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Sample records for fungal contamination consequences

  1. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  2. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

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    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  3. Fungal contamination assessment in Portuguese elderly care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Almeida-Silva, M; Gomes, A Quintal; Wolterbeek, H T; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend 80-90% of their day indoors and elderly subjects are likely to spend even a greater amount of time indoors. Thus, indoor air pollutants such as bioaerosols may exert a significant impact on this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize fungal contamination within Portuguese elderly care centers. Fungi were measured using conventional as well as molecular methods in bedrooms, living rooms, canteens, storage areas, and outdoors. Bioaerosols were evaluated before and after the microenvironments' occupancy in order to understand the role played by occupancy in fungal contamination. Fungal load results varied from 32 colony-forming units CFU m(-3) in bedrooms to 228 CFU m(-3) in storage areas. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated (38.1%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (16.3%) and Chrysonilia sp. (4.2%). With respect to Aspergillus genus, three different fungal species in indoor air were detected, with A. candidus (62.5%) the most prevalent. On surfaces, 40 different fungal species were isolated and the most frequent was Penicillium sp. (22.2%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (17.3%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not detect the presence of A. fumigatus complex. Species from Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were the most abundant in air and surfaces. The species A. fumigatus was present in 12.5% of all indoor microenvironments assessed. The living room was the indoor microenvironment with lowest fungal concentration and the storage area was highest.

  4. Fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; León Peláez, María A; Diosma, Gabriela; De Antoni, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Garrote, Graciela L

    2014-12-01

    Fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety. Whey fermented for 24 h at 20 °C with kefir grains (100 g L(-1) ) reduced conidial germination of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium crustosum, Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Rhizopus sp. Poultry feed supplemented with fermented whey (1 L kg(-1) ) was two to four times more resistant to fungal contamination than control feed depending on the fungal species. Additionally, it contained kefir microorganisms at levels of 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) kg(-1) of lactic acid bacteria and 6 × 10(7) CFU kg(-1) of yeasts even after 30 days of storage. Fermented whey added to poultry feed acted as a biopreservative, improving its resistance to fungal contamination and increasing its shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. A method for detecting fungal contaminants in wall cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Joe C

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a practical method for detecting the presence of both fungal spores and culturable fungi in wall cavities. Culturable fungi were collected in 25 mm cassettes containing 0.8 microm mixed cellulose ester filters using aggressive sampling conditions. Both culturable fungi and fungal spores were collected in modified slotted-disk cassettes. The sample volume was 4 L. The filters were examined microscopically and dilution plated onto multiple culture media. Collecting airborne samples in filter cassettes was an effective method for assessing wall cavities for fungal contaminants, especially because this method allowed the sample to be analyzed by both microscopy and culture media. Assessment criteria were developed that allowed the sample results to be used to classify wall cavities as either uncontaminated or contaminated. As a criterion, wall cavities with concentrations of culturable fungi below the limit of detection (LOD) were classified as uncontaminated, whereas those cavities with detectable concentrations of culturable fungi were classified as contaminated. A total of 150 wall cavities was sampled as part of a field project. The concentrations of culturable fungi were below the LOD in 34% of the samples, whereas Aspergillus and/or Penicillium were the only fungal genera detected in 69% of the samples in which culturable fungi were detected. Spore counting resulted in the detection of Stachybotrys-like spores in 25% of the samples that were analyzed, whereas Stachybotrys chartarum colonies were only detected on 2% of malt extract agar plates and on 6% of corn meal agar plates.

  6. Fungal contamination in white medical coats of dentistry professionals

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    Benicio Barros Brandão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The white medical coats used by health professionals may serve as a source of infection in health services because it is a potential vehicle for transmission of microorganisms. There are several studies that warn of the inherent dangers in bacterial contamination in lab coats, but there are few reports of fungal contamination in this personal protection equipment. Aims: The study aims to identify fungi in dental lab coats. Method: Samples were collected from ten dentists from a dentistry-school clinic of a higher education institution of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil, using sterile swab, soaked in saline contained in a test tube. Each sample was inoculated on chloramphenicol-containing Saboroud Dextrose agar and incubated at room temperature for fungal growth. Phenotypic and biochemical methods were used to identify the colonies. Results: Fungal growth was observed in all samples of the lab coats, and 19 isolates were counted. The genera Cladosporium and Aspergillus were the most frequent in this study. The results emphasize the role of fungi as contaminants in lab coats; and, as an effective means of transmission of pathogens in the community. Conclusions: This study suggests a methodology for the proper washing and decontamination of the lab coat and advocates the need to implement more rigid norms in concern to the use of lab coats, as well as educational campaigns to guide dentists about the correct use of this Personal Protection Equipment (PPE. Keywords: Individual Protection Equipment. Fungi. Cross infection.

  7. Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis associated with fungal contamination of indoor hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, Steffen; Rietschel, Ernst; Exner, Martin; Lange, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Childhood hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is often associated with exposure to antigens in the home environment. We describe a case of HP associated with indoor hydroponics in a 14-year-old girl. Water samples from hydroponics revealed Aureobasidium pullulans as the dominant fungal micro-organism (10(4)CFU/ml). The diagnosis is supported by the existence of serum precipitating antibodies against A. pullulans, lymphocytic alveolitis on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, a corresponding reaction on a lung biopsy, and the sustained absence of clinical symptoms following the removal of hydroponics from the home. We conclude that hydroponics should be considered as potential sources of fungal contaminants when checking for indoor health complaints.

  8. Fungal species and multiple mycotoxin contamination of cultivated forage crops

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    Galina Kononenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of grass samples used for animal feed by combining mycotoxin measures and mycological determination of mycobiota were explored. The samples of the plant material were collected in 2014 in two stages: before the first mowing (May–June and before the second one (July–August from the fields of stock-farms located in northwestern part of the Russia. All samples were divided into three types: grasses, mixture of different grasses and clover, alfalfa mixed with timothy. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1, alternariol, citrinin, cyclopiazonic acid, deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, emodin, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, mycophenolic acid, ochratoxin A, PR-toxin, roridin A, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone were determined using ELISA. The multiple fungal and mycotoxin contaminations are already formed in plant tissues by the moment of first mowing. The complexes of mycotoxins including up to 14–16 components and the combined character of plant contamination quite correspond to the taxonomic variety of mycobiota.

  9. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study wa...

  10. Evaluation of fungal air contamination in selected wards of two tertiary hospitals in Tehran, Iran

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    Zahra Kamali Sarwestani

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the frequency and diversity of fungal spores in hospital wards were different. In addition, since the fungal contamination in the hospital environment are affected by various environmental factors and the efficiency of ventilation systems, some of these wards require better ventilation system as well as regular monitoring to remove these fungal bioaerosols in order to maintain the health of patients and health care workers.

  11. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  12. Consequences of contamination of the spacecraft environment: immunologic consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, W. T.

    2001-01-01

    Long-term space voyages pose numerous known and unknown health hazards, to the human immune system. Well-studied clinical examples of secondary immunodeficiencies created on Earth, lead one to predict that the conditions of prolonged space flight would weaken the human immune responses that normally hold infection and cancer in check. From evidence gathered from humans flown for prolonged periods in space and from human models of space flight studied on Earth it is reasonable to suspect that space travelers to the planet Mars would experience a weakening of immunity. Subtle defects of immune cell structure and function have been observed in astronauts, such as weakening of specific T-lymphocyte recall of specific antigens. Ground-based models also have demonstrated alterations of immune function, such as the elevation of neuroendocrine immune system messengers, interleukin-6, and soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor in sleep deprivation. Since severe immune compromise the clinical consequences of reactivation of latent virus infections and the development of cancer, has yet to be seen in space flight or in the Earth models, it is extremely important to begin to quantify early changes in immunity to predict the development of immune system collapse with poor clinical outcomes. This approach is designed to validate a number of surrogate markers that will predict trouble ahead. Inherent in this research is the development of countermeasures to reduce the risks of infection and cancer in the first humans going to Mars.

  13. Health Threats from Contamination of Spices Commercialized in Romania: Risks of Fungal and Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Adrian; Mare, Anca; Toma, Felicia; Curticăpean, Augustin; Santacroce, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The study of fungal contamination in food and mycotoxicoses is a priority today, both internationally and nationally. The purpose of this study is to have a general view over the quality of the most common spices that are sold in Romanian markets, by assessing the degree of fungal, bacterial and mycotoxin contamination in pepper and chili powders. We tested four types of spices: white pepper, black pepper, sweet and hot chili powders from 12 different distributing companies, summing a total of 35 sample types. The fungal and bacterial load was assessed by Standard Plate Count, while the mycotoxin content by High-performance liquid chromatography. Environmental conditions (humidity, pH) and the selling price for each product were also followed. Fungi were observed in 72.7% of black pepper samples, 33.3% in white pepper, 30% in sweet chili and 25% in hot chili products. The most common isolated fungus was Aspergillus spp., while Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium, Penicillium, Absidia species were found, in smaller percentage. Four producers (44.4%) presented fungal contamination of over 10^3 CFU/g and two producers (22.2%) presented no fungal contamination in their products. Bacterial contamination was found in 85.7% of the tested products, consisting mostly in Bacillus spp. Aflatoxin B1 was present in all the tested products, mostly in black pepper (mean value 126.3 ng/g); Ochratoxin A was present in sweet chili (mean value 328 ng/g) and Zearalenone in hot chili (mean value 604 ng/g) and sweet chili (mean value 382 ng/g). All spices presented either fungal contamination, mycotoxin contamination, or both. The high humidity and the high pH of spices represent favorable conditions for fungal growth. The selling price was partly related to the physic-chemical conditions and microbiological quality of the spices. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Repression of fungal plant pathogens and fungal-related contaminants: Selected ecosystem services by soil fauna communities in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Wolfarth, Friederike; Schrader, Stefan; Oldenburg, Elisabeth; Brunotte, Joachim; Weinert, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems soil-borne fungal plant diseases are major yield-limiting factors which are difficult to control. Fungal plant pathogens, like Fusarium species, survive as a saprophyte in infected tissue like crop residues and endanger the health of the following crop by increasing the infection risk for specific plant diseases. In infected plant organs, these pathogens are able to produce mycotoxins. Mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) persist during storage, are heat resistant and of major concern for human and animal health after consumption of contaminated food and feed, respectively. Among fungivorous soil organisms, there are representatives of the soil fauna which are obviously antagonistic to a Fusarium infection and the contamination with mycotoxins. Specific members of the soil macro-, meso-, and microfauna provide a wide range of ecosystem services including the stimulation of decomposition processes which may result in the regulation of plant pathogens and the degradation of environmental contaminants. Investigations under laboratory conditions and in field were conducted to assess the functional linkage between soil faunal communities and plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium culmorum). The aim was to examine if Fusarium biomass and the content of its mycotoxin DON decrease substantially in the presence of soil fauna (earthworms: Lumbricus terrestris, collembolans: Folsomia candida and nematodes: Aphelenchoides saprophilus) in a commercial cropping system managed with conservation tillage located in Northern Germany. The results of our investigations pointed out that the degradation performance of the introduced soil fauna must be considered as an important contribution to the biodegradation of fungal plant diseases and fungal-related contaminants. Different size classes within functional groups and the traits of keystone species appear to be significant for soil function and the provision of ecosystem services as in particular L. terrestris revealed to

  15. Functional Diversity of Fungal Communities in Soil Contaminated with Diesel Oil

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    Agata Borowik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use and consumption of crude oil draws the public’s attention to the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment, as they can permeate the soil environment in an uncontrollable manner. Contamination of soils with petroleum products, including diesel oil (DO, can cause changes in the microbiological soil properties. The effect of diesel oil on the functional diversity of fungi was tested in a model experiment during 270 days. Fungi were isolated from soil and identified. The functional diversity of fungal communities was also determined. Fungi were identified with the MALDI-TOF method, while the functional diversity was determined using FF-plates made by Biolog®, with 95 carbon sources. Moreover, the diesel oil degradation dynamics was assessed. The research showed that soil contaminated with diesel oil is characterized by a higher activity of oxireductases and a higher number of fungi than soil not exposed to the pressure of this product. The DO pollution has an adverse effect on the diversity of fungal community. This is proved by significantly lower values of the Average Well-Color Development, substrates Richness (R and Shannon–Weaver (H indices at day 270 after contamination. The consequences of DO affecting soil not submitted to remediation are persistent. After 270 days, only 64% of four-ringed, 28% of five-ringed, 21% of 2–3-ringed and 16% of six-ringed PAHs underwent degradation. The lasting effect of DO on communities of fungi led to a decrease in their functional diversity. The assessment of the response of fungi to DO pollution made on the basis of the development of colonies on Petri dishes [Colony Development (CD and Eco-physiological Diversity (EP indices] is consistent with the analysis based on the FF MicroPlate system by Biolog®. Thus, a combination of the FF MicroPlate system by Biolog® with the simultaneous calculation of CD and EP indices alongside the concurrent determination of the content of

  16. Concentration of petroleum-hydrocarbon contamination shapes fungal endophytic community structure in plant roots

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    Guillaume eBourdel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant-root inhabiting fungi are a universal phenomenon found in all ecosystems where plants are able to grow, even in harsh environments. Interactions between fungi and plant roots can vary widely from mutualism to parasitism depending on many parameters. The role of fungal endophytes in phytoremediation of polluted sites, and characterization of the endophytic diversity and community assemblages in contaminated areas remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the composition of endophytic fungal communities in the roots of two plant species growing spontaneously in petroleum-contaminated sedimentation basins of a former petro-chemical plant. The three adjacent basins showed a highly heterogeneous patterns of pollutant concentrations. We combined a culture-based isolation approach with the pyrosequencing of fungal ITS ribosomal DNA. We selected two species, Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. and Populus balsamifera L., and sampled three individuals of each species from each of three adjacent basins, each with a different concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. We found that contamination level significantly shaped endophytic fungal diversity and community composition in E. erythropoda, with only 9.9% of these fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs retrieved in all three basins. However, fungal community structure associated with P. balsamifera remained unaffected by the contamination level with 28.2% of fungal OTUs shared among all three basins. This could be explained by the smaller differences of pollutant concentrations in the soil around our set of P. balsamifera sampless compared to that around our set of E. erythropoda samples. Our culture-based approach allowed isolation of 11 and 30 fungal endophytic species from surface-sterilized roots of E. erythropoda and P. balsamifera, respectively. These isolates were ribotyped using ITS, and all were found in pyrosequensing datasets. Our results demonstrate that extreme levels of

  17. The selection exerted by oil contamination on mangrove fungal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Franco Dias, Armando Cavalcante; Rigonato, Janaina; Fiore, Marli de Fatima; Soares, Fabio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Pizzirani-Kleiner, Aline Aparecida; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Dini Andreote, Fernando

    Mangrove ecosystems are tropical environments that are characterized by the interaction between the land and the sea. As such, this ecosystem is vulnerable to oil spills. Here, we show a culture-independent survey of fungal communities that are found in the sediments of the following two mangroves

  18. Mycorrhizal Fungal Community of Poplars Growing on Pyrite Tailings Contaminated Site near the River Timok

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    Marina Katanić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Mycorrhizal fungi are of high importance for functioning of forest ecosystems and they could be used as indicators of environmental stress. The aim of this research was to analyze ectomycorrhizal community structure and to determine root colonization rate with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi of poplars growing on pyrite tailings contaminated site near the river Timok (Eastern Serbia. Materials and Methods: Identification of ectomycorrhizal types was performed by combining morphological and anatomical characterization of ectomycorrhizae with molecular identification approach, based on sequencing of the nuclear ITS rRNA region. Also, colonization of poplar roots with ectomycorrhizal, arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septated endophytic fungi were analysed with intersection method. Results and Conclusions: Physico-chemical analyses of soil from studied site showed unfavourable water properties of soil, relatively low pH and high content of heavy metals (copper and zinc. In investigated samples only four different ectomycorrhizal fungi were found. To the species level were identified Thelephora terrestris and Tomentella ellisi, while two types remained unidentified. Type Thelephora terrestris made up 89% of all ectomycorrhizal roots on studied site. Consequently total values of Species richness index and Shannon-Weaver diversity index were 0.80 and 0.43, respectively. No structures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded. Unfavourable environmental conditions prevailing on investigated site caused decrease of ectomycorrhizal types diversity. Our findings point out that mycorrhyzal fungal community could be used as an appropriate indicator of environmental changes.

  19. Field ecology, fungal sex and food contamination involving Aspergillus species

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    Several species within the genus Aspergillus are capable of producing a myriad of toxic secondary metabolites, with aflatoxin being of most concern. These fungi happen to colonize important agricultural commodities, thereby having the potential to contaminate our food with carcinogenic aflatoxins. P...

  20. Fungal Profile and Aflatoxin Contamination in Poultry Feeds Sold in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aflatoxin contamination of animal feeds is common and widely spread, especially in the tropics, due to the ubiquity of the producing fungi. The detection of aflatoxin in five samples of animal feed was carried out; using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples were taken from five different areas in Abeokuta.

  1. Relationship between Fungal Colonisation of the Respiratory Tract in Lung Transplant Recipients and Fungal Contamination of the Hospital Environment.

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    Christine Bonnal

    Full Text Available Aspergillus colonisation is frequently reported after lung transplantation. The question of whether aspergillus colonisation is related to the hospital environment is crucial to prevention.To elucidate this question, a prospective study of aspergillus colonisation after lung transplantation, along with a mycological survey of the patient environment, was performed.Forty-four consecutive patients were included from the day of lung transplantation and then examined weekly for aspergillus colonisation until hospital discharge. Environmental fungal contamination of each patient was followed weekly via air and surface sampling. Twelve patients (27% had transient aspergillus colonisation, occurring 1-13 weeks after lung transplantation, without associated manifestation of aspergillosis. Responsible Aspergillus species were A. fumigatus (6, A. niger (3, A. sydowii (1, A. calidoustus (1 and Aspergillus sp. (1. In the environment, contamination by Penicillium and Aspergillus was predominant. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between occurrence of aspergillus colonisation and fungal contamination of the patient's room, either by Aspergillus spp. in the air or by A.fumigatus on the floor. Related clinical and environmental isolates were genotyped in 9 cases of aspergillus colonisation. For A. fumigatus (4 cases, two identical microsatellite profiles were found between clinical and environmental isolates collected on distant dates or locations. For other Aspergillus species, isolates were different in 2 cases; in 3 cases of aspergillus colonisation by A. sydowii, A. niger and A. calidoustus, similarity between clinical and environmental internal transcribed spacer and tubulin sequences was >99%.Taken together, these results support the hypothesis of environmental risk of hospital acquisition of aspergillus colonisation in lung transplant recipients.

  2. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

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    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  3. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  4. Radioactive contamination of the biosphere and consequences for food supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with all aspects of radioactive contamination of the biosphere and corresponding consequences for food supply. In particular, releases of radioactivity by nuclear weapon tests in the early 60's and nuclear accidents in recent years are discussed. Contamination of food in the Federal Republic of Germany by these events and corresponding ingestion dose are demonstrated using examples. Furthermore diffusion of radionuclides and their transfer through the food chains to man are described. Suitable methods of decontamination at different production steps and their viability are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Fungal contamination of produced wheat flour in West Azerbaijan, northwest of Iran

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    Jafar Asadzadeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination. Objective: To investigate fungal contamination of produced wheat flours in West Azarbaijan Province, located in the North West of Iran as wheat flour is one of the most important food and nutrient in the Iranians diet. Methods: This descriptive study was performed during March 2011 to April 2013 in flour mills of West Azerbaijan province. A total of 17 samples of produced wheat flour in Azerbaijan Province of Iran were tested for mold contamination based on Iran National Standard Method No. 2393. Results: Presence of molds in all collected 151 samples from flour factories of Azerbaijan Province were at the limit based on Iranian national standard. Conclusions: The obtained results showed that the process of flour production was hygienic quietly. Bread is staple ingredient of Iranian diet, and strict control on its processing of wheat flour, maintenance and distribution results nonpolluting or reduction of fungal contamination.

  6. Early detection of fungal contamination on green coffee by a MOX sensors based Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sberveglieri, V.; Pulvirenti, A.; Fava, P.; Concina, I.; Falasconi, M.; Gobbi, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fungal growth can occur on green coffee beans along all the distribution chain, eventually bringing on health hazards to consumers, because of the production of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins). Besides, the sensorial contamination due to volatiles by-products of fungal metabolism could cause defects on coffee also after roasting. Therefore, it is necessary to devise strategies to detect and quantify fungal infection and toxin production at early stages of the food chain. One of the most promising techniques is the analysis of volatile compounds in the headspace gas surrounding the samples. The aim of this work was to verify the ability of the Electronic Nose (EN EOS 835 ) to early detect the microbial contamination of Arabica green coffee. This EN is equipped with Metal Oxide Semiconductor sensor array. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the static headspace of non-contaminated Arabica green coffee samples was carried out to confirm the EN ability to provide satisfactory indications about the presence of contamination.

  7. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Novak Babič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  8. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Babič, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Vargha, Márta; Tischner, Zsófia; Magyar, Donát; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla; Meyer, Wieland; Brandão, João

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  9. Fungal Peptaibiotics: Assessing Potential Meteoritic Amino Acid Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Bruckner, H.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of non-protein alpha-dialkyl-amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (alpha-A1B) and isovaline (Iva), which are relatively rare in the terrestrial biosphere, has long been used as an indication of the indigeneity of meteoritic amino acids, however, the discovery of alpha-AIB in peptides producers by a widespread group of filamentous fungi indicates the possibility of a terrestrial biotic source for the alpha-AIB observed in some meteorites. The alpha-AIB-containing peptides produced by these fungi are dubbed peptaibiotics. We measured the molecular distribution and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios for amino acids found in the total hydrolysates of four biologically synthesized peptaibiotics. We compared these aneasurenetts with those from the CM2 carbonaceous chondrite Murchison and from three Antarctic CR2 carbonaceous chondrites in order to understand the peptaibiotics as a potential source of meteoritic contamination.

  10. FUNGAL AND MICOTOXIN CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEEDS: EVALUATING RISK IN CATTLE INTENSIVE REARING OPERATIONS (FEEDLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavaglieri LR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is the fourth global beef producer. Exposure to mycotoxins through contaminated feed is a major hazard for ruminants. In the present study we assess mycobiota, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, fumonisin B1 (FB1, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEA levels in total mixed rations (TMRs during two consecutive years. Total fungal counts were evaluated and fungal species were identified. Also, ability of A. flavus isolates to produce AFB1 in vitro was tested. Natural contamination with AFB1 and FB1 was quantified by HPLC. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were analysed by immunochromatography and thinlayer chromatogra- phy (TLC, respectively. Fungal counts varied from not detectable (ND to 2.10 x 108 CFU g-1. The prevalent genera were Aspergillus spp (60 % and Fusarium spp (66.7 %, respectively The prevalent species was Aspergillus fumigatus. 50 % of A. flavus strains produced 75 to 112.5 μg g-1 AFB1. 46 % of 2007 samples were contaminated with 4 to 10 μg kg-1 AFB1. Deoxynivalenol was detected in 33.3 % of the samples (≥ 1. 25 μg g-1. Fumonisin B1 and ZEA were not detected. This study can be useful to estimate the mycotoxicological risk of cattle TMRs in this region and to compare results with studies from other beef-producing countries.

  11. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mansouri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The obtained results of this cross-sectional study and the available proofs in community indicate that, there are the high levels of fungal contaminations in current used spices. Therefore, it is necessary to control the production units.

  12. Survey the frequency and type of Fungal Contaminants in Animal Feed of Yazd Dairy Cattles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad taghi ghaneian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction About 500,000 species of fungi have been realized up to now. There are abundant fungi in air, soil and our environment. So the growth of them increases in the presence of air moisture and appropriate temperature. However saprophytic fungi have a wide distribution in nature, they are responsible for decomposition of organic materials and playing an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of major nutrients. Some saprophytes are toxic that contaminate human foods and animal feeds by production of mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are the most common and dangerous mycotoxins produced by few species of Aspergillus and penicillium. This group of mycotoxin has disorder and risks, including the induction of liver cancer. They are mutagenic and teratogenic. Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2, which are naturally produced by several toxic fungi, may contaminate a wide range of dairy animal feeds resulted severe economic loss of cattle meat. Since Aflatoxin B1 and B2 can be transmitted via mammalian’s milk and cheese in form of synthetic Aflatoxin M1 and M2 to human consumers, cause significant health problems. Therefore contamination of animal feed with common toxic airborne saprophytic fungi is a major concern of health officials. Wheat, barley, corn, soybean and other animal feeds may be contaminated with toxic fungi during implantation, harvesting and storage. There are many dairy and livestock centers in Yazd that prepare milk and dairy products for Yazd and neighboring provinces. The aim of current study was to evaluate the amount and type of fungal contaminates of dairy feeds in Yazd dairies. Materials and methods This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the summer of 2012 on 23 dairies in Yazd. Samples of different animal feeds including concentrates, wheat straw, hay, corn, silage corn, soybean and canola as well as waste of bread, were randomly selected from their bulks. The temperature and humidity of feed storage were recorded

  13. Culture and molecular identification of fungal contaminants in edible bird nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer Xiao Jing; Wong, Shew Fung; Lim, Patricia Kim Chooi; Mak, Joon Wah

    2015-01-01

    Widespread food poisoning due to microbial contamination has been a major concern for the food industry, consumers and governing authorities. This study is designed to determine the levels of fungal contamination in edible bird nests (EBNs) using culture and molecular techniques. Raw EBNs were collected from five house farms, and commercial EBNs were purchased from five Chinese traditional medicine shops (companies A-E) in Peninsular Malaysia. The fungal contents in the raw and commercial EBNs, and boiled and unboiled EBNs were determined. Culturable fungi were isolated and identified. In this study, the use of these methods revealed that all EBNs had fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) that exceeded the limit set by Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) for yeast and moulds in EBNs. There was a significant difference (p 0.05). The types of fungi isolated from the unboiled raw EBNs were mainly soil, plant and environmental fungi, while the types of fungi isolated from the boiled raw EBNs, unboiled and boiled commercial EBNs were mainly environmental fungi. Aspergillus sp., Candida sp., Cladosporium sp., Neurospora sp. and Penicillum sp. were the most common fungi isolated from the unboiled and boiled raw and commercial EBNs. Some of these fungi are mycotoxin producers and cause opportunistic infections in humans. Further studies to determine the mycotoxin levels and methods to prevent or remove these contaminations from EBNs for safe consumption are necessary. The establishment and implementation of stringent regulations for the standards of EBNs should be regularly updated and monitored to improve the quality of the EBNs and consumer safety.

  14. Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminations in Iranian Alginate, Foreign Alginate and Speedex Used for Impression in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah Tafti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since impression materials usually contact with saliva, blood, and oral soft tissues, their microbial contamination are harmful in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial and fungal contamination in common impression materials. Materials and Methods: In current lab trial study, 5 different samples from each 4 impression materials were homogenized in 1 ml Tween 80 and then 100µl of each sample were cultured onto blood agar, EMB, or sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial and fungal cultures were incubated at 37º C and 30º C, respectively. The isolated bacterial and fungal colonies were enumerated and identified using specific diagnostic media and tests. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Totally 75% of samples had one or several bacterial contaminations. Iranian alginate and Speedex (putty were the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, Speedex (light body and foreign alginate showed lower contamination. Species of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilluses, Corynebacteria, gram negative Citrobacter, Actinomycetes and Neisseria were isolated from the analyzed impression materials. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Sepdonium were the fungi isolated from impression materials. Statistical significant difference was shown between bacterial contamination of Iranian and foreign alginates (P=0.001. There was no statistical significant differences between the bacterial and fungal isolated colonies (CFU/gr of 4 tested impression materials (P=0.21. Conclusion: Several opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from impression materials especially from Iranian alginate and Speedex putty which indicated their contamination.

  15. A prospective survey of air and surface fungal contamination in a medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Dalle, Frédéric; Olivieri, Claire; L'ollivier, Coralie; Enderlin, Emilie; Salome, Elsa; Chovelon, Isabelle; Vagner, Odile; Sixt, Nathalie; Fricker-Pap, Véronique; Aho, Serge; Fontaneau, Olivier; Cachia, Claire; Bonnin, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Invasive filamentous fungi infections resulting from inhalation of mold conidia pose a major threat in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis is based on direct smears, cultural symptoms, and culturing fungi. Airborne conidia present in the laboratory environment may cause contamination of cultures, resulting in false-positive diagnosis. Baseline values of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory have not been determined to date. A 1-year prospective survey of air and surface contamination was conducted in a clinical mycology laboratory during a period when large construction projects were being conducted in the hospital. Air was sampled with a portable air system impactor, and surfaces were sampled with contact Sabouraud agar plates. The collected data allowed the elaboration of Shewhart graphic charts. Mean fungal loads ranged from 2.27 to 4.36 colony forming units (cfu)/m(3) in air and from 0.61 to 1.69 cfu/plate on surfaces. Strict control procedures may limit the level of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory even in the context of large construction projects at the hospital site. Our data and the resulting Shewhart graphic charts provide baseline values to use when monitoring for inappropriate variations of the fungal contamination in a mycology laboratory as part of a quality assurance program. This is critical to the appropriate management of the fungal risk in hematology, cancer and transplantation patients.

  16. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  17. Comparison of Air Impaction and Electrostatic Dust Collector Sampling Methods to Assess Airborne Fungal Contamination in Public Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Anne-Cécile; Ranque, Stéphane; Cassagne, Carole; Gaudart, Jean; Sallah, Kankoé; Charpin, Denis-André; Piarroux, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    Many ailments can be linked to exposure to indoor airborne fungus. However, obtaining a precise measurement of airborne fungal levels is complicated partly due to indoor air fluctuations and non-standardized techniques. Electrostatic dust collector (EDC) sampling devices have been used to measure a wide range of airborne analytes, including endotoxins, allergens, β-glucans, and microbial DNA in various indoor environments. In contrast, viable mold contamination has only been assessed in highly contaminated environments such as farms and archive buildings. This study aimed to assess the use of EDCs, compared with repeated air-impactor measurements, to assess airborne viable fungal flora in moderately contaminated indoor environments. Indoor airborne fungal flora was cultured from EDCs and daily air-impaction samples collected in an office building and a daycare center. The quantitative fungal measurements obtained using a single EDC significantly correlated with the cumulative measurement of nine daily air impactions. Both methods enabled the assessment of fungal exposure, although a few differences were observed between the detected fungal species and the relative quantity of each species. EDCs were also used over a 32-month period to monitor indoor airborne fungal flora in a hospital office building, which enabled us to assess the impact of outdoor events (e.g. ground excavations) on the fungal flora levels on the indoor environment. In conclusion, EDC-based measurements provided a relatively accurate profile of the viable airborne flora present during a sampling period. In particular, EDCs provided a more representative assessment of fungal levels compared with single air-impactor sampling. The EDC technique is also simpler than performing repetitive air-impaction measures over the course of several consecutive days. EDC is a versatile tool for collecting airborne samples and was efficient for measuring mold levels in indoor environments. © The Author 2015

  18. Fungal dissemination by housefly (Musca domestica L.) and contamination of food commodities in rural areas of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2016-01-18

    Several insects that act as vectors, including houseflies (Musca domestica L.), are often considered to be an important source of fungal contamination in human foods. Houseflies are also involved in the transmission of bacterial pathogens that may pose a serious hazard to human health. Thus, the rural population of South Africa, as typified by that in the Gauteng Province investigated in this study, is at high risk from fungal exposure disseminated by houseflies and it is therefore important to assess the role of flies in contaminating various food commodities. Eighty four samples of houseflies (captured from households and pit toilets) were studied for their potential to carry fungal spores into food commodities. The fungi occurring in samples of raw maize (15) and porridge (19) were also assessed. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics by conventional identification methods. Fifteen genera of fungi were isolated and identified, of which Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Moniliella and Mucor were the most prevalent in all three sample types analysed. The incidence rates of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated in houseflies, maize and porridge were recorded with mean fungal load of 2×10(8) CFU/ml, 1×10(7)CFU/g and 2×10(7)CFU/g respectively. Additionally, A. flavus, A. parasiticus, F. verticillioides, F. proliferatum, P. verrucosum, P. aurantiogriseum and M. suaveolens were the most frequent fungal isolates in houseflies with incidence rate of 34%, 11%, 27%, 21%, 22%, 17% and 32% respectively. F. verticillioides, A. flavus, A. niger and P. oslonii were the most prevalent species contaminating porridge and maize with incidence rate of 23%, 32%, 16% and 28% in maize samples, while incidence rates of 59%, 15% and 29% were recorded in porridge samples with the exception of F. verticillioides. The prevalence of these genera of fungi may pose serious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  19. Endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis are influenced by soil mercury contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro-Souza, William; Mello, Ivani Souza; Vendruscullo, Suzana Junges; Silva, Gilvan Ferreira da; Cunha, Cátia Nunes da; White, James Francis; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2017-01-01

    The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.

  20. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray-Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg(-1) hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities.

  1. Fungal contamination of crude herbal remedies as a possible source of mycotoxin exposure in man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OGOyero; AOBOyefolu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The documented evidence of toxigenic fungi and their toxic metabolites on medicinal plants,coupled with the ability of these toxins to resist decomposition and temperature treatments necessitated this study,with a view of surveying for a possible carry over into the final medicinal products.As such popular indigenous crude herbal prepa-rations widely consumed for various ailments in south-western Nigeria,were screened for fungal contamination,my-coflora enumeration,flora mycotoxin productibility,detection and quantification of a potent human carcinogen (afla-toxin).Methods:Fungal contamination was assessed on acidified potato dextrose agar using the plate count method, while mycotoxin detection,extraction and quantification were achieved by the thin -layer chromatography and chem-ical confirmation techniques.Mycoflora were characterized by standard procedures.Results:The total plate count ranged from 1.80 ×104 CFU /ML to 1.10 ×105 CFU /ML and 2.00 ×103 CFU /ML to 1.38 ×105 CFU /ML for water and dry gin extracted preparations respectively.The mycoflora consisted of six genera (Aspergillus,Penicillium,Fu-sarium,Mucor,Alternaria and Rhizopus).Thirty-four percent (34 %)of the potential toxigenic species (Aspergil-lus,Penicillium and Fusarium)produced mycotoxins in culture,while further characterization indicated production of aflatoxin B1 (42 %),ochratoxin A (50 %)and penicillic acid (8 %)by the mycotoxigenic strains respectively. The aflatoxin content of the herbal medicines ranged between 0.004 μg/kg and 0.345 μg/kg.Conclusion:The study confirmed the carry over of the fungal contaminants and their toxic metabolites into the final herbal medicines in quantities that exceeded some of the available limits.The implication of this is that the chronic exposure to mycotox-ins particularly aflatoxins as a result of long term consumption of these preparations,could lead to impaired growth, nutritional interference,immunologic suppression and hepatocellular

  2. Fungal contamination of the respiratory tract and associated respiratory impairment among sawmill workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asit Adhikari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wood processing workers are exposed to wood-associated microbiological contaminants, including fungi. Our aim was to study the potential association between sputum fungus and adverse respiratory effects in such workers. In a group of sawmill workers, we administered a respiratory questionnaire, performed lung function testing and quantified the proportions of leukocytes in spontaneously expectorated sputum samples. We identified fungal species by DNA sequencing. Of 54 sawmill workers, 19 yielded fungal positive sputum samples (mean age 42.5±10.4 years and 35 were negative for fungus (mean age 36.9±5.2 years. The fungus was identified as Candida sp. in all samples. Those with fungal-positive sputum, compared to others, reported more cough (26% versus 63% and haemoptysis (6% versus 37% (both p<0.05, manifested reduced forced midexpiratory flow rates (FEF25–75% (82.3±4.5 versus 69.2±9.9% predicted, p<0.001, and had higher sputum eosinophil counts (median 9.25 versus 3.25%, p<0.01. Reduction of FEF25–75% was associated both with fungus detection in sputum (−12.7%, 95% CI−8.5– −16.9% and sputum eosinophils (−2.1% per 1% increase in eosinophils, 95% CI −1.5– −2.8% (both p<0.001. In sawmill workers, Candida sp. detectable in sputum was associated with respiratory symptoms, sputum eosinophilia and reduced FEF25–75%.

  3. Assessment of fungal contamination in waste sorting and incineration-case study in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Gomes, Anita Q; Abegão, João; Sabino, Raquel; Graça, Tiago; Viegas, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Organic waste is a rich substrate for microbial growth, and because of that, workers from waste industry are at higher risk of exposure to bioaerosols. This study aimed to assess fungal contamination in two plants handling solid waste management. Air samples from the two plants were collected through an impaction method. Surface samples were also collected by swabbing surfaces of the same indoor sites. All collected samples were incubated at 27°C for 5 to 7 d. After lab processing and incubation of collected samples, quantitative and qualitative results were obtained with identification of the isolated fungal species. Air samples were also subjected to molecular methods by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) using an impinger method to measure DNA of Aspergillus flavus complex and Stachybotrys chartarum. Assessment of particulate matter (PM) was also conducted with portable direct-reading equipment. Particles concentration measurement was performed at five different sizes (PM0.5; PM1; PM2.5; PM5; PM10). With respect to the waste sorting plant, three species more frequently isolated in air and surfaces were A. niger (73.9%; 66.1%), A. fumigatus (16%; 13.8%), and A. flavus (8.7%; 14.2%). In the incineration plant, the most prevalent species detected in air samples were Penicillium sp. (62.9%), A. fumigatus (18%), and A. flavus (6%), while the most frequently isolated in surface samples were Penicillium sp. (57.5%), A. fumigatus (22.3%) and A. niger (12.8%). Stachybotrys chartarum and other toxinogenic strains from A. flavus complex were not detected. The most common PM sizes obtained were the PM10 and PM5 (inhalable fraction). Since waste is the main internal fungal source in the analyzed settings, preventive and protective measures need to be maintained to avoid worker exposure to fungi and their metabolites.

  4. Environmental Factors Related to Fungal Wound Contamination after Combat Trauma in Afghanistan, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribble, David R; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Weintrob, Amy C; Shaikh, Faraz; Aggarwal, Deepak; Carson, M Leigh; Murray, Clinton K; Masuoka, Penny

    2015-10-01

    During the recent war in Afghanistan (2001-2014), invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) among US combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. Although previous studies recognized that IFI patients primarily sustained injuries in southern Afghanistan, environmental data were not examined. We compared environmental conditions of this region with those of an area in eastern Afghanistan that was not associated with observed IFIs after injury. A larger proportion of personnel injured in the south (61%) grew mold from wound cultures than those injured in the east (20%). In a multivariable analysis, the southern location, characterized by lower elevation, warmer temperatures, and greater isothermality, was independently associated with mold contamination of wounds. These environmental characteristics, along with known risk factors related to injury characteristics, may be useful in modeling the risk for IFIs after traumatic injury in other regions.

  5. Fungal contamination and chemical assessment of Iranian Doogh marketed in Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Sari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Doogh is an Iranian traditional dairy-based drink product formally identified as Iranian national drink. This fermented acidified drink has high nutritional value and pleasant organoleptic properties. Samples (n= 120 collected from both industrial and traditional Doogh retail stores in Hamadan in 2015 were analyzed for total solids (%, pH, titratable acidity, salt (%, mold and yeasts count (cfu/ml according to the Iranian National Standards (no. 2453. Results showed that 100% and 24% of the traditional and industrial Doogh samples had fungal contamination over than 100 cfu/ml, respectively. Moreover, the mean values of titratable acidity, pH, salt, and total solids showed a significant between-group difference. According to this study, employing hygiene programs regarding the production processes is highly recommended.

  6. The study of fungal contamination in three current packed spices in the markets of Tehran: brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mansouri; Ensieh Zibafar; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Mohsen Gerami Shoar; Roshanak Daie Ghazvini

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spices (flavorings) are contaminated to microbial agents such as filamentous and yeast fungi during production processing. Almost these are grown and harvested in warm and humid areas of the world where the growth of a wide variety of organisms is readily supported. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contaminations of three current spices including turmeric, black pepper and cinnamon from some supermarkets in Tehran and evaluating of their hygienic quality. Methods:...

  7. Linkage between bacterial and fungal rhizosphere communities in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils is related to plant phylogeny

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rh...

  8. Critical environmental and genotypic factors for Fusarium verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin contamination in maize grown in northwestern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ana; Santiago, Rogelio; Ramos, Antonio J; Souto, Xosé C; Aguín, Olga; Malvar, Rosa Ana; Butrón, Ana

    2014-05-02

    In northwestern Spain, where weather is rainy and mild throughout the year, Fusarium verticillioides is the most prevalent fungus in kernels and a significant risk of fumonisin contamination has been exposed. In this study, detailed information about environmental and maize genotypic factors affecting F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content in maize kernels was obtained in order to establish control points to reduce fumonisin contamination. Evaluations were conducted in a total of 36 environments and factorial regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of each factor to variability among environments, genotypes, and genotype × environment interactions for F. verticillioides infection, fungal growth and fumonisin content. Flowering and kernel drying were the most critical periods throughout the growing season for F. verticillioides infection and fumonisin contamination. Around flowering, wetter and cooler conditions limited F. verticillioides infection and growth, and high temperatures increased fumonisin contents. During kernel drying, increased damaged kernels favored fungal growth, and higher ear damage by corn borers and hard rainfall favored fumonisin accumulation. Later planting dates and especially earlier harvest dates reduced the risk of fumonisin contamination, possibly due to reduced incidence of insects and accumulation of rainfall during the kernel drying period. The use of maize varieties resistant to Sitotroga cerealella, with good husk coverage and non-excessive pericarp thickness could also be useful to reduce fumonisin contamination of maize kernels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PRESENCE OF FUNGAL CONTAMINATION IN THE PRODUCTION CHAIN OF FRESH FILLED PASTA, WITH PARTICULAR REGARD TO THE PENICILLIUM GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lomonaco

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A shelf-life study was carried out on fresh filled pasta in order to evaluate the presence of fungal contamination in the production process (environment, raw materials and finished products, with particular regard to the Penicillium genus. Analyses were conducted on three types of products, while air sampling was carried out in shaping processes and packaging areas. After isolation of molds, phenotypic identification of Penicillium genus and genotyping confirmation were carried out. As for the isolated strains, the species identified are those expected from this type of matrix: 40.7% P. viridicatum, 14.8% P. griseofulvum, 11.1% P. chrysogenum, 7.4% for P. citrinum, P. nalgiovense and P. crustosum and finally 3.7% for each of the three remaining species (P. roqueforti, P. formosanum, P. atramentosum. Results showed environmental contamination, particularly at the end of the work day. In fact, 59% of identified Penicillia originated from air samples, while only 10% from foods. Moreover, even if fungal contamination was observed at all considered times, level of contamination were generally low and never resulted in spoilage of the product as no macroscopically visible colonies were observed. It is therefore clear that pasteurization and modified atmosphere packaging are able to control the growth of potentially present fungal contamination.

  10. Fungal-to-bacterial dominance of soil detrital food-webs: Consequences for biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousk, Johannes; Frey, Serita

    2015-04-01

    Resolving fungal and bacterial groups within the microbial decomposer community is thought to capture disparate microbial life strategies, associating bacteria with an r-selected strategy for carbon (C) and nutrient use, and fungi with a K-selected strategy. Additionally, food-web models have established a widely held belief that the bacterial decomposer pathway in soil supports high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while the slower fungal pathway supports the decomposition of more complex organic material, thus characterising the biogeochemistry of the ecosystem. Three field-experiments to generate gradients of SOC-quality were assessed. (1) the Detritus Input, Removal, and Trenching - DIRT - experiment in a temperate forest in mixed hardwood stands at Harvard Forest LTER, US. There, experimentally adjusted litter input and root input had affected the SOC quality during 23 years. (2) field-application of 14-C labelled glucose to grassland soils, sampled over the course of 13 months to generate an age-gradient of SOM (1 day - 13 months). (3) The Park Grass Experiment at Rothamsted, UK, where 150-years continuous N-fertilisation (0, 50, 100, 150 kg N ha-1 y-1) has affected the quality of SOM in grassland soils. A combination of carbon stable and radio isotope studies, fungal and bacterial growth and biomass measurements, and C and N mineralisation (15N pool dilution) assays were used to investigate how SOC-quality influenced fungal and bacterial food-web pathways and the implications this had for C and nutrient turnover. There was no support that decomposer food-webs dominated by bacteria support high turnover rates of easily available substrates, while slower fungal-dominated decomposition pathways support the decomposition of more complex organic material. Rather, an association between high quality SOC and fungi emerges from the results. This suggests that we need to revise our basic understanding for soil microbial communities and the processes

  11. Soil contamination with cadmium, consequences and remediation using organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Amjad; Khan, Sardar; Khan, Anwarzeb; Alam, Mehboob

    2017-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination of soil and food crops is a ubiquitous environmental problem that has resulted from uncontrolled industrialization, unsustainable urbanization and intensive agricultural practices. Being a toxic element, Cd poses high threats to soil quality, food safety, and human health. Land is the ultimate source of waste disposal and utilization therefore, Cd released from different sources (natural and anthropogenic), eventually reaches soil, and then subsequently bio-accumulates in food crops. The stabilization of Cd in contaminated soil using organic amendments is an environmentally friendly and cost effective technique used for remediation of moderate to high contaminated soil. Globally, substantial amounts of organic waste are generated every day that can be used as a source of nutrients, and also as conditioners to improve soil quality. This review paper focuses on the sources, generation, and use of different organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil, discusses their effects on soil physical and chemical properties, Cd bioavailability, plant uptake, and human health risk. Moreover, it also provides an update of the most relevant findings about the application of organic amendments to remediate Cd contaminated soil and associated mechanisms. Finally, future research needs and directions for the remediation of Cd contaminated soil using organic amendments are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental increase in availability of a PAH complex organic contamination from an aged contaminated soil: Consequences on biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Leyval, Corinne

    2013-01-01

    Although high PAH content and detection of PAH-degraders, the PAH biodegradation is limited in aged-contaminated soils due to low PAH availability (i.e., 1%). Here, we tried to experimentally increase the soil PAH availability by keeping both soil properties and contamination composition. Organic extract was first removed and then re-incorporated in the raw soil as fresh contaminants. Though drastic, this procedure only allowed a 6-time increase in the PAH availability suggesting that the organic constituents more than ageing were responsible for low availability. In the re-contaminated soil, the mineralization rate was twice more important, the proportion of 5–6 cycles PAH was higher indicating a preferential degradation of lower molecular weight PAH. The extraction treatment induced bacterial and fungal community structures modifications, Pseudomonas and Fusarium solani species were favoured, and the relative quantity of fungi increased. In re-contaminated soil the percentage of PAH-dioxygenase gene increased, with 10 times more Gram negative representatives. -- Highlights: ► Re-incorporation of soil organic extract increased 6-times the PAH availability. ► Complexity of organic contamination is the main driver of PAH availability. ► Biodegradation of PAH with less than 5-cycles increased with increasing PAH availability. ► Pseudomonas and Fusarium species are favoured when PAH availability increased. -- More than ageing, the complexity of organic contamination is the main driver of PAH availability

  13. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S. [School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001 (Australia); Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Juhasz, Albert L., E-mail: Albert.Juhasz@unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation (CERAR), University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes Campus, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment (CRC CARE), Mawson Lakes, Adelaide, South Australia, 5095 (Australia)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 {+-} 3.7% compared to < 1.2% without nitrogen and phosphorus additions. {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 {+-} 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 {+-} 0.2 to 35.8 {+-} 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33-37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible {sup 14}C-hexadecane mineralisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. Black

  14. Impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14C-hexadecane mineralisation in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adetutu, Eric M.; Ball, Andy S.; Weber, John; Aleer, Samuel; Dandie, Catherine E.; Juhasz, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the impact of bacterial and fungal processes on 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was investigated in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil. The extent of 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation varied depending on the bioremediation strategy employed. Under enhanced natural attenuation conditions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation after 98 days was 8.5 ± 3.7% compared to 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was further enhanced through Tween 80 amendments (28.9 ± 2.4%) which also promoted the growth of a Phanerochaete chyrsosporium fungal mat. Although fungal growth in weathered hydrocarbon contaminated soil could be promoted through supplementing additional carbon sources (Tween 80, sawdust, compost, pea straw), fungal 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was negligible when sodium azide was added to soil microcosms to inhibit bacterial activity. In contrast, when fungal activity was inhibited through nystatin additions, 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation ranged from 6.5 ± 0.2 to 35.8 ± 3.8% after 98 days depending on the supplied amendment. Bacteria inhibition with sodium azide resulted in a reduction in bacterial diversity (33–37%) compared to microcosms supplemented with nystatin or microcosms without inhibitory supplements. However, alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms, highlighting the important role of this bacterial group in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. - Highlights: ► The roles of different microbial groups in hydrocarbon mineralisation was assessed. ► Inhibiting fungal growth did not affect 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► Inhibiting bacterial growth resulted in negligible 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation. ► alkB bacterial groups were undetected in sodium azide supplemented microcosms. ► The importance of alkB groups in 14 C-hexadecane mineralisation was highlighted.

  15. Food system consequences of a fungal disease epidemic in a major crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfray, H Charles J; Mason-D'Croz, Daniel; Robinson, Sherman

    2016-12-05

    Fungal diseases are major threats to the most important crops upon which humanity depends. Were there to be a major epidemic that severely reduced yields, its effects would spread throughout the globalized food system. To explore these ramifications, we use a partial equilibrium economic model of the global food system (IMPACT) to study a hypothetical severe but short-lived epidemic that reduces rice yields in the countries affected by 80%. We modelled a succession of epidemic scenarios of increasing severity, starting with the disease in a single country in southeast Asia and ending with the pathogen present in most of eastern Asia. The epidemic and subsequent crop losses led to substantially increased global rice prices. However, as long as global commodity trade was unrestricted and able to respond fast enough, the effects on individual calorie consumption were, to a large part, mitigated. Some of the worse effects were projected to be experienced by poor net-rice importing countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which were not affected directly by the disease but suffered because of higher rice prices. We critique the assumptions of our models and explore political economic pressures to restrict trade at times of crisis. We finish by arguing for the importance of 'stress-testing' the resilience of the global food system to crop disease and other shocks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Tackling emerging fungal threats to animal health, food security and ecosystem resilience'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Evaluating the Biodeterioration Enzymatic Activities of Fungal Contamination Isolated from Some Ancient Yemeni Mummies Preserved in the National Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mohammed Naji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sophisticated mummification using chemical preservation was prevalent in ancient Yemeni civilization as noted in the 4th century B.C. mummies of the National Museum of Yemen, Sana’a, used in this study. Five of these mummies were used to evaluate hydrolytic enzymes produced as a result of fungal contamination. Forty-seven fungal species were isolated, thereby reflecting a high degree of contamination which may have resulted from the poor ventilation and preservation system. Aspergillus was the most common genus isolated (48.9%. Fifteen isolates exhibited ability to produce cellulase (EC; 3.2.1.4, Aspergillus candidus being the highest cellulose-producer. Pectin lyase (PL, EC; 4.2.2.2 and pectin methyl esterase (PME, EC; 3.1.1.11 were produced by Trichoderma hamatum, whereas chitinase (EC; 3.2.1.14 was produced by Aspergillus niger. Protease activity was noted by only Cladosporium herbarum. The higher activities of these fungal hydrolytic enzymes represent the major threats of biodeterioration including deteriorating linen bandages as well as the mummy bodies. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the preservation system of the mummies at the National Museum to minimize the contamination up to the lowest level and protect the mummies from biodeterioration.

  17. Real-time, in-situ detection of volatile profiles for the prevention of aflatoxin fungal contamination in pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Tiziana C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Chang, Allan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division; Zhou, Jenny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Center of Micro and Nano Technology, Material Engineering Division

    2017-10-18

    The objective in this project is to provide a proof of concept will demonstrate the feasibility of a Raman, in-situ warning system for detecting and removing developing fungal hot spots from pistachio stockpiles and transit containers, thus decreasing human health risks and product loss as a result of contamination. The proposed project has the following goals: to calibrate the Raman fingerprinting of biomarkers, standalone and in premixed samples, to build a database with the vibrational profiles distinctive to the signatures of the bouquet emitted by the contaminated pistachios; to test the improvement in the detection of the detectable markers with enhanced Raman on a small probe.

  18. Long-run consequences of radioactive contamination in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1983-01-01

    Three papers dealing with the effect of released radioactivity on agricultural operations are presented. The risk of the radiation from 137 Cs is estimated and compased with 90 Sr. The transport of radionuclides in the soil of the district of Malmoehus is calculated and applied to the radiation doses by oral food intake. Calculations of radiation doses by external radiation are also presented and the procedures to prevent contamination of food are disscussed. The items were treated at a public hearing on the 11th of June 1981 (G.B.)

  19. Evaluating the environmental consequences of groundwater contamination. IV. Obtaining and utilizing contaminant arrival distributions in transient flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    The versatility of the new contaminant arrival distributions for determining environmental consequences of subsurface pollution problems is demonstrated through application to a transient flow system. Though some of the four phases of the hydrologic evaluations are more complicated because of the time dependence of the flow and input contaminant concentrations, the arrival distributions still effectively summarize the data required to determine the environmental implications. These arrival distributions yield two graphs or tabular sets of data giving the consequences of the subsurface pollution problems in a simple and direct form. 4 refs

  20. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD FOR PCR IDENTIFICATION OF FUNGAL INDOOR AIR CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following air sampling, fungal DNA needs to be extracted and purified to a state suitable for laboratory use. Our laboratory has developed a simple method of extraction and purification of fungal DNA appropriate for enzymatic manipulation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) appli...

  1. Inactivation of fungal contaminants on Korean traditional cashbox by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation was applied to decontaminate a Korean cultural artifact, a wooden cashbox stored in local museum. Fungi isolated from the wooden cashbox were identified by 18S rDNA sequencing methods. It was observed that the isolated fungi exhibited high similarity to Aspergillus niger, Penicillium verruculosum, and Trichoderma viride. Each strain was tested for sensitivity to gamma irradiation, and was inactivated by the irradiation at a dose of 5 kGy. The wooden cashbox was thus gamma-irradiated at this dose (5 kGy), and consequently decontaminated. Two months after the irradiation, when the wooden cashbox was retested to detect biological contamination, no fungi were found. Therefore, these results suggest that gamma irradiation at a low dose of 5 kGy can be applied for successful decontamination of wooden artifacts.

  2. Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

  3. Potential extinction of Antarctic endemic fungal species as a consequence of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Fenice, Massimiliano; Zucconi, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-01-01

    Cryomyces spp. are fungi adapted to the harsh conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic. The structure of their cell wall is one of the main factors for their uncommon ability to survive external stressors. The cells are, in fact, embedded in a thick and strongly melanised cell wall encrusted with black rigid plaques giving a supplementary protection and making them practically impregnable and refractory even to commercial enzymes including chitinases and glucanases. The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, able to produce an arsenal of lytic enzymes, including chitinases and glucanases, is known for its ability to degrade the cell walls of different food spoiling and opportunistic fungi as well as plant pathogenic Oomycota. Active cells of Cryomyces spp. were cultivated in dual culture with the mycoparasitic fungus both in liquid and solid media. Light microscope observations revealed that the cell walls of Cryomyces were heavily decayed. This resulted in the release of protoplasts. Hyphae penetration was evident with both scanning and transmission electron microscope observations. Due to its ecological amplitude (i.e. temperature growth range 0–28 °C), the parasitic fungus could easily expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global warming by invading new areas towards the interior of the continent. The establishment of interactions with organisms living at present in border ecosystems may lead to extinction of extremely specialized and poorly competitive entities. -- Highlights: ► We studied interactions among Antarctic fungi to evaluate the effects of global warming. ► Cryomyces spp. was parasitized and killed by Lecanicillum muscarium in co-cultures. ► L. muscarium lythic activities may have intriguing and new applications. ► L. muscarium may expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global warming. ► Extinction of threatened species previously living in confined niches may occur.

  4. Potential extinction of Antarctic endemic fungal species as a consequence of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selbmann, Laura, E-mail: selbmann@unitus.it [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Isola, Daniela; Fenice, Massimiliano; Zucconi, Laura [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Sterflinger, Katja [Department of Biotechnology, Austrian Center of Biological Resources and Applied Mycology (ACBR), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Wien (Austria); Onofri, Silvano [Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB), Universita degli Studi della Tuscia, Largo dell' Universita, 01100 Viterbo (Italy)

    2012-11-01

    Cryomyces spp. are fungi adapted to the harsh conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic. The structure of their cell wall is one of the main factors for their uncommon ability to survive external stressors. The cells are, in fact, embedded in a thick and strongly melanised cell wall encrusted with black rigid plaques giving a supplementary protection and making them practically impregnable and refractory even to commercial enzymes including chitinases and glucanases. The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, able to produce an arsenal of lytic enzymes, including chitinases and glucanases, is known for its ability to degrade the cell walls of different food spoiling and opportunistic fungi as well as plant pathogenic Oomycota. Active cells of Cryomyces spp. were cultivated in dual culture with the mycoparasitic fungus both in liquid and solid media. Light microscope observations revealed that the cell walls of Cryomyces were heavily decayed. This resulted in the release of protoplasts. Hyphae penetration was evident with both scanning and transmission electron microscope observations. Due to its ecological amplitude (i.e. temperature growth range 0-28 Degree-Sign C), the parasitic fungus could easily expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global warming by invading new areas towards the interior of the continent. The establishment of interactions with organisms living at present in border ecosystems may lead to extinction of extremely specialized and poorly competitive entities. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We studied interactions among Antarctic fungi to evaluate the effects of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cryomyces spp. was parasitized and killed by Lecanicillum muscarium in co-cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L. muscarium lythic activities may have intriguing and new applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer L. muscarium may expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global

  5. Fungal endophthalmitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii following cataract surgery: a presumed operating room air-conditioning system contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti; Raivio, Virpi; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Tommila, Petri; Ralli, Reijo; Merenmies, Lauri; Immonen, Ilkka

    2004-04-01

    To report a case of delayed fungal endophthalmitis by Paecilomyces variotii following uncomplicated cataract surgery. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of postoperative endophthalmitis by this species. We report the longterm clinical follow-up of an 83-year-old female who underwent uncomplicated sutureless, small-incision cataract surgery. She developed recurring uveitis 4 months after surgery. Vitreous tap and finally complete vitrectomy with removal of the capsular bag including the intraocular lens were performed. Fungi were studied by histopathology and culture. At histopathological examination, the fungi were found to be closely related with the capsular bag. A few mononuclear inflammatory cells were encountered. At culture, Paecilomyces variotii, a common ubiquitous non-pathogenic saprophyte, was identified. Despite systemic, intravitreal and topical antifungal therapy after vitrectomy the uveitis recurred several times, but no fungal organisms were isolated from the repeat intraocular specimen. At 18 months postoperatively the subject's visual acuity was finger counting at 2 metres. At the time of surgery the operating room air-conditioning system was undergoing repairs. Cases of fungal endophthalmitis after contamination from air-conditioning ventilation systems have been reported before, but none of the cases reported have been caused by P. variotii. P. variotii, a non-pathogenic environmental saprophyte, may be disastrous if introduced into the eye. International recommendations on the environmental control of the operating room air-conditioning ventilation system should be strictly followed. No intraoperative surgery should be undertaken while the air-conditioning system is undergoing repairs or service.

  6. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  7. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  8. The major Alternaria alternata allergen, Alt a 1: A reliable and specific marker of fungal contamination in citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M F; Uriel, N; Teifoori, F; Postigo, I; Suñén, E; Martínez, J

    2017-09-18

    The ubiquitously present spores of Alternaria alternata can spoil a wide variety of foodstuffs, including a variety of fruits belonging to the Citrus genus. The major allergenic protein of A. alternata, Alt a 1, is a species-specific molecular marker that has been strongly associated with allergenicity and phytopathogenicity of this fungal species. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the detection of Alt a 1 as a reliable indicator of A. alternata contamination in citrus fruits. To accomplish this aim, sixty oranges were artificially infected with a spore suspension of A. alternata. Internal fruit material was collected at different incubation times (one, two and three weeks after the fungal inoculation) and used for both total RNA extraction and protein extraction. Alt a 1 detection was then performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Alt a 1 specific primers and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The experimental model presented in this work was effective to simulate the typical Alternaria black rot phenotype and its progression. Although both PCR and ELISA techniques have been successfully carried out for detecting Alt a 1 allergen in A. alternata infected oranges, the PCR method was found to be more sensitive than ELISA. Nevertheless, ELISA results were highly valuable to demonstrate that considerable amounts of Alt a 1 are produced during A. alternata fruit infection process, corroborating the recently proposed hypothesis that this protein plays a role in the pathogenicity and virulence of Alternaria species. Such evidence suggests that the detection of Alt a 1 by PCR-based assay may be used as a specific indicator of the presence of pathogenic and allergenic fungal species, A. alternata, in fruits. This knowledge can be employed to control the fungal infection and mitigate agricultural losses as well as human exposure to A. alternata allergens and toxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Physico-Chemical and Fungal Species Associated with Oil Contaminated Soil from Selected Automobile Garage in Sokoto Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Muhammad Maishanu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with a view to evaluating the physicochemical and mycological properties of different oil contaminated soils collected from three different automobile garages in Sokoto Metropolis, and uncontaminated soil from the temporary site, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (UDUS was used as the control. The pH was determined using pH meter model Hanna (H1991301, quantity of mineral elements was evaluated in accordance with Murphy and Fungi were isolated from the three oil contaminated samples (A, B. and C and the uncontaminated (sample D as control, this was done by standard procedure using the method of P. Ren, T. Jankun & B. Leaderer. The physical, chemical, and mineral elements from the oil-contaminated soils of the three automobile garages and control. The results of particle soil analysis revealed the high content of sandy soil (96.2 to 87.3 and silt is the lowest with (2.5–0.6. Magnesium had the highest concentration of studied minerals, ranging from 193 to 649.2 mg/kg. while PH result revealed that the soil samples were pH value ranged from (16.85–16.20 in oil Contaminated samples, while the control had 15.90, and electrical conductivity ranged from 12.8–13.8 % and 28 % in control, four fungal isolates Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Mucor sp. and Sporobolomyces sp. were identified based on colonial, sexual and morphological characteristics. These fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Radioactive contamination of the Dutch soil in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl air, contaminated with radioactive materials, spread over the Netherlands. From 2nd May to 6th May, with dry and to a greater extent with wet deposits, important quantities of radionuclides came upon the earth surface. In this period the weather circumstances within the Netherlands differed strongly resulting in distinct variations in deposit. In this document a preliminary picture is given of the contamination of the Dutch bottom on the basis of soil samplings made in the first few months after the accident. No attention is paid to geographic differences in bottom contamination. The contamination of the bottom is expressed in Bq/kg dry soil as well as in Bq/m 2 soil. 5 refs.; 6 tabs. (H.W.)

  11. Fungal contaminants in man-made water systems connected to municipal water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadaifciler, Duygu Göksay; Demirel, Rasime

    2018-04-01

    Water-related fungi are known to cause taste and odor problems, as well as negative health effects, and can lead to water-pipeline clogging. There is no legal regulation on the occurrence of fungi in water environments. However, much research has been performed, but further studies are needed. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the fungal load and the presence of mycotoxigenic fungi in man-made water systems (for homes, hospitals, and shopping centers) connected to municipal water in Istanbul, Turkey. The mean fungal concentrations found in the different water samples were 98 colony-forming units (CFU)/100 mL in shopping centers, 51 CFU/100 mL in hospitals, and 23 CFU/100 mL in homes. The dominant fungal species were identified as Aureobasidium pullulans and Fusarium oxysporum. Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus westerdijkiae were only detected in the hospital water samples. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Cladosporium cladosporioides were also detected in the samples. The study reveals that the municipal water supplies, available for different purposes, could thus contain mycotoxigenic fungi. It was concluded that current disinfection procedures may be insufficient, and the presence of the above-mentioned fungi is important for people with suppressed immune systems.

  12. High-temperature treatment for efficient drying of bread rye and reduction of fungal contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Elmholt, S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    on the grain. The aim of this study was to establish a drying regime that kills fungal propagules on rye without reducing its quality for baking. Special attention was paid to some important mycotoxin-producing species. As drying temperatures and retention time in the drum are essential, the drum drier must...... the grain was properly stored afterwards. At the same time a high quality for baking was maintained. The highest baking quality in rye was obtained at grain temperatures of about 62 degrees C and only at grain temperatures above 70 degrees C visual quality changes were detected. (c) 2005 Silsoe Research...

  13. The consequences of radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglova, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of forests on the radionuclide primary distribution in different components of the contaminated ecosystems is considered by the example of Chernobyl accident. A basic mathematical model is developed describing 137 Cs biogeochemical cycling under conditions of quasi-steady state radionuclide redistribution in the ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are proved to diminish radionuclide migration in the environment, and forest should be regarded as an important sanitary factor. The contribution of contaminated forests and forest products to the total irradiation dose to local population is estimated. Special countermeasures are elaborated in order to diminish unfavorable consequences of forest radioactive contamination. A long-term dynamics of radioactive situation in the forest ecosystems in forecasted and further studies on the subject are drafted

  14. Relationship between fungal contamination and ergosterol content and control of wheat grain spoilage by gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahin, A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; Aziz, N.H.; El-Zeany, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The fungal flora and the ergosterol content of wheat grains were determined and the effect of gamma-irradiation on some important grain fungi to control mould spoilage of wheat grains was also investigated. At the start of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of wheat grains were 3.3μg/g and 3x10 3 /g, respectively and the technological values as germinative capacity and fat acidity were wholly satisfactory. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content and the number of moulds of the grains were 45.5 μg/g and 80x10 5 /g, respectively and all the germinative capacity and fat acidity values were not satisfactory. The ergosterol content of wheat grains irradiated at a dose level 3 kGy was 0.5 μg/g and the number of moulds were 8x10 2 /g. After 50 days of storage, the ergosterol content of the 3 kGy irradiated grains was 0.90 μg/g and the number of moulds were 15x10 2 /g and all the technological values were satisfactory. The fungal biomass and the ergosterol content of some grains fungi were decreased by increasing the irradiation dose levels. At irradiation dose level 4 kGy, there was no ergosterol in wheat grains and the moulds were completely inhibited and the technological values are wholly satisfactory over 50 days of storage

  15. Impact of sowing time, hybrid and environmental conditions on the contamination of maize by emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Blandino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites represent the most insidious safety risks to cereal food and the feed chain. Optimising agronomic practices is one of the main strategies adopted to minimise the contents of these undesirable substances in grain-based commodities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of sowing times and hybrids on the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins and fungal metabolites in maize. Field experiments were carried out in 2 sowing times (early vs late and 3 maize hybrids were compared in the 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. Overall, 37 fungal metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria species were detected. Apart from fumonisins type B (FBs, other metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, such as fumonisins type A, fusaric acid, bikaverin and fusaproliferin, were also detected in all of the samples. Fusarin C was found in 61% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, culmorin and zearalenone, all of which are produced prevalently by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, were found in all the samples. Their contents were clearly affected by the meteorological trend: the highest contamination was detected in the 2014 growing season, which was characterised by abundant rainfall and lower temperatures from flowering to maize ripening. Among the mycotoxins produced by other Fusarium species, aurofusarin was found to clearly be associated with DON, while moniliformin and beauvericin followed the same behaviour as the FBs. A late sowing time significantly increased the FBs and fumonisin- associated mycotoxins in both growing seasons. The increase in contamination with the delay of sowing was more pronounced in the 2015 growing season, as the environmental conditions were less favourable to the infection of other Fusarium species. The effect of sowing time on DON and DON-associated mycotoxins produced conflicting results for the two growing

  16. Effect of Medicinal Smokes on Reduction of Fungal Indoor Air Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Fouladi Fard

    2016-12-01

    Results: The indoor fungal removal percent by Espand smoke in 1, 3, and 5 minutes after smoking were 52.75 %, 64.72 %, and 77.28 %, respectively; and for the Anbarnasa smoke at these times were 54.6 %, 59.4 %, and 74 %. Increase in smoking time caused a significant increase (p < 0.05( in fungi removal, but change in the mass and the kind of smoking matter (Espand or Anbarnasa did not cause any significant change in the removal. Conclusion: Smoking with Espand and Anbarnasa as well as duration of smoking can decrease the building's ambient air fungi burden significantly. Of course it is better to perform smoking in enclosed spaces especially in toilets and without the presence of the person.

  17. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libert, Xavier; Packeu, Ann; Bureau, Fabrice; Roosens, Nancy H; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J

    2017-01-01

    Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  18. Development and performance assessment of a luminex xMAP® direct hybridization assay for the detection and identification of indoor air fungal contamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Libert

    Full Text Available Considered as a public health problem, indoor fungal contamination is generally monitored using classical protocols based on culturing. However, this culture dependency could influence the representativeness of the fungal population detected in an analyzed sample as this includes the dead and uncultivable fraction. Moreover, culture-based protocols are often time-consuming. In this context, molecular tools are a powerful alternative, especially those allowing multiplexing. In this study a Luminex xMAP® assay was developed for the simultaneous detection of 10 fungal species which are most frequently in indoor air and that may cause health problems. This xMAP® assay was found to be sensitive, i.e. its limit of detection is ranging between 0.05 and 0.01 ng of gDNA. The assay was subsequently tested with environmental air samples which were also analyzed with a classical protocol. All the species identified with the classical method were also detected with the xMAP® assay, however in a shorter time frame. These results demonstrate that the Luminex xMAP® fungal assay developed in this study could contribute to the improvement of public health and specifically to the indoor fungal contamination treatment.

  19. High-temperature treatment for efficient drying of bread rye and reduction of fungal contaminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, E.F.; Elmholt, S.; Thrane, Ulf

    2005-01-01

    time of 10(.)5 min and a temperature of 64 degrees C killed 99% of the yeast propagules and 98% of the filamentous fungi. Moisture contents were reduced to about 12%. A similar drying regime in a supplementary trial reduced the number of P. verrucosum contaminated kernels from more than 70% to 12...

  20. A new approach to assess occupational exposure to airborne fungal contamination and mycotoxins of forklift drivers in waste sorting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; de Oliveira, Ana Cebola; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Carolino, Elisabete; Quintal-Gomes, Anita; Twarużek, Magdalena; Kosicki, Robert; Soszczyńska, Ewelina; Viegas, Susana

    2017-11-01

    The waste management industry is an important employer, and exposure of waste-handling workers to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. Besides fungal contamination, it is important to consider the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in this setting. Forklifts with closed cabinet and air conditioner are commonly used in waste industry to transport waste and other products within the facilities, possibly increasing the risk of exposure under certain conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the fungal contamination and mycotoxin levels in filters from the air conditioning system of forklift cabinets, as an indicator to assess occupational exposure of the drivers working in a waste sorting facility. Cytotoxicity was also assessed to understand and characterize the toxicity of the complex mixtures as present in the forklift filters. Aqueous extracts of filters from 11 vehicles were streaked onto 2% malt extract agar (MEA) with chloramphenicol (0.05 g/L) media, and in dichloran glycerol (DG18) agar-based media for morphological identification of the mycobiota. Real-time quantitative PCR amplification of genes from Aspergillus sections Fumigati, Flavi, Circumdati, and Versicolores was also performed. Mycotoxins were analyzed using LC-MS/MS system. Cytotoxicity of filter extracts was analyzed by using a MTT cell culture test. Aspergillus species were found most frequently, namely Aspergillus sections Circumdati (MEA 48%; DG18 41%) and Nigri (MEA 32%; DG18 17.3%). By qPCR, only Aspergillus section Fumigati species were found, but positive results were obtained for all assessed filters. No mycotoxins were detected in aqueous filter extracts, but most extracts were highly cytotoxic (n = 6) or medium cytotoxic (n = 4). Although filter service life and cytotoxicity were not clearly correlated, the results suggest that observing air conditioner filter replacement frequency may be a critical aspect to avoid worker's exposure. Further research is

  1. Relationship between the level of deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat and the fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Cea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium spp invades grain commodities in the field and during storage in Uruguay and produces Deoxynivalenol  as the main toxin.The Department of Natural Toxins of Technological Laboratory of Uruguay, as partner in the Project titled " The Development of a Food Quality Management System for the Control of Mycotoxins in Cereal Production and Proccesing Chains in Latin America South Cone Countries", INCO Project ICA4-CT-2002-10043 participates in two workpackages (WP. WP1 related to the development and standarisation of effective analytical tools for mycotoxin determination in cereal and by- products and WP4 related to hazard analysis on mycotoxins.Once DON results were obtained, the objective of this work was to evaluate a possible relationship between the level of deoxynivalenol contamination in wheat and the fungi infection.To reach the objective nine samples corresponding to four different levels of DON contamination were selected as representative of the 87 samples. One sample of 1379 ppb (Group A, four samples of 2536 ppb average (Group B, one sample of 7349 ppb (Group C and three samples of 20076 ppb average (Group D were used for the study. The water activity (aw was measured previous DON content analysis and fungi contamination determination. The values recorded were lower than 0,7.The grains, before and after treatment with sodium hipocloride solution 5%, were placed in duplicate Petri dishes containing yeast glucose cloramphenicol agar (YGCA, twenty grains without treatment and fourty grains treated per dish. The colonies grown were isolated in potato dextrose agar (PDA and malt extract agar (MEA tubes. Cultures on Czapek Agar were made. Petri dishes and tubes were incubated at 25 ± 1 °C, 4 to 7 days. Cultures on Cazapek Agar were observed under microscope every 24 hours.After sodium hipocloride treatment Fusarium, Penicillium and Alternaria spp were found. The results obtained showed that Fusarium spp colonies were isolated from

  2. The role of biomarkers in evaluating human health concerns from fungal contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul C; Flannery, Brenna; Isitt, Catherine; Ali, Mariyam; Pestka, James

    2012-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that globally contaminate an estimated 25 % of cereal crops and thus exposure is frequent in many populations. Aflatoxins, fumonisins and deoxynivalenol are amongst those mycotoxins of particular concern from a human health perspective. A number of risks to health are suggested including cancer, growth faltering, immune suppression and neural tube defects; though only the demonstrated role for aflatoxin in the aetiology of liver cancer is widely recognised. The heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in food restricts the usefulness of food sampling and intake estimates; instead biomarkers provide better tools for informing epidemiological investigations. Validated exposure biomarkers for aflatoxin (urinary aflatoxin M(1), aflatoxin-N7-guaunine, serum aflatoxin-albumin) were established almost 20 years ago and were critical in confirming aflatoxins as potent liver carcinogens. Validation has included demonstration of assay robustness, intake v. biomarker level, and stability of stored samples. More recently, aflatoxin exposure biomarkers are revealing concerns of growth faltering and immune suppression; importantly, they are being used to assess the effectiveness of intervention strategies. For fumonisins and deoxynivalenol these steps of development and validation have significantly advanced in recent years. Such biomarkers should better inform epidemiological studies and thus improve our understanding of their potential risk to human health.

  3. Fungal contamination and aflatoxins content of dry raisins fruits in Sanaa City, Republic of Yemen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alghalibi, S.M.; Battah, M.G.; Al-Zubairy, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to study mycoflora and aflatoxin content of dry raisins in Yemen Republic. Thirty six raisins samples collected from different shops and markets in Sana'a city were analyzed mycologically for the presence of fungi. A total of forty eight species belonging to 20 genera were recovered from the analyzed raisins samples on three cultural media. Aspergillus was the most dominant genera on the three types of media, of which A. niger was the most common species. A. flavus was isolated in moderate, low and rare frequency on 1% and 20% sucrose Czapek's and Sabouraud dextrose agar media. Pencillium was isolated in moderate frequency on 1 and 20% sucrose Czapek's agar media, but in low frequency on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium. The raisin samples were analyzed for the presence of total aflatoxin using ELISA technique. The results revealed that 3 out of 7 samples of raisins analyzed were contaminated with total aflatoxin at levels raged from 2678.66 to 11556.88 ppt (ng Kg-1). (author)

  4. Growth of desferrioxamine-deficient Streptomyces mutants through xenosiderophore piracy of airborne fungal contaminations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anthony Argüelles; Lambert, Stéphany; Martinet, Loïc; Adam, Delphine; Tenconi, Elodie; Hayette, Marie-Pierre; Ongena, Marc; Rigali, Sébastien

    2015-07-01

    Due to the necessity of iron for housekeeping functions, nutrition, morphogenesis and secondary metabolite production, siderophore piracy could be a key strategy in soil and substrate colonization by microorganisms. Here we report that mutants of bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor unable to produce desferrioxamine siderophores could recover growth when the plates were contaminated by indoor air spores of a Penicillium species and Engyodontium album. UPLC-ESI-MS analysis revealed that the HPLC fractions with the extracellular 'resuscitation' factors of the Penicillium isolate were only those that contained siderophores, i.e. Fe-dimerum acid, ferrichrome, fusarinine C and coprogen. The restored growth of the Streptomyces mutants devoid of desferrioxamine is most likely mediated through xenosiderophore uptake as the cultivability depends on the gene encoding the ABC-transporter-associated DesE siderophore-binding protein. That a filamentous fungus allows the growth of desferrioxamine non-producing Streptomyces in cocultures confirms that xenosiderophore piracy plays a vital role in nutritional interactions between these taxonomically unrelated filamentous microorganisms. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Moussa, L.A.A.; Abu-Shady, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author)

  6. Effect of gamma radiation on the survival of fungal and actinomycetal florae contaminating medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N.H.; El-Fouly, M.Z.; Moussa, L.A.A. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Cairo (Egypt); Abu-Shady, M.R. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of gamma radiation on the viability of fungi and actinomycetes that contaminate medicinal plants. The relationship between the total lipids of some fungi and actinomycetes and their sensitivity to gamma radiation is also investigated. The data reveal that the viable counts of these florae decrease approximately exponentially with the radiation dose, the effective dose for the elimination of these microorganisms being about 5 kGy for all the medicinal plants under study. Response of pure cultures of fungi and actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants to increasing absorbed doses of gamma radiation indicate that an increase in radioresistance is in the following order: Streptomyces rimosus, Fusarium solani, Nocardia kuroishii. F. oxysporum, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus. The total lipid contents of molds and actinomycetes have been reported to be increased by increasing the radio-resistance of microorganisms, and hence there is a relationship between the radio-sensitivity of microorganisms and the total lipid mass of flora mycelia. (Author).

  7. Bank of models for estimation of radioactive contamination consequences at the places where nuclear submarines are awaiting decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobiev, V.; Nosov, A.; Hitrikov, V.; Kiselev, V.; Korjov, M.; Krylov, A.; Kanevsky, M.; Petuhov, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper presents a description of a computer bank of models for estimation of reactor accident consequences in harbors where Russian nuclear submarines are awaiting decommissioning. The computer bank is intended for an estimation of the consequences of a possible contamination of the surface water. It will also support the decision making in a tense situation. 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Efficacy of chemically characterized Foeniculum vulgare Mill seed essential oil in protection of raw tobacco leaves during storage against fungal and aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, A; Dwivedy, A K; Pandey, A K; Kumar, R R; Regmi, P; Dubey, N K

    2015-10-01

    To report fungal and aflatoxin contamination in stored tobacco leaves and the potential of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant-based preservative in protection of tobacco during storage. Mycological analysis of tobacco samples was done by surface sterilization and serial dilution tests. The Aspergillus flavus isolates were screened for their toxigenicity. Both in vivo and in vitro tests were done to evaluate antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of chemically characterized EO. The mycoflora analysis revealed 108 fungal colonies belonging to five genera and nine species. All A. flavus isolates were found aflatoxigenic during screening. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis of EO identified 19 components (99·66%); estragole being the major component (47·49%). The EO showed broad fungitoxicity at 1·25 μl ml(-1) and 100% inhibition to AFB1 production as well as ergosterol synthesis at 1·0 μl ml(-1) concentration. EO showed 100% protection of stored tobacco samples from aflatoxin B1 contamination. The fennel EO can thus be formulated as a plant-based preservative for food items. The present investigation comprises the first report on antiaflatoxin efficacy of fennel oil and its potency in the protection of tobacco leaves from fungal and aflatoxin contamination during storage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Accidental releases of radionuclides: a preliminary study of the consequences of land contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.; Haywood, S.M.; Linsley, G.S.

    1982-10-01

    The long term consequences of land contamination from accidental releases of activity from thermal reactors are examined. The radiological consequences are assessed using an analysis of the exposure of individuals and the population to ground deposits of the radionuclides released. The contribution of the different nuclides in the release by their various exposure routes to the irradiation of man are calculated as a function of time after release and the most radiologically important are identified. A preliminary assessment is made of off-site economic and social consequences of accidental releases by estimating the areas of land which would be affected by the introduction of countermeasures to control individual radiation exposure due to external irradiation from ground deposits (relocation of populations), and the intake of radionuclides contained in locally produced foodstuffs (restrictions on food production). The areas where administrative controls would be necessary decline in size with time after the release; estimates are made of this time-dependent behaviour using dynamic environmental transfer models. Finally, the collective doses saved by the introduction of countermeasures are estimated using population and agricultural distribution data for a rural location in the United Kingdom. (author)

  10. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  11. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  12. Genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the Chernobyl fallout to agricultural crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraskin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Zyablitskaya Ye.Ya.; Oudalova, A.A.; Spirin, Ye. V; Alexakhin, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic consequences of radioactive contamination by the fallout to agricultural crops after the accident at the Chernobyl NPP in 1986 have been studied. In the first, acute, period of this accident, when the absorbed dose was primarily due to external β- and γ-irradiation, the radiation injury of agricultural crops, according to the basic cytogenetic tests resembled the effect produced by acute γ-irradiation at comparable doses. The yield of cytogenetic damage in leaf meristem of plants grown in the 10-km zone of the ChNPP in 1987-1989 (the period of chronic, lower level radiation exposure) was shown to be enhanced and dependent on the level of radioactive contamination. The rate of decline with time in cytogenetic damage induced by chronic exposure lagged considerably behind that of the radiation exposure. Analysis of genetic variability in three sequentia generations of rye and wheat revealed increased cytogenetic damage in plants exposed to chronic irradiation during the 2nd and 3rd years

  13. Simultaneous immobilization of cadmium and lead in contaminated soils by hybrid bio-nanocomposites of fungal hyphae and nano-hydroxyapatites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihui; Liang, Lifen; Yang, Weichun; Shi, Wei; Tong, Yunping; Chai, Liyuan; Gao, Shikang; Liao, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Self-aggregation of bulk nano-hydroxyapatites (n-HAPs) undermines their immobilization efficiencies of heavy metals in the contaminated soils. Here, the low-cost, easily obtained, and environment-friendly filamentous fungi have been introduced for the bio-matrices of the hybrid bio-nanocomposites to potentially solve such problem of n-HAPs. According to SEM, TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses, n-HAPs were successfully coated onto the fungal hyphae and their self-aggregation was improved. The immobilization efficiencies of diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils by the bio-nanocomposites were individually one to four times of that by n-HAPs or the fungal hyphae. Moreover, the Aspergillus niger-based bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) was superior to the Penicillium Chrysogenum F1-based bio-nanocomposite (PCHP) in immobilization of Cd and Pb in the contaminated soils. In addition, the results of XRD showed that one of the potential mechanisms of metal immobilization by the hybrid bio-nanocomposites was dissolution of n-HAPs followed by precipitation of new metal phosphate minerals. Our results suggest that the hybrid bio-nanocomposite (ANHP) can be recognized as a promising soil amendment candidate for effective remediation on the soils simultaneously contaminated by Cd and Pb.

  14. Fungal and mycotoxin assessment of dried edible mushroom in Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezekiel, C.N.; Sulyok, M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine whether dried mushrooms are a foodstuff that may be less susceptible to infection by toxigenic molds and consequently to mycotoxin contamination, 34 dried market samples were analyzed. Fungal population was determined in the samples by conventional mycological techniques...

  15. Studying the application of gamma radiation in removing fungal contamination of poultry grain and the effect of this radiation on changing the immunity titer related to vaccinate SPF chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhoseini, Gh. R.

    1998-01-01

    Considering the existing problems in discarding or reducing the fungal contamination of poultry grain, due to the conventional methods being inadequate, for example remainder of fungal toxins (using chemical substance) or grain's dampness (using autoclave) etc, make us using nuclear techniques to remove these problems. First specification and determination of contamination types and also determination types and also determination of different kinds of fungal contamination and their amount in the poultry grain was done. The most fungal contamination were Aspergillus in the starter grain. Then biochemical analysis in poultry grain and determination of existence and the amount of Aflatoxin was done. Then gamma radiation of Co-60 from 1 to 6 kilo grays doses were applied in order to reduce or remove the contamination and finally 6 kilo gray dose was chosen. Rechecking the irradiated grains 4-5 months after application of gamma radiation in different moisture and temperatures (in cellophane packaging) revealed 6 kilo gray dose not only has constant effect in removal of fungal contamination and Aflatoxin (in the two cases) but also has no negative effect on the grain's compounds. In the continuation of this research two types of grain: non-irradiated and irradiated were fed to identical groups of SPF chickens in three different time periods. The follow up experiments showed the immune titers in the chickens fed on the irradiated grain were lower than the immune titers in the chickens fed on the non-irradiated grain. (author)

  16. A Qualitative and Quantitative Survey on Air-Transmitted Fungal Contamination in Different Wards of Kamkar Hospital in Qom, Iran, in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Azizifar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Fungi spores can be found everywhere. The amount and variety of fungal spores and their vast spread could be a preliminary step to the initiation of different diseases in people with different levels of health.

    Methods: In the present study six wards including nephrology, internal ward for women, surgery ward for men, operating theater for E.N.T., ophthalmology, infectious diseases ward and the laboratory were chosen for sampling on the basis of their types of activities and their in-patients. We used Anderson sampling method, collected samples within two minutes with flow rate of 28.3 L/Min in sabouraud medium.

    Results: Maximum contamination in the infectious diseases ward was 300 CFU/m3 and minimum contamination in E.N.T. was 94 CFU/m3. The maximum percentage of fungal spores in the hospital air was observed to be as follows: penicillin with 36.36%, Cladosporium 24.74%, A.niger 17.97%, Rhizopus 10.57% and A.flavus 2.74A%.

    Conclusion: Fungal contamination concentration in hospital indoor air in this study was higher than the recommended limits and other similar studies from a quantitative point of view, but it was similar to other studies in terms of identified species.

  17. Environmental Contamination Genetic Consequences Monitoring on the Former Semipalatinsk Test Site: General Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seisebaev, A.T.; Bakhtin, M.M.; Zhapbasov, R.Zh.

    1998-01-01

    For an objective assessment of nuclear test consequences for the environment it is necessary, together with the investigation of radiation situation, to study live biological systems, particularly the genetic effects of chronic ionizing radiation. The long staying of plants and animals on the territories with the elevated radiation background level can lead to the change of organism genetic system. In this connection the monitoring of chronically exposed natural populations is of particular interest and can serve as the objective indicator of the scale of natural biota genetic damage. Basing on the results obtained during plant and animal studies one can indirectly assess the hazard of people genetic damage. Besides, studying the mutational process on natural populations exposed to the chronic ionizing radiation one can reveal new regularities, which are impossible to be detected in the laboratory conditions, and new aspects of radiation genetics. The issue of radiation adaptation of organisms affected by the various doses of ionizing radiation is very acute. The prerequisite of organism adaptation to the certain radiation background is genetic heterogeneity of individuals comprising the population and selection of radiation-induced individuals, which are the carriers of the mutation of high radioresistance. The uniqueness of the Semipalatinsk Test site and the necessity of long-term investigations of the nuclear test consequences for the environment demand the elaboration of principles for organization and utilization of natural population genetic monitoring. Radiation-genetic monitoring is the long-term observation of palpitation gene pool conditions, assessment and forecast of their spatial and time alteration, determination of limits of changes admitted under the condition of environmental radioactive contamination. It includes a series of the main research directions and has quite certain methodological peculiarities. In this paper we discuss the tasks of

  18. Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 mediate growth of Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability in metal-contaminated soil: evidence from DGT measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ningning; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong; Guo, Junkang; Ju, Xuehai; Smith, Donald L

    2013-01-01

    Fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 may mediate plant growth and uptake of heavy metals, but little evidence from Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) measurement has been obtained to characterize the process. Lolium mutiforum and Phytolacca americana were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 on naturally Cd and Pb contaminated soils inoculated with and without Trichoderma asperellum strain C3 or Penicillium chrysogenum strain D4, to investigate plant growth, metal uptake, and metal bioavailability responses. Fungal inoculation increased plant biomass and shoot/root Cd and Pb concentrations. Elevated CO2 significantly increased plants biomass, but decreased Cd and Pb concentrations in shoot/root to various extents, leading to a metal dilution phenomenon. Total Cd and Pb uptake by plants, and DGT-measured Cd and Pb concentrations in rhizosphere soils, were higher in all fungal inoculation and elevated CO2 treatments than control treatments, with the combined treatments having more influence than either treatment alone. Metal dilution phenomenon occurred because the increase in DGT-measured bioavailable metal pools in plant rhizosphere due to elevated CO2 was unable to match the increase in requirement for plant uptake of metals due to plant biomass increase.

  19. Application of four novel fungal strains to remove arsenic from contaminated water in batch and column modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Virendra; Saxena, Sangeeta; Kaur, Ispreet; Dubey, Priya; Nand, Sampurna; Naseem, Mariya; Singh, Suman B; Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Barik, Saroj Kanta

    2018-08-15

    Immobilized biomass of novel indigenous fungal strains FNBR_3, FNBR_6, FNBR_13, and FNBR_19 were evaluated for arsenic (As) removal from aqueous solution. Alginate beads containing 0.1 g biomass were used in a batch experiment (200 mg l -1 As; pH 6). Biosorption equilibrium established in first 2 h with As adsorption (mg g -1 ) as 70, 68, 113 and 90 by FNBR_3, FNBR_6, FNBR_13 and FNBR_19, respectively. The equilibrium was fitted to the Langmuir model (r 2  = 0. 90-0.97). The absorption kinetic followed the pseudo second order. Changes in the surface of fungal cells and intracellular As-uptake by fungal biomass were also confirmed by scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer. The presence of different functional groups on fungal cells capable of As-binding was investigated by FTIR. The As-removal by immobilized fungal beads tested in the packed columns also. The As-adsorption by biomass (qe as mg g -1 ) were recorded as 59.5 (FNBR_3 and FNBR_6), 74.8 (FNBR_13), and 66.3 (FNBR_19) in the column and validated by Thomas model. This is the first report concerning the arsenic removal by immobilized biomass of these novel fungal strains from aqueous solution both in batch and column studies with a prospect of their further industrial application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Perspective on Sustainable Soil Remediation—Case Study Suggests Novel Fungal Genera Could Facilitate in situ Biodegradation of Hazardous Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplicki, L.M.; Cooper, E.; Ferguson, P.L.; Stapleton, H.M.; Vilgalys, R.; Gunsch, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Deciding upon a cost effective and sustainable method to address soil pollution is a challenge for many remedial project managers. High pressure to quickly achieve cleanup goals pushes for energy-intensive remedies that rapidly address the contaminants of concern with established technologies, often leaving little room for research and development especially for slower treatment technologies, such as bioremediation, for the more heavily polluted sites. In the present case study, new genomic approaches have been leveraged to assess fungal biostimulation potential in soils polluted with particularly persistent hydrophobic contaminants. This new approach provides insights into the genetic functions available at a given site in a way never before possible. In particular, this article presents a case study where next generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to categorize fungi in soils from the Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund site in Portsmouth, Virginia. Data suggest that original attempts to harness fungi for bioremediation may have focused on fungal genera poorly suited to survive under heavily polluted site conditions, and that more targeted approaches relying on native indigenous fungi which are better equipped to survive under site specific conditions may be more appropriate. PMID:27917031

  1. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, A.; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Petruccioli, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 566, OCT1 (2016), s. 250-259 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02328S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Oil-contaminated soil * Bioremediation * Contaminant bioavailability Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  2. Recovering greater fungal diversity from pristine and diesel fuel contaminated Sub-Antarctic soil through cultivation using a high and a novel low nutrient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Carlene Ferrari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel cultivation strategies for bacteria are widespread and are well described for recovering greater diversity from the hitherto unculturable majority. While similar approaches have not been demonstrated for fungi it has been suggested that of the 1.5 million estimated species less than 5% have been recovered into pure culture. Fungi are known to be involved in many degradative processes, including the breakdown of hydrocarbons, and it has been speculated that in Polar Regions they contribute significantly to bioremediation of soils contaminated with hydrocarbons. Given the biotechnological potential of fungi there is a need to increase efforts for greater species recovery, particularly from extreme environments such as sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. In this study, like the hitherto unculturable bacteria, high concentrations of nutrients selected for predominantly different species to that recovered using low nutrient media. By combining both approaches to cultivation from contaminated and non-contaminated soils, 99 fungal species were recovered, including 42 yet unidentified species, several of which were isolated from soils containing high concentrations of diesel fuel. These novel species will now be characterized for their potential role in hydrocarbon degradation.

  3. Radium contamination of the Laak river banks as a consequence of phosphate industry in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridaens, J.; Vanmarcke, H.

    2002-01-01

    For over half a century, phosphate ores of marine origin, containing 226 Ra have been processed in Belgium to produce calcium phosphate for use in cattle food. As a result, the wastewaters contained 226 Ra, which was discharged into two little rivers, one of which is the Laak. The purpose of this study was to chart the radium contamination of the river banks, and of some areas that are regularly flooded by the river. It was seen that enhanced concentration of 226 Ra do occur along the river banks, but that the contaminated area is mostly confined to a 10 m strip on both sides of the river, even in the flooding zones. At present, no dwellings are present on top of the contamination, and no crops for direct human consumption are grown there, so there is no immediate threat to the population. (author)

  4. Allee effect in polar bears: a potential consequence of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Grimm, Volker

    2016-11-30

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland and Svalbard exhibited very high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the 1980s and 1990s. In Svalbard, slow population growth during that period was suspected to be linked to PCB contamination. In this case study, we explored how PCBs could have impacted polar bear population growth and/or male reproductive success in Svalbard during the mid-1990s by reducing the fertility of contaminated males. A dose-response relationship linking the effects of PCBs to male polar bear fertility was extrapolated from studies of the effects of PCBs on sperm quality in rodents. Based on this relationship, an individual-based model of bear interactions during the breeding season predicted fertilization success under alternative assumptions regarding male-male competition for females. Contamination reduced pregnancy rates by decreasing the availability of fertile males, thus triggering a mate-finding Allee effect, particularly when male-male competition for females was limited or when infertile males were able to compete with fertile males for females. Comparisons of our model predictions on age-dependent reproductive success of males with published empirical observations revealed that the low representation of 10-14-year-old males among breeding males documented in Svalbard in mid-1990s could have resulted from PCB contamination. We conclude that contamination-related male infertility may lead to a reduction in population growth via an Allee effect. The magnitude of the effect is largely dependent on the population-specific mating system. In eco-toxicological risk assessments, appropriate consideration should therefore be given to negative effects of contaminants on male fertility and male mating behaviour. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism and susceptibility to herbivory: Consequences for fungi and host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A. Gehring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other’s abundance, diversity and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of mistletoe parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis, and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  6. Convergence in mycorrhizal fungal communities due to drought, plant competition, parasitism, and susceptibility to herbivory: consequences for fungi and host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Catherine A; Mueller, Rebecca C; Haskins, Kristin E; Rubow, Tine K; Whitham, Thomas G

    2014-01-01

    Plants and mycorrhizal fungi influence each other's abundance, diversity, and distribution. How other biotic interactions affect the mycorrhizal symbiosis is less well understood. Likewise, we know little about the effects of climate change on the fungal component of the symbiosis or its function. We synthesized our long-term studies on the influence of plant parasites, insect herbivores, competing trees, and drought on the ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associated with a foundation tree species of the southwestern United States, pinyon pine (Pinus edulis), and described how these changes feed back to affect host plant performance. We found that drought and all three of the biotic interactions studied resulted in similar shifts in ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition, demonstrating a convergence of the community towards dominance by a few closely related fungal taxa. Ectomycorrhizal fungi responded similarly to each of these stressors resulting in a predictable trajectory of community disassembly, consistent with ecological theory. Although we predicted that the fungal communities associated with trees stressed by drought, herbivory, competition, and parasitism would be poor mutualists, we found the opposite pattern in field studies. Our results suggest that climate change and the increased importance of herbivores, competitors, and parasites that can be associated with it, may ultimately lead to reductions in ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity, but that the remaining fungal community may be beneficial to host trees under the current climate and the warmer, drier climate predicted for the future.

  7. Consequences of preferential flow in cracking clay soils for contamination-risk of shallow aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindie, K.; Bronswijk, J.J.B.

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to asses the contamination risk of aquifers covered with cracking clay soils, with special emphasis on preferential flow through shrinkage cracks. A water extraction area was divided into units with homogeneous soil types and hydrological conditions. For each unit, a

  8. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  9. Engineering-geological aspects of negative consequences of contamination of dispersive soils by petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Э. Дашко

    2017-12-01

    Based on the analysis of the results of long-term monitoring of the effect of contamination of dispersive soils by oil products, their bearing capacity in the base of the structures has been reduced to 50% of the initial value. The role of microbial activity in the formation of an aggressive environment in relation to building materials is shown.

  10. Financial consequences of illicit movements of metallic substances contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, J.-P.

    1999-01-01

    It is increasingly frequent for States to have to deal with illicit movements of metallic substances contaminated by radioactivity. Steps taken in the areas of safety and health protection necessarily have financial implications . Except in cases of special urgency, a financial evaluation is vital before such decisions are taken. Specific actions must be initiated. Aside from action by the industries directly involved in self-regulation procedures, checks must be imposed in cases of fraudulent trafficking which has no connection with fair commercial activity. Customs administrations may take specific steps to restore order to legitimate markets. International organizations have a special role to play in disseminating information and promoting international cooperation. The paper outlines the financial impact of fraudulent trafficking, and methods of ensuring that those responsible for such activities bear the financial costs incurred. It underlines the roles that can be played by those involved in the traffic in contaminated products. (author)

  11. Foliar uptake of radioisotopes and its consequences for the contamination of agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proehl, G.

    1982-07-01

    The contamination of nutritional parts of plants via radionuclides taken up through the leaves depends on the mobility of the radionuclides in the plant. The alkaline metals, iodine and technetium for example, are considered as mobile; due to the migration in the interior of the plant, these nuclides cause the highest food contamination after foliar uptake of radionuclides. The alkaline earth metals, cerium, ruthenium and plutonium are considered as immobile; the contamination by these elements is almost exclusively induced by direct nuclide deposition on the nutritional parts of the plants. Cobalt, zinc, manganese and iron have a certain middle position with regard to radionuclide migration. Gaseous iodine is taken up through slit-like apertures. The uptake may be very effective; under humid conditions the uptake is higher than under arid conditions. Due to the short half-time period only the meadow-cow-milk-path is relevant for the exposure to iodine 131, for other paths however, the longeval iodine 129 is important. The development of the specific activity of meadow grass after one single deposition can be described with a massdependent interceptory factor and two subsequent meteorologic half-times of 14 and 28 d. Model estimations show that after nuclear disorders in the middle of the year for some radionuclides and important nutritients the human activity supply via foliar uptake will exceed the activity supply via soil - root migration by up to 2 magnitudes during the next 50 years. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Trichoderma longibrachiatum Evx1 is a fungal biocatalyst suitable for the remediation of soils contaminated with diesel fuel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Brignoli, Pierlorenzo; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma sp. strain Evx1 was isolated from a semi-deciduous forest soil in Southern Italy. It decolorizes polynuclear organic dyes and tolerates high concentrations of phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. The ability of this ascomycete fungus to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was verified in vitro and confirmed by its strong phenoloxidase activity in the presence of gallic acid. Phylogenetic characterization of Trichoderma sp. Evx1 positioned this strain within the species Trichoderma longibrachiatum. The potential use of this species for the bioremediation of contaminated environmental matrices was tested by inoculating diesel-spiked soil with a dense mycelial suspension. The biodegradation percentage of the C12-40 hydrocarbon fraction in the inoculated soil rose to 54.2 ± 1.6 %, much higher than that in non-inoculated soil or soil managed solely by a combination of watering and aeration. The survival and persistence of T. longibrachiatum Evx1 throughout the bioremediation trial was monitored by PCR-DGGE analysis. The fungal strain was still present in the soil 30 days after bioaugmentation. These findings indicate that T. longibrachiatum Evx1 may be a suitable inoculum in bioremediation protocols for the reclamation of soils contaminated by complex mixtures of hydrocarbons.

  13. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal inoculation protects Miscanthus × giganteus against trace element toxicity in a highly metal-contaminated site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Stéphane; Labidi, Sonia; Fontaine, Joël; Laruelle, Frédéric; Tisserant, Benoit; Nsanganwimana, Florian; Pourrut, Bertrand; Dalpé, Yolande; Grandmougin, Anne; Douay, Francis; Shirali, Pirouz; Verdin, Anthony; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2015-09-15

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF)-assisted phytoremediation could constitute an ecological and economic method in polluted soil rehabilitation programs. The aim of this work was to characterize the trace element (TE) phytoremediation potential of mycorrhizal Miscanthus × giganteus. To understand the mechanisms involved in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis tolerance to TE toxicity, the fatty acid compositions and several stress oxidative biomarkers were compared in the roots and leaves of Miscanthus × giganteus cultivated under field conditions in either TE-contaminated or control soils. TEs were accumulated in greater amounts in roots, but the leaves were the organ most affected by TE contamination and were characterized by a strong decrease in fatty acid contents. TE-induced oxidative stress in leaves was confirmed by an increase in the lipid peroxidation biomarker malondialdehyde (MDA). TE contamination decreased the GSSG/GSH ratio in the leaves of exposed plants, while peroxidase (PO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were increased in leaves and in whole plants, respectively. AMF inoculation also increased root colonization in the presence of TE contamination. The mycorrhizal colonization determined a decrease in SOD activity in the whole plant and PO activities in leaves and induced a significant increase in the fatty acid content in leaves and a decrease in MDA formation in whole plants. These results suggested that mycorrhization is able to confer protection against oxidative stress induced by soil pollution. Our findings suggest that mycorrhizal inoculation could be used as a bioaugmentation technique, facilitating Miscanthus cultivation on highly TE-contaminated soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Radioecological aspects of the consequence of contamination of the Poles'e reserve territory. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin, V.F.; Parejko, O.A.; Odintsova, T.M.; Voronetskij, N.N.; Tyshkevich, V.E.

    1998-01-01

    The characteristic of populations of wild ungulate animals, predators and some other animals in the radionuclide contamination conditions in the 30-km zone of the Chernobyl NPP accident are presented. The Poles'e reserve is a unique territory for the research not only the effects of external and internal irradiation but the influence of second radioecological factors such as diminution of anthropological load and conducting of safeguard regime too. The estimation of structure and dynamic of populations of different animals in the Poles'e reserve is necessary to the understanding of adaptation process in new conditions of inhabitancy and for elaboration of conception of populations management in similar situations

  16. Possible negative consequences of the secondary air contamination on the quality of accumulated drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rihova Ambrozova, J.; Hubackova, J.; Cihakova, I.

    2008-01-01

    At the present time when requirements on quality of drinking water are increased, it is necessary not only to put stress on technological processes used in its preparation, but also there is a need to secure that water is distributed even to the consumer in that quality as it leaves a water station. Through a systematic surveillance of water-supply companies within the framework of biological audits it has been found out that the important points in a distribution network where the quality of water is deteriorated are the water reservoirs. Deterioration in quality of accumulated water is jointly caused by elements of technological, constructional and biological nature. The secondary air contamination has a substantial influence on the creation of bio-films on walls and the presence of microorganisms in accumulated drinking water. To this end, a water twin-compartment reservoir has been systematically evaluated during operation, cleaning meantime and before cleaning. The results of hydro-biological and microbiological analysis have confirmed the input of particles and microorganisms through air, their presence in surface level of accumulated water as well as scrapings from accumulation walls. The surveillance considered also the situation without a fixed filter unit, without door lining etc. On fixing a tested filter system into ventilation duct the risk of air contamination was lowered to minimum. (authors)

  17. Efficacy of chemically characterized Piper betle L. essential oil against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of some edible commodities and its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Kumar, Ashok; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-08-15

    The study investigates fungal contamination in some dry fruits, spices and areca nut and evaluation of the essential oil (EO) of Piper betle var. magahi for its antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant properties. A total of 1651 fungal isolates belonging to 14 species were isolated from the samples and Aspergillus was recorded as the dominant genus with 6 species. Eleven aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) producing strains of A. flavus were recorded from the samples. Eugenol (63.39%) and acetyleugenol (14.05%) were the major components of 32 constituents identified from the Piper betle EO through GC and GC-MS analysis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. betle EO was found 0.7 microl/ml against A.flavus. The EO reduced AFB(1) production in a dose dependent manner and completely inhibited at 0.6 microl/ml. This is the first report on efficacy of P. betle EO as aflatoxin suppressor. EO also exhibited strong antioxidant potential as its IC(50) value (3.6 microg/ml) was close to that of ascorbic acid (3.2 microg/ml) and lower than that of the synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytouene (BHT) (7.4 microg/ml) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (4.5 microg/ml). P. betle EO thus exhibited special merits possessing antifungal, aflatoxin suppressive and antioxidant characters which are desirable for an ideal preservative. Hence, its application as a plant based food additive in protection and enhancement of shelf life of edible commodities during storage and processing is strongly recommended in view of the toxicological implications by synthetic preservatives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluating the bioreducing potential of the leaves, knobs and roots of Zanthoxylum capense (small knobwood) for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, applicable to in vitro fungal contamination control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodede, Olusola; Shaik, Shakira; Govinden, Roshini; Moodley, Roshila

    2017-12-01

    In this study we report on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using extracts from selected morphological parts of Zanthoxylum capense. UV-vis spectra of the biosynthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) revealed absorption peaks at around 450 nm, indicative of the nanoparticles’ surface plasmon resonance, whilst infrared vibrational frequencies indicated the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and free and bonded sugars which could be responsible for the reduction and stabilisation of the AgNPs. 1H-NMR fingerprinting of the aqueous knob extract confirmed the active bio-reducing phytochemical of the knobs to be 6-O-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. The nature, shape and morphology of the biosynthesised AgNPs were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Z. capense AgNPs were mostly spherical in shape with particle sizes in the range of 4-28 nm, 7-20 nm and 4-32 nm for leaves, knobs and roots, respectively. Leaf extracts were the most efficient in the synthesis of AgNPs with an average yield of 0.027 g AgNPs per g of plant (dry mass). The AgNPs were more effective than sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) in the control of in vitro fungal contamination in nodal explants of Z. capense up to two weeks. Shoots induced from the surface sterilised explants were further used for shoot multiplication on benzyl aminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (KIN). BAP at 0.5 mg l-1 gave the highest percentage (88.6%) of explants bearing shoots with an average of 4.78 shoots per explant. A total of 15 fungal endophyte strains associated with Z. capense were identified using molecular methods.

  19. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S; Howard, B J [eds.

    2012-11-15

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  20. Guidelines for Remediation Strategies to Reduce the Radiological Consequences of Environmental Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Howard, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    There are many areas around the world contaminated with radioactive substances which may require remediation. The source of contamination with radionuclides varies; the most important sources include nuclear testing, radiation accidents and inadequate waste disposal practices. Contamination at such sites may present a risk to humans and the environment. Therefore, issues related to remediation of such sites are potentially of concern for both the general public and a wide variety of stakeholders. In response to the needs of its Member States, the IAEA has published many books covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These books range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical publications describing remedial technologies. Almost all of the publications on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a publication that was a joint undertaking by the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) related to accidents entitled Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides, Technical Reports Series No. 363 (1994) (TRS 363). This publication has constituted a major source of information over many years for staff of authorities providing environmental remediation planning after accidents. TRS 363 focused mainly on agricultural management options following an accidental release of radionuclides; remedial actions for other environments and other practices were not considered. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. Given the importance of Chernobyl and other accidents, there have been a considerable number of IAEA activities devoted to the remediation of radiation accidents since 1994. Many

  1. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  2. Comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Stella, Tatiana; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr; Čvančarová, Monika; Cajthaml, Tomas; Petruccioli, Maurizio

    2016-10-01

    The removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (TAH) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. To this aim, Pleurotus ostreatus, Botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculants while the addition of a sterilized lignocellulose mixture to soil (1:5, w/w) was used as a biostimulation approach. As opposed to the non-amended control soil, where no changes in TAH concentration and residual toxicity were observed after 60days, the activation of specialized bacteria was found in the biostimulated microcosms resulting in significant TAH removal (79.8%). The bacterial community structure in B. rhodina-augmented microcosms did not differ from the biostimulated microcosms due to the inability of the fungus to be retained within the resident microbiota. Best TAH removals were observed in microcosms inoculated with P. ostreatus alone (Po) and in binary consortium with B. rhodina (BC) (86.8 and 88.2%, respectively). In these microcosms, contaminant degradation exceeded their bioavailability thresholds determined by sequential supercritical CO2 extraction. Illumina metabarcoding of 16S rRNA gene showed that the augmentation with Po and BC led to lower relative abundances of Gram(+) taxa, Actinobacteria in particular, than those in biostimulated microcosms. Best detoxification, with respect to the non-amended incubation control, was found in Po microcosms where a drop in collembola mortality (from 90 to 22%) occurred. At the end of incubation, in both Po and BC, the relative abundances of P. ostreatus sequences were higher than 60% thus showing the suitability of this fungus in bioaugmentation-based remediation applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Multi-metal contamination with uranium trend impact on aquatic environment and consequences for fish immune system and adaptive responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guernic, A.; Gagnaire, B. [IRSN/PRP-ENV/SERIS/LECO (France); Sanchez, W. [Institut national de l' environnement industriel et des risques - INERIS (France); Betoulle, S. [Champagne Ardenne University (France)

    2014-07-01

    Human activities have conducted to an increase of concentrations of various metals in aquatic ecosystems, including uranium. Its extraction and use have been rapidly magnified because of its role in the nuclear fuel cycle. These activities have led to high concentrations of uranium in the aquatic environment and thus a potential risk to exposed organisms, including fish. Consequences can be observed through metabolic and physiological responses, called biomarkers. Some biomarkers are interesting in order to evaluate the effects of metal contamination, among other immunotoxicity markers, antioxidant defenses and genotoxicity. The aims of this study are: i) to investigate the effects of a multi-metal contamination on a fish, the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, and ii) to observe the adaptive capacity of fish due to a combination of stress (chemical stress and biological stress). To meet the first objective, six water bodies (ponds and lakes) located in two departments (Cantal and Haute-Vienne, France) were chosen according to their proximity to old uranium mines and to their levels of metal contamination related to chemical processes appeared during extraction. 240 three-spined sticklebacks were caged for 28 days in the six selected sites. A battery of biomarkers was measured in fish sampled after 14 and 28 of caging. The results for the Haute-Vienne department showed that caged fish in the pond with the highest uranium concentration (20 μg.L{sup -1}) presented the most DNA damage after 14 days of caging. Leukocyte phagocytosis (marker of immunotoxicity) of caged fish in this pond was lower at 14 days and greater at 28 days compared to other ponds without uranium. The multi-metal contamination negatively affected other parameters such as the condition index, oxidative activity, viability of lysosomal membrane and leukocytes distribution. In order to study the response of fish to a combined stress (chemical + biological) (objective ii), a second

  4. Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves. Combined treatment appears superior to monotherapy. Combination of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement might bring about better prognosis.

  5. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  6. Arsenic mobility from anthropogenic impoundment sediments - Consequences of contamination to biota, water and sediments, Posa, Eastern Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, E.; Jurkovic, L.; Kordik, J.; Slaninka, I.; Jankular, M.; Majzlan, J.; Gottlicher, J.; Steininger, R. [Geological Survey of Slovak Republic, Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Environmental Geochemistry

    2009-11-15

    An impoundment located near the village of Posa, Slovakia, is a significant source of contamination with As originating from the deposited coal fly-ash. Waters penetrating the impoundment are enriched in As and other potentially toxic elements. As a consequence of the contamination, the Kyjov Brook and the Ondava River have been extensively polluted. The mobility and solid-state partitioning of As in the impoundment material and stream sediments were investigated using column leaching and batch extraction tests, and a five-step sequential extraction procedure. Moreover, to investigate the bioavailability of As, two native plant species (Typha latifolia, or cattail, and Phragmites australis, or common reed) growing at the site were collected and analyzed. The As concentrations in representative sediment and water samples ranged from 36.3 to 3210 mg/kg and from 4.05 to 613 {mu} g/L, respectively, both being many times above the background levels. Although a part of As was present in a readily soluble form (6.6%), the majority of As was mainly associated with Fe and Mn oxides (37%) and residual phases (51%). Combined results of the column leaching, batch extraction, and sequential extraction tests, as well as mineralogical analysis, indicated that As mobilisation potential from the sediments is likely controlled by Fe, Al and Mn oxides, and by pH. There was no influence of various anions (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sup 3-}, Cl{sup -} and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) on As mobility when present in aqueous solution at concentrations analogous to those in the water of the Kyjov Brook. Plants growing in the impoundment had As concentrations 10-100 times greater than did the same plants growing in a relatively non-polluted area.

  7. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan O Bustnes

    in Shetland, especially related to BDEs. This indicates stronger fitness consequences of POPs following seasons with very poor breeding conditions and/or high reproductive effort. This study suggests that the impacts of POPs may differ depending on population health and breeding conditions, and that even low concentrations of POPs could have ecological consequences during adverse circumstances. This is important with regard to risk assessment of biomagnifying contaminants in marine ecosystems.

  8. A synoptic summary approach to better understanding groundwater contamination problems and evaluating long-term environmental consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    A summary approach has been developed within groundwater hydrology to communicate with a broad audience and more completely evaluate the long-term impacts of subsurface contamination problems. This synoptic approach both highlights the dominant features occurring in subsurface contamination problems and emphasizes the information required to determine the long-term environmental impacts. The special merit of a summary approach is in providing a better understanding of subsurface contamination problems to adjoining technical disciplines, public decision makers, and private citizens. 14 refs

  9. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF RADIATION DANGER EXPERIENCE AMONG DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS OF THE POPULATION FROM CONTAMINATED AREAS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of evaluation of social-psychological consequences of radiation danger experience among different age groups of the population from contaminated areas of Russia (Oryol, Kaluga, Bryansk, Tula areas among whom the unfavorable emotional and personal changes were registered due to subjective features of perception of radiation threat have been represented (“risk” group. Experimental sample of the research consisted of 1 544 people from Russia. One of the main results of this research is establishment of the fact that adverse emotional and personal changes in connection with subjective features of perception of radiation threat were revealed for 53,9% of respondents of advanced age and more than 20% of respondents of middle and young age from contaminated areas of Russia. Among the respondents from contaminated areas of Belarus, about a third surveyed from each age group get to “risk” group.

  11. Dose assessment and radioecological consequences to aquatic organisms in the areas of Russia exposed to radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the radioecological state of aquatic ecosystems in the territory of Russia was performed. The following water bodies were considered: lakes and rivers in the Ural and Chernobyl contaminated areas, the Yenisei River, cooling ponds of nuclear power plants, and the Arctic Seas. It was demonstrated that in all cases under consideration, doses to aquatic organisms were markedly higher than those to humans. Especially high exposure levels to fish and molluscs much in excess of the natural background were observed in a number of water bodies in the Ural and Chernobyl contaminated areas

  12. Fungal and bacterial metabolites in commercial poultry feed from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, C N; Bandyopadhyay, R; Sulyok, M; Warth, B; Krska, R

    2012-08-01

    Metabolites of toxigenic fungi and bacteria occur as natural contaminants (e.g. mycotoxins) in feedstuffs making them unsafe to animals. The multi-toxin profiles in 58 commercial poultry feed samples collected from 19 districts in 17 states of Nigeria were determined by LC/ESI-MS/MS with a single extraction step and no clean-up. Sixty-three (56 fungal and seven bacterial) metabolites were detected with concentrations ranging up to 10,200 µg kg⁻¹ in the case of aurofusarin. Fusarium toxins were the most prevalent group of fungal metabolites, whereas valinomycin occurred in more than 50% of the samples. Twelve non-regulatory fungal and seven bacterial metabolites detected and quantified in this study have never been reported previously in naturally contaminated stored grains or finished feed. Among the regulatory toxins in poultry feed, aflatoxin concentrations in 62% of samples were above 20 µg kg⁻¹, demonstrating high prevalence of unsafe levels of aflatoxins in Nigeria. Deoxynivalenol concentrations exceeded 1000 µg kg⁻¹ in 10.3% of samples. Actions are required to reduce the consequences from regulatory mycotoxins and understand the risks of the single or co-occurrence of non-regulatory metabolites for the benefit of the poultry industry.

  13. Influence of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Oligochaeta) on oxygen uptake by sediments. Consequences of uranium contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagauzere, S. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)], E-mail: lagauzere@gmail.com; Pischedda, L.; Cuny, P. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Gilbert, F. [EcoLab, Laboratoire d' Ecologie Fonctionnelle, UMR 5245 CNRS/INP/Universite Paul Sabatier, 29 Rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Cedex 4, Toulouse (France); Stora, G. [Laboratoire de Microbiologie, Geochimie et Ecologie Marines, UMR 6117 CNRS/COM/Universite de la Mediterranee, Campus de Luminy, Case 901, F-13288 Cedex 09, Marseille (France); Bonzom, J.-M. [Laboratoire de Radioecologie et d' Ecotoxicologie, Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache 186, BP 3, F-13115 Cedex, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2009-04-15

    The diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) of sediments inhabited by Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex was investigated using a planar oxygen optode device, and complemented by measurements of bioturbation activity. Additional experiments were performed within contaminated sediments to assess the impact of uranium on these processes. After 72 h, the two invertebrate species significantly increased the DOU of sediments (13-14%), and no temporal variation occurred afterwards. Within contaminated sediments, it was already 24% higher before the introduction of the organisms, suggesting that uranium modified the sediment biogeochemistry. Although the two species firstly reacted by avoidance of contaminated sediment, they finally colonized it. Their bioturbation activity was reduced but, for T. tubifex, it remained sufficient to induce a release of uranium to the water column and an increase of the DOU (53%). These results highlight the necessity of further investigations to take into account the interactions between bioturbation, microbial metabolism and pollutants. - This study highlights the ecological importance of bioturbation in metal-contaminated sediments.

  14. Influence of Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae) and Tubifex tubifex (Annelida, Oligochaeta) on oxygen uptake by sediments. Consequences of uranium contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagauzere, S.; Pischedda, L.; Cuny, P.; Gilbert, F.; Stora, G.; Bonzom, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU) of sediments inhabited by Chironomus riparius and Tubifex tubifex was investigated using a planar oxygen optode device, and complemented by measurements of bioturbation activity. Additional experiments were performed within contaminated sediments to assess the impact of uranium on these processes. After 72 h, the two invertebrate species significantly increased the DOU of sediments (13-14%), and no temporal variation occurred afterwards. Within contaminated sediments, it was already 24% higher before the introduction of the organisms, suggesting that uranium modified the sediment biogeochemistry. Although the two species firstly reacted by avoidance of contaminated sediment, they finally colonized it. Their bioturbation activity was reduced but, for T. tubifex, it remained sufficient to induce a release of uranium to the water column and an increase of the DOU (53%). These results highlight the necessity of further investigations to take into account the interactions between bioturbation, microbial metabolism and pollutants. - This study highlights the ecological importance of bioturbation in metal-contaminated sediments

  15. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  16. Elevated in-home sediment contaminant concentrations - the consequence of a particle settling-winnowing process from Hurricane Katrina floodwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Nicholas A; Valsaraj, Kalliat T; Thibodeaux, Louis J

    2008-01-01

    Sediment samples were collected from two homes which were flooded in the wake of Hurricane Katrina in August 2005. The samples were analyzed for trace metals and semi-volatile organic compounds using techniques based on established EPA methods. The data showed higher concentrations of some metals and semi-volatile organic pollutants than reported in previous outdoor sampling events of soils and sediments. The Lake Pontchartrain sediments became resuspended during the hurricane, and this material subsequently was found in the residential areas of New Orleans following levee breaches. The clay and silt particles appear to be selectively deposited inside homes, and sediment contaminant concentrations are usually greatest within this fraction. Re-entry advisories based on outdoor sample concentration results may have under-predicted the exposure levels to homeowners and first responders. All contaminants found in the sediment sampled in this study have their origin in the sediments of Lake Pontchartrain and other localized sources.

  17. Pathways and consequences of contaminant flux to Acadian flycatchers (Empidonax virescens) in urbanizing landscapes of Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowse, Linnea M; Rodewald, Amanda D; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2014-07-01

    A prevalent environmental contaminant, mercury (Hg) is mobile and persistent in aquatic systems, where it often occurs in its bioavailable form methylmercury. Because methylmercury can bioaccumulate in aquatic insects and then transfer to terrestrial food webs, riparian consumers reliant upon aquatic emergent insects, should be disproportionately affected. Using the aerial insectivore Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) as a focal species, we examined (1) the extent to which total Hg loads in breeding flycatchers affected body condition and reproductive output and (2) potential pathways of contaminant flux in 19 riparian forest fragments distributed across an urban-to-rural landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. From April-August 2011-2012, we collected blood samples from adult (n=76) and nestling (n=17 from 7 nests) flycatchers, monitored their annual reproductive success (i.e., total number of fledglings), and sampled water, sediment, and aquatic emergent insects at each site. Hg concentrations in adult flycatcher blood (47 to 584 μg/kg, x¯=211.8, SD=95.5) were low relative to published advisory levels and not related to body condition. However, even at low concentrations, blood Hg was negatively related to reproductive success, with a 0.83 decline in the number of fledglings per μg/kg (loge) increase of blood Hg. Adult flycatchers had 11× greater concentrations of blood Hg than their offspring. Hg levels in flycatcher blood were not predicted by Hg concentrations in sediment, water, or aquatic emergent insects, with the exception of rural landscapes alone, in which flycatcher Hg was negatively related to sediment Hg. In addition to illustrating the difficulty of predicting exposure pathways that may vary among landscape contexts, our study provides evidence that even trace levels of contaminants may impair reproductive success of free-living songbirds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The radioactive contamination of the Baltic Sea during the years 1983 to 1987 and its radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, H.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial radioactivity in the Baltic Sea mainly originates from three sources: 1) the fallout by the nuclear weapon tests of the sixties, 2) inflow of contaminated water by the European nuclear reprocessing plants through the Danish Straits, and 3) the Chernobyl fallout. Data and distribution of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in sea water and seafood are presented for the period 1983 to 1985 and compared to data obtained after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Assuming an annual consumption of marine fish of 14 kg per adult and an CF of 300 for Cs, the annual effective dose equivalent would amount to 0.1 mSv (10 mrem). (orig./HP)

  19. Fukushima Daiichi - delivery of contaminated water into the Pacific ocean and possible consequences for the marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nies, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi is sited at the coast of the Japanese island Honshu. Most of the cooling water for the three destroyed reactors units 1-3 and the nuclear fuel in the spent fuel pool of unit-4 were uncontrolled delivered into the groundwater and the Pacific Ocean. As a consequence high concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in the coastal waters have to be assumed. The contribution analyzed the possible consequences for the marine ecosystem. A drift time of 5 to 7 years toward the coast of North America is expected. The planning of the marine monitoring program MEXT is described. Radiation measurements in the coastal water up to 200 km distance from Daiichi were performed. The highest radionuclide concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 were found in the fine grained sediments. No increased radioactivity in seafood is expected.

  20. The consequences of Lactobacillus vini and Dekkera bruxellensis as contaminants of the sugarcane-based ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rafael Barros; dos Santos, Billy Manoel; de Fátima Rodrigues de Souza, Raquel; da Silva, Paula Katharina Nogueira; Lucena, Brígida Thais Luckwu; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2012-11-01

    This work describes the effects of the presence of the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis and the bacterium Lactobacillus vini on the industrial production of ethanol from sugarcane fermentation. Both contaminants were quantified in industrial samples, and their presence was correlated to a decrease in ethanol concentration and accumulation of sugar. Then, laboratory mixed-cell fermentations were carried out to evaluate the effects of these presumed contaminants on the viability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the overall ethanol yield. The results showed that high residual sugar seemed the most significant factor arising from the presence of D. bruxellensis in the industrial process when compared to pure S. cerevisiae cultures. Moreover, when L. vini was added to S. cerevisiae cultures it did not appear to affect the yeast cells by any kind of antagonistic effect under stable fermentations. In addition, when L. vini was added to D. bruxellensis cultures, it showed signs of being able to stimulate the fermentative activity of the yeast cells in a way that led to an increase in the ethanol yield.

  1. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T.; Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K.

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem components and

  2. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota. Model testing using Chernobyl data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryshev, I.; Sazykina, T. [SPA Typhoon, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Hoffman, O.; Thiessen, K. [SENES, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data for contamination of different aquatic media and biota due to fallout of radionuclides into the cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Input data included characteristics of the cooling pond ecosystem (hydrological, hydrochemical, and hydro biological conditions) and estimates of the amounts of 137 Cs in the cooling pond. Predictions were requested in two stages: (1) Calculations of 137 Cs concentrations for comparison against actual measurements, including activities of 137 Cs in the cooling pond water, in layers of sediment, and in fish; (2) Calculations for which actual measurements are not available, including dose and risk estimates for aquatic biota and for humans following hypothetical consumption of contaminated biota. Calculations were performed with the following models: LAKECO (Netherlands), POSOD (USA), LAKEPOND (Romania), WATER (Russia), GIDRO (Russia), and ECOMOD-W (Russia). The total number of scenario calculations was 18. In general, the models tended to overestimate the total doses to fish (as compared to to independent dose estimates made from measured concentrations by the scenario authors) for internal and external exposure, while a number of predictions with different models for the effective dose and risk to humans from fish consumption were in good agreement with independent test estimates. The differences among model predictions were somewhat smaller for the total doses to fish than for the environmental concentrations used in the model testing. The differences among model predictions were very great for the effective doses and risk to humans from fish consumption. This is related to distinct errors in assessments of 137 Cs concentrations in fish. Very few participants obtained good agreement with respect to all criteria of the model testing, i.e., 137 Cs concentrations in the aquatic ecosystem

  3. CONTAMINACIÓN BACTERIANA Y FÚNGICA EN EQUIPOS DE TELEFONÍA MÓVIL EN BARCELONA, ESTADO ANZOÁTEGUI, VENEZUELA | BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL CONTAMINATION OF MOBILE PHONE EQUIPMENT IN BARCELONA, ANZOÁTEGUI STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duvric Lemus-Espinoza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a necessity, imposing significant changes in modern society. Cell phones have favorable conditions for the growth of microorganisms due to heat emission or harboring dirt and sweat. In this study 166 equipment with traditional keyboard (n = 83 and touch screen (n = 83 were evaluated microbiologically. Bacterial and fungal contamination was assessed cultivating agar plates placed in direct contact with various components of the phones. All cell phones were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus (29.5%, among Gram positive, and Escherichia coli (19.3% and, Proteus vulgaris (15.1%, among Gram negative. Among the 18 isolated taxa of bacteria and fungi, Klebsiella pneumoniae was found only in traditional equipment. The percentages of Gram positive and Gram negative isolates were similar in both cell phone types. Among Gram negative, isolates were more frequent in traditional phones (p < 0.02. The most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (20.5%, Trichoderma (8.4% and Rhizopus spp (4.8%. Among yeasts, Candida (9.0% species isolates were more frequent than those of genus Rhodotorula (3.6%. The percentages of filamentous fungi isolates were greater than those of yeasts, either on traditional telephones (p < 0.0001 or on the touch screen ones (p < 0.05. In traditional mobile phones the percentages of isolates were higher than in touch phones, either for filamentous fungi (p < 0.00005, and for yeasts (p < 0.002. We concluded that cell phones had on their surface a variety of bacteria indicative of fecal contamination and other germs with high potential to transmit infections to ears, skin and skin annexes.

  4. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  5. Studies on the control of fungal contamination and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus link in a cereal grain by the combination treatment of heat and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odamtten, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    Traditional storage of maize in tropical countries such as Ghana results in the rapid development of numerous fungi, including potential mycotoxin producers such as Aspergillus flavus (aflatoxins), A. ochraceus (ochratoxins, penicillic acid), Fusarium moniliforme (moniliformin), Paecilomyces varioti and Penicillium expansum (patulin). Treatment of maize with a combination of moist heat (30 min. at 60 0 C and relative humidity > 85%) and gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy) proved to be effective in inactivating the resident population of fungal spores. This result was confirmed by in vitro studies with spores of Aspergillus flavus NRRL 5906. In a comparative study of packaging materials it was found that food commodities stored in woven polypropylene bags for six months at 85% R.H. had mould and yeast counts which were 2-3 log cycles lower than those of products kept in jute bags. Also, the viability of the seeds was better preserved in polypropylene sacks. It is recommended that the combination treatment be carried out on good quality grains, and that woven polypropylene sacks are used in packaging prior to irradiation, for maximum extension of shelf-life. (Auth.)

  6. Improvement of radiological consequence estimation methodologies for NPP accidents in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems through consideration of contaminant physico-chemical forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roos, P. [Technical University of Denmark - DTU (Denmark); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD - NMBU (Norway); Bujan, A.; Duranova, T. [VUJE, Inc. (Slovakia); Ikonomopoulos, A.; Andronopoulos, S. [National Centre for Scientific Research ' Demokritos' (Greece)

    2014-07-01

    The European standard computerized decision support systems RODOS and ARGOS, which are integrated in the operational nuclear emergency preparedness in practically all European countries, as well as in a range of non-European countries, are highly valuable tools for radiological consequence estimation, e.g., in connection with planning and exercising as well as in justification and optimization of intervention strategies. Differences between the Chernobyl and Fukushima accident atmospheric release source terms have demonstrated that differences in release conditions and processes may lead to very different degrees of volatilization of some radionuclides. Also the physico-chemical properties of radionuclides released can depend strongly on the release process. An example from the Chernobyl accident of the significance of this is that strontium particles released in the fire were oxidized and thus generally physico-chemically different from those released during the preceding explosion. This is reflected in the very different environmental mobility of the two groups of particles. The initial elemental matrix characteristics of the contaminants, as well as environmental parameters like pH, determine for instance the particle dissolution time functions, and thus the environmental mobility and potential for uptake in living organisms. As ICRP recommends optimization of intervention according to residual dose, it is crucial to estimate long term dose contributions adequately. In the EURATOM FP7 project PREPARE, an effort is made to integrate physico-chemical forms of contaminants in scenario-specific source term determination, thereby enabling consideration of influences on atmospheric dispersion/deposition, post-deposition migration, and effectiveness of countermeasure implementation. The first step in this context was to investigate, based on available experience, the important physico-chemical properties of radio-contaminants that might potentially be released to the

  7. Risk element immobilization/stabilization potential of fungal-transformed dry olive residue and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi application in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Stejskalová, Tereza; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Száková, Jiřina; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2017-10-01

    The use of biotransformed dry olive residue (DOR) as organic soil amendment has recently been proposed due to its high contents of stabilized organic matter and nutrients. The potential of biotransformed DOR to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils might qualify DOR as a potential risk element stabilization agent for in situ soil reclamation practices. In this experiment, the mobility of risk elements in response to Penicillium chrysogenum-10-transformed DOR, Funalia floccosa-transformed DOR, Bjerkandera adusta-transformed DOR, and Chondrostereum purpureum-transformed DOR as well as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Funneliformis mosseae, inoculation was investigated. We evaluated the effect of these treatments on risk element uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants in a pot experiment with Cd, Pb, and Zn contaminated soil. The results showed a significant impact of the combined treatment (biotransformed DOR and AMF inoculation) on wheat plant growth and element mobility. The mobile proportions of elements in the treated soils were related to soil pH; with increasing pH levels, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, P, Pb, and Zn mobility decreased significantly (r values between -0.36 and -0.46), while Ca and Mg mobility increased (r = 0.63, and r = 0.51, respectively). The application of biotransformed DOR decreased risk element levels (Cd, Zn), and nutrient concentrations (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn) in the aboveground biomass, where the elements were retained in the roots. Thus, biotransformed DOR in combination with AMF resulted in a higher capacity of wheat plants to grow under detrimental conditions, being able to accumulate high amounts of risk elements in the roots. However, risk element reduction was insufficient for safe crop production in the extremely contaminated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive effect of Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae, both isolated from Cd contaminated soil, on plant growth, physiological mycorrhizal fungal characteristics and soil enzymatic activities in Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas, A.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon, R.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction between two autochthonous microorganisms (Brevibacillus brevis and Glomus mosseae) isolated from Cd amended soil increased plant growth, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization and physiological characteristics of the AM infection (measured as SDH or ALP activities). The enhanced plant Cd tolerance after coinoculation with native microorganisms seemed to be a consequence of increased P and K acquisition and, simultaneously, of decreased concentration of Cd, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Fe and Ni in plant tissue. Autochthonous microbial strains were more efficient for nutrient uptake, to immobilize metals and decrease their translocation to the shoot than reference G. mosseae (with or without bacteria). Indole acetic acid produced by B. brevis may be related to its ability for improving root growth, nodule production and AM fungal intra and extraradical development. Dehydrogenase, phosphatase and β-glucosidase activities, indicative of microbial metabolism and soil fertility, were maximized by the coinoculation of autochthonous microorganisms in cadmium polluted conditions. As a consequence, the use of native microorganisms may result very efficient in bioremediation. - Endemic isolates of bacteria and fungi were effective in bioremediation

  9. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nsukka area of southeastern Nigeria, garri is usually displayed in the open market for sale which no doubt exposes the food stuff to dust particles from moving vehicles, wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product.

  10. Mixed arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal application to improve growth and arsenic accumulation of Pteris vittata (As hyperaccumulator) grown in As-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, H M; Leung, A O W; Ye, Z H; Cheung, K C; Yung, K K L

    2013-08-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of three types of single inoculum [indigenous mycorrhizas (IM) isolated from As mine, Glomus mosseae (GM) and Glomus intraradices (GI)] and two types of mixed inoculum (mixed with IM and either GM or GI) on the growth response of Pteris vittata (hyperaccumulator) and Cynodon dactylon (non-hyperaccumulator) at three levels of As concentrations (0, 100 and 200mgkg(-1)). Both mycorrhizal plants exhibited significantly higher biomass, and N and P accumulation in its tissue than the control. Among the mycorrhizal inoculum, the mixed inoculum IM/GM promoted substantially higher mycorrhizal colonization and arsenate reductase activity in P. vittata than C. dactylon, among all As levels. The portion of Paris arbuscular mycorrhizal structure (observed in colonized roots) together with the highest As translocation factor of 10.2 in P. vittata inoculated with IM/GM was also noted. It was deduced that IM/GM inoculum may be the best choice for field inoculation at any contaminated lands as the inoculum exhibited better adaptation to variable environmental conditions and hence benefited the host plants. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  12. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  13. Comparison of indoor air sampling and dust collection methods for fungal exposure assessment using quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluating fungal contamination indoors is complicated because of the many different sampling methods utilized. In this study, fungal contamination was evaluated using five sampling methods and four matrices for results. The five sampling methods were a 48 hour indoor air sample ...

  14. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  15. Fungal contaminants observed during micropropagation of Lilium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-02-15

    Feb 15, 2010 ... produced by using traditional propagation and in vitro techniques. ... were cultured in MS medium with supplement 0.1 mg dm-3 NAA + 0.01 mg dm-3 BA. .... In the trials, it was analyzed that superface had or not phytotoxicity.

  16. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  17. Fungal degradation of pesticides - construction of microbial consortia for bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea

    in groundwater contamination. New technologies are therefore needed for cleaning up contaminated soil and water resources. This PhD was part of the project entitled Microbial Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Water Resources (MIRESOWA) where the overall aim is to develop new technologies for bioremediation...... of pesticide contaminated soil and water. The objectives of this PhD were to investigate fungal degradation of pesticides and following to construct microbial consortia for bioremediation. In Manuscript I the fungal degradation of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was studied. Isolates of soil fungi of the genus...... slightly enhanced BAM distribution. From this work it is evident that the fungal-bacterial consortium is capable of enhancing BAM-degradation in unsaturated systems, and may therefore be a promising application for soil bioremediation. In Manuscript III two- and three-member consortia were constructed...

  18. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  19. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  20. Evaluation of the contamination of the territory of Croatia by means of radioactive rain as a consequence of the incident in the NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lulic, S.; Barisic, D.; Kosutic, K.; Kvastek, K.; Tuta, J.; Vertacnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters, that was caused by the accident of NPP 'Lenin' in Chernobyl, has been described. The displayed results represent the sum of the measured activity of radionuclides 103 Ru, 131 I, 132 Te-I, 134 Cs and 140 Ba-La. It has been constructed on the basis of measured and evaluated data and the scheme of the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rain waters between April 28 to May 20th, 1986. (author)

  1. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  2. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  3. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  4. Metal contaminant accumulation in the hive: Consequences for whole-colony health and brood production in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladun, Kristen R; Di, Ning; Liu, Tong-Xian; Trumble, John T

    2016-02-01

    Metal pollution has been increasing rapidly over the past century, and at the same time, the human population has continued to rise and produce contaminants that may negatively impact pollinators. Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) forage over large areas and can collect contaminants from the environment. The primary objective of the present study was to determine whether the metal contaminants cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) can have a detrimental effect on whole-colony health in the managed pollinator A. mellifera. The authors isolated small nucleus colonies under large cages and fed them an exclusive diet of sugar syrup and pollen patty spiked with Cd, Cu, Pb, and Se or a control (no additional metal). Treatment levels were based on concentrations in honey and pollen from contaminated hives around the world. They measured whole-colony health including wax, honey, and brood production; colony weight; brood survival; and metal accumulation in various life stages. Colonies treated with Cd or Cu contained more dead pupae within capped cells compared with control, and Se-treated colonies had lower total worker weights compared to control. Lead had a minimal effect on colony performance, although many members of the hive accumulated significant quantities of the metal. By examining the honey bee as a social organism through whole-colony assessments of toxicity, the authors found that the distribution of toxicants throughout the colony varied from metal to metal, some caste members were more susceptible to certain metals, and the colony's ability to grow over time may have been reduced in the presence of Se. Apiaries residing near metal-contaminated areas may be at risk and can suffer changes in colony dynamics and survival. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. The Contamination of Commercial 15N2 Gas Stocks with 15N–Labeled Nitrate and Ammonium and Consequences for Nitrogen Fixation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabundo, Richard; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Treibergs, Lija; Tobias, Craig R.; Altabet, Mark A.; Moisander, Pia H.; Granger, Julie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the contamination of commercial 15-nitrogen (15N) N2 gas stocks with 15N-enriched ammonium, nitrate and/or nitrite, and nitrous oxide. 15N2 gas is used to estimate N2 fixation rates from incubations of environmental samples by monitoring the incorporation of isotopically labeled 15N2 into organic matter. However, the microbial assimilation of bioavailable 15N-labeled N2 gas contaminants, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, is liable to lead to the inflation or false detection of N2 fixation rates. 15N2 gas procured from three major suppliers was analyzed for the presence of these 15N-contaminants. Substantial concentrations of 15N-contaminants were detected in four Sigma-Aldrich 15N2 lecture bottles from two discrete batch syntheses. Per mole of 15N2 gas, 34 to 1900 µmoles of 15N-ammonium, 1.8 to 420 µmoles of 15N-nitrate/nitrite, and ≥21 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide were detected. One 15N2 lecture bottle from Campro Scientific contained ≥11 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide per mole of 15N2 gas, and no detected 15N-nitrate/nitrite at the given experimental 15N2 tracer dilutions. Two Cambridge Isotopes lecture bottles from discrete batch syntheses contained ≥0.81 µmoles 15N-nitrous oxide per mole 15N2, and trace concentrations of 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate/nitrite. 15N2 gas equilibrated cultures of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta confirmed that the 15N-contaminants are assimilable. A finite-differencing model parameterized using oceanic field conditions typical of N2 fixation assays suggests that the degree of detected 15N-ammonium contamination could yield inferred N2 fixation rates ranging from undetectable, detected in field assays. These results indicate that past reports of N2 fixation should be interpreted with caution, and demonstrate that the purity of commercial 15N2 gas must be ensured prior to use in future N2 fixation rate determinations. PMID:25329300

  6. The contamination of commercial 15N2 gas stocks with 15N-labeled nitrate and ammonium and consequences for nitrogen fixation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabundo, Richard; Lehmann, Moritz F; Treibergs, Lija; Tobias, Craig R; Altabet, Mark A; Moisander, Pia H; Granger, Julie

    2014-01-01

    We report on the contamination of commercial 15-nitrogen (15N) N2 gas stocks with 15N-enriched ammonium, nitrate and/or nitrite, and nitrous oxide. 15N2 gas is used to estimate N2 fixation rates from incubations of environmental samples by monitoring the incorporation of isotopically labeled 15N2 into organic matter. However, the microbial assimilation of bioavailable 15N-labeled N2 gas contaminants, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, is liable to lead to the inflation or false detection of N2 fixation rates. 15N2 gas procured from three major suppliers was analyzed for the presence of these 15N-contaminants. Substantial concentrations of 15N-contaminants were detected in four Sigma-Aldrich 15N2 lecture bottles from two discrete batch syntheses. Per mole of 15N2 gas, 34 to 1900 µmoles of 15N-ammonium, 1.8 to 420 µmoles of 15N-nitrate/nitrite, and ≥21 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide were detected. One 15N2 lecture bottle from Campro Scientific contained ≥11 µmoles of 15N-nitrous oxide per mole of 15N2 gas, and no detected 15N-nitrate/nitrite at the given experimental 15N2 tracer dilutions. Two Cambridge Isotopes lecture bottles from discrete batch syntheses contained ≥0.81 µmoles 15N-nitrous oxide per mole 15N2, and trace concentrations of 15N-ammonium and 15N-nitrate/nitrite. 15N2 gas equilibrated cultures of the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta confirmed that the 15N-contaminants are assimilable. A finite-differencing model parameterized using oceanic field conditions typical of N2 fixation assays suggests that the degree of detected 15N-ammonium contamination could yield inferred N2 fixation rates ranging from undetectable, detected in field assays. These results indicate that past reports of N2 fixation should be interpreted with caution, and demonstrate that the purity of commercial 15N2 gas must be ensured prior to use in future N2 fixation rate determinations.

  7. Metagenomic and functional analyses of the consequences of reduction of bacterial diversity on soil functions and bioremediation in diesel-contaminated microcosms

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jaejoon; Philippot, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between microbial biodiversity and soil function is an important issue in ecology, yet most studies have been performed in pristine ecosystems. Here, we assess the role of microbial diversity in ecological function and remediation strategies in diesel-contaminated soils. Soil microbial diversity was manipulated using a removal by dilution approach and microbial functions were determined using both metagenomic analyses and enzymatic assays. A shift from Proteobacteria- to Acti...

  8. Bioremediation of PAH-contamined soils: Consequences on formation and degradation of polar-polycyclic aromatic compounds and microbial community abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biache, Coralie; Ouali, Salma; Cébron, Aurélie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Colombano, Stéfan; Faure, Pierre

    2017-05-05

    A bioslurry batch experiment was carried out over five months on three polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) contaminated soils to study the PAC (PAH and polar-PAC) behavior during soil incubation and to evaluate the impact of PAC contamination on the abundance of microbial communities and functional PAH-degrading populations. Organic matter characteristics and reactivity, assessed through solvent extractable organic matter and PAC contents, and soil organic matter mineralization were monitored during 5 months. Total bacteria and fungi, and PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes were quantified. Results showed that PAHs and polar-PACs were degraded with different degradation dynamics. Differences in degradation rates were observed among the three soils depending on PAH distribution and availability. Overall, low molecular weight compounds were preferentially degraded. Degradation selectivity between isomers and structurally similar compounds was observed which could be used to check the efficiency of bioremediation processes. Bacterial communities were dominant over fungi and were most likely responsible for PAC degradation. Abundance of PAH-degrading bacteria increased during incubations, but their proportion in the bacterial communities tended to decrease. The accumulation of some oxygenated-PACs during the bioslurry experiment underlines the necessity to monitor these compounds during application of remediation treatment on PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the consequences of the radioactive contamination of aquatic media and biota for the Chernobyl NPP cooling pond: model testing using Chernobyl data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.; Sazykina, T.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Thiessen, K.M.; Blaylock, B.G.; Feng, Y.; Galeriu, D.; Heling, R.; Kryshev, A.I.; Kononovich, A.L.; Watkins, B.

    1998-01-01

    The 'Cooling Pond' scenario was designed to test models for radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems, based on data from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant cooling pond, which was heavily contaminated in 1986 as a result of the reactor accident. The calculation tasks include (a) reconstruction of the dynamics of radionuclide transfer and bioaccumulation in aquatic media and biota following the accident; (b) assessment of doses to aquatic biota; and (c) assessment of potential doses and radiation risks to humans from consumption of contaminated fish. Calculations for the Scenario were performed by 19 participants using 6 different models: LAKECO-B (Netherlands); LAKEPOND (Romania); POSOD (USA); WATER, GIDRO and ECOMOD-W (Russia). For all endpoints, model predictions were compared with the test data, which were derived from the results of direct measurements and independent dose estimates based on measurements. Most of the models gave satisfactory agreement for some portions of the test data, although very few participants obtained good agreement with all criteria for model testing. The greatest level of difficulty was with the prediction of non-equilibrium radioecological processes in the first year after the accident (1986). The calculations 5 for this scenario gave modellers a unique opportunity to test their models using an independent data base and to analyse the advantages and weaknesses of different model approaches. The use of post-Chernobyl data in such a scenario is also recommended for use in training students in the field of radioecology and environmental protection. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Processos de eliminação de contaminantes microbianos durante o isolamento e a manutenção de linhagens fúngicas de referência Proceedings to avoid contaminants during isolation and storage of standard fungal strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Yoko Hirooka

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Linhagens fúngicas destinadas a pesquisa científica são provenientes de material orgânico, onde ocorre intensa interação entre os mais variados grupos taxonômicos de microrganismos. O desenvolvimento de uma metodologia capaz de remover totalmente esses contaminantes indesejáveis é fundamental para garantir a característica original da linhagem em estudo. Empregando-se isolados de Fusarium spp., obtidos de milho e rações animais, analisou-se a interferência de bactérias resistentes a antibióticos e leveduras na manutenção de linhagens fúngicas. O ensaio demonstrou contaminação freqüente de microrganismos resistentes a tetraciclina, estreptomicina e cloranfenicol na microbiota natural de milho e de rações animais. O melhor controle dos interferentes foi obtido com tetraciclina, segundo avaliação por replica-plate e crescimento em meio líquido. Na análise de 168 linhagens de Fusarium spp. mantidos por seis meses a 4ºC, 36 cepas apresentaram contaminantes. A técnica de esgotamento em BDA mais antibiótico repurificou 21 cepas. As 15 cepas restantes só foram repurificadas pela técnica de diluição/plaqueamento, desenvolvida neste trabalho e recomendada para ser utilizada como último recurso na recuperação de linhagens de referências contaminadasThe fungal strains for scientific purposes are isolated from environments, where interaction of extensive taxonomical groups is a common phenomenon, requiring development of a method that assures elimination of microbial interference and preserves original characteristic of strains. In this study, using Fusarium strains isolated from corn and animal food, the interference of antibiotic resistant bacteria and yeast contamination in the fungal strains storage was evaluated. Although frequent contamination by tetracycline, streptomycine and chloramphenicol resistant microorganisms was detected in both corn and animal food, tetracycline showed the best antibacterial effect

  11. Fukushima Daiichi - delivery of contaminated water into the Pacific ocean and possible consequences for the marine ecosystem; Fukushima Daiichi. Ableitungen und deren moegliche Auswirkungen in der Meeresumwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nies, Hartmut [Bundesamt fuer Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Hamburg (Germany). Abt. Meereskunde

    2015-06-01

    The nuclear power plant Fukushima Daiichi is sited at the coast of the Japanese island Honshu. Most of the cooling water for the three destroyed reactors units 1-3 and the nuclear fuel in the spent fuel pool of unit-4 were uncontrolled delivered into the groundwater and the Pacific Ocean. As a consequence high concentrations of I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137 in the coastal waters have to be assumed. The contribution analyzed the possible consequences for the marine ecosystem. A drift time of 5 to 7 years toward the coast of North America is expected. The planning of the marine monitoring program MEXT is described. Radiation measurements in the coastal water up to 200 km distance from Daiichi were performed. The highest radionuclide concentrations of Cs-137 and Cs-134 were found in the fine grained sediments. No increased radioactivity in seafood is expected.

  12. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  13. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  14. a preliminary study of soil fung study of soil fungal diversity of dye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    of fungal species capable of surviving in dye-contaminated soils, a capability to ... soil, water, flora, fauna, livestock and hum population. ... Similarly, the impact of the discharged effluents from this .... Integrated water management and CP.

  15. Assessment of Cu applications in two contrasting soils-effects on soil microbial activity and the fungal community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiblinger, Katharina M; Schneider, Martin; Gorfer, Markus; Paumann, Melanie; Deltedesco, Evi; Berger, Harald; Jöchlinger, Lisa; Mentler, Axel; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Soja, Gerhard; Zehetner, Franz

    2018-03-01

    Copper (Cu)-based fungicides have been used in viticulture to prevent downy mildew since the end of the 19th century, and are still used today to reduce fungal diseases. Consequently, Cu has built up in many vineyard soils, and it is still unclear how this affects soil functioning. The present study aimed to assess the short and medium-term effects of Cu contamination on the soil fungal community. Two contrasting agricultural soils, an acidic sandy loam and an alkaline silt loam, were used for an eco-toxicological greenhouse pot experiment. The soils were spiked with a Cu-based fungicide in seven concentrations (0-5000 mg Cu kg -1 soil) and alfalfa was grown in the pots for 3 months. Sampling was conducted at the beginning and at the end of the study period to test Cu toxicity effects on total microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activities. Fungal abundance was analysed by ergosterol at both samplings, and for the second sampling, fungal community structure was evaluated via ITS amplicon sequences. Soil microbial biomass C as well as microbial respiration rate decreased with increasing Cu concentrations, with EC 50 ranging from 76 to 187 mg EDTA-extractable Cu kg -1 soil. Oxidative enzymes showed a trend of increasing activity at the first sampling, but a decline in peroxidase activity was observed for the second sampling. We found remarkable Cu-induced changes in fungal community abundance (EC 50 ranging from 9.2 to 94 mg EDTA-extractable Cu kg -1 soil) and composition, but not in diversity. A large number of diverse fungi were able to thrive under elevated Cu concentrations, though within the order of Hypocreales several species declined. A remarkable Cu-induced change in the community composition was found, which depended on the soil properties and, hence, on Cu availability.

  16. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  17. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  18. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  19. Effects of water extraction in a vulnerable phreatic aquifer: Consequences for groundwater contamination by pesticides, Sint-Jansteen area, The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Irina

    Pesticides are a potential threat to the quality of extracted groundwater when the water-supply area is used for agricultural activities. This problem is discussed for the water-supply area of Sint-Jansteen, The Netherlands, where measured pesticide concentrations in the extracted water regularly exceed EU limits (0.1μg/L). Groundwater samples taken from the aquifer within the water-supply area show low contamination, but samples taken from the extracted water occasionally contain pesticides, making the water inadequate for drinking-water purposes. The more intense contamination of the extracted water is caused by the change in the natural groundwater flow pattern near the extraction wells. In this area, pesticide use cannot be avoided easily, and an approach is given to differentiate pesticide use in the area according to expected travel time toward the wells and the chemical characteristics of the pesticides. A groundwater flow model for the area is developed and the effects of groundwater extraction on the natural flow pattern are evaluated. Using particle tracking, the travel-time zones are determined. Combining these results and the degradation behavior of certain pesticides led to an optimal scheme to integrate agricultural activities and groundwater extraction in the area. This is illustrated for five different types of pesticides (atrazine, simazine, bentazone, MCPA, and mecoprop). Résumé Les pesticides sont une menace potentielle pour la qualité de l'eau souterraine prélevée lorsque la zone de captage est soumise à des activités agricoles. Ce problème est discuté dans le cas de la zone de captage de Sint-Jansteen (Pays-Bas), où les concentrations mesurées en pesticides dans les eaux pompées dépassent régulièrement les normes européennes (0,1μg/L). Les échantillons d'eau souterraine prélevés dans l'aquifère dans la zone de captage montrent une faible contamination, mais les échantillons d'eau pompée contiennent occasionnellement des

  20. Metagenomic and functional analyses of the consequences of reduction of bacterial diversity on soil functions and bioremediation in diesel-contaminated microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Philippot, Laurent; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-14

    The relationship between microbial biodiversity and soil function is an important issue in ecology, yet most studies have been performed in pristine ecosystems. Here, we assess the role of microbial diversity in ecological function and remediation strategies in diesel-contaminated soils. Soil microbial diversity was manipulated using a removal by dilution approach and microbial functions were determined using both metagenomic analyses and enzymatic assays. A shift from Proteobacteria- to Actinobacteria-dominant communities was observed when species diversity was reduced. Metagenomic analysis showed that a large proportion of functional gene categories were significantly altered by the reduction in biodiversity. The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen cycle was significantly reduced in the low-diversity community, impairing denitrification. In contrast, the efficiency of diesel biodegradation was increased in the low-diversity community and was further enhanced by addition of red clay as a stimulating agent. Our results suggest that the relationship between microbial diversity and ecological function involves trade-offs among ecological processes, and should not be generalized as a positive, neutral, or negative relationship.

  1. Contamination of ground water as a consequence of land disposal of dye waste mixed sewage effluents: a case study of Panipat district of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, S K; Yadav, Rashmi; Chaturvedi, R K; Yadav, R K; Sharma, V K; Minhas, P S

    2010-09-01

    Spatial samples of surface and ground water collected from land disposal site of dye waste mixed sewage effluents at Binjhole, in Haryana, India were analyzed to evaluate its effect on quality of pond, hand pumps and ground waters for human health and irrigation purposes. It was found that average COD and TDS of dye houses discharge (310 and 3,920 mg/L) and treated sewage (428 and 1,470 mg/L) on mixing acquired the values of 245 and 1,780 mg/L and only Pb (0.24 microg/L) was above the permissible limit for irrigation purpose. Disposal of this mixed water to village pond changes the COD and TDS to 428 and 1,470 mg/L, respectively. COD and TDS of hand pump water samples were 264 and 1,190 mg/L, where as in tube well water these values were 151 and 900 mg/L. Though the ground water contamination seemed to decrease with the increasing distance from the pond but COD, TDS and BOD values continued to be quite high in water samples drawn from the hand pumps up to a distance of 500 m from pond. However, the major cause of the concern in these waters was Pb (0.11-0.45 ppm). Crops grown with this water shows accumulation of heavy metals like Pb,Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn but in few crops they (Zn, Pb and Cd) exceed the safe limits. Regular consumption of these crop products may lead heavy metal toxicity. It was concluded from this study that the deep seepage of effluents led to deterioration of ground water quality for drinking purposes and the well waters rendered unfit for irrigation purposes within a span of 2 years. This warrants appropriate disposal measures for sewage and dye industry effluents in order to prevent deterioration of ground water and health of human and animals.

  2. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Geraskin, S.A.; Fesenko, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

  3. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Gandomi, Behrooz; Sabz, Gholamabbass; Khodami, Bijan; Choopanizadeh, Maral; Jafarian, Hadis

    2015-02-01

    Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performed with two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus. Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3), Aspergillus flavus (n=2), Penicillium sp (n=3) and Alternaria sp. (n=1). Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor. Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementary diagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  4. The 2012 Fungal Meningitis Outbreak in the United States: Connections Between Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Lynn; Brevik, Eric

    2013-04-01

    In September of 2012 the United States found itself facing a fungal meningitis outbreak that was traced back to contaminated steroid injections. The fungus Exserohilium rostratum, which is found in soil, among other locations in the environment, was identified as the main cause of the health issues created by the contaminated steroids. As of November 7, 2012 419 cases of fungal meningitis, stroke due to presumed fungal meningitis, or other central nervous system-related infections, 10 cases of peripheral joint infections, and 31 deaths linked to the contaminated steroids had been documented. However, the life cycle and soil ecology of E. rostratum is not well understood, and such knowledge would aid human health professionals in understanding the pathogenic potential of E. rostratum. Therefore, soil scientists have a role to play in developing the most effective ways to combat human health challenges such as the 2012 fungal meningitis outbreak.

  5. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  6. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  7. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  8. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  9. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2006-01-01

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  10. Associated microbial contaminants in in-vitro micropropagation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies were carried out to determine the microbial contaminants associated with in-vitro micropropagation of Ipomea batatas (sweet potato). The contaminants were found to be mostly fungal organisms, Aspergillus Spp (62%), Penicillum Spp. (31%), Fusarium Spp. (5%) and Alternaria Spp. (2%). Bacterial contamination ...

  11. Dynamics of fungal colonization in a new medical mycology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Fournel, I; Dalle, F; Calinon, C; L'Ollivier, C; Goyer, M; Cachia, C; Aho, S; Sixt, N; Vagner, O; Cuisenier, B; Bonnin, A

    2012-03-01

    Study of the spatio-temporal fungal colonization in a new medical mycology laboratory. A 17-month survey of airborne fungal contamination was conducted in a new medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital. This survey was implemented at three different periods: before the new premises were occupied (period A), during the move into the new laboratory (period B) and after resumption of the mycological activities in these new premises (period C). During period A, the airborne fungal load ranged from 2.3 to 6 cfu/m(3). The most frequently recovered airborne fungi were Penicillium spp. (75 to 100%). During period B, a dramatic increase in Penicillium chrysogenum conidia was observed in the air of the new laboratory (40 to 160 cfu/m(3)). During period C, the fungal load ranged from 4.5 to 8.4 cfu/m(3). Penicillium was the most common genus identified in rooms of the laboratory where no filamentous fungi were handled, while Aspergillus was clearly the predominant genus (78%) in the room dedicated to the culture of filamentous fungi. We suggest that the specific fungal ecology in air of the room dedicated to the culture of filamentous fungi is due to the handling of a large number of medical strains of A. fumigatus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  13. Contaminação bacteriana e fúngica de canudos de refrigerantes e seus recipientes em lanchonetes de município do interior de São Paulo Fungal and bacterial contamination of drinking straws and their containers in snack bars in a municipality of São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rafael Martins Soto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o nível de contaminação bacteriana e fúngica de canudos de refrigerantes e seus recipientes em 30 lanchonetes do Município de Ibiúna (SP, correlacionando com as condições de higiene, processos e métodos de desinfecção destes estabelecimentos. MÉTODOS: Foram colhidas três amostras por estabelecimento nas embalagens fechadas, em recipientes e swab em toda a superfície de contato. Foi aplicado um questionário a fim de avaliar: a empresa fornecedora dos canudos, higienização, freqüência e desinfecção, e foram efetuadas inspeções sanitárias nos estabelecimentos. Para as análises microbiológicas foi utilizada a técnica de lavagem superficial e semeadura em meios, para contagem de bactérias mesófilas. As amostras turvas foram semeadas em meios de cultura para: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, coliformes totais e/ou termotolerantes. RESULTADOS: Dentre os microorganismos isolados nas amostras dos canudos nos recipientes foi detectado Bacillus cereus em 36,6%, Enterococo spp. em 3,3%. O Bacillus cereus foi isolado em 46,6% nos swabs dos recipientes, e em 13,3%, Enterococos. Na análise de associação do nível de contaminação microbiana de canudos de refrigerantes e seus recipientes com as condições de higiene, os processos de higienização e a desinfecção dos estabelecimentos, não foi identifica significância estatística (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: O Bacillus cereus foi o microorganismo que prevaleceu nas embalagens íntegras dos canudos, nos seus recipientes e no swab das superfícies. Não foi comprovada a associação de fatores de risco de contaminação bacteriana e fúngica.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the fungal and bacterial contamination level of drinking straws and their containers of thirty snack bars at the municipality of Ibiuna (SP, Brazil and to correlate these data with conditions of hygiene and the processes and

  14. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2....... Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...

  15. Consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: Provide a realistic assessment of consequences; Account for plant and site-specific characteristics; Adjust accident release characteristics to account for results of plant-containment analysis; Produce conditional risk curves for each of five health effects; and Estimate uncertainties

  16. Rapid methods for the extraction and archiving of molecular grade fungal genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Palmer, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2013-01-01

    The rapid and inexpensive extraction of fungal genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for molecular approaches is central to the molecular identification, epidemiological analysis, taxonomy, and strain typing of pathogenic fungi. Although many commercially available and in-house extraction procedures do eliminate the majority of contaminants that commonly inhibit molecular approaches, the inherent difficulties in breaking fungal cell walls lead to protocols that are labor intensive and that routinely take several hours to complete. Here we describe several methods that we have developed in our laboratory that allow the extremely rapid and inexpensive preparation of fungal genomic DNA.

  17. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Correa, Benedito

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in 60 Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  18. Fungal evaluation on green tea irradiated with different water activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Gustavo B.; Duarte, Renato C.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: gbfanaro@ipen.b, E-mail: villavic@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes; Correa, Benedito, E-mail: correabe@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Micologia

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was evaluate the fungal contamination in green tea irradiated with different radiation doses and water activities. Samples were irradiated in {sup 60}Co irradiator at doses of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0kGy with three different water activities. In the sample with decreased water activity, the count of fungi was lower than others samples followed by original Aw and the samples with the higher water activity, however there is no difference between the increased and decreased water activities samples after the irradiation on fungi contamination at dose of 2.5 kGy. (author)

  19. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  20. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  1. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  2. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  3. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  4. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  5. The effect of stable bedding materials on dust levels, microbial air contamination and equine respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, Agnieszka; Witkowska, Dorota; Sowińska, Janina; Stopyra, Artur

    2017-12-01

    The choice of bedding material affects the quality of air in a stable and, consequently, the respiratory health of horses and humans. The risk of respiratory problems can be mitigated by improving the quality of air in the stable. The choice of bedding material is particularly important in cold climate conditions where horses are kept indoors throughout the year. This study examined the impact of three bedding materials: straw (S), peat with shavings (PS), and crushed wood pellets (CWP). The investigated factors were air contamination, including dust contamination and microbial (bacterial and fungal) contamination, and the condition of the equine respiratory tract. The condition of the respiratory tract was evaluated based on the results of arterial blood biochemistry tests and endoscopic evaluations of the upper respiratory tract. Mechanical dust contamination was lowest for PS (1.09mg/m 3 ) and highest for CWP (4.07mg/m 3 ). Bacterial contamination (in CFU - colony forming units) was highest for PS (5.14log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and lowest for CWP (4.81log 10 CFU/m 3 ). Fungal air contamination was lowest for CWP (4.54log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and highest for S (4.82log 10 CFU/m 3 ) and PS (4.88log 10 CFU/m 3 ). An analysis of physiological indicators revealed that all horses were clinically healthy regardless of the type of applied bedding. The type of bedding material did not exert a clear influence on arterial blood biochemistry or the results of endoscopic evaluations of the respiratory tract; however, the use of alternative for straw bedding materials improved endoscopy results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Extent of Microbial Contamination of Refined and Unrefined Vegetable oils sold in South-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Flora

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Oils constitute a major source of plant-based protein. A major limitation to optimal oil consumption in sub-tropical region is fungal infestation and consequent mycotoxin contamination. Ten refined and eight unrefined vegetable oils were randomly purchase from open markets and screened for microbial contamination using standard microbial procedures. Twenty six fungi isolates were obtained from the vegetable oil samples, the isolates were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus (43.0%, Mucor (17.9%, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (10.7%, Aspergillus niger (7.1%, Aspergillus flavus (7.1%, Penicillium spp (7.1%, Aspergillus oryzae (3.6%, Mucor (17.9% and Rhizopus spp (3.6%. Five out of the ten refined vegetable oil samples had no fungal contamination. A. flavus and A. oryzae were absent in all the refined oil samples while A. niger was absent in all the unrefined oil samples. Isolation of mycotoxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus spp. is of vital importance in the food industry. Education and training of processors and consumers is recommended.

  7. Study of contamination by 100 {mu}Ci of Sr 90 in the rat: clinical, hematological and osseous effects (appearance of osteosarcomas); Etude d'une contamination par 100 {mu}Ci de Sr 90 chez le rat: consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses (apparition d'osteosarcomes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, B; Lafuma, J; Parmentier, C; Parmentier, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Clinical, hematological and osseous effects following an intramuscular injection of 100 {mu}Ci 90 Sr were studied in the rat. In spite of the magnitude of the injection and the resulting damage, the elimination of strontium could compare with what occurs after an injection at tracer doses. Comparing with the controls at the outcoming time, clinical monitoring mainly brought out a loss of body weight. Fairly early (20. - 30. day) there occurred severe hematological damage, especially on lymphocyte line, which subsided spontaneously. As foreseen, the anatomo-pathological survey of the early period showed bone and medullar lesions in the areas of enchondral ossification. In the late period, bone sarcomas occurred in nine animals out of ten. The outstanding histological type was osteogenic osteosarcomas; besides, two animals experienced bilateral tumors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient les consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses d'une contamination par 100 microcuries de Sr 90 injectes par voie intramusculaire chez le rat. Malgre l'importance de la contamination et les lesions consequentes, l'elimination du Sr 90 est comparable a celle que l'on observe apres injection de doses traceuses. La surveillance clinique ne met essentiellement en evidence, a la periode terminale, qu'une diminution du poids par rapport aux temoins. Les lesions hematologiques sont importantes, predominant sur la lignee lymphocytaire. Elles sont relativement precoces (20e - 30e jours) et regressent spontanement. La surveillance anatomo-pathologique de la periode precoce a montre, comme il etait previsible, des lesions osseuses et medullaires dans les zones d'ossification enchondrale. A la periode tardive, la survenue de sarcomes osseux a ete observee chez neuf animaux sur dix. Le type histologique predominant est l'osteosarcome osteogenique et il faut signaler egalement les tumeurs bilaterales observees chez deux animaux. (auteurs)

  8. Study of contamination by 100 {mu}Ci of Sr 90 in the rat: clinical, hematological and osseous effects (appearance of osteosarcomas); Etude d'une contamination par 100 {mu}Ci de Sr 90 chez le rat: consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses (apparition d'osteosarcomes)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, B.; Lafuma, J.; Parmentier, C.; Parmentier, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    Clinical, hematological and osseous effects following an intramuscular injection of 100 {mu}Ci 90 Sr were studied in the rat. In spite of the magnitude of the injection and the resulting damage, the elimination of strontium could compare with what occurs after an injection at tracer doses. Comparing with the controls at the outcoming time, clinical monitoring mainly brought out a loss of body weight. Fairly early (20. - 30. day) there occurred severe hematological damage, especially on lymphocyte line, which subsided spontaneously. As foreseen, the anatomo-pathological survey of the early period showed bone and medullar lesions in the areas of enchondral ossification. In the late period, bone sarcomas occurred in nine animals out of ten. The outstanding histological type was osteogenic osteosarcomas; besides, two animals experienced bilateral tumors. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient les consequences cliniques, hematologiques et osseuses d'une contamination par 100 microcuries de Sr 90 injectes par voie intramusculaire chez le rat. Malgre l'importance de la contamination et les lesions consequentes, l'elimination du Sr 90 est comparable a celle que l'on observe apres injection de doses traceuses. La surveillance clinique ne met essentiellement en evidence, a la periode terminale, qu'une diminution du poids par rapport aux temoins. Les lesions hematologiques sont importantes, predominant sur la lignee lymphocytaire. Elles sont relativement precoces (20e - 30e jours) et regressent spontanement. La surveillance anatomo-pathologique de la periode precoce a montre, comme il etait previsible, des lesions osseuses et medullaires dans les zones d'ossification enchondrale. A la periode tardive, la survenue de sarcomes osseux a ete observee chez neuf animaux sur dix. Le type histologique predominant est l'osteosarcome osteogenique et il faut signaler egalement les tumeurs bilaterales observees chez deux animaux. (auteurs)

  9. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available their basic properties and relationship. In Section 3 we present a modal instance of these constructions which also illustrates with an example how to reason abductively with constrained entailment in a causal or action oriented context. In Section 4 we... of models with the former approach, whereas in Section 3.3 we give an example illustrating ways in which C can be de ned with both. Here we employ the following versions of local consequence: De nition 3.4. Given a model M = hW;R;Vi and formulas...

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  11. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  12. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Atmospheric contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, Juerg

    1997-01-01

    It is about the levels of contamination in center America, the population's perception on the problem, effects of the atmospheric contamination, effects in the environment, causes of the atmospheric contamination, possibilities to reduce the atmospheric contamination and list of Roeco Swisscontac in atmospheric contamination

  14. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  15. Global and Multi-National Prevalence of Fungal Diseases—Estimate Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bongomin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases kill more than 1.5 million and affect over a billion people. However, they are still a neglected topic by public health authorities even though most deaths from fungal diseases are avoidable. Serious fungal infections occur as a consequence of other health problems including asthma, AIDS, cancer, organ transplantation and corticosteroid therapies. Early accurate diagnosis allows prompt antifungal therapy; however this is often delayed or unavailable leading to death, serious chronic illness or blindness. Recent global estimates have found 3,000,000 cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, ~223,100 cases of cryptococcal meningitis complicating HIV/AIDS, ~700,000 cases of invasive candidiasis, ~500,000 cases of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, ~250,000 cases of invasive aspergillosis, ~100,000 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, over 10,000,000 cases of fungal asthma and ~1,000,000 cases of fungal keratitis occur annually. Since 2013, the Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE portal has facilitated the estimation of the burden of serious fungal infections country by country for over 5.7 billion people (>80% of the world’s population. These studies have shown differences in the global burden between countries, within regions of the same country and between at risk populations. Here we interrogate the accuracy of these fungal infection burden estimates in the 43 published papers within the LIFE initiative.

  16. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  17. Release and characteristics of fungal fragments in various conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensah-Attipoe, Jacob [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Saari, Sampo [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Pasanen, Pertti [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Keskinen, Jorma [Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere (Finland); Leskinen, Jari T.T. [SIB Labs, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1E, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio (Finland); Reponen, Tiina, E-mail: reponeta@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Science, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1D, P. O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Intact spores and submicrometer size fragments are released from moldy building materials during growth and sporulation. It is unclear whether all fragments originate from fungal growth or if small pieces of building materials are also aerosolized as a result of microbial decomposition. In addition, particles may be formed through nucleation from secondary metabolites of fungi, such as microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). In this study, we used the elemental composition of particles to characterize the origin of submicrometer fragments released from materials contaminated by fungi. Particles from three fungal species (Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Penicillium brevicompactum), grown on agar, wood and gypsum board were aerosolized using the Fungal Spore Source Strength Tester (FSSST) at three air velocities (5, 16 and 27 m/s). Released spores (optical size, d{sub p} ≥ 0.8 μm) and fragments (d{sub p} ≤ 0.8 μm) were counted using direct-reading optical aerosol instruments. Particles were also collected on filters, and their morphology and elemental composition analyzed using scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) coupled with an Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Among the studied factors, air velocity resulted in the most consistent trends in the release of fungal particles. Total concentrations of both fragments and spores increased with an increase in air velocity for all species whereas fragment–spore (F/S) ratios decreased. EDX analysis showed common elements, such as C, O, Mg and Ca, for blank material samples and fungal growth. However, N and P were exclusive to the fungal growth, and therefore were used to differentiate biological fragments from non-biological ones. Our results indicated that majority of fragments contained N and P. Because we observed increased release of fragments with increased air velocities, nucleation of MVOCs was likely not a relevant process in the formation of fungal fragments. Based

  18. Fungal Presence in Selected Tree Nuts and Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Tournas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty-four tree nut samples (almonds, pecans, pine nuts, and walnuts and 50 dried fruit samples (apricots, cranberries, papaya, pineapple, and raisins were purchased from local supermarkets and analyzed for fungal contamination using conventional culture as well as molecular methods. The results of our study showed that the highest yeast and mold (YM counts (5.34 log 10 CFU g -1 were found in walnuts and the lowest in pecans. The most common mold in nuts was Aspergillus niger , relatively low numbers of A. flavus were found across the board, while Penicillium spp. were very common in pine nuts and walnuts. Low levels (2.00–2.84 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts were recovered from only two pine nut samples. Fungal contamination in dried fruits was minimal (ranging from <2.00 to 3.86 log 10 CFU g -1 . The highest fungal levels were present in raisins. All papaya samples and the majority of cranberry, pineapple, and apricot samples were free of live fungi. The most common mold in dried fruits was A. niger followed by Penicillium spp. One apricot sample also contained low levels (2.00 log 10 CFU g -1 of yeasts.

  19. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  20. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Froholdt, Lisa Loloma

    2009-01-01

      In this article, it is claimed that research on cross-cultural crews is dominated by one specific understanding of the concept of culture, which is static, evenly distributed and context-independent. Such a conception of culture may bring some basic order while facing an unknown culture...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  1. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  2. Strategies to Characterize Fungal Lipases for Applications in Medicine and Dairy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Anbu, Periasamy; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Hilda, Azariah

    2013-01-01

    Lipases are water-soluble enzymes that act on insoluble substrates and catalyze the hydrolysis of long-chain triglycerides. Lipases play a vital role in the food, detergent, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In the past, fungal lipases gained significant attention in the industries due to their substrate specificity and stability under varied chemical and physical conditions. Fungal enzymes are extracellular in nature, and they can be extracted easily, which significantly reduces the cost and makes this source preferable over bacteria. Soil contaminated with spillage from the products of oil and dairy harbors fungal species, which have the potential to secrete lipases to degrade fats and oils. Herein, the strategies involved in the characterization of fungal lipases, capable of degrading fatty substances, are narrated with a focus on further applications. PMID:23865040

  3. Proteomic analysis of a mutant of Trichoderma arundinaceum impaired in the trichothecene biosynthesis reveals a systemic function of these compounds in the fungal physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpene mycotoxins produced by several fungal genera including Fusarium, Trichothecium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, and Trichoderma. These toxins have attracted great attention because they are frequent contaminants of food and animal feed, and can be easily absorbed by anim...

  4. Effect of trichothecene production on the plant defense response and fungal physiology: overexpression of Trichoderma arundinaceum tri4 gene in T. harzianum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichothecenes are fungal sesquiterpenoid compounds, the majority of which have phytotoxic activity. They contaminate food and feed stocks, resulting in potential harm to animals and human beings. Trichoderma brevicompactum and T. arundinaceum produce trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), respectively,...

  5. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  6. Fungal and bacterial contaminants of six spices and spice products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aijay

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(9), pp. 633-640 .... microflora of plants, microorganisms present in processing plant, air, post .... were placed in resealable polyethylene bags and transported to the laboratory.

  7. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  8. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  9. Analysis of surfaces for characterization of fungal burden – Does it matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Viegas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mycological contamination of occupational environments can be a result of fungal spores’ dispersion in the air and on surfaces. Therefore, it is very important to assess it in both types of the samples. In the present study we assessed fungal contamination in the air and in the surface samples to show relevance of surfaces sampling in complementing the results obtained in the air samples. Material and Methods: In total, 42 settings were assessed by the analysis of air and surfaces samples. The settings were divided into settings with a high fungal load (7 poultry farms and 7 pig farms, 3 cork industries, 3 waste management plants, 2 wastewater treatment plants and 1 horse stable and a low fungal load (10 hospital canteens, 8 college canteens and 1 maternity hospital. In addition to culture-based methods, molecular tools were also applied to detect fungal burden in the settings with a higher fungal load. Results: From the 218 sampling sites, 140 (64.2% presented different species in the examined surfaces when compared with the species identified in the air. A positive association in the high fungal load settings was found between the presence of different species in the air and surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants constituted the setting with the highest number of different species between the air and surface. Conclusions: We observed that surfaces sampling and application of molecular tools showed the same efficacy of species detection in high fungal load settings, corroborating the fact that surface sampling is crucial for a correct and complete analysis of occupational scenarios.

  10. Analysis of surfaces for characterization of fungal burden - Does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Faria, Tiago; Meneses, Márcia; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Susana; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Mycological contamination of occupational environments can be a result of fungal spores' dispersion in the air and on surfaces. Therefore, it is very important to assess it in both types of the samples. In the present study we assessed fungal contamination in the air and in the surface samples to show relevance of surfaces sampling in complementing the results obtained in the air samples. In total, 42 settings were assessed by the analysis of air and surfaces samples. The settings were divided into settings with a high fungal load (7 poultry farms and 7 pig farms, 3 cork industries, 3 waste management plants, 2 wastewater treatment plants and 1 horse stable) and a low fungal load (10 hospital canteens, 8 college canteens and 1 maternity hospital). In addition to culture-based methods, molecular tools were also applied to detect fungal burden in the settings with a higher fungal load. From the 218 sampling sites, 140 (64.2%) presented different species in the examined surfaces when compared with the species identified in the air. A positive association in the high fungal load settings was found between the presence of different species in the air and surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants constituted the setting with the highest number of different species between the air and surface. We observed that surfaces sampling and application of molecular tools showed the same efficacy of species detection in high fungal load settings, corroborating the fact that surface sampling is crucial for a correct and complete analysis of occupational scenarios. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  12. Mycological analysis and aflatoxin B 1 contaminant estimation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study explores the fungal contamination of important herbal drug raw materials (HDRM), which are widely used in the preparation of many herbal drugs. Understanding of the microbial contamination status of HDRM is one of the important steps to ensure the safety and efficacy of herbal drugs.

  13. Contamination trapped in a cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sender, E.

    2003-01-01

    Some abandoned industrial sites are so strongly contaminated that they threaten to contaminate underground waters. Pollutants are driven through the soil by raining waters. The principle of the ''hydro-Faraday'' cage is to prevent raining waters from flowing through the contaminated part of the soil. The cage is in fact a structure of buried drain tubes that envelop the contaminated zone. Physics make waters flow through the tubes rather than the soil, so the contaminated zone receives no more water and as a consequence pollutants are stopped in their way towards the phreatic bed. (A.C.)

  14. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  15. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  16. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in stored dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bulushi, Ismail M; Bani-Uraba, Muna S; Guizani, Nejib S; Al-Khusaibi, Mohammed K; Al-Sadi, Abdullah M

    2017-03-27

    Date palm has been a major fruit tree in the Middle East over thousands of years, especially in the Arabian Peninsula. Dates are consumed fresh (Rutab) or after partial drying and storage (Tamar) during off-season. The aim of the study was to provide in-depth analysis of fungal communities associated with the skin (outer part) and mesocarp (inner fleshy part) of stored dates (Tamar) of two cultivars (Khenizi and Burny) through the use of Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The study revealed the dominance of Ascomycota (94%) in both cultivars, followed by Chytridiomycota (4%) and Zygomycota (2%). Among the classes recovered, Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Saccharomycetes and Sordariomycetes were the most dominant. A total of 54 fungal species were detected, with species belonging to Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus comprising more than 60% of the fungal reads. Some potentially mycotoxin-producing fungi were detected in stored dates, including Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor and Penicillium citrinum, but their relative abundance was very limited (PerMANOVA analysis revealed the presence of insignificant differences in fungal communities between date parts or date cultivars, indicating that fungal species associated with the skin may also be detected in the mesocarp. It also indicates the possible contamination of dates from different cultivars with similar fungal species, even though if they are obtained from different areas. The analysis shows the presence of different fungal species in dates. This appears to be the first study to report 25 new fungal species in Oman and 28 new fungal species from date fruits. The study discusses the sources of fungi on dates and the presence of potentially mycotoxin producing fungi on date skin and mesocarp.

  17. Optical properties of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adverdi; V-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rudamas, Carlos; Dreyer, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    It was already reported by B. Dreyer at al. [1] that all fungal structures, both intra- and extra-radical fluoresced under blue light excitation regardless of their state (dead or alive). The source of the so called autofluorescence appears to be localized in the fungal cell wall. This supports the use of photoluminescence for the evaluation of AM colonization. However, the interpretation of these results is still in discussion [1-4]. In this work, arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated from the rhizosphere of mango (Mangifera indica L.) plants by the method of wet sieving and decanting of Gerdemann and Nicolson [5] and studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our experimental setup consists of an epifluorescence microscope (EM) coupled to a CCD-spectrometer through an arrangement of a home-made-telescope + fiber optic. This experimental setup allows the capture of images of the mycorrhizal structures (as usual in a standard epifluorescence microscope) combined with measurements of their corresponding emission bands. The preliminary results based on images obtained by standard EM do not clearly show that the emission is originated in the fungal cell walls as reported in Ref. 1. On the other hand, a very broad emission band in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed in these spores by exciting at 450-490 nm and 300- 380 nm. We obtain a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of around 200 nm for this emission band whichis centered at 515 nm. This broad band seems to be composed of two narrower bands peaked around 494 and 547 nm and with FWHM of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The profile of the observed emission band is in good agreement with the bands reported in Ref. 1 for vesicles, arbuscules and spores measured using the λ-Scan of a confocal laser scanning microscope. However, our results for spores show that the maxima of the narrower bands are shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding bands observed in Ref. 1

  18. Conversion of lignocellulosic waste by gamma irradiation and fungal fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuan Tham; Nguyen Duy Hang; Tran Huu Do; Hoang Thi My Linh; Nguyen Duy Lam

    2000-01-01

    Effects of microbial elimination (initially contaminated bacteria and fungi) were confirmed at wide range of irradiation doses (15-30 kGy) with gamma rays of Co-60 for substrates with sawdusts, sugar cane baggasse, rice straw, oil palm fibre and others. Some changes of main components of basic polysaccharides and nitrogen sources in substrates under irradiation and fermentations have been examined to confirm effective conversions and assimilations of inorganic nitrogen into protein, particularly using N-15 tracer techniques. Biomass obtained by fungal fermentations would be used for animal feed and spent compots were useful for biofertilizer production. (author)

  19. Grains colonised by moulds: fungal identification and headspace analysis of produced volatile metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Tampieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify if the headspace analysis of fungal volatile compounds produced by some species of Fusarium can be used as a marker of mould presence on maize. Eight samples of maize (four yellow maize from North Italy and four white maize from Hungary, naturally contaminated by Fusarium and positive for the presence of fumonisins, were analyzed to detect moisture content, Aw, volatile metabolites and an enumeration of viable moulds was performed by means of a colony count technique. Headspace samples were analysed using a gas-chromatograph equipped with a capillary column TR-WAX to detect volatile metabolites of moulds. Furthermore macro and microscopic examination of the colonies was performed in order to distinguish, according to their morphology, the genera of the prevalent present moulds. Prevalent mould of eight samples was Fusarium, but other fungi, like Aspergillus, Penicillum and Mucoraceae, were observed. The metabolites produced by F.graminearum and F. moniliforme were Isobutyl-acetate, 3-Methyl-1-butanol and, only at 8 days, 3-Octanone. The incubation time can affect off flavour production in consequence of the presence of other moulds. Further studies on maize samples under different conditions are needed in order to establish the presence of moulds using the count technique and through the identification of volatile compounds.

  20. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  1. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  2. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  3. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  4. Mycoremediation of Textile Dyes: Application of Novel Autochthonous Fungal Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweety

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Four fungal isolates Trichoderma virens, Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii, Talaromyces stipitatus, Aspergillus niger originally isolated from the textile dye contaminated soil of Meerut (U.P. India. They were used for the decolorization studies of selected textile azo dyes under laboratory conditions. Out of total 74 isolates, selected four fungal strains were picked on the basis of primary screening carried out using agar layer decolorization method. Decolorization efficiency of textile dyes was studied at an interval of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days at temperatures 20, 25, 30 and 40°C using five synthetic dyes viz. Xylene cynol FF, Brilliant blue R, Aniline Blue, Orange G II and Crystal violet. Decolorization study was carried out under shaking and stationary conditions at pH 4.0, 5.4, 6.5, and 8.0. The results obtained showed that Trichoderma virens and Aspergillus niger were more efficient then Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus. Highest biodegradation activities of dyes by these aboriginal fungal isolates were observed at pH 5.4 after 9 days of incubation. Maximum decolorization 99.84 % was achieved by Aspergillus niger, followed by Trichoderma virens. This is the first report where the bioremediation aspects of Phlebiopsis cf. ravenelii and Talaromyces stipitatus has been revealed.

  5. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  6. Monitoring of fungal spores in the indoor air of preschool institution facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milana S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores can cause a range of health problems in humans such as respiratory diseases and mycotoxicoses. Since children are the most vulnerable, the presence of fungal spores in the facilities of preschool and school institutions should be investigated readily. In order to estimate air contamination by fungal spores, air sampling was conducted in eight facilities of the preschool institution in Novi Sad during February and March, 2007. Sedimentation plate method was used for the detection of viable fungal spores, mostly being members of subdv. Deuteromycota (Fungi imperfecti. In 32 samples a total of 148 colonies were developed, among which five genera were identified: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Acremonium while non-sporulating fungal colonies were labeled as sterile mycelia. Most frequently recorded genera were Penicillium with 46 colonies and Cladosporium with 44 colonies. The genera Aspergillus and Alternaria were represented with 3 colonies each and Acremonium with only 1 colony. The greatest number of colonies emerged in the samples from the day care facilities “Vendi” (58 colonies and “Panda” (49 colonies. Most diverse samples were obtained from the day care center “Zvončica”, with presence of all identified genera. These results showed notable presence of fungal spores in the indoor air of Preschool institution facilities and indicated the need for further, more complete seasonal research. Obtained information is considered useful for the evaluation of potential mycofactors that endanger health of children. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002

  7. Development of a Freeze-Dried Fungal Wettable Powder Preparation Able to Biodegrade Chlorpyrifos on Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711), a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM). The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues. PMID:25061758

  8. Development of a freeze-dried fungal wettable powder preparation able to biodegrade chlorpyrifos on vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711, a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM. The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues.

  9. Radiocaesium in the fungal compartment of forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinichuk, Mykhaylo

    2003-01-01

    Fungi in forest ecosystems are major contributors to accumulation and cycling of radionuclides, especially radiocaesium. However, relatively little is known about uptake and retention of 137 Cs by fungal mycelia. This thesis comprises quantitative estimates of manually prepared mycelia of mainly ectomycorrhizal fungi and their possible role in the retention, turnover and accumulation of radiocaesium in contaminated forest ecosystems. The studies were conducted in two forests during 1996-1998 and 2000-2003. One was in Ovruch district, Zhytomyr region of Ukraine (51 deg 30 min N, 28 deg 95 min E), and the other at two Swedish forest sites: the first situated about 35 km northwest of Uppsala (60 deg 05 min N, 17 deg 25 min E) and the second at Hille in the vicinity of Gaevle (60 deg 85 min N, 17 deg 15 min E). The 137 Cs activity concentration was measured in prepared mycelia and corresponding soil layers. Various extraction procedures were used to study the retention and binding of 137 Cs in Of/Oh and Ah/B horizons of forest soil. 137 Cs was also extracted from the fruit bodies and mycelia of fungi. The fungal mycelium biomass was estimated and the percentage of the total inventory of 137 Cs bound in mycelia in the Ukrainian and Swedish forests was calculated. The estimated fungal biomass in Ukrainian forests varied from 0.07 to 70.4 mg/g soil, in Swedish forests between 3.6 and 19. 4 mg/g soil. Between 0.5 to 50 % of the total 137 Cs activity in the 0-10 cm soil profile was retained in the fungal mycelia. The 137 Cs activity concentration in mycelia was thus higher than that found in soil, and 137 Cs activity concentrations in the fruit bodies was higher than that in the mycelium. The survey study revealed that a major part, around 50 % of the plant-available 137 Cs in forest soil, was retained in the fungal mycelium. The most probable sources of 137 Cs for fungal mycelia and fruit bodies of fungi were found to be water soluble substances, humic matter

  10. SOLID-PHASE TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL- CONTAMINATED SOIL USING LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abilities of three lignin-degrading fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Phanerochaete sordida, and Trametes hirsuta, to deplete pentachlorophenol (PCP) from soil contaminated with PCP and creosote were evaluated. A total of seven fungal and three control treatments ...

  11. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  13. Airway fungal colonization compromises the immune system allowing bacterial pneumonia to prevail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Damien; Gaudry, Stéphane; Khoy-Ear, Linda; Aloulou, Meryem; Phillips-Houlbracq, Mathilde; Bex, Julie; Skurnik, David; Denamur, Erick; Monteiro, Renato C; Dreyfuss, Didier; Ricard, Jean-Damien

    2013-09-01

    To study the correlation between fungal colonization and bacterial pneumonia and to test the effect of antifungal treatments on the development of bacterial pneumonia in colonized rats. Experimental animal investigation. University research laboratory. Pathogen-free male Wistar rats weighing 250-275 g. Rats were colonized by intratracheal instillation of Candida albicans. Fungal clearance from the lungs and immune response were measured. Both colonized and noncolonized animals were secondarily instilled with different bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, or Staphylococcus aureus). Bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages was evaluated in the presence of interferon-gamma, the main cytokine produced during fungal colonization. The effect of antifungal treatments on fungal colonization and its immune response were assessed. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa pneumonia was compared in antifungal treated and control colonized rats. C. albicans was slowly cleared and induced a Th1-Th17 immune response with very high interferon-gamma concentrations. Airway fungal colonization favored the development of bacterial pneumonia. Interferon-gamma was able to inhibit the phagocytosis of unopsonized bacteria by alveolar macrophages. Antifungal treatment decreased airway fungal colonization, lung interferon-gamma levels and, consequently, the prevalence of subsequent bacterial pneumonia. C. albicans airway colonization elicited a Th1-Th17 immune response that favored the development of bacterial pneumonia via the inhibition of bacterial phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. Antifungal treatment decreased the risk of bacterial pneumonia in colonized rats.

  14. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  15. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  16. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. THE USE OF PLANTS TO PROTECT PLANTS AND FOOD AGAINST FUNGAL PATHOGENS: A REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuping, D S S; Eloff, J N

    2017-01-01

    Plant fungal pathogens play a crucial role in the profitability, quality and quantity of plant production. These phytopathogens are persistent in avoiding plant defences causing diseases and quality losses around the world that amount to billions of US dollars annually. To control the scourge of plant fungal diseases, farmers have used fungicides to manage the damage of plant pathogenic fungi. Drawbacks such as development of resistance and environmental toxicity associated with these chemicals have motivated researchers and cultivators to investigate other possibilities. Several databases were accessed to determine work done on protecting plants against plant fungal pathogens with plant extracts using search terms "plant fungal pathogen", "plant extracts" and "phytopathogens". Proposals are made on the best extractants and bioassay techniques to be used. In addition to chemical fungicides, biological agents have been used to deal with plant fungal diseases. There are many examples where plant extracts or plant derived compounds have been used as commercial deterrents of fungi on a large scale in agricultural and horticultural setups. One advantage of this approach is that plant extracts usually contain more than one antifungal compound. Consequently the development of resistance of pathogens may be lower if the different compounds affect a different metabolic process. Plants cultivated using plants extracts may also be marketed as organically produced. Many papers have been published on effective antimicrobial compounds present in plant extracts focusing on applications in human health. More research is required to develop suitable, sustainable, effective, cheaper botanical products that can be used to help overcome the scourge of plant fungal diseases. Scientists who have worked only on using plants to control human and animal fungal pathogens should consider the advantages of focusing on plant fungal pathogens. This approach could not only potentially increase

  18. Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Mehrabi, R.; Burg, van den H.A.; Stergiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and

  19. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  20. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  1. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Asakura, Koji; Homma, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Tadataka; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  2. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  3. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  4. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  5. Contamination of cockroaches (Insecta: Blattaria) to medically fungi: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasirian, H

    2017-12-01

    Fungal infections have emerged worldwide. Cockroaches have been proved vectors of medically fungi. A systematic meta-analysis review about cockroach fungal contamination was investigated. Relevant topics were collected between January 2016 and January 2017. After a preliminary review among 392 collected papers, 156 were selected to become part of the detailed systematic meta-analysis review. Cockroaches contaminated to 38 fungi species belonging to 19 families and 12 orders. About 38, 25 and 13 fungal species were recovered from the American, German and brown-banded cockroaches, respectively with a variety of medical importance. Except the fungi isolated from German and brown-banded cockroaches, 15 species have been isolated only from the American cockroaches. The global world mean and trend of cockroach fungal contamination were 84.1 and 50.6-100%, respectively in the human dwelling environments. There is a significant difference between cockroach fungal contamination in the urban and rural environments (P0.05). The external and internal cockroach fungal contamination is more dangerous than entire surfaces, while the internal is more dangerous than the external surface. The German and brown-banded cockroach fungal contamination are more dangerous than the American cockroaches in the hospital environments. The study indicates that globally cockroach fungal contamination has been increased recognizing as agents of human infections and associating with high morbidity and mortality in immune-compromised patients. These facts, along with insecticide resistance emergence and increasing globally cockroach infestation, reveal importance of cockroaches and need for their control more than ever. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  7. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Ahmed Korani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP—expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer, an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  8. Genotypic Regulation of Aflatoxin Accumulation but Not Aspergillus Fungal Growth upon Post-Harvest Infection of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, Walid Ahmed; Chu, Ye; Holbrook, Corley; Clevenger, Josh; Ozias-Akins, Peggy

    2017-07-12

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major economic and food safety concern for the peanut industry that largely could be mitigated by genetic resistance. To screen peanut for aflatoxin resistance, ten genotypes were infected with a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Aspergillus flavus strain. Percentages of fungal infected area and fungal GFP signal intensity were documented by visual ratings every 8 h for 72 h after inoculation. Significant genotypic differences in fungal growth rates were documented by repeated measures and area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) analyses. SICIA (Seed Infection Coverage and Intensity Analyzer), an image processing software, was developed to digitize fungal GFP signals. Data from SICIA image analysis confirmed visual rating results validating its utility for quantifying fungal growth. Among the tested peanut genotypes, NC 3033 and GT-C20 supported the lowest and highest fungal growth on the surface of peanut seeds, respectively. Although differential fungal growth was observed on the surface of peanut seeds, total fungal growth in the seeds was not significantly different across genotypes based on a fluorometric GFP assay. Significant differences in aflatoxin B levels were detected across peanut genotypes. ICG 1471 had the lowest aflatoxin level whereas Florida-07 had the highest. Two-year aflatoxin tests under simulated late-season drought also showed that ICG 1471 had reduced aflatoxin production under pre-harvest field conditions. These results suggest that all peanut genotypes support A. flavus fungal growth yet differentially influence aflatoxin production.

  9. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  10. Molecular identification of fungal isolates and hatching success of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Esra Deniz

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fungal diversity of green turtle nests and to examine phylogenetic relationships among these isolates. During the nesting season, samples of intra-nest sand and failed eggs were collected from 25% of the surviving nests in Sugözü Beaches, which are amongst the most important nesting beaches for endangered green turtles in the Mediterranean. Twenty-three fungi were identified by molecular techniques. Fungal isolates belonged to genera Aspergillus, Emericella, Rhizopus, Actinomucor and Apophysomyces with two undescribed species. Aspergillus variecolor, Aspergillus quadrilinieatus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Rhizopus oryzae, Actinomucor elegans and Apophysomyces variabilis were firstly detected in all sea turtle nests within this study. Our results demonstrate that 36.4% of the nests had fungal contamination. Also hatching success of the nests contaminated by fungi were significantly lower than the uncontaminated nests (P = 0.029). Also, this may represent a threat to marine turtles and a risk for the health of conservation workers. This study is the first molecular phylogenetic study associated with sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coast and contributes to the wider body of literature on fungal invasion of sea turtle nests with firstly isolated species. These findings are important for improving potential conservation measures for the nest sites.

  11. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  12. Fungal Community Successions in Rhizosphere Sediment of Seagrasses Enhalus acoroides under PAHs Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ling

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems and are of great ecological and economic values. Recently, they have been confronted with worldwide decline. Fungi play important roles in sustaining the ecosystem health as degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, but fewer studies have been conducted in seagrass ecosystems. Hence, we investigated the dynamic variations of the fungal community succession under PAH stress in rhizosphere sediment of seagrasses Enhalus acoroides in this study. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, quantitative PCR (qPCR and a clone library have been employed to analyze the fungal community’s shifts. Sequencing results of DGGE and the clone library showed that the predominant species belong to phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The abundance of three groups decreased sharply over the incubation period, whereas they demonstrated different fungal diversity patterns. Both the exposure time and the PAH concentrations affected the microbial diversity as assessed by PCR-DGGE analysis. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that significant factors driving community shifts were ammonium and pH (p < 0.05. Significant amounts of the variations (31.1% were explained by pH and ammonium, illustrating that those two parameters were the most likely ones to influence or be influenced by the fungal communities’ changes. Investigation results also indicated that fungal communities in seagrass meadow were very sensitive to PAH-induced stress and may be used as potential indicators for the PAH contamination.

  13. Snake fungal disease caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola in a free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lisa A; Fenton, Heather; Gonyor-McGuire, Jessica; Moore, Matthew; Yabsley, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Snake fungal disease is an emerging infectious disease caused by the fungus Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola leading to severe dermatitis and facial disfiguration in numerous free-ranging and captive snakes. A free-ranging mud snake (Farancia abacura) from Bulloch County, Georgia, was presented for autopsy because of facial swelling and emaciation. Extensive ulceration of the skin, which was especially severe on the head, and retained shed were noted on external examination. Microscopic examination revealed severe heterophilic dermatitis with intralesional fungal hyphae and arthroconidia consistent with O. ophiodiicola A skin sample incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded a white-to-tan powdery fungal culture that was confirmed to be O. ophiodiicola by polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis. Heavy infestation with adult tapeworms (Ophiotaenia faranciae) was present within the intestine. Various bacterial and fungal species, interpreted to either be secondary invaders or postmortem contaminants, were associated with oral lesions. Although the role of these other organisms in the overall health of this individual is not known, factors such as concurrent infections or immunosuppression should be considered in order to better understand the overall manifestation of snake fungal disease, which remains poorly characterized in its host range and geographic distribution. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Drinking yerba mate infusion: a potential risk factor for invasive fungal diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, N O; Peres, A; Aquino, V R; Pasqualotto, A C

    2010-12-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) infusion is a very popular drink in South America. Although several studies have evaluated the potential for fungal contamination in foodstuff, very few investigations have been conducted with yerba mate samples. In order to evaluate for the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi, here we studied 8 brands of yerba mate commercially available in Southern Brazil. Fungal survival in adverse conditions such as gastric pH was determined by incubating samples at pH 1.5. Because hot water is generally used to prepare yerba mate infusion, the effect of several temperatures on fungal growth was also investigated. All but 1 yerba mate brand showed substantial fungal growth, in the range of <10–4900 colony-forming units per gram. Some of these fungi were able to survive extreme variations in pH and temperature. Because of the potential for yerba mate to carry pathogenic fungi, immunocompromised patients may be at risk of acquiring invasive fungal diseases by drinking yerba mate infusion.

  15. Chernobylsk accident (Causes and Consequences)- Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D.

    1986-09-01

    The causes and consequences of the nuclear accident at Chernobylsk-4 reactor are shortly described. The informations were provided by Russian during the specialist meeting, carried out at seat of IAEA. The Russian nuclear panorama; the site, nuclear power plant characteristics and sequence of events; the immediate measurements after accident; monitoring/radioactive releases; environmental contamination and ecological consequences; measurements of emergency; recommendations to increase the nuclear safety; and recommendations of work groups, are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Comparative genomics reveals high biological diversity and specific adaptations in the industrially and medically important fungal genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Ronald P.; Riley, Robert; Wiebenga, Ad

    2017-01-01

    Background:  The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eig...

  17. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  18. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  19. Fungal profiles in various milk thistle botanicals from US retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H; Rivera Calo, J; Sapp, C

    2013-06-03

    Milk thistle (MT) dietary supplements are widely consumed due to their possible beneficial effect on liver health. As botanicals, they can be contaminated with a variety of fungi and their secondary metabolites, mycotoxins. This study was conducted in an effort to determine the mycological quality of various MT botanical supplements from the US market. Conventional plating methods were used for the isolation and enumeration of fungi, while conventional microscopy as well as molecular methods were employed for the speciation of the isolated strains. Results showed that a high percentage of the MT samples tested were contaminated with fungi. Total counts ranged between Aspergillus sections Flavi and Nigri as well as Eurotium, Penicillium, Fusarium and Alternaria species were isolated from MT supplements. The predominant molds were Eurotia (E. repens, E. amstelodami and E. rubrum), A. flavus, A. tubingensis, A. niger and A. candidus. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on fungal contamination profiles of MT botanicals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Functional and ecological consequences of saprotrophic fungus-grazer interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Boddy, Lynne; Hefin Jones, T

    2012-11-01

    Saprotrophic fungi are key regulators of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. They are the primary agents of plant litter decomposition and their hyphal networks, which grow throughout the soil-litter interface, represent highly dynamic channels through which nutrients are readily distributed. By ingesting hyphae and dispersing spores, soil invertebrates, including Arthropoda, Oligochaetae and Nematoda, influence fungal-mediated nutrient distribution within soil. Fungal physiological responses to grazing include changes to hydrolytic enzyme production and respiration rates. These directly affect nutrient mineralisation and the flux of CO(2) between terrestrial and atmospheric pools. Preferential grazing may also exert selective pressures on saprotrophic communities, driving shifts in fungal succession and community composition. These functional and ecological consequences of grazing are intrinsically linked, and influenced by invertebrate grazing intensity. High-intensity grazing often reduces fungal growth and activity, whereas low-intensity grazing can have stimulatory effects. Grazing intensity is directly related to invertebrate abundance, and varies dramatically between species and functional groups. Invertebrate diversity and community composition, therefore, represent key factors determining the functioning of saprotrophic fungal communities and the services they provide.

  1. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  2. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  3. Bioremediation of MGP soils with mixed fungal and bacterial cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.J.B.; Fletcher, M.A.; Avila, O.I.; Munnecke, D.M.; Callanan, J.; Yunker, S.

    1995-01-01

    This culture selection study examines the degradation of polycyclic automatic hydrocarbon (PAH) by a number of brown- and white-rot fungi and bacterial cultures for the treatment of coal tar wastes. Cultures were screened for naphthalene degradation in shake flasks, and selected organisms were then examined for their ability to degrade a mixture of PAHs in aqueous culture. PAH degradation in the presence of the surfactant, TWEEN 80, was examined for some cultures. Many of the organisms were observed to be resistant to greater than 10 mg/L free cyanide. Solid substrate growth conditions were optimized for the selected fungal cultures in preparation for manufactured gas plant (MGP) soil microcosm experiments. The fungi generally produced more biomass under conditions of acidic to neutral pH, incubation at 30 C with 90% moisture saturation, and with granulated corncobs or alfalfa pellets supplied as a lignocellulosic substrate. Of the cultures screened, nine fungal cultures were selected based on their ability to degrade at least 40% of naphthalene, fluorene, or benzo(a)pyrene in 2 weeks or less. A bacterial culture capable of degrading 30 mg/L of naphthalene in 1 week was also selected, and the cultures were examined further in PAH-degradation studies in contaminated soils

  4. Water Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statistics Training & Education Policy & Recommendations Fast Facts Healthy Water Sites Healthy Water Drinking Water Healthy Swimming Global ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Water Contamination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  5. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  6. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  7. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  8. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  9. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  10. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  11. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2014-11-06

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term "zygomycosis" is often used as a synonym for "mucormycosis." In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term "zygomycosis" needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis." This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  12. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  13. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  14. Bacterial, fungal and yeast contamination in six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials Contaminação por bactérias, fungos e leveduras em seis marcas comerciais de materiais de moldagem à base de hidrocolóide irreversível

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro; Carlos Henrique Gomes Martins; Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires de Souza; Heitor Panzeri; Isabel Yoko Ito

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the level of contamination of six commercially available irreversible hydrocolloids (two containing chlorhexidine) and identified the contamination present in the materials. Petri dishes containing selective and enriched culture media were inoculated with alginate powder (0.06 g), in triplicate. After incubation (37°C/7 days), the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and Gram stained. Biochemical identification of the different morphotypes was also performed. The co...

  15. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Limited Effects of Variable-Retention Harvesting on Fungal Communities Decomposing Fine Roots in Coastal Temperate Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Timothy J; Barker, Jason S; Prescott, Cindy E; Grayston, Sue J

    2018-02-01

    uncharacterized. Fungi vary in their capacity to decompose plant litter, suggesting that fungal community composition is an important determinant of decomposition rates. Variable-retention harvesting is a forestry practice that modifies fungal communities by providing refuge for ectomycorrhizal fungi. We evaluated the effects of variable retention and clear-cut harvesting on fungal communities decomposing fine roots at two sites (6 and 13 years postharvest), at two decay stages (43 days and 1 year), and in uncut stands in temperate rainforests. Harvesting impacts on fungal community composition were detected only after 6 years after harvest. We suggest that fungal community composition may be an important factor that reduces fine-root decomposition rates relative to those of above-ground plant litter, which has important consequences for forest carbon cycling. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Spread and change in stress resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 on fungal colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Watanabe, Maiko; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Tsubone, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Susumu; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of fungal hyphae on the behaviour of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, the spread and change in stress resistance of the bacterium were evaluated after coculture with 11 species of food-related fungi including fermentation starters. Spread distances of STEC O157 varied depending on the co-cultured fungal species, and the motile bacterial strain spread for longer distances than the non-motile strain. The population of STEC O157 increased when co-cultured on colonies of nine fungal species but decreased on colonies of Emericella nidulans and Aspergillus ochraceus. Confocal scanning microscopy visualization of green fluorescent protein-tagged STEC O157 on fungal hyphae revealed that the bacterium colonized in the water film that existed on and between hyphae. To investigate the physiological changes in STEC O157 caused by co-culturing with fungi, the bacterium was harvested after 7 days of co-culturing and tested for acid resistance. After co-culture with eight fungal species, STEC O157 showed greater acid resistance compared to those cultured without fungi. Our results indicate that fungal hyphae can spread the contamination of STEC O157 and can also enhance the stress resistance of the bacteria. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in upper Egypt: related species and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharamah, A A; Moharram, A M; Ismail, M A; Al-Hussaini, A K

    2012-08-01

    To study risk factors, contributing factors of bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis in Upper Egypt, test the isolated species sensitive to some therapeutic agents, and to investigate the air-borne bacteria and fungi in opthalmology operating rooms. Thirty one cases of endophthalmitis were clinically diagnosed and microbiologically studied. Indoor air-borne bacteria and fungi inside four air-conditioned operating rooms in the Ophthalmology Department at Assiut University Hospitals were also investigated. The isolated microbes from endophthalmitis cases were tested for their ability to produce some extracellular enzymes including protease, lipase, urease, phosphatase and catalase. Also the ability of 5 fungal isolates from endophthalmitis origin to produce mycotoxins and their sensitivity to some therapeutic agents were studied. Results showed that bacteria and fungi were responsihle for infection in 10 and 6 cases of endophthalmitis, respectively and only 2 cases produced a mixture of bacteria and fungi. Trauma was the most prevalent risk factor of endophthalmitis where 58.1% of the 31 cases were due to trauma. In ophthalmology operating rooms, different bacterial and fungal species were isolated. 8 bacterial and 5 fungal isolates showed their ability to produce enzymes while only 3 fungal isolates were able to produce mycotoxins. Terbinafine showed the highest effect against most isolates in vitro. The ability of bacterial and fungal isolates to produce extracellular enzymes and mycotoxins may be aid in the invasion and destruction of eye tissues. Microbial contamination of operating rooms with air-borne bacteria and fungi in the present work may be a source of postoperative endophthalmitis.

  19. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  20. An Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Enrichment And Fungal Characterization Of Refined Kerosene Impacted Soil In Anand, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamiyan R Khan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical properties, heavy metal enrichment and fungal isolation and characterization of the top soil samples collected in-situ from aged refined kerosene contaminated as well as uncontaminated garden soil sites in Anand, Gujarat, India. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH concentrations were 17,510 mg/kg in kerosene contaminated soil against 142.65 mg/kg for uncontaminated soils. The contamination increased the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and clay to 2.95 %, 0.612 %, 36.22 % as compared to 1.5%, 0.153%, 32.4% respectively in the uncontaminated soil. Increased concentration of heavy metals like Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc and Lead against the uncontaminated soil was encountered. Ten native fungal speciesbelonging to a total of five genera include Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger; Fusarium oxysporum; Penicilliumjanthinellum from the uncontaminated garden soil, whereas the contaminated soil included Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor , A. niger Candida tropicalis,Cladosporiumbruhnei and Fusarium oxysporum, identified based on 18S rRNA and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the NCBI, GenBank database. The changes created by kerosene contamination resulted in variation in individual concentrations of physicochemical properties, soil conductivity, pH and soil fertility indices probably dwindle the growth of fungal strains causing a reduction in the fungal population in the kerosene contaminated soil. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 164-174 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9219

  1. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  2. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  3. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott G Filler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many fungi that cause invasive disease invade host epithelial cells during mucosal and respiratory infection, and subsequently invade endothelial cells during hematogenous infection. Most fungi invade these normally non-phagocytic host cells by inducing their own uptake. Candida albicans hyphae interact with endothelial cells in vitro by binding to N-cadherin on the endothelial cell surface. This binding induces rearrangement of endothelial cell microfilaments, which results in the endocytosis of the organism. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is composed of glucuronoxylomannan, which binds specifically to brain endothelial cells, and appears to mediate both adherence and induction of endocytosis. The mechanisms by which other fungal pathogens induce their own uptake are largely unknown. Some angioinvasive fungi, such as Aspergillus species and the Zygomycetes, invade endothelial cells from the abluminal surface during the initiation of invasive disease, and subsequently invade the luminal surface of endothelial cells during hematogenous dissemination. Invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells has different consequences, depending on the type of invading fungus. Aspergillus fumigatus blocks apoptosis of pulmonary epithelial cells, whereas Paracoccidioides brasiliensis induces apoptosis of epithelial cells. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which diverse fungal pathogens invade normally non-phagocytic host cells and discusses gaps in our knowledge that provide opportunities for future research.

  4. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  5. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  6. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  7. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  9. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  11. Factors affecting the immobilization of fungal biomass on CNT as a biosorbent for textile dyes removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo Bello, Ibrahim; Kabbashi, Nassereldeen A.; Zahangir Alam, Md; Alkhatib, Ma'an F.; Nabilah Murad, Fatin

    2017-07-01

    Effluents from dye and textile industries are highly contaminated and toxic to the environment. High concentration of non-biodegradable compounds contributes to increased biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wastewater bodies. Dyes found in wastewater from textile industries are carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. Biological processes involving certain bacteria, fungi and activated carbon have been employed in treating wastewater. These methods are either inefficient or ineffective. These complexities necessitates search for new approaches that will offset all the shortcomings of the present solutions to the challenges faced with textile wastewater management. This study produced a new biosorbent by the immobilization of fungal biomass on carbon nanotubes. The new biosorbent is called “carbon nanotubes immobilized biomass (CNTIB)” which was produced by immobilization technique. A potential fungal strain, Aspergillus niger was selected on the basis of biomass production. It was found out in this studies that fungal biomass were better produced in acidic medium. Aspergillus niger was immobilized on carbon nanotubes. One-factor-at-a time (OFAT) was employed to determine the effect of different factors on the immobilization of fungal biomass on carbon nanotubes and optimum levels at which the three selected parameters (pH, culture time and agitation rate) would perform. Findings from OFAT showed that the optimum conditions for immobilization are a pH of 5, agitation rate of 150rpm and a culture time of 5 days.

  12. Fungal keratitis secondary to Scedosporium apiospermum infection and successful treatment with surgical and medical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepez Yildiz, Burcin; Hasanreisoglu, Murat; Aktas, Zeynep; Aksu, Gulsah; Kocak, Burcak Comert; Akata, Fikret

    2014-04-01

    To report a rare case of severe fungal keratitis caused by Scedosporium apiospermum, which was treated with a penetrating tectonic keratoplasty and aggressive medical treatment. A 62-year-old woman with a history of soil contamination of the right eye while planting vegetables presented with a severe corneal abscess and ocular pain. The patient received medical treatment and underwent tectonic keratoplasty. Both corneal scrapings and the corneal button were evaluated microscopically. The samples were sent for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial and fungal cultures. Microbiological examinations showed S. apiospermum. The isolate was sensitive to amphoterycine B, caspofungin, voriconazole, and resistant to fluconazole. No clinical improvement was achieved with topical voriconazole, vancomycin, ceftazidime, and systemic voriconazole. A penetrating tectonic keratoplasty and lensectomy with continuation of anti-fungal therapy achieved satisfactory results. A fungal etiology should be suspected in a progressive and untreatable corneal abscess. Microbiological investigation is very important in early diagnosis. Despite early diagnosis and aggressive treatment, in selected cases removing the infected tissue surgically is vital in preserving the ocular globe and vision.

  13. Production of fungal chitosan from date wastes and its application as a biopreservative for minced meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Ibrahim, Sami I A; Al-Saman, Mahmoud A; Moussa, Shaaban H

    2014-08-01

    Raw and processed meat contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms is a continuing worldwide problem facing health and industry overseers. Fungal chitosan was extracted, purified and characterized from Aspergillus brasiliensis (niger) ATCC 16404 grown in date syrup (dips) and applied as a potential meat biopreservative. The main features of produced chitosan were a deacetylation degree of 81.3%, a molecular weight of 31,000Da, 96% solubility in 1% acetic acid solution and a harmonized IR-spectrum to standard commercial chitosan. The application of fungal chitosan, as a natural and safe biopreservative for minced meat, was conducted in comparison with potassium sorbate, as a commercial meat preservative. Treated meat samples with 0.02% chitosan was the least trials in microbial contents, i.e. total count, coliforms, β-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase positive staphylococci. The antimicrobial activity of fungal chitosan was considerably greater than that of potassium sorbate or their combination at 0.01% from each. Sensory characteristics, e.g. color, odor and texture, of treated meat with chitosan, were higher than those of control and potassium sorbate treated samples. Fungal chitosan, however, could be recommended as a powerful, natural and eco-friendly alternative for meat preservation and overall quality maintenance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal-bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal-bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Contamination shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, W.; Pecornik, D.

    1982-01-01

    An acrylate resin is presented as contamination protection coating for components and instruments in nuclear facilities and for spent fuel transport containers. The resin is evaporated or sublimated at 130 0 C and can thus be removed easily from the protected component. The radioactive particles entrained during evaporation are retained by suitable filters. (TK) [de

  16. Cotton contamination

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Sluijs, MHJ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This review focusses on physical forms of contaminant including the presence, prevention and/or removal of foreign bodies, stickiness and seed-coat fragments rather than the type and quantity of chemical residues that might be present in cotton...

  17. Enhanced bioremediation of PAH contaminated soils from coal processing sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M.M.; Lee, S.

    1995-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a potential hazard to health due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic nature and acute toxicity and there is an imminent need for remediation of PAH contaminated soils abounding the several coke oven and town gas sites. Aerobic biological degradation of PAHs is an innovative technology and has shown high decontamination efficiencies, complete mineralization of contaminants, and is environmentally safe. The present study investigates the remediation of PAH contaminated soils achieved using Acinetobacter species and fungal strain Phanerochaete Chrysosporium. The soil used for the experiments was an industrially contaminated soil obtained from Alberta Research Council (ARC) primary cleanup facility, Alberta, Canada. Soil characterization was done using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the contaminants in the soil. Artificially contaminated soil was also used for some experiments. All the experiments were conducted under completely mixed conditions with suitable oxygen and nutrient amendments. The removal efficiency obtained for various PAHs using the two microorganisms was compared

  18. Molecular Diagnostics for Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Paplomatas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.

  19. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  20. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  1. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Bari, A.; Mehmood, S.; Tariq, K.M.; Haq, I.; Niwaz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  2. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  3. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  4. Antimony contamination, consequences and removal techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayu; Zheng, BoHong; He, Yangzhuo; Zhou, Yaoyu; Chen, Xiao; Ruan, Shan; Yang, Yuan; Dai, Chunhao; Tang, Lin

    2018-07-30

    A significant amount of antimony (Sb) enters into the environment every year because of the wide use of Sb compounds in industry and agriculture. The exposure to Sb, either direct consumption of Sb or indirectly, may be fatal to the human health because both antimony and antimonide are toxic. Firstly, the introduction of Sb chemistry, distribution and health threats are presented in this review, which is essential to the removal techniques. Then, we provide the recent and common techniques to remove Sb, including adsorption, coagulation/flocculation, membrane separation, electrochemical methods, ion exchange and extraction. Removal techniques concentrate on the advantages, drawbacks, economical efficiency and the recent achievements of each technique. We also take an overall consideration of experimental conditions, comparison criteria, and economic aspects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  6. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  7. Pharmaceuticals removal and microbial community assessment in a continuous fungal treatment of non-sterile real hospital wastewater after a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, J A; Parladé, E; Llorca, M; Villagrasa, M; Barceló, D; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Martinez-Alonso, M; Gaju, N; Caminal, G; Sarrà, M

    2017-06-01

    Hospital wastewaters are a main source of pharmaceutical active compounds, which are usually highly recalcitrant and can accumulate in surface and groundwater bodies. Fungal treatments can remove these contaminants prior to discharge, but real wastewater poses a problem to fungal survival due to bacterial competition. This study successfully treated real non-spiked, non-sterile wastewater in a continuous fungal fluidized bed bioreactor coupled to a coagulation-flocculation pretreatment for 56 days. A control bioreactor without the fungus was also operated and the results were compared. A denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing approach was used to study the microbial community arisen in both reactors and as a result some bacterial degraders are proposed. The fungal operation successfully removed analgesics and anti-inflammatories, and even the most recalcitrant pharmaceutical families such as antibiotics and psychiatric drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Viral contamination of polio vaccines in context of antivaccination mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mats, A N; Kuz'mina, M N; Cheprasova, E V

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of publications about real and suggested contamination of polio vaccines produced in 1950s and 1960s with simian viruses--SV40 and SIV--is performed. Factual data are discussed and antivaccination fictions about calamitous consequences of really occurred contamination with SV40 and concocted contamination with SIV are refuted.

  9. Dosimetry and therapy of skin contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechowski, J.; Menoux, B.; Chaptinel, Y.; Durand, F.

    1988-10-01

    This study has been developed to provide guidance to physicians on the handling of skin contaminations in some accidental circumstances. The first stage of diagnosis and consequently of the possible therapy in order to avoid or mitigate radiodermatitis is to appreciate the importance of the contaminations and to foresee their local consequences. Two theoretical cases have been considered: a) strictly superficial contamination; b) deep contamination with homogeneous penetration of the contaminant into the epidermis. The superficial and deep theoretical distributions correspond respectively to the lower and upper absorbed doses in the basal layer. Tables of dose equivalent rates and committed dose equivalents to the skin are supplied for a large number of radionuclides likely to be met in the nuclear industry as well as in various fields of research, medicine and pharmacology using radioactive techniques. Besides these theoretical dose factors, the practitioner will find monitoring procedures, dose calculations and practical data concerning decontamination [fr

  10. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan R; Skrinjar, Marija; Baltić, Tatjana

    2010-04-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic compounds, produced by the secondary metabolism of toxigenic moulds in the Aspergillus, Alternaria, Claviceps, Fusarium, Penicillium and Stachybotrys genera occurring in food and feed commodities both pre- and post-harvest. Adverse human health effects from the consumption of mycotoxins have occurred for many centuries. When ingested, mycotoxins may cause a mycotoxicosis which can result in an acute or chronic disease episode. Chronic conditions have a much greater impact, numerically, on human health in general, and induce diverse and powerful toxic effects in test systems: some are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, estrogenic, hemorrhagic, immunotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, dermotoxic and neurotoxic. Although mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products still occurs in the developed world, the application of modern agricultural practices and the presence of a legislatively regulated food processing and marketing system have greatly reduced mycotoxin exposure in these populations. However, in developing countries, where climatic and crop storage conditions are frequently conducive to fungal growth and mycotoxin production, much of the population relies on subsistence farming or on unregulated local markets. Therefore both producers and governmental control authorities are directing their efforts toward the implementation of a correct and reliable evaluation of the real status of contamination of a lot of food commodity and, consequently, of the impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health.

  11. Ecological consequences of United Enterprises 'Majak' activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Drozko, Y.G.

    1996-01-01

    The United Enterprises ''Majak'' held in 1948 in Soviet Union has mainly dealt of plutonium production for military use. The consequence for environment of their activities has been extensively investigated. The soil, water and air contamination in the Czelabinsk region where the Majak Enterprises was localized have been recognized. The program of environment recultivation and radiation safety assurance in Majak Enterprises have been worked out and already accepted for realization. 6 figs, 10 tabs

  12. Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, A.; Sacripanti, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

  13. Cereal fungal infection, mycotoxins, and lactic acid bacteria mediated bioprotection: from crop farming to cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Pedro M; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) metabolites are a reliable alternative for reducing fungal infections pre-/post-harvest with additional advantages for cereal-base products which convene the food market's trend. Grain industrial use is in expansion owing to its applicability in generating functional food. The food market is directed towards functional natural food with clear health benefits for the consumer in detriment to chemical additives. The food market chain is becoming broader and more complex, which presents an ever-growing fungal threat. Toxigenic and spoilage fungi are responsible for numerous diseases and economic losses. Cereal infections may occur in the field or post-processing, along the food chain. Consequently, the investigation of LAB metabolites with antifungal activity has gained prominence in the scientific research community. LAB bioprotection retards the development of fungal diseases in the field and inhibit pathogens and spoilage fungi in food products. In addition to the health safety improvement, LAB metabolites also enhance shelf-life, organoleptic and texture qualities of cereal-base foods. This review presents an overview of the fungal impact through the cereal food chain leading to investigation on LAB antifungal compounds. Applicability of LAB in plant protection and cereal industry is discussed. Specific case studies include Fusarium head blight, malting and baking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal peroxidases : molecular aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductases that utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidative reactions. A large number of peroxidases have been identified in fungal species and are being characterized at the molecular level. In this manuscript we review the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of this

  15. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Le Roux, J. J.; Strasberg, D.; Edwards, J.; Roets, F.; Hubka, V.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Heykoop, M.; Martín, M.P.; Moreno, G.; Sutton, D.A.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Barnes, C.W.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Gené, J.; Giraldo, A.; Guarnaccia, V.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Manjón, J.L.; Pascoe, I.G.; Popov, E.S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Acharya, K.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alvarado, P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Burgess, T.I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Čmoková, A.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dyakov, M.Yu.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Fedosova, A.G.; Fournier, J.; Gamboa, P.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Grebenc, T.; Groenewald, M.; Hanse, B.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Held, B.W.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kaewgrajang, T.; Latha, K.P.D.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lysková, P.; Mallátová, N.; Manimohan, P.; Miller, A.N.; Mirabolfathy, M.; Morozova, O.V.; Obodai, M.; Oliveira, N.T.; Otto, E.C.; Paloi, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Phosri, C.; Roux, J.; Salazar, W.A.; Sánchez, A.; Sarria, G.A.; Shin, H.-D.; Silva, B.D.B.; Silva, G.A.; Smith, M.Th.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Sulzbacher, M.A.; Telleria, M.T.; Toapanta, C.; Traba, J.M.; Valenzuela-Lopez, N.; Watling, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, July (2016), s. 316-458 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  16. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  17. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  18. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  19. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  20. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  1. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Yáňez-Morales, J.; Duong, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Heykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Levesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, Alena; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Peréz-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, December (2015), s. 264-327 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * novel fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.725, year: 2015

  2. Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Weber, S.S.; Nijland, J.G.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological

  3. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, M.; Uder, M.; Bautz, W.; Heinrich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  4. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19–20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...

  5. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  6. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  7. UV-guided isolation of fungal metabolites by HSCCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, P.W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Analytical standardised reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) data can be helpful in finding a suitable solvent combination for isolation of fungal metabolites by high-speed counter current chromatography. Analysis of the distribution coefficient (K-D) of fungal metabolites in a series...... peptides from a crude fungal extract....

  8. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  9. Comparison of methods to evaluate the fungal biomass in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyeyeme Bi Mve, Marie-Jeanne; Cloutier, Yves; Lacombe, Nancy; Lavoie, Jacques; Debia, Maximilien; Marchand, Geneviève

    2016-12-01

    Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems contain dust that can be contaminated with fungal spores (molds), which may have harmful effects on the respiratory health of the occupants of a building. HVAC cleaning is often based on visual inspection of the quantity of dust, without taking the mold content into account. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate fungal contamination of dust in HVAC systems. Comparisons of different analytical methods were carried out on dust deposited in a controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber. Sixty samples were analyzed using four methods: culture, direct microscopic spore count (DMSC), β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) dosing and qPCR. For each method, the limit of detection, replicability, and repeatability were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the methods were also evaluated. Depending on the analytical method, mean spore concentrations per 100 cm 2 of dust ranged from 10,000 to 682,000. Limits of detection varied from 120 to 217,000 spores/100 cm 2 . Replicability and repeatability were between 1 and 15%. Pearson correlation coefficients varied from -0.217 to 0.83. The 18S qPCR showed the best sensitivity and precision, as well as the best correlation with the culture method. PCR targets only molds, and a total count of fungal DNA is obtained. Among the methods, mold DNA amplification by qPCR is the method suggested for estimating the fungal content found in dust of HVAC systems.

  10. Efficient biodegradation of cyanide and ferrocyanide by Na-alginate beads immobilized with fungal cells of Trichoderma koningii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Liu, Lixing; Chen, Yunpeng; Xu, Shufa; Chen, Jie

    2007-09-01

    Cyanide or metal cyanide contaminations have become serious environmental and food-health problems. A fungal mutant of Trichoderma koningii, TkA8, constructed by restriction enzyme-mediated integration, has been verified to have a high cyanide degradation ability in our previous study. In this study, the mutant cells were entrapped in sodium-alginate (Na-alginate) immobilization beads to degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide in a liquid mineral medium. The results showed that the fungus in immobilization beads consisting of 3% Na-alginate and 3% CaCl2 could degrade cyanide more efficiently than a nonimmobilized fungal culture. For maximum degradation efficiency, the optimal ratio of Na-alginate and wet fungal biomass was 20:1 (m/m) and the initial pH was 6.5. In comparison, cell immobilization took at least 3 and 8 days earlier, respectively, to completely degrade cyanide and ferrocyanide. In addition, we showed that the immobilized beads could be easily recovered from the medium and reused for up to 5 batches without significant losses of fungal remediation abilities. The results of this study provide a promising alternative method for the large-scale remediation of soil or water systems from cyanide contamination.

  11. Fungal flora of Egyptian baladi bread with special reference to the mutagenic effects of their toxic metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalla, S E; Abdou, R F; Bagy, M M

    1985-01-01

    The fungal flora of wheat flour and baladi bread in upper Egypt were investigated. Most of the isolated fungal species belong to the genus Aspergillus. The presence of non heat resistant fungi of the both flat surfaces of baladi bread, came from contamination after baking and from improper handling at homes. Among the heat resistant fungi, A. fumigatus and A. niger, were recorded to inhabit the spongy crumb although the high temperature of baking process which reached approximately 100 degrees C in the center of the bread. The mutagenic effects of the fungal metabolites of the extract of mouldy Egypt were investigated. Most of the isolated fungal species all stages of mitotic division. The most interesting effect of these fungal metabolites were the induction of tripolar and quadripolar spindle. Multinucleate and polyploid cells were also observed under relatively high concentrations. It was noticed that at either higher concentrations or lower concentrations with long exposure, damaged cells were observed. The hazards involved through the consumption of individuals to such mouldy bread, is accumulation of possible deleterious effects from both long and short term exposure to these toxic metabolites.

  12. Correlation of maple sap composition with bacterial and fungal communities determined by multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; LaPointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2011-08-01

    During collection, maple sap is contaminated by bacteria and fungi that subsequently colonize the tubing system. The bacterial microbiota has been more characterized than the fungal microbiota, but the impact of both components on maple sap quality remains unclear. This study focused on identifying bacterial and fungal members of maple sap and correlating microbiota composition with maple sap properties. A multiplex automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (MARISA) method was developed to presumptively identify bacterial and fungal members of maple sap samples collected from 19 production sites during the tapping period. Results indicate that the fungal community of maple sap is mainly composed of yeast related to Mrakia sp., Mrakiella sp., Guehomyces pullulans, Cryptococcus victoriae and Williopsis saturnus. Mrakia, Mrakiella and Guehomyces peaks were identified in samples of all production sites and can be considered dominant and stable members of the fungal microbiota of maple sap. A multivariate analysis based on MARISA profiles and maple sap chemical composition data showed correlations between Candida sake, Janthinobacterium lividum, Williopsis sp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mrakia sp., Rhodococcus sp., Pseudomonas tolaasii, G. pullulans and maple sap composition at different flow periods. This study provides new insights on the relationship between microbial community and maple sap quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  14. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  15. Contamination Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  16. ANALYSIS OF FUNGAL SPORE MYCOTOXIN AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPORE SURFACE AREA AND MYCOTOXIN CONTENT UTILIZING A PROTEIN TRANSLATION INHIBITION ASSAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to mounting evidence suggesting that biological contamination in the built environment may cause a myriad of adverse health effects, research aimed at understanding the potential exposure to fungal organisms and their metabolites is of utmost importance. To this end we utiliz...

  17. The revenge of time: fungal deterioration of cultural heritage with particular reference to books, paper and parchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2012-03-01

    Hyphomycetous fungi - so called 'mould'- are the most important agents of biodeterioration in museums, museums' storage rooms, in libraries, collections and restoration studios. Fungi are able to live at low water activities, they are perfectly adapted to indoor environments and thrive in microclimatic niches caused by condensation, lack of ventilation or water retention by hygroscopic materials. Fungi spoil valuable pieces of art aesthetically, mechanically, chemically and by degradation of organic components. Historical material made of paper and oil paintings with high amounts of organic binders are especially susceptible to fungal deterioration. In order to prevent fungal contamination or to treat already contaminated objects an integrated approach including climate control, material-specific cleaning and application of carefully selected biocides is necessary. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of hirst-type spore trap to monitor environmental fungal load in hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Dananché

    reference tool for quantifying fungal contamination of indoor air in hospitals.

  19. Evaluation of hirst-type spore trap to monitor environmental fungal load in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dananché, Cédric; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Cassier, Pierre; Loeffert, Sophie Tiphaine; Thibaudon, Michel; Bénet, Thomas; Vanhems, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose was to validate the use of outdoor-indoor volumetric impaction sampler with Hirst-type spore traps (HTSTs) to continuously monitor fungal load in order to prevent invasive fungal infections during major structural work in hospital settings. For 4 weeks, outdoor fungal loads were quantified continuously by 3 HTSTs. Indoor air was sampled by both HTST and viable impaction sampler. Results were expressed as particles/m3 (HTST) or colony-forming units (CFU)/m3 (biocollector). Paired comparisons by day were made with Wilcoxon's paired signed-rank test or paired Student's t-test as appropriate. Paired airborne spore levels were correlated 2 by 2, after log-transformation with Pearson's cross-correlation. Concordance was calculated with kappa coefficient (κ). Median total fungal loads (TFLs) sampled by the 3 outdoor HTSTs were 3,025.0, 3,287.5 and 3,625.0 particles/m3 (P = 0.6, 0.6 and 0.3).-Concordance between Aspergillaceae fungal loads (AFLs, including Aspergillus spp. + Penicillium spp.) was low (κ = 0.2). A low positive correlation was found between TFLs sampled with outdoor HTST and indoor HTST with applying a 4-hour time lag, r = 0.30, 95% CI (0.23-0.43), PHTST-I on only 3.6% of the samples. Concordance between Aspergillus spp. loads and AFLs sampled with the 2 methods was very low (κ = 0.1). This study showed a 4-hour time lag between increase of outdoor and indoor TFLs, possibly due to insulation and aeraulic flow of the building. Outdoor HTSTs may permit to quickly identify (after 48 hours) time periods with high outdoor fungal loads. An identified drawback is that a too low sample area read did not seem to enable detection of Aspergillaceae spores efficiently. Indoor HTSTs may not be recommended at this time, and outdoor HTSTs need further study. Air sampling by viable impaction sampler remains the reference tool for quantifying fungal contamination of indoor air in hospitals.

  20. Bacterial, fungal and yeast contamination in six brands of irreversible hydrocolloid impression materials Contaminação por bactérias, fungos e leveduras em seis marcas comerciais de materiais de moldagem à base de hidrocolóide irreversível

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the level of contamination of six commercially available irreversible hydrocolloids (two containing chlorhexidine and identified the contamination present in the materials. Petri dishes containing selective and enriched culture media were inoculated with alginate powder (0.06 g, in triplicate. After incubation (37°C/7 days, the colony-forming units (CFU were counted and Gram stained. Biochemical identification of the different morphotypes was also performed. The contamination levels for the materials were: Jeltrate - 389 CFU/g; Jeltrate Plus - 516 CFU/g; Jeltrate Chromatic - 135 CFU/g; Hydrogum - 1,455 CFU/g; Kromopan - 840 CFU/g; and Greengel - 59 CFU/g. Gram staining revealed the presence of Gram-positive bacillus and Gram-positive cocci. The bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus sp., Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, and Nocardia sp.; the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp., Neurospora sp.; and the yeast Candida sp. were isolated. The contamination detected in the impression materials points out the need for adopting measures to improve the microbiological quality of these materials. The use of contaminated materials in the oral cavity goes against the basic principles for controlling cross-contamination and may represent a risk for debilitated or immunocompromised patients.Este estudo avaliou o nível de contaminação de seis marcas comerciais de alginato (duas contendo clorexidina e identificou a contaminação presente nesses materiais. Alíquotas de alginato (0,06 g foram semeadas em meios de cultura seletivos e enriquecidos, em triplicata. Após incubação (37°C/7 dias, as unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC foram contadas e foram realizadas as identificações morfotintorial (Gram e bioquímica. Os níveis de contaminação dos materiais foram: Jeltrate - 389 UFC/g; Jeltrate Plus - 516 UFC/g; Jeltrate

  1. Isotope hydrology: Investigating groundwater contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinchuk, V.; Froehlich, K.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1989-01-01

    Groundwater quality has worsened in many regions, with sometimes serious consequences. Decontaminating groundwater is an extremely slow process, and sometimes impossible, because of the generally long residence time of the water in most geological formations. Major causes of contamination are poor groundwater management (often dictated by immediate social needs) and the lack of regulations and control over the use and disposal of contaminants. These types of problems have prompted an increasing demand for investigations directed at gaining insight into the behaviour of contaminants in the hydrological cycle. Major objectives are to prevent pollution and degradation of groundwater resources, or, if contamination already has occurred, to identify its origin so that remedies can be proposed. Environmental isotopes have proved to be a powerful tool for groundwater pollution studies. The IAEA has had a co-ordinated research programme since 1987 on the application of nuclear techniques to determine the transport of contaminants in groundwater. An isotope hydrology project is being launched within the framework of the IAEA's regional co-operative programme in Latin America (known as ARCAL). Main objectives are the application of environmental isotopes to problems of groundwater assessment and contamination in Latin America. In 1989, another co-ordinated research programme is planned under which isotopic and other tracers will be used for the validation of mathematical models in groundwater transport studies

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on long-storage seeds of Oryza sativa (cv. 2233) and their surface infecting fungal diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, J.P.; Kar, S.; Banerjee, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Santra, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    We have reported an effective 60 Co gamma irradiation method for the removal and long-time prevention of contaminating fungi of Oryza sativa cv-2233, without the losses of seed viabilities. The fungal growth and their population on gamma treated seeds was found to decrease significantly (p 50%) at 2 kGy, whereas total inhibition was noticed at 3 kGy after 1.5 month.

  3. Subchronic exposures to fungal bioaerosols promotes allergic pulmonary inflammation in naïve mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, A P; Green, B J; Lemons, A R; Marshall, N B; Goldsmith, W T; Kashon, M L; Anderson, S E; Germolec, D R; Beezhold, D H

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological surveys indicate that occupants of mold contaminated environments are at increased risk of respiratory symptoms. The immunological mechanisms associated with these responses require further characterization. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunotoxicological outcomes following repeated inhalation of dry Aspergillus fumigatus spores aerosolized at concentrations potentially encountered in contaminated indoor environments. Aspergillus fumigatus spores were delivered to the lungs of naïve BALB/cJ mice housed in a multi-animal nose-only chamber twice a week for a period of 13 weeks. Mice were evaluated at 24 and 48 h post-exposure for histopathological changes in lung architecture, recruitment of specific immune cells to the airways, and serum antibody responses. Germinating A. fumigatus spores were observed in lungs along with persistent fungal debris in the perivascular regions of the lungs. Repeated exposures promoted pleocellular infiltration with concomitant epithelial mucus hypersecretion, goblet cell metaplasia, subepithelial fibrosis and enhanced airway hyperreactivity. Cellular infiltration in airways was predominated by CD4(+) T cells expressing the pro-allergic cytokine IL-13. Furthermore, our studies show that antifungal T cell responses (IFN-γ(+) or IL-17A(+) ) co-expressed IL-13, revealing a novel mechanism for the dysregulated immune response to inhaled fungi. Total IgE production was augmented in animals repeatedly exposed to A. fumigatus. Repeated inhalation of fungal aerosols resulted in significant pulmonary pathology mediated by dynamic shifts in specific immune populations and their cytokines. These studies provide novel insights into the immunological mechanisms and targets that govern the health outcomes that result from repeated inhalation of fungal bioaerosols in contaminated environments. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Factors influencing the contamination rate of human organ-cultured corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röck, Daniel; Wude, Johanna; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U; Yoeruek, Efdal; Thaler, Sebastian; Röck, Tobias

    2017-12-01

    To assess the influence of donor, environment and storage factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas, to consider the microbiological species causing corneal contamination and to investigate the corresponding sensitivities. Data from 1340 consecutive donor corneas were analysed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the influence of different factors on the contamination rate of organ-cultured corneas for transplantation. The mean annual contamination rate was 1.8 ± 0.4% (range: 1.3-2.1%); 50% contaminations were of fungal origin with exclusively Candida species, and 50% contaminations were of bacterial origin with Staphylococcus species being predominant. The cause of donor death including infection and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome increased the risk of bacterial or fungal contamination during organ culture (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Differentiating between septic and aseptic donors showed an increased risk of contamination for septic donors (p = 0.0020). Mean monthly temperature including warmer months increased the risk of contamination significantly (p = 0.0031). Sex, donor age, death to enucleation, death to corneoscleral disc excision and storage time did not increase the risk of contamination significantly. The genesis of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be multifactorial. The main source of fungal or bacterial contamination could be resident species from the skin flora. The rate of microbial contamination in organ-cultured donor corneas seems to be dependent on the cause of donor death and mean monthly temperature. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Imaging O2 changes induced in tomato roots by fungal pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, S.; Turco, E.; Rodeghiero, M.; Bellin, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, planar optodes have demonstrated to be a useful non-invasive tool to monitor real time oxygen concentrations in a wide range of applications. However, only limited investigations have been carried out to explore the use of optodes in plant respiration studies. In particular, their use to study plant-pathogen interactions has been not deeply investigated. Here, we present for the first time an in vitro experimental setup capable to depict the dynamical effects of the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato roots by the use of a recently developed optical non-invasive optode oxygen sensor (Visisens, Presens, Germany). Fol is a soil-borne pathogen and the causal agent of wilt in tomato plants, a destructive worldwide disease. The interaction Fol-tomato is widely accepted as a model system in plant pathology. In this work, oxygen concentrations are monitored continuously in time and considered a proxy for root respiration and metabolic activity. The experimental procedure reveals three different dynamic stages: 1) a uniform oxygen consumption in tomato roots earlier before pathogen colonization, 2) a progressive decrease in the oxygen concentration indicating a high metabolic activity as soon as the roots were surrounded and colonized by the fungal mycelium, and 3) absence of root respiration, as a consequence of root death. Our results suggest the ability of the fungal mycelium to move preferentially towards and along the root as a consequence of the recognition event.

  6. Species-specific effects of soil fauna on fungal foraging and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Boddy, Lynne; Jones, T Hefin

    2011-10-01

    Decomposer fungi are primary decomposing agents in terrestrial soils. Their mycelial networks play an important role in nutrient mineralisation and distribution, but are also nutritious resources for various soil invertebrates. Global climate change is predicted to alter the diversity and community composition of these soil fauna. To understand whether changes in invertebrate species diversity are likely to affect fungal-mediated decomposition, this study compared the grazing potentials of different invertebrate taxa and functional groups. Specifically, the grazing impacts of seven invertebrate taxa on the growth and spatial distribution of six basidiomycete fungi growing from beech wood blocks in soil microcosms were explored. Wood decay rates by fungi were also compared. The consequences of grazing were both taxon- and species-specific. Generally, macro-invertebrates caused the greatest damage, while meso- and micro-invertebrates often stimulated mycelial growth. Invertebrate size, preferences and population dynamics are likely to influence grazing potentials. Effects of grazing varied between fungi, with mycelial morphology and biochemistry possibly influencing susceptibility. Heavy grazing indirectly increased fungal-mediated wood decomposition. Changes in invertebrate community composition are predicted to have consequences for fungal growth, activity and community structure in woodland soils. Abiotic climate change factors including CO(2) and temperature affect mycelial productivity directly, but the indirect effects, mediated through changes in the soil invertebrate community, may be equally important in controlling ecosystem functioning.

  7. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.......The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...

  8. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  9. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  10. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Al Salmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. Results: A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8% had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans, followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. Conclusions: This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no

  11. Fungal pretreatment of straw for enhanced biogas yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xinmei; Pilar Castillo, Maria del; Schnuerer, Anna

    2013-07-01

    Among lignocellulosic materials from the agricultural sector, straw is considered to have the biggest potential as a biofuel and therefore also represents a big potential for biogas production. However, the degradation of lignocellulosic materials is somewhat restricted due to the high content of lignin that binds cellulose and hemicellulose and makes them unavailable for microbial degradation. Consequently, low methane yields are achieved. The biodegradability of the lignocellulosic material can be increased by a pretreatment. Optimally the pre-treatment should give an increase in the formation of sugars while avoiding the degradation or loss of carbohydrates and the formation of inhibitory by-products. The treatment should also be cost-effective. Different methods for pre-treatment of lignocellulosic material have been explored, for example thermal, acid, alkaline and oxidative pretreatments. However, they often have a high energy demand. Biological treatment with fungi represents an alternative method for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials that could be comparably more environmentally friendly, easier to operate and with low energy input. The fungal groups of interest for lignocellulose degradation are the wood decaying fungi, such as the white-, brown-rot and cellulose degraders. The purpose with this work was to increase the biogas potential of straw by using a pretreatment with fungi. Straw was incubated with fungi at aerobic conditions under certain periods of time. The growth and colonization of the straw by the fungi was expected to increase the availability of the lignocellulosic structure of the straw and thus positively affect the biogas potential. In addition also, the spent lignocellulosic material from the cultivation of edible fungi was investigated. We hypothesized that also growth of edible fungi could give a more accessible material and thus give higher biogas potential compared to the substrate before fungal growth.

  12. Fungal Biosorption, An Innovative Treatment for the Decolourisation and Detoxification of Textile Effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pannocchia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are among the most difficult-to-treat wastewaters, due to their considerable amount of recalcitrant and toxic substances. Fungal biosorption is viewed as a valuable additional treatment for removing pollutants from textile wastewaters. In this study the efficiency of Cunninghamella elegans biomass in terms of contaminants, COD and toxicity reduction was tested against textile effluents sampled in different points of wastewater treatment plants. The results showed that C. elegans is a promising candidate for the decolourisation and detoxification of textile wastewaters and its versatility makes it very competitive compared with conventional sorbents adopted in industrial processes.

  13. Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities respond to liming in three southern Swedish coniferous forest stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøller, Rasmus; Clemmensen, Karina

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report on changes in the belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in southern Swedish coniferous forests as a consequence of liming with 3-7 ton limestone per hectare 16 years prior to the study. A total of 107 ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified from 969 independently...... sampled root tips by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. Forty, 59 and 51 species were identified in three pine and spruce forests. Within all sites only about 25% of the species overlapped between the limed and the reference areas. However, the most abundant species...... were often found in both limed and reference plots and 60-70% of the root tips at each site were colonised by species occurring in both limed and reference plots. Across all three sites, fungal species belonging to the genus Tylospora and the order Pezizales became significantly more frequent in limed...

  14. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  15. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  16. Population-level consequences of spatially heterogeneous exposure to heavy metals in soil: An individual-based model of springtails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meli, Mattia; Auclerc, Apolline; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2013-01-01

    Contamination of soil with toxic heavy metals poses a major threat to the environment and human health. Anthropogenic sources include smelting of ores, municipal wastes, fertilizers, and pesticides. In assessing soil quality and the environmental and ecological risk of contamination with heavy...... metals, often homogeneous contamination of the soil is assumed. However, soils are very heterogeneous environments. Consequently, both contamination and the response of soil organisms can be assumed to be heterogeneous. This might have consequences for the exposure of soil organisms...

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Fungal Anticancer Metabolites: Synthesis Towards Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Margherita; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are a well-known and valuable source of compounds of therapeutic relevance, in particular of novel anticancer compounds. Although seldom obtainable through isolation from the natural source, the total organic synthesis still remains one of the most efficient alternatives to resupply them. Furthermore, natural product total synthesis is a valuable tool not only for discovery of new complex biologically active compounds but also for the development of innovative methodologies in enantioselective organic synthesis. We undertook an in-depth literature searching by using chemical bibliographic databases (SciFinder, Reaxys) in order to have a comprehensive insight into the wide research field. The literature has been then screened, refining the obtained results by subject terms focused on both biological activity and innovative synthetic procedures. The literature on fungal metabolites has been recently reviewed and these publications have been used as a base from which we consider the synthetic feasibility of the most promising compounds, in terms of anticancer properties and drug development. In this paper, compounds are classified according to their chemical structure. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of fungal metabolites, highlighting the role of total synthesis outlining the feasibility of innovative synthetic procedures that facilitate the development of fungal metabolites into drugs that may become a real future perspective. To our knowledge, this review is the first effort to deal with the total synthesis of these active fungi metabolites and demonstrates that total chemical synthesis is a fruitful means of yielding fungal derivatives as aided by recent technological and innovative advancements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  1. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to describe species or note interesting observations regarding fungi. This first paper includes 18 new combinations, 13 new species, three new genera and one new family. All taxa are ascomycetes, excep...

  2. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  3. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  4. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  5. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  6. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  7. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  8. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raestrup, R.; Kundke, J.

    1986-01-01

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP) [de

  10. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  11. Twenty-second Fungal Genetics Conference - Asilomar, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan D. Walton

    2003-06-30

    The purpose of the Twenty Second Fungal Genetics Conference is to bring together scientists and students who are interested in genetic approaches to studying the biology of filamentous fungi. It is intended to stimulate thinking and discussion in an atmosphere that supports interactions between scientists at different levels and in different disciplines. Topics range from the basic to the applied. Filamentous fungi impact human affairs in many ways. In the environment they are the most important agents of decay and nutrient turnover. They are used extensively in the food industry for the production of food enzymes such as pectinase and food additives such as citric acid. They are used in the production of fermented foods such as alcoholic drinks, bread, cheese, and soy sauce. More than a dozen species of mushrooms are used as foods directly. Many of our most important antibiotics, such as penicillin, cyclosporin, and lovastatin, come from fungi. Fungi also have many negative impacts on human health and economics. Fungi are serious pathogens in immuno-compromised patients. Fungi are the single largest group of plant pathogens and thus a serious limit on crop productivity throughout the world. Many fungi are allergenic, and mold contamination of residences and commercial buildings is now recognized as a serious public health threat. As decomposers, fungi cause extensive damage to just about all natural and synthetic materials.

  12. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. The paper represents the work of a subgroup at the meeting. The authors are concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/K-bar/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed

  13. Treatment of plutonium contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    Three kinds of plutonium contaminations were considered: skin contamination; contaminated wounds; contamination by inhalation. The treatment of these contaminations was studied for insoluble (oxide and metal forms) and soluble plutonium (complexes). The use of DTPA and therapeutic problems encountered with stable plutonium complexes were analyzed. The new possibilities of internal decontamination using Puchel and LICAM were evaluated [fr

  14. SENSIBILITY OF MICROCULTIVATION ASSAY DERMATOBAC® FOR FUNGAL ENDOMETRITIS DIAGNOSIS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriky Akio de Oliveira Tongu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Among different etiologic factors, fungal endometritis is a common cause of decreased mare’s fertility. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of Dermatobac®, a microculture system originallydevelopedfortheisolationoffungithatconcerns Human Medicine. In Experiment 1, standard (ATCC strains of Candida (n=4 and Aspergyllus (n=1 were grown and visually analyzed daily for 7 days. For Experiment 2, 34 mares were selected and subjected to material harvesting for completion of uterine cytology as well as seeding with Dermatobac®. After 24h of cultivation, the macroscopic observation of all Candida and Aspergyllus strains (Experiment 1 was possible. In Experiment 2, five animals showed presence of yeast on cytologic slides (14.71%, results also confirmed sowing in Dermatobac® system (100% sensitivity. Five false positive cases were observed, characterized by microbiological growth in Dermatobac® but not confirmed by endometrial cytology, determining specificity of 85%. However, the results did not compromise the efficiency of Dermatobac® system given all contaminants presented differentiated morphology and higher growing time (P<0.05 when compared to the major etiological agents of equine fungal endometritis. The Dermatobac® system proved to be efficient for the macroscopic diagnosis of fungal endometritis in horses, showing conclusive information only after 24 hours of culture.

  15. Fungal hyphae stimulate bacterial degradation of 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Rosendahl, Søren; Aamand, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of specific degrading microorganisms into polluted soil or aquifers is a promising remediation technology provided that the organisms survive and spread in the environment. We suggest that consortia, rather than single strains, may be better suited to overcome these challenges. Here we introduced a fungal–bacterial consortium consisting of Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and the 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)-degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into small sand columns. A more rapid mineralisation of BAM was obtained by the consortium compared to MSH1 alone especially at lower moisture contents. Results from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated better spreading of Aminobacter when Mortierella was present suggesting that fungal hyphae may stimulate bacterial dispersal. Extraction and analysis of BAM indicated that translocation of the compound was also affected by the fungal hyphae in the sand. This suggests that fungal–bacterial consortia are promising for successful bioremediation of pesticide contamination. -- Highlights: •Presence of fungi increased the rate of BAM mineralization by Aminobacter sp. MSH1. •Fungal–bacterial consortium enhanced BAM degradation at low moisture contents. •Mortierella hyphae facilitated transport of the BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1. -- This study brings new knowledge to the benefits of applying bacterial–fungal consortia for bioremediation

  16. Procalcitonin levels in gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6-7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4-1) infections (P Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919-0.969, P Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9-48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8-21.5; P Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  17. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  18. Corn Cultivation to Reduce the Mycotoxin Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangseon Kim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticide and fungicide treatment were investigated to reduce mycotoxin contamination of corn (Zea mays L. seeds. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone contents were reduced in the treated seeds, but aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, fumonisin, and T-2 toxin were not effective by chemical treatments. The chemical treatment did not affect the growth of saprophyte, but inhibited the pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum and F. equiseti. Myotoxin contents at different harvesting time were compared. As the harvest time was delayed, both levels of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone and frequency of Fusarium spp. increased. However, the major nutrient contents of corn seeds were not affected by harvesting period. These results show that chemical treatments are necessary to reduce the fungal contamination of corn and harvest without delay is important as well.

  19. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, I; Metry, A M; Al Ismaili, F; Hola, A; Al Riyami, M; Khamis, F; Al-Abri, S

    2018-04-01

    Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8%) had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans), followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no Candida spp being isolated. A high index of suspicion might

  20. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  1. Chernobyl and its consequences - no reason left to worry anymore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen-Girmscheid, G.

    1986-01-01

    It is difficult to predict the evolution of radioactive contamination in food. Knowledge is scarce concerning the exposure levels in different regions, the behaviour of different plant species and the interactions with other pollutants. Hence, we need to continuously monitor by measurements, to ban the use of highly contaminated foods and feedstuffs and to identify radiation contents on all food commodities accurately. The author gives and demands recommendations for diets and political consequences after Chernobyl. (DG) [de

  2. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  3. Is multiset consequence trivial?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Paoli, F.

    First Online: 08 September 2016 (2018) ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : contraction-free logics * multiset consequence * substructural logics * multiple conclusions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.855, year: 2016

  4. Choices and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    1995-01-01

    Describes student use of Hyperstudio computer software to create history adventure games. History came alive while students learned efficient writing skills; learned to understand and manipulate cause, effect choice and consequence; and learned to incorporate succinct locational, climatic, and historical detail. (ET)

  5. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  6. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  7. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  8. Cd-tolerant Suillus luteus: a fungal insurance for pines exposed to Cd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krznaric, Erik; Verbruggen, Nathalie; Wevers, Jan H L; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2009-05-01

    Soil metal pollution can trigger evolutionary adaptation in soil-borne organisms. An in vitro screening test showed cadmium adaptation in populations of Suillus luteus (L.: Fr.) Roussel, an ectomycorrhizal fungus of pine trees. Cadmium stress was subsequently investigated in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings inoculated with a Cd-tolerant S. luteus, isolated from a heavy metal contaminated site, and compared to plants inoculated with a Cd-sensitive isolate from a non-polluted area. A dose-response experiment with mycorrhizal pines showed better plant protection by a Cd-adapted fungus: more fungal biomass and a higher nutrient uptake at high Cd exposure. In addition, less Cd was transferred to aboveground plant parts. Because of the key role of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis for tree fitness, the evolution of Cd tolerance in an ectomycorrhizal partner such as S. luteus can be of major importance for the establishment of pine forests on Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Contamination vs. Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the environment can cause air, water, surfaces, soil, plants, buildings, people, or animals to become contaminated. ... water to remove contamination. This process is called decontamination. Try to avoid spreading contamination to parts of ...

  10. Occurrence of Ochratoxins, Fumonisin B2 , Aflatoxins (B1 and B2 ), and Other Secondary Fungal Metabolites in Dried Date Palm Fruits from Egypt: A Mini-Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Mohamed F; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the natural co-occurrence of 295 fungal and bacterial metabolites in 28 samples of dried date palm fruits collected from different shops distributed in Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt in 2016. Extraction and quantification of the target analytes were done using the "dilute and shoot" approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. In total, 30 toxic fungal metabolites were detected. Among these metabolites, 4 types of ochratoxins including ochratoxin type A and B were quantified in 3 samples (11%) with a contamination range from 1.48 to 6070 μg/kg for ochratoxin A and from 0.28 to 692 μg/kg for ochratoxin B. In addition, fumonisin B 2 was observed in 2 (7%) samples with contamination levels ranging from 4.99 to 16.2 μg/kg. The simultaneous detection of fumonisin B 2 in the same contaminated samples with ochratoxins indicates the fungal attack by Aspergillus niger species during storage. Only 1 sample was contaminated with aflatoxin B 1 (14.4 μg/kg) and B 2 (2.44 μg/kg). The highest maximum concentration (90400 μg/kg) was for kojic acid that contaminated 43% of the samples. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of the natural co-occurrence of fumonisin B 2 and ochratoxin A and B in addition to a wide range of other fungal metabolites in date palm fruits. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi. These metabolites pose a potential risk on human health since they contaminate many food commodities. Among these, date palm fruits which are an integral part of diet in several countries. Therefore, detection of mycotoxins is a prerequisite to insure the safety of food. Here, different types of mycotoxins have been detected in levels that may have health hazard. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Environmental Metabarcoding Reveals Contrasting Belowground and Aboveground Fungal Communities from Poplar at a Hg Phytomanagement Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Alexis; Maillard, François; Foulon, Julie; Gweon, Hyun S; Valot, Benoit; Chalot, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Characterization of microbial communities in stressful conditions at a field level is rather scarce, especially when considering fungal communities from aboveground habitats. We aimed at characterizing fungal communities from different poplar habitats at a Hg-contaminated phytomanagement site by using Illumina-based sequencing, network analysis approach, and direct isolation of Hg-resistant fungal strains. The highest diversity estimated by the Shannon index was found for soil communities, which was negatively affected by soil Hg concentration. Among the significant correlations between soil operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the co-occurrence network, 80% were negatively correlated revealing dominance of a pattern of mutual exclusion. The fungal communities associated with Populus roots mostly consisted of OTUs from the symbiotic guild, such as members of the Thelephoraceae, thus explaining the lowest diversity found for root communities. Additionally, root communities showed the highest network connectivity index, while rarely detected OTUs from the Glomeromycetes may have a central role in the root network. Unexpectedly high richness and diversity were found for aboveground habitats, compared to the root habitat. The aboveground habitats were dominated by yeasts from the Lalaria, Davidiella, and Bensingtonia genera, not detected in belowground habitats. Leaf and stem habitats were characterized by few dominant OTUs such as those from the Dothideomycete class producing mutual exclusion with other OTUs. Aureobasidium pullulans, one of the dominating OTUs, was further isolated from the leaf habitat, in addition to Nakazawaea populi species, which were found to be Hg resistant. Altogether, these findings will provide an improved point of reference for microbial research on inoculation-based programs of tailings dumps.

  12. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  13. Radiation contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsutomu; Iba, Hiroshi; Sato, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    To make sure of no contamination on people, used articles and working uniforms coming out of the radiation controlled area, nuclear power plants are equipped with radioactive contamination monitors. This paper outlines the basic specifications and advantages of our personnel surface contamination monitors to inspect whole-body surface contamination of people coming out, article surface contamination monitors to inspect the surface and inside contamination of used articles brought out, laundry monitors to inspect surface contamination of working uniforms used in the area before and after a wash, and whole-body counters to inspect and measure the internal contamination of a person out of the area. (author)

  14. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  15. Relationship of Mycotoxins Accumulation and Bioactive Components Variation in Ginger after Fungal Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ginger has got increasing worldwide interests due to its extensive biological activities, along with high medical and edible values. But fungal contamination and mycotoxin residues have brought challenges to its quality and safety. In the present study, the relationship of content of mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger after infection by toxigenic fungi were investigated for the first time to elucidate the influence of fungal contamination on the inherent quality of ginger. After being infected by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius for different periods, the produced mycotoxins was determined by an immunoaffinity column clean-up based ultra-fast liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and the main bioactive components in ginger were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection. The results showed that consecutive incubation of ginger with A. flavus and A. carbonarius within 20 days resulted in the production and accumulation of aflatoxins (especially AFB1 and ochratoxin A, as well as the constant content reduction of four bioactive components, which were confirmed through the scanning electron microscope images. Significantly negative correlation was expressed between the mycotoxins accumulation and bioactive components variation in ginger, which might influence the quality and safety of it. Furthermore, a new compound was detected after inoculation for 6 days, which was found in our study for the first time.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  17. Radiological consequences of gas and oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) is a well-known side outcome of gas and oil extraction. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) means material containing the radionuclides of nature origin, i.e., K 40, U 238, Th 232 and their decay products. Technologically Enhanced means, that the physical, chemical, radiological properties, and concentrations of natural radionuclides in NORM have been altered such that there exists a potential for:Redistribution and contamination of environmental media (soil, water, and air); Increased environmental mobility in soils and groundwater; Incorporation of elevated levels of radioactivity in products and construction materials; Improper disposal or use of disposal methods that could result in unnecessary and relatively high exposures to individuals and populations via any environmental pathway and medium. NORM and TENORM are the major sources of human exposure in the World. Their contributions to the worldwide human exposure as evaluated by UNSCEAR. The radiological consequences of occupational and public exposures with TENORM are not clearly monitored and examined. The principal reason of such situation is that for a long time neither ecological organizations nor Regulatory Authorities did not consider the handling of material containing natural radionuclides (other than radon and thoron) as object for regulation of radiation safety. For instance, till now Green peace have not demonstrated any opinion about this problem. TENORM released in oil and gas extraction is a major source of environmental contamination of the Caspian Sea and soils, surface and ground waters in Azerbaijan. The origin of TENORM in oil fields of Apsheron peninsula is related to drilling, production, and processing operations. Other sources of contamination are oil well equipment where separation of contaminated water from oil takes place. Contamination of the environment leads

  18. Probabilistic Criticality Consequence Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Gottlieb; J.W. Davis; J.R. Massari

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department with the objective of providing a comprehensive, conservative estimate of the consequences of the criticality which could possibly occur as the result of commercial spent nuclear fuel emplaced in the underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The consequences of criticality are measured principally in terms of the resulting changes in radionuclide inventory as a function of the power level and duration of the criticality. The purpose of this analysis is to extend the prior estimates of increased radionuclide inventory (Refs. 5.52 and 5.54), for both internal and external criticality. This analysis, and similar estimates and refinements to be completed before the end of fiscal year 1997, will be provided as input to Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) to demonstrate compliance with the repository performance objectives

  19. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R.; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R.; Hu, Yinling

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell–driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to developing chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop phenotypes reminiscent of APECED, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the potential link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or depletion of autoreactive CD4 T cells rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or EGFR activity decreases fungal burden. Importantly, fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. PMID:28407484

  20. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week....... extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum. and S. cf. lycopersici were...

  1. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. Virtual reality - aesthetic consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Benda, Lubor

    2014-01-01

    In the present work we study aesthetic consequences of virtual reality. Exploring the fringe between fictional and virtual is one of the key goals, that will be achieved through etymologic and technologic definition of both fiction and virtual reality, fictional and virtual worlds. Both fiction and virtual reality will be then studied from aesthetic distance and aesthetic pleasure point of view. At the end, we will see the main difference as well as an common grounds between fiction and virtu...

  3. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6

  4. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  5. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  6. Complications of hematopoietic stem transplantation: Fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Almaghrabi, Reem S

    2017-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients. The improved diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers such as galactomannan and β-D-glucan, as well as polymerase chain reaction assays has allowed the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy strategies for high risk patients. Diagnostic-driven approaches have resulted in reduced unnecessary antifungal exposure, improved diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, and reduced costs without increased risk of mortality. The appropriateness of diagnostic-driven antifungal strategy for individual HSCT centers depends on the availability and turnaround times for diagnostics, multidisciplinary expertise, and the local epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Echinocandins are the treatment of choice for invasive candidiasis in most HSCT recipients. Fluconazole may be used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in hemodynamically stable patients with no prior azole exposure. The primary treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis is voriconazole. Alternatives include isavuconazole and lipid formulations of amphotericin. Currently available evidence does not support routine primary combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. However, combination salvage antifungal therapy may be considered in selected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for the majority of HSCT recipients on itraconazole, posaconazole, or voriconazole. Copyright © 2017

  7. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  8. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-17

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  9. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  10. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  11. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Crowell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature.

  12. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  13. Character and consequence of nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Liu Hua; Wu Deqiang; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes some concepts, the process and magnitude of energy release and the destruction of the nuclear criticality accident and also describes the radiation consequence of criticality accidents from three aspects: prompt radiation, contamination in working place and release of fission products to the environment. It shows that the effects of radioactivity release from criticality accidents in the nuclear fuel processing plants on the environment and the public is minor, the main danger is from the external exposure of prompt rays. The paper make as have a correct understanding of the nuclear criticality accident and it would be helpful to take appropriate emergency response to potential criticality accident

  14. Biomimicry of volatile-based microbial control for managing emerging fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, K T; Joseph Sexton, D; Cornelison, C T

    2018-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of micro-organisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapour pressure. Consequently, VOCs readily evaporate to the gaseous phase at standard temperature and pressure. This contact-independent antagonism presents unique advantages over traditional, contact-dependent microbial control methods, including increased surface exposure and reduced environmental persistence. This approach has been the focus of our recent research, with positive results suggesting it may be particularly promising for the management of emerging fungal pathogens, such as the causative agents of white-nose syndrome of bats and snake fungal disease, which are difficult or impossible to treat using traditional approaches. Here, we review the history of volatile-based microbial control, discuss recent progress in formulations that mimic naturally antagonistic VOCs, outline the development of a novel treatment device, and highlight areas where further work is needed to successfully deploy VOCs against existing and emerging fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. From Concept to Commerce: Developing a Successful Fungal Endophyte Inoculant for Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R; Doohan, Fiona M; Hodkinson, Trevor R

    2018-02-11

    The development of endophyte inoculants for agricultural crops has been bedevilled by the twin problems of a lack of reliability and consistency, with a consequent lack of belief among end users in the efficacy of such treatments. We have developed a successful research pipeline for the production of a reliable, consistent and environmentally targeted fungal endophyte seed-delivered inoculant for barley cultivars. Our approach was developed de novo from an initial concept to source candidate endophyte inoculants from a wild relative of barley, Hordeum murinum (wall barley). A careful screening and selection procedure and extensive controlled environment testing of fungal endophyte strains, followed by multi-year field trials has resulted in the validation of an endophyte consortium suitable for barley crops grown on relatively dry sites. Our approach can be adapted for any crop or environment, provided that the set of first principles we have developed is followed. Here, we report how we developed the successful pipeline for the production of an economically viable fungal endophyte inoculant for barley cultivars.

  16. Environmental radioactive contamination and its control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhongqi; Qu Jingyuan; Cui Yongli

    1998-01-01

    The environmental radioactive releases and exposure to human being due to operation of nuclear power plants in the world and in China, environmental contamination and consequences caused by severe nuclear power plant accidents in the history, control of the radioactive contamination in China, and some nuclear laws on the radioactive contamination control established by international organizations and USA etc. are described according to literature investigation and research. Some problems and comments in radioactive contamination control for nuclear power plants in China are presented. Therefore, perfecting laws and regulations and enhancing surveillances on the contamination control are recommended

  17. Influência da calagem, da época de colheita e da secagem na incidência de fungos e aflatoxinas em grãos de amendoim armazenados Storage peanut kernels fungal contamination and aflatoxin as affected by liming, harvest time and drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Antonia Vieira Rossetto

    2005-04-01

    Fusarium. The kernels from the first harvest, showed higher contamination by the Aspergillus flavus group, but the small proportion with toxigen potential.

  18. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  19. Analysis of a food-borne fungal pathogen outbreak: virulence and genome of a Mucor circinelloides isolate from yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Billmyre, R Blake; Li, Alicia; Carson, Sandra; Sykes, Sean M; Huh, Eun Young; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Ko, Dennis C; Cuomo, Christina A; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-07-08

    Food-borne pathogens are ongoing problems, and new pathogens are emerging. The impact of fungi, however, is largely underestimated. Recently, commercial yogurts contaminated with Mucor circinelloides were sold, and >200 consumers became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mucoralean fungi cause the fatal fungal infection mucormycosis, whose incidence has been continuously increasing. In this study, we isolated an M. circinelloides strain from a yogurt container, and multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides. M. circinelloides f. circinelloides is the most virulent M. circinelloides subspecies and is commonly associated with human infections, whereas M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus and M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus are less common causes of infection. Whole-genome analysis of the yogurt isolate confirmed it as being close to the M. circinelloides f. circinelloides subgroup, with a higher percentage of divergence with the M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus subgroup. In mating assays, the yogurt isolate formed sexual zygospores with the (-) M. circinelloides f. circinelloides tester strain, which is congruent with its sex locus encoding SexP, the (+) mating type sex determinant. The yogurt isolate was virulent in murine and wax moth larva host systems. In a murine gastromucormycosis model, Mucor was recovered from fecal samples of infected mice for up to 10 days, indicating that Mucor can survive transit through the GI tract. In interactions with human immune cells, M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus induced proinflammatory cytokines but M. circinelloides f. circinelloides did not, which may explain the different levels of virulence in mammalian hosts. This study demonstrates that M. circinelloides can spoil food products and cause gastrointestinal illness in consumers and may pose a particular risk to immunocompromised patients. Importance: The U.S. FDA reported that yogurt products were contaminated with M

  20. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  2. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  3. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Radioactive surface contamination monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Kei; Minagoshi, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Toru

    1994-01-01

    To reduce radiation exposure and prevent contamination from spreading, each nuclear power plant has established a radiation controlled area. People and articles out of the controlled area are checked for the surface contamination of radioactive materials with surface contamination monitors. Fuji Electric has repeatedly improved these monitors on the basis of user's needs. This paper outlines typical of a surface contamination monitor, a personal surface contamination monitor, an article surface contamination monitor and a laundry monitor, and the whole-body counter of an internal contamination monitor. (author)

  5. Análise da contaminação fúngica em amostras de Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene e Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile comercializadas na cidade de Campinas, Brasil Analysis of the fungal contamination in Cassia acutifolia Delile (sene and Peumus boldus (Molina Lyons (boldo-do-Chile sold in Campinas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana de O. Rocha

    2004-12-01

    quality standards recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO. No differences were observed in the quantitative analysis between the samples sold at the drugstores and at the markets. The identified genera and species of fungi were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phoma, Cladosporium, Trichoderma, Rhizopus, Mucor, Aureobasidium pullulans, Mycelia sterilia, Acremonium and Monilia sitophila. Considering the level of contamination and the presence of Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are able to produce mycotoxins, there is an urgent need for quality control of the phytotherapic products in order to assure their efficacy and safety.

  6. Harvesting contaminants from liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, John T.; Hunter, Scott R.

    2016-05-31

    Disclosed are examples of apparatuses for evaporative purification of a contaminated liquid. In each example, there is a vessel for storing the contaminated fluid. The vessel includes a surface coated with a layer of superhydrophobic material and the surface is at least partially in contact with the contaminated liquid. The contaminants do not adhere to the surface as the purified liquid evaporates, thus allowing the contaminants to be harvested.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  8. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international

  9. Chronic invasive fungal granulomatous rhino-sinusitis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal Rhino-Sinusitis (FRS) is a relatively uncommon entity. The chronic invasive granulomatous form of FRS (FGRS) is a slowly progressive form of fungal infection characterized by chronic granulomatous process with a time course of longer than 12 weeks. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of colleagues to ...

  10. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal alpha-glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Christian Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is unique among eukaryotes and therefore it forms an ideal target for the development of novel antifungal drugs. Fungal cell morphology and integrity depend on a cell-surrounding wall, which is composed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Disrupting enzymes that are involved

  11. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  12. Isolation and identification of fungal species from dried date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 360 dried date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits were collected from hawkers, shops and market places within Maiduguri metropolis for the detection of the presence of fungal species. Investigation was based on cultural, microscopically and biochemical tests. Of the 327 (90.83%) fungal isolates recovered on ...

  13. Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates. ... Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology ... and 500C. The optimal pH on the enzyme production was observed to be between pH 3.5 and 5.5 for the organisms. Keywords: Soil microorganism, fungal isolate, incubation period, microbial enzyme. Nig J. Biotech.

  14. New perspectives towards analising fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a

  15. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  16. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  17. Host habitat assessment by a parasitoid using fungal volatiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steidle Johannes LM

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The preference – performance hypothesis predicts that oviposition preference of insects should correlate with host suitability for offspring development. Therefore, insect females have to be able to assess not only the quality of a given host but also the environmental conditions of the respective host habitat. Chemical cues are a major source of information used by insects for this purpose. Primary infestation of stored grain by stored product pests often favors the intense growth of mold. This can lead to distinct sites of extreme environmental conditions (hot-spots with increased insect mortality. We studied the influence of mold on chemical orientation, host recognition, and fitness of Lariophagus distinguendus, a parasitoid of beetle larvae developing in stored grain. Results Volatiles of wheat infested by Aspergillus sydowii and A. versicolor repelled female parasitoids in an olfactometer. Foraging L. distinguendus females are known to be strongly attracted to the odor of larval host feces from the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius, which may adhere in remarkable amounts to the surface of the grains. Feces from moldy weevil cultures elicited neutral responses but parasitoids clearly avoided moldy feces when non-moldy feces were offered simultaneously. The common fungal volatile 1-octen-3-ol was the major component of the odor of larval feces from moldy weevil cultures and repelled female parasitoids at naturally occurring doses. In bioassays investigating host recognition behavior of L. distinguendus, females spent less time on grains containing hosts from moldy weevil cultures and showed less drumming and drilling behavior than on non-moldy controls. L. distinguendus had a clearly reduced fitness on hosts from moldy weevil cultures. Conclusion We conclude that L. distinguendus females use 1-octen-3-ol for host habitat assessment to avoid negative fitness consequences due to secondary mold infestation of host

  18. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja, E-mail: marja.tuomela@helsinki.fi

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ({sup 14}C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of {sup 14}C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of {sup 14}C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of {sup 14}C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible.

  19. Mycoremediation of wood and soil from an old sawmill area contaminated for decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentín, Lara; Oesch-Kuisma, Hanna; Steffen, Kari T.; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Hatakka, Annele; Tuomela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We performed experiments with non-sterile soil and wood with aged contamination. • We isolated fungal strains from a saw mill site with chlorophenols contamination. •Fungal strains were screened for tolerance to native microbes and contamination. • The best fungi degraded chlorophenols and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans. -- Abstract: We investigated the potential of white-rot and litter-decomposing fungi for the treatment of soil and wood from a sawmill area contaminated with aged chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F). Eight screening assays with emphasis on application of non-sterile conditions were carried out in order to select the strains with capability to withstand indigenous microbes and contamination. Nine fungi were then selected for degrading pentachlorophenol (PCP), and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) and mineralizing radiolabelled pentachlorophenol ( 14 C-PCP) in non-sterile soil or wood during 15 weeks of incubation. Soil indigenous microbes and fungal inoculated soil (fungal inoculum + indigenous microbes) achieved similar degradation of PCP and 2,3,4,6-TeCP and mineralization of 14 C-PCP. However, the mineralization rate of 14 C-PCP by indigenous microbes was much slower than that boosted by fungal inoculum. The litter-decomposing fungus (LDF) Stropharia rugosoannulata proved to be a suitable fungus for soil treatment. This fungus mineralized 26% of 14 C-PCP and degraded 43% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and 73% of PCP. Furthermore, S. rugosoannulata attained 13% degradation of PCDD/F (expressed as WHO-Toxic Equivalent). In wood, white-rot fungi grew and degraded chlorophenols better than LDF. No efficient indigenous degraders were present in wood. Interestingly, production of toxic chlorinated organic metabolites (anisoles and veratroles) by LDF in wood was negligible

  20. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  1. The Interface between Fungal Biofilms and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kernien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biofilms are communities of adherent cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. These biofilms are commonly found during infection caused by a variety of fungal pathogens. Clinically, biofilm infections can be extremely difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antifungals and host defenses. Biofilm formation can protect fungal pathogens from many aspects of the innate immune system, including killing by neutrophils and monocytes. Altered immune recognition during this phase of growth is also evident by changes in the cytokine profiles of monocytes and macrophages exposed to biofilm. In this manuscript, we review the host response to fungal biofilms, focusing on how these structures are recognized by the innate immune system. Biofilms formed by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus have received the most attention and are highlighted. We describe common themes involved in the resilience of fungal biofilms to host immunity and give examples of biofilm defenses that are pathogen-specific.

  2. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  3. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions......, and possibly gut microenvironment constrain the magnitude of change. This thesis also characterises the fungus comb fungal communities (mycobiotas) in fungusgrowing termites, and shows that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained...

  4. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  5. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  7. Phytoremediation of petroleum-polluted soils: application of Polygonum aviculare and its root-associated (penetrated) fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenzadeh, Fariba; Nasseri, Simin; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Zafari, Doustmorad; Khodakaramian, Gholam; Chehregani, Abdolkarim

    2010-05-01

    Petroleum-polluted soils are a common disaster in many countries. Bioremediation of oil contamination in soils is based on the stimulation of petroleum-hydrocarbon-degrading fungal and microbial communities. A field study was conducted in a petroleum-contaminated site to find petroleum-resistant plants and their root-associated fungal strains for use in bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. Results and observations showed that the amounts of petroleum pollution in nonvegetated soils were several times higher than in vegetated soils. Plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas were identified using morphological characters. Results indicated that seven plant species were growing on the contaminated sites: Alhaji cameleron L. (Fabaceae), Amaranthus retroflexus L. var. retroflexus (Amaranthaceae), Convolvulus arvensis L. (Convolvulaceae), Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreg. (Euphorbiaceae), Noea mucronata L. (Boraginaceae), Poa sp. (Poaceae), and Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae). The root-associated fungi of each plant were determined and results showed the presence of 11 species that associated with and also penetrated the roots of plants growing in the polluted areas. Altenaria sp. was common to all of the plants and the others had species-specific distribution within the plants. The largest numbers of fungal species (six) were determined for P. aviculare and Poa sp. in polluted areas. However, the variation of fungal strains in the plants collected from petroleum-polluted areas was greater than for nonpolluted ones. Culture of fungi in oil-contaminated media showed that all the studied fungi were resistant to low petroleum pollution (1% v/v) and a few species, especially Fusarium species, showed resistance to higher petroleum pollution (10% v/v) and may be suitable for bioremediation in highly polluted areas. Bioremediation tests with P. aviculare, with and without fungal strains, showed that application of both the plant and its root-associated fungal

  8. Radio contamination control on imported food. The bilberry case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappa, S.; Calabrese, M.; Stancher, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper was pointed out the European regulation concerning the permissible limits of 137 Cs contamination in food importation, from countries affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl accident of 1986. A discussion about the control systems is lead and original data concerning the importation of the fruits of bilberry, a species particularly sensitive to radio contamination, are reported [it

  9. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  10. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  11. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  12. The Consequences of Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    such as the following, related to this general interdisciplinary objective: • Language use in social networks, with special reference to language contact in interpersonal relations and interactions, including codeswitching and other manifestations of the construction of sociocultural identities in face......-to-face interaction • Language contact in society and in the world, and social hierarchies between languages: consequences of (mobility driven) language spread, and the ensuing processes of redefining linguistic differences and identities: language competition, language promotion and language discrimination...... • The complex relationship between language and culture: how can we envisage mobility and language spread across cultural areas without conceptualizing language as culturally neutral? (cp. the frequent conceptualization of English as culturally neutral) • Language contact in the individual: multiple language...

  13. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  14. Neurological Consequences of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Phillipe D.; Hinder, Lucy M.; Callaghan, Brian C.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, primarily a consequence of poor dietary choices and an increased sedentary lifestyle, has become a global pandemic that brings with it enormous medical, social, and economic challenges. Not only does obesity increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and certain cancers, but it is also recognized as a key driver of other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components. These components include insulin resistance, hyperglycemia with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, and are underlying contributors to systemic metabolic dysfunction. More recently, obesity and diet-induced metabolic dysfunction have been identified as risk factors for the development of a wide variety of neurological disorders in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. An abundance of literature has shown that obesity is associated with mild cognitive impairment and altered hippocampal structure and function, and there is a robust correlation between obesity and Alzheimer’s type dementia. Similarly, many reports show that both the autonomic and somatic components of the peripheral nervous system are impacted by obesity. The autonomic nervous system, under control of the hypothalamus, displays altered catabolic and anabolic processes in obese individuals attributed to sympathetic-parasympathetic imbalances. A close association also exists between obesity and polyneuropathy, a complication most commonly found in prediabetic and diabetic patients, and is likely secondary to a combination of obesity-induced dyslipidemia with hyperglycemia. This review will outline the pathophysiological development of obesity and dyslipidemia, discuss the adverse impact of these conditions on the nervous system, and provide evidence for lipotoxicity and metabolic inflammation as the drivers underlying the neurological consequences of obesity. In addition, this review will examine the benefits of lifestyle and surgical interventions in obesity-induced neurological disorders. PMID

  15. Soil pretreatment and fast cell lysis for direct polymerase chain reaction from forest soils for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0 removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.

  16. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  17. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J; Michl, Thomas D; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J; Coad, Bryan R

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata . Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others. (paper)

  18. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Janni, Michela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG). Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and, here, is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME). The activity of PME is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called PMEI; consequently, an increased inhibition of PME by PMEI might modify the pectin methyl esterification. In order to test the possibility of improving wheat resistance by modifying the methyl esterification of pectin cell wall, we have produced durum wheat transgenic lines expressing the PMEI from Actinidia chinensis (AcPMEI). The expression of AcPMEI endows wheat with a reduced endogenous PME activity, and transgenic lines expressing a high level of the inhibitor showed a significant increase in the degree of methyl esterification. These lines showed a significant reduction of disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana or Fusarium graminearum. This increased resistance was related to the impaired ability of these fungal pathogens to grow on methyl-esterified pectin and to a reduced activity of the fungal PG to hydrolyze methyl-esterified pectin. In addition to their importance for wheat improvement, these results highlight the primary role of pectin despite its low content in the wheat cell wall.

  19. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web

  20. Indications for the tracking of elevated nitrogen levels through the fungal route in a soil food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogervorst, R.F.; Dijkhuis, M.A.J.; Schaar, M.A. van der; Berg, M.P.; Verhoef, H.A

    2003-11-01

    Elevated levels of N in soil can be tracked via fungi in the soil food web. - The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of elevated N in dead organic matter on the growth of fungi and to establish the consequences for the development of microbivores. Therefore, three fungal species were cultured on Scots pine litter differing in N content. The growth of the soil fungal species Trichoderma koningii, Penicillium glabrum and Cladosporium cladosporioides was directly influenced by the N content (ranging from 1.25 to 2.19% N) of the substrate. For all three fungal species maximum growth was highest at intermediate N content (1.55%) of the substrate. The fungivorous collembolan Orchesella cincta reached highest asymptotic body mass when fed with C. cladosporioides, grown on litter medium with intermediate N content (1.55%). The growth of O. cincta was lower when fed with C. cladosporioides from litter medium with the highest N content (2.19%). Similar results were obtained in mesocosm experiments in which pine litter with three levels of N (1.11, 1.78, 2.03% N) was used as substrate for the fungi. On litter with the highest N content (2.03%) hyphal length and asymptotic body mass of O. cincta were reduced. The results show that the N content of the substrate determines the growth of both fungi and fungivores, and suggest that elevated levels of N in soil track through the fungal part of the soil food web.

  1. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  2. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  3. 2. The Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...... to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except...... where there is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated...

  4. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  5. Evaluation of aflatoxins and Aspergillus sp. contamination in raw peanuts and peanut-based products along the supply chain in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlia, Mahror; Nor-Khaizura, M A R; Selamat, Jinap; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Radu, Son; Chin, Cheow Keat

    2018-06-18

    The peanut supply chain in Malaysia is dominated by three main stakeholders (importers, manufacturers, retailers). The present study, aimed to determine the levels and critical points of aflatoxins and fungal contamination in peanuts along the supply chain. Specifically, two types of raw peanuts and six types of peanut-based products were collected (N = 178). Samples were analysed for aflatoxins by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Results revealed that the aflatoxins contamination was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in raw peanuts and peanut-based products from the retailers. However, there was no significant different (P≥0.05) in fungal contamination for both types of peanuts except for the total fungal count in raw peanuts from the retailers. Furthermore, raw peanut kernels from the retailers were the most contaminated ones ranged from contamination (0.3 - 3.6 log CFU/g) was relatively higher in raw peanuts compared to that of peanut-based products (0.6 - 2.7 log CFU/g). In conclusion, the manufacturers and retailers were the critical points for aflatoxins contamination in peanuts. However, fungal contamination was more critical in the raw peanuts compared to peanut-based products. The study was limited by a minimal number of samples from the importer. Therefore, further investigations on a larger sample size should be conducted to confirm the findings in this present study.

  6. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  7. Study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustohalova, Veronika; Kueppers, Christian; Claus, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The study on the possible consequences of a severe accident in a Swiss nuclear power plant on the drinking water supply covers the following issues: estimation of possible source terms and radioactive materials release rates, airborne water contamination, water contamination by direct pollution, consequences for the drinking water supply, emergency measures in case of a drinking water contamination, routine surveillance of surface and ground water and improvement possibilities in nuclear power plants.

  8. [Indoor air studies of mould fungus contamination of homes of selected patients with bronchial asthma (with special regard to evaluation problems)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkpiel, K; Kurowski, V; Ohgke, H

    1996-02-01

    Investigations of indoor air of the homes of seven patients with asthma bronchiale who showed up with positive reactions following intracutaneous application of fungal allergens revealed that their places of residence were contaminated by fungal and bacterial spores. The number of colony forming units of mesophilic fungal spores of the indoor air ranged from 100 to 1000 CFU/m3 and this was much higher than the mould flora of the outdoor air determined simultaneously. The major fungi species found by the indoor investigation were: Penicillium sp. > Aspergillus sp. > Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Chrysonilia sp., Verticillium sp. > Geotrichum sp., Trichoderma sp. In two cases Thermoactinomyces species could be detected in the indoor air. The main cause of fungal contamination were moist building materials on room walls, insufficient air ventilation, bad maintenance of the circulating air-machines and insufficient room hygiene (e.g. biological garbage in the kitchen).

  9. Inoculum carrier and contaminant bioavailability affect fungal degradation performances of PAH-contaminated solid matrices from a wood preservation plant

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, S.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Čvančarová, Monika; D´Annibale, A.; Petruccioli, M.; Federici, F.; Křesinová, Zdena; Galli, E.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 8 (2010), s. 855-864 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Biodegradation * White-rot fungi * Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.155, year: 2010

  10. Contamination monitoring: an overview and its objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangena, S.

    2013-04-01

    The study presents and objectively summarises the aspect of contamination monitoring. This envisages reviewing sources of contamination and evaluating the scientific basis for practice specific courses of action for rehabilitation in a bid to restore pristine conditions wherever possible. The practices considered include nuclear medicine, reprocessing plants, fuel production plants, uranium and thorium mining and milling together with near surface disposal facilities (for radioactive waste). It also deals with monitoring sites contaminated as a consequence of past practices. General issues related to the design and operation of monitoring systems during and in the aftermath of a nuclear or radiological accident are also discussed including monitoring for long lived radionuclides widely dispersed in the environment following an accidental release. Thus the above discourse provides a framework for both quantitative and qualitative measures undertaken to enable effective response in the event of radioactive contamination. (au)

  11. Technology for reuse of contaminated concrete constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkhorst, I.P.; Cornelissen, H.A.W.

    1998-01-01

    During decommissioning activities of nuclear installations, large amounts of contaminated concrete will have to be processed. All this concrete has to be treated and stored as radioactive waste, which implies major economical and environmental consequences. It was shown that the contamination is mainly concentrated in the porous cement stone. By separating this cement stone from the clean dense aggregate particles, a considerable volume reduction can be reached. KEMA has developed, designed and constructed a pilot plant scale test installation for separation of aggregate from contaminated concrete. The separation is based on a thermal treatment followed by milling and sieving. The clean aggregate can be re-used in concrete, whereas the (slightly) contaminated cement stone could be upgraded to a binder for concrete used in the nuclear industry. (author)

  12. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  13. Transfer of radio-cesium from forest soil to woodchips using fungal activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Nobuhiro; Huang, Yao; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Michiko; Toda, Hiroto; Takahashi, Terumasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuaki; Harada, Naoki; Nonaka, Masahiro

    2014-05-01

    Raido-cesium released to terrestrial ecosystems by nuclear accidents is know to accumulate forest soil and organic layer on the soil. Forests in Japan are not exceptions. Practically it is impossible to decontaminate large area of forests. However, there is a strong demand from local people, who has been using secondary forests (Satoyama) around croplands in hilly areas, to decontaminate radio-cesium, because those people used to collect wild mushrooms and edible plants, and there are active cultures of mushrooms using logs and sawdusts. These natural resource uses consist substantial part of their economical activities, Therefore it is needed to decontaminate some selected part of forests in Japan to local economy. Clear cutting and scraping surface soil and organic matter are common methods of decontamination. However the efficiency of decontamination is up to 30% reduction of aerial radiation, and the cost to preserve contaminated debris is not affordable. In this study we used wood chips as a growth media for saprotrophic fungi which are known to accumulate redio-cesium. There are many studies indicated that mushrooms accumulated redio-cesium from forest soil and organic layer. It is not practical to collect mushrooms to decontaminate redio-cesium, because biomass of mushrooms are not enough to collect total contaminants. Mushrooms are only minor part of saprotrophic fungi. Fungal biomass in forest soil is about 1% of dead organic matter on forest floor. Our previous study to observe Cs accumulation to decomposing leaf litter indicated 18% absorption of total soil radio-Cs to litter during one year field incubation (Kaneko et al., 2013), and Cs concentration was proportional to fungal biomass on litter. This result indicated that fungi transferred radio-cesium around newly supplied leaf litter free of contamination. Therefore effective decontamination will be possible if we can provide large amount of growth media for saprotrophic fungi, and the media can be

  14. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  15. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  16. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  18. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  19. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  20. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade