor salivary gland tumors are lost. It can be concluded that is important to think in MASC in poorly granulated AciCC and low grade MEC with microcystic pattern. Immunohistochemisty studies confirm the diagnosis, preferentially supported by molecular studies. MASC may follow aggressive behavior or transform into a high grade neoplasm. Key words:Acinic cell carcinoma, ETV6-NTRK3, Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma, secretory breast carcinoma. PMID:25481229

  14. The Ultrastructure of Secretory Cells of the Islets of Langerhans in South American Catfish Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Luchini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows that a detailed description of the ultrastructure of the secretory cells of the South American catfish Rhamdia quelen pancreatic islets is presented. Evidence is offered to support the contention that the α-granules consist of a central and an outer portion of different electron densities and solubilities, that the δ-cells are most probably morphologically altered but viable α-cells, and that the β-granules possibly possess a repeating substructure and may therefore represent an intracellular crystalline storage form of insulin.

  15. E-Cadherin Can Replace N-Cadherin during Secretory-Stage Enamel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiaomu; Bidlack, Felicitas B.; Stokes, Nicole; Bartlett, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. Methodology/Principal Findings The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT) and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO) mice was analyzed. μCT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. Conclusions/Significance The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is normally down

  16. E-cadherin can replace N-cadherin during secretory-stage enamel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomu Guan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: N-cadherin is a cell-cell adhesion molecule and deletion of N-cadherin in mice is embryonic lethal. During the secretory stage of enamel development, E-cadherin is down-regulated and N-cadherin is specifically up-regulated in ameloblasts when groups of ameloblasts slide by one another to form the rodent decussating enamel rod pattern. Since N-cadherin promotes cell migration, we asked if N-cadherin is essential for ameloblast cell movement during enamel development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The enamel organ, including its ameloblasts, is an epithelial tissue and for this study a mouse strain with N-cadherin ablated from epithelium was generated. Enamel from wild-type (WT and N-cadherin conditional knockout (cKO mice was analyzed. μCT and scanning electron microscopy showed that thickness, surface structure, and prism pattern of the cKO enamel looked identical to WT. No significant difference in hardness was observed between WT and cKO enamel. Interestingly, immunohistochemistry revealed the WT and N-cadherin cKO secretory stage ameloblasts expressed approximately equal amounts of total cadherins. Strikingly, E-cadherin was not normally down-regulated during the secretory stage in the cKO mice suggesting that E-cadherin can compensate for the loss of N-cadherin. Previously it was demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2 induces E- and N-cadherin expression in human calvaria osteoblasts and we show that the N-cadherin cKO enamel organ expressed significantly more BMP2 and significantly less of the BMP antagonist Noggin than did WT enamel organ. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The E- to N-cadherin switch at the secretory stage is not essential for enamel development or for forming the decussating enamel rod pattern. E-cadherin can substitute for N-cadherin during these developmental processes. Bmp2 expression may compensate for the loss of N-cadherin by inducing or maintaining E-cadherin expression when E-cadherin is

  17. Reversal by EGTA of the enhanced secretory responsiveness of mast cells due to treatment with ouabain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Torben; Knudsen, T; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor

    1990-01-01

    The effect of EGTA on the enhancement by ouabain of compound 48/80-induced secretion from mast cells was compared with the effect on the Na(+)-K+ pump activity. The time-dependent secretory enhancement by ouabain was blocked by addition of EGTA to the cell suspension concomitantly with the addition...... of ouabain, and EGTA caused a large increase in the pump activity. Addition of 10 microM EGTA to ouabain-treated cells stopped but did not reverse the enhancement. The experiments show that the effect of ouabain was due to changes in a calcium pool utilized in compound 48/80-induced secretion following...

  18. Microarray profiling of progesterone-regulated endometrial genes during the rhesus monkey secretory phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okulicz William C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the endometrium the steroid hormone progesterone (P, acting through its nuclear receptors, regulates the expression of specific target genes and gene networks required for endometrial maturation. Proper endometrial maturation is considered a requirement for embryo implantation. Endometrial receptivity is a complex process that is spatially and temporally restricted and the identity of genes that regulate receptivity has been pursued by a number of investigators. Methods In this study we have used high density oligonucleotide microarrays to screen for changes in mRNA transcript levels between normal proliferative and adequate secretory phases in Rhesus monkey artificial menstrual cycles. Biotinylated cRNA was prepared from day 13 and days 21–23 of the reproductive cycle and transcript levels were compared by hybridization to Affymetrix HG-U95A arrays. Results Of ~12,000 genes profiled, we identified 108 genes that were significantly regulated during the shift from a proliferative to an adequate secretory endometrium. Of these genes, 39 were up-regulated at days 21–23 versus day 13, and 69 were down-regulated. Genes up-regulated in P-dominant tissue included: secretoglobin (uteroglobin, histone 2A, polo-like kinase (PLK, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase 2 (SAT2, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI and metallothionein 1G (MT1G, all of which have been previously documented as elevated in the Rhesus monkey or human endometrium during the secretory phase. Genes down-regulated included: transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI or BIGH3, matrix metalloproteinase 11 (stromelysin 3, proenkephalin (PENK, cysteine/glycine-rich protein 2 (CSRP2, collagen type VII alpha 1 (COL7A1, secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4, progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, chemokine (C-X-C ligand 12 (CXCL12 and biglycan (BGN. In addition, many novel/unknown genes were also identified. Validation of array data

  19. Secretory phospholipase A2-IIa upregulates HER/HER2-elicited signaling in lung cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    DONG, ZHONGYUN; MELLER, JAROSLAW; SUCCOP, PAUL; WANG, JIANG; WIKENHEISER-BROKAMP, KATHRYN; STARNES, SANDRA; LU, SHAN

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need for early diagnostic tools and novel therapies in order to increase lung cancer survival. Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa (sPLA2-IIa) is involved in inflammation, tumorigenesis and metastasis. We were the first to uncover that cancer cells secrete sPLA2-IIa. sPLA2-IIa is overexpressed in almost all specimens of human lung cancers examined and is significantly elevated in the plasma of lung cancer patients...

  20. [Unilateral exophthalmos as the debut of a non-secretory multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rebollo, M; Cañones-Zafra, R; Vleming-Pinilla, E N; Drake-Rodríguez-Casanova, P; Pérez-Rico, C

    2009-12-01

    A 56 year-old male presented blurred vision and diplopia for 2 months, left unilateral exophthalmos, restricted ocular motility and papilledema. The imaging proofs showed osteolytic lesions in the left sphenoid bone, fourth rib and fourth dorsal vertebral body with associated masses of soft tissues. Biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of plasma cell neoplasm was established. The diagnosis of non-secretory multiple myeloma was made by analytical criteria and bone marrow biopsy. Local radiotherapy and polychemotherapy was prescribed. The ophthalmologist can play an important role in the diagnosis of systemic neoplasms that require the intervention of a multidisciplinary team.

  1. Deletion of glutamate dehydrogenase in beta-cells abolishes part of the insulin secretory response not required for glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carobbio, Stefania; Frigerio, Francesca; Rubi, Blanca

    2009-01-01

    Insulin exocytosis is regulated in pancreatic ss-cells by a cascade of intracellular signals translating glucose levels into corresponding secretory responses. The mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is regarded as a major player in this process, although its abrogation has not bee...... weight gain was preserved. The results demonstrate that GDH is essential for the full development of the secretory response in beta-cells. However, maximal secretory capacity is not required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis in normo-caloric conditions.......Insulin exocytosis is regulated in pancreatic ss-cells by a cascade of intracellular signals translating glucose levels into corresponding secretory responses. The mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is regarded as a major player in this process, although its abrogation has not been...... tested yet in animal models. Here, we generated transgenic mice, named betaGlud1(-/-), with ss-cell-specific GDH deletion. Our results show that GDH plays an essential role in the full development of the insulin secretory response. In situ pancreatic perfusion revealed that glucose-stimulated insulin...

  2. Performance of Targeted Fungal Sequencing for Culture-Independent Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carlos A; Budvytiene, Indre; Zemek, Allison J; Banaei, Niaz

    2017-11-29

    Identification of fungi causing invasive fungal disease (IFD) is critical for guiding antifungal therapy. We describe the performance and clinical impact of a targeted panfungal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicon sequencing assay for culture-independent diagnosis of IFD. Between January 2009 and September 2016, 233 specimens, consisting of fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and sterile body fluids with known diagnosis of IFD based on reference method results (n = 117), and specimens with negative fungal culture, but with microscopic and ancillary findings indicative of IFD (n = 116), were included. PCR amplicons from the internal transcribed spacer 2 and the D2 region of 28S ribosomal RNA gene were sequenced and fungi identified. Sensitivity and specificity of fungal sequencing in specimens with known diagnosis were 96.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 87.4%-99.4%; 58/60) and 98.2% (95% CI, 89.4%-99.9%; 56/57). In patients with suspected IFD, the diagnostic yield of fungal sequencing was 62.9% (73/116) overall and 71.3% (57/80) in patients classified with proven IFD based on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria. Samples obtained by open biopsy had a significantly higher diagnostic yield (71.5% [40/56]) compared with core-needle biopsy (50% [17/34] P = .04) and fine needle aspiration (0% [0/2]; P = .009). Additionally, D2 sequencing diagnosed 5 cases of invasive protozoal infections due to Toxoplasma gondii (n = 3), Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania species. Sequencing results altered patient management in the majority of suspected cases. The targeted fungal sequencing assay allowed accurate identification of fungi causing IFD and additionally provided partial-protozoal coverage. The diagnostic yield was dependent on the amount of tissue available for testing.

  3. Current Thoughts in Fungal Keratitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Zubair; Miller, Darlene; Galor, Anat

    2013-01-01

    Fungal keratitis remains a challenging and often elusive diagnosis in geographic regions where it is endemic. Marred by delays in diagnosis, the sequelae of corneal fungal infections, though preventable, can be irreversible. Recent studies and advances in the arena have broadened the approach and treatment to mycotic keratitis. This review will discuss current diagnostic modalities of fungal keratitis and will particularly focus on treatment regimens. It will also explore future therapeutic models and critique the potential benefit of each. PMID:24040467

  4. Advances in combating fungal diseases: vaccines on the threshold

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Jim E.; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce S.

    2006-01-01

    The dramatic increase in fungal diseases in recent years can be attributed to the increased aggressiveness of medical therapy and other human activities. Immunosuppressed patients are at risk of contracting fungal diseases in healthcare settings and from natural environments. Increased prescribing of antifungals has led to the emergence of resistant fungi, resulting in treatment challenges. These concerns, together with the elucidation of the mechanisms of protective immunity against fungal d...

  5. Clinical study on epilepsy secondary to fungal meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu YANG; Min ZHANG; Xi HE

    2015-01-01

    The clinical manifestations, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), imaging and EEG characteristics of 10 patients with epilepsy secondary to fungal meningitis were retrospectively analyzed, so as to improve the diagnosis and treatment of fungal meningitis. The results suggest that patients with fungal meningitis involving the cortex were sensitive to secondary epilepsy; imaging examinations showing frontotemporal lesions and EEG showing moderate-to-severe abnormalities were sensitive to secondary ...

  6. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, Geehan; Alangaden, George J

    2016-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized in this article. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase serves as a metabolic sensor and regulates priming of secretory granules in pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Hervør L; Hoy, Marianne; Zhang, Wei

    2003-01-01

    Insulin secretion is controlled by the beta cell's metabolic state, and the ability of the secretory granules to undergo exocytosis increases during glucose stimulation in a membrane potential-independent fashion. Here, we demonstrate that exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules depends...... on phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase (PI 4-kinase) activity and that inhibition of this enzyme suppresses glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Intracellular application of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P(2)] stimulated exocytosis by promoting the priming of secretory...... granules for release and increasing the number of granules residing in a readily releasable pool. Reducing the cytoplasmic ADP concentration in a way mimicking the effects of glucose stimulation activated PI 4-kinase and increased exocytosis whereas changes of the ATP concentration in the physiological...

  8. Extracellular magnesium decreases the secretory response of rat peritoneal mast cells to compound 48/80 in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Johansen, Torben

    1991-01-01

    Exposure of rat peritoneal mast cells to magnesium in the absence of extracellular calcium resulted in a time- and dose-dependent decrease in the secretory response induced by compound 48/80. The decrease was prevented by a low extracellular concentration of calcium. Furthermore, the decreased...... and the secretory stimulus. A dose-dependent decrease in antigen induced histamine secretion that was reversed by calcium was also observed. Exposure of the mast cells to magnesium for 15 min resulted in a parallel decrease in histamine secretion and in the cellular content of 45Ca2+. These observations suggest...... secretory responsiveness was dose-dependently restored by the addition of calcium to the cells simultaneously with compound 48/80. Preincubation with magnesium also inhibited antigen-induced histamine secretion in a dose-dependent manner. This was reversed by the simultaneous addition of calcium...

  9. Complexin Activates Exocytosis of Distinct Secretory Vesicles Controlled by Different Synaptotagmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng; Yang, Xiaofei; Südhof, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Complexins are SNARE-complex binding proteins essential for the Ca2+-triggered exocytosis mediated by synaptotagmin-1, -2, -7, or -9, but the possible role of complexins in other types of exocytosis controlled by other synaptotagmin isoforms remains unclear. Here we show that in mouse olfactory bulb neurons, synaptotagmin-1 localizes to synaptic vesicles and to large dense-core secretory vesicles as reported previously, whereas synaptotagmin-10 localizes to a distinct class of peptidergic secretory vesicles containing IGF-1. Both synaptotagmin-1-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis and synaptotagmin-10-dependent IGF-1 exocytosis were severely impaired by knockdown of complexins, demonstrating that complexin acts as a co-factor for both synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-10 despite the functional differences between these synaptotagmins. Rescue experiments revealed that only the activating but not the clamping function of complexins was required for IGF-1 exocytosis controlled by synaptotagmin-10. Thus, our data indicate that complexins are essential for activation of multiple types of Ca2+-induced exocytosis that are regulated by different synaptotagmin isoforms. These results suggest that different types of regulated exocytosis are mediated by similar synaptotagmin-dependent fusion mechanisms, that particular synaptotagmin isoforms confer specificity onto different types of regulated exocytosis, and that complexins serve as universal synaptotagmin-adaptors for all of these types of exocytosis independent of which synaptotagmin isoform is involved. PMID:23345244

  10. Neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) deficiency disrupts the Golgi secretory pathway and causes growth inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, Wilhelm; Hammels, Ina; Jenke, Bitta; Binczek, Erika; Schmidt-Soltau, Inga; Brodesser, Susanne; Schauss, Astrid; Etich, Julia; Heilig, Juliane; Zaucke, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Systemic loss of neutral sphingomyelinase (SMPD3) in mice leads to a novel form of systemic, juvenile hypoplasia (dwarfism). SMPD3 deficiency in mainly two growth regulating cell types contributes to the phenotype, in chondrocytes of skeletal growth zones to skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia, and in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to systemic hypothalamus–pituitary–somatotropic hypoplasia. The unbiased smpd3−/− mouse mutant and derived smpd3−/− primary chondrocytes were instrumental in defining the enigmatic role underlying the systemic and cell autonomous role of SMPD3 in the Golgi compartment. Here we describe the unprecedented role of SMPD3. SMPD3 deficiency disrupts homeostasis of sphingomyelin (SM), ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerol (DAG) in the Golgi SMPD3-SMS1 (SM-synthase1) cycle. Cer and DAG, two fusogenic intermediates, modify the membrane lipid bilayer for the initiation of vesicle formation and transport. Dysproteostasis, unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis perturb the Golgi secretory pathway in the smpd3−/− mouse. Secretion of extracellular matrix proteins is arrested in chondrocytes and causes skeletal malformation and chondrodysplasia. Similarly, retarded secretion of proteo-hormones in hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons leads to hypothalamus induced combined pituitary hormone deficiency. SMPD3 in the regulation of the protein vesicular secretory pathway may become a diagnostic target in the etiology of unknown forms of juvenile growth and developmental inhibition. PMID:27882938

  11. Engineering Yarrowia lipolytica to express secretory invertase with strong FBA1IN promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Pyo; Seip, John; Walters-Pollak, Dana; Rupert, Ross; Jackson, Raymond; Xue, Zhixiong; Zhu, Quinn

    2012-02-01

    Oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is an important host for the production of lipid-derived compounds or heterologous proteins. Selection of strong promoters and effective expression systems is critical for heterologous protein secretion. To search for a strong promoter in Y. lipolytica, activities of FBA1, TDH1 and GPM1 promoters were compared to that of TEF1 promoter by constructing GUS reporter fusions. The FBA1 promoter activity was 2.2 and 5.5 times stronger than the TDH1 and GPM1 promoters, respectively. The FBA1IN promoter (FBA1 sequence of -826 to +169) containing an intron (+64 to +165) showed five-fold higher expression than the FBA1 promoter (-831 to -1). The transcriptional enhancement by the 5'-region within the FBA1 gene was confirmed by GPM1::FBA1 chimeric promoter construction. Using the strong FBA1IN promoter, four different S. cerevisiae SUC2 expression cassettes were tested for the SUC+ phenotype in Y. lipolytica. Functional invertase secretion was facilitated by the Xpr2 prepro-region with an additional 13 amino acids of mature Xpr2, or by the native Suc2 signal sequence. However, these two secretory signals in tandem, or the mature Suc2 with no secretory signal, did not direct secretion of functional invertase. Unlike previously reported Y. lipolytica SUC+ strains, our engineered stains secreted most of invertase into the medium. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2011-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 ± 2.6 and 38.8 ± 6.7% (n=16; P≤0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  13. Hydroxylase inhibition attenuates colonic epithelial secretory function and ameliorates experimental diarrhea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, Joseph B J

    2012-02-01

    Hydroxylases are oxygen-sensing enzymes that regulate cellular responses to hypoxia. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion, the driving force for fluid secretion, is dependent on O(2) availability for generation of cellular energy. Here, we investigated the role of hydroxylases in regulating epithelial secretion and the potential for targeting these enzymes in treatment of diarrheal disorders. Ion transport was measured as short-circuit current changes across voltage-clamped monolayers of T(84) cells and mouse colon. The antidiarrheal efficacy of dimethyloxallyl glycine (DMOG) was tested in a mouse model of allergic disease. Hydroxylase inhibition with DMOG attenuated Ca(2+)- and cAMP-dependent secretory responses in voltage-clamped T(84) cells to 20.2 +\\/- 2.6 and 38.8 +\\/- 6.7% (n=16; P<\\/=0.001) of those in control cells, respectively. Antisecretory actions of DMOG were time and concentration dependent, being maximal after 18 h of DMOG (1 mM) treatment. DMOG specifically inhibited Na(+)\\/K(+)-ATPase pump activity without altering its expression or membrane localization. In mice, DMOG inhibited agonist-induced secretory responses ex vivo and prevented allergic diarrhea in vivo. In conclusion, hydroxylases are important regulators of epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion and present a promising target for development of new drugs to treat transport disorders.

  14. Control of LH secretory-burst frequency and interpulse-interval regularity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Daniel M; Evans, William S; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2003-11-01

    Hypothalamic neurons generate discrete bursts of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and thereby pulses of luteinizing hormone (LH) at randomly timed intervals centered on a probabilistic mean frequency. We tested the hypothesis that physiological mechanisms govern not only the number but also the stochastic dispersion of the GnRH/LH pulse-renewal process in humans; for example, in young women in the early (EF) and late (LF) follicular and midluteal (ML) phases of the menstrual cycle (n = 18) and in postmenopausal individuals (PM, n = 16). To this end, we quantify stochastic interpulse variability by way of the order-independent, two-parameter Weibull renewal process (Keenan DM and Veldhuis J. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 281: R1917-R1924, 2001) and the sequence-specific, model-free approximate-entropy statistic (ApEn) (Pincus SM. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2297-2301, 1991). Statistical testing unveiled 1) reduced probabilistic mean LH secretory-burst frequency (lower lambda of the Weibull distribution) in ML compared with each of EF, LF, and PM (P renewal variability, and secretory-waveform evolution.

  15. The regulated secretory pathway and human disease: insights from gene variants and single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSalton

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The regulated secretory pathway provides critical control of peptide, growth factor, and hormone release from neuroendocrine and endocrine cells, and neurons, maintaining physiological homeostasis. Propeptides and prohormones are packaged into dense core granules (DCGs, where they frequently undergo tissue-specific processing as the DCG matures. Proteins of the granin family are DCG components, and although their function is not fully understood, data suggest they are involved in DCG formation and regulated protein/peptide secretion, in addition to their role as precursors of bioactive peptides. Association of gene variation, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, with neuropsychiatric, endocrine and metabolic diseases, has implicated specific secreted proteins and peptides in disease pathogenesis. For example, a SNP at position 196 (G/A of the human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene dysregulates protein processing and secretion and leads to cognitive impairment. This suggests more generally that variants identified in genes encoding secreted growth factors, peptides, hormones, and proteins involved in DCG biogenesis, protein processing, and the secretory apparatus, could provide insight into the process of regulated secretion as well as disorders that result when it is impaired.

  16. Lactation defect with impaired secretory activation in AEBP1-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Adipocyte enhancer binding protein 1 (AEBP1 is a multifunctional protein that negatively regulates the tumor suppressor PTEN and IκBα, the inhibitor of NF-κB, through protein-protein interaction, thereby promoting cell survival and inflammation. Mice homozygous for a disrupted AEBP1 gene developed to term but showed defects in growth after birth. AEBP1(-/- females display lactation defect, which results in the death of 100% of the litters nursed by AEBP1(-/- dams. Mammary gland development during pregnancy appears normal in AEBP1(-/- dams; however these mice exhibit expansion of the luminal space and the appearance of large cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs in the mammary epithelial cells at late pregnancy and parturition, which is a clear sign of failed secretory activation, and accumulation of milk proteins in the mammary gland, presumably reflecting milk stasis following failed secretory activation. Eventually, AEBP1(-/- mammary gland rapidly undergoes involution at postpartum. Stromal restoration of AEBP1 expression by transplanting wild-type bone marrow (BM cells is sufficient to rescue the mammary gland defect. Our studies suggest that AEBP1 is critical in the maintenance of normal tissue architecture and function of the mammary gland tissue and controls stromal-epithelial crosstalk in mammary gland development.

  17. Localization of oleuropeyl glucose esters and a flavanone to secretory cavities of Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Allison M; Goodger, Jason Q D; Tsegay, Sammi; Quach, Tim; Williams, Spencer J; Woodrow, Ian E

    2012-01-01

    We report the widespread occurrence of structurally diverse oleuropeyl glucose esters, including the new diester eucaglobulin B, localized specifically to the essential oil secretory cavities of myrtaceous species. Clear taxonomic patterns in the composition of cavity extracts within the genus Eucalyptus are shown with species from subgenus Symphyomyrtus dominated by oleuropeyl glucose esters and species from subgenus Eucalyptus dominated instead by the flavanone, pinocembrin. We also examined the intra-species occurrence of oleuropeyl glucose esters by quantifying the abundant constituents cuniloside B and froggattiside A in trees from two populations of Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker. All trees contained both compounds, which were positively correlated with total essential oil concentration. This apparent ubiquity of oleuropeyl glucose esters at both intra- and inter-specific levels in Eucalyptus is indicative of important physiological or ecological functions. The significance of their prevalence and the sequestration of these esters and also pinocembrin to the extracellular domain of secretory cavities is discussed in light of their potential biological activities and our findings that they are spatially segregated to the exterior of cavity lumina. The localization of oleuropeyl glucose esters to a specific and isolatable tissue type has the potential to aid in future elucidation of function and biosynthesis.

  18. Secretory pathway Ca2+-ATPases promote in vitro microcalcifications in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Donna; Prasad, Hari; Rao, Rajini

    2017-11-01

    Calcification of the breast is often an outward manifestation of underlying molecular changes that drive carcinogenesis. Up to 50% of all non-palpable breast tumors and 90% of ductal carcinoma in situ present with radiographically dense mineralization in mammographic scans. However, surprisingly little is known about the molecular pathways that lead to microcalcifications in the breast. Here, we report on a rapid and quantitative in vitro assay to monitor microcalcifications in breast cancer cell lines, including MCF7, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T. We show that the Secretory Pathway Ca 2+ -ATPases SPCA1 and SPCA2 are strongly induced under osteogenic conditions that elicit microcalcifications. SPCA gene expression is significantly elevated in breast cancer subtypes that are associated with microcalcifications. Ectopic expression of SPCA genes drives microcalcifications and is dependent on pumping activity. Conversely, knockdown of SPCA expression significantly attenuates formation of microcalcifications. We propose that high levels of SPCA pumps may initiate mineralization in the secretory pathway by elevating luminal Ca 2+ . Our new findings offer mechanistic insight and functional implications on a widely observed, yet poorly understood radiographic signature of breast cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pasteurella multocida toxin: Targeting mast cell secretory granules during kiss-and-run secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Elisabeth M; Christiansen, Nina; Danielsen, E Michael

    2016-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT), a virulence factor of the pathogenic Gram-negative bacterium P. multocida, is a 146 kDa protein belonging to the A-B class of toxins. Once inside a target cell, the A domain deamidates the α-subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins, thereby activating downstream signaling cascades. However, little is known about how PMT selects and enters its cellular targets. We therefore studied PMT binding and uptake in porcine cultured intestinal mucosal explants to identify susceptible cells in the epithelium and underlying lamina propria. In comparison with Vibrio cholera B-subunit, a well-known enterotoxin taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, PMT binding to the epithelial brush border was scarce, and no uptake into enterocytes was detected by 2h, implying that none of the glycolipids in the brush border are a functional receptor for PMT. However, in the lamina propria, PMT distinctly accumulated in the secretory granules of mast cells. This also occurred at 4 °C, ruling out endocytosis, but suggestive of uptake via pores that connect the granules to the cell surface. Mast cell granules are known to secrete their contents by a "kiss-and-run" mechanism, and we propose that PMT may exploit this secretory mechanism to gain entry into this particular cell type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of Clara cell secretory protein in experimental otitis media in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seo Jin; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2005-01-01

    These results suggest that CCSP is upregulated in OME and may play a protective role in the pathogenesis of OME. Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) is an abundant 16-kDa homodimeric protein and is secreted by non-ciliated secretory epithelial cells in the lung. It has an important protective role against the intrapulmonary inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CCSP in endotoxin-induced otitis media with effusion (OME) in the rat. We instilled endotoxin and saline (control) into the middle ear cavity of the rat. Middle ear mucosa were taken at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 h and 1, 3, 7 and 14 days, and the expression of both CCSP mRNA and protein were then evaluated using semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR revealed that the expression of CCSP was first identified at 1 h after endotoxin instillation, was dramatically increased between 1 h and Day 1, with maximal expression at 12 h, and then decreased after Day 3. The expression pattern of CCSP protein identified by means of Western blotting was similar to the CCSP mRNA patterns observed using RT-PCR. Expression of CCSP at both mRNA and protein levels was not detected in either normal middle ear mucosa or saline-instilled middle ear mucosa. Immunohistochemistry revealed that some epithelial cells in the middle ear mucosa were stained.

  1. Localization of oleuropeyl glucose esters and a flavanone to secretory cavities of Myrtaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M Heskes

    Full Text Available We report the widespread occurrence of structurally diverse oleuropeyl glucose esters, including the new diester eucaglobulin B, localized specifically to the essential oil secretory cavities of myrtaceous species. Clear taxonomic patterns in the composition of cavity extracts within the genus Eucalyptus are shown with species from subgenus Symphyomyrtus dominated by oleuropeyl glucose esters and species from subgenus Eucalyptus dominated instead by the flavanone, pinocembrin. We also examined the intra-species occurrence of oleuropeyl glucose esters by quantifying the abundant constituents cuniloside B and froggattiside A in trees from two populations of Eucalyptus polybractea R.T. Baker. All trees contained both compounds, which were positively correlated with total essential oil concentration. This apparent ubiquity of oleuropeyl glucose esters at both intra- and inter-specific levels in Eucalyptus is indicative of important physiological or ecological functions. The significance of their prevalence and the sequestration of these esters and also pinocembrin to the extracellular domain of secretory cavities is discussed in light of their potential biological activities and our findings that they are spatially segregated to the exterior of cavity lumina. The localization of oleuropeyl glucose esters to a specific and isolatable tissue type has the potential to aid in future elucidation of function and biosynthesis.

  2. Immunolocalization of an enterotoxic glycoprotein exoantigen on the secretory organelles of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shewy K.A.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fine ultrastructures of the secretory organelles of C. parvum sporozoites were demonstrated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Meanwhile, a previously identified enterotoxic 18-20 kDa copro-antigen (18-20 kDa CCA, associated with cryptosporidiosis in both human and calves, was isolated and immunolocalized on C. parvum sporozoites. Using immunoelectron microscopy and anti-18-20 kDa monospecific antibody demonstrated marked existence of the 18-20 kDa CCA on the apical organelles and at the trilaminar pellicles. An anterior extrusion of this protein was demonstrated around the excysted and released sporozoites. However, non excysted sporozoites did not show this protein. Affinity blotting, with biotinylated jacalin, demonstrated the O-linked oligosaccharide moiety of this protein. The potential role of this protein in the host cell invasion and/or gliding motility remains unelucidated. However, its enterotoxicity, location and secretory nature suggest that it may be a target for neutralization or invasion inhibition of Cryptosporidium.

  3. Identification and characterization of secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced premature senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Na Kyung; Hong, Mi Na; Jung, Seung Hee; Kang, Kyoung Ah; Lee, Jae Seon [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Seong Gil [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Cellular senescence was first described by Hayflick and Moorhead in 1961 who observed that cultures of normal human fibroblasts had a limited replicative potential and eventually became irreversibly arrest. The majority of senescent cells assume a characteristic flattened and enlarged morphological change, senescence associated {beta} alactosidase positivity. Recently a large number of molecular phenotypes such as changes in gene expression, protein processing and chromatin organization have been also described. In contrast to apoptosis, senescence does not destroy the cells but leaves them metabolically and synthetically active and therefore able to affect their microenvironment. In particular, senescent fibroblasts and some cancer cells were found to secrete proteins with known or putative tumor-promoting functions such as growth factors or proteolytic enzymes. However, the knowledge about secreted proteins from senescent tumor cells and their functions to surrounding cells is still lacking. In this study, changes of senescence associated secretory protein expression profile were observed in MCF7 human breast cancer cells exposed to gamma-ray radiation using two dimensional electrophoresis. Also, we identified up-regulated secretory proteins during ionizing radiation-induced cellular senescence. Here, we show that senescent human breast cancer MCF7 cells promote the proliferation, invasion and migration of neighboring cells

  4. Exocytosis of Alphaherpesvirus Virions, Light Particles, and Glycoproteins Uses Constitutive Secretory Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many molecular and cell biological details of the alphaherpesvirus assembly and egress pathway remain unclear. Recently we developed a live-cell fluorescence microscopy assay of pseudorabies virus (PRV exocytosis, based on total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF microscopy and a virus-encoded pH-sensitive fluorescent probe. Here, we use this assay to distinguish three classes of viral exocytosis in a nonpolarized cell type: (i trafficking of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane, (ii exocytosis of viral light particles, and (iii exocytosis of virions. We find that viral glycoproteins traffic to the cell surface in association with constitutive secretory Rab GTPases and exhibit free diffusion into the plasma membrane after exocytosis. Similarly, both virions and light particles use these same constitutive secretory mechanisms for egress from infected cells. Furthermore, we show that viral light particles are distinct from cellular exosomes. Together, these observations shed light on viral glycoprotein trafficking steps that precede virus particle assembly and reinforce the idea that virions and light particles share a biogenesis and trafficking pathway.

  5. Mapping dynamic protein interactions to insulin secretory granule behavior with TIRF-FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Ismail, Sahar; Wu, Ray; Yizhar, Ofer; Passmore, Daniel R; Ernst, Stephen A; Stuenkel, Edward L

    2010-08-09

    Biological processes are governed by extensive networks of dynamic molecular interactions. Yet, establishing a spatial and temporal map of these interactions and their direct relationship to specific cell functions has remained a challenge. Here, we implement sensitized emission Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) stoichiometry under total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We demonstrate through quantitative analysis and modeling that evanescent fields must be precisely matched between FRET excitation wavelengths to isolate dynamic interactions between bimolecular FRET pairs that are not entirely membrane-delimited. We then use TIRF-FRET to monitor the behavior of individual insulin-containing secretory granules at the plasma membrane of living cells, while simultaneously tracking the dynamic interaction between the GTPase Rab27A and its effector Slp4A, on those same granules. Notably, insulin granules that underwent exocytosis demonstrated a specific increase in Rab27A-GTP/Slp4A FRET in the 5 s before membrane fusion, which coincided temporally with an increase in granule displacement and mobility. These results demonstrate an initial spatiotemporal mapping of a dynamic protein-protein interaction on individual secretory granules that is linked to a specific granule behavior in living cells. 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A systematic review including an additional pediatric case report: Pediatric cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouajio, Amanda L; Drejet, Sarah M; Phillips, D Ryan; Summerlin, Don-John; Dahl, John P

    2017-09-01

    Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) is a newly characterized salivary gland carcinoma resembling secretory carcinoma of the breast. Prior to being described, MASC was most commonly misdiagnosed as Acinic Cell Carcinoma. Though MASC is predominantly an adult neoplasm, cases have been reported in the pediatric population. Reporting and summarizing of known cases is imperative to understand the prognosis and clinical behavior of MASC. EVIDENCE REVIEW: Web of Science, Medline, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library were searched for studies that included pediatric cases of MASC. Data on clinical presentation, diagnosis and management, and pathology were collected from all pediatric cases. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Since the first case of MASC in the pediatric population was described in 2011, only 12 cases, including this one, have been described in the literature. With this paucity of information, much remains unknown regarding this new pathologic diagnosis. The collection of clinical outcomes data of children with MASC is needed to better understand the behavior of this malignancy as well as determine optimal treatment regimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aspiration cytology of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Baek, Jung Hwan; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-04-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), a newly established salivary gland neoplasm defined by a t(12;15)(p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, are not fully characterized to date. We report cytologic descriptions of nine cases of molecularly confirmed MASC, including two with unusual findings. Aspiration smears from nine MASCs of the salivary glands were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed according to the cellular and structural features of the corresponding surgical specimens. Aspiration smears of MASC generally reflected the histologic diversity of the tumors. Among usual histologic findings, a micropapillary pattern was associated with a predominance of vacuolated individual cells on aspiration smears, a papillary-cystic pattern with a predominance of thin branching papillary structures, and a microcystic pattern with a predominance of irregular sheets of eosinophilic cells. There were two unusual cases, one with three-dimensional groups of high-grade atypical cells, and one with epithelial clusters floating in a notably mucinous background. These cases represented MASC with high-grade transformation and MASC with cystadenocarcinoma-like features, respectively. The secretory activity of MASC was not prominent in the aspiration specimens. Although unusual cases were present, most MASC cases showed characteristic cytologic findings, which could aid the cytologic diagnosis of MASC. And knowledge of the histologic spectrum of MASC, including high-grade transformation, could be valuable for cytological differential diagnoses of salivary gland tumors, and the management of patients with MASC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Finding and characterizing mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Jung; Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Sang Yoon; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Bae; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2013-02-01

    A new tumor entity of the salivary glands, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) with ETV6-NTRK3 translocation, has recently been proposed. MASC was originally diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, not otherwise specified (ANOS), or acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) by the current World Health Organization classification. We aimed to identify MASC cases by molecular tests, and to characterize their clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. Thirty cases of MASC candidates were selected after review of 196 salivary gland tumors, and subjected to break-apart ETV6 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemical study for S100 protein, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15, DOG1, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Valid FISH results were obtained in 23 cases, and 13 positive cases were retrieved. MASCs were histologically varied, and the most frequent features observed in 10 cases were low-grade papillary/cystic/glandular patterns, intraluminal secretory materials, ovoid/wrinkled nuclei, and relatively abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasms, corresponding to papillary-cystic or follicular types of AciCC. All cases showed diffuse immunopositivity for S100 protein. Three cases developed recurrences, but all patients remained alive. MASC could be a molecularly well-defined salivary gland neoplasm, encompassing some portions of AciCC and ANOS, but its histological spectrum and clinical implication require further investigation.

  9. Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfall with distinct immunohistochemical profile and molecular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Oliver; Götz, Carolin; Kolk, Andreas; Bier, Henning A; Agaimy, Abbas; Frenzel, Henning; Perner, Sven; Ribbat-Idel, Julika; Wolff, Klaus Dietrich; Weichert, Wilko; Mogler, Caroline

    2017-10-03

    Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a newly defined entity among salivary gland malignancies which has just been established in the 4(th) edition of the WHO classification of head and neck tumors. MASC (synonym: secretory carcinoma) are characterized by a specific rearangement of the ETV6 gene locus. Here, we present a series of 3 MASC cases including clinical data with follow-up for up to 26 months. All tumours immunhistochemically displayed strong positivity for cytokeratin 7, and mammaglobin, focal positivity for S100, cytokeratin 5/6 and muc-4. In contrast, immunhistochemical stainings against cytokeratin 14, hormon receptors, Her2/neu, androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen were consistently negative. FISH analysis showed translocation of the ETV6 gene locus in the majority of tumour cell nuclei. During clinical follow-up, no local relapse or metastasis was detected. As these carcinomas are clinically and radiologically indistinguishable from other salivary gland tumours and as therapeutic approaches and prognosis might differ, we need to be able to diagnose MASC correctly.

  10. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  11. Epidemiology of Opportunistic Fungal Infections in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcio Nucci; Flavio Queiroz-Telles; Angela M. Tobón; Angela Restrepo; Arnaldo L. Colombo

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the epidemiology of the most clinically relevant opportunistic fungal infections in Latin America, including candidiasis, cryptococcosis, trichosporonosis, aspergillosis, and fusariosis...

  12. Fungal diseases of some vegetables grown in greenhouse and garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halaši Tibor J.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper was to give an overview of fungal diseases prevailing on the most common vegetables grown in Novi Sad area. For investigation, lettuce and spinach grown in a greenhouse and in open garden were chosen. In greenhouse, optimal conditions for growing lettuce and spinach were maintained, which at the same time favor the development of fungal diseases. The vegetables grown in a protected suburban open garden were more problematic considering fungal diseases. In this paper, the prevention of fungal diseases was emphasized to avoid drastic chemical treatment or minimize its application. The adequate prevention in greenhouse is a good ecological measure.

  13. [Diagnosis and treatment of fungal ball rhino-sinusitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jun; Liu, Fenfang; Zhang, Hanwu; Li, Li

    2013-07-01

    To explore the diagnosis and treatment of the fungal ball rhino-sinusitis. The clinical data of 128 cases with the fungal ball rhino-sinusitis in our hospital between September 2005 and January 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were accepted nasal endoscopic surgery and followed up after surgery. The diagnosis were confirmed by postoperative pathological examination. The sinus of all patients epithelialized after the surgery from fourth to ninth weeks, one case recurred eight months later. Sinus CT scan and nasal endoscopy were very important to the diagnosis of the fungal ball rhino-sinusitis, and nasal endoscopic surgery is the most important treatment method to fungal ball rhino-sinusitis.

  14. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R; Hu, Yinling

    2017-04-12

    Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell-driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop APECED-like phenotypes, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or autoreactive CD4 T cell depletion rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity decreases fungal burden. Fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants....

  16. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  17. The unique ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells depends upon the presence of H+, K+ -ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Marian L; Judd, Louise M; Van Driel, Ian R; Andringa, Anastasia; Flagella, Michael; Bell, Sheila M; Schultheis, Patrick J; Spicer, Zachary; Shull, Gary E

    2002-09-01

    Ion transporters play a central role in gastric acid secretion. To determine whether some of these transporters are necessary for the normal ultrastructure of secretory membranes in gastric parietal cells, mice lacking transporters for H+, K+, Cl-, and Na+ were examined for alterations in volume density (Vd) of basolateral, apical, tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes, microvillar dimensions, membrane flexibility, and ultrastructure. In mice lacking Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1) or the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1), the ultrastructure and Vd of secretory membranes and the secretory canalicular to tubulovesicular membrane ratio (SC/TV), a morphological correlate of secretory activity, were similar to those of wild-type mice. In mice lacking Na+/H+ exchanger 2 (NHE2) or gastric H+, K+ -ATPase alpha- or beta-subunits, the SC/TV ratio and Vd of secretory membranes were decreased, though canaliculi were often dilated. In H+, K+ -ATPase-deficient parietal cells, canalicular folds were decreased, normally abundant tubulovesicles were replaced with a few rigid round vesicles, and microvilli were sparse, stiff and short, in contrast to the long and flexible microvilli in wild-type cells. In addition, microvilli of the H+, K+ -ATPase-deficient parietal cells had centrally bundled F-actin filaments, unlike the microvilli of wild-type cells, in which actin filaments were peripherally positioned concentric to the plasmalemma. Data showed that the absence of H+, K+ -ATPase produced fundamental changes in parietal cell membrane ultrastructure, suggesting that the pump provides an essential link between the membranes and F-actin, critical to the gross architecture and suppleness of the secretory membranes.

  18. 3-D Structures of Fungal Partitiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibert, Max L.; Tang, Jinghua; Xie, Jiatao; Collier, Aaron M.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Baker, Timothy S.; Tao, Yizhi J.

    2017-01-01

    Partitiviruses constitute one of the nine currently recognized families of viruses with encapsidated, double-stranded (ds)RNA genomes. The partitivirus genome is bisegmented, and each genome segment is packaged inside a separate viral capsid. Different partitiviruses infect plants, fungi, or protozoa. Recent studies have at last shed light on the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the virions of three, representative fungal partitiviruses. These structures include a number of distinctive features, allowing informative comparisons with the structures of dsRNA viruses from other families. The results and comparisons suggest several new conclusions about the functions, assembly, and evolution of these viruses. PMID:23498903

  19. Overview of Treatment Approaches for Fungal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Eva M; Limper, Andrew H

    2017-09-01

    Invasive fungal diseases cause high morbidity and mortality in an immunocompromised host. Antifungals are the drugs of choice and can be divided into 4 main groups: polyenes, azoles, echinocandins, and pyrimidine analogues. Each class has its specific mechanism of action, spectrum of activity, and pharmacokinetic and side effects. It is important to understand the precise use of the established and new antifungal agents to successfully manage these complex infections in an already tenuous and frail host. This article discusses the main characteristics, clinical uses, and secondary effects of the main antifungals used in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS