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Sample records for fungal effector candidates

  1. The barley powdery mildew effector candidates CSEP0081 and CSEP0254 promote fungal infection success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim; Pedersen, Carsten; Thordal-Christensen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Effectors play significant roles in the success of pathogens. Recent advances in genome sequencing have revealed arrays of effectors and effector candidates from a wide range of plant pathogens. Yet, the vast majority of them remain uncharacterized. Among the ~500 Candidate Secreted Effector...... independent silencing of the transcripts for these CSEPs significantly reduced the fungal penetration and haustoria formation rate. Both CSEPs are likely required during and after the formation of haustoria, in which their transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, rather than in epiphytic tissue...

  2. Powdery mildew fungal effector candidates share N-terminal Y/F/WxC-motif

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    Emmersen Jeppe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdery mildew and rust fungi are widespread, serious pathogens that depend on developing haustoria in the living plant cells. Haustoria are separated from the host cytoplasm by a plant cell-derived extrahaustorial membrane. They secrete effector proteins, some of which are subsequently transferred across this membrane to the plant cell to suppress defense. Results In a cDNA library from barley epidermis containing powdery mildew haustoria, two-thirds of the sequenced ESTs were fungal and represented ~3,000 genes. Many of the most highly expressed genes encoded small proteins with N-terminal signal peptides. While these proteins are novel and poorly related, they do share a three-amino acid motif, which we named "Y/F/WxC", in the N-terminal of the mature proteins. The first amino acid of this motif is aromatic: tyrosine, phenylalanine or tryptophan, and the last is always cysteine. In total, we identified 107 such proteins, for which the ESTs represent 19% of the fungal clones in our library, suggesting fundamental roles in haustoria function. While overall sequence similarity between the powdery mildew Y/F/WxC-proteins is low, they do have a highly similar exon-intron structure, suggesting they have a common origin. Interestingly, searches of public fungal genome and EST databases revealed that haustoria-producing rust fungi also encode large numbers of novel, short proteins with signal peptides and the Y/F/WxC-motif. No significant numbers of such proteins were identified from genome and EST sequences from either fungi which do not produce haustoria or from haustoria-producing Oomycetes. Conclusion In total, we identified 107, 178 and 57 such Y/F/WxC-proteins from the barley powdery mildew, the wheat stem rust and the wheat leaf rust fungi, respectively. All together, our findings suggest the Y/F/WxC-proteins to be a new class of effectors from haustoria-producing pathogenic fungi.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis during colonisation of resistant and susceptible Medicago truncatula hosts identifies differential pathogenicity profiles and novel candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Louise F; Williams, Angela H; Garg, Gagan; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Singh, Karam B

    2016-11-03

    Pathogenic members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex are responsible for vascular wilt disease on many important crops including legumes, where they can be one of the most destructive disease causing necrotrophic fungi. We previously developed a model legume-infecting pathosystem based on the reference legume Medicago truncatula and a pathogenic F. oxysporum forma specialis (f. sp.) medicaginis (Fom). To dissect the molecular pathogenicity arsenal used by this root-infecting pathogen, we sequenced its transcriptome during infection of a susceptible and resistant host accession. High coverage RNA-Seq of Fom infected root samples harvested from susceptible (DZA315) or resistant (A17) M. truncatula seedlings at early or later stages of infection (2 or 7 days post infection (dpi)) and from vegetative (in vitro) samples facilitated the identification of unique and overlapping sets of in planta differentially expressed genes. This included enrichment, particularly in DZA315 in planta up-regulated datasets, for proteins associated with sugar, protein and plant cell wall metabolism, membrane transport, nutrient uptake and oxidative processes. Genes encoding effector-like proteins were identified, including homologues of the F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Secreted In Xylem (SIX) proteins, and several novel candidate effectors based on predicted secretion, small protein size and high in-planta induced expression. The majority of the effector candidates contain no known protein domains but do share high similarity to predicted proteins predominantly from other F. oxysporum ff. spp. as well as other Fusaria (F. solani, F. fujikori, F. verticilloides, F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum), and from another wilt pathogen of the same class, a Verticillium species. Overall, this suggests these novel effector candidates may play important roles in Fusaria and wilt pathogen virulence. Combining high coverage in planta RNA-Seq with knowledge of fungal pathogenicity

  4. Characterization of the Wheat Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) Fungal Effector Candidate PEC6 and Its Corresponding Host Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Changhai

    Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most important fungal diseases on wheat worldwide and a serious threat to wheat production. Understanding the plant-microbe interaction mechanism is the basic step to assist future plant breeding aiming at increasing...... factor. By using the yeast two-hybrid system, the adenosine kinase (ADK) was identified as a host target of PEC6. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of ADK enhanced wheat susceptibility to stripe rust indicates that ADK is a positive regulator in plant defense. Based on EtHAn-mediated effector delivery......, seventy-two wheat landraces were screened to search for the presence of potential resistance (R) genes. Three landraces showed strong hypersensitive response (HR) when PEC6 was expressed in the cells, suggesting the presence of certain R gene(s) recognizing PEC6. However, these landraces did not show...

  5. Evaluation of secretion prediction highlights differing approaches needed for oomycete and fungal effectors

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    Jana eSperschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The steadily increasing number of sequenced fungal and oomycete genomes has enabled detailed studies of how these eukaryotic microbes infect plants and cause devastating losses in food crops. During infection, fungal and oomycete pathogens secrete effector molecules which manipulate host plant cell processes to the pathogen’s advantage. Proteinaceous effectors are synthesised intracellularly and must be externalised to interact with host cells. Computational prediction of secreted proteins from genomic sequences is an important technique to narrow down the candidate effector repertoire for subsequent experimental validation. In this study, we benchmark secretion prediction tools on experimentally validated fungal and oomycete effectors. We observe that for a set of fungal SwissProt protein sequences, SignalP 4 and the neural network predictors of SignalP 3 (D-score and SignalP 2 perform best. For effector prediction in particular, the use of a sensitive method can be desirable to obtain the most complete candidate effector set. We show that the neural network predictors of SignalP 2 and 3, as well as TargetP were the most sensitive tools for fungal effector secretion prediction, whereas the hidden Markov model predictors of SignalP 2 and 3 were the most sensitive tools for oomycete effectors. Thus, previous versions of SignalP retain value for oomycete effector prediction, as the current version, SignalP 4, was unable to reliably predict the signal peptide of the oomycete Crinkler effectors in the test set. Our assessment of subcellular localisation predictors shows that cytoplasmic effectors are often predicted as not extracellular. This limits the reliability of secretion predictions that depend on these tools. We present our assessment with a view to informing future pathogenomics studies and suggest revised pipelines for secretion prediction to obtain optimal effector predictions in fungi and oomycetes.

  6. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

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    Pedersen Carsten

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute requirement to suppress or avoid host immunity if it is to survive and cause disease. Results Here we characterise a superfamily predicted to be the full complement of Candidates for Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs in the fungal barley powdery mildew parasite B. graminis f.sp. hordei. The 491 genes encoding these proteins constitute over 7% of this pathogen’s annotated genes and most were grouped into 72 families of up to 59 members. They were predominantly expressed in the intracellular feeding structures called haustoria, and proteins specifically associated with the haustoria were identified by large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomics. There are two major types of effector families: one comprises shorter proteins (100–150 amino acids, with a high relative expression level in the haustoria and evidence of extensive diversifying selection between paralogs; the second type consists of longer proteins (300–400 amino acids, with lower levels of differential expression and evidence of purifying selection between paralogs. An analysis of the predicted protein structures underscores their overall similarity to known fungal effectors, but also highlights unexpected structural affinities to ribonucleases throughout the entire effector super-family. Candidate effector genes belonging to the same family are loosely clustered in the genome and are associated with repetitive DNA derived from retro-transposons. Conclusions We employed the full complement of genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses as well as structural prediction methods to identify and characterize the members of the CSEPs superfamily in B. graminis f

  7. Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Mehrabi, R.; Burg, van den H.A.; Stergiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and

  8. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordonez, Soledad R; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that

  9. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

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    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  10. Systematic Identification of Intracellular-Translocated Candidate Effectors in Edwardsiella piscicida

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    Lingzhi Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens inject effectors directly into host cells to target a variety of host cellular processes and promote bacterial dissemination and survival. Identifying the bacterial effectors and elucidating their functions are central to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of these pathogens. Edwardsiella piscicida is a pathogen with a wide host range, and very few of its effectors have been identified to date. Here, based on the genes significantly regulated by macrophage infection, we identified 25 intracellular translocation-positive candidate effectors, including all five previously reported effectors, namely EseG, EseJ, EseH, EseK, and EvpP. A subsequent secretion analysis revealed diverse secretion patterns for the 25 effector candidates, suggesting that multiple transport pathways were involved in the internalization of these candidate effectors. Further, we identified two novel type VI secretion system (T6SS putative effectors and three outer membrane vesicles (OMV-dependent putative effectors among the candidate effectors described above, and further analyzed their contribution to bacterial virulence in a zebrafish model. This work demonstrates an effective approach for screening bacterial effectors and expands the effectors repertoire in E. piscicida.

  11. Interaction of barley powdery mildew effector candidate CSEP0055 with the defence protein PR17c

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pedersen, Carsten; Kwaaitaal, Mark Adrianus Cornelis J

    2012-01-01

    A large number of effector candidates have been identified recently in powdery mildew fungi. However, their roles and how they perform their functions remain unresolved. In this study, we made use of host-induced gene silencing and confirmed that the secreted barley powdery mildew effector candid...

  12. Diversifying Selection in the Wheat Stem Rust Fungus Acts Predominantly on Pathogen-Associated Gene Families and Reveals Candidate Effectors

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    Jana eSperschneider

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens cause severe losses to crop plants and threaten global food production. One striking example is the wheat stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, which can rapidly evolve new virulent pathotypes in response to resistant host lines. Like several other filamentous fungal and oomycete plant pathogens, its genome features expanded gene families that have been implicated in host-pathogen interactions, possibly encoding effector proteins that interact directly with target host defence proteins. Previous efforts to understand virulence largely relied on the prediction of secreted, small and cysteine-rich proteins as candidate effectors and thus delivered an overwhelming number of candidates. Here, we implement an alternative analysis strategy that uses the signal of adaptive evolution as a line of evidence for effector function, combined with comparative information and expression data. We demonstrate that in planta up-regulated genes that are rapidly evolving are found almost exclusively in pathogen-associated gene families, affirming the impact of host-pathogen co-evolution on genome structure and the adaptive diversification of specialised gene families. In particular, we predict 42 effector candidates that are conserved only across pathogens, induced during infection and rapidly evolving. One of our top candidates has recently been shown to induce genotype-specific hypersensitive cell death in wheat. This shows that comparative genomics incorporating the evolutionary signal of adaptation is powerful for predicting effector candidates for laboratory verification. Our system can be applied to a wide range of pathogens and will give insight into host-pathogen dynamics, ultimately leading to progress in strategies for disease control.

  13. Structure and evolution of barley powdery mildew effector candidates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten; Themaat, Emiel Ver Loren van; McGuffin, Liam J.

    2012-01-01

    Protein effectors of pathogenicity are instrumental in modulating host immunity and disease resistance. The powdery mildew pathogen of grasses Blumeria graminis causes one of the most important diseases of cereal crops. B. graminis is an obligate biotrophic pathogen and as such has an absolute...

  14. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

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    Soledad R. Ordonez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that form the first barrier of defense against fungal infections. These include host defense peptides, like LL-37 and defensins that can neutralize fungi by direct killing of the pathogen, and collectins, such as surfactant protein A and D, that can aggregate fungi and stimulate phagocytosis. In addition, these molecules have immunomodulatory activities which can aid in fungal clearance from the lung. However, existing observations are based on in vitro studies which do not reflect the complexity of the lung and its airway surface liquid. Ionic strength, pH, and the presence of mucus can have strong detrimental effects on antifungal activity, while the potential synergistic interplay between soluble effector molecules is largely unknown. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on soluble effector molecules that contribute to antifungal activity, the importance of environmental factors and discuss the future directions required to understand the innate antifungal defense in the lung.

  15. Role of Soluble Innate Effector Molecules in Pulmonary Defense against Fungal Pathogens

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    Ordonez, Soledad R.; Veldhuizen, Edwin J. A.; van Eijk, Martin; Haagsman, Henk P.

    2017-01-01

    Fungal infections of the lung are life-threatening but rarely occur in healthy, immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Upon inhalation, fungi will first encounter the airway surface liquid which contains several soluble effector molecules that form the first barrier of defense against fungal infections. These include host defense peptides, like LL-37 and defensins that can neutralize fungi by direct killing of the pathogen, and collectins, such as surfactant protein A and D, that can aggregate fungi and stimulate phagocytosis. In addition, these molecules have immunomodulatory activities which can aid in fungal clearance from the lung. However, existing observations are based on in vitro studies which do not reflect the complexity of the lung and its airway surface liquid. Ionic strength, pH, and the presence of mucus can have strong detrimental effects on antifungal activity, while the potential synergistic interplay between soluble effector molecules is largely unknown. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on soluble effector molecules that contribute to antifungal activity, the importance of environmental factors and discuss the future directions required to understand the innate antifungal defense in the lung. PMID:29163395

  16. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi.

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    Diane G O Saunders

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens that cause considerable damage on crop plants. Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and Melampsora larici-populina, the poplar leaf rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impacts on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. Filamentous pathogens such as rust fungi secrete molecules called disease effectors that act as modulators of host cell physiology and can suppress or trigger host immunity. Current knowledge on effectors from other filamentous plant pathogens can be exploited for the characterisation of effectors in the genome of recently sequenced rust fungi. We designed a comprehensive in silico analysis pipeline to identify the putative effector repertoire from the genome of two plant pathogenic rust fungi. The pipeline is based on the observation that known effector proteins from filamentous pathogens have at least one of the following properties: (i contain a secretion signal, (ii are encoded by in planta induced genes, (iii have similarity to haustorial proteins, (iv are small and cysteine rich, (v contain a known effector motif or a nuclear localization signal, (vi are encoded by genes with long intergenic regions, (vii contain internal repeats, and (viii do not contain PFAM domains, except those associated with pathogenicity. We used Markov clustering and hierarchical clustering to classify protein families of rust pathogens and rank them according to their likelihood of being effectors. Using this approach, we identified eight families of candidate effectors that we consider of high value for functional characterization. This study revealed a diverse set of candidate effectors, including families of haustorial expressed secreted proteins and small cysteine-rich proteins. This comprehensive classification of candidate effectors from these devastating rust pathogens is an initial step towards probing plant germplasm for novel resistance components.

  17. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de R.; Esse, van H.P.; Maruthachalam, K.; Bolton, M.D.; Santhanam, P.; Keykha Saber, M.; Zhang, Z.; Usami, T.; Lievens, B.; Subbarao, K.V.; Thomma, B.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and

  18. In Planta Functional Analysis and Subcellular Localization of the Oomycete Pathogen Plasmopara viticola Candidate RXLR Effector Repertoire

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    Yunxiao Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Downy mildew is one of the most destructive diseases of grapevine, causing tremendous economic loss in the grape and wine industry. The disease agent Plasmopara viticola is an obligate biotrophic oomycete, from which over 100 candidate RXLR effectors have been identified. In this study, 83 candidate RXLR effector genes (PvRXLRs were cloned from the P. viticola isolate “JL-7-2” genome. The results of the yeast signal sequence trap assay indicated that most of the candidate effectors are secretory proteins. The biological activities and subcellular localizations of all the 83 effectors were analyzed via a heterologous Agrobacterium-mediated Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Results showed that 52 effectors could completely suppress cell death triggered by elicitin, 10 effectors could partially suppress cell death, 11 effectors were unable to suppress cell death, and 10 effectors themselves triggered cell death. Live-cell imaging showed that the majority of the effectors (76 of 83 could be observed with informative fluorescence signals in plant cells, among which 34 effectors were found to be targeted to both the nucleus and cytosol, 29 effectors were specifically localized in the nucleus, and 9 effectors were targeted to plant membrane system. Interestingly, three effectors PvRXLR61, 86 and 161 were targeted to chloroplasts, and one effector PvRXLR54 was dually targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria. However, western blot analysis suggested that only PvRXLR86 carried a cleavable N-terminal transit peptide and underwent processing in planta. Many effectors have previously been predicted to target organelles, however, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to provide experimental evidence of oomycete effectors targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria.

  19. Functional Analysis of Barley Powdery Mildew Effector Candidates and Identification of their Barley Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Ali Abdurehim

    The genome of barley powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh) encodes around 500 Candidate Secreted Effector Proteins (CSEPs), which are believed to be delivered to the barley cells either to interfere with plant defence and/or promote nutrient uptake. So far, little is known...... about the function of many CSEPs in virulence and the identities of their host targets. In this PhD study, we investigated the function of nine CSEPs and found that CSEP0081, CSEP0105, CSEP0162 and CSEP0254 act as effectors by promoting the Bgh infection success. Independent silencing of these CSEPs...... proteins (sHsps), Hsp16.9 and Hsp17.5, were identified as interactors for both CSEP0105 and CSEP0162. These interactions were confirmed in planta by BiFC and co-localization studies. Small heat shock proteins are highly conserved ATP-independent chaperones that protect the cell from stress-induced protein...

  20. Multiple candidate effectors from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis suppress host plant immunity.

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    Georgina Fabro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence of Hpa isolate Emoy2 (HaRxLs were able to manipulate host defenses in different Arabidopsis accessions. We developed a rapid and sensitive screening method to test HaRxLs by delivering them via the bacterial type-three secretion system (TTSS of Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000-LUX (Pst-LUX and assessing changes in Pst-LUX growth in planta on 12 Arabidopsis accessions. The majority (~70% of the 64 candidates tested positively contributed to Pst-LUX growth on more than one accession indicating that Hpa virulence likely involves multiple effectors with weak accession-specific effects. Further screening with a Pst mutant (ΔCEL showed that HaRxLs that allow enhanced Pst-LUX growth usually suppress callose deposition, a hallmark of pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI. We found that HaRxLs are rarely strong avirulence determinants. Although some decreased Pst-LUX growth in particular accessions, none activated macroscopic cell death. Fewer HaRxLs conferred enhanced Pst growth on turnip, a non-host for Hpa, while several reduced it, consistent with the idea that turnip's non-host resistance against Hpa could involve a combination of recognized HaRxLs and ineffective HaRxLs. We verified our results by constitutively expressing in Arabidopsis a sub-set of HaRxLs. Several transgenic lines showed increased susceptibility to Hpa and attenuation of Arabidopsis PTI responses, confirming the HaRxLs' role in Hpa virulence. This study shows TTSS screening system provides a useful tool to test whether

  1. Differential expression of candidate salivary effector proteins in field collections of Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor

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    Johnson, A J; Shukle, R H; Chen, M-S; Srivastava, S; Subramanyam, S; Schemerhorn, B J; Weintraub, P G; Abdel Moniem, H E M; Flanders, K L; Buntin, G D; Williams, C E

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that some proteins secreted by gall-forming parasites of plants act as effectors responsible for systemic changes in the host plant, such as galling and nutrient tissue formation. A large number of secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) that are the putative effectors responsible for the physiological changes elicited in susceptible seedling wheat by Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say), larvae have been documented. However, how the genes encoding these candidate effectors might respond under field conditions is unknown. The goal of this study was to use microarray analysis to investigate variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst field collections from different geographical regions (southeastern USA, central USA, and the Middle East). Results revealed significant variation in SSGP transcript abundance amongst the field collections studied. The field collections separated into three distinct groups that corresponded to the wheat classes grown in the different geographical regions as well as to recently described Hessian fly populations. These data support previous reports correlating Hessian fly population structure with micropopulation differences owing to agro-ecosystem parameters such as cultivation of regionally adapted wheat varieties, deployment of resistance genes and variation in climatic conditions. PMID:25528896

  2. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.

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    Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

    2014-08-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae.

  3. Comparative transcriptome analysis and identification of candidate effectors in two related rust species (Gymnosporangium yamadae and Gymnosporangium asiaticum).

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    Tao, Si-Qi; Cao, Bin; Tian, Cheng-Ming; Liang, Ying-Mei

    2017-08-23

    Rust fungi constitute the largest group of plant fungal pathogens. However, a paucity of data, including genomic sequences, transcriptome sequences, and associated molecular markers, hinders the development of inhibitory compounds and prevents their analysis from an evolutionary perspective. Gymnosporangium yamadae and G. asiaticum are two closely related rust fungal species, which are ecologically and economically important pathogens that cause apple rust and pear rust, respectively, proved to be devastating to orchards. In this study, we investigated the transcriptomes of these two Gymnosporangium species during the telial stage of their lifecycles. The aim of this study was to understand the evolutionary patterns of these two related fungi and to identify genes that developed by selection. The transcriptomes of G. yamadae and G. asiaticum were generated from a mixture of RNA from three biological replicates of each species. We obtained 49,318 and 54,742 transcripts, with N50 values of 1957 and 1664, for G. yamadae and G. asiaticum, respectively. We also identified a repertoire of candidate effectors and other gene families associated with pathogenicity. A total of 4947 pairs of putative orthologues between the two species were identified. Estimation of the non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios for these orthologues identified 116 pairs with Ka/Ks values greater than1 that are under positive selection and 170 pairs with Ka/Ks values of 1 that are under neutral selection, whereas the remaining 4661 genes are subjected to purifying selection. We estimate that the divergence time between the two species is approximately 5.2 Mya. This study constitutes a de novo assembly and comparative analysis between the transcriptomes of the two rust species G. yamadae and G. asiaticum. The results identified several orthologous genes, and many expressed genes were identified by annotation. Our analysis of Ka/Ks ratios identified orthologous genes subjected to

  4. Hitting the Sweet Spot: Glycans as Targets of Fungal Defense Effector Proteins

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    Markus Künzler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Organisms which rely solely on innate defense systems must combat a large number of antagonists with a comparatively low number of defense effector molecules. As one solution of this problem, these organisms have evolved effector molecules targeting epitopes that are conserved between different antagonists of a specific taxon or, if possible, even of different taxa. In order to restrict the activity of the defense effector molecules to physiologically relevant taxa, these target epitopes should, on the other hand, be taxon-specific and easily accessible. Glycans fulfill all these requirements and are therefore a preferred target of defense effector molecules, in particular defense proteins. Here, we review this defense strategy using the example of the defense system of multicellular (filamentous fungi against microbial competitors and animal predators.

  5. Functional analysis of LysM effectors secreted by fungal plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kombrink, A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitin is a homopolymer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc)that is abundantly present in nature and found as a major structural component in the fungal cell wall. In Chapter 1,the role of chitin as an important factor in the interaction between fungal pathogens

  6. Compatibility in the Ustilago maydis-maize interaction requires inhibition of host cysteine proteases by the fungal effector Pit2.

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    André N Mueller

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize, with large plant tumors being formed as the most prominent disease symptoms. During all steps of infection, U. maydis depends on a biotrophic interaction, which requires an efficient suppression of plant immunity. In a previous study, we identified the secreted effector protein Pit2, which is essential for maintenance of biotrophy and induction of tumors. Deletion mutants for pit2 successfully penetrate host cells but elicit various defense responses, which stops further fungal proliferation. We now show that Pit2 functions as an inhibitor of a set of apoplastic maize cysteine proteases, whose activity is directly linked with salicylic-acid-associated plant defenses. Consequently, protease inhibition by Pit2 is required for U. maydis virulence. Sequence comparisons with Pit2 orthologs from related smut fungi identified a conserved sequence motif. Mutation of this sequence caused loss of Pit2 function. Consequently, expression of the mutated protein in U. maydis could not restore virulence of the pit2 deletion mutant, indicating that the protease inhibition by Pit2 is essential for fungal virulence. Moreover, synthetic peptides of the conserved sequence motif showed full activity as protease inhibitor, which identifies this domain as a new, minimal protease inhibitor domain in plant-pathogenic fungi.

  7. A Fungal Effector With Host Nuclear Localization and DNA-Binding Properties Is Required for Maize Anthracnose Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Walter A; Sanz-Martín, José M; Rech, Gabriel E; Armijos-Jaramillo, Vinicio D; Rivera, Lina P; Echeverria, María Mercedes; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-02-01

    Plant pathogens have the capacity to manipulate the host immune system through the secretion of effectors. We identified 27 putative effector proteins encoded in the genome of the maize anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola that are likely to target the host's nucleus, as they simultaneously contain sequence signatures for secretion and nuclear localization. We functionally characterized one protein, identified as CgEP1. This protein is synthesized during the early stages of disease development and is necessary for anthracnose development in maize leaves, stems, and roots. Genetic, molecular, and biochemical studies confirmed that this effector targets the host's nucleus and defines a novel class of double-stranded DNA-binding protein. We show that CgEP1 arose from a gene duplication in an ancestor of a lineage of monocot-infecting Colletotrichum spp. and has undergone an intense evolution process, with evidence for episodes of positive selection. We detected CgEP1 homologs in several species of a grass-infecting lineage of Colletotrichum spp., suggesting that its function may be conserved across a large number of anthracnose pathogens. Our results demonstrate that effectors targeted to the host nucleus may be key elements for disease development and aid in the understanding of the genetic basis of anthracnose development in maize plants.

  8. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  9. Pathogenic Yet Environmentally Friendly? Black Fungal Candidates for Bioremediation of Pollutants : Geomicrobiology Journal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasi, B.; Poyntner, C.; Rudavsky, T.; Prenafeta-Boldu, F. X.; De Hoog, S.; Tafer, H.; Sterflinger, K.

    2016-01-01

    A collection of 163 strains of black yeast-like fungi from the CBS Fungal Biodiversity Center (Utrecht, The Netherlands), has been screened for the ability to grow on hexadecane, toluene and polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) as the sole carbon and energy source. These compounds were chosen as

  10. CRN13 candidate effectors from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens are DNA-binding proteins which trigger host DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Garcés, Diana; Camborde, Laurent; Pel, Michiel J C; Jauneau, Alain; Martinez, Yves; Néant, Isabelle; Leclerc, Catherine; Moreau, Marc; Dumas, Bernard; Gaulin, Elodie

    2016-04-01

    To successfully colonize their host, pathogens produce effectors that can interfere with host cellular processes. Here we investigated the function of CRN13 candidate effectors produced by plant pathogenic oomycetes and detected in the genome of the amphibian pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BdCRN13). When expressed in Nicotiana, AeCRN13, from the legume root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches, increases the susceptibility of the leaves to the oomycete Phytophthora capsici. When transiently expressed in amphibians or plant cells, AeCRN13 and BdCRN13 localize to the cell nuclei, triggering aberrant cell development and eventually causing cell death. Using Förster resonance energy transfer experiments in plant cells, we showed that both CRN13s interact with nuclear DNA and trigger plant DNA damage response (DDR). Mutating key amino acid residues in a predicted HNH-like endonuclease motif abolished the interaction of AeCRN13 with DNA, the induction of DDR and the enhancement of Nicotiana susceptibility to P. capsici. Finally, H2AX phosphorylation, a marker of DNA damage, and enhanced expression of genes involved in the DDR were observed in A. euteiches-infected Medicago truncatula roots. These results show that CRN13 from plant and animal eukaryotic pathogens promotes host susceptibility by targeting nuclear DNA and inducing DDR. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Trans-sialidase-based vaccine candidate protects against Trypanosoma cruzi infection, not only inducing an effector immune response but also affecting cells with regulatory/suppressor phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochetto, Estefanía; Roldán, Carolina; Bontempi, Iván A.; Bertona, Daiana; Peverengo, Luz; Vicco, Miguel H.; Rodeles, Luz M.; Pérez, Ana R.; Marcipar, Iván S.; Cabrera, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Prophylactic and/or therapeutic vaccines have an important potential to control Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)infection. The involvement of regulatory/suppressor immune cells after an immunization treatment and T. cruzi infection has never been addressed. Here we show that a new trans-sialidase-based immunogen (TSf) was able to confer protection, correlating not only with beneficial changes in effector immune parameters, but also influencing populations of cells related to immune control. Regarding the effector response, mice immunized with TSf showed a TS-specific antibody response, significant delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactivity and increased production of IFN-γ by CD8+ splenocytes. After a challenge with T. cruzi, TSf-immunized mice showed 90% survival and low parasitemia as compared with 40% survival and high parasitemia in PBS-immunized mice. In relation to the regulatory/suppressor arm of the immune system, after T. cruzi infection TSf-immunized mice showed an increase in spleen CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) as compared to PBS-inoculated and infected mice. Moreover, although T. cruzi infection elicited a notable increase in myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the spleen of PBS-inoculated mice, TSf-immunized mice showed a significantly lower increase of MDSC. Results presented herein highlight the need of studying the immune response as a whole when a vaccine candidate is rationally tested. PMID:28938533

  12. Comparative genomics and prediction of conditionally dispensable sequences in legume-infecting Fusarium oxysporum formae speciales facilitates identification of candidate effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Angela H; Sharma, Mamta; Thatcher, Louise F; Azam, Sarwar; Hane, James K; Sperschneider, Jana; Kidd, Brendan N; Anderson, Jonathan P; Ghosh, Raju; Garg, Gagan; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Kistler, H Corby; Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Buck, Sally-Anne G; Kamphuis, Lars G; Saxena, Rachit; Pande, Suresh; Ma, Li-Jun; Varshney, Rajeev K; Singh, Karam B

    2016-03-05

    Soil-borne fungi of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex cause devastating wilt disease on many crops including legumes that supply human dietary protein needs across many parts of the globe. We present and compare draft genome assemblies for three legume-infecting formae speciales (ff. spp.): F. oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc-38-1) and f. sp. pisi (Fop-37622), significant pathogens of chickpea and pea respectively, the world's second and third most important grain legumes, and lastly f. sp. medicaginis (Fom-5190a) for which we developed a model legume pathosystem utilising Medicago truncatula. Focusing on the identification of pathogenicity gene content, we leveraged the reference genomes of Fusarium pathogens F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (tomato-infecting) and F. solani (pea-infecting) and their well-characterised core and dispensable chromosomes to predict genomic organisation in the newly sequenced legume-infecting isolates. Dispensable chromosomes are not essential for growth and in Fusarium species are known to be enriched in host-specificity and pathogenicity-associated genes. Comparative genomics of the publicly available Fusarium species revealed differential patterns of sequence conservation across F. oxysporum formae speciales, with legume-pathogenic formae speciales not exhibiting greater sequence conservation between them relative to non-legume-infecting formae speciales, possibly indicating the lack of a common ancestral source for legume pathogenicity. Combining predicted dispensable gene content with in planta expression in the model legume-infecting isolate, we identified small conserved regions and candidate effectors, four of which shared greatest similarity to proteins from another legume-infecting ff. spp. We demonstrate that distinction of core and potential dispensable genomic regions of novel F. oxysporum genomes is an effective tool to facilitate effector discovery and the identification of gene content possibly linked to host

  13. Parasitic, fungal and prion zoonoses: an expanding universe of candidates for human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akritidis, N

    2011-03-01

    Zoonotic infections have emerged as a burden for millions of people in recent years, owing to re-emerging or novel pathogens often causing outbreaks in the developing world in the presence of inadequate public health infrastructure. Among zoonotic infections, those caused by parasitic pathogens are the ones that affect millions of humans worldwide, who are also at risk of developing chronic disease. The present review discusses the global effect of protozoan pathogens such as Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma sp., and Toxoplasma sp., as well as helminthic pathogens such as Echinococcus sp., Fasciola sp., and Trichinella sp. The zoonotic aspects of agents that are not essentially zoonotic are also discussed. The review further focuses on the zoonotic dynamics of fungal pathogens and prion diseases as observed in recent years, in an evolving environment in which novel patient target groups have developed for agents that were previously considered to be obscure or of minimal significance. © 2011 The Author. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane eNemri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp. Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimise parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analysed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote

  15. The genome sequence and effector complement of the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemri, Adnane; Saunders, Diane G O; Anderson, Claire; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Win, Joe; Lawrence, Gregory J; Jones, David A; Kamoun, Sophien; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi cause serious yield reductions on crops, including wheat, barley, soybean, coffee, and represent real threats to global food security. Of these fungi, the flax rust pathogen Melampsora lini has been developed most extensively over the past 80 years as a model to understand the molecular mechanisms that underpin pathogenesis. During infection, M. lini secretes virulence effectors to promote disease. The number of these effectors, their function and their degree of conservation across rust fungal species is unknown. To assess this, we sequenced and assembled de novo the genome of M. lini isolate CH5 into 21,130 scaffolds spanning 189 Mbp (scaffold N50 of 31 kbp). Global analysis of the DNA sequence revealed that repetitive elements, primarily retrotransposons, make up at least 45% of the genome. Using ab initio predictions, transcriptome data and homology searches, we identified 16,271 putative protein-coding genes. An analysis pipeline was then implemented to predict the effector complement of M. lini and compare it to that of the poplar rust, wheat stem rust and wheat stripe rust pathogens to identify conserved and species-specific effector candidates. Previous knowledge of four cloned M. lini avirulence effector proteins and two basidiomycete effectors was used to optimize parameters of the effector prediction pipeline. Markov clustering based on sequence similarity was performed to group effector candidates from all four rust pathogens. Clusters containing at least one member from M. lini were further analyzed and prioritized based on features including expression in isolated haustoria and infected leaf tissue and conservation across rust species. Herein, we describe 200 of 940 clusters that ranked highest on our priority list, representing 725 flax rust candidate effectors. Our findings on this important model rust species provide insight into how effectors of rust fungi are conserved across species and how they may act to promote infection on their

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David; Ribeiro, Sébastien; Label, Philippe; Fumanal, Boris; Venisse, Jean-Stéphane; Kohler, Annegret; de Oliveira, Ricardo R; Labutti, Kurt; Lipzen, Anna; Lail, Kathleen; Bauer, Diane; Ohm, Robin A; Barry, Kerrie W; Spatafora, Joseph; Grigoriev, Igor V; Martin, Francis M; Pujade-Renaud, Valérie

    2018-01-01

    Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF) disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP) was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species ( Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca , and Botrosphaeria dothidea ) sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  17. Genome-Wide Analysis of Corynespora cassiicola Leaf Fall Disease Putative Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lopez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Corynespora cassiicola is an Ascomycetes fungus with a broad host range and diverse life styles. Mostly known as a necrotrophic plant pathogen, it has also been associated with rare cases of human infection. In the rubber tree, this fungus causes the Corynespora leaf fall (CLF disease, which increasingly affects natural rubber production in Asia and Africa. It has also been found as an endophyte in South American rubber plantations where no CLF outbreak has yet occurred. The C. cassiicola species is genetically highly diverse, but no clear relationship has been evidenced between phylogenetic lineage and pathogenicity. Cassiicolin, a small glycosylated secreted protein effector, is thought to be involved in the necrotrophic interaction with the rubber tree but some virulent C. cassiicola isolates do not have a cassiicolin gene. This study set out to identify other putative effectors involved in CLF. The genome of a highly virulent C. cassiicola isolate from the rubber tree (CCP was sequenced and assembled. In silico prediction revealed 2870 putative effectors, comprising CAZymes, lipases, peptidases, secreted proteins and enzymes associated with secondary metabolism. Comparison with the genomes of 44 other fungal species, focusing on effector content, revealed a striking proximity with phylogenetically unrelated species (Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Fusarium oxysporum, nectria hematococca, and Botrosphaeria dothidea sharing life style plasticity and broad host range. Candidate effectors involved in the compatible interaction with the rubber tree were identified by transcriptomic analysis. Differentially expressed genes included 92 putative effectors, among which cassiicolin and two other secreted singleton proteins. Finally, the genomes of 35 C. cassiicola isolates representing the genetic diversity of the species were sequenced and assembled, and putative effectors identified. At the intraspecific level, effector

  18. Different waves of effector genes with contrasted genomic location are expressed by Leptosphaeria maculans during cotyledon and stem colonization of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Julie; Plissonneau, Clémence; Linglin, Juliette; Meyer, Michel; Labadie, Karine; Cruaud, Corinne; Fudal, Isabelle; Rouxel, Thierry; Balesdent, Marie-Hélène

    2017-10-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans, the causal agent of stem canker disease, colonizes oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in two stages: a short and early colonization stage corresponding to cotyledon or leaf colonization, and a late colonization stage during which the fungus colonizes systemically and symptomlessly the plant during several months before stem canker appears. To date, the determinants of the late colonization stage are poorly understood; L. maculans may either successfully escape plant defences, leading to stem canker development, or the plant may develop an 'adult-stage' resistance reducing canker incidence. To obtain an insight into these determinants, we performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) pilot project comparing fungal gene expression in infected cotyledons and in symptomless or necrotic stems. Despite the low fraction of fungal material in infected stems, sufficient fungal transcripts were detected and a large number of fungal genes were expressed, thus validating the feasibility of the approach. Our analysis showed that all avirulence genes previously identified are under-expressed during stem colonization compared with cotyledon colonization. A validation RNA-seq experiment was then performed to investigate the expression of candidate effector genes during systemic colonization. Three hundred and seven 'late' effector candidates, under-expressed in the early colonization stage and over-expressed in the infected stems, were identified. Finally, our analysis revealed a link between the regulation of expression of effectors and their genomic location: the 'late' effector candidates, putatively involved in systemic colonization, are located in gene-rich genomic regions, whereas the 'early' effector genes, over-expressed in the early colonization stage, are located in gene-poor regions of the genome. © 2016 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  19. Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M; Jones, Darcy A B; Mesarich, Carl H; Shiller, Jason; Taranto, Adam P; Robinson, Andrew J; Kastner, Patrick; Hall, Nathan E; Templeton, Matthew D; Bowen, Joanna K

    2017-05-02

    Fungal plant pathogens belonging to the genus Venturia cause damaging scab diseases of members of the Rosaceae. In terms of economic impact, the most important of these are V. inaequalis, which infects apple, and V. pirina, which is a pathogen of European pear. Given that Venturia fungi colonise the sub-cuticular space without penetrating plant cells, it is assumed that effectors that contribute to virulence and determination of host range will be secreted into this plant-pathogen interface. Thus the predicted secretomes of a range of isolates of Venturia with distinct host-ranges were interrogated to reveal putative proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity. Genomes of Venturia pirina (one European pear scab isolate) and Venturia inaequalis (three apple scab, and one loquat scab, isolates) were sequenced and the predicted secretomes of each isolate identified. RNA-Seq was conducted on the apple-specific V. inaequalis isolate Vi1 (in vitro and infected apple leaves) to highlight virulence and pathogenicity components of the secretome. Genes encoding over 600 small secreted proteins (candidate effectors) were identified, most of which are novel to Venturia, with expansion of putative effector families a feature of the genus. Numerous genes with similarity to Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm6 and the Verticillium spp. Ave1 were identified. Candidates for avirulence effectors with cognate resistance genes involved in race-cultivar specificity were identified, as were putative proteins involved in host-species determination. Candidate effectors were found, on average, to be in regions of relatively low gene-density and in closer proximity to repeats (e.g. transposable elements), compared with core eukaryotic genes. Comparative secretomics has revealed candidate effectors from Venturia fungal plant pathogens that attack pome fruit. Effectors that are putative determinants of host range were identified; both those that may be involved in race-cultivar and host

  20. Identification and Initial Characterization of the Effectors of an Anther Smut Fungus and Potential Host Target Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata S. Kuppireddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Plant pathogenic fungi often display high levels of host specificity and biotrophic fungi; in particular, they must manipulate their hosts to avoid detection and to complete their obligate pathogenic lifecycles. One important strategy of such fungi is the secretion of small proteins that serve as effectors in this process. Microbotryum violaceum is a species complex whose members infect members of the Caryophyllaceae; M. lychnidis-dioicae, a parasite on Silene latifolia, is one of the best studied interactions. We are interested in identifying and characterizing effectors of the fungus and possible corresponding host targets; (2 Methods: In silico analysis of the M. lychnidis-dioicae genome and transcriptomes allowed us to predict a pool of small secreted proteins (SSPs with the hallmarks of effectors, including a lack of conserved protein family (PFAM domains and also localized regions of disorder. Putative SSPs were tested for secretion using a yeast secretion trap method. We then used yeast two-hybrid analyses for candidate-secreted effectors to probe a cDNA library from a range of growth conditions of the fungus, including infected plants; (3 Results: Roughly 50 SSPs were identified by in silico analysis. Of these, 4 were studied further and shown to be secreted, as well as examined for potential host interactors. One of the putative effectors, MVLG_01732, was found to interact with Arabidopsis thaliana calcium-dependent lipid binding protein (AtCLB and with cellulose synthase interactive protein 1 orthologues; and (4 Conclusions: The identification of a pool of putative effectors provides a resource for functional characterization of fungal proteins that mediate the delicate interaction between pathogen and host. The candidate targets of effectors, e.g., AtCLB, involved in pollen germination suggest tantalizing insights that could drive future studies.

  1. Identification of effector-like proteins in Trichoderma spp. and role of a hydrophobin in the plant-fungus interaction and mycoparasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Paulina; Alemán-Duarte, Mario Iván; Delaye, Luis; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Olmedo-Monfil, Vianey

    2017-02-15

    Trichoderma spp. can establish beneficial interactions with plants by promoting plant growth and defense systems, as well as, antagonizing fungal phytopathogens in mycoparasitic interactions. Such interactions depend on signal exchange between both participants and can be mediated by effector proteins that alter the host cell structure and function, allowing the establishment of the relationship. The main purpose of this work was to identify, using computational methods, candidates of effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei, validate the expression of some of the genes during a beneficial interaction and mycoparasitism and to define the biological function for one of them. We defined a catalogue of putative effector proteins from T. virens, T. atroviride and T. reesei. We further validated the expression of 16 genes encoding putative effector proteins from T. virens and T. atroviride during the interaction with the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and with two anastomosis groups of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. We found genes which transcript levels are modified in response to the presence of both plant fungi, as well as genes that respond only to either a plant or a fungal host. Further, we show that overexpression of the gene tvhydii1, a Class II hydrophobin family member, enhances the antagonistic activity of T. virens against R. solani AG2. Further, deletion of tvhydii1 results in reduced colonization of plant roots, while its overexpression increases it. Our results show that Trichoderma is able to respond in different ways to the presence of a plant or a fungal host, and it can even distinguish between different strains of fungi of a given species. The putative effector proteins identified here may play roles in preventing perception of the fungus by its hosts, favoring host colonization or protecting it from the host's defense response. Finally, the novel effector protein TVHYDII1 plays a role in plant root colonization by T

  2. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M Mathioni

    Full Text Available Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response.

  3. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  4. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Pinheiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections.

  5. Bridging the Gap to Non-toxic Fungal Control: Lupinus-Derived Blad-Containing Oligomer as a Novel Candidate to Combat Human Pathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana M.; Carreira, Alexandra; Prescott, Thomas A. K.; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Monteiro, Sara A.

    2017-01-01

    The lack of antifungal drugs with novel modes of action reaching the clinic is a serious concern. Recently a novel antifungal protein referred to as Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) has received regulatory approval as an agricultural antifungal agent. Interestingly its spectrum of antifungal activity includes human pathogens such as Candida albicans, however, its mode of action has yet to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that BCO exerts its antifungal activity through inhibition of metal ion homeostasis which results in apoptotic cell death in C. albicans. HIP HOP profiling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a panel of signature strains that are characteristic for common modes of action identified hypersensitivity in yeast lacking the iron-dependent transcription factor Aft1 suggesting restricted iron uptake as a mode of action. Furthermore, global transcriptome profiling in C. albicans also identified disruption of metal ion homeostasis as a potential mode of action. Experiments were carried out to assess the effect of divalent metal ions on the antifungal activity of BCO revealing that BCO activity is antagonized by metal ions such as Mn2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The transcriptome profile also implicated sterol synthesis as a possible secondary mode of action which was subsequently confirmed in sterol synthesis assays in C. albicans. Animal models for toxicity showed that BCO is generally well tolerated and presents a promising safety profile as a topical applied agent. Given its potent broad spectrum antifungal activity and novel multitarget mode of action, we propose BCO as a promising new antifungal agent for the topical treatment of fungal infections. PMID:28702011

  6. Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves. Combined treatment appears superior to monotherapy. Combination of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement might bring about better prognosis.

  7. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on diots and monocots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Burg, van den H.A.; Ökmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Liere, van S.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce

  8. Characterization of the largest effector gene cluster of Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brefort

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the genome of the biotrophic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, many of the genes coding for secreted protein effectors modulating virulence are arranged in gene clusters. The vast majority of these genes encode novel proteins whose expression is coupled to plant colonization. The largest of these gene clusters, cluster 19A, encodes 24 secreted effectors. Deletion of the entire cluster results in severe attenuation of virulence. Here we present the functional analysis of this genomic region. We show that a 19A deletion mutant behaves like an endophyte, i.e. is still able to colonize plants and complete the infection cycle. However, tumors, the most conspicuous symptoms of maize smut disease, are only rarely formed and fungal biomass in infected tissue is significantly reduced. The generation and analysis of strains carrying sub-deletions identified several genes significantly contributing to tumor formation after seedling infection. Another of the effectors could be linked specifically to anthocyanin induction in the infected tissue. As the individual contributions of these genes to tumor formation were small, we studied the response of maize plants to the whole cluster mutant as well as to several individual mutants by array analysis. This revealed distinct plant responses, demonstrating that the respective effectors have discrete plant targets. We propose that the analysis of plant responses to effector mutant strains that lack a strong virulence phenotype may be a general way to visualize differences in effector function.

  9. Transcriptional programming and functional interactions within the Phytophthora sojae RXLR effector repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qunqing; Han, Changzhi; Ferreira, Adriana O; Yu, Xiaoli; Ye, Wenwu; Tripathy, Sucheta; Kale, Shiv D; Gu, Biao; Sheng, Yuting; Sui, Yangyang; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Zhengguang; Cheng, Baoping; Dong, Suomeng; Shan, Weixing; Zheng, Xiaobo; Dou, Daolong; Tyler, Brett M; Wang, Yuanchao

    2011-06-01

    The genome of the soybean pathogen Phytophthora sojae contains nearly 400 genes encoding candidate effector proteins carrying the host cell entry motif RXLR-dEER. Here, we report a broad survey of the transcription, variation, and functions of a large sample of the P. sojae candidate effectors. Forty-five (12%) effector genes showed high levels of polymorphism among P. sojae isolates and significant evidence for positive selection. Of 169 effectors tested, most could suppress programmed cell death triggered by BAX, effectors, and/or the PAMP INF1, while several triggered cell death themselves. Among the most strongly expressed effectors, one immediate-early class was highly expressed even prior to infection and was further induced 2- to 10-fold following infection. A second early class, including several that triggered cell death, was weakly expressed prior to infection but induced 20- to 120-fold during the first 12 h of infection. The most strongly expressed immediate-early effectors could suppress the cell death triggered by several early effectors, and most early effectors could suppress INF1-triggered cell death, suggesting the two classes of effectors may target different functional branches of the defense response. In support of this hypothesis, misexpression of key immediate-early and early effectors severely reduced the virulence of P. sojae transformants.

  10. Genomic characterisation of the effector complement of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Peter; Mantelin, Sophie; Cock, Peter Ja; Blok, Vivian C; Coke, Mirela C; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Guzeeva, Elena; Lilley, Catherine J; Smant, Geert; Reid, Adam J; Wright, Kathryn M; Urwin, Peter E; Jones, John T

    2014-10-23

    The potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida has biotrophic interactions with its host. The nematode induces a feeding structure - the syncytium - which it keeps alive for the duration of the life cycle and on which it depends for all nutrients required to develop to the adult stage. Interactions of G. pallida with the host are mediated by effectors, which are produced in two sets of gland cells. These effectors suppress host defences, facilitate migration and induce the formation of the syncytium. The recent completion of the G. pallida genome sequence has allowed us to identify the effector complement from this species. We identify 128 orthologues of effectors from other nematodes as well as 117 novel effector candidates. We have used in situ hybridisation to confirm gland cell expression of a subset of these effectors, demonstrating the validity of our effector identification approach. We have examined the expression profiles of all effector candidates using RNAseq; this analysis shows that the majority of effectors fall into one of three clusters of sequences showing conserved expression characteristics (invasive stage nematode only, parasitic stage only or invasive stage and adult male only). We demonstrate that further diversity in the effector pool is generated by alternative splicing. In addition, we show that effectors target a diverse range of structures in plant cells, including the peroxisome. This is the first identification of effectors from any plant pathogen that target this structure. This is the first genome scale search for effectors, combined to a life-cycle expression analysis, for any plant-parasitic nematode. We show that, like other phylogenetically unrelated plant pathogens, plant parasitic nematodes deploy hundreds of effectors in order to parasitise plants, with different effectors required for different phases of the infection process.

  11. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Pendleton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world’s most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host’s cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of sixteen diverse fungal species, which include fifteen basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: i arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or ii contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity.

  12. Duplications and losses in gene families of rust pathogens highlight putative effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Amanda L; Smith, Katherine E; Feau, Nicolas; Martin, Francis M; Grigoriev, Igor V; Hamelin, Richard; Nelson, C Dana; Burleigh, J Gordon; Davis, John M

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi are a group of fungal pathogens that cause some of the world's most destructive diseases of trees and crops. A shared characteristic among rust fungi is obligate biotrophy, the inability to complete a lifecycle without a host. This dependence on a host species likely affects patterns of gene expansion, contraction, and innovation within rust pathogen genomes. The establishment of disease by biotrophic pathogens is reliant upon effector proteins that are encoded in the fungal genome and secreted from the pathogen into the host's cell apoplast or within the cells. This study uses a comparative genomic approach to elucidate putative effectors and determine their evolutionary histories. We used OrthoMCL to identify nearly 20,000 gene families in proteomes of 16 diverse fungal species, which include 15 basidiomycetes and one ascomycete. We inferred patterns of duplication and loss for each gene family and identified families with distinctive patterns of expansion/contraction associated with the evolution of rust fungal genomes. To recognize potential contributors for the unique features of rust pathogens, we identified families harboring secreted proteins that: (i) arose or expanded in rust pathogens relative to other fungi, or (ii) contracted or were lost in rust fungal genomes. While the origin of rust fungi appears to be associated with considerable gene loss, there are many gene duplications associated with each sampled rust fungal genome. We also highlight two putative effector gene families that have expanded in Cqf that we hypothesize have roles in pathogenicity.

  13. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  14. Molecular analysis of candidate probiotic effector molecules of Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remus, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are health-promoting microorganisms that exert their beneficial effects in several ways. While it is known that probiotic bacteria interact with cells of the host gastrointestinal tractand modulate cell-signaling responses by which they might promote health, the underlying molecular

  15. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  16. Oomycetes, effectors, and all that jazz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Tolga O; Schornack, Sebastian; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien

    2012-08-01

    Plant pathogenic oomycetes secrete a diverse repertoire of effector proteins that modulate host innate immunity and enable parasitic infection. Understanding how effectors evolve, translocate and traffic inside host cells, and perturb host processes are major themes in the study of oomycete-plant interactions. The last year has seen important progress in the study of oomycete effectors with, notably, the elucidation of the 3D structures of five RXLR effectors, and novel insights into how cytoplasmic effectors subvert host cells. In this review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight the most important open questions in oomycete effector biology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RNAi effector diversity in nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathan J Dalzell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While RNA interference (RNAi has been deployed to facilitate gene function studies in diverse helminths, parasitic nematodes appear variably susceptible. To test if this is due to inter-species differences in RNAi effector complements, we performed a primary sequence similarity survey for orthologs of 77 Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi pathway proteins in 13 nematode species for which genomic or transcriptomic datasets were available, with all outputs subjected to domain-structure verification. Our dataset spanned transcriptomes of Ancylostoma caninum and Oesophagostomum dentatum, and genomes of Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris suum, Brugia malayi, Haemonchus contortus, Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita and Pristionchus pacificus, as well as the Caenorhabditis species C. brenneri, C. briggsae, C. japonica and C. remanei, and revealed that: (i Most of the C. elegans proteins responsible for uptake and spread of exogenously applied double stranded (dsRNA are absent from parasitic species, including RNAi-competent plant-nematodes; (ii The Argonautes (AGOs responsible for gene expression regulation in C. elegans are broadly conserved, unlike those recruited during the induction of RNAi by exogenous dsRNA; (iii Secondary Argonautes (SAGOs are poorly conserved, and the nuclear AGO NRDE-3 was not identified in any parasite; (iv All five Caenorhabditis spp. possess an expanded RNAi effector repertoire relative to the parasitic nematodes, consistent with the propensity for gene loss in nematode parasites; (v In spite of the quantitative differences in RNAi effector complements across nematode species, all displayed qualitatively similar coverage of functional protein groups. In summary, we could not identify RNAi effector deficiencies that associate with reduced susceptibility in parasitic nematodes. Indeed, similarities in the RNAi effector complements of RNAi refractory and competent nematode parasites support the broad applicability of this research

  18. Defining the predicted protein secretome of the fungal wheat leaf pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morais do Amaral

    Full Text Available The Dothideomycete fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola is the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, a devastating disease of wheat leaves that causes dramatic decreases in yield. Infection involves an initial extended period of symptomless intercellular colonisation prior to the development of visible necrotic disease lesions. Previous functional genomics and gene expression profiling studies have implicated the production of secreted virulence effector proteins as key facilitators of the initial symptomless growth phase. In order to identify additional candidate virulence effectors, we re-analysed and catalogued the predicted protein secretome of M. graminicola isolate IPO323, which is currently regarded as the reference strain for this species. We combined several bioinformatic approaches in order to increase the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins with either a predicted enzymatic function or an as yet unknown function. An initial secretome of 970 proteins was predicted, whilst further stringent selection criteria predicted 492 proteins. Of these, 321 possess some functional annotation, the composition of which may reflect the strictly intercellular growth habit of this pathogen, leaving 171 with no functional annotation. This analysis identified a protein family encoding secreted peroxidases/chloroperoxidases (PF01328 which is expanded within all members of the family Mycosphaerellaceae. Further analyses were done on the non-annotated proteins for size and cysteine content (effector protein hallmarks, and then by studying the distribution of homologues in 17 other sequenced Dothideomycete fungi within an overall total of 91 predicted proteomes from fungal, oomycete and nematode species. This detailed M. graminicola secretome analysis provides the basis for further functional and comparative genomics studies.

  19. Effector profiles distinguish formae speciales of Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Peter; Fokkens, Like; Schmidt, Sarah M; Linmans, Jasper H J; Kistler, H Corby; Ma, Li-Jun; Rep, Martijn

    2016-11-01

    Formae speciales (ff.spp.) of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum are often polyphyletic within the species complex, making it impossible to identify them on the basis of conserved genes. However, sequences that determine host-specific pathogenicity may be expected to be similar between strains within the same forma specialis. Whole genome sequencing was performed on strains from five different ff.spp. (cucumerinum, niveum, melonis, radicis-cucumerinum and lycopersici). In each genome, genes for putative effectors were identified based on small size, secretion signal, and vicinity to a "miniature impala" transposable element. The candidate effector genes of all genomes were collected and the presence/absence patterns in each individual genome were clustered. Members of the same forma specialis turned out to group together, with cucurbit-infecting strains forming a supercluster separate from other ff.spp. Moreover, strains from different clonal lineages within the same forma specialis harbour identical effector gene sequences, supporting horizontal transfer of genetic material. These data offer new insight into the genetic basis of host specificity in the F. oxysporum species complex and show that (putative) effectors can be used to predict host specificity in F. oxysporum. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  1. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  2. SPRYSEC effector proteins in Globodera rostochiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehman, S.

    2008-01-01

    Plant pathogens inject so-called effector molecules into the cells of a host plant to promote their growth and reproduction in these hosts. In plant parasitic nematodes, these effector molecules are produced in the salivary glands. The objective of this thesis was to identify and characterize

  3. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 induces indeterminate leaf-like flower development in Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V; Findlay, Kim C; Grieve, Victoria M; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-10-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches' broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host.

  4. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  5. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains

  6. Oxysterols and Their Cellular Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eija Nissilä

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are oxidized 27-carbon cholesterol derivatives or by-products of cholesterol biosynthesis, with a spectrum of biologic activities. Several oxysterols have cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities, the ability to interfere with the lateral domain organization, and packing of membrane lipids. These properties may account for their suggested roles in the pathology of diseases such as atherosclerosis, age-onset macular degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Oxysterols also have the capacity to induce inflammatory responses and play roles in cell differentiation processes. The functions of oxysterols as intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones, and as readily transportable forms of sterol, are well established. Furthermore, their actions as endogenous regulators of gene expression in lipid metabolism via liver X receptors and the Insig (insulin-induced gene proteins have been investigated in detail. The cytoplasmic oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP homologues form a group of oxysterol/cholesterol sensors that has recently attracted a lot of attention. However, their mode of action is, as yet, poorly understood. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (ROR α and γ, and Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (EBI2 have been identified as novel oxysterol receptors, revealing new physiologic oxysterol effector mechanisms in development, metabolism, and immunity, and evoking enhanced interest in these compounds in the field of biomedicine.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis effectors interfering host apoptosis signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Minqiang; Li, Wu; Xiang, Xiaohong; Xie, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculosis remains a serious human public health concern. The coevolution between its pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human host complicated the way to prevent and cure TB. Apoptosis plays subtle role in this interaction. The pathogen endeavors to manipulate the apoptosis via diverse effectors targeting key signaling nodes. In this paper, we summarized the effectors pathogen used to subvert the apoptosis, such as LpqH, ESAT-6/CFP-10, LAMs. The interplay between different forms of cell deaths, such as apoptosis, autophagy, necrosis, is also discussed with a focus on the modes of action of effectors, and implications for better TB control.

  8. Epigenetic control of effectors in plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eGijzen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens display impressive versatility in adapting to host immune systems. Pathogen effector proteins facilitate disease but can become avirulence (Avr factors when the host acquires discrete recognition capabilities that trigger immunity. The mechanisms that lead to changes to pathogen Avr factors that enable escape from host immunity are diverse, and include epigenetic switches that allow for reuse or recycling of effectors. This perspective outlines possibilities of how epigenetic control of Avr effector gene expression may have arisen and persisted in plant pathogens, and how it presents special problems for diagnosis and detection of specific pathogen strains or pathotypes.

  9. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  10. Transcription Factors Encoded on Core and Accessory Chromosomes of Fusarium oxysporum Induce Expression of Effector Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, H. Charlotte; Schmidt, Sarah M.; Langereis, Léon; Hughes, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Proteins secreted by pathogens during host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions and are commonly called ‘effectors’. In fungal plant pathogens, coordinated transcriptional up-regulation of effector genes is a key feature of pathogenesis and effectors are often encoded in genomic regions with distinct repeat content, histone code and rate of evolution. In the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), effector genes reside on one of four accessory chromosomes, known as the ‘pathogenicity’ chromosome, which can be exchanged between strains through horizontal transfer. The three other accessory chromosomes in the Fol reference strain may also be important for virulence towards tomato. Expression of effector genes in Fol is highly up-regulated upon infection and requires Sge1, a transcription factor encoded on the core genome. Interestingly, the pathogenicity chromosome itself contains 13 predicted transcription factor genes and for all except one, there is a homolog on the core genome. We determined DNA binding specificity for nine transcription factors using oligonucleotide arrays. The binding sites for homologous transcription factors were highly similar, suggesting that extensive neofunctionalization of DNA binding specificity has not occurred. Several DNA binding sites are enriched on accessory chromosomes, and expression of FTF1, its core homolog FTF2 and SGE1 from a constitutive promoter can induce expression of effector genes. The DNA binding sites of only these three transcription factors are enriched among genes up-regulated during infection. We further show that Ftf1, Ftf2 and Sge1 can activate transcription from their binding sites in yeast. RNAseq analysis revealed that in strains with constitutive expression of FTF1, FTF2 or SGE1, expression of a similar set of plant-responsive genes on the pathogenicity chromosome is induced, including most effector genes. We conclude that the Fol

  11. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  12. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  13. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  14. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  15. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions. © FEMS 2015.

  16. Tomato Cf resistance proteins mediate recognition of cognate homologous effectors from fungi pathogenic on dicots and monocots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; van den Burg, Harrold A; Okmen, Bilal; Beenen, Henriek G; van Liere, Sabine; Kema, Gert H J; de Wit, Pierre J G M

    2010-04-20

    Most fungal effectors characterized so far are species-specific and facilitate virulence on a particular host plant. During infection of its host tomato, Cladosporium fulvum secretes effectors that function as virulence factors in the absence of cognate Cf resistance proteins and induce effector-triggered immunity in their presence. Here we show that homologs of the C. fulvum Avr4 and Ecp2 effectors are present in other pathogenic fungi of the Dothideomycete class, including Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black Sigatoka disease of banana. We demonstrate that the Avr4 homolog of M. fijiensis is a functional ortholog of C. fulvum Avr4 that protects fungal cell walls against hydrolysis by plant chitinases through binding to chitin and, despite the low overall sequence homology, triggers a Cf-4-mediated hypersensitive response (HR) in tomato. Furthermore, three homologs of C. fulvum Ecp2 are found in M. fijiensis, one of which induces different levels of necrosis or HR in tomato lines that lack or contain a putative cognate Cf-Ecp2 protein, respectively. In contrast to Avr4, which acts as a defensive virulence factor, M. fijiensis Ecp2 likely promotes virulence by interacting with a putative host target causing host cell necrosis, whereas Cf-Ecp2 could possibly guard the virulence target of Ecp2 and trigger a Cf-Ecp2-mediated HR. Overall our data suggest that Avr4 and Ecp2 represent core effectors that are collectively recognized by single cognate Cf-proteins. Transfer of these Cf genes to plant species that are attacked by fungi containing these cognate core effectors provides unique ways for breeding disease-resistant crops.

  17. TAL effectors and the executor R genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junli; Yin, Zhongchao; White, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R) genes have been characterized-recessive, dominant non-transcriptional, and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  18. TAL effectors and the executor R genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcription activation-like (TAL effectors are bacterial type III secretion proteins that function as transcription factors in plants during Xanthomonas/plant interactions, conditioning either host susceptibility and/or host resistance. Three types of TAL effector associated resistance (R genes have been characterized - recessive, dominant non-transcriptional and dominant TAL effector-dependent transcriptional based resistance. Here, we discuss the last type of R genes, whose functions are dependent on direct TAL effector binding to discrete effector binding elements in the promoters. Only five of the so-called executor R genes have been cloned, and commonalities are not clear. We have placed the protein products in two groups for conceptual purposes. Group 1 consists solely of the protein from pepper, BS3, which is predicted to have catalytic function on the basis of homology to a large conserved protein family. Group 2 consists of BS4C-R, XA27, XA10, and XA23, all of which are relatively short proteins from pepper or rice with multiple potential transmembrane domains. Group 2 members have low sequence similarity to proteins of unknown function in closely related species. Firm predictions await further experimentation on these interesting new members to the R gene repertoire, which have potential broad application in new strategies for disease resistance.

  19. Meta-analytic approach to the accurate prediction of secreted virulence effectors in gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yoshiharu

    2011-11-01

    using known effectors of Salmonella and obtained the accurate list of putative effectors of the organism. The level of accuracy was sufficient to yield candidates for gene-directed experimental verification. Furthermore, new features of effectors were revealed: non-optimal codon usage and instability of the N-terminal region. From these findings, a new working hypothesis is proposed regarding mechanisms controlling the translocation of virulence effectors and determining the substrate specificity encoded in the secretion system.

  20. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbers, Anne K J; Pelgrom, Alexandra J E; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Jeuken, Marieke J W

    2017-11-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its cross-compatibility with the host species L. sativa enables the study of inheritance of nonhost resistance (NHR). We performed transient expression of candidate RXLR effector genes from B. lactucae in a diverse Lactuca germplasm set. Responses to two candidate effectors (BLR31 and BLN08) were genetically mapped and tested for co-segregation with disease resistance. BLN08 induced a hypersensitive response (HR) in 55% of the L. saligna accessions, but responsiveness did not co-segregate with resistance to Bl:24. BLR31 triggered an HR in 5% of the L. saligna accessions, and revealed a novel R gene providing complete B. lactucae race Bl:24 resistance. Resistant hybrid plants that were BLR31 nonresponsive indicated other unlinked R genes and/or nonhost QTLs. We have identified a candidate avirulence effector of B. lactucae (BLR31) and its cognate R gene in L. saligna. Concurrently, our results suggest that R genes are not required for NHR of L. saligna. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia Lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, A.K.J.; Pelgrom, Alexandra; Visser, R.G.F.; Niks, R.E.; Ackerveken, Van Den Guido; Jeuken, M.J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its

  2. Effector-mediated discovery of a novel resistance gene against Bremia lactucae in a nonhost lettuce species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesbers, Anne K J; Pelgrom, Alexandra J E; Visser, Richard G F; Niks, Rients E; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Jeuken, Marieke J W

    2017-01-01

    Candidate effectors from lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) enable high-throughput germplasm screening for the presence of resistance (R) genes. The nonhost species Lactuca saligna comprises a source of B. lactucae R genes that has hardly been exploited in lettuce breeding. Its

  3. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  4. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  5. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  6. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  7. B-Glucan exacerbates allergic asthma independent of fungal ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundAllergic sensitization to fungi has been associated with asthma severity. As a result, it has been largely assumed that the contribution of fungi to allergic disease is mediated through their potent antigenicity.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the mechanism by which fungi affect asthma development and severity.MethodsWe integrated epidemiologic and experimental asthma models to explore the effect of fungal exposure on asthma development and severity.ResultsWe report that fungal exposure enhances allergen-driven TH2 responses, promoting severe allergic asthma. This effect is independent of fungal sensitization and can be reconstituted with β-glucan and abrogated by neutralization of IL-17A. Furthermore, this severe asthma is resistant to steroids and characterized by mixed TH2 and TH17 responses, including IL-13+IL-17+CD4+ double-producing effector T cells. Steroid resistance is dependent on fungus-induced TH17 responses because steroid sensitivity was restored in IL-17rc−/− mice. Similarly, in children with asthma, fungal exposure was associated with increased serum IL-17A levels and asthma severity.ConclusionOur data demonstrate that fungi are potent immunomodulators and have powerful effects on asthma independent of their potential to act as antigens. Furthermore, our results provide a strong rationale for combination treatment strategies targeting IL-17A for this subgroup of fungus-exposed patients with difficult-to-treat asthma. To describe th

  8. Phytoplasma Effector SAP54 Induces Indeterminate Leaf-Like Flower Development in Arabidopsis Plants1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Allyson M.; Sugio, Akiko; Makarova, Olga V.; Findlay, Kim C.; Grieve, Victoria M.; Tóth, Réka; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted bacterial plant pathogens that cause considerable damage to a diverse range of agricultural crops globally. Symptoms induced in infected plants suggest that these phytopathogens may modulate developmental processes within the plant host. We report herein that Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches’ Broom (AY-WB) readily infects the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ecotype Columbia, inducing symptoms that are characteristic of phytoplasma infection, such as the production of green leaf-like flowers (virescence and phyllody) and increased formation of stems and branches (witches’ broom). We found that the majority of genes encoding secreted AY-WB proteins (SAPs), which are candidate effector proteins, are expressed in Arabidopsis and the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus (Hemiptera; Cicadellidae). To identify which of these effector proteins induce symptoms of phyllody and virescence, we individually expressed the effector genes in Arabidopsis. From this screen, we have identified a novel AY-WB effector protein, SAP54, that alters floral development, resulting in the production of leaf-like flowers that are similar to those produced by plants infected with this phytoplasma. This study offers novel insight into the effector profile of an insect-transmitted plant pathogen and reports to our knowledge the first example of a microbial pathogen effector protein that targets flower development in a host. PMID:21849514

  9. Coevolution between a family of parasite virulence effectors and a class of LINE-1 retrotransposons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Sacristán

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are able to evolve rapidly and overcome host defense mechanisms, but the molecular basis of this adaptation is poorly understood. Powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphales, Ascomycota are obligate biotrophic parasites infecting nearly 10,000 plant genera. They obtain their nutrients from host plants through specialized feeding structures known as haustoria. We previously identified the AVR(k1 powdery mildew-specific gene family encoding effectors that contribute to the successful establishment of haustoria. Here, we report the extensive proliferation of the AVR(k1 gene family throughout the genome of B. graminis, with sequences diverging in formae speciales adapted to infect different hosts. Also, importantly, we have discovered that the effectors have coevolved with a particular family of LINE-1 retrotransposons, named TE1a. The coevolution of these two entities indicates a mutual benefit to the association, which could ultimately contribute to parasite adaptation and success. We propose that the association would benefit 1 the powdery mildew fungus, by providing a mechanism for amplifying and diversifying effectors and 2 the associated retrotransposons, by providing a basis for their maintenance through selection in the fungal genome.

  10. Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A Cernadas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc is an increasingly important yield constraint in this staple crop. A mesophyll colonizer, Xoc differs from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, which invades xylem to cause bacterial blight of rice. Both produce multiple distinct TAL effectors, type III-delivered proteins that transactivate effector-specific host genes. A TAL effector finds its target(s via a partially degenerate code whereby the modular effector amino acid sequence identifies nucleotide sequences to which the protein binds. Virulence contributions of some Xoo TAL effectors have been shown, and their relevant targets, susceptibility (S genes, identified, but the role of TAL effectors in leaf streak is uncharacterized. We used host transcript profiling to compare leaf streak to blight and to probe functions of Xoc TAL effectors. We found that Xoc and Xoo induce almost completely different host transcriptional changes. Roughly one in three genes upregulated by the pathogens is preceded by a candidate TAL effector binding element. Experimental analysis of the 44 such genes predicted to be Xoc TAL effector targets verified nearly half, and identified most others as false predictions. None of the Xoc targets is a known bacterial blight S gene. Mutational analysis revealed that Tal2g, which activates two genes, contributes to lesion expansion and bacterial exudation. Use of designer TAL effectors discriminated a sulfate transporter gene as the S gene. Across all targets, basal expression tended to be higher than genome-average, and induction moderate. Finally, machine learning applied to real vs. falsely predicted targets yielded a classifier that recalled 92% of the real targets with 88% precision, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future. Our study expands the number of known TAL effector targets, identifies a new class of S gene, and improves our ability to predict functional targeting.

  11. Effectors from Wheat Rust Fungi Suppress Multiple Plant Defense Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Sowmya R; Yin, Chuntao; Kud, Joanna; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Mahoney, Aaron K; Xiao, Fangming; Hulbert, Scot H

    2017-01-01

    Fungi that cause cereal rust diseases (genus Puccinia) are important pathogens of wheat globally. Upon infection, the fungus secretes a number of effector proteins. Although a large repository of putative effectors has been predicted using bioinformatic pipelines, the lack of available high-throughput effector screening systems has limited functional studies on these proteins. In this study, we mined the available transcriptomes of Puccinia graminis and P. striiformis to look for potential effectors that suppress host hypersensitive response (HR). Twenty small (wheat, confirming its activity in a homologous system. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for the presence of effectors in Puccinia species suppressing multiple plant defense responses.

  12. Identification of fungal DNA barcode targets and PCR primers based on Pfam protein families and taxonomic hierarchy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, C.T.; Bilkhu, S.; Robert, V.; Eberhardt, U.; Szoke, S.; Seifert, K.A.; Lévesque, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: DNA barcoding is the application of DNA sequences of standardized genetic markers for the identification of eukaryotic organisms. We attempted to identify alternative candidate barcode gene targets for the fungal biota from available fungal genomes using a taxonomy-aware processing

  13. Yeast as a Heterologous Model System to Uncover Type III Effector Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crina Popa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Type III effectors (T3E are key virulence proteins that are injected by bacterial pathogens inside the cells of their host to subvert cellular processes and contribute to disease. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents an important heterologous system for the functional characterisation of T3E proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Importantly, yeast contains eukaryotic processes with low redundancy and are devoid of immunity mechanisms that counteract T3Es and mask their function. Expression in yeast of effectors from both plant and animal pathogens that perturb conserved cellular processes often resulted in robust phenotypes that were exploited to elucidate effector functions, biochemical properties, and host targets. The genetic tractability of yeast and its amenability for high-throughput functional studies contributed to the success of this system that, in recent years, has been used to study over 100 effectors. Here, we provide a critical view on this body of work and describe advantages and limitations inherent to the use of yeast in T3E research. "Favourite" targets of T3Es in yeast are cytoskeleton components and small GTPases of the Rho family. We describe how mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling, vesicle trafficking, membrane structures, and programmed cell death are also often altered by T3Es in yeast and how this reflects their function in the natural host. We describe how effector structure-function studies and analysis of candidate targeted processes or pathways can be carried out in yeast. We critically analyse technologies that have been used in yeast to assign biochemical functions to T3Es, including transcriptomics and proteomics, as well as suppressor, gain-of-function, or synthetic lethality screens. We also describe how yeast can be used to select for molecules that block T3E function in search of new antibacterial drugs with medical applications. Finally, we provide our opinion on the limitations

  14. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M L; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-10-18

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVR a gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVR a genes and identified AVR a1 and AVR a13 , encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVR a1 and AVR a13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVR A1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVR A1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVR A1 Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation.

  15. Brucella Modulates Secretory Trafficking via Multiple Type IV Secretion Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeni, Sebenzile; Child, Robert; Ng, Tony W.; Kupko, John J.; Wehrly, Tara D.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Knodler, Leigh A.; Celli, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular pathogenic bacterium Brucella generates a replicative vacuole (rBCV) derived from the endoplasmic reticulum via subversion of the host cell secretory pathway. rBCV biogenesis requires the expression of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS) VirB, which is thought to translocate effector proteins that modulate membrane trafficking along the endocytic and secretory pathways. To date, only a few T4SS substrates have been identified, whose molecular functions remain unknown. Here, we used an in silico screen to identify putative T4SS effector candidate proteins using criteria such as limited homology in other bacterial genera, the presence of features similar to known VirB T4SS effectors, GC content and presence of eukaryotic-like motifs. Using β-lactamase and CyaA adenylate cyclase reporter assays, we identified eleven proteins translocated into host cells by Brucella, five in a VirB T4SS-dependent manner, namely BAB1_0678 (BspA), BAB1_0712 (BspB), BAB1_0847 (BspC), BAB1_1671 (BspE) and BAB1_1948 (BspF). A subset of the translocated proteins targeted secretory pathway compartments when ectopically expressed in HeLa cells, and the VirB effectors BspA, BspB and BspF inhibited protein secretion. Brucella infection also impaired host protein secretion in a process requiring BspA, BspB and BspF. Single or combined deletions of bspA, bspB and bspF affected Brucella ability to replicate in macrophages and persist in the liver of infected mice. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Brucella modulates secretory trafficking via multiple T4SS effector proteins that likely act coordinately to promote Brucella pathogenesis. PMID:23950720

  16. Effector genomics accelerates discovery and functional profiling of potato disease resistance and phytophthora infestans avirulence genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne G A A Vleeshouwers

    Full Text Available Potato is the world's fourth largest food crop yet it continues to endure late blight, a devastating disease caused by the Irish famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Breeding broad-spectrum disease resistance (R genes into potato (Solanum tuberosum is the best strategy for genetically managing late blight but current approaches are slow and inefficient. We used a repertoire of effector genes predicted computationally from the P. infestans genome to accelerate the identification, functional characterization, and cloning of potentially broad-spectrum R genes. An initial set of 54 effectors containing a signal peptide and a RXLR motif was profiled for activation of innate immunity (avirulence or Avr activity on wild Solanum species and tentative Avr candidates were identified. The RXLR effector family IpiO induced hypersensitive responses (HR in S. stoloniferum, S. papita and the more distantly related S. bulbocastanum, the source of the R gene Rpi-blb1. Genetic studies with S. stoloniferum showed cosegregation of resistance to P. infestans and response to IpiO. Transient co-expression of IpiO with Rpi-blb1 in a heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana system identified IpiO as Avr-blb1. A candidate gene approach led to the rapid cloning of S. stoloniferum Rpi-sto1 and S. papita Rpi-pta1, which are functionally equivalent to Rpi-blb1. Our findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering of late blight resistant potato varieties.

  17. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl H. Mesarich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms.

  18. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  19. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters for tomato plants, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Chami, Ziad Al; De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2015-04-01

    In organic farming, where nutrient management is constrained and sustainability is claimed, bio-effectors pave their way. Considering selected bio-effectors, this study integrates metabolomics to agronomy in depicting induced relevant phenomena. Extracts of three agro-industrial wastes (Lemon processing residues, Fennel processing residues and Brewer's spent grain) are being investigated as sources of bio-effectors for the third trial consequently. Corresponding individual and mixture aqueous extracts are assessed for their synergistic and/or single agronomic and qualitative performances on soil-grown tomato, compared to both a control and humic acid treatments. A metabolomic profiling of tomato fruits via the Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, as holistic indicator of fruit quality and extract-induced responses, complements crop productivity and organoleptic/nutritional qualitative analyses. Results are expected to show mainly an enhancement of the fruit qualitative traits, and to confirm partly the previous results of better crop productivity and metabolism enhancement. Waste-derived bio-effectors could be, accordingly, demonstrated as potential candidates of plant-enhancing substances. Keywords: bio-effectors, organic farming, agro-industrial wastes, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), tomato.

  20. Manipulation of host membranes by bacterial effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Hyeilin; Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim

    2011-07-18

    Bacterial pathogens interact with host membranes to trigger a wide range of cellular processes during the course of infection. These processes include alterations to the dynamics between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton, and subversion of the membrane-associated pathways involved in vesicle trafficking. Such changes facilitate the entry and replication of the pathogen, and prevent its phagocytosis and degradation. In this Review, we describe the manipulation of host membranes by numerous bacterial effectors that target phosphoinositide metabolism, GTPase signalling and autophagy.

  1. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  2. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  3. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  4. Citizen Candidates Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Eguia, Jon X.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we make two contributions to the growing literature on "citizen-candidate" models of representative democracy. First, we add uncertainty about the total vote count. We show that in a society with a large electorate, where the outcome of the election is uncertain and where winning candidates receive a large reward from holding office, there will be a two-candidate equilibrium and no equilibria with a single candidate. Second, we introduce a new concept of equilibrium, which we te...

  5. Molecular analysis of fungal populations in patients with oral candidiasis using internal transcribed spacer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieda, Shinsuke; Moriyama, Masafumi; Takeshita, Toru; Takashita, Toru; Maehara, Takashi; Imabayashi, Yumi; Shinozaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Akihiko; Hayashida, Jun-Nosuke; Furukawa, Sachiko; Ohta, Miho; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is closely associated with changes in the oral fungal flora and is caused primarily by Candida albicans. Conventional methods of fungal culture are time-consuming and not always conclusive. However, molecular genetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of fungal rRNA is rapid, reproducible and simple to perform. In this study we examined the fungal flora in patients with oral candidiasis and investigated changes in the flora after antifungal treatment using length heterogeneity-polymerization chain reaction (LH-PCR) analysis of ITS regions. Fifty-two patients with pseudomembranous oral candidiasis (POC) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Fungal DNA from oral rinse was examined for fungal species diversity by LH-PCR. Fungal populations were quantified by real-time PCR and previously-unidentified signals were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. Relationships between the oral fungal flora and treatment-resistant factors were also examined. POC patients showed significantly more fungal species and a greater density of fungi than control individuals. Sixteen fungi were newly identified. The fungal populations from both groups were composed predominantly of C. albicans, though the ratio of C. dubliniensis was significantly higher in POC patients than in controls. The diversity and density of fungi were significantly reduced after treatment. Furthermore, fungal diversity and the proportion of C. dubliniensis were positively correlated with treatment duration. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis and high fungal flora diversity might be involved in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. We therefore conclude that LH-PCR is a useful technique for diagnosing and assessing the severity of oral candidal infection.

  6. Using hierarchical clustering of secreted protein families to classify and rank candidate effectors of rust fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust fungi are obligate biotrophic pathogens causing considerable damage on crop plants. P. graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stem rust, and M. larici-populina, the poplar rust pathogen, have strong deleterious impact on wheat and poplar wood production, respectively. The recently r...

  7. Fibre optic sensor on robot end effector for flexible assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K.L.; Lau, W.S.; Choi, C.K.; Shan, Y.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fibre optic sensor system was constructed for use on robot end effectors for flexible assembly. The sensor detected the deviations between robot end effector and the workpiece. The signal was fed back to robot controller to shift the end effector until the centre of end effector and the centre of workpiece were aligned at the correct orientation. Then workpiece can be grasped symmetrically. Sensor fusion concept was used to guard against sensor system failure. Fuzzy linguistic variable and control rule concept were introduced in the sensor integration. The experimental setup for the sensor integrated system was shown. The accuracy was also discussed

  8. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  9. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2006-01-01

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  10. Association of Effector Six6 with Vascular Wilt Symptoms Caused by Fusarium oxysporum on Soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanubile, Alessandra; Ellis, Margaret L; Marocco, Adriano; Munkvold, Gary P

    2016-11-01

    The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a widely distributed group of fungi that includes both pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates. In a previous study, isolates within the FOSC collected primarily from soybean were assessed for the presence of 12 fungal effector genes. Although none of the assayed genes was significantly associated with wilt symptoms on soybean, the secreted in xylem 6 (Six6) gene was present only in three isolates, which all produced high levels of vascular wilt on soybean. In the current study, a collection of F. oxysporum isolates from soybean roots and F. oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli isolates from common bean was screened for the presence of the Six6 gene. Interestingly, all isolates for which the Six6 amplicon was generated caused wilt symptoms on soybean, and two-thirds of the isolates showed high levels of aggressiveness, indicating a positive association between the presence of the effector gene Six6 and induction of wilt symptoms. The expression profile of the Six6 gene analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed an enhanced expression for the isolates that caused more severe wilt symptoms on soybean, as established by the greenhouse assay. These findings suggest the suitability of the Six6 gene as a possible locus for pathogenicity-based molecular diagnostics across the various formae speciales.

  11. Identification and characterization of LysM effectors in Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Elena; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Raphael, Ginat; Feigenberg, Oleg; Liu, Yongsheng; Norelli, John; Gonzalez-Candelas, Luis; Ma, Jing; Dardick, Christopher; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir

    2017-01-01

    P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4) were found to be highly expressed during the infection and development of decay of apple fruit. Effect of targeted deletion of the four putative PeLysM effectors on the growth and pathogenicity was studied. Possible interactions of PeLysM with host proteins was investigated using the yeast-two-hybrid system.

  12. Identification and characterization of LysM effectors in Penicillium expansum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Levin

    Full Text Available P. expansum is regarded as one of the most important postharvest rots of apple fruit and is also of great concern to fruit processing industries. Elucidating the pathogenicity mechanism of this pathogen is of utmost importance for the development of effective and safe management strategies. Although, many studies on modification of the host environment by the pathogen were done, its interactions with fruit during the early stages of infection and the virulence factors that mediate pathogenicity have not been fully defined. Effectors carrying LysM domain have been identified in numerous pathogenic fungi and their role in the first stages of infection has been established. In this study, we identified 18 LysM genes in the P. expansum genome. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that P. expansum LysM proteins belong to a clade of fungal-specific LysM. Eleven of the discovered LysM genes were found to have secretory pathway signal peptide, among them, 4 (PeLysM1 PeLysM2, PeLysM3 and PeLysM4 were found to be highly expressed during the infection and development of decay of apple fruit. Effect of targeted deletion of the four putative PeLysM effectors on the growth and pathogenicity was studied. Possible interactions of PeLysM with host proteins was investigated using the yeast-two-hybrid system.

  13. Functionally redundant RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans act at different steps to suppress early flg22-triggered immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangzi Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs, such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs, the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI, significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the

  14. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  15. Nematode effector proteins: an emerging paradigm of parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytonematodes use a stylet and secreted effectors to invade host tissues and extract nutrients to support their growth and development. The molecular function of nematode effectors is currently the subject of intense investigation. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of nematode ...

  16. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  17. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  18. Effector-Triggered Self-Replication in Coupled Subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komáromy, Dávid; Tezcan, Meniz; Schaeffer, Gaël; Marić, Ivana; Otto, Sijbren

    2017-11-13

    In living systems processes like genome duplication and cell division are carefully synchronized through subsystem coupling. If we are to create life de novo, similar control over essential processes such as self-replication need to be developed. Here we report that coupling two dynamic combinatorial subsystems, featuring two separate building blocks, enables effector-mediated control over self-replication. The subsystem based on the first building block shows only self-replication, whereas that based on the second one is solely responsive toward a specific external effector molecule. Mixing the subsystems arrests replication until the effector molecule is added, resulting in the formation of a host-effector complex and the liberation of the building block that subsequently engages in self-replication. The onset, rate and extent of self-replication is controlled by the amount of effector present. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Tissue specific heterogeneity in effector immune cell response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eTufail

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Post pathogen invasion, migration of effector T-cell subsets to specific tissue locations is of prime importance for generation of robust immune response. Effector T cells are imprinted with distinct ‘homing codes’ (adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors during activation which regulate their targeted trafficking to specific tissues. Internal cues in the lymph node microenvironment along with external stimuli from food (vitamin A and sunlight (vitamin D3 prime dendritic cells, imprinting them to play centrestage in the induction of tissue tropism in effector T cells. B cells as well, in a manner similar to effector T cells, exhibit tissue tropic migration. In this review, we have focused on the factors regulating the generation and migration of effector T cells to various tissues alongwith giving an overview of tissue tropism in B cells.

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of Type VI System Clusters and Effectors in Burkholderia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thao Thi Nguyen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Type VI secretion system (T6SS has been discovered in a variety of gram-negative bacteria as a versatile weapon to stimulate the killing of eukaryotic cells or prokaryotic competitors. Type VI secretion effectors (T6SEs are well known as key virulence factors for important pathogenic bacteria. In many Burkholderia species, T6SS has evolved as the most complicated secretion pathway with distinguished types to translocate diverse T6SEs, suggesting their essential roles in this genus. Here we attempted to detect and characterize T6SSs and potential T6SEs in target genomes of plant-associated and environmental Burkholderia species based on computational analyses. In total, 66 potential functional T6SS clusters were found in 30 target Burkholderia bacterial genomes, of which 33% possess three or four clusters. The core proteins in each cluster were specified and phylogenetic trees of three components (i.e., TssC, TssD, TssL were constructed to elucidate the relationship among the identified T6SS clusters. Next, we identified 322 potential T6SEs in the target genomes based on homology searches and explored the important domains conserved in effector candidates. In addition, using the screening approach based on the profile hidden Markov model (pHMM of T6SEs that possess markers for type VI effectors (MIX motif (MIX T6SEs, 57 revealed proteins that were not included in training datasets were recognized as novel MIX T6SE candidates from the Burkholderia species. This approach could be useful to identify potential T6SEs from other bacterial genomes.

  1. The WOPR Protein Ros1 Is a Master Regulator of Sporogenesis and Late Effector Gene Expression in the Maize Pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Tollot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Ustilago maydis causes smut disease in maize. Hallmarks of the disease are large tumors that develop on all aerial parts of the host in which dark pigmented teliospores are formed. We have identified a member of the WOPR family of transcription factors, Ros1, as major regulator of spore formation in U. maydis. ros1 expression is induced only late during infection and hence Ros1 is neither involved in plant colonization of dikaryotic fungal hyphae nor in plant tumor formation. However, during late stages of infection Ros1 is essential for fungal karyogamy, massive proliferation of diploid fungal cells and spore formation. Premature expression of ros1 revealed that Ros1 counteracts the b-dependent filamentation program and induces morphological alterations resembling the early steps of sporogenesis. Transcriptional profiling and ChIP-seq analyses uncovered that Ros1 remodels expression of about 30% of all U. maydis genes with 40% of these being direct targets. In total the expression of 80 transcription factor genes is controlled by Ros1. Four of the upregulated transcription factor genes were deleted and two of the mutants were affected in spore development. A large number of b-dependent genes were differentially regulated by Ros1, suggesting substantial changes in this regulatory cascade that controls filamentation and pathogenic development. Interestingly, 128 genes encoding secreted effectors involved in the establishment of biotrophic development were downregulated by Ros1 while a set of 70 "late effectors" was upregulated. These results indicate that Ros1 is a master regulator of late development in U. maydis and show that the biotrophic interaction during sporogenesis involves a drastic shift in expression of the fungal effectome including the downregulation of effectors that are essential during early stages of infection.

  2. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  3. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  4. Identification of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2-associated chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeda, Yukihiro; Kodama, Toshio; Saito, Kazunobu; Iida, Tetsuya; Oishi, Kazunori; Honda, Takeshi

    2011-11-01

    The enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus possesses two sets of type III secretion systems, T3SS1 and T3SS2. Effector proteins secreted by these T3SSs are delivered into host cells, leading to cell death or diarrhea. However, it is not known how specific effectors are secreted through a specific T3SS when both T3SSs are expressed within bacteria. One molecule thought to determine secretion specificity is a T3SS-associated chaperone; however, no T3SS2-specific chaperone has been identified. Therefore, we screened T3SS2 chaperone candidates by a pull-down assay using T3SS2 effectors fused with glutathione-S-transferase. A secretion assay revealed that the newly identified cognate chaperone VocC for the T3SS2-specific effector VopC was required for the efficient secretion of the substrate through T3SS2. Further experiments determined the chaperone-binding domain and the amino-terminal secretion signal of the cognate effector. These findings, in addition to the previously identified T3SS1-specific chaperone, VecA, provide a strategy to clarify the specificity of effector secretion through T3SSs of V. parahaemolyticus. 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  6. TAL effectors specificity stems from negative discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basile I M Wicky

    Full Text Available Transcription Activator-Like (TAL effectors are DNA-binding proteins secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria that interfere with native cellular functions by binding to plant DNA promoters. The key element of their architecture is a domain of tandem-repeats with almost identical sequences. Most of the polymorphism is located at two consecutive amino acids termed Repeat Variable Diresidue (RVD. The discovery of a direct link between the RVD composition and the targeted nucleotide allowed the design of TAL-derived DNA-binding tools with programmable specificities that revolutionized the field of genome engineering. Despite structural data, the molecular origins of this specificity as well as the recognition mechanism have remained unclear. Molecular simulations of the recent crystal structures suggest that most of the protein-DNA binding energy originates from non-specific interactions between the DNA backbone and non-variable residues, while RVDs contributions are negligible. Based on dynamical and energetic considerations we postulate that, while the first RVD residue promotes helix breaks--allowing folding of TAL as a DNA-wrapping super-helix--the second provides specificity through a negative discrimination of matches. Furthermore, we propose a simple pharmacophore-like model for the rationalization of RVD-DNA interactions and the interpretation of experimental findings concerning shared affinities and binding efficiencies. The explanatory paradigm presented herein provides a better comprehension of this elegant architecture and we hope will allow for improved designs of TAL-derived biotechnological tools.

  7. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  8. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures

  9. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  10. Candidal Arthritis After Complete Treatment of Systemic Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Hsieh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the incidence of invasive candidal infections in neonatal intensive care units has increased dramatically. Various complications, such as arthritis, endocarditis, meningitis, and endophthalmitis, have been reviewed. We present the case of a premature infant with systemic candidemia. Arthritis was discovered 6 months after completion of amphotericin B therapy, and was successfully treated with oral fluconazole for 6 weeks. We conclude that long-term follow-up is particularly important in patients with treated candidemia. To prevent complications, prolonged treatment with high-dose amphotericin B is suggested for systemic fungal infection, and oral fluconazole is an effective alternative for candidal arthritis.

  11. Bio-effectors from waste materials as growth promoters, an agronomic and metabolomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwanney, Deaa; Chami, Ziad Al; Angelica De Pascali, Sandra; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, improving plant performance by providing growth promoters is a main concern of the organic agriculture. As a consequence of increased food demands, more efficient and alternatives of the current plant nutrition strategies are becoming urgent. Recently, a novel concept "bio-effectors" raised on to describe a group of products that are able to improve plant performance and do not belong to fertilizers or pesticides. Agro-Food processing residues are promising materials as bio-effector. Three plant-derived materials: brewers' spent grain (BSG), fennel processing residues (FPR) and lemon processing residues (LPR) were chosen as bio-effector candidates. Plant-derived materials were characterized in term of total macro and micronutrients content. Green extraction methodology and solvent choice (aqueous; ethanol; and aqueous: ethanol mixture 1:1) was based on the extraction yield as main factor. Optimum extracts, to be used on the tomato test plant, were determined using phytotoxicity test (seed germination test) as main constraint. Thereafter, selected extracts were characterized and secondary metabolites profiling were detected by NMR technique. Selected extracts were applied on tomato in a growth chamber at different doses in comparison to humic-like substances as positive control (Ctrl+) and to a Hoagland solution as negative control (Ctrl-). At the end of the experiment, agronomical parameters were determined and NMR-metabolomic profiling were conducted on tomato seedlings. Results are summarized as follow: (i) raw showed an interesting content, either at nutritional or biological level; (ii) aqueous extraction resulted higher yield than other used solvent; (iii) at high extraction ratio (1:25 for BSG; 1:100 for FPR; and 1:200 for LPR) aqueous extracts were not phytotoxic on the tomato test plant; (iv) all aqueous extract are differently rich in nutrients, aminoacids, sugars and low molecular weight molecules; (v) all extract exhibited a growth promotion at

  12. One fungus , which genes ? Development and assessment of universal primers for potential secondary fungal DNA barcodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stielow, J B; Lévesque, C A; Seifert, K A; Meyer, W; Irinyi, L; Smits, D; Renfurm, R; Verkley, G J M; Groenewald, M; Chaduli, D; Lomascolo, A; Welti, S; Lesage-Meessen, L; Favel, A; Al-Hatmi, A M S; Damm, U; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Lombard, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Binder, M.; Vaas, L.A.I.; Vu, D.; Yurkov, A.; Begerow, D.; Roehl, O.; Guerreiro, M.; Fonseca, A.; Samerpitak, K.; Diepeningen, A.D. van; Dolatabadi, S.; Moreno, L.F.; Casaregola, S.; Mallet, S.; Jacques, N.; Roscini, L.; Egidi, E.; Bizet, C.; Garcia-Hermoso, D.; Martín, M.P.; Deng, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Boekhout, T.; Beer, Z.W. de; Barnes, I.; Duong, T.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Hoog, G.S. de; Crous, P.W.; Lewis, C.T.; Hambleton, S.; Moussa, T.A.A.; Al-Zahrani, H.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.; Louis-Seize, G.; Assabgui, R.; McCormick, W.; Omer, G.; Dukik, K.; Cardinali, G.; Eberhardt, U.; Vries, M. de; Robert, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential candidate gene regions and corresponding universal primer pairs as secondary DNA barcodes for the fungal kingdom, additional to ITS rDNA as primary barcode. Amplification efficiencies of 14 (partially) universal primer pairs targeting eight genetic

  13. One fungus, which genes? Development and assessment of universal primers for potential secondary fungal DNA barcodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stielow, J.B.; Lévesque, C.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Meyer, W.; Irinyi, L.; Smits, D.; Renfurm, R.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Groenewald, M.; Chaduli, D.; Lomascolo, A.; Welti, S.; Lesage-Meessen, L.; Favel, A.; Al-Hatmi, A.M.S.; Damm, U.; Yilmaz, N.; Houbraken, J.; Lombard, L.; Quaedvlieg, W.; Binder, M.; Vaas, L.A.I.; Vu, D.; Yurkov, A.; Begerow, D.; Roehl, O.; Guerreiro, M.; Fonseca, A.; Samerpitak, K.; Diepeningen, van A.D.; Dolatabadi, S.; Moreno, L.F.; Casaregola, S.; Mallet, S.; Jacques, N.; Roscini, L.; Egidi, E.; Bizet, C.; Garcia-Hermoso, D.; Martin, M.P.; Deng, S.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Boekhout, T.; Beer, de Z.W.; Barnes, I.; Duong, T.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Hoog, de G.S.; Crous, P.W.; Lewis, C.T.; Hambleton, S.; Moussa, T.A.A.; Al-Zahrani, H.S.; Almaghrabi, O.A.; Louis-Seize, G.; Assabgui, R.; McCormick, W.; Omer, G.; Dukik, K.; Cardinali, G.; Eberhardt, U.; Vries, de M.; Robert, V.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential candidate gene regions and corresponding universal primer pairs as secondary DNA barcodes for the fungal kingdom, additional to ITS rDNA as primary barcode. Amplification efficiencies of 14 (partially) universal primer pairs targeting eight genetic markers

  14. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  15. Uncovering the Legionella genus effector repertoire - strength in diversity and numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, David; Amaro, Francisco; Zusman, Tal; Lifshitz, Ziv; Cohen, Ofir; Gilbert, Jack A; Pupko, Tal; Shuman, Howard A; Segal, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Infection by the human pathogen Legionella pneumophila relies on the translocation of ~300 virulence proteins, termed effectors, which manipulate host-cell processes. However, almost no information exists regarding effectors in other Legionella pathogens. Here we sequenced, assembled and characterized the genomes of 38 Legionella species, and predicted their effector repertoire using a previously validated machine-learning approach. This analysis revealed a treasure trove of 5,885 predicted effectors. The effector repertoire of different Legionella species was found to be largely non-overlapping, and only seven core-effectors were shared among all species studied. Species-specific effectors had atypically low GC content, suggesting exogenous acquisition, possibly from their natural protozoan hosts. Furthermore, we detected numerous novel conserved effector domains, and discovered new domain combinations, which allowed inferring yet undescribed effector functions. The effector collection and network of domain architectures described here can serve as a roadmap for future studies of effector function and evolution. PMID:26752266

  16. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  17. Effector-triggered immunity: from pathogen perception to robust defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haitao; Tsuda, Kenichi; Parker, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    In plant innate immunity, individual cells have the capacity to sense and respond to pathogen attack. Intracellular recognition mechanisms have evolved to intercept perturbations by pathogen virulence factors (effectors) early in host infection and convert it to rapid defense. One key to resistance success is a polymorphic family of intracellular nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) receptors that detect effector interference in different parts of the cell. Effector-activated NLRs connect, in various ways, to a conserved basal resistance network in order to transcriptionally boost defense programs. Effector-triggered immunity displays remarkable robustness against pathogen disturbance, in part by employing compensatory mechanisms within the defense network. Also, the mobility of some NLRs and coordination of resistance pathways across cell compartments provides flexibility to fine-tune immune outputs. Furthermore, a number of NLRs function close to the nuclear chromatin by balancing actions of defense-repressing and defense-activating transcription factors to program cells dynamically for effective disease resistance.

  18. Robotic end-effector for rewaterproofing shuttle tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouchehri, Davoud; Hansen, Joseph M.; Wu, Cheng M.; Yamamoto, Brian S.; Graham, Todd

    1992-11-01

    This paper summarizes work by Rockwell International's Space Systems Division's Robotics Group at Downey, California. The work is part of a NASA-led team effort to automate Space Shuttle rewaterproofing in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center and the ferry facility at the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility. Rockwell's effort focuses on the rewaterproofing end-effector, whose function is to inject hazardous dimethylethyloxysilane into thousands of ceramic tiles on the underside of the orbiter after each flight. The paper has five sections. First, it presents background on the present manual process. Second, end-effector requirements are presented, including safety and interface control. Third, a design is presented for the five end-effector systems: positioning, delivery, containment, data management, and command and control. Fourth, end-effector testing and integrating to the total system are described. Lastly, future applications for this technology are discussed.

  19. Functional heterogeneity of human effector CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hiroshi; Naruto, Takuya; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2012-02-09

    Effector CD8(+) T cells are believed to be terminally differentiated cells having cytotoxic activity and the ability to produce effector cytokines such as INF-γ and TNF-α. We investigated the difference between CXCR1(+) and CXCR1(-) subsets of human effector CD27(-)CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells. The subsets expressed cytolytic molecules similarly and exerted substantial cytolytic activity, whereas only the CXCR1(-) subset had IL-2 productivity and self-proliferative activity and was more resistant to cell death than the CXCR1(+) subset. These differences were explained by the specific up-regulation of CAMK4, SPRY2, and IL-7R in the CXCR1(-) subset and that of pro-apoptotic death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) in the CXCR1(+) subset. The IL-2 producers were more frequently found in the IL-7R(+) subset of the CXCR1(-) effector CD8(+) T cells than in the IL-7R(-) subset. IL-7/IL-7R signaling promoted cell survival only in the CXCR1(-) subset. The present study has highlighted a novel subset of effector CD8(+) T cells producing IL-2 and suggests the importance of this subset in the homeostasis of effector CD8(+) T cells.

  20. Expression Profiling during Arabidopsis/Downy Mildew Interaction Reveals a Highly-Expressed Effector That Attenuates Responses to Salicylic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuta; Caillaud, Marie-Cécile; Furzer, Oliver J.; Ishaque, Naveed; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Fabro, Georgina; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA)-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome. PMID:25329884

  1. Expression profiling during arabidopsis/downy mildew interaction reveals a highly-expressed effector that attenuates responses to salicylic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuta Asai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved strong innate immunity mechanisms, but successful pathogens evade or suppress plant immunity via effectors delivered into the plant cell. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa causes downy mildew on Arabidopsis thaliana, and a genome sequence is available for isolate Emoy2. Here, we exploit the availability of genome sequences for Hpa and Arabidopsis to measure gene-expression changes in both Hpa and Arabidopsis simultaneously during infection. Using a high-throughput cDNA tag sequencing method, we reveal expression patterns of Hpa predicted effectors and Arabidopsis genes in compatible and incompatible interactions, and promoter elements associated with Hpa genes expressed during infection. By resequencing Hpa isolate Waco9, we found it evades Arabidopsis resistance gene RPP1 through deletion of the cognate recognized effector ATR1. Arabidopsis salicylic acid (SA-responsive genes including PR1 were activated not only at early time points in the incompatible interaction but also at late time points in the compatible interaction. By histochemical analysis, we found that Hpa suppresses SA-inducible PR1 expression, specifically in the haustoriated cells into which host-translocated effectors are delivered, but not in non-haustoriated adjacent cells. Finally, we found a highly-expressed Hpa effector candidate that suppresses responsiveness to SA. As this approach can be easily applied to host-pathogen interactions for which both host and pathogen genome sequences are available, this work opens the door towards transcriptome studies in infection biology that should help unravel pathogen infection strategies and the mechanisms by which host defense responses are overcome.

  2. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  3. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  5. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  6. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  7. The Verticillium-specific protein VdSCP7 localizes to the plant nucleus and modulates immunity to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lisha; Ni, Hao; Du, Xuan; Wang, Sheng; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Guo, Hui-Shan; Hua, Chenlei

    2017-07-01

    Fungal pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress plant basal defense for successful colonization. Resistant plants, however, can recognize effectors by cognate R proteins to induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). By analyzing secretomes of the vascular fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae, we identified a novel secreted protein VdSCP7 that targets the plant nucleus. The green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged VdSCP7 gene with either a mutated nuclear localization signal motif or with additional nuclear export signal was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana, and investigated for induction of plant immunity. The role of VdSCP7 in V. dahliae pathogenicity was characterized by gene knockout and complementation, and GFP labeling. Expression of the VdSCP7 gene in N. benthamiana activated both salicylic acid and jasmonate signaling, and altered the plant's susceptibility to the pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora capsici. The immune response activated by VdSCP7 was highly dependent on its initial extracellular secretion and subsequent nuclear localization in plants. Knockout of the VdSCP7 gene significantly enhanced V. dahliae aggressiveness on cotton. GFP-labeled VdSCP7 is secreted by V. dahliae and accumulates in the plant nucleus. We conclude that VdSCP7 is a novel effector protein that targets the host nucleus to modulate plant immunity, and suggest that plants can recognize VdSCP7 to activate ETI during fungal infection. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  9. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics suggests symbiotic metabolism and multimodal regulation in a fungal-endobacterial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yao, Qiuming; Dearth, Stephen P; Entler, Matthew R; Castro Gonzalez, Hector F; Uehling, Jessie K; Vilgalys, Rytas J; Hurst, Gregory B; Campagna, Shawn R; Labbé, Jessy L; Pan, Chongle

    2017-03-01

    Many plant-associated fungi host endosymbiotic endobacteria with reduced genomes. While endobacteria play important roles in these tri-partite plant-fungal-endobacterial systems, the active physiology of fungal endobacteria has not been characterized extensively by systems biology approaches. Here, we use integrated proteomics and metabolomics to characterize the relationship between the endobacterium Mycoavidus sp. and the root-associated fungus Mortierella elongata. In nitrogen-poor media, M. elongata had decreased growth but hosted a large and growing endobacterial population. The active endobacterium likely extracted malate from the fungal host as the primary carbon substrate for energy production and biosynthesis of phospho-sugars, nucleobases, peptidoglycan and some amino acids. The endobacterium obtained nitrogen by importing a variety of nitrogen-containing compounds. Further, nitrogen limitation significantly perturbed the carbon and nitrogen flows in the fungal metabolic network. M. elongata regulated many pathways by concordant changes on enzyme abundances, post-translational modifications, reactant concentrations and allosteric effectors. Such multimodal regulations may be a general mechanism for metabolic modulation. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

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    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  11. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions.

  12. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  13. Diacylglycerol kinases in T cell tolerance and effector function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley S Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs are a family of enzymes that regulate the relative levels of diacylglycerol (DAG and phosphatidic acid (PA in cells by phosphorylating DAG to produce PA. Both DAG and PA are important second messengers cascading T cell receptor (TCR signal by recruiting multiple effector molecules such as RasGRP1, PKC, and mTOR. Studies have revealed important physiological functions of DGKs in the regulation of receptor signaling and the development and activation of immune cells. In this review, we will focus on recent progresses in our understanding of two DGK isoforms,  and , in CD8 T effector and memory cell differentiation, regulatory T cell development and function, and invariant NKT cell development and effector lineage differentiation.

  14. Special-purpose multifingered robotic end-effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    A number of advanced multifingered robotic end-effectors have been developed recently in which the finger joints are powered from external actuators. Although this gives dexterous performance, there are considerable problems with power transmission, due to the use of flexible tendons between the external actuators and the individual finger joints. If a multifingered robotic end-effector is to be operated in a confined space, local actuation of the fingers needs to be fully considered, even if there is a reduction in hand dexterity over that of an externally mounted actuator system. The University of Southampton has developed a number of end-effectors that incorporate integral finger actuators and mechanisms, two examples of which are discussed in this paper

  15. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  16. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  17. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  18. Development and testing of the cooling coil cleaning end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.I.; Mullen, O.D.; Powell, M.R.; Daly, D.S.; Engel, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancement (KPD ampersand E) program has developed and tested an end effector to support the waste retrieval mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The end effector was developed specifically to remove a sticky waste material from the cooling coils in the High Level Liquid Waste (HLLW) tank, and to vacuum up a sediment layer that has settled beneath the cooling coils. An extensive testing program was conducted in the hydraulic test bed (HTB) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to evaluate the performance of the end effector under simulated in-tank conditions. A mock up of the cooling coils was installed in the test bed tank, and simulated waste materials were included to represent the sticky waste on the tubes and the particulate waste settled beneath them. The testing program focused on assessing long-duration mining strategies for cleaning the cooling coils and removing the particulate waste forms. The report describes the results of the end effector testing program at PNNL. Section 2 describes the physical characteristics of the HLLW tanks, including the layout of the cooling coils, and it also describes what is known of the waste forms in the tanks. Section 3 describes the cleaning and retrieval strategy that was used in developing the end effector design. Section 4 describes the cooling coil mockup in the hydraulic test bed. Section 5 discusses the rationale used in selecting the simulants for the tarry waste and particulate waste forms. Section 6 describes the tests that were performed to evaluate cleaning of the cooling coils and retrieval of the particulate simulant. Section 7 summarizes the cleaning and retrieval tests, assesses the relative importance of cleaning the cooling coils and retrieving the particulate waste, and suggests modifications that would simplify the end effector design

  19. Identification of Anaplasma marginale type IV secretion system effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Anaplasma marginale, an obligate intracellular alphaproteobacterium in the order Rickettsiales, is a tick-borne pathogen and the leading cause of anaplasmosis in cattle worldwide. Complete genome sequencing of A. marginale revealed that it has a type IV secretion system (T4SS. The T4SS is one of seven known types of secretion systems utilized by bacteria, with the type III and IV secretion systems particularly prevalent among pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. The T4SS is predicted to play an important role in the invasion and pathogenesis of A. marginale by translocating effector proteins across its membrane into eukaryotic target cells. However, T4SS effector proteins have not been identified and tested in the laboratory until now.By combining computational methods with phylogenetic analysis and sequence identity searches, we identified a subset of potential T4SS effectors in A. marginale strain St. Maries and chose six for laboratory testing. Four (AM185, AM470, AM705 [AnkA], and AM1141 of these six proteins were translocated in a T4SS-dependent manner using Legionella pneumophila as a reporter system.The algorithm employed to find T4SS effector proteins in A. marginale identified four such proteins that were verified by laboratory testing. L. pneumophila was shown to work as a model system for A. marginale and thus can be used as a screening tool for A. marginale effector proteins. The first T4SS effector proteins for A. marginale have been identified in this work.

  20. Identification and functional analysis of secreted effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sajid; Gupta, Vijai K; Goyal, Aakash K

    2016-03-21

    Plant parasitic nematodes develop an intimate and long-term feeding relationship with their host plants. They induce a multi-nucleate feeding site close to the vascular bundle in the roots of their host plant and remain sessile for the rest of their life. Nematode secretions, produced in the oesophageal glands and secreted through a hollow stylet into the host plant cytoplasm, are believed to play key role in pathogenesis. To combat these persistent pathogens, the identity and functional analysis of secreted effectors can serve as a key to devise durable control measures. In this review, we will recapitulate the knowledge over the identification and functional characterization of secreted nematode effector repertoire from phytoparasitic nematodes. Despite considerable efforts, the identity of genes encoding nematode secreted proteins has long been severely hampered because of their microscopic size, long generation time and obligate biotrophic nature. The methodologies such as bioinformatics, protein structure modeling, in situ hybridization microscopy, and protein-protein interaction have been used to identify and to attribute functions to the effectors. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi) has been instrumental to decipher the role of the genes encoding secreted effectors necessary for parasitism and genes attributed to normal development. Recent comparative and functional genomic approaches have accelerated the identification of effectors from phytoparasitic nematodes and offers opportunities to control these pathogens. Plant parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to global food security of various economically important crops. There is a wealth of genomic and transcriptomic information available on plant parasitic nematodes and comparative genomics has identified many effectors. Bioengineering crops with dsRNA of phytonematode genes can disrupt the life cycle of parasitic nematodes and therefore holds great promise to develop resistant crops against plant

  1. Yersinia type III effectors perturb host innate immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pha, Khavong; Navarro, Lorena

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Innate immune cells recognize molecular patterns from the pathogen and mount a response to resolve the infection. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species, phagocytosis, and induced programmed cell death are processes initiated by innate immune cells in order to combat invading pathogens. However, pathogens have evolved various virulence mechanisms to subvert these responses. One strategy utilized by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the deployment of a complex machine termed the type III secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is composed of a syringe-like needle structure and the effector proteins that are injected directly into a target host cell to disrupt a cellular response. The three human pathogenic Yersinia spp. (Y. pestis, Y. enterocolitica, and Y. pseudotuberculosis) are Gram-negative bacteria that share in common a 70 kb virulence plasmid which encodes the T3SS. Translocation of the Yersinia effector proteins (YopE, YopH, YopT, YopM, YpkA/YopO, and YopP/J) into the target host cell results in disruption of the actin cytoskeleton to inhibit phagocytosis, downregulation of proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine production, and induction of cellular apoptosis of the target cell. Over the past 25 years, studies on the Yersinia effector proteins have unveiled tremendous knowledge of how the effectors enhance Yersinia virulence. Recently, the long awaited crystal structure of YpkA has been solved providing further insights into the activation of the YpkA kinase domain. Multisite autophosphorylation by YpkA to activate its kinase domain was also shown and postulated to serve as a mechanism to bypass regulation by host phosphatases. In addition, novel Yersinia effector protein targets, such as caspase-1, and signaling pathways including activation of the inflammasome were identified. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries made on Yersinia

  2. Nanorobotic end-effectors: Design, fabrication, and in situ characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zheng

    Nano-robotic end-effectors have promising applications for nano-fabrication, nano-manufacturing, nano-optics, nano-medical, and nano-sensing; however, low performances of the conventional end-effectors have prevented the widespread utilization of them in various fields. There are two major difficulties in developing the end-effectors: their nano-fabrication and their advanced characterization in the nanoscale. Here we introduce six types of end-effectors: the nanotube fountain pen (NFP), the super-fine nanoprobe, the metal-filled carbon nanotube (m CNT)-based sphere-on-pillar (SOP) nanoantennas, the tunneling nanosensor, and the nanowire-based memristor. The investigations on the NFP are focused on nano-fluidics and nano-fabrications. The NFP could direct write metallic "inks" and fabricating complex metal nanostructures from 0D to 3D with a position servo control, which is critically important to future large-scale, high-throughput nanodevice production. With the help of NFP, we could fabricate the end-effectors such as super-fine nanoprobe and m CNT-based SOP nanoantennas. Those end-effectors are able to detect local flaws or characterize the electrical/mechanical properties of the nanostructure. Moreover, using electron-energy-loss-spectroscopy (EELS) technique during the operation of the SOP optical antenna opens a new basis for the application of nano-robotic end-effectors. The technique allows advanced characterization of the physical changes, such as carrier diffusion, that are directly responsible for the device's properties. As the device was coupled with characterization techniques of scanning-trasmission-electron-microscopy (STEM), the development of tunneling nanosensor advances this field of science into quantum world. Furthermore, the combined STEM-EELS technique plays an important role in our understanding of the memristive switching performance in the nanowire-based memristor. The developments of those nano-robotic end-effectors expend the study

  3. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  4. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  5. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  6. Phytoplasma protein effector SAP11 enhances insect vector reproduction by manipulating plant development and defense hormone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugio, Akiko; Kingdom, Heather N; MacLean, Allyson M; Grieve, Victoria M; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2011-11-29

    Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted phytopathogenic bacteria that can alter plant morphology and the longevity and reproduction rates and behavior of their insect vectors. There are various examples of animal and plant parasites that alter the host phenotype to attract insect vectors, but it is unclear how these parasites accomplish this. We hypothesized that phytoplasmas produce effectors that modulate specific targets in their hosts leading to the changes in plant development and insect performance. Previously, we sequenced and mined the genome of Aster Yellows phytoplasma strain Witches' Broom (AY-WB) and identified 56 candidate effectors. Here, we report that the secreted AY-WB protein 11 (SAP11) effector modulates plant defense responses to the advantage of the AY-WB insect vector Macrosteles quadrilineatus. SAP11 binds and destabilizes Arabidopsis CINCINNATA (CIN)-related TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS 1 and 2 (TCP) transcription factors, which control plant development and promote the expression of lipoxygenase (LOX) genes involved in jasmonate (JA) synthesis. Both the Arabidopsis SAP11 lines and AY-WB-infected plants produce less JA on wounding. Furthermore, the AY-WB insect vector produces more offspring on AY-WB-infected plants, SAP11 transgenic lines, and plants impaired in CIN-TCP and JA synthesis. Thus, SAP11-mediated destabilization of CIN-TCPs leads to the down-regulation of LOX2 expression and JA synthesis and an increase in M. quadrilineatus progeny. Phytoplasmas are obligate inhabitants of their plant host and insect vectors, in which the latter transmits AY-WB to a diverse range of plant species. This finding demonstrates that pathogen effectors can reach beyond the pathogen-host interface to modulate a third organism in the biological interaction.

  7. Altered immunity in crowded locust reduced fungal (Metarhizium anisopliae pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The stress of living conditions, similar to infections, alters animal immunity. High population density is empirically considered to induce prophylactic immunity to reduce the infection risk, which was challenged by a model of low connectivity between infectious and susceptible individuals in crowded animals. The migratory locust, which exhibits polyphenism through gregarious and solitary phases in response to population density and displays different resistance to fungal biopesticide (Metarhizium anisopliae, was used to observe the prophylactic immunity of crowded animals. We applied an RNA-sequencing assay to investigate differential expression in fat body samples of gregarious and solitary locusts before and after infection. Solitary locusts devoted at least twice the number of genes for combating M. anisopliae infection than gregarious locusts. The transcription of immune molecules such as pattern recognition proteins, protease inhibitors, and anti-oxidation proteins, was increased in prophylactic immunity of gregarious locusts. The differentially expressed transcripts reducing gregarious locust susceptibility to M. anisopliae were confirmed at the transcriptional and translational level. Further investigation revealed that locust GNBP3 was susceptible to proteolysis while GNBP1, induced by M. anisopliae infection, resisted proteolysis. Silencing of gnbp3 by RNAi significantly shortened the life span of gregarious locusts but not solitary locusts. By contrast, gnbp1 silencing did not affect the life span of both gregarious and solitary locusts after M. anisopliae infection. Thus, the GNBP3-dependent immune responses were involved in the phenotypic resistance of gregarious locusts to fungal infection, but were redundant in solitary locusts. Our results indicated that gregarious locusts prophylactically activated upstream modulators of immune cascades rather than downstream effectors, preferring to quarantine rather than eliminate pathogens to

  8. Developmental control of integrin expression regulates Th2 effector homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integrin CD18, a component of the LFA-1 complex that also includes CD11a, is essential for Th2, but not Th1, cell homing, but the explanation for this phenomenon remains obscure. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which Th2 effector responses require the LFA-1 complex. CD11a-deficient T ...

  9. How to conquer a tomato plant? Fusarium oxysporum effector targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Sain, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens secrete small proteins, called effectors, to alter the environment in their host to facilitate infection. The causal agent of Fusarium wilt on tomato, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol), secretes these proteins in the xylem sap of infected plants and hence they have been called

  10. p21-ras effector domain mutants constructed by "cassette" mutagenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stone, J C; Vass, W C; Willumsen, B M

    1988-01-01

    A series of mutations encoding single-amino-acid substitutions within the v-rasH effector domain were constructed, and the ability of the mutants to induce focal transformation of NIH 3T3 cells was studied. The mutations, which spanned codons 32 to 40, were made by a "cassette" mutagenesis...

  11. Type IV Secretion System of Brucella spp. and its Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua eKe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brucella spp. cause brucellosis in domestic and wild animals. They are intracellular bacterial pathogens and used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we will discuss roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and in more detail of all 15 identified effectors, which may be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells, suggesting that it plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. So, we listed some key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating functions of the effectors secreted will be crucial to clarifying mechanism of T4SS during infection. Studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms by which the bacteria hijack the host signaling pathways, which help us to develop better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  12. Type IV secretion system of Brucella spp. and its effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Yufei; Li, Wengfeng; Chen, Zeliang

    2015-01-01

    Brucella spp. are intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause infection in domestic and wild animals. They are often used as model organisms to study intracellular bacterial infections. Brucella VirB T4SS is a key virulence factor that plays important roles in mediating intracellular survival and manipulating host immune response to infection. In this review, we discuss the roles of Brucella VirB T4SS and 15 effectors that are proposed to be crucial for Brucella pathogenesis. VirB T4SS regulates the inflammation response and manipulates vesicle trafficking inside host cells. VirB T4SS also plays crucial roles in the inhibition of the host immune response and intracellular survival during infection. Here, we list the key molecular events in the intracellular life cycle of Brucella that are potentially targeted by the VirB T4SS effectors. Elucidating the functions of these effectors will help clarify the molecular role of T4SS during infection. Furthermore, studying the effectors secreted by Brucella spp. might provide insights into the mechanisms used by the bacteria to hijack the host signaling pathways and aid in the development of better vaccines and therapies against brucellosis.

  13. The Coding and Effector Transfer of Movement Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Attila J.; Muhlbauer, Thomas; Shea, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments utilizing a 14-element arm movement sequence were designed to determine if reinstating the visual-spatial coordinates, which require movements to the same spatial locations utilized during acquisition, results in better effector transfer than reinstating the motor coordinates, which require the same pattern of homologous muscle…

  14. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  15. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-scale identification of Legionella pneumophila effectors using a machine learning approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Burstein

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A large number of highly pathogenic bacteria utilize secretion systems to translocate effector proteins into host cells. Using these effectors, the bacteria subvert host cell processes during infection. Legionella pneumophila translocates effectors via the Icm/Dot type-IV secretion system and to date, approximately 100 effectors have been identified by various experimental and computational techniques. Effector identification is a critical first step towards the understanding of the pathogenesis system in L. pneumophila as well as in other bacterial pathogens. Here, we formulate the task of effector identification as a classification problem: each L. pneumophila open reading frame (ORF was classified as either effector or not. We computationally defined a set of features that best distinguish effectors from non-effectors. These features cover a wide range of characteristics including taxonomical dispersion, regulatory data, genomic organization, similarity to eukaryotic proteomes and more. Machine learning algorithms utilizing these features were then applied to classify all the ORFs within the L. pneumophila genome. Using this approach we were able to predict and experimentally validate 40 new effectors, reaching a success rate of above 90%. Increasing the number of validated effectors to around 140, we were able to gain novel insights into their characteristics. Effectors were found to have low G+C content, supporting the hypothesis that a large number of effectors originate via horizontal gene transfer, probably from their protozoan host. In addition, effectors were found to cluster in specific genomic regions. Finally, we were able to provide a novel description of the C-terminal translocation signal required for effector translocation by the Icm/Dot secretion system. To conclude, we have discovered 40 novel L. pneumophila effectors, predicted over a hundred additional highly probable effectors, and shown the applicability of machine

  17. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimized candidal biofilm microtiter assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Bastiaan P.; Cohen, Jesse B.; Feser, Gail E. McElhaney; Cihlar, Ronald L.

    Microtiter based candidal biofilm formation is commonly being used. Here we describe the analysis of factors influencing the development of candidal biofilms such as the coating with serum, growth medium and pH. The data reported here show that optimal candidal biofilm formation is obtained when

  19. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  20. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  1. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. End-Effector Development for the PIP Puck Handling Robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowley, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    It has been decided that excess, weapons-grade plutonium shall be immobilized to prevent nuclear proliferation. The method of immobilization is to encapsulate the plutonium in a ceramic puck, roughly the size of a hockey puck, using a sintering process. This method has been officially identified as the Plutonium Immobilization Process (PIP). A Can-in-Canister storage method will be used to further immobilize the plutonium. The Can-in-Canister method uses the existing design of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister to house the plutonium pucks. the process begins with several pucks being stacked in a stainless steel can. Several of the stainless steel cans are stacked in a cage-like magazine. Several of the magazines are then placed in a DWPF canister. The DWPF canister is then filled with molten glass containing high-level, radioactive waste from the DWPF vitrification process. The Can-in-Canister method makes reclamation of plutonium from the pucks technically difficult and highly undesirable. The mechanical requirements of the Can-in-Canister process, in conjunction with the amount of time required to immobilize the vast quantities of weapons-grade plutonium, will expose personnel to unnecessarily high levels of radiation if the processes were completed manually, in glove boxes. Therefore, automated equipment is designed into the process to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure. Robots are used whenever the automated handling operations become complicated. There are two such operations in the initial stages of the Can-in-Canister process, which required a six-axis robot. The first operation is a press unloading process. The second operation is a tray transfer process. To successfully accomplish the operational tasks described in the two operations, the end-effector of the robot must be versatile, lightweight, and rugged. As a result of these demands, an extensive development process was undertaken to design the optimum end-effector for these puck

  3. Proliferation requirements of cytomegalovirus-specific, effector-type human CD8+ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Ester M.; Gamadia, Laila E.; Baars, Paul A.; Remmerswaal, Ester B.; ten Berge, Ineke J.; van Lier, René A.

    2002-01-01

    Two prototypic types of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells can be found in latently infected individuals: CD45R0(+)CD27(+)CCR7(-) effector-memory, and CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) effector-type cells. It has recently been implied that CD45RA(+)CD27(-)CCR7(-) T cells are terminally differentiated effector

  4. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  5. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  6. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Asakura, Koji; Homma, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Tadataka; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  7. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  8. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  9. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  10. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

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    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  11. Evidence for acquisition of virulence effectors in pathogenic chytrids

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    Summers Kyle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in amphibian populations across the world is frequently linked to the infection of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. This is particularly perplexing because Bd was only recently discovered in 1999 and no chytrid fungus had previously been identified as a vertebrate pathogen. Results In this study, we show that two large families of known virulence effector genes, crinkler (CRN proteins and serine peptidases, were acquired by Bd from oomycete pathogens and bacteria, respectively. These two families have been duplicated after their acquisition by Bd. Additional selection analyses indicate that both families evolved under strong positive selection, suggesting that they are involved in the adaptation of Bd to its hosts. Conclusions We propose that the acquisition of virulence effectors, in combination with habitat disruption and climate change, may have driven the Bd epidemics and the decline in amphibian populations. This finding provides a starting point for biochemical investigations of chytridiomycosis.

  12. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  13. A Legionella Effector Disrupts Host Cytoskeletal Structure by Cleaving Actin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaires' disease, replicates intracellularly in protozoan and human hosts. Successful colonization and replication of this pathogen in host cells requires the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, which translocates approximately 300 effector proteins into the host cell to modulate various cellular processes. In this study, we identified RavK as a Dot/Icm substrate that targets the host cytoskeleton and reduces actin filament abundance in mammalian cells upon ectopic expression. RavK harbors an H95EXXH99 motif associated with diverse metalloproteases, which is essential for the inhibition of yeast growth and for the induction of cell rounding in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that the actin protein itself is the cellular target of RavK and that this effector cleaves actin at a site between residues Thr351 and Phe352. Importantly, RavK-mediated actin cleavage also occurs during L. pneumophila infection. Cleavage by RavK abolishes the ability of actin to form polymers. Furthermore, an F352A mutation renders actin resistant to RavK-mediated cleavage; expression of the mutant in mammalian cells suppresses the cell rounding phenotype caused by RavK, further establishing that actin is the physiological substrate of RavK. Thus, L. pneumophila exploits components of the host cytoskeleton by multiple effectors with distinct mechanisms, highlighting the importance of modulating cellular processes governed by the actin cytoskeleton in the intracellular life cycle of this pathogen.

  14. Genomic clustering and homology between HET-S and the NWD2 STAND protein in various fungal genomes.

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    Asen Daskalov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prions are infectious proteins propagating as self-perpetuating amyloid polymers. The [Het-s] prion of Podospora anserina is involved in a cell death process associated with non-self recognition. The prion forming domain (PFD of HET-s adopts a β-solenoid amyloid structure characterized by the two fold repetition of an elementary triangular motif. [Het-s] induces cell death when interacting with HET-S, an allelic variant of HET-s. When templated by [Het-s], HET-S undergoes a trans-conformation, relocates to the cell membrane and induces toxicity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, comparing HET-s homologs from different species, we devise a consensus for the HET-s elementary triangular motif. We use this motif to screen genomic databases and find a match to the N-terminus of NWD2, a STAND protein, encoded by the gene immediately adjacent to het-S. STAND proteins are signal transducing ATPases which undergo ligand-induced oligomerisation. Homology modelling predicts that the NWD2 N-terminal region adopts a HET-s-like fold. We propose that upon NWD2 oligomerisation, these N-terminal extensions adopt the β-solenoid fold and template HET-S to adopt the amyloid fold and trigger toxicity. We extend this model to a putative prion, the σ infectious element in Nectria haematococca, because the s locus controlling propagation of σ also encodes a STAND protein and displays analogous features. Comparative genomic analyses indicate evolutionary conservation of these STAND/prion-like gene pairs, identify a number of novel prion candidates and define, in addition to the HET-s PFD motif, two distinct, novel putative PFD-like motifs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest the existence, in the fungal kingdom, of a widespread and evolutionarily conserved mode of signal transduction based on the transmission of an amyloid-fold from a NOD-like STAND receptor protein to an effector protein.

  15. Effects of lactoferricin B against keratitis-associated fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Jayangshu; Saha, Suman; Khetan, Archana; Sarkar, Sujoy K; Mandal, Santi M

    2012-10-01

    Biofilms are considered as the most important developmental characteristics in ocular infections. Biofilm eradication is a major challenge today to overcome the incidence of drug resistance. This report demonstrates the in vitro ability of biofilm formation on contact lens by three common keratitis-associated fungal pathogens, namely, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans. Antifungal sensitivity testing performed for both planktonic cells and biofilm revealed the sessile phenotype to be resistant at MIC levels for the planktonic cells and also at higher concentrations. A prototype lens care solution was also found to be partially effective in eradication of the mature biofilm from contact lenses. Lactoferricin B (Lacf, 64 μg/ml), an antimicrobial peptide, exhibited almost no effect on the sessile phenotype. However, the combinatory effect of Lacf with antifungals against planktonic cells and biofilms of three fungal strains that were isolated from keratitis patients exhibited a reduction of antifungal dose more than eightfold. Furthermore, the effect of Lacf in lens care solution against biofilms in which those strains formed was eradicated successfully. These results suggest that lactoferricin B could be a promising candidate for clinical use in improving biofilm susceptibility to antifungals and also as an antibiofilm-antifungal additive in lens care solution.

  16. Fungal biocatalysts in the biofiltration of VOC-polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2004-09-30

    Gas-phase biofilters used for the treatment of waste gases were originally packed with compost or other natural filter beds containing indigenous microorganisms. Over the past decade much effort has been made to develop new carrier materials, more performant biocatalysts and new types of bioreactors. Elimination capacities reached nowadays are 5 to 10 times higher than those originally reported with conventional compost biofilters. With the recently developed inert filter beds, inoculation is a prerequisite for successful start-up and operation. Either non-defined mixed cultures or pure bacterial cultures have originally been used. The search for efficient fungal biocatalysts started only a few years ago, mainly for the biofiltration of waste gases containing hydrophobic compounds, such as styrene, alpha-pinene, benzene, or alkylbenzenes. In this review, recently isolated new fungal strains able to degrade alkylbenzenes and other related volatile organic pollutants are described, as well as their major characteristics and their use as biocatalysts in gas-phase biofilters for air pollution control. In biofiltration, the most extensively studied organism belongs to the genus Exophiala, although strains of Scedosporium, Paecilomyces, Cladosporium, Cladophialophora, and white-rot fungi are all potential candidates for use in biofilters. Encouraging results were obtained in most of the cases in which some of those organisms were present in gas-phase biofilters. They allow reaching high elimination capacities and are resistant to low pH values and to reduce moisture content.

  17. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  18. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  19. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  20. The Phytophthora sojae avirulence locus Avr3c encodes a multi-copy RXLR effector with sequence polymorphisms among pathogen strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suomeng Dong

    Full Text Available Root and stem rot disease of soybean is caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae. The avirulence (Avr genes of P. sojae control race-cultivar compatibility. In this study, we identify the P. sojae Avr3c gene and show that it encodes a predicted RXLR effector protein of 220 amino acids. Sequence and transcriptional data were compared for predicted RXLR effectors occurring in the vicinity of Avr4/6, as genetic linkage of Avr3c and Avr4/6 was previously suggested. Mapping of DNA markers in a F(2 population was performed to determine whether selected RXLR effector genes co-segregate with the Avr3c phenotype. The results pointed to one RXLR candidate gene as likely to encode Avr3c. This was verified by testing selected genes by a co-bombardment assay on soybean plants with Rps3c, thus demonstrating functionality and confirming the identity of Avr3c. The Avr3c gene together with eight other predicted genes are part of a repetitive segment of 33.7 kb. Three near-identical copies of this segment occur in a tandem array. In P. sojae strain P6497, two identical copies of Avr3c occur within the repeated segments whereas the third copy of this RXLR effector has diverged in sequence. The Avr3c gene is expressed during the early stages of infection in all P. sojae strains examined. Virulent alleles of Avr3c that differ in amino acid sequence were identified in other strains of P. sojae. Gain of virulence was acquired through mutation and subsequent sequence exchanges between the two copies of Avr3c. The results illustrate the importance of segmental duplications and RXLR effector evolution in the control of race-cultivar compatibility in the P. sojae and soybean interaction.

  1. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinshan; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jianqing; Xie, Denghui; Gerhard, Ethan; Nisic, Merisa; Shan, Dingying; Qian, Guoying; Zheng, Siyang; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal infections in the use of surgical devices and medical implants remain a major concern. Traditional bioadhesives fail to incorporate anti-microbial properties, necessitating additional anti-microbial drug injection. Herein, by the introduction of the clinically used and inexpensive anti-fungal agent, 10-undecylenic acid (UA), into our recently developed injectable citrate-based mussel-inspired bioadhesives (iCMBAs), a new family of anti-bacterial and anti-fungal iCMBAs (AbAf iCs) was developed. AbAf iCs not only showed strong wet tissue adhesion strength, but also exhibited excellent in vitro cyto-compatibility, fast degradation, and strong initial and considerable long-term anti-bacterial and anti-fungal ability. For the first time, the biocompatibility and anti-microbial ability of sodium metaperiodate (PI), an oxidant used as a cross-linking initiator in the AbAf iCs system, was also thoroughly investigated. Our results suggest that the PI-based bioadhesives showed better anti-microbial properties compared to the unstable silver-based bioadhesive materials. In conclusion, AbAf iCs family can serve as excellent anti-bacterial and anti-fungal bioadhesive candidates for tissue/wound closure, wound dressing, and bone regeneration, especially when bacterial or fungal infections are a major concern. PMID:26874283

  3. The cysteine rich necrotrophic effector SnTox1 produced by Stagonospora nodorum triggers susceptibility of wheat lines harboring Snn1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. SnTox1 was the first necrotrophic effector identified in S. nodorum, and was shown to induce necrosis on wheat lines carrying Snn1. Here, we report the molecular cloning and validation of SnTox1 as well as the preliminary characterization of the mechanism underlying the SnTox1-Snn1 interaction which leads to susceptibility. SnTox1 was identified using bioinformatics tools and verified by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. SnTox1 encodes a 117 amino acid protein with the first 17 amino acids predicted as a signal peptide, and strikingly, the mature protein contains 16 cysteine residues, a common feature for some avirulence effectors. The transformation of SnTox1 into an avirulent S. nodorum isolate was sufficient to make the strain pathogenic. Additionally, the deletion of SnTox1 in virulent isolates rendered the SnTox1 mutated strains avirulent on the Snn1 differential wheat line. SnTox1 was present in 85% of a global collection of S. nodorum isolates. We identified a total of 11 protein isoforms and found evidence for strong diversifying selection operating on SnTox1. The SnTox1-Snn1 interaction results in an oxidative burst, DNA laddering, and pathogenesis related (PR gene expression, all hallmarks of a defense response. In the absence of light, the development of SnTox1-induced necrosis and disease symptoms were completely blocked. By comparing the infection processes of a GFP-tagged avirulent isolate and the same isolate transformed with SnTox1, we conclude that SnTox1 may play a critical role during fungal penetration. This research further demonstrates that necrotrophic fungal pathogens utilize small effector proteins to exploit plant resistance pathways for their colonization, which provides important insights into the molecular

  4. Fructose 1-phosphate is the one and only physiological effector of the Cra (FruR) regulator of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Krell, Tino; Santiago, César; Brezovsky, Jan; Damborsky, Jiri; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Fructose-1-phosphate (F1P) is the preferred effector of the catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida but its ability to bind other metabolic intermediates in vivo is unclear. The Cra protein of this microorganism (Cra(PP)) was submitted to mobility shift assays with target DNA sequences (the PfruB promoter) and candidate effectors fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). 1 mM F1P was sufficient to release most of the Cra protein from its operators but more than 10 mM of FBP or G6P was required to free the same complex. However, isothermal titration microcalorimetry failed to expose any specific interaction between Cra(PP) and FBP or G6P. To solve this paradox, transcriptional activity of a PfruB-lacZ fusion was measured in wild-type and ΔfruB cells growing on substrates that change the intracellular concentrations of F1P and FBP. The data indicated that PfruB activity was stimulated by fructose but not by glucose or succinate. This suggested that Cra(PP) represses expression in vivo of the cognate fruBKA operon in a fashion dependent just on F1P, ruling out any other physiological effector. Molecular docking and dynamic simulations of the Cra-agonist interaction indicated that both metabolites can bind the repressor, but the breach in the relative affinity of Cra(PP) for F1P vs FBP is three orders of magnitude larger than the equivalent distance in the Escherichia coli protein. This assigns the Cra protein of P. putida the sole role of transducing the presence of fructose in the medium into a variety of direct and indirect physiological responses.

  5. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  6. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  7. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  8. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  9. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  10. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  11. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  12. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco Stam

    Full Text Available Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions.

  13. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2014-11-06

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term "zygomycosis" is often used as a synonym for "mucormycosis." In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term "zygomycosis" needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis." This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  15. Enhanced resistance in Theobroma cacao against oomycete and fungal pathogens by secretion of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Emily E; Vega-Arreguín, Julio; Shi, Zi; Bailey, Bryan; Xiao, Shunyuan; Maximova, Siela N; Tyler, Brett M; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-03-01

    The internalization of some oomycete and fungal pathogen effectors into host plant cells has been reported to be blocked by proteins that bind to the effectors' cell entry receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P). This finding suggested a novel strategy for disease control by engineering plants to secrete PI3P-binding proteins. In this study, we tested this strategy using the chocolate tree Theobroma cacao. Transient expression and secretion of four different PI3P-binding proteins in detached leaves of T. cacao greatly reduced infection by two oomycete pathogens, Phytophthora tropicalis and Phytophthora palmivora, which cause black pod disease. Lesion size and pathogen growth were reduced by up to 85%. Resistance was not conferred by proteins lacking a secretory leader, by proteins with mutations in their PI3P-binding site, or by a secreted PI4P-binding protein. Stably transformed, transgenic T. cacao plants expressing two different PI3P-binding proteins showed substantially enhanced resistance to both P. tropicalis and P. palmivora, as well as to the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum theobromicola. These results demonstrate that secretion of PI3P-binding proteins is an effective way to increase disease resistance in T. cacao, and potentially in other plants, against a broad spectrum of pathogens. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Exact positioning of the robotic arm end effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Valery; Dudkin, Fedir

    2016-07-01

    Orbital service becomes a new challenge of space exploration. The necessity to introduce it is connected first of all with an attractive opportunity to prolong the exploitation terms of expensive commercial satellites by, e.g., refilling of fuel or changing batteries. Other application area is a fight with permanently increasing amount of space litter - defunct satellites, burnt-out rocket stages, discarded trash and other debris. Now more than few tens of thousands orbiting objects larger than 5-10 cm (or about 1 million junks larger than 1 cm) are a huge problem for crucial and costly satellites and manned vehicles. For example, in 2014 the International Space Station had to change three times its orbit to avoid collision with space debris. So the development of the concepts and actions related to removal of space debris or non-operational satellites with use of robotic arm of a servicing satellite is very actual. Such a technology is also applicable for unmanned exploratory missions in solar system, for example for collecting a variety of samples from a celestial body surface. Naturally, the robotic arm movements should be controlled with great accuracy at influence of its non-rigidity, thermal and other factors. In these circumstances often the position of the arm end effector has to be controlled with high accuracy. The possibility of coordinate determination for the robotic arm end effector with use of a low frequency active electromagnetic system has been considered in the presented report. The proposed design of such a system consists of a small magnetic dipole source, which is mounted inside of the arm end effector and two or three 3-component magnetic field sensors mounted on a servicing satellite body. The data from this set of 3-component magnetic field sensors, which are fixed relatively to the satellite body, allows use of the mathematical approach for determination of position and orientation of the magnetic dipole source. The theoretical

  18. Telepresence master glove controller for dexterous robotic end-effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computer in real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

  19. Hacker Within! Ehrlichia chaffeensis Effector Driven Phagocyte Reprogramming Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Taher Lina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a small, gram negative, obligately intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects mononuclear phagocytes. It is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME, an emerging life-threatening tick-borne zoonosis. Mechanisms by which E. chaffeensis establishes intracellular infection, and avoids host defenses are not well understood, but involve functionally relevant host-pathogen interactions associated with tandem and ankyrin repeat effector proteins. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie Ehrlichia host cellular reprogramming strategies that enable intracellular survival.

  20. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is protective against autoimmune-mediated demyelination by inhibiting effector T cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Mei

    Full Text Available Quetiapine (Que, a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug (APD, can prevent myelin from breakdown without immune attack. Multiple sclerosis (MS, an autoimmune reactive inflammation demyelinating disease, is triggered by activated myelin-specific T lymphocytes (T cells. In this study, we investigated the potential efficacy of Que as an immune-modulating therapeutic agent for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a mouse model for MS. Que treatment was initiated on the onset of MOG(35-55 peptide induced EAE mice and the efficacy of Que on modulating the immune response was determined by Flow Cytometry through analyzing CD4(+/CD8(+ populations and the proliferation of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- in peripheral immune organs. Our results show that Que dramatically attenuates the severity of EAE symptoms. Que treatment decreases the extent of CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell infiltration into the spinal cord and suppresses local glial activation, thereby diminishing the loss of mature oligodendrocytes and myelin breakdown in the spinal cord of EAE mice. Our results further demonstrate that Que treatment decreases the CD4(+/CD8(+ T cell populations in lymph nodes and spleens of EAE mice and inhibits either MOG(35-55 or anti-CD3 induced proliferation as well as IL-2 production of effector T cells (CD4(+CD25(- isolated from EAE mice spleen. Together, these findings suggest that Que displays an immune-modulating role during the course of EAE, and thus may be a promising candidate for treatment of MS.

  1. Comparative Genome Structure, Secondary Metabolite, and Effector Coding Capacity across Cochliobolus Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condon, Bradford J.; Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Dongliang; Bushley, Kathryn E.; Ohm, Robin A.; Otillar, Robert; Martin, Joel; Schackwitz, Wendy; Grimwood, Jane; MohdZainudin, NurAinlzzati; Xue, Chunsheng; Wang, Rui; Manning, Viola A.; Dhillon, Braham; Tu, Zheng Jin; Steffenson, Brian J.; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lowry, Steve; LaButti, Kurt; Han, James; Copeland, Alex; Lindquist, Erika; Barry, Kerrie; Schmutz, Jeremy; Baker, Scott E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Zhong, Shaobin; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2013-01-24

    The genomes of five Cochliobolus heterostrophus strains, two Cochliobolus sativus strains, three additional Cochliobolus species (Cochliobolus victoriae, Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus miyabeanus), and closely related Setosphaeria turcica were sequenced at the Joint Genome Institute (JGI). The datasets were used to identify SNPs between strains and species, unique genomic regions, core secondary metabolism genes, and small secreted protein (SSP) candidate effector encoding genes with a view towards pinpointing structural elements and gene content associated with specificity of these closely related fungi to different cereal hosts. Whole-genome alignment shows that three to five of each genome differs between strains of the same species, while a quarter of each genome differs between species. On average, SNP counts among field isolates of the same C. heterostrophus species are more than 25 higher than those between inbred lines and 50 lower than SNPs between Cochliobolus species. The suites of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), polyketide synthase (PKS), and SSP encoding genes are astoundingly diverse among species but remarkably conserved among isolates of the same species, whether inbred or field strains, except for defining examples that map to unique genomic regions. Functional analysis of several strain-unique PKSs and NRPSs reveal a strong correlation with a role in virulence.

  2. Investigation of a bio-inspired lift-enhancing effector on a 2D airfoil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Joe; Gopalarathnam, Ashok

    2012-09-01

    A flap mounted on the upper surface of an airfoil, called a 'lift-enhancing effector', has been shown in wind tunnel tests to have a similar function to a bird's covert feathers, which rise off the wing's surface in response to separated flows. The effector, fabricated from a thin Mylar sheet, is allowed to rotate freely about its leading edge. The tests were performed in the NCSU subsonic wind tunnel at a chord Reynolds number of 4 × 10(5). The maximum lift coefficient with the effector was the same as that for the clean airfoil, but was maintained over an angle-of-attack range from 12° to almost 20°, resulting in a very gentle stall behavior. To better understand the aerodynamics and to estimate the deployment angle of the free-moving effector, fixed-angle effectors fabricated out of stiff wood were also tested. A progressive increase in the stall angle of attack with increasing effector angle was observed, with diminishing returns beyond the effector angle of 60°. Drag tests on both the free-moving and fixed effectors showed a marked improvement in drag at high angles of attack. Oil flow visualization on the airfoil with and without the fixed-angle effectors proved that the effector causes the separation point to move aft on the airfoil, as compared to the clean airfoil. This is thought to be the main mechanism by which an effector improves both lift and drag. A comparison of the fixed-effector results with those from the free-effector tests shows that the free effector's deployment angle is between 30° and 45°. When operating at and beyond the clean airfoil's stall angle, the free effector automatically deploys to progressively higher angles with increasing angles of attack. This slows down the rapid upstream movement of the separation point and avoids the severe reduction in the lift coefficient and an increase in the drag coefficient that are seen on the clean airfoil at the onset of stall. Thus, the effector postpones the stall by 4-8° and makes the

  3. Principles and applications of TAL effectors for plant physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanove, Adam J

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in DNA targeting allow unprecedented control over gene function and expression. Targeting based on TAL effectors is arguably the most promising for systems biology and metabolic engineering. Multiple, orthogonal TAL-effector reagents of different types can be used in the same cell. Furthermore, variation in base preferences of the individual structural repeats that make up the TAL effector DNA recognition domain makes targeting stringency tunable. Realized applications range from genome editing to epigenome modification to targeted gene regulation to chromatin labeling and capture. The principles that govern TAL effector DNA recognition make TAL effectors well suited for applications relevant to plant physiology and metabolism. TAL effector targeting has merits that are distinct from those of the RNA-based DNA targeting CRISPR/Cas9 system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissecting the molecular interactions between wheat and the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme James Kettles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Dothideomycete fungus Zymoseptoria tritici (previously known as Mycosphaerella graminicola and Septoria tritici is the causative agent of Septoria tritici leaf blotch (STB disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Europe, STB is the most economically damaging disease of wheat, with an estimated ~€1 billion per year in fungicide expenditure directed towards its control. Here, an overview of our current understanding of the molecular events that occur during Z. tritici infection of wheat leaves is presented. On the host side, this includes the contribution of (1 the pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI layer of the plant defence, and (2 major Stb resistance loci to Z. tritici resistance. On the pathogen side of the interaction, we consolidate evidence from recent bioinformatic, transcriptomic and proteomic studies that begin to explain the contribution of Z. tritici effector proteins to the biphasic lifestyle of the fungus. This includes the discovery of chitin-binding proteins in the Z. tritici secretome, which contribute to evasion of immune surveillance by this pathogen, and the possible existence of ‘necrotrophic’ effectors from Z. tritici, which may actively stimulate host recognition in a manner similar to related necrotrophic fungal pathogens. We finish by speculating on how some of these recent fundamental discoveries might be harnessed to help improve resistance to STB in the world’s second largest food crop.

  5. Assessing the anti-fungal efficiency of filters coated with zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decelis, Stephen; Sardella, Davide; Triganza, Thomas; Brincat, Jean-Pierre; Gatt, Ruben; Valdramidis, Vasilis P.

    2017-05-01

    Air filters support fungal growth, leading to generation of conidia and volatile organic compounds, causing allergies, infections and food spoilage. Filters that inhibit fungi are therefore necessary. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles have anti-fungal properties and therefore are good candidates for inhibiting growth. Two concentrations (0.012 M and 0.12 M) were used to coat two types of filters (melt-blown and needle-punched) for three different periods (0.5, 5 and 50 min). Rhizopus stolonifer and Penicillium expansum isolated from spoiled pears were used as test organisms. Conidial suspensions of 105 to 103 spores ml-1 were prepared in Sabouraud dextrose agar at 50°C, and a modified slide-culture technique was used to test the anti-fungal properties of the filters. Penicillium expansum was the more sensitive organism, with inhibition at 0.012 M at only 0.5 min coating time on the needle-punched filter. The longer the coating time, the more effective inhibition was for both organisms. Furthermore, it was also determined that the coating process had only a slight effect on the Young's Moduli of the needle-punched filters, while the Young's Moduli of the melt-blown filters is more susceptible to the coating method. This work contributes to the assessment of the efficacy of filter coating with ZnO nanopaticles aimed at inhibiting fungal growth.

  6. Can Some Marine-Derived Fungal Metabolites Become Actual Anticancer Agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson G. M. Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine fungi are known to produce structurally unique secondary metabolites, and more than 1000 marine fungal-derived metabolites have already been reported. Despite the absence of marine fungal-derived metabolites in the current clinical pipeline, dozens of them have been classified as potential chemotherapy candidates because of their anticancer activity. Over the last decade, several comprehensive reviews have covered the potential anticancer activity of marine fungal-derived metabolites. However, these reviews consider the term “cytotoxicity” to be synonymous with “anticancer agent”, which is not actually true. Indeed, a cytotoxic compound is by definition a poisonous compound. To become a potential anticancer agent, a cytotoxic compound must at least display (i selectivity between normal and cancer cells (ii activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR cancer cells; and (iii a preferentially non-apoptotic cell death mechanism, as it is now well known that a high proportion of cancer cells that resist chemotherapy are in fact apoptosis-resistant cancer cells against which pro-apoptotic drugs have more than limited efficacy. The present review thus focuses on the cytotoxic marine fungal-derived metabolites whose ability to kill cancer cells has been reported in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the compounds that kill cancer cells through non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms.

  7. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed

  8. Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

  9. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm gripper end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This gripper end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  10. Functions and requirements for the INEL light duty utility arm sampler end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D.P.; Barnes, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    This sampler end effector system functions and requirements document defines the system functions that the end effector must perform as well as the requirements the design must meet. Safety, quality assurance, operations, environmental conditions, and regulatory requirements have been considered. The main purpose of this document is to provide a basis for the end effector engineering, design, and fabrication activities. The document shall be the living reference document to initiate the development activities and will be updated as system technologies are finalized

  11. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  12. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  13. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  14. Virus-specific regulatory T cells ameliorate encephalitis by repressing effector T cell functions from priming to effector stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Zhao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the presence of pathogen-specific Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Treg in infected animals, but little is known about where and how these cells affect the effector T cell responses and whether they are more suppressive than bulk Treg populations. We recently showed the presence of both epitope M133-specific Tregs (M133 Treg and conventional CD4 T cells (M133 Tconv in the brains of mice with coronavirus-induced encephalitis. Here, we provide new insights into the interactions between pathogenic Tconv and Tregs responding to the same epitope. M133 Tregs inhibited the proliferation but not initial activation of M133 Tconv in draining lymph nodes (DLN. Further, M133 Tregs inhibited migration of M133 Tconv from the DLN. In addition, M133 Tregs diminished microglia activation and decreased the number and function of Tconv in the infected brain. Thus, virus-specific Tregs inhibited pathogenic CD4 T cell responses during priming and effector stages, particularly those recognizing cognate antigen, and decreased mortality and morbidity without affecting virus clearance. These cells are more suppressive than bulk Tregs and provide a targeted approach to ameliorating immunopathological disease in infectious settings.

  15. IgG-Fc-mediated effector functions: molecular definition of interaction sites for effector ligands and the role of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferis, R; Lund, J; Pound, J D

    1998-06-01

    The Fc region of human IgG expresses interaction sites for many effector ligands. In this review the topographical distributions of ten of these sites are discussed in relation to functional requirement. It is apparent that interaction sites localised to the inter-CH2-CH3 domain region of the Fc allow for functional divalency, whereas sites localised to the hinge proximal region of the CH2 domain are functionally monovalent, with expression of the latter sites being particularly dependent on glycosylation. All x-ray crystal structures for Fc and Fc-ligand complexes report that the protein structure of the hinge proximal region of the CH2 domain is "disordered", suggesting "internal mobility". We propose a model in which such "internal mobility" results in the generation of a dynamic equilibrium between multiple conformers, certain of which express interaction sites specific to individual ligands. The emerging understanding of the influence of oligosaccharide/protein interactions on protein conformation and biological function of IgG antibodies suggests a potential to generate novel glycoforms of antibody molecules having unique profiles of effector functions.

  16. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  17. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  19. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  1. The fungal resistome: a risk and an opportunity for the development of novel antifungal therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Molero, Gloria; Gil, Concha; Martínez, José L

    2016-08-01

    The risks for toxicity of novel antifungal compounds, together with the emergence of resistance, makes the use of inhibitors of resistance, in combination with antifungal compounds, a suitable strategy for developing novel antifungal formulations. Among them, inhibitors of efflux pumps are suitable candidates. Increasing drug influx or interfering with the stress response may also improve the efficacy of antifungals. Therapies as induction of fungal apoptosis or immunostimulation are also good strategies for reducing the risks for resistance and to improve antifungals' efficacy. Understanding the effect of the acquisition of resistance on the fungal physiology and determining the collateral sensitivity networks are useful for the development of novel strategies based on combination of antifungals for improving the efficacy of the therapy.

  2. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Daniel Ming Ming; Govindarajan, Kunde Ramamoorthy; Khan, Asif M; Ong, Terenze Yao Rui; Samad, Hanif M; Soh, Wei Wei; Tong, Minyan; Zhang, Fan; Tan, Tin Wee

    2010-10-15

    Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE) sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i) comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii) submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii) the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression) are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%). Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors. The T3SEdb represents a platform for inclusion of

  3. T3SEdb: data warehousing of virulence effectors secreted by the bacterial Type III Secretion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Minyan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effectors of Type III Secretion System (T3SS play a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining pathogenicity in the host and therefore the identification of these effectors is important in understanding virulence. However, the effectors display high level of sequence diversity, therefore making the identification a difficult process. There is a need to collate and annotate existing effector sequences in public databases to enable systematic analyses of these sequences for development of models for screening and selection of putative novel effectors from bacterial genomes that can be validated by a smaller number of key experiments. Results Herein, we present T3SEdb http://effectors.bic.nus.edu.sg/T3SEdb, a specialized database of annotated T3SS effector (T3SE sequences containing 1089 records from 46 bacterial species compiled from the literature and public protein databases. Procedures have been defined for i comprehensive annotation of experimental status of effectors, ii submission and curation review of records by users of the database, and iii the regular update of T3SEdb existing and new records. Keyword fielded and sequence searches (BLAST, regular expression are supported for both experimentally verified and hypothetical T3SEs. More than 171 clusters of T3SEs were detected based on sequence identity comparisons (intra-cluster difference up to ~60%. Owing to this high level of sequence diversity of T3SEs, the T3SEdb provides a large number of experimentally known effector sequences with wide species representation for creation of effector predictors. We created a reliable effector prediction tool, integrated into the database, to demonstrate the application of the database for such endeavours. Conclusions T3SEdb is the first specialised database reported for T3SS effectors, enriched with manual annotations that facilitated systematic construction of a reliable prediction model for identification of novel effectors

  4. Molecular Diagnostics for Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Paplomatas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.

  5. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  6. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER ampersand WM) Department's needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications

  7. Hanford Waste End Effector Phase I Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglin, Eric J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatchell, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mount, Jason C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Neill, Kevin J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wells, Beric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-09-22

    This test plan describes the Phase 1 testing program of the Hanford Waste End Effector (HWEE) at the Washington River Protection Solutions’ Cold Test Facility (CTF) using a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)-designed testing setup. This effort fulfills the informational needs for initial assessment of the HWEE to support Hanford single-shell tank A-105 retrieval. This task will install the HWEE on a PNNL-designed robotic gantry system at CTF, install and calibrate instrumentation to measure reaction forces and process parameters, prepare and characterize simulant materials, and implement the test program. The tests will involve retrieval of water, sludge, and hardpan simulants to determine pumping rate, dilution factors, and screen fouling rate.

  8. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  9. Comparative reactivity of human IgE to cynomolgus monkey and human effector cells and effects on IgE effector cell potency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Louise; Saul, Louise; Josephs, Debra H; Josephs, Debra H; Cutler, Keith; Cutler, Keith; Bradwell, Andrew; Bradwell, Andrew; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Selkirk, Chris; Selkirk, Chris; Gould, Hannah J; Gould, Hannah J; Jones, Paul; Jones, Paul; Spicer, James F; Spicer, James F; Karagiannis, Sophia N; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to genetic similarities with humans, primates of the macaque genus such as the cynomolgus monkey are often chosen as models for toxicology studies of antibody therapies. IgE therapeutics in development depend upon engagement with the FcεRI and FcεRII receptors on immune effector cells for their function. Only limited knowledge of the primate IgE immune system is available to inform the choice of models for mechanistic and safety evaluations.   Methods: The recognition of human IgE by peripheral blood lymphocytes from cynomolgus monkey and man was compared. We used effector cells from each species in ex vivo affinity, dose-response, antibody-receptor dissociation and potency assays. Results: We report cross-reactivity of human IgE Fc with cynomolgus monkey cells, and comparable binding kinetics to peripheral blood lymphocytes from both species. In competition and dissociation assays, however, human IgE dissociated faster from cynomolgus monkey compared with human effector cells. Differences in association and dissociation kinetics were reflected in effector cell potency assays of IgE-mediated target cell killing, with higher concentrations of human IgE needed to elicit effector response in the cynomolgus monkey system. Additionally, human IgE binding on immune effector cells yielded significantly different cytokine release profiles in each species. Conclusion: These data suggest that human IgE binds with different characteristics to human and cynomolgus monkey IgE effector cells. This is likely to affect the potency of IgE effector functions in these two species, and so has relevance for the selection of biologically-relevant model systems when designing pre-clinical toxicology and functional studies. PMID:24492303

  10. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  11. Genotyping of polymorphic effectors of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weisheng Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan apicomplexan and obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of animals and humans. Rhoptry proteins 5 (ROP5, ROP16, ROP18 and dense granules 15 (GRA15 are the important effectors secreted by T. gondii which link to the strain virulence for mice and modulate the host’s response to the parasite. Little has been known about these molecules as well as GRA3 in type Chinese 1 strains that show polymorphism among strains of archetypical genotypes. This study examined the genetic diversity of these effectors and its correlated virulence in mice among T. gondii isolates from China. Results Twenty-one isolates from stray cats were detected, of which 15 belong to Chinese 1, and 6 to ToxoDB #205. Wh6 isolate, a Chinese 1 strain, has an avirulent phenotype. PCR-RFLP results of ROP5 and ROP18 presented few variations among the strains. Genotyping of GRA15 and ROP16 revealed that all the strains belong to type II allele except Xz7 which carries type I allele. ROP16 amino acid alignment at 503 locus demonstrated that 17 isolates are featured as type I or type III (ROP16I/III, and the other 4 as type II (ROP16II. The strains investigated may be divided into four groups based on GRA3 amino acid alignment, and all isolates of type Chinese 1 belong to the μ-1 allele except Wh6 which is identical to type II strain. Conclusions PCR-RFLP and sequence alignment analyses of ROP5, ROP16, ROP18, GRA3, and GRA15 in T. gondii revealed that strains with the same genotype may have variations in some of their key genes. GRA3 variation exhibited by Wh6 strain may be associated with the difference in phenotype and pathogenesis.

  12. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Bari, A.; Mehmood, S.; Tariq, K.M.; Haq, I.; Niwaz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  13. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J Ek-Ramos

    Full Text Available Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey

  15. A STUDY ON CUTANEOUS FUNGAL DISORDERS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar G

    2016-09-01

    number of cases, which amounted to seven in number followed by sixty to eighty years, which amounted to five in number followed by age group of twenty to forty years, which amounted to four cases, followed by more than eighty years, which amounted to two cases. Least number of cases was seen in age group of zero to twenty years, which amounted to one case. Based on the type of fungal infections, total of twenty four patients suffered from tinea pedis infection out of which seventeen were males and seven were females. Eleven patients suffered from onychomycosis, out of which, ten were males and one was female. A total of four patients suffered from Candidal skin infection, out of which three were males and one was female. Four patients suffered from Candida angular cheilitis out of which male and female amounted to two cases each. Six males were noted to have Candidal balanitis and three females suffered from vaginal yeast infections. A total number of eight patients suffered from Candidal intertrigo out of which three cases were males and five cases were female. CONCLUSION Fungal infections, which are usually seen in the moist areas of the body are a common problem with diabetics and elderly. The study proves that in known diabetic patients of more than five years it is quiet common.

  16. Type VI secretion system MIX-effectors carry both antibacterial and anti-eukaryotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Schwartz, Nika; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Zhang, Junmei; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2017-11-01

    Most type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) described to date are protein delivery apparatuses that mediate bactericidal activities. Several T6SSs were also reported to mediate virulence activities, although only few anti-eukaryotic effectors have been described. Here, we identify three T6SSs in the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus and show that T6SS1 mediates bactericidal activities under warm marine-like conditions. Using comparative proteomics, we find nine potential T6SS1 effectors, five of which belong to the polymorphic MIX-effector class. Remarkably, in addition to six predicted bactericidal effectors, the T6SS1 secretome includes three putative anti-eukaryotic effectors. One of these is a MIX-effector containing a cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 domain. We demonstrate that T6SS1 can use this MIX-effector to target phagocytic cells, resulting in morphological changes and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. In conclusion, the V. proteolyticus T6SS1, a system homologous to one found in pathogenic vibrios, uses a suite of polymorphic effectors that target both bacteria and eukaryotic neighbors. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Establishment of an inducing medium for type III effector secretion in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the type III secretion system (T3SS and type III (T3 effectors are essential for the pathogenicity of most bacterial phytopathogens and that the expression of T3SS and T3 effectors is suppressed in rich media but induced in minimal media and plants. To facilitate in-depth studies on T3SS and T3 effectors, it is crucial to establish a medium for T3 effector expression and secretion. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc is a model bacterium for studying plant-pathogen interactions. To date no medium for Xcc T3 effector secretion has been defined. Here, we compared four minimal media (MME, MMX, XVM2, and XOM2 which are reported for T3 expression induction in Xanthomonas spp. and found that MME is most efficient for expression and secretion of Xcc T3 effectors. By optimization of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH value based on MME, we established XCM1 medium, which is about 3 times stronger than MME for Xcc T3 effectors secretion. We further optimized the concentration of phosphate, calcium, and magnesium in XCM1 and found that XCM1 with a lower concentration of magnesium (renamed as XCM2 is about 10 times as efficient as XCM1 (meanwhile, about 30 times stronger than MME. Thus, we established an inducing medium XCM2 which is preferred for T3 effector secretion in Xcc.

  18. High immunosuppressive burden in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients: Can effector functions be restored?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugade, Amit A; Kalathil, Suresh; Miller, Austin; Iyer, Renuka; Thanavala, Yasmin

    2013-07-01

    The accumulation of immunosuppressive cells and exhausted effector T cells highlight an important immune dysfunction in advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. These cells significantly hamper the efficacy immunotherapies and facilitate HCC progression. We have recently demonstrated that the multipronged depletion of immunosuppressive cells potentially restores effector T-cell function in HCC.

  19. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  20. Identification of proteins similar to AvrE type III effector proteins from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type III effector proteins are injected into host cells through type III secretion systems. Some effectors are similar to host proteins to promote pathogenicity, while others lead to the activation of disease resistance. We used partial least squares alignment-free bioinformatics methods to identify proteins similar to AvrE proteins ...

  1. The Genome Biology of Effector Gene Evolution in Filamentous Plant Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Vallet, Andrea; Fouché, Simone; Fudal, Isabelle; Hartmann, Fanny E; Soyer, Jessica L; Tellier, Aurélien; Croll, Daniel

    2018-05-16

    Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes are tightly linked to the genomic compartments where these genes are located in pathogen genomes. The presence of repetitive elements in these compartments is associated with elevated rates of point mutations and sequence rearrangements with a major impact on effector diversification. The expression of many effectors converges on an epigenetic control mediated by the presence of repetitive elements. Population genomics analyses showed that rapidly evolving pathogens show high rates of turnover at effector loci and display a mosaic in effector presence-absence polymorphism among strains. We conclude that effective pathogen containment strategies require a thorough understanding of the effector genome biology and the pathogen's potential for rapid adaptation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Phytopathology Volume 56 is August 25, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  2. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  3. TAL effectors: highly adaptable phytobacterial virulence factors and readily engineered DNA targeting proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Erin L.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Bogdanove, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors are transcription factors injected into plant cells by pathogenic bacteria in the genus Xanthomonas. They function as virulence factors by activating host genes important for disease, or as avirulence factors by turning on genes that provide resistance. DNA binding specificity is encoded by polymorphic repeats in each protein that correspond one-to-one with different nucleotides. This code has facilitated target identification and opened new avenues for engineering disease resistance. It has also enabled TAL effector customization for targeted gene control, genome editing, and other applications. This article reviews the structural basis for TAL effector-DNA specificity, the impact of the TAL effector-DNA code on plant pathology and engineered resistance, and recent accomplishments and future challenges in TAL effector-based DNA targeting. PMID:23707478

  4. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jwa, Nam-Soo; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2017-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs) as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs) responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  5. Convergent Evolution of Pathogen Effectors toward Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Networks in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Soo Jwa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pathogens have evolved protein effectors to promote virulence and cause disease in host plants. Pathogen effectors delivered into plant cells suppress plant immune responses and modulate host metabolism to support the infection processes of pathogens. Reactive oxygen species (ROS act as cellular signaling molecules to trigger plant immune responses, such as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI and effector-triggered immunity. In this review, we discuss recent insights into the molecular functions of pathogen effectors that target multiple steps in the ROS signaling pathway in plants. The perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors leads to the rapid and strong production of ROS through activation of NADPH oxidase Respiratory Burst Oxidase Homologs (RBOHs as well as peroxidases. Specific pathogen effectors directly or indirectly interact with plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors to induce ROS production and the hypersensitive response in plant cells. By contrast, virulent pathogens possess effectors capable of suppressing plant ROS bursts in different ways during infection. PAMP-triggered ROS bursts are suppressed by pathogen effectors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. Moreover, pathogen effectors target vesicle trafficking or metabolic priming, leading to the suppression of ROS production. Secreted pathogen effectors block the metabolic coenzyme NADP-malic enzyme, inhibiting the transfer of electrons to the NADPH oxidases (RBOHs responsible for ROS generation. Collectively, pathogen effectors may have evolved to converge on a common host protein network to suppress the common plant immune system, including the ROS burst and cell death response in plants.

  6. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  7. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  8. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  9. Fungal peroxidases : molecular aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductases that utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidative reactions. A large number of peroxidases have been identified in fungal species and are being characterized at the molecular level. In this manuscript we review the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of this

  10. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Le Roux, J. J.; Strasberg, D.; Edwards, J.; Roets, F.; Hubka, V.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Heykoop, M.; Martín, M.P.; Moreno, G.; Sutton, D.A.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Barnes, C.W.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Gené, J.; Giraldo, A.; Guarnaccia, V.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Manjón, J.L.; Pascoe, I.G.; Popov, E.S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Acharya, K.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alvarado, P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Burgess, T.I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Čmoková, A.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dyakov, M.Yu.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Fedosova, A.G.; Fournier, J.; Gamboa, P.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Grebenc, T.; Groenewald, M.; Hanse, B.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Held, B.W.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kaewgrajang, T.; Latha, K.P.D.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lysková, P.; Mallátová, N.; Manimohan, P.; Miller, A.N.; Mirabolfathy, M.; Morozova, O.V.; Obodai, M.; Oliveira, N.T.; Otto, E.C.; Paloi, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Phosri, C.; Roux, J.; Salazar, W.A.; Sánchez, A.; Sarria, G.A.; Shin, H.-D.; Silva, B.D.B.; Silva, G.A.; Smith, M.Th.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Sulzbacher, M.A.; Telleria, M.T.; Toapanta, C.; Traba, J.M.; Valenzuela-Lopez, N.; Watling, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, July (2016), s. 316-458 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  11. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  12. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  13. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  14. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  15. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  16. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Yáňez-Morales, J.; Duong, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Heykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Levesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, Alena; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Peréz-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, December (2015), s. 264-327 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * novel fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.725, year: 2015

  17. Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Weber, S.S.; Nijland, J.G.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological

  18. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, M.; Uder, M.; Bautz, W.; Heinrich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  19. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19–20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...

  20. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  1. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  2. UV-guided isolation of fungal metabolites by HSCCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, P.W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Analytical standardised reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) data can be helpful in finding a suitable solvent combination for isolation of fungal metabolites by high-speed counter current chromatography. Analysis of the distribution coefficient (K-D) of fungal metabolites in a series...... peptides from a crude fungal extract....

  3. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  4. Teacher Candidate Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Lynn; And Others

    Summaries are presented of three papers presented at a summer workshop on Quality Assurance in Teacher Education conducted by the Association of Teacher Educators. The general topic covered by these presentations was teacher candidate selection and evaluation. Papers focused upon the following questions: (1) What entry level criteria should be…

  5. Candidate Prediction Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This document lists candidate prediction models for Work Package 3 (WP3) of the PSO-project called ``Intelligent wind power prediction systems'' (FU4101). The main focus is on the models transforming numerical weather predictions into predictions of power production. The document also outlines...... the possibilities w.r.t. different numerical weather predictions actually available to the project....

  6. Candidate cave entrances on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  7. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  8. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  9. N-termini of fungal CSL transcription factors are disordered, enriched in regulatory motifs and inhibit DNA binding in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Převorovský

    Full Text Available CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1 transcription factors are the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway, which is critical for metazoan development. The metazoan CSL proteins (class M can also function in a Notch-independent manner. Recently, two novel classes of CSL proteins, designated F1 and F2, have been identified in fungi. The role of the fungal CSL proteins is unclear, because the Notch pathway is not present in fungi. In fission yeast, the Cbf11 and Cbf12 CSL paralogs play antagonistic roles in cell adhesion and the coordination of cell and nuclear division. Unusually long N-terminal extensions are typical for fungal and invertebrate CSL family members. In this study, we investigate the functional significance of these extended N-termini of CSL proteins.We identify 15 novel CSL family members from 7 fungal species and conduct bioinformatic analyses of a combined dataset containing 34 fungal and 11 metazoan CSL protein sequences. We show that the long, non-conserved N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins are likely disordered and enriched in phosphorylation sites and PEST motifs. In a case study of Cbf12 (class F2, we provide experimental evidence that the protein is proteolytically processed and that the N-terminus inhibits the Cbf12-dependent DNA binding activity in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay.This study provides insight into the characteristics of the long N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins that may be crucial for controlling DNA-binding and CSL function. We propose that the regulation of DNA binding by Cbf12 via its N-terminal region represents an important means by which fission yeast strikes a balance between the class F1 and class F2 paralog activities. This mode of regulation might be shared with other CSL-positive fungi, some of which are relevant to human disease and biotechnology.

  10. A genetic screen identifies interferon-α effector genes required to suppress hepatitis C virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Dahlene N; Brisac, Cynthia; John, Sinu P; Huang, Yi-Wen; Chin, Christopher R; Xie, Tiao; Zhao, Hong; Jilg, Nikolaus; Zhang, Leiliang; Chevaliez, Stephane; Wambua, Daniel; Lin, Wenyu; Peng, Lee; Chung, Raymond T; Brass, Abraham L

    2013-06-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of end-stage liver disease. Interferon-α (IFNα) is an important component of anti-HCV therapy; it up-regulates transcription of IFN-stimulated genes, many of which have been investigated for their antiviral effects. However, all of the genes required for the antiviral function of IFNα (IFN effector genes [IEGs]) are not known. IEGs include not only IFN-stimulated genes, but other nontranscriptionally induced genes that are required for the antiviral effect of IFNα. In contrast to candidate approaches based on analyses of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression, identification of IEGs requires a broad functional approach. We performed an unbiased genome-wide small interfering RNA screen to identify IEGs that inhibit HCV. Huh7.5.1 hepatoma cells were transfected with small interfering RNAs incubated with IFNα and then infected with JFH1 HCV. Cells were stained using HCV core antibody, imaged, and analyzed to determine the percent infection. Candidate IEGs detected in the screen were validated and analyzed further. The screen identified 120 previously unreported IEGs. From these, we more fully evaluated the following: asparagine-linked glycosylation 10 homolog (yeast, α-1,2-glucosyltransferase); butyrylcholinesterase; dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (CD26, adenosine deaminase complexing protein 2); glucokinase (hexokinase 4) regulator; guanylate cyclase 1, soluble, β 3; MYST histone acetyltransferase 1; protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), catalytic subunit, β isoform; peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ-DBD-interacting protein 1; and solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2; and demonstrated that they enabled IFNα-mediated suppression of HCV at multiple steps of its life cycle. Expression of these genes had more potent effects against flaviviridae because a subset was required for IFNα to suppress dengue virus but not influenza A virus. In addition, many of the host genes detected in this

  11. DMPD: MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18191460 MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...g) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show MyDths and un-TOLLed truths: sensor, instructive and effector immunity totuberculosis...e and effector immunity totuberculosis. Authors Reiling N, Ehlers S, Holscher C. Publication Immunol Lett. 2

  12. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  13. Intrinsic disorder in pathogen effectors: protein flexibility as an evolutionary hallmark in a molecular arms race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Macarena; Uversky, Vladimir N; Ott, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Effector proteins represent a refined mechanism of bacterial pathogens to overcome plants' innate immune systems. These modular proteins often manipulate host physiology by directly interfering with immune signaling of plant cells. Even if host cells have developed efficient strategies to perceive the presence of pathogenic microbes and to recognize intracellular effector activity, it remains an open question why only few effectors are recognized directly by plant resistance proteins. Based on in-silico genome-wide surveys and a reevaluation of published structural data, we estimated that bacterial effectors of phytopathogens are highly enriched in long-disordered regions (>50 residues). These structurally flexible segments have no secondary structure under physiological conditions but can fold in a stimulus-dependent manner (e.g., during protein-protein interactions). The high abundance of intrinsic disorder in effectors strongly suggests positive evolutionary selection of this structural feature and highlights the dynamic nature of these proteins. We postulate that such structural flexibility may be essential for (1) effector translocation, (2) evasion of the innate immune system, and (3) host function mimicry. The study of these dynamical regions will greatly complement current structural approaches to understand the molecular mechanisms of these proteins and may help in the prediction of new effectors.

  14. Secretome Characterization and Correlation Analysis Reveal Putative Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Identify Candidate Avirulence Genes in the Wheat Stripe Rust Fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chongjing; Wang, Meinan; Cornejo, Omar E; Jiwan, Derick A; See, Deven R; Chen, Xianming

    2017-01-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici ( Pst ), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Planting resistant cultivars is an effective way to control this disease, but race-specific resistance can be overcome quickly due to the rapid evolving Pst population. Studying the pathogenicity mechanisms is critical for understanding how Pst virulence changes and how to develop wheat cultivars with durable resistance to stripe rust. We re-sequenced 7 Pst isolates and included additional 7 previously sequenced isolates to represent balanced virulence/avirulence profiles for several avirulence loci in seretome analyses. We observed an uneven distribution of heterozygosity among the isolates. Secretome comparison of Pst with other rust fungi identified a large portion of species-specific secreted proteins, suggesting that they may have specific roles when interacting with the wheat host. Thirty-two effectors of Pst were identified from its secretome. We identified candidates for Avr genes corresponding to six Yr genes by correlating polymorphisms for effector genes to the virulence/avirulence profiles of the 14 Pst isolates. The putative AvYr76 was present in the avirulent isolates, but absent in the virulent isolates, suggesting that deleting the coding region of the candidate avirulence gene has produced races virulent to resistance gene Yr76 . We conclude that incorporating avirulence/virulence phenotypes into correlation analysis with variations in genomic structure and secretome, particularly presence/absence polymorphisms of effectors, is an efficient way to identify candidate Avr genes in Pst . The candidate effector genes provide a rich resource for further studies to determine the evolutionary history of Pst populations and the co-evolutionary arms race between Pst and wheat. The Avr candidates identified in this study will lead to cloning avirulence genes in Pst , which will enable us to understand molecular mechanisms

  15. Altered effector function of peripheral cytotoxic cells in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corne Jonathan M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting evidence that perforin and granzymes are important mediators in the lung destruction seen in COPD. We investigated the characteristics of the three main perforin and granzyme containing peripheral cells, namely CD8+ T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK; CD56+CD3- cells and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cell numbers and intracellular granzyme B and perforin were analysed by flow cytometry. Immunomagnetically selected CD8+ T lymphocytes, NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells were used in an LDH release assay to determine cytotoxicity and cytotoxic mechanisms were investigated by blocking perforin and granzyme B with relevant antibodies. Results The proportion of peripheral blood NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in smokers with COPD (COPD subjects was significantly lower (0.6% than in healthy smokers (smokers (2.8%, p +CD3- cells from COPD subjects were significantly less cytotoxic than in smokers (16.8% vs 51.9% specific lysis, p +CD3+ cells (16.7% vs 52.4% specific lysis, p +CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells from smokers and HNS. Conclusion In this study, we show that the relative numbers of peripheral blood NK (CD56+CD3- and NKT-like (CD56+CD3+ cells in COPD subjects are reduced and that their cytotoxic effector function is defective.

  16. The death effector domains of caspase-8 induce terminal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Mielgo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The differentiation and senescence programs of metazoans play key roles in regulating normal development and preventing aberrant cell proliferation, such as cancer. These programs are intimately associated with both the mitotic and apoptotic pathways. Caspase-8 is an apical apoptotic initiator that has recently been appreciated to coordinate non-apoptotic roles in the cell. Most of these functions are attributed to the catalytic domain, however, the amino-terminal death effector domains (DEDs, which belong to the death domain superfamily of proteins, can also play key roles during development. Here we describe a novel role for caspase-8 DEDs in regulating cell differentiation and senescence. Caspase-8 DEDs accumulate during terminal differentiation and senescence of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid cells; genetic deletion or shRNA suppression of caspase-8 disrupts cell differentiation, while re-expression of DEDs rescues this phenotype. Among caspase-8 deficient neuroblastoma cells, DED expression attenuated tumor growth in vivo and proliferation in vitro via disruption of mitosis and cytokinesis, resulting in upregulation of p53 and induction of differentiation markers. These events occur independent of caspase-8 catalytic activity, but require a critical lysine (K156 in a microtubule-binding motif in the second DED domain. The results demonstrate a new function for the DEDs of caspase-8, and describe an unexpected mechanism that contributes to cell differentiation and senescence.

  17. Strain Specific Factors Control Effector Gene Silencing in Phytophthora sojae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirjana Devi Shrestha

    Full Text Available The Phytophthora sojae avirulence gene Avr3a encodes an effector that is capable of triggering immunity on soybean plants carrying the resistance gene Rps3a. P. sojae strains that express Avr3a are avirulent to Rps3a plants, while strains that do not are virulent. To study the inheritance of Avr3a expression and virulence towards Rps3a, genetic crosses and self-fertilizations were performed. A cross between P. sojae strains ACR10 X P7076 causes transgenerational gene silencing of Avr3a allele, and this effect is meiotically stable up to the F5 generation. However, test-crosses of F1 progeny (ACR10 X P7076 with strain P6497 result in the release of silencing of Avr3a. Expression of Avr3a in the progeny is variable and correlates with the phenotypic penetrance of the avirulence trait. The F1 progeny from a direct cross of P6497 X ACR10 segregate for inheritance for Avr3a expression, a result that could not be explained by parental imprinting or heterozygosity. Analysis of small RNA arising from the Avr3a gene sequence in the parental strains and hybrid progeny suggests that the presence of small RNA is necessary but not sufficient for gene silencing. Overall, we conclude that inheritance of the Avr3a gene silenced phenotype relies on factors that are variable among P. sojae strains.

  18. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells as Effectors in Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Granick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has shed light on novel functions of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC. While they are critical for maintenance and replenishment of blood cells in the bone marrow, these cells are not limited to the bone marrow compartment and function beyond their role in hematopoiesis. HSPC can leave bone marrow and circulate in peripheral blood and lymph, a process often manipulated therapeutically for the purpose of transplantation. Additionally, these cells preferentially home to extramedullary sites of inflammation where they can differentiate to more mature effector cells. HSPC are susceptible to various pathogens, though they may participate in the innate immune response without being directly infected. They express pattern recognition receptors for detection of endogenous and exogenous danger-associated molecular patterns and respond not only by the formation of daughter cells but can themselves secrete powerful cytokines. This paper summarizes the functional and phenotypic characterization of HSPC, their niche within and outside of the bone marrow, and what is known regarding their role in the innate immune response.

  19. Exosomes: novel effectors of human platelet lysate activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Torreggiani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the popularity of platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet lysate (PL in orthopaedic practice, the mechanism of action and the effectiveness of these therapeutic tools are still controversial. So far, the activity of PRP and PL has been associated with different growth factors (GF released during platelet degranulation. This study, for the first time, identifies exosomes, nanosized vesicles released in the extracellular compartment by a number of elements, including platelets, as one of the effectors of PL activity. Exosomes were isolated from human PL by differential ultracentrifugation, and analysed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Bone marrow stromal cells (MSC treated with three different exosome concentrations (0.6 μg, 5 μg and 50 μg showed a significant, dose-dependent increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control. In addition, osteogenic differentiation assays demonstrated that exosome concentration differently affected the ability of MSC to deposit mineralised matrix. Finally, the analysis of exosome protein content revealed a higher amount of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 as compared to PL. In regards to RNA content, an enrichment of small RNAs in exosomes as compared to donor platelets has been found. These results suggest that exosomes consistently contribute to PL activity and could represent an advantageous nanodelivery system for cell-free regeneration therapies.

  20. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.

    1988-01-01

    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  1. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Jiang

    Full Text Available Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients. Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  2. Design and force analysis of end-effector for plug seedling transplanter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuohua; Hu, Yang; Jiang, Huanyu; Tong, Junhua

    2017-01-01

    Automatic transplanters have been very important in greenhouses since the popularization of seedling nurseries. End-effector development is a key technology for transplanting plug seedlings. Most existing end-effectors have problems with holding root plugs or releasing plugs. An efficient end-effector driven by a linear pneumatic cylinder was designed in this study, which could hold root plugs firmly and release plugs easily. This end-effector with four needles could clamp the plug simultaneously while the needles penetrate into the substrate. The depth and verticality of the needles could be adjusted conveniently for different seedling trays. The effectiveness of this end-effector was tested by a combinational trial examining three seedling nursery factors (the moisture content of the substrate, substrate bulk density and the volume proportion of substrate ingredients). Results showed that the total transplanting success rate for the end-effector was 100%, and the root plug harm rate was below 17%. A force measure system with tension and pressure transducers was installed on the designed end-effector. The adhesive force FL between the root plug and the cell of seedling trays and the extrusion force FK on the root plug were measured and analyzed. The results showed that all three variable factors and their interactions had significant effects on the extrusion force. Each factor had a significant effect on adhesive force. Additionally, it was found that the end-effector did not perform very well when the value of FK/FL was beyond the range of 5.99~8.67. This could provide a scientific basis for end-effector application in transplanting.

  3. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.......The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...

  4. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  5. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  6. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Al Salmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. Results: A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8% had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans, followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. Conclusions: This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no

  7. From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R; Doohan, Fiona M; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2018-02-11

    The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars.

  8. Candidate genes in panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howe, A. S.; Buttenschön, Henriette N; Bani-Fatemi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of molecular genetics approaches in examination of panic disorder (PD) has implicated several variants as potential susceptibility factors for panicogenesis. However, the identification of robust PD susceptibility genes has been complicated by phenotypic diversity, underpowered...... association studies and ancestry-specific effects. In the present study, we performed a succinct review of case-control association studies published prior to April 2015. Meta-analyses were performed for candidate gene variants examined in at least three studies using the Cochrane Mantel-Haenszel fixed......-effect model. Secondary analyses were also performed to assess the influences of sex, agoraphobia co-morbidity and ancestry-specific effects on panicogenesis. Meta-analyses were performed on 23 variants in 20 PD candidate genes. Significant associations after correction for multiple testing were observed...

  9. Analysis of Two in Planta Expressed LysM Effector Homologs from the Fungus Mycosphaerella graminicola Reveals Novel Functional Properties and Varying Contributions to Virulence on Wheat1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rosalind; Kombrink, Anja; Motteram, Juliet; Loza-Reyes, Elisa; Lucas, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Rudd, Jason J.

    2011-01-01

    Secreted effector proteins enable plant pathogenic fungi to manipulate host defenses for successful infection. Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves. Leaf infection involves a long (approximately 7 d) period of symptomless intercellular colonization prior to the appearance of necrotic disease lesions. Therefore, M. graminicola is considered as a hemibiotrophic (or necrotrophic) pathogen. Here, we describe the molecular and functional characterization of M. graminicola homologs of Ecp6 (for extracellular protein 6), the Lysin (LysM) domain-containing effector from the biotrophic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, which interferes with chitin-triggered immunity in plants. Three LysM effector homologs are present in the M. graminicola genome, referred to as Mg3LysM, Mg1LysM, and MgxLysM. Mg3LysM and Mg1LysM genes were strongly transcriptionally up-regulated specifically during symptomless leaf infection. Both proteins bind chitin; however, only Mg3LysM blocked the elicitation of chitin-induced plant defenses. In contrast to C. fulvum Ecp6, both Mg1LysM and Mg3LysM also protected fungal hyphae against plant-derived hydrolytic enzymes, and both genes show significantly more nucleotide polymorphism giving rise to nonsynonymous amino acid changes. While Mg1LysM deletion mutant strains of M. graminicola were fully pathogenic toward wheat leaves, Mg3LysM mutant strains were severely impaired in leaf colonization, did not trigger lesion formation, and were unable to undergo asexual sporulation. This virulence defect correlated with more rapid and pronounced expression of wheat defense genes during the symptomless phase of leaf colonization. These data highlight different functions for MgLysM effector homologs during plant infection, including novel activities that distinguish these proteins from C. fulvum Ecp6. PMID:21467214

  10. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  11. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  12. An immunity-triggering effector from the Barley smut fungus Ustilago hordei resides in an Ustilaginaceae-specific cluster bearing signs of transposable element-assisted evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Ali

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE, interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity

  13. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat

    2014-07-03

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  14. An Immunity-Triggering Effector from the Barley Smut Fungus Ustilago hordei Resides in an Ustilaginaceae-Specific Cluster Bearing Signs of Transposable Element-Assisted Evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Shawkat; Laurie, John D.; Linning, Rob; Cervantes-Chá vez, José Antonio; Gaudet, Denis; Bakkeren, Guus

    2014-01-01

    The basidiomycete smut fungus Ustilago hordei was previously shown to comprise isolates that are avirulent on various barley host cultivars. Through genetic crosses we had revealed that a dominant avirulence locus UhAvr1 which triggers immunity in barley cultivar Hannchen harboring resistance gene Ruh1, resided within an 80-kb region. DNA sequence analysis of this genetically delimited region uncovered the presence of 7 candidate secreted effector proteins. Sequence comparison of their coding sequences among virulent and avirulent parental and field isolates could not distinguish UhAvr1 candidates. Systematic deletion and complementation analyses revealed that UhAvr1 is UHOR_10022 which codes for a small effector protein of 171 amino acids with a predicted 19 amino acid signal peptide. Virulence in the parental isolate is caused by the insertion of a fragment of 5.5 kb with similarity to a common U. hordei transposable element (TE), interrupting the promoter of UhAvr1 and thereby changing expression and hence recognition of UhAVR1p. This rearrangement is likely caused by activities of TEs and variation is seen among isolates. Using GFP-chimeric constructs we show that UhAvr1 is induced only in mated dikaryotic hyphae upon sensing and infecting barley coleoptile cells. When infecting Hannchen, UhAVR1p causes local callose deposition and the production of reactive oxygen species and necrosis indicative of the immune response. UhAvr1 does not contribute significantly to overall virulence. UhAvr1 is located in a cluster of ten effectors with several paralogs and over 50% of TEs. This cluster is syntenous with clusters in closely-related U. maydis and Sporisorium reilianum. In these corn-infecting species, these clusters harbor however more and further diversified homologous effector families but very few TEs. This increased variability may have resulted from past selection pressure by resistance genes since U. maydis is not known to trigger immunity in its corn host.

  15. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  16. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Fungal Anticancer Metabolites: Synthesis Towards Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Margherita; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are a well-known and valuable source of compounds of therapeutic relevance, in particular of novel anticancer compounds. Although seldom obtainable through isolation from the natural source, the total organic synthesis still remains one of the most efficient alternatives to resupply them. Furthermore, natural product total synthesis is a valuable tool not only for discovery of new complex biologically active compounds but also for the development of innovative methodologies in enantioselective organic synthesis. We undertook an in-depth literature searching by using chemical bibliographic databases (SciFinder, Reaxys) in order to have a comprehensive insight into the wide research field. The literature has been then screened, refining the obtained results by subject terms focused on both biological activity and innovative synthetic procedures. The literature on fungal metabolites has been recently reviewed and these publications have been used as a base from which we consider the synthetic feasibility of the most promising compounds, in terms of anticancer properties and drug development. In this paper, compounds are classified according to their chemical structure. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of fungal metabolites, highlighting the role of total synthesis outlining the feasibility of innovative synthetic procedures that facilitate the development of fungal metabolites into drugs that may become a real future perspective. To our knowledge, this review is the first effort to deal with the total synthesis of these active fungi metabolites and demonstrates that total chemical synthesis is a fruitful means of yielding fungal derivatives as aided by recent technological and innovative advancements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  19. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to describe species or note interesting observations regarding fungi. This first paper includes 18 new combinations, 13 new species, three new genera and one new family. All taxa are ascomycetes, excep...

  20. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  1. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  2. Use of an Artificial Neural Network to Construct a Model of Predicting Deep Fungal Infection in Lung Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Chen, Jie; Ding, Hong-Yan; Pan, Qin-Shi; Hong, Wan-Dong; Xu, Gang; Yu, Fang-You; Wang, Yu-Min

    2015-01-01

    The statistical methods to analyze and predict the related dangerous factors of deep fungal infection in lung cancer patients were several, such as logic regression analysis, meta-analysis, multivariate Cox proportional hazards model analysis, retrospective analysis, and so on, but the results are inconsistent. A total of 696 patients with lung cancer were enrolled. The factors were compared employing Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test or the Chi-square test and variables that were significantly related to the presence of deep fungal infection selected as candidates for input into the final artificial neural network analysis (ANN) model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the performance of the artificial neural network (ANN) model and logistic regression (LR) model. The prevalence of deep fungal infection from lung cancer in this entire study population was 32.04%(223/696), deep fungal infections occur in sputum specimens 44.05% (200/454). The ratio of candida albicans was 86.99% (194/223) in the total fungi. It was demonstrated that older (≥65 years), use of antibiotics, low serum albumin concentrations (≤37.18 g /L), radiotherapy, surgery, low hemoglobin hyperlipidemia (≤93.67 g /L), long time of hospitalization (≥14 days) were apt to deep fungal infection and the ANN model consisted of the seven factors. The AUC of ANN model (0.829±0.019) was higher than that of LR model (0.756±0.021). The artificial neural network model with variables consisting of age, use of antibiotics, serum albumin concentrations, received radiotherapy, received surgery, hemoglobin, time of hospitalization should be useful for predicting the deep fungal infection in lung cancer.

  3. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  4. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  5. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  6. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  7. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  8. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Intraspecies Competition in Serratia marcescens Is Mediated by Type VI-Secreted Rhs Effectors and a Conserved Effector-Associated Accessory Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcoforado Diniz, Juliana; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2015-07-01

    The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria and can deliver toxic effector proteins into eukaryotic cells or competitor bacteria. Antibacterial T6SSs are increasingly recognized as key mediators of interbacterial competition and may contribute to the outcome of many polymicrobial infections. Multiple antibacterial effectors can be delivered by these systems, with diverse activities against target cells and distinct modes of secretion. Polymorphic toxins containing Rhs repeat domains represent a recently identified and as-yet poorly characterized class of T6SS-dependent effectors. Previous work had revealed that the potent antibacterial T6SS of the opportunistic pathogen Serratia marcescens promotes intraspecies as well as interspecies competition (S. L. Murdoch, K. Trunk, G. English, M. J. Fritsch, E. Pourkarimi, and S. J. Coulthurst, J Bacteriol 193:6057-6069, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.05671-11). In this study, two new Rhs family antibacterial effectors delivered by this T6SS have been identified. One of these was shown to act as a DNase toxin, while the other contains a novel, cytoplasmic-acting toxin domain. Importantly, using S. marcescens, it has been demonstrated for the first time that Rhs proteins, rather than other T6SS-secreted effectors, can be the primary determinant of intraspecies competition. Furthermore, a new family of accessory proteins associated with T6SS effectors has been identified, exemplified by S. marcescens EagR1, which is specifically required for deployment of its associated Rhs effector. Together, these findings provide new insight into how bacteria can use the T6SS to deploy Rhs-family effectors and mediate different types of interbacterial interactions. Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens represent a continuing threat to health and economic prosperity. To counter this threat, we must understand how such organisms survive and prosper. The type VI secretion system is a weapon that

  10. Abscisic Acid as Pathogen Effector and Immune Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Laurens; Pollier, Jacob; Goossens, Alain; Beyaert, Rudi; Staal, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a sesquiterpene signaling molecule produced in all kingdoms of life. To date, the best known functions of ABA are derived from its role as a major phytohormone in plant abiotic stress resistance. Different organisms have developed different biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways related to ABA. Despite this, there are also intriguing common themes where ABA often suppresses host immune responses and is utilized by pathogens as an effector molecule. ABA also seems to play an important role in compatible mutualistic interactions such as mycorrhiza and rhizosphere bacteria with plants, and possibly also the animal gut microbiome. The frequent use of ABA in inter-species communication could be a possible reason for the wide distribution and re-invention of ABA as a signaling molecule in different organisms. In humans and animal models, it has been shown that ABA treatment or nutrient-derived ABA is beneficial in inflammatory diseases like colitis and type 2 diabetes, which confer potential to ABA as an interesting nutraceutical or pharmacognostic drug. The anti-inflammatory activity, cellular metabolic reprogramming, and other beneficial physiological and psychological effects of ABA treatment in humans and animal models has sparked an interest in this molecule and its signaling pathway as a novel pharmacological target. In contrast to plants, however, very little is known about the ABA biosynthesis and signaling in other organisms. Genes, tools and knowledge about ABA from plant sciences and studies of phytopathogenic fungi might benefit biomedical studies on the physiological role of endogenously generated ABA in humans. PMID:28469630

  11. Multiplexed Quantitation of Intraphagocyte Mycobacterium tuberculosis Secreted Protein Effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Sayes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The pathogenic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis largely depends on ESX secretion systems exporting members of the multigenic Esx, Esp, and PE/PPE protein families. To study the secretion and regulation patterns of these proteins while circumventing immune cross-reactions due to their extensive sequence homologies, we developed an approach that relies on the recognition of their MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell receptors (TCRs of a panel of T cell hybridomas. The latter were engineered so that each expresses a unique fluorescent reporter linked to specific antigen recognition. The resulting polychromatic and multiplexed imaging assay enabled us to measure the secretion of mycobacterial effectors inside infected host cells. We applied this novel technology to a large panel of mutants, clinical isolates, and host-cell types to explore the host-mycobacteria interplay and its impact on the intracellular bacterial secretome, which also revealed the unexpected capacity of phagocytes from lung granuloma to present mycobacterial antigens via MHC class II. : Sayes et al. develop an approach to express distinct fluorescent reporters that is based on the recognition of specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis MHC class II epitopes by highly discriminative T cell hybridomas. This multiplexed technology allows the study of secretion, subcellular location, and regulation patterns of these instrumental protein members. Keywords: mycobacterium tuberculosis, type VII secretion systems, intracellular bacteria, T-cell hybridomas, mycobacterial virulence factors, bacterial antigen presentation, lentiviral vectors, reporter T cells, in vivo antigen presentation, protein localization

  12. Effector Regulatory T Cell Differentiation and Immune Homeostasis Depend on the Transcription Factor Myb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Sheila; D'Amico, Angela; Cretney, Erika; Liao, Yang; Tellier, Julie; Bruggeman, Christine; Almeida, Francisca F; Leahy, Jamie; Belz, Gabrielle T; Smyth, Gordon K; Shi, Wei; Nutt, Stephen L

    2017-01-17

    FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells. The combination of transcriptome and genomic footprint analyses revealed that Myb directly regulated a large proportion of the gene expression specific to effector Treg cells, identifying Myb as a critical component of the gene regulatory network controlling effector Treg cell differentiation and function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Controlling transcription in human pluripotent stem cells using CRISPR-effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genga, Ryan M; Kearns, Nicola A; Maehr, René

    2016-05-15

    The ability to manipulate transcription in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is fundamental for the discovery of key genes and mechanisms governing cellular state and differentiation. Recently developed CRISPR-effector systems provide a systematic approach to rapidly test gene function in mammalian cells, including hPSCs. In this review, we discuss recent advances in CRISPR-effector technologies that have been employed to control transcription through gene activation, gene repression, and epigenome engineering. We describe an application of CRISPR-effector mediated transcriptional regulation in hPSCs by targeting a synthetic promoter driving a GFP transgene, demonstrating the ease and effectiveness of CRISPR-effector mediated transcriptional regulation in hPSCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Pan, Xiaojing; Mahfouz, Magdy M.; Wang, Jiawei; Zhu, Jiankang; Shi, Yi Gong; Yan, Nieng

    2012-01-01

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair

  15. Comparative genomics allowed the identification of drug targets against human fungal pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Natalia F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of invasive fungal infections (IFIs has increased steadily worldwide in the last few decades. Particularly, there has been a global rise in the number of infections among immunosuppressed people. These patients present severe clinical forms of the infections, which are commonly fatal, and they are more susceptible to opportunistic fungal infections than non-immunocompromised people. IFIs have historically been associated with high morbidity and mortality, partly because of the limitations of available antifungal therapies, including side effects, toxicities, drug interactions and antifungal resistance. Thus, the search for alternative therapies and/or the development of more specific drugs is a challenge that needs to be met. Genomics has created new ways of examining genes, which open new strategies for drug development and control of human diseases. Results In silico analyses and manual mining selected initially 57 potential drug targets, based on 55 genes experimentally confirmed as essential for Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus and other 2 genes (kre2 and erg6 relevant for fungal survival within the host. Orthologs for those 57 potential targets were also identified in eight human fungal pathogens (C. albicans, A. fumigatus, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Paracoccidioides lutzii, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum. Of those, 10 genes were present in all pathogenic fungi analyzed and absent in the human genome. We focused on four candidates: trr1 that encodes for thioredoxin reductase, rim8 that encodes for a protein involved in the proteolytic activation of a transcriptional factor in response to alkaline pH, kre2 that encodes for α-1,2-mannosyltransferase and erg6 that encodes for Δ(24-sterol C-methyltransferase. Conclusions Our data show that the comparative genomics analysis of eight fungal pathogens enabled the identification of

  16. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  17. The Role of CD39 in Modulating Effector Immune Responses in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with excessive inflammation of the bowel and intestinal tissues in genetically susceptible individuals. IBD can manifest in two major forms, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. T helper type 17 cells (Th17) are effector lymphocytes that have been linked to intestinal inflammation in both mice and humans. Effector Th17 cells and regulatory T cells (Treg) – a subset pivotal to immune-tolerance maintenance – derive from the same CD4 progenitors. Our i...

  18. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, I; Metry, A M; Al Ismaili, F; Hola, A; Al Riyami, M; Khamis, F; Al-Abri, S

    2018-04-01

    Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8%) had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans), followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no Candida spp being isolated. A high index of suspicion might

  19. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  20. Human memory CD8 T cell effector potential is epigenetically preserved during in vivo homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsamed, Hossam A; Moustaki, Ardiana; Fan, Yiping; Dogra, Pranay; Ghoneim, Hazem E; Zebley, Caitlin C; Triplett, Brandon M; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Youngblood, Ben

    2017-06-05

    Antigen-independent homeostasis of memory CD8 T cells is vital for sustaining long-lived T cell-mediated immunity. In this study, we report that maintenance of human memory CD8 T cell effector potential during in vitro and in vivo homeostatic proliferation is coupled to preservation of acquired DNA methylation programs. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of primary human naive, short-lived effector memory (T EM ), and longer-lived central memory (T CM ) and stem cell memory (T SCM ) CD8 T cells identified effector molecules with demethylated promoters and poised for expression. Effector-loci demethylation was heritably preserved during IL-7- and IL-15-mediated in vitro cell proliferation. Conversely, cytokine-driven proliferation of T CM and T SCM memory cells resulted in phenotypic conversion into T EM cells and was coupled to increased methylation of the CCR7 and Tcf7 loci. Furthermore, haploidentical donor memory CD8 T cells undergoing in vivo proliferation in lymphodepleted recipients also maintained their effector-associated demethylated status but acquired T EM -associated programs. These data demonstrate that effector-associated epigenetic programs are preserved during cytokine-driven subset interconversion of human memory CD8 T cells. © 2017 Abdelsamed et al.

  1. New clues in the nucleus: Transcriptional reprogramming in effector-triggered immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIKAT eBHATTACHARJEE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The robustness of plant effector-triggered immunity is correlated with massive alterations of the host transcriptome. Yet the molecular mechanisms that cause and underlie this reprogramming remain obscure. Here we will review recent advances in deciphering nuclear functions of plant immune receptors and of associated proteins. Important open questions remain, such as the identities of the primary transcription factors involved in control of effector-triggered immune responses, and indeed whether this can be generalized or whether particular effector-resistance protein interactions impinge on distinct sectors in the transcriptional response web. Multiple lines of evidence have implicated WRKY transcription factors at the core of responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns and in intersections with effector-triggered immunity. Recent findings from yeast two-hybrid studies suggest that members of the TCP transcription factor family are targets of several effectors from diverse pathogens. Additional transcription factor families that are directly or indirectly involved in effector-triggered immunity are likely to be identified.

  2. SPRYSEC effectors: a versatile protein-binding platform to disrupt plant innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Diaz-Granados

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Persistent infections by sedentary plant-parasitic nematodes are a major threat to important food crops all over the world. These round worms manipulate host plant cell morphology and physiology to establish sophisticated feeding structures. Key modifications to plant cells during their transition into feeding structures are largely attributed to the activity of effectors secreted by the nematodes. The SPRYSEC effectors were initially identified in the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, and are characterized by a single SPRY domain, a non-catalytic domain present in modular proteins with different functions. The SPRY domain is wide-spread among eukaryotes and thought to be involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Thus far, the SPRY domain is only reported as a functional domain in effectors of plant-parasitic nematodes, but not of other plant pathogens. SPRYSEC effectors have been implicated in both suppression and activation of plant immunity, but other possible roles in nematode virulence remain undefined. Here, we review the latest reports on the structure, function, and sequence diversity of SPRYSEC effectors, which provide support for a model featuring these effectors as a versatile protein-binding platform for the nematodes to target a wide range of host proteins during parasitism.

  3. Effector gene birth in plant parasitic nematodes: Neofunctionalization of a housekeeping glutathione synthetase gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Catherine J.; Maqbool, Abbas; Wu, Duqing; Yusup, Hazijah B.; Jones, Laura M.; Birch, Paul R. J.; Urwin, Peter E.

    2018-01-01

    Plant pathogens and parasites are a major threat to global food security. Plant parasitism has arisen four times independently within the phylum Nematoda, resulting in at least one parasite of every major food crop in the world. Some species within the most economically important order (Tylenchida) secrete proteins termed effectors into their host during infection to re-programme host development and immunity. The precise detail of how nematodes evolve new effectors is not clear. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of a novel effector gene family. We show that during the evolution of plant parasitism in the Tylenchida, the housekeeping glutathione synthetase (GS) gene was extensively replicated. New GS paralogues acquired multiple dorsal gland promoter elements, altered spatial expression to the secretory dorsal gland, altered temporal expression to primarily parasitic stages, and gained a signal peptide for secretion. The gene products are delivered into the host plant cell during infection, giving rise to “GS-like effectors”. Remarkably, by solving the structure of GS-like effectors we show that during this process they have also diversified in biochemical activity, and likely represent the founding members of a novel class of GS-like enzyme. Our results demonstrate the re-purposing of an endogenous housekeeping gene to form a family of effectors with modified functions. We anticipate that our discovery will be a blueprint to understand the evolution of other plant-parasitic nematode effectors, and the foundation to uncover a novel enzymatic function. PMID:29641602

  4. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10 9 GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  5. Alternative dark matter candidates. Axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringwald, Andreas

    2017-01-15

    The axion is arguably one of the best motivated candidates for dark matter. For a decay constant >or similar 10{sup 9} GeV, axions are dominantly produced non-thermally in the early universe and hence are ''cold'', their velocity dispersion being small enough to fit to large scale structure. Moreover, such a large decay constant ensures the stability at cosmological time scales and its behaviour as a collisionless fluid at cosmological length scales. Here, we review the state of the art of axion dark matter predictions and of experimental efforts to search for axion dark matter in laboratory experiments.

  6. The fungal quorum-sensing molecule farnesol activates innate immune cells but suppresses cellular adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-03-17

    Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule which controls morphological plasticity of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. As such, it is a major mediator of intraspecies communication. Here, we investigated the impact of farnesol on human innate immune cells known to be

  7. DEEP--a tool for differential expression effector prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jost; Haubrock, Martin; Dönitz, Jürgen; Wingender, Edgar; Crass, Torsten

    2007-07-01

    --differentially expressed or not--may play pivotal roles in the tissues or conditions under examination. The described method has been implemented in Java as a client/server application and a web interface called DEEP (Differential Expression Effector Prediction). The client, which features an easy-to-use graphical interface, can freely be downloaded from the following URL: http://deep.bioinf.med.uni-goettingen.de.

  8. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  9. Integrin αβ1, αvβ, α6β effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansing, Hope A.; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Berrier, Allison L.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Proteomics of clustered integrin αβ1, α v β, α 6 β receptors in oral carcinoma. → p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. → p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin αβ1, α v β or α 6 β receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  10. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansing, Hope A. [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R. [Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berrier, Allison L., E-mail: allison.berrier@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  11. 11 CFR 100.154 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.154 Section 100.154 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Expenditures § 100.154 Candidate debates. Funds used to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates in...

  12. 11 CFR 100.92 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candidate debates. 100.92 Section 100.92 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS (2 U.S.C. 431) Exceptions to Contributions § 100.92 Candidate debates. Funds provided to defray costs incurred in staging candidate debates...

  13. New players in the same old game: a system level in silico study to predict type III secretion system and effector proteins in bacterial genomes reveals common themes in T3SS mediated pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadarangani, Vineet; Datta, Sunando; Arunachalam, Manonmani

    2013-07-26

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) plays an important role in virulence or symbiosis of many pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria [CHM 2:291-294, 2007; Physiology (Bethesda) 20:326-339, 2005]. T3SS acts like a tunnel between a bacterium and its host through which the bacterium injects 'effector' proteins into the latter [Nature 444:567-573, 2006; COSB 18:258-266, 2008]. The effectors spatially and temporally modify the host signalling pathways [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe5:571-579, 2009]. In spite its crucial role in host-pathogen interaction, the study of T3SS and the associated effectors has been limited to a few bacteria [Cell Microbiol 13:1858-1869, 2011; Nat Rev Microbiol 6:11-16, 2008; Mol Microbiol 80:1420-1438, 2011]. Before one set out to perform systematic experimental studies on an unknown set of bacteria it would be beneficial to identify the potential candidates by developing an in silico screening algorithm. A system level study would also be advantageous over traditional laboratory methods to extract an overriding theme for host-pathogen interaction, if any, from the vast resources of data generated by sequencing multiple bacterial genomes. We have developed an in silico protocol in which the most conserved set of T3SS proteins was used as the query against the entire bacterial database with increasingly stringent search parameters. It enabled us to identify several uncharacterized T3SS positive bacteria. We adopted a similar strategy to predict the presence of the already known effectors in the newly identified T3SS positive bacteria. The huge resources of biochemical data [FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:1100-1125, 2011; Cell Host Microbe 5:571-579, 2009; BMC Bioinformatics 7(11):S4, 2010] on the T3SS effectors enabled us to search for the common theme in T3SS mediated pathogenesis. We identified few cellular signalling networks in the host, which are manipulated by most of the T3SS containing pathogens. We went on to look for

  14. Modular Study of the Type III Effector Repertoire in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Reveals a Matrix of Effector Interplay in Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lei Wei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 suppresses the two-tiered innate immune system of Nicotiana benthamiana and other plants by injecting a complex repertoire of type III secretion effector (T3E proteins. Effectorless polymutant DC3000D36E was used with a modularized system for native delivery of the 29 DC3000 T3Es singly and in pairs. Assays of the performance of this T3E library in N. benthamiana leaves revealed a matrix of T3E interplay, with six T3Es eliciting death and eight others variously suppressing the death activity of the six. The T3E library was also interrogated for effects on DC3000D36E elicitation of a reactive oxygen species burst, for growth in planta, and for T3Es that reversed these effects. Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens heterologous delivery systems yielded notably different sets of death-T3Es. The DC3000D36E T3E library system highlights the importance of 13 T3Es and their interplay in interactions with N. benthamiana. : Wei et al. used a Pseudomonas syringae strain lacking all known type III effectors with a modularized library expressing the 29 active effectors in the strain’s native repertoire, individually and in pairs, to comprehensively determine effector actions and interplay in inducing and suppressing responses associated with plant pathogenesis and immunity. Keywords: effector-triggered-immunity, pattern-triggered-immunity, Hop proteins, plant immunity, mini-Tn7

  15. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R.; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R.; Hu, Yinling

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell–driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to developing chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop phenotypes reminiscent of APECED, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the potential link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or depletion of autoreactive CD4 T cells rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or EGFR activity decreases fungal burden. Importantly, fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. PMID:28407484

  16. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week....... extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum. and S. cf. lycopersici were...

  17. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  19. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  20. Complications of hematopoietic stem transplantation: Fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Almaghrabi, Reem S

    2017-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients. The improved diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers such as galactomannan and β-D-glucan, as well as polymerase chain reaction assays has allowed the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy strategies for high risk patients. Diagnostic-driven approaches have resulted in reduced unnecessary antifungal exposure, improved diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, and reduced costs without increased risk of mortality. The appropriateness of diagnostic-driven antifungal strategy for individual HSCT centers depends on the availability and turnaround times for diagnostics, multidisciplinary expertise, and the local epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Echinocandins are the treatment of choice for invasive candidiasis in most HSCT recipients. Fluconazole may be used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in hemodynamically stable patients with no prior azole exposure. The primary treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis is voriconazole. Alternatives include isavuconazole and lipid formulations of amphotericin. Currently available evidence does not support routine primary combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. However, combination salvage antifungal therapy may be considered in selected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for the majority of HSCT recipients on itraconazole, posaconazole, or voriconazole. Copyright © 2017

  1. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  2. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-17

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  3. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  4. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  5. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Crowell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature.

  6. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  7. Chronic candidal osteomyelitis of mid face: A therapeutic dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, Rishi; Sharma, Parveen; Gupta, Prachi; Gaba, Shivani

    2013-01-01

    Numerous explanations have been proposed for the increase in fungal infections including the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, antineoplastic agents and prosthetic devices. Also increase in proportion of immunocompromised population predisposed to fungal infection might be a contributory factor.

  8. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita Júnior, D. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cruvinel, W.M. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Biomedicina, Universidade Católica de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Araujo, J.A.P. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G. [Disciplina de Imunologia Clínica e Alergia, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, L.E.C. [Disciplina de Reumatologia, Departamento de Medicina, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-22

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25{sup +/high}CD127{sup Ø/low}FoxP3{sup +}, and effector T cells were defined as CD25{sup +}CD127{sup +}FoxP3{sup Ø}. The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4{sup +}TREG and CD28{sup +}TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L{sup +}TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR{sup +}, HLA-DR{sup +}, OX40{sup +}, and CD45RO{sup +} cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L{sup +} cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L{sup +}TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease.

  9. Imbalanced expression of functional surface molecules in regulatory and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita Júnior, D.; Cruvinel, W.M.; Araujo, J.A.P.; Salmazi, K.C.; Kallas, E.G.; Andrade, L.E.C.

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory T (TREG) cells play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance and avoiding autoimmunity. We analyzed the expression of membrane molecules in TREG and effector T cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). TREG and effector T cells were analyzed for the expression of CTLA-4, PD1, CD28, CD95, GITR, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO in 26 patients with active disease, 31 with inactive disease, and 26 healthy controls. TREG cells were defined as CD25 +/high CD127 Ø/low FoxP3 + , and effector T cells were defined as CD25 + CD127 + FoxP3 Ø . The ratio of TREG to effector T cells expressing GITR, PD1, HLA-DR, OX40, CD40L, and CD45RO was determined in the three groups. The frequency of TREG cells was similar in patients with SLE and controls. However, SLE patients had a decreased frequency of CTLA-4 + TREG and CD28 + TREG cells and an increased frequency of CD40L + TREG cells. There was a decrease in the TREG/effector-T ratio for GITR + , HLA-DR + , OX40 + , and CD45RO + cells, and an increased ratio of TREG/effector-T CD40L + cells in patients with SLE. In addition, CD40L + TREG cell frequency correlated with the SLE disease activity index (P=0.0163). In conclusion, our findings showed several abnormalities in the expression of functionally critical surface molecules in TREG and effector T cells in SLE that may be relevant to the pathogenesis of this disease

  10. [Obesity studies in candidate genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, María del Carmen; Martí, Amelia; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2004-04-17

    There are more than 430 chromosomic regions with gene variants involved in body weight regulation and obesity development. Polymorphisms in genes related to energy expenditure--uncoupling proteins (UCPs), related to adipogenesis and insulin resistance--hormone-sensitive lipase (HLS), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma), beta adrenergic receptors (ADRB2,3), and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), and related to food intake--ghrelin (GHRL)--appear to be associated with obesity phenotypes. Obesity risk depends on two factors: a) genetic variants in candidate genes, and b) biographical exposure to environmental risk factors. It is necessary to perform new studies, with appropriate control groups and designs, in order to reach relevant conclusions with regard to gene/environmental (diet, lifestyle) interactions.

  11. Calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids as promising effectors of biochemical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Komisarenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This interdisciplinary study, performed with participation of research workers of Palladin Institute of Biochemistry and Institute of Organic Chemist­ry of NAS of Ukraine, is devoted to analysis of biochemical effects of some calixarene methylene bisphosphonic acids (cyclic phenol oligomers on two well-known biological phenomenons – Mg2+-dependent ATP hydrolysis (myosin subfragment-1 of myometrium smooth muscle was used as an example and fibrin polymerization. Calix[4]arene С-97 (calix[4]arene methylene bisphosphonic acids is a macrocyclic substance, which contains intramolecular highly ordered lipophilic cavity formed by four aromatic rings, one of which is functionalized at the upper rim with methylene bisphosphonic group. At concentration of 100 µM, this substance was shown to effectively inhibit ATPase activity of pig myometrium myosin subfragment-1 (inhibition coefficient І0.5 = 83 ± 7 µM. At the same time, this calix[4]arene causes significant (vs. control increase of myosin subfragment-1 hydrodynamic diameter, which may indicate formation of an intermolecular complex between calixa­rene and myosin head. Computer simulation methods (docking and molecular dynamics with addition of grid technologies enabled to elucidate the grounds of intermolecular interactions between calix[4]arene С-97 and myometrium myosin subfragment-1, that involve hydrophobic, electrostatic and π-π-stacking interactions, some of which are close to the ATPase active centre. In view of the ability of calixarenes to penetrate into the cell and their low toxicity, the results obtained may be used as a basis for further development of a new generation of supramolecular effectors (starting from the above mentioned substances, in particular calix[4]arene С-97 for regulation of smooth muscle contractile activity at the level of ATP dependent actin-myosin interaction. Calix[4]arenes bearing two or four methylenebisphosphonic acid groups at the macrocyclic upper

  12. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  14. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  15. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Terbinafine-loaded wound dressing for chronic superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskiabi, Farnoush Asghari; Bonakdar, Shahin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Imani, Mohammad; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    In spite of developing new drugs and modern formulations, the treatments of chronic fungal infections are still challenging. Fibrous wound dressings are new suggestions for the treatment of chronic superficial infections. In the present study, we formulated an antifungal agent, terbinafine hydrochloride (TFH), which is a hydrophobic drug, in wound dressings prepared by electrospun polycaprolactone, polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50 w/w) and gelatin. To obtain more water-stable meshes, the preparations were treated by glutaraldehyde and their properties were determined before and after treatment. The morphology of fibrous meshes was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Drug loading efficiency and release rate were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the release rate was monitored for 144h. Antifungal tests were performed on Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans cultured on Muller-Hinton agar. The toxicity of the meshes was measured after 24h and 14days by MTT assay. Terbinafine loading of polycaprolactone/gelatin (50:50) was 100% and it released the highest amount of TFH too. In antifungal tests, all samples were able to hinderT. mentagrophytes and A. fumigatus but not C. albicans growth among them, polycaprolactone fibers made the largest inhibition zone. In MTT assay, none of prepared samples showed toxicity against L929 cells. Teken together, the prepared TFH-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun meshes were able to release TFH slowly and in a steady state in time. With respect to no obvious cytotoxicity in MTT assay and stong antifungal activity toward T. mentagrophytesin vitro, these TFH-based meshes could be considered as potential candidates in clinical application as wound dressing for treatment of chronic dermatophytosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation by modulating IL-2 homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Alice; Hill, Geoffrey R.; Sparwasser, Tim; Thomas, Ranjeny; Steptoe, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) play a crucial role in the regulation of immune responses. Although many mechanisms of Treg suppression in vitro have been described, the mechanisms by which Treg modulate CD8+ T cell differentiation and effector function in vivo are more poorly defined. It has been proposed, in many instances, that modulation of cytokine homeostasis could be an important mechanism by which Treg regulate adaptive immunity; however, direct experimental evidence is sparse. Here we demonstrate that CD4+CD25+ Treg, by critically regulating IL-2 homeostasis, modulate CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation. Expansion and effector differentiation of CD8+ T cells is promoted by autocrine IL-2 but, by competing for IL-2, Treg limit CD8+ effector differentiation. Furthermore, a regulatory loop exists between Treg and CD8+ effector T cells, where IL-2 produced during CD8+ T-cell effector differentiation promotes Treg expansion. PMID:21502514

  18. CXCR3 Directs Antigen-Specific Effector CD4+ T Cell Migration to the Lung During Parainfluenza Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Jacob E; Cookenham, Tres; Miller, Shannon C

    2009-01-01

    effector CD4(+) T cell migration to the lungs. To assess the role of CCR5 and CXCR3 in vivo, we directly compared the migration of Ag-specific wild-type and chemokine receptor-deficient effector T cells in mixed bone marrow chimeric mice during a parainfluenza virus infection. CXCR3-deficient effector CD4......(+) T cells were 5- to 10-fold less efficient at migrating to the lung compared with wild-type cells, whereas CCR5-deficient effector T cells were not impaired in their migration to the lung. In contrast to its role in trafficking, CXCR3 had no impact on effector CD4(+) T cell proliferation, phenotype......, or function in any of the tissues examined. These findings demonstrate that CXCR3 controls virus-specific effector CD4(+) T cell migration in vivo, and suggest that blocking CXCR3-mediated recruitment may limit T cell-induced immunopathology during respiratory virus infections....

  19. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eNeumann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6, thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  20. GTP- and GDP-Dependent Rab27a Effectors in Pancreatic Beta-Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2015-01-01

    Small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) participate in a wide variety of cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, and intracellular transport. Conventionally, only the guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP)-bound small GTPase interacts with effector proteins, and the resulting downstream signals control specific cellular functions. Therefore, the GTP-bound form is regarded as active, and the focus has been on searching for proteins that bind the GTP form to look for their effectors. The Rab family small GTPase Rab27a is highly expressed in some secretory cells and is involved in the control of membrane traffic. The present study reviews recent progress in our understanding of the roles of Rab27a and its effectors in pancreatic beta-cells. In the basal state, GTP-bound Rab27a controls insulin secretion at pre-exocytic stages via its GTP-dependent effectors. We previously identified novel guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab27-interacting proteins. Interestingly, GDP-bound Rab27a controls endocytosis of the secretory membrane via its interaction with these proteins. We also demonstrated that the insulin secretagogue glucose converts Rab27a from its GTP- to GDP-bound forms. Thus, GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate pre-exocytic and endocytic stages in membrane traffic, respectively. Since the physiological importance of GDP-bound GTPases has been largely overlooked, we consider that the investigation of GDP-dependent effectors for other GTPases is necessary for further understanding of cellular function.

  1. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur eGawehns

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem proteins. Of these, Six1 (Avr3, Six3 (Avr2, Six5 and Six6 are required for full virulence, denoting them as effectors. To investigate their activities in the plant, the xylem sap proteome of plants inoculated with Fol wild-type or either AVR2, AVR3, SIX2, SIX5 or SIX6 knockout strains was analyzed with nano-Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (nLC-MSMS. Compared to mock-inoculated sap 12 additional plant proteins appeared while 45 proteins were no longer detectable in the xylem sap of Fol-infected plants. Of the 285 proteins found in both uninfected and infected plants the abundance of 258 proteins changed significantly following infection. The xylem sap proteome of plants infected with four Fol effector knockout strains differed significantly from plants infected with wild-type Fol, while that of the SIX2-knockout inoculated plants remained unchanged. Besides an altered abundance of a core set of 24 differentially accumulated proteins (DAPs, each of the four effector knockout strains affected specifically the abundance of a subset of DAPs. Hence, Fol effectors have both unique and shared effects on the composition of the tomato xylem sap proteome.

  2. The Salmonella effector protein SpvC, a phosphothreonine lyase is functional in plant cells

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Christina

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella is one of the most prominent causes of food poisoning and growing evidence indicates that contaminated fruits and vegetables are an increasing concern for human health. Successful infection demands the suppression of the host immune system, which is often achieved via injection of bacterial effector proteins into host cells. In this report we present the function of Salmonella effector protein in plant cell, supporting the new concept of trans-kingdom competence of this bacterium. We screened a range of Salmonella Typhimurium effector proteins for interference with plant immunity. Among these, the phosphothreonine lyase SpvC attenuated the induction of immunity-related genes when present in plant cells. Using in vitro and in vivo systems we show that this effector protein interacts with and dephosphorylates activated Arabidopsis Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6), thereby inhibiting defense signaling. Moreover, the requirement of Salmonella SpvC was shown by the decreased proliferation of the ΔspvC mutant in Arabidopsis plants. These results suggest that some Salmonella effector proteins could have a conserved function during proliferation in different hosts. The fact that Salmonella and other Enterobacteriaceae use plants as hosts strongly suggests that plants represent a much larger reservoir for animal pathogens than so far estimated.

  3. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  4. Autoreactive T effector memory differentiation mirrors β-cell function in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Lorraine; Woodwyk, Alyssa; Sood, Sanjana; Lorenc, Anna; Eichmann, Martin; Pujol-Autonell, Irma; Melchiotti, Rossella; Skowera, Ania; Fidanis, Efthymios; Dolton, Garry M; Tungatt, Katie; Sewell, Andrew K; Heck, Susanne; Saxena, Alka; Beam, Craig A; Peakman, Mark

    2018-05-31

    In type 1 diabetes, cytotoxic CD8 T cells with specificity for β-cell autoantigens are found in the pancreatic islets where they are implicated in the destruction of insulin-secreting β cells. In contrast, the disease relevance of β-cell-reactive CD8 T cells that are detectable in the circulation, and their relationship to β-cell function, are not known. Here, we tracked multiple, circulating β-cell-reactive CD8 T cell subsets and measured β-cell function longitudinally for two years, starting immediately after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. We found that change in β-cell-specific effector memory CD8 T cells expressing CD57 was positively correlated with C-peptide change in subjects below 12 years of age. Autoreactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cells bore the signature of enhanced effector function (higher expression of granzyme B, killer specific protein 37 and CD16, and reduced expression of CD28) compared with their CD57-negative counterparts, and network association modelling indicated that the dynamics of β-cell-reactive CD57+ effector memory CD8 T cell subsets were strongly linked. Thus, coordinated changes in circulating β-cell-specific CD8 T cells within the CD57+ effector memory subset calibrate to functional insulin reserve in type 1 diabetes, providing a tool for immune monitoring and a mechanism-based target for immunotherapy.

  5. Shigella IpaH family effectors as a versatile model for studying pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eAshida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis. Via the type III secretion system (T3SS, Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  6. Identification of Novel Host Interactors of Effectors Secreted by Salmonella and Citrobacter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sontag, Ryan L.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Brown, Roslyn N.; Niemann, George S.; Sydor, Michael A.; Sanchez, Octavio; Ansong, Charles; Lu, Shao-Yeh; Choi, Hyungwon; Valleau, Dylan; Weitz, Karl K.; Savchenko, Alexei; Cambronne, Eric D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2016-07-12

    Many pathogenic bacteria of the familyEnterobacteriaceaeuse type III secretion systems to inject virulence proteins, termed “effectors,” into the host cell cytosol. Although host-cellular activities of several effectors have been demonstrated, the function and host-targeted pathways of most of the effectors identified to date are largely undetermined. To gain insight into host proteins targeted by bacterial effectors, we performed coaffinity purification of host proteins from cell lysates using recombinant effectors from theEnterobacteriaceaeintracellular pathogensSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium andCitrobacter rodentium. We identified 54 high-confidence host interactors for theSalmonellaeffectors GogA, GtgA, GtgE, SpvC, SrfH, SseL, SspH1, and SssB collectively and 21 interactors for theCitrobactereffectors EspT, NleA, NleG1, and NleK. We biochemically validated the interaction between the SrfHSalmonellaprotein and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) host protein kinase, which revealed a role for this effector in regulating phosphorylation levels of this enzyme, which plays a central role in signal transduction.

    IMPORTANCEDuring infection, pathogenic bacteria face an adverse environment of factors driven by both cellular and humoral defense mechanisms. To help evade the immune response and ultimately proliferate inside the host, many bacteria evolved specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins directly into host cells. Translocated effector proteins function to subvert host defense mechanisms. Numerous pathogenic bacteria use a specialized secretion system called type III secretion to deliver effectors into the host cell cytosol. Here, we identified 75 new host targets ofSalmonellaandCitrobactereffectors, which will help elucidate their mechanisms of

  7. The Legionella pneumophila IcmSW complex interacts with multiple Dot/Icm effectors to facilitate type IV translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Cambronne

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Many gram-negative pathogens use a type IV secretion system (T4SS to deliver effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. The fidelity of protein translocation depends on the efficient recognition of effector proteins by the T4SS. Legionella pneumophila delivers a large number of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells using the Dot/Icm T4SS. How the Dot/Icm system is able to recognize and control the delivery of effectors is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the IcmS and IcmW proteins interact to form a stable complex that facilitates translocation of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that the IcmSW complex is necessary for the productive translocation of multiple Dot/Icm effector proteins. Effector proteins that were able to bind IcmSW in vitro required icmS and icmW for efficient translocation into eukaryotic cells during L. pneumophila infection. We identified regions in the effector protein SidG involved in icmSW-dependent translocation. Although the full-length SidG protein was translocated by an icmSW-dependent mechanism, deletion of amino terminal regions in the SidG protein resulted in icmSW-independent translocation, indicating that the IcmSW complex is not contributing directly to recognition of effector proteins by the Dot/Icm system. Biochemical and genetic studies showed that the IcmSW complex interacts with a central region of the SidG protein. The IcmSW interaction resulted in a conformational change in the SidG protein as determined by differences in protease sensitivity in vitro. These data suggest that IcmSW binding to effectors could enhance effector protein delivery by mediating a conformational change that facilitates T4SS recognition of a translocation domain located in the carboxyl region of the effector protein.

  8. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  9. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international

  10. Chronic invasive fungal granulomatous rhino-sinusitis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal Rhino-Sinusitis (FRS) is a relatively uncommon entity. The chronic invasive granulomatous form of FRS (FGRS) is a slowly progressive form of fungal infection characterized by chronic granulomatous process with a time course of longer than 12 weeks. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of colleagues to ...

  11. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal alpha-glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Christian Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is unique among eukaryotes and therefore it forms an ideal target for the development of novel antifungal drugs. Fungal cell morphology and integrity depend on a cell-surrounding wall, which is composed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Disrupting enzymes that are involved

  12. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  13. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nsukka area of southeastern Nigeria, garri is usually displayed in the open market for sale which no doubt exposes the food stuff to dust particles from moving vehicles, wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product.

  14. Isolation and identification of fungal species from dried date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 360 dried date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits were collected from hawkers, shops and market places within Maiduguri metropolis for the detection of the presence of fungal species. Investigation was based on cultural, microscopically and biochemical tests. Of the 327 (90.83%) fungal isolates recovered on ...

  15. Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates. ... Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology ... and 500C. The optimal pH on the enzyme production was observed to be between pH 3.5 and 5.5 for the organisms. Keywords: Soil microorganism, fungal isolate, incubation period, microbial enzyme. Nig J. Biotech.

  16. New perspectives towards analising fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a

  17. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  18. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  19. The Interface between Fungal Biofilms and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kernien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biofilms are communities of adherent cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. These biofilms are commonly found during infection caused by a variety of fungal pathogens. Clinically, biofilm infections can be extremely difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antifungals and host defenses. Biofilm formation can protect fungal pathogens from many aspects of the innate immune system, including killing by neutrophils and monocytes. Altered immune recognition during this phase of growth is also evident by changes in the cytokine profiles of monocytes and macrophages exposed to biofilm. In this manuscript, we review the host response to fungal biofilms, focusing on how these structures are recognized by the innate immune system. Biofilms formed by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus have received the most attention and are highlighted. We describe common themes involved in the resilience of fungal biofilms to host immunity and give examples of biofilm defenses that are pathogen-specific.

  20. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  1. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions......, and possibly gut microenvironment constrain the magnitude of change. This thesis also characterises the fungus comb fungal communities (mycobiotas) in fungusgrowing termites, and shows that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained...

  2. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  3. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Learning-based position control of a closed-kinematic chain robot end-effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Zhou, Zhen-Lei

    1990-01-01

    A trajectory control scheme whose design is based on learning theory, for a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) robot end-effector built to study robotic assembly of NASA hardwares in space is presented. The control scheme consists of two control systems: the feedback control system and the learning control system. The feedback control system is designed using the concept of linearization about a selected operating point, and the method of pole placement so that the closed-loop linearized system is stabilized. The learning control scheme consisting of PD-type learning controllers, provides additional inputs to improve the end-effector performance after each trial. Experimental studies performed on a 2 DOF end-effector built at CUA, for three tracking cases show that actual trajectories approach desired trajectories as the number of trials increases. The tracking errors are substantially reduced after only five trials.

  5. Subversion of the Endocytic and Secretory Pathways by Bacterial Effector Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M. Weber

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacteria have developed numerous strategies to hijack host vesicular trafficking pathways to form their unique replicative niches. To promote intracellular replication, the bacteria must interact with host organelles and modulate host signaling pathways to acquire nutrients and membrane for the growing parasitophorous vacuole all while suppressing activation of the immune response. To facilitate host cell subversion, bacterial pathogens use specialized secretion systems to deliver bacterial virulence factors, termed effectors, into the host cell that mimic, agonize, and/or antagonize the function of host proteins. In this review we will discuss how bacterial effector proteins from Coxiella burnetii, Brucella abortus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Legionella pneumophila, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Orientia tsutsugamushi manipulate the endocytic and secretory pathways. Understanding how bacterial effector proteins manipulate host processes not only gives us keen insight into bacterial pathogenesis, but also enhances our understanding of how eukaryotic membrane trafficking is regulated.

  6. Transcription Factor Networks Directing the Development, Function, and Evolution of Innate Lymphoid Effectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joonsoo; Malhotra, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian lymphoid immunity is mediated by fast and slow responders to pathogens. Fast innate lymphocytes are active within hours after infections in mucosal tissues. Slow adaptive lymphocytes are conventional T and B cells with clonal antigen receptors that function days after pathogen exposure. A transcription factor (TF) regulatory network guiding early T cell development is at the core of effector function diversification in all innate lymphocytes, and the kinetics of immune responses is set by developmental programming. Operational units within the innate lymphoid system are not classified by the types of pathogen-sensing machineries but rather by discrete effector functions programmed by regulatory TF networks. Based on the evolutionary history of TFs of the regulatory networks, fast effectors likely arose earlier in the evolution of animals to fortify body barriers, and in mammals they often develop in fetal ontogeny prior to the establishment of fully competent adaptive immunity. PMID:25650177

  7. Structural basis for sequence-specific recognition of DNA by TAL effectors

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Dong

    2012-01-05

    TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors, secreted by phytopathogenic bacteria, recognize host DNA sequences through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each repeat comprises 33 to 35 conserved amino acids and targets a specific base pair by using two hypervariable residues [known as repeat variable diresidues (RVDs)] at positions 12 and 13. Here, we report the crystal structures of an 11.5-repeat TAL effector in both DNA-free and DNA-bound states. Each TAL repeat comprises two helices connected by a short RVD-containing loop. The 11.5 repeats form a right-handed, superhelical structure that tracks along the sense strand of DNA duplex, with RVDs contacting the major groove. The 12th residue stabilizes the RVD loop, whereas the 13th residue makes a base-specific contact. Understanding DNA recognition by TAL effectors may facilitate rational design of DNA-binding proteins with biotechnological applications.

  8. Global study of holistic morphological effectors in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Godai; Wang, Yang; Kubo, Karen; Hirata, Eri; Ohnuki, Shinsuke; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2018-02-20

    The size of the phenotypic effect of a gene has been thoroughly investigated in terms of fitness and specific morphological traits in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but little is known about gross morphological abnormalities. We identified 1126 holistic morphological effectors that cause severe gross morphological abnormality when deleted, and 2241 specific morphological effectors with weak holistic effects but distinctive effects on yeast morphology. Holistic effectors fell into many gene function categories and acted as network hubs, affecting a large number of morphological traits, interacting with a large number of genes, and facilitating high protein expression. Holistic morphological abnormality was useful for estimating the importance of a gene to morphology. The contribution of gene importance to fitness and morphology could be used to efficiently classify genes into functional groups. Holistic morphological abnormality can be used as a reproducible and reliable gene feature for high-dimensional morphological phenotyping. It can be used in many functional genomic applications.

  9. Role of Rab family GTPases and their effectors in melanosomal logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2012-04-01

    Rab GTPases constitute a family of small GTPases that regulate a variety of membrane trafficking events in all eukaryotic cells by recruiting their specific effector molecules. Recent accumulating evidence indicates that members of the mammalian Rab small GTPase family are involved in certain physiological and pathological processes. In particular, functional impairments of specific Rab proteins, e.g. Rab38 and Rab27A, their regulators or their effectors cause pigmentation disorders in humans and coat colour variations in mice because such impairments cause defects in melanosomal logistics, i.e. defects in melanosome biogenesis and transport. Genetic and biochemical analyses of the gene products responsible for mammalian pigmentation disorders in the past decade have revealed that Rab-mediated endosomal transport systems and melanosome transport systems play crucial roles in the efficient darkening of mammalian hair and skin. In this article, we review current knowledge regarding melanosomal logistics, with particular focus on the roles of Rab small GTPases and their effectors.

  10. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  11. Optical properties of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adverdi; V-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rudamas, Carlos; Dreyer, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    It was already reported by B. Dreyer at al. [1] that all fungal structures, both intra- and extra-radical fluoresced under blue light excitation regardless of their state (dead or alive). The source of the so called autofluorescence appears to be localized in the fungal cell wall. This supports the use of photoluminescence for the evaluation of AM colonization. However, the interpretation of these results is still in discussion [1-4]. In this work, arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated from the rhizosphere of mango (Mangifera indica L.) plants by the method of wet sieving and decanting of Gerdemann and Nicolson [5] and studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our experimental setup consists of an epifluorescence microscope (EM) coupled to a CCD-spectrometer through an arrangement of a home-made-telescope + fiber optic. This experimental setup allows the capture of images of the mycorrhizal structures (as usual in a standard epifluorescence microscope) combined with measurements of their corresponding emission bands. The preliminary results based on images obtained by standard EM do not clearly show that the emission is originated in the fungal cell walls as reported in Ref. 1. On the other hand, a very broad emission band in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed in these spores by exciting at 450-490 nm and 300- 380 nm. We obtain a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of around 200 nm for this emission band whichis centered at 515 nm. This broad band seems to be composed of two narrower bands peaked around 494 and 547 nm and with FWHM of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The profile of the observed emission band is in good agreement with the bands reported in Ref. 1 for vesicles, arbuscules and spores measured using the λ-Scan of a confocal laser scanning microscope. However, our results for spores show that the maxima of the narrower bands are shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding bands observed in Ref. 1

  12. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  13. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  14. Effector-independent motor sequence representations exist in extrinsic and intrinsic reference frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiestler, Tobias; Waters-Metenier, Sheena; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2014-04-02

    Many daily activities rely on the ability to produce meaningful sequences of movements. Motor sequences can be learned in an effector-specific fashion (such that benefits of training are restricted to the trained hand) or an effector-independent manner (meaning that learning also facilitates performance with the untrained hand). Effector-independent knowledge can be represented in extrinsic/world-centered or in intrinsic/body-centered coordinates. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multivoxel pattern analysis to determine the distribution of intrinsic and extrinsic finger sequence representations across the human neocortex. Participants practiced four sequences with one hand for 4 d, and then performed these sequences during fMRI with both left and right hand. Between hands, these sequences were equivalent in extrinsic or intrinsic space, or were unrelated. In dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), we found that sequence-specific activity patterns correlated higher for extrinsic than for unrelated pairs, providing evidence for an extrinsic sequence representation. In contrast, primary sensory and motor cortices showed effector-independent representations in intrinsic space, with considerable overlap of the two reference frames in caudal PMd. These results suggest that effector-independent representations exist not only in world-centered, but also in body-centered coordinates, and that PMd may be involved in transforming sequential knowledge between the two. Moreover, although effector-independent sequence representations were found bilaterally, they were stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the trained hand. This indicates that intermanual transfer relies on motor memories that are laid down during training in both hemispheres, but preferentially draws upon sequential knowledge represented in the trained hemisphere.

  15. Fructose 1-phosphate is the preferred effector of the metabolic regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-03-18

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5'-TTAAACGTTTCA-3' (K(D) = 26.3 ± 3.1 nM) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a K(D) of 209 ± 20 nM. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida.

  16. Fructose 1-Phosphate Is the Preferred Effector of the Metabolic Regulator Cra of Pseudomonas putida*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarría, Max; Santiago, César; Platero, Raúl; Krell, Tino; Casasnovas, José M.; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    The catabolite repressor/activator (Cra) protein is a global sensor and regulator of carbon fluxes through the central metabolic pathways of Gram-negative bacteria. To examine the nature of the effector (or effectors) that signal such fluxes to the protein of Pseudomonas putida, the Cra factor of this soil microorganism has been purified and characterized and its three-dimensional structure determined. Analytical ultracentrifugation, gel filtration, and mobility shift assays showed that the effector-free Cra is a dimer that binds an operator DNA sequence in the promoter region of the fruBKA cluster. Furthermore, fructose 1-phosphate (F1P) was found to most efficiently dissociate the Cra-DNA complex. Thermodynamic parameters of the F1P-Cra-DNA interaction calculated by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the factor associates tightly to the DNA sequence 5′-TTAAACGTTTCA-3′ (KD = 26.3 ± 3.1 nm) and that F1P binds the protein with an apparent stoichiometry of 1.06 ± 0.06 molecules per Cra monomer and a KD of 209 ± 20 nm. Other possible effectors, like fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, did not display a significant affinity for the regulator under the assay conditions. Moreover, the structure of Cra and its co-crystal with F1P at a 2-Å resolution revealed that F1P fits optimally the geometry of the effector pocket. Our results thus single out F1P as the preferred metabolic effector of the Cra protein of P. putida. PMID:21239488

  17. A generalized quantitative antibody homeostasis model: maintenance of global antibody equilibrium by effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechl, József

    2017-11-01

    The homeostasis of antibodies can be characterized as a balanced production, target-binding and receptor-mediated elimination regulated by an interaction network, which controls B-cell development and selection. Recently, we proposed a quantitative model to describe how the concentration and affinity of interacting partners generates a network. Here we argue that this physical, quantitative approach can be extended for the interpretation of effector functions of antibodies. We define global antibody equilibrium as the zone of molar equivalence of free antibody, free antigen and immune complex concentrations and of dissociation constant of apparent affinity: [Ab]=[Ag]=[AbAg]= K D . This zone corresponds to the biologically relevant K D range of reversible interactions. We show that thermodynamic and kinetic properties of antibody-antigen interactions correlate with immunological functions. The formation of stable, long-lived immune complexes correspond to a decrease of entropy and is a prerequisite for the generation of higher-order complexes. As the energy of formation of complexes increases, we observe a gradual shift from silent clearance to inflammatory reactions. These rules can also be applied to complement activation-related immune effector processes, linking the physicochemical principles of innate and adaptive humoral responses. Affinity of the receptors mediating effector functions shows a wide range of affinities, allowing the continuous sampling of antibody-bound antigen over the complete range of concentrations. The generation of multivalent, multicomponent complexes triggers effector functions by crosslinking these receptors on effector cells with increasing enzymatic degradation potential. Thus, antibody homeostasis is a thermodynamic system with complex network properties, nested into the host organism by proper immunoregulatory and effector pathways. Maintenance of global antibody equilibrium is achieved by innate qualitative signals modulating a

  18. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  19. Design criteria for the light duty utility arm system end effectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the criteria for the design of end effectors that will be used as part of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The LDUA System consists of a deployment vehicle, a vertical positioning mast, a light duty multi-axis robotic arm, a tank riser interface and confinement, a tool interface plate, a control system, and an operations control trailer. The criteria specified in this document will apply to all end effector systems being developed for use on or with the LDUA system at the Hanford site. The requirement stipulated in this document are mandatory

  20. An effector of the Irish potato famine pathogen antagonizes a host autophagy cargo receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagdas, Yasin F; Belhaj, Khaoula; Maqbool, Abbas; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Pandey, Pooja; Petre, Benjamin; Tabassum, Nadra; Cruz-Mireles, Neftaly; Hughes, Richard K; Sklenar, Jan; Win, Joe; Menke, Frank; Findlay, Kim; Banfield, Mark J; Kamoun, Sophien; Bozkurt, Tolga O

    2016-01-01

    Plants use autophagy to safeguard against infectious diseases. However, how plant pathogens interfere with autophagy-related processes is unknown. Here, we show that PexRD54, an effector from the Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans, binds host autophagy protein ATG8CL to stimulate autophagosome formation. PexRD54 depletes the autophagy cargo receptor Joka2 out of ATG8CL complexes and interferes with Joka2's positive effect on pathogen defense. Thus, a plant pathogen effector has evolved to antagonize a host autophagy cargo receptor to counteract host defenses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10856.001 PMID:26765567

  1. The pore-forming bacterial effector, VopQ, halts autophagic turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreelatha, Anju; Orth, Kim; Starai, Vincent J

    2013-12-01

    Vibrio parahemolyticus Type III effector VopQ is both necessary and sufficient to induce autophagy within one hour of infection. We demonstrated that VopQ interacts with the Vo domain of the conserved vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Membrane-associated VopQ subsequently forms pores in the membranes of acidic compartments, resulting in immediate release of protons without concomitant release of lumenal protein contents. These studies show how a bacterial pathogen can compromise host ion potentials using a gated pore-forming effector to equilibrate levels of small molecules found in endolysosomal compartments and disrupt cellular processes such as autophagy.

  2. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  3. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  4. 2. The Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...... to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except...... where there is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated...

  5. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  6. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  8. Secondary free-flap reconstruction following ablation for acute invasive fungal sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allensworth, Jordan J; Troob, Scott H; Weaver, Tyler S; Gonzalez, Javier D; Petrisor, Daniel; Wax, Mark K

    2017-04-01

    Acute invasive fungal sinusitis (AIFS) is a frequently fatal infection for which extensive and debilitating surgical debridement is a mainstay of therapy. Resulting defects are often composite in nature, mandating free tissue-transfer reconstruction. Outcomes data for free flap reconstruction are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine surgical outcomes and survival in patients undergoing free flap transfer following invasive fungal sinusitis. Retrospective case series. Between 1995 and 2015, patients undergoing operative debridement for AIFS were identified. Surgical records were used to identify survivors of acute infection who subsequently underwent free flap reconstructive surgery. Patient demographics, cause of immune compromise, defect description, flap type, perioperative complications, indications for revision surgery, functional outcomes, and long-term survival were reviewed. Forty-four patients were treated for AIFS, of those, 30 (68%) survived acute infection. Ten patients underwent maxillectomy, six with orbital exenteration, and were designated candidates for reconstruction. Eight patients underwent reconstruction. Median time from debridement to reconstruction was 67.5 days. Flap types included latissimus dorsi, scapula, anterolateral thigh, rectus, radial forearm, and fibula. Median follow-up was 7.7 months. No perioperative complications were encountered, and all subjects remained disease-free, able to speak and eat normally without prosthetic supplementation. Seven patients (87%) are currently alive. Reconstruction of defects left by invasive fungal sinusitis using free-tissue transfer resulted in successful flap survival, with no disease recurrence for all defects and flap types reviewed. Survivors of AIFS are able to tolerate midface reconstruction, with favorable functional outcomes and survival rates. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:815-819, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornman R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the honey bee fungal pathogen, Ascosphaera apis: implications for host pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We present a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the fungus Ascosphaera apis, an economically important pathogen of the Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) that causes chalkbrood disease. Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. Results We compared A. apis transcriptome sequence from mycelia grown on liquid or solid media with that dissected from host-infected tissue. 454 pyrosequencing provided 252 Mb of filtered sequence reads from both culture types that were assembled into 10,087 contigs. Transcript contigs, protein sequences from multiple fungal species, and ab initio gene predictions were included as evidence sources in the Maker gene prediction pipeline, resulting in 6,992 consensus gene models. A phylogeny based on 12 of these protein-coding loci further supported the taxonomic placement of Ascosphaera as sister to the core Onygenales. Several common protein domains were less abundant in A. apis compared with related ascomycete genomes, particularly cytochrome p450 and protein kinase domains. A novel gene family was identified that has expanded in some ascomycete lineages, but not others. We manually annotated genes with homologs in other fungal genomes that have known relevance to fungal virulence and life history. Functional categories of interest included genes involved in mating-type specification, intracellular signal transduction, and stress response. Computational and manual annotations have been made publicly available on the Bee Pests and Pathogens website. Conclusions This comprehensive transcriptome analysis substantially enhances our understanding of the A. apis genome and its expression during infection of honey bee larvae. It also provides resources for future molecular studies of chalkbrood disease and ultimately improved disease management. PMID:22747707

  11. Comparison of Nitrogen Depletion and Repletion on Lipid Production in Yeast and Fungal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihui Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is well known that low nitrogen stimulates lipid accumulation, especially for algae and some oleaginous yeast, few studies have been conducted in fungal species, especially on the impact of different nitrogen deficiency strategies. In this study, we use two promising consolidated bioprocessing (CBP candidates to examine the impact of two nitrogen deficiency strategies on lipid production, which are the extensively investigated oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the commercial cellulase producer Trichoderma reesei. We first utilized bioinformatics approaches to reconstruct the fatty acid metabolic pathway and demonstrated the presence of a triacylglycerol (TAG biosynthesis pathway in Trichoderma reesei. We then examined the lipid production of Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces in different media using two nitrogen deficiency strategies of nitrogen natural repletion and nitrogen depletion through centrifugation. Our results demonstrated that nitrogen depletion was better than nitrogen repletion with about 30% lipid increase for Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipomyces, and could be an option to improve lipid production in both oleaginous yeast and filamentous fungal species. The resulting distinctive lipid composition profiles indicated that the impacts of nitrogen depletion on yeast were different from those for fungal species. Under three types of C/N ratio conditions, C16 and C18 fatty acids were the predominant forms of lipids for both Trichoderma reesei and Y. lipolytica. While the overall fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles of Trichoderma reesei were similar, the overall FAME profiles of Y. lipolytica observed a shift. The fatty acid metabolic pathway reconstructed in this work supports previous reports of lipid production in T. reesei, and provides a pathway for future omics studies and metabolic engineering efforts. Further investigation to identify the genetic targets responsible for the effect of nitrogen depletion on

  12. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fungal Metabolites in Mouse Intestine as Revealed by In vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schreiber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract or the colonic mucosal layer. Current therapies aiming to suppress the exaggerated immune response in IBD largely rely on compounds with non-satisfying effects or side-effects. Therefore, new therapeutical options are needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin in both an in vitro intestinal inflammation model, as well as in isolated myenteric plexus and enterocyte cells. Administration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine mix through the mesenteric artery of intestinal segments caused an up-regulation of inflammatory marker genes. Treatment of the murine intestinal segments with galiellalactone or dehydrocurvularin by application through the mesenteric artery significantly prevented the expression of pro-inflammatory marker genes on the mRNA and the protein level. Comparable to the results in the perfused intestine model, treatment of primary enteric nervous system (ENS cells from the murine intestine with the fungal compounds reduced expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and inflammatory enzymes such as COX-2 and iNOS on mRNA and protein levels. Similar anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites were observed in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 after stimulation with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml, TNF-α (10 ng/ml, and IL-1β (5 ng/ml. Our results show that the mesenterially perfused intestine model provides a reliable tool for the screening of new therapeutics with limited amounts of test compounds. Furthermore, we could characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of two novel active compounds, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin which are interesting candidates for studies with chronic animal models of IBD.

  13. Central Role of IL-23 and IL-17 Producing Eosinophils as Immunomodulatory Effector Cells in Acute Pulmonary Aspergillosis and Allergic Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Evelyn Santos; Lee, Chrono K; Specht, Charles A; Yadav, Bhawna; Huang, Haibin; Akalin, Ali; Huh, Jun R; Mueller, Christian; Levitz, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive pulmonary disease in immunocompromised hosts and allergic asthma in atopic individuals. We studied the contribution of lung eosinophils to these fungal diseases. By in vivo intracellular cytokine staining and confocal microscopy, we observed that eosinophils act as local sources of IL-23 and IL-17. Remarkably, mice lacking eosinophils had a >95% reduction in the percentage of lung IL-23p19+ cells as well as markedly reduced IL-23 heterodimer in lung lavage fluid. Eosinophils killed A. fumigatus conidia in vivo. Eosinopenic mice had higher mortality rates, decreased recruitment of inflammatory monocytes, and decreased expansion of lung macrophages after challenge with conidia. All of these functions underscore a potential protective role for eosinophils in acute aspergillosis. Given the postulated role for IL-17 in asthma pathogenesis, we assessed whether eosinophils could act as sources of IL-23 and IL-17 in models where mice were sensitized to either A. fumigatus antigens or ovalbumin (OVA). We found IL-23p19+ IL-17AF+ eosinophils in both allergic models. Moreover, close to 95% of IL-23p19+ cells and >90% of IL-17AF+ cells were identified as eosinophils. These data establish a new paradigm in acute and allergic aspergillosis whereby eosinophils act not only as effector cells but also as immunomodulatory cells driving the IL-23/IL-17 axis and contributing to inflammatory cell recruitment.

  14. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Isha; Moger, Ganapathi; Kumar, N Anil

    2015-01-01

    Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated water and topical clotrimazole in reducing the Candidal species colony-forming unit (CFU) count in oral candidiasis. The study included 40 candidiasis patients of either sex aged between 18 and 60 years attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. The patients were randomly assigned to either topical ozone therapy or topical clotrimazole groups. Salivary Candidal CFU counts were assessed during and after the treatments. There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction) was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction). 14 patients (70%) with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30%) whereas only 8 patients (40%) out of 13 (65%) in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  15. Phytoremediation of Alberta oil sand tailings using native plants and fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, T.; Germida, J.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2012-04-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize host plants without causing disease. Some endophytes confer plant tolerance to harsh environments. One such endophyte, Trichoderma harzianum strain TSTh20-1, was isolated from a plant growing on Athabasca oil sand tailings. Tailing sands are a high volume waste product from oil sand extraction that the industry is required to remediate. Tailing sands are low in organic carbon and mineral nutrients, and are hydrophobic due to residual polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Typically, tailing sands are remediated by planting young trees in large quantities of mulch plus mineral fertilizer, which is costly and labour intensive. In greenhouse trials, TSTh20-1 supports growth of tomato seedlings on tailing sands without fertilizer. The potential use of TSTh20-1 in combination with native grasses and forbs to remediate under field conditions is being assessed. Twenty-three commercially available plant species are being screened for seed germination and growth on tailing sands in the presence of TSTh20-1. The best candidates from this group will be used in greenhouse and small scale field trials. Potential mechanisms that contribute to endophyte-induced plant growth promotion, such as plant hormone production, stress tolerance, mineral solubilization, and uptake are also being assessed. As well, TSTh20-1 appears to be remarkably frugal in its nutrient requirements and the possibility that this attribute is characteristic of other plant-fungal endophytes from harsh environments is under study.

  16. Fungal Enzymes for Bio-Products from Sustainable and Waste Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijai K; Kubicek, Christian P; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Wilson, David W; Couturier, Marie; Berlin, Alex; Filho, Edivaldo X F; Ezeji, Thaddeus

    2016-07-01

    Lignocellulose, the most abundant renewable carbon source on earth, is the logical candidate to replace fossil carbon as the major biofuel raw material. Nevertheless, the technologies needed to convert lignocellulose into soluble products that can then be utilized by the chemical or fuel industries face several challenges. Enzymatic hydrolysis is of major importance, and we review the progress made in fungal enzyme technology over the past few years with major emphasis on (i) the enzymes needed for the conversion of polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicellulose) into soluble products, (ii) the potential uses of lignin degradation products, and (iii) current progress and bottlenecks for the use of the soluble lignocellulose derivatives in emerging biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  18. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  19. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  1. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  2. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  3. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  4. Assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Efaq Ali; Al-Gheethi, A A; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Nagao, H; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media. Among all fungal isolates, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri 10.2 %, Aspergillus niger 9.5 %, Aspergillus fumigatus 8.8 %, Penicillium. simplicissium 8 %, Aspergillus tubingensis 7.3 %, Aspergillus terreus var. terreus 6.6 %, Penicillium waksmanii 5.9 % and Curvularia lunata 6.5 % were the most frequent. Among five sections of the Wellness Centre, the clinical wastes collected from the diagnostic labs of haematology section had the highest numbers of fungal species (29 species). Glove wastes had the highest numbers of fungal species (19 species) among 17 types of clinical wastes screened. Among all fungal species, Aspergillus spp. exhibited higher growth at 37 °C than at 28 °C, indicating the potential of these opportunistic fungi to cause diseases in human. These results indicated the potential of hospital wastes as reservoirs for fungal species.

  5. Effector Gene Suites in Some Soil Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum Are Not Sufficient Predictors of Vascular Wilt in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Nicolas A; Broz, Karen; Jonkers, Wilfried; Ma, Li-Jun; Kistler, H Corby

    2017-07-01

    Seventy-four Fusarium oxysporum soil isolates were assayed for known effector genes present in an F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 3 tomato wilt strain (FOL MN-25) obtained from the same fields in Manatee County, Florida. Based on the presence or absence of these genes, four haplotypes were defined, two of which represented 96% of the surveyed isolates. These two most common effector haplotypes contained either all or none of the assayed race 3 effector genes. We hypothesized that soil isolates with all surveyed effector genes, similar to FOL MN-25, would be pathogenic toward tomato, whereas isolates lacking all effectors would be nonpathogenic. However, inoculation experiments revealed that presence of the effector genes alone was not sufficient to ensure pathogenicity on tomato. Interestingly, a nonpathogenic isolate containing the full suite of unmutated effector genes (FOS 4-4) appears to have undergone a chromosomal rearrangement yet remains vegetatively compatible with FOL MN-25. These observations confirm the highly dynamic nature of the F. oxysporum genome and support the conclusion that pathogenesis among free-living populations of F. oxysporum is a complex process. Therefore, the presence of effector genes alone may not be an accurate predictor of pathogenicity among soil isolates of F. oxysporum.

  6. Aminoacyl-tRNA-charged eukaryotic elongation factor 1A is a bona fide substrate for Legionelle pneumophila effector glucosyltransferases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzivelekidis, Tina; Jank, Thomas; Pohl, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila, which is the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, translocates numerous effector proteins into the host cell cytosol by a type IV secretion system during infection. Among the most potent effector proteins of Legionella are glucosyltransferases (Lgt’s), which...

  7. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Lilley, Catherine J; Jones, John T; Urwin, Peter E

    2014-09-01

    Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism.

  8. Identification and characterisation of a hyper-variable apoplastic effector gene family of the potato cyst nematodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Eves-van den Akker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes are obligate biotrophs that modify host root tissues, using a suite of effector proteins to create and maintain a feeding site that is their sole source of nutrition. Using assumptions about the characteristics of genes involved in plant-nematode biotrophic interactions to inform the identification strategy, we provide a description and characterisation of a novel group of hyper-variable extracellular effectors termed HYP, from the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. HYP effectors comprise a large gene family, with a modular structure, and have unparalleled diversity between individuals of the same population: no two nematodes tested had the same genetic complement of HYP effectors. Individuals vary in the number, size, and type of effector subfamilies. HYP effectors are expressed throughout the biotrophic stages in large secretory cells associated with the amphids of parasitic stage nematodes as confirmed by in situ hybridisation. The encoded proteins are secreted into the host roots where they are detectable by immunochemistry in the apoplasm, between the anterior end of the nematode and the feeding site. We have identified HYP effectors in three genera of plant parasitic nematodes capable of infecting a broad range of mono- and dicotyledon crop species. In planta RNAi targeted to all members of the effector family causes a reduction in successful parasitism.

  9. Identification, structure, and function of a novel type VI secretion peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector-immunity pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John C; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E; Ferrin, Michael A; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D

    2013-09-13

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity.

  10. Identification, Structure, and Function of a Novel Type VI Secretion Peptidoglycan Glycoside Hydrolase Effector-Immunity Pair*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John C.; Chou, Seemay; Russell, Alistair B.; Biboy, Jacob; Gardiner, Taylor E.; Ferrin, Michael A.; Brittnacher, Mitchell; Vollmer, Waldemar; Mougous, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria employ type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) to facilitate interactions with prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the widespread identification of T6SSs among Gram-negative bacteria, the number of experimentally validated substrate effector proteins mediating these interactions remains small. Here, employing an informatics approach, we define novel families of T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effectors. Consistent with the known intercellular self-intoxication exhibited by the T6S pathway, we observe that each effector gene is located adjacent to a hypothetical open reading frame encoding a putative periplasmically localized immunity determinant. To validate our sequence-based approach, we functionally investigate a representative family member from the soil-dwelling bacterium Pseudomonas protegens. We demonstrate that this protein is secreted in a T6SS-dependent manner and that it confers a fitness advantage in growth competition assays with Pseudomonas putida. In addition, we determined the 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of this effector in complex with its cognate immunity protein. The structure reveals the effector shares highest overall structural similarity to a glycoside hydrolase family associated with peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, suggesting that T6S peptidoglycan glycoside hydrolase effector families may comprise significant enzymatic diversity. Our structural analyses also demonstrate that self-intoxication is prevented by the immunity protein through direct occlusion of the effector active site. This work significantly expands our current understanding of T6S effector diversity. PMID:23878199

  11. 11 CFR 110.13 - Candidate debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... debates include at least two candidates; and (2) The staging organization(s) does not structure the... PROHIBITIONS § 110.13 Candidate debates. (a) Staging organizations. (1) Nonprofit organizations described in 26..., subparts D and E. (b) Debate structure. The structure of debates staged in accordance with this section and...

  12. A possible candidate for cold dark matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This additional scalar can be a viable candidate of cold dark matter (CDM) since the stability of is achieved by the application of Z 2 symmetry on . Considering as a possible candidate of CDM, Boltzmann's equation is solved to find the freeze-out temperature and relic density of for Higgs mass 120 GeV in the scalar ...

  13. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... financial information in decision-making. The Board meets in Washington, DC, for two days every other month... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board...

  14. Evaluating historical candidate genes for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, M S; Werge, T; Sklar, P

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the genome-wide association era, candidate gene studies were a major approach in schizophrenia genetics. In this invited review, we consider the current status of 25 historical candidate genes for schizophrenia (for example, COMT, DISC1, DTNBP1 and NRG1). The initial study for 24 of thes...

  15. 11 CFR 9003.2 - Candidate certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... funds under 11 CFR 9003.2(c)(3) shall not count against such candidate's $50,000 expenditure limitation... expenditures. (8) Expenditures made using a credit card for which the candidate is jointly or solely liable will count against the limits of this section to the extent that the full amount due, including any...

  16. PKC signaling regulates drug resistance of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans via circuitry comprised of Mkc1, calcineurin, and Hsp90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantelle L LaFayette

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens exploit diverse mechanisms to survive exposure to antifungal drugs. This poses concern given the limited number of clinically useful antifungals and the growing population of immunocompromised individuals vulnerable to life-threatening fungal infection. To identify molecules that abrogate resistance to the most widely deployed class of antifungals, the azoles, we conducted a screen of 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds. Three out of seven hits that abolished azole resistance of a resistant mutant of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a clinical isolate of the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans were inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC, which regulates cell wall integrity during growth, morphogenesis, and response to cell wall stress. Pharmacological or genetic impairment of Pkc1 conferred hypersensitivity to multiple drugs that target synthesis of the key cell membrane sterol ergosterol, including azoles, allylamines, and morpholines. Pkc1 enabled survival of cell membrane stress at least in part via the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade in both species, though through distinct downstream effectors. Strikingly, inhibition of Pkc1 phenocopied inhibition of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its client protein calcineurin. PKC signaling was required for calcineurin activation in response to drug exposure in S. cerevisiae. In contrast, Pkc1 and calcineurin independently regulate drug resistance via a common target in C. albicans. We identified an additional level of regulatory control in the C. albicans circuitry linking PKC signaling, Hsp90, and calcineurin as genetic reduction of Hsp90 led to depletion of the terminal MAPK, Mkc1. Deletion of C. albicans PKC1 rendered fungistatic ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors fungicidal and attenuated virulence in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. This work establishes a new role for PKC signaling in drug resistance, novel circuitry through which

  17. Periprosthetic fungal infection of a hip caused by Trichosporon inkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico José Burgo, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An immunocompromised patient with a history of multiple hip implant revisions extended courses of empiric antibiotic treatment, and a retained metallic rod in the femoral medullary canal was transferred for diagnostic studies and treatment. A high suspicion of fungal infection and utilization of extended and specific fungal cultures were the diagnostic keys for infection with Trichosporon inkin. The treatment consisted in a debridement surgery with the use of a functional spacer with cement supplemented with voriconazole and vancomycin plus a 6-month systemic treatment with voriconazole. After 2 years of follow-up, the patient is free of symptoms. Keywords: Hip arthroplasty, Periprosthetic fungal infection, Trichosporon inkin

  18. The Fungal Spores Survival Under the Low-Temperature Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soušková, Hana; Scholtz, V.; Julák, J.; Savická, D.

    This paper presents an experimental apparatus for the decontamination and sterilization of water suspension of fungal spores. The fungicidal effect of stabilized positive and negative corona discharges on four fungal species Aspergillus oryzae, Clacosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium crustosum and Alternaria sp. was studied. Simultaneously, the slower growing of exposed fungal spores was observed. The obtained results are substantially different in comparison with those of the analogous experiments performed with bacteria. It may be concluded that fungi are more resistant to the low-temperature plasma.

  19. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores: From function to prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...... responsible for siderophore synthesis, namely the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Finally, we present the most recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of fungal NRPSs and discuss opportunities for the development of a fungal NRPS prediction server...

  20. Modulation of innate immune responses by Yersinia type III secretion system translocators and effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliska, James B; Wang, Xiaoying; Viboud, Gloria I; Brodsky, Igor E

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune system of mammals responds to microbial infection through detection of conserved molecular determinants called 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs). Pathogens use virulence factors to counteract PAMP-directed responses. The innate immune system can in turn recognize signals generated by virulence factors, allowing for a heightened response to dangerous pathogens. Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens encode type III secretion systems (T3SSs) that translocate effector proteins, subvert PAMP-directed responses and are critical for infection. A plasmid-encoded T3SS in the human-pathogenic Yersinia species translocates seven effectors into infected host cells. Delivery of effectors by the T3SS requires plasma membrane insertion of two translocators, which are thought to form a channel called a translocon. Studies of the Yersinia T3SS have provided key advances in our understanding of how innate immune responses are generated by perturbations in plasma membrane and other signals that result from translocon insertion. Additionally, studies in this system revealed that effectors function to inhibit innateimmune responses resulting from insertion of translocons into plasma membrane. Here, we review these advances with the goal of providing insight into how a T3SS can activate and inhibit innate immune responses, allowing a virulent pathogen to bypass host defences. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Human reinforcement learning subdivides structured action spaces by learning effector-specific values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2009-10-28

    Humans and animals are endowed with a large number of effectors. Although this enables great behavioral flexibility, it presents an equally formidable reinforcement learning problem of discovering which actions are most valuable because of the high dimensionality of the action space. An unresolved question is how neural systems for reinforcement learning-such as prediction error signals for action valuation associated with dopamine and the striatum-can cope with this "curse of dimensionality." We propose a reinforcement learning framework that allows for learned action valuations to be decomposed into effector-specific components when appropriate to a task, and test it by studying to what extent human behavior and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity can exploit such a decomposition in a multieffector choice task. Subjects made simultaneous decisions with their left and right hands and received separate reward feedback for each hand movement. We found that choice behavior was better described by a learning model that decomposed the values of bimanual movements into separate values for each effector, rather than a traditional model that treated the bimanual actions as unitary with a single value. A decomposition of value into effector-specific components was also observed in value-related BOLD signaling, in the form of lateralized biases in striatal correlates of prediction error and anticipatory value correlates in the intraparietal sulcus. These results suggest that the human brain can use decomposed value representations to "divide and conquer" reinforcement learning over high-dimensional action spaces.

  2. Using effectors of Phytophthora infestans to teach pathogenesis: Our attempt to provide a more comprehensive education

    Science.gov (United States)

    The topic of pathogenesis mechanisms (R/avirulence genes, effectors, and hypersensitive response) has proved challenging for students in our introductory plant pathology course. An apparent gap exists in the curriculum between this introductory course and higher level plant-microbe interaction cours...

  3. A Plant Immune Receptor Detects Pathogen Effectors that Target WRKY Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Panagiotis F; Duxbury, Zane; Huh, Sung Un; Ma, Yan; Segonzac, Cécile; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Cevik, Volkan; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Saucet, Simon B; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Menke, Frank L H; Sohn, Kee Hoon; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2015-05-21

    Defense against pathogens in multicellular eukaryotes depends on intracellular immune receptors, yet surveillance by these receptors is poorly understood. Several plant nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptors carry fusions with other protein domains. The Arabidopsis RRS1-R NB-LRR protein carries a C-terminal WRKY DNA binding domain and forms a receptor complex with RPS4, another NB-LRR protein. This complex detects the bacterial effectors AvrRps4 or PopP2 and then activates defense. Both bacterial proteins interact with the RRS1 WRKY domain, and PopP2 acetylates lysines to block DNA binding. PopP2 and AvrRps4 interact with other WRKY domain-containing proteins, suggesting these effectors interfere with WRKY transcription factor-dependent defense, and RPS4/RRS1 has integrated a "decoy" domain that enables detection of effectors that target WRKY proteins. We propose that NB-LRR receptor pairs, one member of which carries an additional protein domain, enable perception of pathogen effectors whose function is to target that domain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  5. Evidence of end-effector based gait machines in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Schattat, N; Mehrholz, J; Werner, C

    2013-01-01

    A task-specific repetitive approach in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion is well accepted nowadays. To ease the therapists' and patients' physical effort, the past two decades have seen the introduction of gait machines to intensify the amount of gait practice. Two principles have emerged, an exoskeleton- and an endeffector-based approach. Both systems share the harness and the body weight support. With the end-effector-based devices, the patients' feet are positioned on two foot plates, whose movements simulate stance and swing phase. This article provides an overview on the end-effector based machine's effectiveness regarding the restoration of gait. For the electromechanical gait trainer GT I, a meta analysis identified nine controlled trials (RCT) in stroke subjects (n = 568) and were analyzed to detect differences between end-effector-based locomotion + physiotherapy and physiotherapy alone. Patients practising with the machine effected in a superior gait ability (210 out of 319 patients, 65.8% vs. 96 out of 249 patients, 38.6%, respectively, Z = 2.29, p = 0.020), due to a larger training intensity. Only single RCTs have been reported for other devices and etiologies. The introduction of end-effector based gait machines has opened a new succesful chapter in gait rehabilitation after CNS lesion.

  6. Structure of the effector-binding domain of deoxyribonucleoside regulator DeoR from Bacillus subtilis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škerlová, Jana; Fábry, Milan; Hubálek, Martin; Otwinowski, Z.; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 18 (2014), s. 4280-4292 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : dimeric interface * effector binding * Schiff base * transcription repressor * X-ray crystallography Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UMG-J) Impact factor: 4.001, year: 2014

  7. The interplay between a Phytophthora RXLR effector and an Arabidopsis lectin receptor kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, K.

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans – the causal agent of potato late blight – secretes a plethora of effector proteins to facilitate plant infection. The central subject of this thesis is ipiO, one of the first cloned Phytophthora genes with a putative function in pathogenicity as was anticipated based on its

  8. Actin Cytoskeleton Manipulation by Effector Proteins Secreted by Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Navarro-Garcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin cytoskeleton is a dynamic structure necessary for cell and tissue organization, including the maintenance of epithelial barriers. Disruption of the epithelial barrier coincides with alterations of the actin cytoskeleton in several disease states. These disruptions primarily affect the paracellular space, which is normally regulated by tight junctions. Thereby, the actin cytoskeleton is a common and recurring target of bacterial virulence factors. In order to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton, bacteria secrete and inject toxins and effectors to hijack the host cell machinery, which interferes with host-cell pathways and with a number of actin binding proteins. An interesting model to study actin manipulation by bacterial effectors is Escherichia coli since due to its genome plasticity it has acquired diverse genetic mobile elements, which allow having different E. coli varieties in one bacterial species. These E. coli pathotypes, including intracellular and extracellular bacteria, interact with epithelial cells, and their interactions depend on a specific combination of virulence factors. In this paper we focus on E. coli effectors that mimic host cell proteins to manipulate the actin cytoskeleton. The study of bacterial effector-cytoskeleton interaction will contribute not only to the comprehension of the molecular causes of infectious diseases but also to increase our knowledge of cell biology.

  9. Chloroplastic protein NRIP1 mediates innate immune receptor recognition of a viral effector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Jeffrey L.; Mamillapalli, Padmavathi; Burch-Smith, Tessa M.; Czymmek, Kirk; Dinesh-Kumar, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Plant innate immunity relies on the recognition of pathogen effector molecules by nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) immune receptor families. Previously we have shown the N immune receptor, a member of TIR-NB-LRR family, indirectly recognizes the 50-kDa helicase (p50) domain of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) through its TIR domain. We have identified an N receptor-interacting protein, NRIP1, that directly interacts with both N's TIR domain and p50. NRIP1 is a functional rhodanese sulfurtransferase and is required for N to provide complete resistance to TMV. Interestingly, NRIP1 that normally localizes to the chloroplasts is recruited to the cytoplasm and nucleus by the p50 effector. As a consequence, NRIP1 interacts with N only in the presence of the p50 effector. Our findings show that a chloroplastic protein is intimately involved in pathogen recognition. We propose that N's activation requires a pre-recognition complex containing the p50 effector and NRIP1. PMID:18267075

  10. Effector diversification within compartments of the Leptosphaeria maculans genome affected by repeat induced point mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouxel, T.; Grandaubert, J.; Hane, J.K.; Hoede, C.; Wouw, A.; Couloux, A.; Dominguez, V.; Anthouard, V.; Bally, P.; Bourras, S.; Cozijnsen, A.J.; Ciuffetti, L.M.; Degrave, A.; Dilmaghani, A.; Duret, L.; Fudal, L.; Goodwin, S.B.; Gout, L.; Glaser, N.; Linglin, J.; Kema, G.H.J.; Lapalu, N.; Lawrence, C.B.; May, K.; Meyer, M.; Ollivier, B.; Poulain, J.; Schoch, C.L.; Simon, A.; Spatafora, J.W.; Stachowiak, A.; Turgeon, B.G.; Tyler, B.M.; Vincent, D.; Weissenbach, J.; Amselem, J.; Quesneville, H.; Oliver, R.P.; Wincker, P.; Balesdent, M.H.; Howlett, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    Fungi are of primary ecological, biotechnological and economic importance. Many fundamental biological processes that are shared by animals and fungi are studied in fungi due to their experimental tractability. Many fungi are pathogens or mutualists and are model systems to analyse effector genes

  11. Identification of virulence factors and type III effectors of Phylotype I ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HP2000

    R. solanacearum finds its way into the plant through wounds in the roots and .... 10% (c) Acidic residues should be absent within the first twelve amino acids. .... PilA has been used to study the genetic diversity in soil bacterium ..... the GALA type III effector family contributes to Ralstonia solanacearum adaptation on different.

  12. The effector repertoire of Fusarium oxysporum determines the tomato xylem proteome composition following infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gawehns, Fleur; Ma, Lisong; Bruning, Oskar; Houterman, Petra M.; Boeren, Sjef; Cornelissen, B.J.C.; Rep, Martijn; Takken, Frank L.W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogens secrete small proteins, of which some are effectors that promote infection. During colonization of the tomato xylem vessels the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) secretes small proteins that are referred to as SIX (Secreted In Xylem) proteins. Of these, Six1

  13. MITEs in the promoters of effector genes allow prediction of novel virulence genes in Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, S.M.; Houterman, P.M.; Schreiver, I.; Ma, L.; Amyotte, S.; Chellappan, B.; Boeren, S.; Takken, F.L.W.; Rep, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.lycopersici (Fol) has accessory, lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes that can be transferred horizontally between strains. A single LS chromosome in the Fol4287 reference strain harbors all known Fol effector genes. Transfer of this

  14. Specific Hypersensitive Response–Associated Recognition of New Apoplastic Effectors from Cladosporium fulvum in Wild Tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Ӧkmen, Bilal; Rovenich, Hanna; Griffiths, Scott A.; Wang, Changchun; Karimi Jashni, Mansoor; Mihajlovski, Aleksandar; Collemare, Jérôme; Hunziker, Lukas; Deng, Cecilia H.; Burgt, Van Der Ate; Beenen, Henriek G.; Templeton, Matthew D.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Wit, De Pierre J.G.M.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato leaf mold disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum. During infection, C. fulvum produces extracellular small secreted protein (SSP) effectors that function to promote colonization of the leaf apoplast. Resistance to the disease is governed by Cf immune receptor genes

  15. Parallel manipulators with two end-effectors : Getting a grip on Jacobian-based stiffness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaars, A.G.L.

    2016-01-01

    Robots that are developed for applications which require a high stiffness-over-inertia ratio, such as pick-and-place robots, machining robots, or haptic devices, are often based on parallel manipulators. Parallel manipulators connect an end-effector to an inertial base using multiple serial

  16. Mechanism of IRSp53 inhibition and combinatorial activation by Cdc42 and downstream effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, David J; Yang, Changsong; Disanza, Andrea; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Madasu, Yadaiah; Scita, Giorgio; Svitkina, Tatyana; Dominguez, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    The Rho family GTPase effector IRSp53 has essential roles in filopodia formation and neuronal development, but its regulatory mechanism is poorly understood. IRSp53 contains a membrane-binding BAR domain followed by an unconventional CRIB motif that overlaps with a proline-rich region (CRIB-PR) and an SH3 domain that recruits actin cytoskeleton effectors. Using a fluorescence reporter assay, we show that human IRSp53 adopts a closed inactive conformation that opens synergistically with the binding of human Cdc42 to the CRIB-PR and effector proteins, such as the tumor-promoting factor Eps8, to the SH3 domain. The crystal structure of Cdc42 bound to the CRIB-PR reveals a new mode of effector binding to Rho family GTPases. Structure-inspired mutations disrupt autoinhibition and Cdc42 binding in vitro and decouple Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent filopodia formation in cells. The data support a combinatorial mechanism of IRSp53 activation.

  17. Distribution of non-LEE-encoded type 3 secretion system dependent effectors in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia A. Salvador

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are important human gastroenteritis agents. The prevalence of six non-LEE genes encoding type 3 translocated effectors was investigated. The nleC, cif and nleB genes were more prevalent in typical than in atypical EPEC, although a higher diversity of genes combinations was observed in atypical EPEC.

  18. Persistent expansion of CD4(+) effector memory T cells in Wegener's granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdulahad, W. H.; van der Geld, Y. M.; Stegeman, C. A.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.

    In order to test the hypothesis that Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is associated with an ongoing immune effector response, even in remission, we examined the distribution of peripheral naive and memory T-lymphocytes in this disease, and analyzed the function-related phenotypes of the memory T-cell

  19. The Chlamydia type III secretion system C-ring engages a chaperone-effector protein complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris E Spaeth

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In Gram-negative bacterial pathogens, specialized chaperones bind to secreted effector proteins and maintain them in a partially unfolded form competent for translocation by type III secretion systems/injectisomes. How diverse sets of effector-chaperone complexes are recognized by injectisomes is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of effector-chaperone recognition by the Chlamydia injectisome, a unique and ancestral line of these evolutionarily conserved secretion systems. By yeast two-hybrid analysis we identified networks of Chlamydia-specific proteins that interacted with the basal structure of the injectisome, including two hubs of protein-protein interactions that linked known secreted effector proteins to CdsQ, the putative cytoplasmic C-ring component of the secretion apparatus. One of these protein-interaction hubs is defined by Ct260/Mcsc (Multiple cargo secretion chaperone. Mcsc binds to and stabilizes at least two secreted hydrophobic proteins, Cap1 and Ct618, that localize to the membrane of the pathogenic vacuole ("inclusion". The resulting complexes bind to CdsQ, suggesting that in Chlamydia, the C-ring of the injectisome mediates the recognition of a subset of inclusion membrane proteins in complex with their chaperone. The selective recognition of inclusion membrane proteins by chaperones may provide a mechanism to co-ordinate the translocation of subsets of inclusion membrane proteins at different stages in infection.

  20. Plant parasitic nematode effectors target host defence and nuclear functions to establish feeding cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël eQuentin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms, the most damaging species of which have adopted a sedentary lifestyle within their hosts. These obligate endoparasites have a biotrophic relationship with plants, in which they induce the differentiation of root cells into hypertrophied, multinucleate feeding cells. Effectors synthesised in the oesophageal glands of the nematode are injected into the plant cells via the syringe-like stylet and play a key role in manipulating the host machinery. The establishment of specialized feeding cells requires these effectors to modulate many aspects of plant cell morphogenesis and physiology, including defence responses. This cell reprogramming requires changes to host nuclear processes. Some proteins encoded by parasitism genes target host nuclei. Several of these proteins were immunolocalised within feeding cell nuclei or shown to interact with host nuclear proteins. Comparative genomics and functional analyses are gradually revealing the roles of nematode effectors. We describe here these effectors and their hypothesised roles in the unique feeding behaviour of these pests.

  1. Assessing the ability of Salmonella enterica to translocate Type III effectors into plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella enterica, a human enteric pathogen, has the ability to multiply and survive endophytically in plants, and mutations in genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) or its effectors (T3Es) may contribute to this colonization. Two reporter plasmids for T3E translocation into plant ce...

  2. Structural insight into gene transcriptional regulation and effector binding by the Lrp/AsnC family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaw, P.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Muranova, T.; Wiese, S.; Ayora, S.; Alonso, J.C.; Brinkman, A.B.; Akerboom, A.P.; Oost, van der J.; Rafferty, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulatory proteins is found in both archaea and bacteria. Members of the family influence cellular metabolism in both a global (Lrp) and specific (AsnC) manner, often in response to exogenous amino acid effectors. In the present study we have determined both

  3. Abstract and Effector-Selective Decision Signals Exhibit Qualitatively Distinct Dynamics before Delayed Perceptual Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Deirdre M; Kelly, Simon P; O'Connell, Redmond G

    2016-07-13

    Electrophysiological research has isolated neural signatures of decision formation in a variety of brain regions. Studies in rodents and monkeys have focused primarily on effector-selective signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, but, more recently, research on the human brain has identified an abstract signature of evidence accumulation that does not appear to play any direct role in action preparation. The functional dissociations between these distinct signal types have only begun to be characterized, and their dynamics during decisions with deferred actions with or without foreknowledge of stimulus-effector mapping, a commonly studied task scenario in single-unit and functional imaging investigations, have not been established. Here we traced the dynamics of distinct abstract and effector-selective decision signals in the form of the broad-band centro-parietal positivity (CPP) and limb-selective β-band (8-16 and 18-30 Hz) EEG activity, respectively, during delayed-reported motion direction decisions with and without foreknowledge of direction-response mapping. With foreknowledge, the CPP and β-band signals exhibited a similar gradual build-up following evidence onset, but whereas choice-predictive β-band activity persisted up until the delayed response, the CPP dropped toward baseline after peaking. Without foreknowledge, the CPP exhibited identical dynamics, whereas choice-selective β-band activity was eliminated. These findings highlight qualitative functional distinctions between effector-selective and abstract decision signals and are of relevance to the assumptions founding functional neuroimaging investigations of decision-making. Neural signatures of evidence accumulation have been isolated in numerous brain regions. Although animal neurophysiology has largely concentrated on effector-selective decision signals that translate the emerging decision into a specific motor plan, recent research on the human brain has

  4. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  5. Generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector memory B cells: relevance to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuri; Niiro, Hiroaki; Ota, Shun-Ichiro; Ueki, Naoko; Tsuzuki, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Koji; Higashioka, Kazuhiko; Jabbarzadeh-Tabrizi, Siamak; Mitoma, Hiroki; Akahoshi, Mitsuteru; Arinobu, Yojiro; Kukita, Akiko; Yamada, Hisakata; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Akashi, Koichi

    2016-03-16

    The efficacy of B cell-depleting therapies for rheumatoid arthritis underscores antibody-independent functions of effector B cells such as cognate T-B interactions and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) is a key cytokine involved in bone destruction and is highly expressed in synovial fluid B cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study we sought to clarify the generation mechanism of RANKL(+) effector B cells and their impacts on osteoclast differentiation. Peripheral blood and synovial fluid B cells from healthy controls and patients with rheumatoid arthritis were isolated using cell sorter. mRNA expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Blimp-1 was analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of RANKL, CD80, CD86, and CXCR3 were analyzed using flow cytometry. Functional analysis of osteoclastogenesis was carried out in the co-culture system using macrophage RAW264 reporter cells. RANKL expression was accentuated in CD80(+)CD86(+) B cells, a highly activated B-cell subset more abundantly observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Upon activation via B-cell receptor and CD40, switched-memory B cells predominantly expressed RANKL, which was further augmented by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) but suppressed by interleukin-21. Strikingly, IFN-γ also enhanced TNF-α expression, while it strongly suppressed osteoprotegerin expression in B cells. IFN-γ increased the generation of CXCR3(+)RANKL(+) effector B cells, mimicking the synovial B cell phenotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, RANKL(+) effector B cells in concert with TNF-α facilitated osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Our current findings have shed light on the generation mechanism of pathogenic RANKL(+) effector B cells that would be an ideal therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis in the future.

  6. Field performance of the waste retrieval end effectors in the Oak Ridge gunite tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, O.D.

    1997-09-01

    Waterjet-based tank waste retrieval end effectors have been developed by Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology has demonstrated effectiveness for retrieval of simulants bounding a wide range of waste properties and compatibility with foreseen deployment systems. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT-TS). The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste, and deployment platforms. The conceptual design was done by the University of Missouri-Rolla in FY 1995-96. The university researchers conducted separate effects tests of the component concepts, scaled the basic design features, and constructed a full-scale test article incorporating their findings in early FY 1996. The test article was extensively evaluated in the Hanford Hydraulic Testbed and the design features were further refined. Detail design of the prototype item was started at Waterjet Technology, Inc. before the development testing was finished, and two of the three main subassemblies were substantially complete before final design of the waterjet manifold was determined from the Hanford hydraulic testbed (HTB) testing. The manifold on the first prototype was optimized for sludge retrieval; assembled with that manifold, the end effector is termed the Sludge Retrieval End Effector (SREE)

  7. Identification of antibody glycosylation structures that predict monoclonal antibody Fc-effector function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Amy W; Crispin, Max; Pritchard, Laura; Robinson, Hannah; Gorny, Miroslaw K; Yu, Xiaojie; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Ackerman, Margaret E; Scanlan, Chris; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Alter, Galit

    2014-11-13

    To determine monoclonal antibody (mAb) features that predict fragment crystalizable (Fc)-mediated effector functions against HIV. Monoclonal antibodies, derived from Chinese hamster ovary cells or Epstein-Barr virus-immortalized mouse heteromyelomas, with specificity to key regions of the HIV envelope including gp120-V2, gp120-V3 loop, gp120-CD4(+) binding site, and gp41-specific antibodies, were functionally profiled to determine the relative contribution of the variable and constant domain features of the antibodies in driving robust Fc-effector functions. Each mAb was assayed for antibody-binding affinity to gp140(SR162), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) and for the ability to bind to FcγRIIa, FcγRIIb and FcγRIIIa receptors. Antibody glycan profiles were determined by HPLC. Neither the specificity nor the affinity of the mAbs determined the potency of Fc-effector function. FcγRIIIa binding strongly predicted ADCC and decreased galactose content inversely correlated with ADCP, whereas N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing structures exhibited enhanced ADCP. Additionally, the bi-antenary glycan arm onto which galactose was added predicted enhanced binding to FcγRIIIa and ADCC activity, independent of the specificity of the mAb. Our studies point to the specific Fc-glycan structures that can selectively promote Fc-effector functions independently of the antibody specificity. Furthermore, we demonstrated antibody glycan structures associated with enhanced ADCP activity, an emerging Fc-effector function that may aid in the control and clearance of HIV infection.

  8. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  9. Physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    discharge respectively. Several bacterial and fungal genera were isolated from the River water samples. ...... global climate change, Potential impacts on inland freshwater and ... India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem.

  10. Fungal isolates and their toxicity from different ecosystems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... fungal species behave unexpectedly in different ecosystems. That is why the main ... All the isolates from marine environment were non toxic to brine ... by animals or humans. Severe health problems and death have occurred.

  11. Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosling, A.; Landeweert, R.; Lindahl, B.D.; Larsson, K.H.; Kuyper, T.W.; Taylor, A.F.S.; Finlay, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in forest soils are usually restricted to the uppermost organic horizons. Boreal forest podzols are highly stratified and little is known about the vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal communities in the underlying mineral horizons. Ectomycorrhizal

  12. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  13. Fungal biogeography. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Põlme, Sergei; Kõljalg, Urmas; Yorou, Nourou S; Wijesundera, Ravi; Villarreal Ruiz, Luis; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Thu, Pham Quang; Suija, Ave; Smith, Matthew E; Sharp, Cathy; Saluveer, Erki; Saitta, Alessandro; Rosas, Miguel; Riit, Taavi; Ratkowsky, David; Pritsch, Karin; Põldmaa, Kadri; Piepenbring, Meike; Phosri, Cherdchai; Peterson, Marko; Parts, Kaarin; Pärtel, Kadri; Otsing, Eveli; Nouhra, Eduardo; Njouonkou, André L; Nilsson, R Henrik; Morgado, Luis N; Mayor, Jordan; May, Tom W; Majuakim, Luiza; Lodge, D Jean; Lee, Su See; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kohout, Petr; Hosaka, Kentaro; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Henkel, Terry W; Harend, Helery; Guo, Liang-dong; Greslebin, Alina; Grelet, Gwen; Geml, Jozsef; Gates, Genevieve; Dunstan, William; Dunk, Chris; Drenkhan, Rein; Dearnaley, John; De Kesel, André; Dang, Tan; Chen, Xin; Buegger, Franz; Brearley, Francis Q; Bonito, Gregory; Anslan, Sten; Abell, Sandra; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2014-11-28

    Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    A research team led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has discovered a fundamental entry mechanism that allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease.

  15. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal isolates of Lake Magadi. Keno David Kowanga, Joan John Eliona Munissi, Rose Masalu, Stephen Samwel Nyandoro, Pax Masimba, Erastus Gatebe ...

  16. Fungal burden exposure assessment in podiatry clinics from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Coggins, Ann Marie; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel; Verissimo, Cristina; Roberts, Nigel; Watterson, David; MacGilchrist, Claire; Fleming, Gerard T A

    2018-03-26

    Fungi are amongst the bioaerosols of most importance, as indicated by the growing interest in this field of research. The aim was to characterize the exposure to fungal burden in podiatry clinics using culture-based and molecular methods. Airborne fungi were collected using an impaction air sampler and surface samples were also performed. Fourteen air samples were collected for direct detection of fungal DNA from filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. Overall, 63.6 % of the evening samples and 46 % of the morning samples surpassed the threshold values (150 CFU/m 3 ). Molecular detection, by real time PCR, of the target fungal species/strains (Aspergillus and Stachybotrys species) was negative for all samples collected. Trichophyton rubrum was detected by PCR analysis in one DNA sample collected on day six. Results suggest the use of both culture-based and molecular methodologies are desirable for a complete evaluation of fungal burden in this particular health care setting.

  17. Analysis of computed tomography features of fungal sinusitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT) features of fungal sinusitis and to correlate them with nasal endoscopy and histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Our study included 16 patients of either sex and any age group who presented in the otorhinolaryngology clinic at ...

  18. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  19. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staining solution. Slightly crush the seeds. Use caution to prevent carryover hyphae of fungal endophyte... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are...

  20. Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Bosco, Sandra De M G; De Hoog, Sybren

    2018-01-01

    The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans....... In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed....... Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome...