WorldWideScience

Sample records for fungal contact sensing

  1. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  2. Nutrient Sensing at the Plasma Membrane of Fungal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijck, Patrick; Brown, Neil Andrew; Goldman, Gustavo H; Rutherford, Julian; Xue, Chaoyang; Van Zeebroeck, Griet

    2017-03-01

    To respond to the changing environment, cells must be able to sense external conditions. This is important for many processes including growth, mating, the expression of virulence factors, and several other regulatory effects. Nutrient sensing at the plasma membrane is mediated by different classes of membrane proteins that activate downstream signaling pathways: nontransporting receptors, transceptors, classical and nonclassical G-protein-coupled receptors, and the newly defined extracellular mucin receptors. Nontransporting receptors have the same structure as transport proteins, but have lost the capacity to transport while gaining a receptor function. Transceptors are transporters that also function as a receptor, because they can rapidly activate downstream signaling pathways. In this review, we focus on these four types of fungal membrane proteins. We mainly discuss the sensing mechanisms relating to sugars, ammonium, and amino acids. Mechanisms for other nutrients, such as phosphate and sulfate, are discussed briefly. Because the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the most studied, especially regarding these nutrient-sensing systems, each subsection will commence with what is known in this species.

  3. Nanomechanical displacement sensing using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.; Aldridge, J.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a radio frequency mechanical resonator that includes a quantum point contact, defined using electrostatic top gates. We can mechanically actuate the resonator using either electrostatic or magnetomotive forces. We demonstrate the use of the quantum point contact as a displacement sensor, operating as a radio frequency mixer at the mechanical resonance frequency of 1.5 MHz. We calculate a displacement sensitivity of about 3x10 -12 m/Hz 1/2 . This device will potentially permit quantum-limited displacement sensing of nanometer-scale resonators, allowing the quantum entanglement of the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of a nanoscale system

  4. Fungal Keratitis Due to Beauveria bassiana in a Contact Lenses Wearer and Review of Published Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Oya, Ana; Medialdea Hurtado, María Eloisa; Rojo Martín, María Dolores; Aguilera Pérez, Antonia; Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Miranda Casas, Consuelo; Rubio Prats, Marina; Medialdea Marcos, Santiago; Navarro Marí, José María

    2016-10-01

    Fungal keratitis is a severe ocular infection that primarily affects subjects engaged in outdoor activities. Risk factors include allergic conjunctivitis, previous eye surgery, previous treatment with wide-spectrum antimicrobial agents and corticosteroids and using contact lenses. Corneal infection is usually secondary to trauma involving organic material, which is often the only predisposing factor. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and microbiological investigation (microscopy, cultures and molecular techniques) is crucial to selecting the appropriate antifungal therapy and prevent progression. We report the case of a patient with keratitis due to Beauveria bassiana, an opportunistic and entomopathogenic filamentous fungus that is used as a biological insecticide and which is a rare cause of corneal infection. We review previous cases reports of B. bassiana keratitis published and its main features to compare with our case, a female occasional agriculture worker who had not suffered any trauma involving organic material. The patient received topical and oral antifungal therapy and debridement surgery, with a satisfactory outcome.

  5. Sustained release of a novel anti-quorum-sensing agent against oral fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Mark; Shenderovich, Julia; Al-Quntar, Abed Al Aziz; Friedman, Michael; Steinberg, Doron

    2015-04-01

    Thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8) has recently been identified as a potential anti-quorum-sensing/antibiofilm agent against bacteria and fungi. Based on these results, we investigated the possibility of incorporating S-8 in a sustained-release membrane (SRM) to increase its pharmaceutical potential against Candida albicans biofilm. We demonstrated that SRM containing S-8 inhibits fungal biofilm formation in a time-dependent manner for 72 h, due to prolonged release of S-8. Moreover, the SRM effectively delivered the agent in its active form to locations outside the membrane reservoir. In addition, eradication of mature biofilm by the SRM containing S-8 was also significant. Of note, S-8-containing SRM affected the characteristics of mature C. albicans biofilm, such as thickness, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, and morphogenesis of fungal cells. The concept of using an antibiofilm agent with no antifungal activity incorporated into a sustained-release delivery system is new in medicine and dentistry. This concept of an SRM containing a quorum-sensing quencher with an antibiofilm effect could pave the way for combating oral fungal infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE FUNGAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUROTIUM BY CONTACT VAPOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslava Císarová; Jaroslava Kačinová; Dana Tančinová

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs),we used concretely thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary, by vapour contact against the fungal species Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA) plates. Plates were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for 7, 14, and 21 days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment). Volatile phase effect o...

  7. The fungal quorum-sensing molecule farnesol activates innate immune cells but suppresses cellular adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ines; Spielberg, Steffi; Weber, Michael; Albrecht-Eckardt, Daniela; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; Barz, Dagmar; Scherlach, Kirstin; Hertweck, Christian; Löffler, Jürgen; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-03-17

    Farnesol, produced by the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans, is the first quorum-sensing molecule discovered in eukaryotes. Its main function is control of C. albicans filamentation, a process closely linked to pathogenesis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of farnesol on innate immune cells known to be important for fungal clearance and protective immunity. Farnesol enhanced the expression of activation markers on monocytes (CD86 and HLA-DR) and neutrophils (CD66b and CD11b) and promoted oxidative burst and the release of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha [MIP-1α]). However, this activation did not result in enhanced fungal uptake or killing. Furthermore, the differentiation of monocytes to immature dendritic cells (iDC) was significantly affected by farnesol. Several markers important for maturation and antigen presentation like CD1a, CD83, CD86, and CD80 were significantly reduced in the presence of farnesol. Furthermore, farnesol modulated migrational behavior and cytokine release and impaired the ability of DC to induce T cell proliferation. Of major importance was the absence of interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction in iDC generated in the presence of farnesol. Transcriptome analyses revealed a farnesol-induced shift in effector molecule expression and a down-regulation of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor during monocytes to iDC differentiation. Taken together, our data unveil the ability of farnesol to act as a virulence factor of C. albicans by influencing innate immune cells to promote inflammation and mitigating the Th1 response, which is essential for fungal clearance. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule which controls morphological plasticity of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. As such, it is a major mediator of intraspecies communication. Here, we investigated the impact of farnesol on human innate immune cells known to be

  8. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST THE FUNGAL SPECIES OF THE GENUS EUROTIUM BY CONTACT VAPOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluation of the antifungal activity of 5 essential oils (EOs,we used concretely thyme, clove, basil, jasmine and rosemary, by vapour contact against the fungal species Eurotium rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Each fungus was inoculated in the centre on Czapek Yeast Autolysate Agar (CYA plates. Plates were tightly sealed with parafilm and incubated for 7, 14, and 21 days at 25 ± 1 °C (three replicates were used for each treatment. Volatile phase effect of concentration 50 µl of the essential oils was found to inhibit on growth of E. rubrum, E. chevalieri and Eurotium sp.. Complete growth inhibition of the isolates by EOs of thyme and clove was observed. The essential oil (EO of basil had antifungal activity on growth of E. chevalieri only after 7th and 14th days of the incubation, but in case of Eurotium sp. on all days of cultivation. Only E. rubrum was sensitive to jasmine EO and E. chevalieri to basil EO after all days of the incubation. Data was evaluated statistically by 95.0 % Tukey HSD test. The conclusions indicate that volatile phase of combinations of thyme oil and clove oil showed good potential in the inhibition of growth of Eurotium spp. EOs should find a practical application in the inhibition of the fungal mycelial growth in some kind of the food.

  9. Bacterial and fungal biofilm formation on contact lenses and their susceptibility to lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kackar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. Objectives: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms. Materials and Methods: One type of hard lens and two types of soft lenses were used for the study. The organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Biofilm production was performed by modified O'Toole and Kolter method and effect of lens cleaning solutions and a crude coliphage on biofilms was also studied. Results were visualised using scanning electron microscopy and quantitated by colony counting method and spectrophotometric measurement of optical density (OD. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 11.5, Kruskal–Wallis test and Chi-square test. Results: Soft lens cleaning solutions had a significant inhibitory effect (P = 0.020 on biofilm formation on soft lenses and also lens cases (P < 0.001. Soft lens cleaning solution 2 was more efficient than solution 1. However, no such inhibitory effect was observed with regard to hard lens cleaning solution, but for a significant reduction in the OD values (P < 0.001. There was no significant inhibitory effect by bacteriophages. Conclusion: This study showed the importance of selecting the appropriate lens cleaning solution to prevent biofilm production on contact lenses.

  10. Non-contact tamper sensing by electronic means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritton, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    A tamper-sensing tag is described comprising: a tag body adapted to be fixed against movement relative to a surface of an article, a capacitor having at least one variable-capacity section with first and second elements, said first element being positionable relative to said second element at various positions, displaced from each other, said one variable-capacity section having different amounts of capacity when said first element is in its various positions, respectively, relative to said second element, means for generating a first signal which is a function of the amount of capacity of said one variable-capacity section, said first signal having various values distinguishable from each other when said first element is in its various positions, respectively, relative to said second element, one of said first and second elements being fixed against movement relative to said tag body, and the other of said first and second elements being adapted to be fixed against movement relative to said surface of said article and with said first element being in a first position relative to said second element, said tag body and said other of said first and second elements being positionable relative to each other on said article prior to said tag body's being fixed to said article so as to enable said elements to be fixed to said article in said first position relative to each other, means in said tag for generating a second signal having a value unrelated to the amount of capacity of said one variable-capacity section, means in said tag for combining said first and second signals, means in said tag for encrypting said combined signals, means in said tag responsive to external interrogation of said tag for sending from said tag the encrypted combined signals in digital form, and wherein said means for generating said second signal has the function of changing the value of said second signal for each interrogation of said tag

  11. Simultaneous Contact Sensing and Characterizing of Mechanical and Dynamic Heat Transfer Properties of Porous Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-guo Yao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Porous polymeric materials, such as textile fabrics, are elastic and widely used in our daily life for garment and household products. The mechanical and dynamic heat transfer properties of porous polymeric materials, which describe the sensations during the contact process between porous polymeric materials and parts of the human body, such as the hand, primarily influence comfort sensations and aesthetic qualities of clothing. A multi-sensory measurement system and a new method were proposed to simultaneously sense the contact and characterize the mechanical and dynamic heat transfer properties of porous polymeric materials, such as textile fabrics in one instrument, with consideration of the interactions between different aspects of contact feels. The multi-sensory measurement system was developed for simulating the dynamic contact and psychological judgment processes during human hand contact with porous polymeric materials, and measuring the surface smoothness, compression resilience, bending and twisting, and dynamic heat transfer signals simultaneously. The contact sensing principle and the evaluation methods were presented. Twelve typical sample materials with different structural parameters were measured. The results of the experiments and the interpretation of the test results were described. An analysis of the variance and a capacity study were investigated to determine the significance of differences among the test materials and to assess the gage repeatability and reproducibility. A correlation analysis was conducted by comparing the test results of this measurement system with the results of Kawabata Evaluation System (KES in separate instruments. This multi-sensory measurement system provides a new method for simultaneous contact sensing and characterizing of mechanical and dynamic heat transfer properties of porous polymeric materials.

  12. Empirical Determination of Efficient Sensing Frequencies for Magnetometer-Based Continuous Human Contact Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Kuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The high linear correlation between the smartphone magnetometer readings in close proximity can be exploited for physical human contact detection, which could be useful for such applications as infectious disease contact tracing or social behavior monitoring. Alternative approaches using other capabilities in smartphones have aspects that do not fit well with the human contact detection. Using Wi-Fi or cellular fingerprints have larger localization errors than close human contact distances. Bluetooth beacons could reveal the identity of the transmitter, threatening the privacy of the user. Also, using sensors such as GPS does not work for indoor contacts. However, the magnetometer correlation check works best in human contact distances that matter in infectious disease transmissions or social interactions. The omni-present geomagnetism makes it work both indoors and outdoors, and the measured magnetometer values do not easily reveal the identity and the location of the smartphone. One issue with the magnetometer-based contact detection, however, is the energy consumption. Since the contacts can take place anytime, the magnetometer sensing and recording should be running continuously. Therefore, how we address the energy requirement for the extended and continuous operation can decide the viability of the whole idea. However, then, we note that almost all existing magnetometer-based applications such as indoor location and navigation have used high sensing frequencies, ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz. At these frequencies, we measure that the time to complete battery drain in a typical smartphone is shortened by three to twelve hours. The heavy toll raises the question as to whether the magnetometer-based contact detection can avoid such high sensing rates while not losing the contact detection accuracy. In order to answer the question, we conduct a measurement-based study using independently produced magnetometer traces from three different

  13. Empirical Determination of Efficient Sensing Frequencies for Magnetometer-Based Continuous Human Contact Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuk, Seungho; Kim, Junha; Park, Yongtae; Kim, Hyogon

    2018-04-27

    The high linear correlation between the smartphone magnetometer readings in close proximity can be exploited for physical human contact detection, which could be useful for such applications as infectious disease contact tracing or social behavior monitoring. Alternative approaches using other capabilities in smartphones have aspects that do not fit well with the human contact detection. Using Wi-Fi or cellular fingerprints have larger localization errors than close human contact distances. Bluetooth beacons could reveal the identity of the transmitter, threatening the privacy of the user. Also, using sensors such as GPS does not work for indoor contacts. However, the magnetometer correlation check works best in human contact distances that matter in infectious disease transmissions or social interactions. The omni-present geomagnetism makes it work both indoors and outdoors, and the measured magnetometer values do not easily reveal the identity and the location of the smartphone. One issue with the magnetometer-based contact detection, however, is the energy consumption. Since the contacts can take place anytime, the magnetometer sensing and recording should be running continuously. Therefore, how we address the energy requirement for the extended and continuous operation can decide the viability of the whole idea. However, then, we note that almost all existing magnetometer-based applications such as indoor location and navigation have used high sensing frequencies, ranging from 10 Hz to 200 Hz. At these frequencies, we measure that the time to complete battery drain in a typical smartphone is shortened by three to twelve hours. The heavy toll raises the question as to whether the magnetometer-based contact detection can avoid such high sensing rates while not losing the contact detection accuracy. In order to answer the question, we conduct a measurement-based study using independently produced magnetometer traces from three different countries. Specifically, we

  14. Protein kinase A and fungal virulence: a sinister side to a conserved nutrient sensing pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Kevin K; Rhodes, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    Diverse fungal species are the cause of devastating agricultural and human diseases. As successful pathogenesis is dependent upon the ability of the fungus to adapt to the nutritional and chemical environment of the host, the understanding of signaling pathways required for such adaptation will provide insights into the virulence of these pathogens and the potential identification of novel targets for antifungal intervention. The cAMP-PKA signaling pathway is well conserved across eukaryotes. In the nonpathogenic yeast, S. cerevisiae, PKA is activated in response to extracellular nutrients and subsequently regulates metabolism and growth. Importantly, this pathway is also a regulator of pathogenesis, as defects in PKA signaling lead to an attenuation of virulence in diverse plant and human pathogenic fungi. This review will compare and contrast PKA signaling in S. cerevisiae vs. various pathogenic species and provide a framework for the role of this pathway in regulating fungal virulence.

  15. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Masanori; Nishimura, Moritatsu; Matsumoto, Kenji; O'shima, Eiji

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. These small-diameter pipe branches in particles are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect fatigue damages in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a ''high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing'', which measures the vibration of the pipe branch using a non-contact sensor. (author)

  16. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, Nekomoto; Satoshi, Kiriyama; Moritatsu, Nishimura; Kenji, Matsumoto; Eiji, O'shima

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have a large number of pipes. Of these small-diameter pipe branches in particular are often damaged due to high-cycle fatigue. In order to ensure the reliability of a plant it is important to detect the fatigues in pipe branches at an early stage and to develop the technology to predict and diagnose the advancement of fatigue. Further, in order to carry out the diagnosis of the piping system effectively during operation, non-contact evaluation is useful. Hence, we have developed a 'high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing', where the vibration of the pipe branch is measured using a non-contact sensor. Since the contents of the developed sensor technology has already been reported, this paper mainly describes the newly developed high-cycle fatigue diagnostic system. (authors)

  17. Measurement Back-Action in Quantum Point-Contact Charge Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Küng

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charge sensing with quantum point-contacts (QPCs is a technique widely used in semiconductor quantum-dot research. Understanding the physics of this measurement process, as well as finding ways of suppressing unwanted measurement back-action, are therefore both desirable. In this article, we present experimental studies targeting these two goals. Firstly, we measure the effect of a QPC on electron tunneling between two InAs quantum dots, and show that a model based on the QPC’s shot-noise can account for it. Secondly, we discuss the possibility of lowering the measurement current (and thus the back-action used for charge sensing by correlating the signals of two independent measurement channels. The performance of this method is tested in a typical experimental setup.

  18. Discrimination of Dynamic Tactile Contact by Temporally Precise Event Sensing in Spiking Neuromorphic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wang Wei; Kukreja, Sunil L; Thakor, Nitish V

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a neuromorphic tactile encoding methodology that utilizes a temporally precise event-based representation of sensory signals. We introduce a novel concept where touch signals are characterized as patterns of millisecond precise binary events to denote pressure changes. This approach is amenable to a sparse signal representation and enables the extraction of relevant features from thousands of sensing elements with sub-millisecond temporal precision. We also proposed measures adopted from computational neuroscience to study the information content within the spiking representations of artificial tactile signals. Implemented on a state-of-the-art 4096 element tactile sensor array with 5.2 kHz sampling frequency, we demonstrate the classification of transient impact events while utilizing 20 times less communication bandwidth compared to frame based representations. Spiking sensor responses to a large library of contact conditions were also synthesized using finite element simulations, illustrating an 8-fold improvement in information content and a 4-fold reduction in classification latency when millisecond-precise temporal structures are available. Our research represents a significant advance, demonstrating that a neuromorphic spatiotemporal representation of touch is well suited to rapid identification of critical contact events, making it suitable for dynamic tactile sensing in robotic and prosthetic applications.

  19. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Prudhomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP, whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact.

  20. Capacitive Sensing for Contact-less Proximity Detection in Industrial Marble Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design and experimental characterization of capacitive sensors, plus the relevant front-end acquisition circuitry, for process control in industrial marble machines. The new developed sensing system allows detecting, in real-time and without any contact, the presence of stone samples under the abrasive/cutting heads in an industrial machine. The obtained detection signal is needed as a feedback to improve the automatic control of the polishing/cutting process in marble industry. Different types of sensors are proposed whose performances are assessed through experimental test campaigns considering real industrial working conditions. Compared to state-of-art sensors the proposed solutions allow for a reliable detection while being of low complexity and robust to harsh environment conditions.

  1. Instrumented Compliant Wrist with Proximity and Contact Sensing for Close Robot Interaction Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Laferrière

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compliance has been exploited in various forms in robotic systems to allow rigid mechanisms to come into contact with fragile objects, or with complex shapes that cannot be accurately modeled. Force feedback control has been the classical approach for providing compliance in robotic systems. However, by integrating other forms of instrumentation with compliance into a single device, it is possible to extend close monitoring of nearby objects before and after contact occurs. As a result, safer and smoother robot control can be achieved both while approaching and while touching surfaces. This paper presents the design and extensive experimental evaluation of a versatile, lightweight, and low-cost instrumented compliant wrist mechanism which can be mounted on any rigid robotic manipulator in order to introduce a layer of compliance while providing the controller with extra sensing signals during close interaction with an object’s surface. Arrays of embedded range sensors provide real-time measurements on the position and orientation of surfaces, either located in proximity or in contact with the robot’s end-effector, which permits close guidance of its operation. Calibration procedures are formulated to overcome inter-sensor variability and achieve the highest available resolution. A versatile solution is created by embedding all signal processing, while wireless transmission connects the device to any industrial robot’s controller to support path control. Experimental work demonstrates the device’s physical compliance as well as the stability and accuracy of the device outputs. Primary applications of the proposed instrumented compliant wrist include smooth surface following in manufacturing, inspection, and safe human-robot interaction.

  2. Contact force sensing for ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation: A randomized, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Sergio; Weerasooriya, Rukshen; Novak, Paul; Champagne, Jean; Lim, Hong Euy; Macle, Laurent; Khaykin, Yaariv; Pantano, Alfredo; Verma, Atul

    2018-02-01

    Impact of contact force sensing (CFS) on ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) is unknown. The purpose of the TOUCH AF (Therapeutic Outcomes Using Contact force Handling during Ablation of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation) randomized trial was to compare CFS-guided ablation to a CFS-blinded strategy. Patients (n = 128) undergoing first-time ablation for persistent AF were randomized to a CFS-guided vs CFS-blinded strategy. In the CFS-guided procedure, operators visualized real-time force data. In the blinded procedure, force data were hidden. Wide antral pulmonary vein isolation plus a roof line were performed. Patients were followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months with clinical visit, ECG, and 48-hour Holter monitoring. The primary endpoint was cumulative radiofrequency (RF) time for all procedures. Atrial arrhythmia >30 seconds after 3 months was a recurrence. PeAF was continuous for 26 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 13-52), and left atrial size was 45 ± 5 mm. Force in the CFS-blinded and CFS-guided arms was 12 g [IQR 6-20] and 14 g [IQR 9-20] (P = .10), respectively. Total RF time did not differ between CFS-guided and CFS-blinded groups (49 ± 14 min vs 50 ± 20 min, respectively; P = .70). Single procedure freedom from atrial arrhythmia was 60% in the CFS-guided arm and 63% in the CFS-blinded arm off drugs. Lesions with gaps were associated with significantly less force (11.4 g [IQR 6-19] vs 13.2 g [IQR 8-20], respectively; P = .0007) and less force-time integral (174 gs [IQR 91-330] vs 210 gs [IQR 113-388], respectively; P force/force-time integral was associated with significantly more gaps. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid Signaling via Pkh1/2 Regulates Fungal CO2 Sensing through the Kinase Sch9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlers, Susann; Martin, Ronny; Krüger, Thomas; Hellwig, Daniela; Hänel, Frank; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Saluz, Hans Peter; Van Dijck, Patrick; Ernst, Joachim F; Brakhage, Axel; Mühlschlegel, Fritz A; Kurzai, Oliver

    2017-01-31

    Adaptation to alternating CO 2 concentrations is crucial for all organisms. Carbonic anhydrases-metalloenzymes that have been found in all domains of life-enable fixation of scarce CO 2 by accelerating its conversion to bicarbonate and ensure maintenance of cellular metabolism. In fungi and other eukaryotes, the carbonic anhydrase Nce103 has been shown to be essential for growth in air (~0.04% CO 2 ). Expression of NCE103 is regulated in response to CO 2 availability. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NCE103 is activated by the transcription factor ScCst6, and in Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, it is activated by its homologues CaRca1 and CgRca1, respectively. To identify the kinase controlling Cst6/Rca1, we screened an S. cerevisiae kinase/phosphatase mutant library for the ability to regulate NCE103 in a CO 2 -dependent manner. We identified ScSch9 as a potential ScCst6-specific kinase, as the sch9Δ mutant strain showed deregulated NCE103 expression on the RNA and protein levels. Immunoprecipitation revealed the binding capabilities of both proteins, and detection of ScCst6 phosphorylation by ScSch9 in vitro confirmed Sch9 as the Cst6 kinase. We could show that CO 2 -dependent activation of Sch9, which is part of a kinase cascade, is mediated by lipid/Pkh1/2 signaling but not TORC1. Finally, we tested conservation of the identified regulatory cascade in the pathogenic yeast species C. albicans and C. glabrata Deletion of SCH9 homologues of both species impaired CO 2 -dependent regulation of NCE103 expression, which indicates a conservation of the CO 2 adaptation mechanism among yeasts. Thus, Sch9 is a Cst6/Rca1 kinase that links CO 2 adaptation to lipid signaling via Pkh1/2 in fungi. All living organisms have to cope with alternating CO 2 concentrations as CO 2 levels range from very low in the atmosphere (0.04%) to high (5% and more) in other niches, including the human body. In fungi, CO 2 is sensed via two pathways. The first regulates virulence in

  4. APC senses cell-cell contacts and moves to the nucleus upon their disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocardo, M G; Bianchini, M; Radrizzani, M; Reyes, G B; Dugour, A V; Taminelli, G L; Gonzalez Solveyra, C; Santa-Coloma, T A

    2001-06-22

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor protein is involved in the Wnt/wingless pathway, modulating beta-catenin activity. We report the development of a highly specific, chemically synthesized oligobody (oligonucleotide-based synthetic antibody), directed against the N-terminal region of APC. Using this reagent, we found that within 16 h of disrupting HT-29 cell-cell contacts by harvesting cells with trypsin/EDTA treatment and replating, APC was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Five days after plating the cells, when the cells had returned to their normal confluent phenotype and cell-cell contacts were reestablished, APC returned to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that APC functions as part of a "sensor" system, and responds to the loss of cell-cell contacts by moving to the nucleus, and returning to the cytoplasm when the contacts are fully restored. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  5. Computational Sensing of Staphylococcus aureus on Contact Lenses Using 3D Imaging of Curved Surfaces and Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veli, Muhammed; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2018-03-27

    We present a cost-effective and portable platform based on contact lenses for noninvasively detecting Staphylococcus aureus, which is part of the human ocular microbiome and resides on the cornea and conjunctiva. Using S. aureus-specific antibodies and a surface chemistry protocol that is compatible with human tears, contact lenses are designed to specifically capture S. aureus. After the bacteria capture on the lens and right before its imaging, the captured bacteria are tagged with surface-functionalized polystyrene microparticles. These microbeads provide sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for the quantification of the captured bacteria on the contact lens, without any fluorescent labels, by 3D imaging of the curved surface of each lens using only one hologram taken with a lens-free on-chip microscope. After the 3D surface of the contact lens is computationally reconstructed using rotational field transformations and holographic digital focusing, a machine learning algorithm is employed to automatically count the number of beads on the lens surface, revealing the count of the captured bacteria. To demonstrate its proof-of-concept, we created a field-portable and cost-effective holographic microscope, which weighs 77 g, controlled by a laptop. Using daily contact lenses that are spiked with bacteria, we demonstrated that this computational sensing platform provides a detection limit of ∼16 bacteria/μL. This contact-lens-based wearable sensor can be broadly applicable to detect various bacteria, viruses, and analytes in tears using a cost-effective and portable computational imager that might be used even at home by consumers.

  6. Navigation Strategy by Contact Sensing Interaction for a Biped Humanoid Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanafiah Yussof

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a basic contact interaction-based navigation strategy for a biped humanoid robot to support current visual-based navigation. The robot's arms were equipped with force sensors to detect physical contact with objects. We proposed a motion algorithm consisting of searching tasks, self-localization tasks, correction of locomotion direction tasks and obstacle avoidance tasks. Priority was given to right-side direction to navigate the robot locomotion. Analysis of trajectory generation, biped gait pattern, and biped walking characteristics was performed to define an efficient navigation strategy in a biped walking humanoid robot. The proposed algorithm is evaluated in an experiment with a 21-dofs humanoid robot operating in a room with walls and obstacles. The experimental results reveal good robot performance when recognizing objects by touching, grasping, and continuously generating suitable trajectories to correct direction and avoid collisions.

  7. Whole-arm tactile sensing for beneficial and acceptable contact during robotic assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Phillip M; Killpack, Marc D; Jain, Advait; Vaish, Sarvagya; Hawke, Jeffrey; Kemp, Charles C

    2013-06-01

    Many assistive tasks involve manipulation near the care-receiver's body, including self-care tasks such as dressing, feeding, and personal hygiene. A robot can provide assistance with these tasks by moving its end effector to poses near the care-receiver's body. However, perceiving and maneuvering around the care-receiver's body can be challenging due to a variety of issues, including convoluted geometry, compliant materials, body motion, hidden surfaces, and the object upon which the body is resting (e.g., a wheelchair or bed). Using geometric simulations, we first show that an assistive robot can achieve a much larger percentage of end-effector poses near the care-receiver's body if its arm is allowed to make contact. Second, we present a novel system with a custom controller and whole-arm tactile sensor array that enables a Willow Garage PR2 to regulate contact forces across its entire arm while moving its end effector to a commanded pose. We then describe tests with two people with motor impairments, one of whom used the system to grasp and pull a blanket over himself and to grab a cloth and wipe his face, all while in bed at his home. Finally, we describe a study with eight able-bodied users in which they used the system to place objects near their bodies. On average, users perceived the system to be safe and comfortable, even though substantial contact occurred between the robot's arm and the user's body.

  8. Fungal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Fungal Meningitis Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... the brain or spinal cord. Investigation of Fungal Meningitis, 2012 In September 2012, the Centers for Disease ...

  9. Development of a high cycle vibration fatigue diagnostic system with non-contact vibration sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, So-myo; Nekomoto, Yoshitsugu; Takeishi, Masayuki; Miyoshi, Toshiaki; O'shima, Eiji

    1999-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, it is very important to foresee occurring events with in-operation -inspection (IOI) since the foreseeing makes plant maintenance more speedy and reliable. Moreover, information on plant condition under operating would make period of in-service inspection (ISI) shorter because maintenance plan can be made effectively using the information. In this study, a high cycle fatigue diagnostic system is being developed applying to especially pipe branches with small diameter under in-operating condition, which are in the radioactive areas of PWR plants and hard to access. This paper presents a concept of the in-operating diagnostic system and current status of developing sensing systems. (author)

  10. Fungal Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endocarditis is a rare and fatal condition. The Candida and Aspergillus species are the two most common etiologic fungi found responsible for fungal endocarditis. Fever and changing heart murmur are the most common clinical manifestations. Some patients may have a fever of unknown origin as the onset symptom. The diagnosis of fungal endocarditis is challenging, and diagnosis of prosthetic valve fungal endocarditis is extremely difficult. The optimum antifungal therapy still remains debatable. Treating Candida endocarditis can be difficult because the Candida species can form biofilms on native and prosthetic heart valves. Combined treatment appears superior to monotherapy. Combination of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement might bring about better prognosis.

  11. Low Incidence of Esophageal Lesions After Pulmonary Vein Isolation Using Contact-Force Sensing Catheter Without Esophageal Temperature Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockhaus, Christian; Müller, Patrick; Vom Dahl, Stephan; Leonhardt, Silke; Häussinger, Dieter; Gerguri, Shqipe; Clasen, Lucas; Schmidt, Jan; Kurt, Muhammed; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Kelm, Malte; Shin, Dong-In; Makimoto, Hisaki

    2017-12-12

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a cornerstone therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF). Although severe complications are rather rare, the development of an atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) is a fatal complication with a very high mortality even after surgical treatment. The use of esophageal temperature probes (ETP) during PVI may protect the esophagus but it is still under debate since the ETP may also lead to esophageal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical safety of PVI using contact-force (CF) sensing catheter without esophageal temperature monitoring.We investigated 70 consecutive patients who underwent point-by-point PVI without usage of ETP and who underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy (EGD) with detailed evaluation of the esophagus after the index PVI procedure. The operator attempted to keep CF within the 10-40 g range. The incidences of esophageal lesions (EDEL) detected by endoscopy were then analyzed.Two of 70 patients (2.9%) showed EDEL consisting of one longitudinal ulcer-like erythematous lesion with fibrin and a different one consisting of a round-shaped lesion surrounded by erythema and petechial hemorrhage. All EDEL healed within two weeks under high proton-pump inhibitor therapy without developing AEF as proven by a second EGD of the esophagus.Point-by-point PVI without usage of ETP showed a low incidence of EDEL (2.9%); atrio-esophageal fistula was absent. Further studies on the necessity of ETP under CF control are necessary.

  12. Effect of ordered mesoporous carbon contact layer on the sensing performance of sputtered RuO2 thin film pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, W; Maurya, D K; Wajrak, M; Alameh, K

    2017-03-01

    The effect of contact layer on the pH sensing performance of a sputtered RuO 2 thin film pH sensor is investigated. The response of pH sensors employing RuO 2 thin film electrodes on screen-printed Pt, carbon and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) contact layers are measured over a pH range from 4 to 10. Working electrodes with OMC contact layer are found to have Nernstian pH sensitivity (-58.4mV/pH), low short-term drift rate (5.0mV/h), low hysteresis values (1.13mV) and fast reaction times (30s), after only 1h of conditioning. A pH sensor constructed with OMC carbon contact layer displays improved sensing performance compared to Pt and carbon-based counterparts, making this electrode more attractive for applications requiring highly-accurate pH sensing with reduced conditioning time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Origin and incidence of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, a compound with a "fungal" and "corky" aroma found in cork stoppers and oak chips in contact with wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatonnet, Pascal; Fleury, Antoine; Boutou, Stéphane

    2010-12-08

    This study identifies a previously isolated bacterium as Rhizobium excellensis, a new species of proteobacteria able to form a large quantity of 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (MDMP). R. excellensis actively synthesizes MDMP from L-alanine and L-leucine and, to a lesser extent, from L-phenylalanine and L-valine. MDMP is a volatile, strong-smelling substance detected in wines with cork stoppers that have an unpleasant "corky", "herbaceous" (potato, green hazelnut), or "dusty" odor that is very different from the typical "fungal" nose of a "corked" wine that is generally due to 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA). The contamination of cork by MDMP is not correlated with the presence of TCA. It appears possible that R. excellensis is the microorganism mainly responsible for the presence of this molecule in cork bark. However, other observations suggest that MDMP might taint wine through other ways. Oak wood can also be contaminated and affect wines with which it comes into contact. Nevertheless, because 93% of the MDMP content in wood is destroyed after 10 min at 220 °C, sufficiently toasted oak barrels or alternatives probably do not represent a major source of MDMP in most of the cases. Due to MDMP's relatively low detection threshold estimated at 2.1 ng/L, its presence in about 40% of the untreated natural cork stoppers sampled at concentrations above 10 ng/cork suggests that this compound, if extracted from the stoppers, may pose a risk for wine producers.

  14. Importance of catheter contact force during irrigated radiofrequency ablation: evaluation in a porcine ex vivo model using a force-sensing catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagalingam, Aravinda; D'Avila, Andre; Foley, Lori; Guerrero, J Luis; Lambert, Hendrik; Leo, Giovanni; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Reddy, Vivek Y

    2010-07-01

    Ablation electrode-tissue contact has been shown to be an important determinant of lesion size and safety during nonirrigated ablation but little data are available during irrigated ablation. We aimed to determine the importance of contact force during irrigated-tip ablation. Freshly excised hearts from 11 male pigs were perfused and superfused using fresh, heparinized, oxygenated swine blood in an ex vivo model. One-minute ablations were placed using one of 3 different power control strategies (impedance control-15 Omega target impedance drop, and 20 W or 30 W fixed power) and 3 different contact forces (2 g, 20 g, and 60 g) to give a grid of 9 ablation groups. The force sensing catheter (Tacticath, Endosense SA) was irrigated at 17 mL/min for all of the ablations. Of a total 101 ablations, no thrombus formation was noted but popping was seen in 17 lesions. The lesion depth and incidence of pops was 5.0 +/- 1.3 mm /0%, 5.0 +/- 1.6 mm /10% and 6.7 +/- 2.5 mm /45% for the 15 Omega, 20 W, and 30 W groups (P force: 9.7 +/- 9.9 Omega, 22.3 +/- 11.0 Omega, and 41.7 +/- 22.1 Omega, respectively, for the 2 g, 20 g, and 60 g groups (Pearson's r = 0.65, P force has an important impact on both ablation lesion size and the incidence of pops.

  15. Comparative efficacy and safety of contact force-sensing catheter and second-generation cryoballoon ablation for atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zhou

    Full Text Available This meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of the contact force (CF-sensing catheter and second-generation cryoballoon (CB ablation for treating atrial fibrillation (AF. Six controlled clinical trials comparing ablation for AF using a CF-sensing catheter or second-generation CB were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure. The procedure duration was significantly lower in the CB group compared with that in the CF group [mean difference (MD=29.4; 95%CI=17.84–40.96; P=0.01], whereas there was no difference between the groups for fluoroscopy duration (MD=0.59; 95%CI=–4.48–5.66; P=0.82. Moreover, there was no difference in the incidence of non-lethal complications (embolic event, tamponade, femoral/subclavian hematoma, arteriovenous fistula, pulmonary vein stenosis, phrenic nerve palsy, and esophageal injury between the CB and the CF groups (8.38 vs 5.35%; RR=0.66; 95%CI=0.37–1.17; P=0.15. Transient phrenic nerve palsy occurred in 17 of 326 patients (5.2% of the CB group vs none in the CF group (RR=0.12; 95%CI=0.03–0.43; P=0.001. A comparable proportion of patients in CF and CB groups suffered from AF recurrence during the 12-month follow-up after a single ablation procedure [risk ratio (RR=1.03; 95%CI=0.78–1.35; P=0.84]. AF ablation using CF-sensing catheters and second-generation CB showed comparable fluoroscopy duration and efficacy (during a 12-month follow-up, with shorter procedure duration and different complications in the CB group.

  16. Electrochemistry of conductive polymers 39. Contacts between conducting polymers and noble metal nanoparticles studied by current-sensing atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Shin Hyo; Park, Su-Moon

    2006-12-28

    Electrical properties of contacts formed between conducting polymers and noble metal nanoparticles have been examined using current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM). Contacts formed between electrochemically prepared pi-conjugated polymer films such as polypyrrole (PPy), poly(3-methylthiophene) (P3MeT), as well as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and noble metal nanoparticles including platinum (Pt), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) have been examined. The Pt nanoparticles were electrochemically deposited on a pre-coated PPy film surface by reducing a platinum precursor (PtCl62-) at a constant potential. Both current and scanning electron microscopic images of the film showed the presence of Pt islands. The Au and Ag nanoparticles were dispersed on the P3MeT and PEDOT film surfaces simply by dipping the polymer films into colloid solutions containing Au or Ag particles for specified periods (5 to approximately 10 min). The deposition of Au or Ag particles resulted from either their physical adsorption or chemical bonding between particles and the polymer surface depending on the polymer. When compared with PPy, P3MeT and PEDOT showed a stronger binding to Au or Ag nanoparticles when dipped in their colloidal solutions for the same period. This indicates that Au and Ag particles are predominantly linked with the sulfur atoms via chemical bonding. Of the two, PEDOT was more conductive at the sites where the particles are connected to the polymer. It appears that PEDOT has better aligned sulfur atoms on the surface and is strongly bonded to Au and Ag nanoparticles due to their strong affinity to gold and silver. The current-voltage curves obtained at the metal islands demonstrate that the contacts between these metal islands and polymers are ohmic.

  17. Freshwater Fungal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections as a result of freshwater exposure or trauma are fortunately rare. Etiologic agents are varied, but commonly include filamentous fungi and Candida. This narrative review describes various sources of potential freshwater fungal exposure and the diseases that may result, including fungal keratitis, acute otitis externa and tinea pedis, as well as rare deep soft tissue or bone infections and pulmonary or central nervous system infections following traumatic freshwater exposure during natural disasters or near-drowning episodes. Fungal etiology should be suspected in appropriate scenarios when bacterial cultures or molecular tests are normal or when the infection worsens or fails to resolve with appropriate antibacterial therapy.

  18. Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-12

    The JGI Fungal Genomics Program aims to scale up sequencing and analysis of fungal genomes to explore the diversity of fungi important for energy and the environment, and to promote functional studies on a system level. Combining new sequencing technologies and comparative genomics tools, JGI is now leading the world in fungal genome sequencing and analysis. Over 120 sequenced fungal genomes with analytical tools are available via MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a web-portal for fungal biologists. Our model of interacting with user communities, unique among other sequencing centers, helps organize these communities, improves genome annotation and analysis work, and facilitates new larger-scale genomic projects. This resulted in 20 high-profile papers published in 2011 alone and contributing to the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, which targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts). Our next grand challenges include larger scale exploration of fungal diversity (1000 fungal genomes), developing molecular tools for DOE-relevant model organisms, and analysis of complex systems and metagenomes.

  19. Language Contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelde, Peter Hans

    1995-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of language contact and recent trends in linguistic contact research, which focuses on language use, language users, and language spheres. Also discusses the role of linguistic and cultural conflicts in language contact situations. (13 references) (MDM)

  20. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... touching the infected area. Diagnosis Skin scrapings or cultures Doctors may suspect a fungal infection when they ...

  1. JGI Fungal Genomics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2011-03-14

    Genomes of energy and environment fungi are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 50 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such 'parts' suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here

  2. Fungal symbiosis unearthed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Cullen

    2008-01-01

    Associations between plant roots and fungi are a feature of many terrestrial ecosystems. The genome sequence of a prominent fungal partner opens new avenues for studying such mycorrhizal interactions....

  3. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.; Lai, Ying-Chih; He, Xu; Liu, Ruiyuan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  4. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.

    2017-05-15

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  5. Fungal genomics beyond Saccharomyces cerevisiae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Gerald; Mcintyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are used extensively in both fundamental research and industrial applications. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been the model organism for fungal research for many years, particularly in functional genomics. However, considering the diversity within the fungal kingdom, it is obvious...

  6. Clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the clinical characteristics and distribution of pathogens in patients with fungal keratitis and to provide evidence for diagnosis and treatment of this disease.METHODS:The clinical data of 98 cases(98 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to July 2015 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University were retrospectively reviewed.RESULTS:The main cause for fungal keratitis was corneal injury by plants. The inappropriate use of contact lenses and glucocorticoids therapy were the next cause. Almost all of the patients had hyphae moss, pseudopodia, immune ring, and satellite signs. A few of patients had endothelial plaque and anterior chamber empyema. The majority pathogens of fungal keratitis was Fusarium spp(73.5%,followed by Aspergillus spp(13.2%,Candida spp(9.2%and others(4.1%.Sixty-five patients(65 eyestreated with 5% natamycin were cured. The condition of 15 patients was improved. Eighteen patients were invalid, in which 13 patients became better and 5 patients became worse after voriconazole was added into the therapy, leading to amniotic membrance cover in 3 patients and eyeball removal in 2 patients at last.CONCLUSION:Fusarium genus is the predominant pathogen for fungal keratitis in Jingzhou. Natamycin can be used as the preferred drug for the prevention and treatment for fungal keratitis. The clinicians should pay attention to the fungal keratitis, in order to early diagnosis and timely treatment.

  7. Fungal prostatitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayayo, Emilio; Fernández-Silva, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    Prostate pathology is a daily occurrence in urological and general medical consultations. Besides hyperplasia and neoplastic pathology, other processes, such as infectious ones, are also documented. Their etiology is diverse and varied. Within the infectious prostatic processes, fungi can also be a specific cause of prostatitis. Fungal prostatitis often appears in patients with impaired immunity and can also be rarely found in healthy patients. It can result from a disseminated infection, but it can also be localized. Fungal prostatitis is a nonspecific and harmless process. Diagnosis is commonly made by fine needle aspiration cytology or by biopsy. A number of fungi can be involved. Although there are not many reported cases, they are becoming more frequent, in particular in patients with some degree of immunodeficiency or those who live in areas where specific fungi are endemic or in visitors of those areas. We present a comprehensive review of the various forms of fungal prostatitis, and we describe the morphological characteristics of the fungi more frequently reported as causes of fungal prostatitis. We also report our own experience, aiming to alert physicians, urologists and pathologists of these particular infections.

  8. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  9. The Fungal Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heitman, Joseph; Howlett, B.J.; Crous, P.W.; Stukenbrock, E.H.; James, T.Y.; Gow, N.A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi research and knowledge grew rapidly following recent advances in genetics and genomics. This book synthesizes new knowledge with existing information to stimulate new scientific questions and propel fungal scientists on to the next stages of research. This book is a comprehensive guide on

  10. Quantitative Study of Nanoscale Contact and Pre-Contact Mechanics Using Force Modulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Asif, S. A; Wahl, K. J; Colton, R. J

    1999-01-01

    .... However cantilever instability, conventional force detection and displacement sensing make contact area measurement difficult, hence the measured mechanical properties are usually only qualitative...

  11. Fungal biodiversity to biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambergo, Felipe S; Valencia, Estela Y

    2016-03-01

    Fungal habitats include soil, water, and extreme environments. With around 100,000 fungus species already described, it is estimated that 5.1 million fungus species exist on our planet, making fungi one of the largest and most diverse kingdoms of eukaryotes. Fungi show remarkable metabolic features due to a sophisticated genomic network and are important for the production of biotechnological compounds that greatly impact our society in many ways. In this review, we present the current state of knowledge on fungal biodiversity, with special emphasis on filamentous fungi and the most recent discoveries in the field of identification and production of biotechnological compounds. More than 250 fungus species have been studied to produce these biotechnological compounds. This review focuses on three of the branches generally accepted in biotechnological applications, which have been identified by a color code: red, green, and white for pharmaceutical, agricultural, and industrial biotechnology, respectively. We also discuss future prospects for the use of filamentous fungi in biotechnology application.

  12. Current management of fungal infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meis, J.F.G.M.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    The management of superficial fungal infections differs significantly from the management of systemic fungal infections. Most superficial infections are treated with topical antifungal agents, the choice of agent being determined by the site and extent of the infection and by the causative organism,

  13. The evolution of fungal epiphytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hongsanan, S.; Sánchez-Ramírez, S.; Crous, P.W.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Zhao, R.L.; Hyde, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal epiphytes are a polyphyletic group found on the surface of plants, particularly on leaves, with a worldwide distribution. They belong in the phylum Ascomycota, which contains the largest known number of fungal genera. There has been little research dating the origins of the common ancestors

  14. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  15. Fungal keratitis: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastaneiah, Sabah S.; Al-Rajhi, Ali A.

    2006-01-01

    Keratomycosis is a vision-threatening fungal corneal infection. The dramatic increase in the number of cases over the past three decades is attributable not only to better diagnostic recognition, improved laboratory techniques and greater awareness by the ophthalmic society as a whole, but is also due to a true increase in the incidence of keratitis related to the indiscriminate use of topical broad-spectrum antibiotics, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, as well as surgical trauma. Corneal trauma has remained the main predisposing factor over the years, though in recent years HIV-positive cases and AIDS are taking lead in certain areas. Aspergillus, Fusarium and Candida species remains the commonest 'organisms' isolated worldwide. Although the approach to this form of keratitis is similar to other types of microbial keratitis, it remains the most difficult in terms of diagnosis and management. Early recognition, prevention, prompt treatment and timely keratoplasty are crucial for a better outcome. (author)

  16. Advanced Remote Sensing Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terrence; Jones, John W.; Price, Susan D.; Hogan, Dianna

    2008-01-01

    'Remote sensing' is a generic term for monitoring techniques that collect information without being in physical contact with the object of study. Overhead imagery from aircraft and satellite sensors provides the most common form of remotely sensed data and records the interaction of electromagnetic energy (usually visible light) with matter, such as the Earth's surface. Remotely sensed data are fundamental to geographic science. The Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is currently conducting and promoting the research and development of three different aspects of remote sensing science: spectral analysis, automated orthorectification of historical imagery, and long wave infrared (LWIR) polarimetric imagery (PI).

  17. Friends or foes? Emerging insights from fungal interactions with plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Susanne; Gupta, Vijai K; Dahms, Tanya E S; Silva, Roberto N; Singh, Harikesh B; Upadhyay, Ram S; Gomes, Eriston Vieira; Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Nayak S, Chandra

    2016-03-01

    Fungi interact with plants in various ways, with each interaction giving rise to different alterations in both partners. While fungal pathogens have detrimental effects on plant physiology, mutualistic fungi augment host defence responses to pathogens and/or improve plant nutrient uptake. Tropic growth towards plant roots or stomata, mediated by chemical and topographical signals, has been described for several fungi, with evidence of species-specific signals and sensing mechanisms. Fungal partners secrete bioactive molecules such as small peptide effectors, enzymes and secondary metabolites which facilitate colonization and contribute to both symbiotic and pathogenic relationships. There has been tremendous advancement in fungal molecular biology, omics sciences and microscopy in recent years, opening up new possibilities for the identification of key molecular mechanisms in plant-fungal interactions, the power of which is often borne out in their combination. Our fragmentary knowledge on the interactions between plants and fungi must be made whole to understand the potential of fungi in preventing plant diseases, improving plant productivity and understanding ecosystem stability. Here, we review innovative methods and the associated new insights into plant-fungal interactions. © FEMS 2015.

  18. LANL Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    : (505) 665-3664 ethics@lanl.gov Journalist queries Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Media contacts programs and employee resources. General Employee directory Emergency communication Communications Office (505) 667-7000 Ethics & Audits Internal Audit: (505) 665-3104 Ethics Office: (505) 667-7506 Fax

  19. Rim Pathway-Mediated Alterations in the Fungal Cell Wall Influence Immune Recognition and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, Kyla S; Esher, Shannon K; Leopold Wager, Chrissy M; Walker, Louise; Wagener, Jeanette; Munro, Carol; Wormley, Floyd L; Alspaugh, J Andrew

    2017-01-31

    Compared to other fungal pathogens, Cryptococcus neoformans is particularly adept at avoiding detection by innate immune cells. To explore fungal cellular features involved in immune avoidance, we characterized cell surface changes of the C. neoformans rim101Δ mutant, a strain that fails to organize and shield immunogenic epitopes from host detection. These cell surface changes are associated with an exaggerated, detrimental inflammatory response in mouse models of infection. We determined that the disorganized strain rim101Δ cell wall increases macrophage detection in a contact-dependent manner. Using biochemical and microscopy methods, we demonstrated that the rim101Δ strain shows a modest increase in the levels of both cell wall chitin and chitosan but that it shows a more dramatic increase in chito-oligomer exposure, as measured by wheat germ agglutinin staining. We also created a series of mutants with various levels of cell wall wheat germ agglutinin staining, and we demonstrated that the staining intensity correlates with the degree of macrophage activation in response to each strain. To explore the host receptors responsible for recognizing the rim101Δ mutant, we determined that both the MyD88 and CARD9 innate immune signaling proteins are involved. Finally, we characterized the immune response to the rim101Δ mutant in vivo, documenting a dramatic and sustained increase in Th1 and Th17 cytokine responses. These results suggest that the Rim101 transcription factor actively regulates the C. neoformans cell wall to prevent the exposure of immune stimulatory molecules within the host. These studies further explored the ways in which immune cells detect C. neoformans and other fungal pathogens by mechanisms that include sensing N-acetylglucosamine-containing structures, such as chitin and chitosan. Infectious microorganisms have developed many ways to avoid recognition by the host immune system. For example, pathogenic fungi alter their cell surfaces to

  20. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, J.L.; Nicholson, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  1. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  2. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  3. Structural Analysis of Fungal Cerebrosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana eBarreto-Bergter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Of the ceramide monohexosides (CMHs, gluco- and galactosylceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. Their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS, electrospray ionization (ESI-MS, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/CID-MS. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR has also been used successfully. Such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical separation, such as HPTLC and column chromatography, has led to the structural elucidation of a great number of fungal CMHs. The structure of fungal CMH is conserved among fungal species and consists of a glucose or galactose residue attached to a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine with an amidic linkage to hydroxylated fatty acids, most commonly having 16 or 18 carbon atoms and unsaturation between C-3 and C-4. Along with their unique structural characteristics, fungal CMHs have a peculiar subcellular distribution and striking biological properties. Fungal cerebrosides were also characterized as antigenic molecules directly or indirectly involved in cell growth or differentiation in Schizophyllum commune, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pseudallescheria boydii, Candida albicans, Aspergillus nidulans, A.fumigatus and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Besides classical techniques for cerebroside (CMH analysis, we now describe new approaches, combining conventional TLC and mass spectrometry, as well as emerging technologies for subcellular localization and distribution of glycosphingolipids by SIMS and imaging MALDI TOF .

  4. Serious fungal infections in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, J; Denning, D W; Paz-Y-Miño, A; Solís, M B; Arias, L M

    2017-06-01

    There is a dearth of data from Ecuador on the burden of life-threatening fungal disease entities; therefore, we estimated the burden of serious fungal infections in Ecuador based on the populations at risk and available epidemiological databases and publications. A full literature search was done to identify all epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates. WHO, ONU-AIDS, Index Mundi, Global Asthma Report, Globocan, and national data [Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC), Ministerio de Salud Pública (MSP), Sociedad de Lucha Contra el Cáncer (SOLCA), Instituto Nacional de Donación y Trasplante de Órganos, Tejidos y Células (INDOT)] were reviewed. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology by LIFE. Ecuador has a variety of climates from the cold of the Andes through temperate to humid hot weather at the coast and in the Amazon basin. Ecuador has a population of 15,223,680 people and an average life expectancy of 76 years. The median estimate of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population at risk for fungal disease (Ecuador is affected by serious fungal infection.

  5. Mechanoluminescent Contact Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Yefremov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoluminescent sensing elements convert mechanical stress into optical radiation. Advantages of such sensors are the ability to generate an optical signal, solid-state, simple structure, and resistance to electromagnetic interference. Mechanoluminescent sensor implementations can possess the concentrated and distributed sensitivity, thereby allowing us to detect the field of mechanical stresses distributed across the area and in volume. Most modern semiconductor photo-detectors can detect mechanoluminescent radiation, so there are no difficulties to provide its detection when designing the mechanoluminescent sensing devices. Mechanoluminescent substances have especial sensitivity to shock loads, and this effect can be used to create a fuse the structure of which includes a target contact type sensor with a photosensitive actuator. The paper briefly describes the theoretical basics of mechanoluminiscence: a light signal emerges from the interaction of crystalline phosphor luminescence centers with electrically charged dislocations, moving due to the deformation of the crystal. A mathematical model of the mechanoluminescent conversion is represented as a functional interaction between parameters of the mechanical shock excitation and the sensor light emission. Examples of computing the optical mechanoluminescent output signal depending on the duration and peak level of impulse load are given. It is shown that the luminous flux, generated by mechanoluminescent sensing element when there is an ammunition-target collision causes the current emerging in photo-detector (photodiode that is sufficient for a typical actuator of the fuse train to operate. The potential possibility to create a contact target type sensor based on the light-sensitive mechanoluminescent sensor was proved by the calculation and simulation results.

  6. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  7. Evaluation of pulmonary fungal diseases in patients with fungal rhino-sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sh. Badawy

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Universal screening for pulmonary fungal infection especially in patients with fungal rhino sinusitis is highly recommended to treat it early, decrease morbidity and mortality of the diseases.

  8. Microbiological diagnostics of fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Girmenia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests for the detection of fungal infections are easy to perform. The main obstacle to a correct diagnosis is the correlation between the laboratory findings and the clinical diagnosis. Among pediatric patients, the most common fungal pathogen is Candida. The detection of fungal colonization may be performed through the use of chromogenic culture media, which allows also the identification of Candida subspecies, from which pathogenicity depends. In neonatology, thistest often drives the decision to begin a empiric therapy; in this regard, a close cooperation between microbiologists and clinicians is highly recommended. Blood culture, if positive, is a strong confirmation of fungal infection; however, its low sensitivity results in a high percentage of false negatives, thus decreasing its reliability. Molecular diagnostics is still under evaluation, whereas the detection of some fungal antigens, such as β-D-glucan, galactomannan, mannoprotein, and cryptococcal antigen in the serum is used for adults, but still under evaluations for pediatric patients.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i1S.862

  9. The Fungal Defensin Family Enlarged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are an emerging source of peptide antibiotics. With the availability of a large number of model fungal genome sequences, we can expect that more and more fungal defensin-like peptides (fDLPs will be discovered by sequence similarity search. Here, we report a total of 69 new fDLPs encoded by 63 genes, in which a group of fDLPs derived from dermatophytes are defined as a new family (fDEF8 according to sequence and phylogenetic analyses. In the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpine, fDLPs have undergone extensive gene expansion. Our work further enlarges the fungal defensin family and will help characterize new peptide antibiotics with therapeutic potential.

  10. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  11. Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Stem Cell Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook ... Mold . Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in stem cell transplant patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because ...

  12. Living fungal hyphae-templated porous gold microwires using nanoparticles as building blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Asma; Majeed, Muhammad Irfan; Ihsan, Ayesha; Hussain, Syed Zajif; Saif-ur-Rehman; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2011-01-01

    A simple and environmentally benign green method is reported to decorate growing fungal hyphae with high loading of gold nanoparticles, which were initially produced using aqueous tea extract as a sole reducing/stabilizing agent. Inoculation of fungal spores in aqueous suspension of nanoparticles led to the growth of intensely red-coloured fungal hyphae due to the accumulation of gold nanoparticles. Heat treatment of these hybrid materials led to the formation of porous gold microwires. This report is thus an interesting example of using green and sustainable approach to produce nanostructured materials which have potential applications in catalysis, sensing and electronics.Graphical AbstractPorous gold microwires are formed by the heat treatment of fungal hyphae–gold nanoparticle composites. These nanoparticle-loaded composites were formed by growing Aspergillus niger in gold nanoparticles suspension produced using tea extract as the sole chemical source in addition to the gold salt.

  13. Fungal Endophytes: Beyond Herbivore Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamisope S. Bamisile

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of entomopathogenic fungi as biocontrol agents into Integrated Pest Management (IPM programs without doubt, has been highly effective. The ability of these fungal pathogens such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae to exist as endophytes in plants and protect their colonized host plants against the primary herbivore pests has widely been reported. Aside this sole role of pest management that has been traditionally ascribed to fungal endophytes, recent findings provided evidence of other possible functions as plant yield promoter, soil nutrient distributor, abiotic stress and drought tolerance enhancer in plants. However, reports on these additional important effects of fungal endophytes on the colonized plants remain scanty. In this review, we discussed the various beneficial effects of endophytic fungi on the host plants and their primary herbivore pests; as well as some negative effects that are relatively unknown. We also highlighted the prospects of our findings in further increasing the acceptance of fungal endophytes as an integral part of pest management programs for optimized crop production.

  14. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: FUNGAL TREATMENT BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal treatment technology uses white rot fungi (lignin degrading fungi) to treat organic contaminated soils in situ. Organic materials inoculated with the fungi are mechanically mixed into the contaminated soil. Using enzymes normally produced for wood degradation as well as ot...

  15. [Fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Emmanouil; Realdi, Giuseppe; Dore, Maria Pina

    2005-06-01

    In immunocompetent subjects fungal infections of the gastrointestinal tract are uncommon. Candida esophagitis remains the single most common fungal infection in immunocompromised hosts or in H. pylori- infected patients who receive antibiotic therapy. Enteric fungal infections are uncommon even in HIV-infected patients. Antifungal agents such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole, and the various formulations of itraconazole are effective for most cases.

  16. Daphnia can protect diatoms from fungal parasitism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kagami, M.; Van Donk, E.; De Bruin, A.; Rijkeboer, M.; Ibelings, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    Many phytoplankton species are susceptible to chytrid fungal parasitism. Much attention has been paid to abiotic factors that determine whether fungal infections become epidemic. It is still unknown, however, how biotic factors, such as interactions with zooplankton, affect the fungal infection

  17. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  18. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ivarsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The oceanic crust is believed to host the largest potential habitat for microbial life on Earth, yet, still we lack substantial information about the abundance, diversity, and consequence of its biosphere. The last two decades have involved major research accomplishments within this field and a change in view of the ocean crust and its potential to harbour life. Here fossilised fungal colonies in subseafloor basalts are reported from three different seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. The fungal colonies consist of various characteristic structures interpreted as fungal hyphae, fruit bodies and spores. The fungal hyphae are well preserved with morphological characteristics such as hyphal walls, septa, thallic conidiogenesis, and hyphal tips with hyphal vesicles within. The fruit bodies consist of large (∼50–200 µm in diameter body-like structures with a defined outer membrane and an interior filled with calcite. The fruit bodies have at some stage been emptied of their contents of spores and filled by carbonate-forming fluids. A few fruit bodies not filled by calcite and with spores still within support this interpretation. Spore-like structures (ranging from a few µm to ∼20 µm in diameter are also observed outside of the fruit bodies and in some cases concentrated to openings in the membrane of the fruit bodies. The hyphae, fruit bodies and spores are all closely associated with a crust lining the vein walls that probably represent a mineralized biofilm. The results support a fungal presence in deep subseafloor basalts and indicate that such habitats were vital between ∼81 and 48 Ma.

  19. DIAGNOSIS & MANAGEMENT OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syam Manohar Gadhamsetty

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic sinusitis is one of the common diagnosis in ENT practice. Allergic fungal sinusitis is a clinical entity with characteristic clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings. Allergic fungal sinusitis and eosinophilic mucin rhinosinusitis can easily be misdiagnosed. AIM OF STUDY A prospective clinical study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis to use diagnostic criteria to confirm the disease with Radiological, Pathological & Microbiological investigations and their management. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective study of allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis in 2 years from November 2011 to October 2013. Among the patients who attended the ENT OPD during this period, 21 patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are selected.

  20. Subseafloor basalts as fungal habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, M.; Bengtson, S.

    2013-12-01

    The oceanic crust makes up the largest potential habitat for life on Earth, yet next to nothing is known about the abundance, diversity and ecology of its biosphere. Our understanding of the deep biosphere of subseafloor crust is, with a few exceptions, based on a fossil record. Surprisingly, a majority of the fossilized microorganisms have been interpreted or recently re-interpreted as remnants of fungi rather than prokaryotes. Even though this might be due to a bias in fossilization the presence of fungi in these settings can not be neglected. We have examined fossilized microorganisms in drilled basalt samples collected at the Emperor Seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomography microscopy (SRXTM) studies has revealed a complex morphology and internal structure that corresponds to characteristic fungal morphology. Chitin was detected in the fossilized hyphae, which is another strong argument in favour of a fungal interpretation. Chitin is absent in prokaryotes but a substantial constituent in fungal cell walls. The fungal colonies consist of both hyphae and yeast-like growth states as well as resting structures and possible fruit bodies, thus, the fungi exist in vital colonies in subseafloor basalts. The fungi have also been involved in extensive weathering of secondary mineralisations. In terrestrial environments fungi are known as an important geobiological agent that promotes mineral weathering and decomposition of organic matter, and they occur in vital symbiosis with other microorganisms. It is probable to assume that fungi would play a similar role in subseafloor basalts and have great impact on the ecology and on biogeochemical cycles in such environments.

  1. Systemic fungal infections in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in neonatal management have led to considerable improvement in newborn survival. However, early (72hours onset systemic infections, both bacterial and fungal, remain a devastating complication and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these babies. Most neonatal fungal infections are due to Candida species, particularly Candida albicans. The sources of candidiasis in NICU are often endogenous following colonization of the babies with fungi. About 10% of these babies get colonized in first week of life and up to 64% babies get colonized by 4 weeks of hospital stay. Disseminated candidiasis presents like bacterial sepsis and can involve multiple organs such as the kidneys, brain, eye, liver, spleen, bone, joints, meninges and heart. Confirming the diagnosis by laboratory tests is difficult and a high index of suspicion is required. The diagnosis of fungemia can be made definitely only by recovering the organism from blood or other sterile bodily fluid. Amphotericin B continues to be the mainstay of therapy for systemic fungal infections but its use is limited by the risks of nephrotoxicity and hypokalemia. Newer formulations of amphotericin B, namely the liposomal and the lipid complex forms, have recently become available and have been reported to have lesser toxicity. More recently Indian liposomal Amphotericin B derived from neutral lipids (L-Amp -LRC-1 has shown good response with less toxicity. A clinical trial with this preparation has shown to be safe and efficacious in neonatal fungal infections. Compared to other liposomal preparations, L-Amp-LRC-1 is effective at lower dose and is less expensive drug for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis.

  2. Occupational contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doutre, Marie-Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    Irritant dermatitis and eczema are the most prevalent occupational skin diseases. Less common are immediate contact reactions such as contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis. Occupational contact urticaria can be subdivided into two categories, immunological and non immunological. However, some agents can induce these two types of reactions. Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex is particularly frequent among health care personnel, but contact urticaria to a wide variety of other substances occurs in many other occupations. Among those at risk are cooks, bakers, butchers, restaurant personnel, veterinarians, hairdressers, florists, gardeners, and forestry workers. Protein contact dermatitis in some of these occupations is caused principally by proteins of animal or plant origin, especially among individuals with a history of atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis requires careful interrogation, clinical examination and skin tests (open tests and prick tests with immediate lecture) to identify a particular contact allergen.

  3. Systems biology of fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian eHorn

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elucidation of pathogenicity mechanisms of the most important human pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, has gained great interest in the light of the steadily increasing number of cases of invasive fungal infections.A key feature of these infections is the interaction of the different fungal morphotypes with epithelial and immune effector cells in the human host. Because of the high level of complexity, it is necessary to describe and understand invasive fungal infection by taking a systems biological approach, i.e., by a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the non-linear and selective interactions of a large number of functionally diverse, and frequently multifunctional, sets of elements, e.g., genes, proteins, metabolites, which produce coherent and emergent behaviours in time and space. The recent advances in systems biology will now make it possible to uncover the structure and dynamics of molecular and cellular cause-effect relationships within these pathogenic interactions.We review current efforts to integrate omics and image-based data of host-pathogen interactions into network and spatio-temporal models. The modelling will help to elucidate pathogenicity mechanisms and to identify diagnostic biomarkers and potential drug targets for therapy and could thus pave the way for novel intervention strategies based on novel antifungal drugs and cell therapy.

  4. Fungal genome resources at NCBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbertse, B.; Tatusova, T.

    2011-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is well known for the nucleotide sequence archive, GenBank and sequence analysis tool BLAST. However, NCBI integrates many types of biomolecular data from variety of sources and makes it available to the scientific community as interactive web resources as well as organized releases of bulk data. These tools are available to explore and compare fungal genomes. Searching all databases with Fungi [organism] at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ is the quickest way to find resources of interest with fungal entries. Some tools though are resources specific and can be indirectly accessed from a particular database in the Entrez system. These include graphical viewers and comparative analysis tools such as TaxPlot, TaxMap and UniGene DDD (found via UniGene Homepage). Gene and BioProject pages also serve as portals to external data such as community annotation websites, BioGrid and UniProt. There are many different ways of accessing genomic data at NCBI. Depending on the focus and goal of research projects or the level of interest, a user would select a particular route for accessing genomic databases and resources. This review article describes methods of accessing fungal genome data and provides examples that illustrate the use of analysis tools. PMID:22737589

  5. Phylogenetic distribution of fungal sterols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Weete

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ergosterol has been considered the "fungal sterol" for almost 125 years; however, additional sterol data superimposed on a recent molecular phylogeny of kingdom Fungi reveals a different and more complex situation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interpretation of sterol distribution data in a modern phylogenetic context indicates that there is a clear trend from cholesterol and other Delta(5 sterols in the earliest diverging fungal species to ergosterol in later diverging fungi. There are, however, deviations from this pattern in certain clades. Sterols of the diverse zoosporic and zygosporic forms exhibit structural diversity with cholesterol and 24-ethyl -Delta(5 sterols in zoosporic taxa, and 24-methyl sterols in zygosporic fungi. For example, each of the three monophyletic lineages of zygosporic fungi has distinctive major sterols, ergosterol in Mucorales, 22-dihydroergosterol in Dimargaritales, Harpellales, and Kickxellales (DHK clade, and 24-methyl cholesterol in Entomophthorales. Other departures from ergosterol as the dominant sterol include: 24-ethyl cholesterol in Glomeromycota, 24-ethyl cholest-7-enol and 24-ethyl-cholesta-7,24(28-dienol in rust fungi, brassicasterol in Taphrinales and hypogeous pezizalean species, and cholesterol in Pneumocystis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Five dominant end products of sterol biosynthesis (cholesterol, ergosterol, 24-methyl cholesterol, 24-ethyl cholesterol, brassicasterol, and intermediates in the formation of 24-ethyl cholesterol, are major sterols in 175 species of Fungi. Although most fungi in the most speciose clades have ergosterol as a major sterol, sterols are more varied than currently understood, and their distribution supports certain clades of Fungi in current fungal phylogenies. In addition to the intellectual importance of understanding evolution of sterol synthesis in fungi, there is practical importance because certain antifungal drugs (e.g., azoles target reactions in

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  8. Invasive fungal infections after natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Park, Benjamin J

    2014-03-01

    The link between natural disasters and subsequent fungal infections in disaster-affected persons has been increasingly recognized. Fungal respiratory conditions associated with disasters include coccidioidomycosis, and fungi are among several organisms that can cause near-drowning pneumonia. Wound contamination with organic matter can lead to post-disaster skin and soft tissue fungal infections, notably mucormycosis. The role of climate change in the environmental growth, distribution, and dispersal mechanisms of pathogenic fungi is not fully understood; however, ongoing climate change could lead to increased disaster-associated fungal infections. Fungal infections are an often-overlooked clinical and public health issue, and increased awareness by health care providers, public health professionals, and community members regarding disaster-associated fungal infections is needed.

  9. Fungal Endocarditis: Update on Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Ahmed Khurshid; Lee, Justin Z; Low, See-Wei; Desai, Hem; Lee, Kwan S; Al Mohajer, Mayar

    2016-10-01

    Fungal endocarditis is an extremely debilitating disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Candida spp. are the most common isolated organisms in fungal endocarditis. It is most prevalent in patients who are immunosuppressed and intravenous drug users. Most patients present with constitutional symptoms, which are indistinguishable from bacterial endocarditis, hence a high index of suspicion is required for pursuing diagnosis. Diagnosis of fungal endocarditis can be very challenging: most of the time, blood cultures are negative or take a long time to yield growth. Fungal endocarditis mandates an aggressive treatment strategy. A medical and surgical combined approach is the cornerstone of therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of lactoferricin B against keratitis-associated fungal biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Jayangshu; Saha, Suman; Khetan, Archana; Sarkar, Sujoy K; Mandal, Santi M

    2012-10-01

    Biofilms are considered as the most important developmental characteristics in ocular infections. Biofilm eradication is a major challenge today to overcome the incidence of drug resistance. This report demonstrates the in vitro ability of biofilm formation on contact lens by three common keratitis-associated fungal pathogens, namely, Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, and Candida albicans. Antifungal sensitivity testing performed for both planktonic cells and biofilm revealed the sessile phenotype to be resistant at MIC levels for the planktonic cells and also at higher concentrations. A prototype lens care solution was also found to be partially effective in eradication of the mature biofilm from contact lenses. Lactoferricin B (Lacf, 64 μg/ml), an antimicrobial peptide, exhibited almost no effect on the sessile phenotype. However, the combinatory effect of Lacf with antifungals against planktonic cells and biofilms of three fungal strains that were isolated from keratitis patients exhibited a reduction of antifungal dose more than eightfold. Furthermore, the effect of Lacf in lens care solution against biofilms in which those strains formed was eradicated successfully. These results suggest that lactoferricin B could be a promising candidate for clinical use in improving biofilm susceptibility to antifungals and also as an antibiofilm-antifungal additive in lens care solution.

  11. Remote Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Khorram, Siamak; Koch, Frank H; van der Wiele, Cynthia F

    2012-01-01

    Remote Sensing provides information on how remote sensing relates to the natural resources inventory, management, and monitoring, as well as environmental concerns. It explains the role of this new technology in current global challenges. "Remote Sensing" will discuss remotely sensed data application payloads and platforms, along with the methodologies involving image processing techniques as applied to remotely sensed data. This title provides information on image classification techniques and image registration, data integration, and data fusion techniques. How this technology applies to natural resources and environmental concerns will also be discussed.

  12. Fungal transmission of plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R N

    1996-01-01

    Thirty soilborne viruses or virus-like agents are transmitted by five species of fungal vectors. Ten polyhedral viruses, of which nine are in the family Tombusviridae, are acquired in the in vitro manner and do not occur within the resting spores of their vectors, Olpidium brassicae and O. bornovanus. Fungal vectors for other viruses in the family should be sought even though tombusviruses are reputed to be soil transmitted without a vector. Eighteen rod-shaped viruses belonging to the furo- and bymovirus groups and to an unclassified group are acquired in the in vivo manner and survive within the resting spores of their vector, O. brassicae, Polymyxa graminis, P. betae, and Spongospora subterranea. The viral coat protein has an essential role in in vitro transmission. With in vivo transmission a site in the coat protein-read through protein (CP-RT) of beet necrotic yellow vein furovirus determines vector transmissibility as does a site in a similar 98-kDa polyprotein of barley mild mosaic bymovirus. The mechanisms by which virions move (or are moved) into and out of the protoplasm of zoospores or of thalli needs study.

  13. Optimal Fungal Space Searching Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asenova, Elitsa; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Fu, Eileen; Nicolau, Dan V; Nicolau, Dan V

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that fungi use an efficient natural algorithm for searching the space available for their growth in micro-confined networks, e.g., mazes. This natural "master" algorithm, which comprises two "slave" sub-algorithms, i.e., collision-induced branching and directional memory, has been shown to be more efficient than alternatives, with one, or the other, or both sub-algorithms turned off. In contrast, the present contribution compares the performance of the fungal natural algorithm against several standard artificial homologues. It was found that the space-searching fungal algorithm consistently outperforms uninformed algorithms, such as Depth-First-Search (DFS). Furthermore, while the natural algorithm is inferior to informed ones, such as A*, this under-performance does not importantly increase with the increase of the size of the maze. These findings suggest that a systematic effort of harvesting the natural space searching algorithms used by microorganisms is warranted and possibly overdue. These natural algorithms, if efficient, can be reverse-engineered for graph and tree search strategies.

  14. [Iron and invasive fungal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Contact Dermatitis in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Janice L; Perez, Caroline; Jacob, Sharon E

    2016-08-01

    Contact dermatitis is an umbrella term that describes the skin's reaction to contacted noxious or allergenic substances. The two main categories of contact dermatitis are irritant type and allergic type. This review discusses the signs, symptoms, causes, and complications of contact dermatitis. It addresses the testing, treatment, and prevention of contact dermatitis. Proper management of contact dermatitis includes avoidance measures for susceptible children. Implementation of a nickel directive (regulating the use of nickel in jewelry and other products that come into contact with the skin) could further reduce exposure to the most common allergens in the pediatric population. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e287-e292.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Fungal effector proteins: past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Mehrabi, R.; Burg, van den H.A.; Stergiopoulos, I.

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering research of Harold Flor on flax and the flax rust fungus culminated in his gene-for-gene hypothesis. It took nearly 50 years before the first fungal avirulence (Avr) gene in support of his hypothesis was cloned. Initially, fungal Avr genes were identified by reverse genetics and

  17. A novel class of fungal lipoxygenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heshof, R.; Jylhä, S.; Haarmann, T.; Jørgensen, A.L.W.; Dalsgaard, T.K.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2014-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are well-studied enzymes in plants and mammals. However, fungal LOXs are less studied. In this study, we have compared fungal LOX protein sequences to all known characterized LOXs. For this, a script was written using Shell commands to extract sequences from the NCBI database

  18. Fungal infection knowledge gap in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    receiving immunosuppressive therapy, and patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (1). Fungi also play a role in allergic fungal disease such as allergic broncho- pulmonary Aspergilosis (ABPA) and chronic or deep tissue infections. The laboratory diagnosis of fungal infection starts with a simple potassium hydroxide.

  19. Clinical consideration of fungal paranasal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuni, Tsuyoshi; Asakura, Koji; Homma, Tomo; Kawaguchi, Ryuichi; Ishikawa, Tadataka; Yamazaki, Norikazu; Himi, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fungal paranasal sinusitis is included in the differential diagnosis of unilateral paranasal lesion. Recently the incidence of fungal paranasal sinusitis has been increasing. We reviewed 24 patients (9 males and 15 females) with fungal paranasal sinusitis treated at Muroran City Hospital between January 2001 and May 2006, and clinical presentation and CT findings with those of 56 patients (36 males and 20 females) with chronic unilateral sinusitis. Fungal sinusitis patients ranged in age from 45 to 87, and the average age was 65.9 years old. In contrast, the age of chronic sinusitis patients ranged from 24 to 83, and the average age was 54.4 years old. The chief complaint of both fungal sinusitis and chronic sinusitis included rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction and post nasal discharge. CT exam was performed in all patients. In 23 cases of paranasal fungal sinusitis and 54 cases of chronic sinusitis the findings involved the maxillary sinus. The most common observation (69.6%) was bone density within the affected sinus in fungal sinusitis. However, only 2 cases of chronic sinusitis (3.9%) showed calcification. All cases of fungal sinusitis were diagnosed by pathological examinations. Most cases were proved to be aspergillus, while only one case was mucor. We treated all cases surgically, 18 cases underwent Caldwell-Luc's procedure and 5 cases underwent endoscopic sinus surgery under local anesthesia. (author)

  20. Fungal cultivation on glass-beads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Droce, Aida; Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Giese, Henriette

    Transcription of various bioactive compounds and enzymes are dependent on fungal cultivation method. In this study we cultivate Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium solani on glass-beads with liquid media in petri dishes as an easy and inexpensive cultivation method, that resembles in secondary...... metabolite production to agar-cultivation but with an easier and more pure RNA-extraction of total fungal mycelia....

  1. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyun Jeon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed.

  2. Soil fungal community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugwitz, Merian Skouw

    Global change will affect the functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems and since soil fungi are key players in organic matter decomposition and nutrient turnover, shifts in fungal community composition might have a strong impact on soil functioning. The main focus of this thesis...... was therefore to investigate the impact of global environmental changes on soil fungal communities in a temperate and subartic heath ecosystem. The objective was further to determine global change effects on major functional groups of fungi and analyze the influence of fungal community changes on soil carbon...... and nutrient availability and storage. By combining molecular methods such as 454 pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of fungal ITS amplicons with analyses of soil enzymes, nutrient pools of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus we were able to characterize soil fungal communities as well as their impact on nutrient...

  3. INCIDENCE OF FUNGAL ELEMENTS IN SINONASAL POLYPOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh G. S

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nasal polyposis is a disease entity characterised by formation of pseudoedema of sinonasal mucus membrane progressing to form polyps. It presents clinically with nasal obstruction and fleshy masses in the nasal cavity. The nasal mucosa reacts to formation of polypi in allergic fungal sinusitis also. The present study is an attempt to demonstrate possible fungal elements from the polypi removed during surgery by KOH study and HPE study. The aim of the study is to find out the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients attending the ENT OPD for nasal obstruction and showing polypi on anterior rhinoscopy were selected. All the patients were subjected to surgery and specimens collected were subjected to KOH study and histopathology to demonstrate fungal elements. RESULTS Among 50 patients, the age range was from 9-57 years; mean age- 36.46 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Deviated nasal septum was found in 38% of patients. Among the unilateral cases, 47% were antrochoanal polyps and 53% were ethmoid polyps. Out of 50 patients, only 3 specimens were positive for fungal elements with KOH study and only 2 cases with fungal culture. Thus, the incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. CONCLUSION The incidence of fungal elements in sinonasal polyposis was 6%. Histopathological examination of polypectomy specimen was negative for invasive fungal disease and showed inflammatory changes only. There is no difference in the detection of the presence of fungal by two methods.

  4. Contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small contact to full contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Persson, B N J

    2008-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. The numerical calculations mainly focus on the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For a small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For a high load the contact area approaches the nominal contact area (i.e. complete contact), and the interfacial separation approaches zero. The numerical results have been compared with analytical theory and experimental results. They are in good agreement with each other. The present findings may be very important for soft solids, e.g. rubber, or for very smooth surfaces, where complete contact can be reached at moderately high loads without plastic deformation of the solids

  5. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  6. Make Sense?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Törmälä, Minna

    Purpose: An important part of how we sense a brand is how we make sense of a brand. Sense-making is naturally strongly connected to how we cognize about the brand. But sense-making is concerned with multiple forms of knowledge that arise from our interpretation of the brand-related stimuli......: Declarative, episodic, procedural and sensory. Knowledge is given meaning through mental association (Keller, 1993) and / or symbolic interaction (Blumer, 1969). These meanings are centrally related to individuals’ sense of identity or “identity needs” (Wallpach & Woodside, 2009). The way individuals make...... sense of brands is related to who people think they are in their context and this shapes what they enact and how they interpret the brand (Currie & Brown, 2003; Weick, Sutcliffe, & Obstfeld, 2005; Weick, 1993). Our subject of interest in this paper is how stakeholders interpret and ascribe meaning...

  7. Chapter 8: Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, Praveen; Wise, Sarah K

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a disease of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity that typically affects immunocompromised patients in the acute fulminant form. Early symptoms can often mimic rhinosinusitis, while late symptoms can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Swelling and mucosal thickening can quickly progress to pale or necrotic tissue in the nasal cavity and sinuses, and the disease can rapidly spread and invade the palate, orbit, cavernous sinus, cranial nerves, skull base, carotid artery, and brain. IFRS can be life threatening if left undiagnosed or untreated. While the acute fulminant form of IFRS is the most rapidly progressive and destructive, granulomatous and chronic forms also exist. Diagnosis of IFRS often mandates imaging studies in conjunction with clinical, endoscopic, and histopathological examination. Treatment of IFRS consists of reversing the underlying immunosuppression, antifungal therapy, and aggressive surgical debridement. With early diagnosis and treatment, IFRS can be treated and increase patient survival.

  8. Transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus Trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Verena; Song, Lifu; Lindquist, Erika; Gruber, Sabine; Koptchinskiy, Alexeji; Zeilinger, Susanne; Schmoll, Monika; Martinez, Pedro; Sun, Jibin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Baker, Scott E.; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2009-11-30

    Background: Fungi of the genus Trichoderma are effective mycoparasites an for this reason used as biocontrol agents agents plant pathogenic fungi. The ability to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill the prey are essential skills for this process. Only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however. This study aims at uncovering transcriptional responses occurring in the mycoparasite Trichoderma atroviride when being confronted with a potential prey. Results: T. atroviride was confronted with two fungal preys, Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani, and cDNAs prepared from mycelia immediately before getting into physical contact with them (“onset of mycoparasitism”), and compared with such prepared from mycelial and conidiating cultures, respectively. About 3000 ESTs, representing about 900 genes each, were obtained from each of these three conditions. 65 genes, represented by 439 ESTs, were specifically and significantly overexpressed during onset of mycoparasitism, and the expression of a subset thereof verified by expression analysis. They comprised 18 KOG groups, but were most abundant from those including posttranslational processing (159 from 183 ESTs), and amino acid metabolism (70 of 84 ESTs), respectively. Several heat shock factors and tRNA synthases were particularly abundant. Metabolic network analysis confirmed the upregulation of the amino acid biosynthesic and the lipid catabolic capacity. Conclusion: Analysis of the genes overexpressed during the onset of mycoparasitism in T. atroviride has revealed that the fungus reacts to this condition with several previously undetected physiological reactions including strong stress response, sensing of nitrogen shortage and lipid catabolism. The data enable a new and more comprehensive interpretation of the physiology of mycoparasitism, and will aid in the selection of traits for breeding of biocontrol strains by recombinant techniques.

  9. Fungal infection in organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Wen, Hai; Liao, Wanqing

    2003-09-01

    To review the characteristics and evolution of the fungal spectrum, and the risk factors causing fungal infection, and to make progress in diagnosing fungal infection after organ transplantation. An English-language literature search (MEDLINE 1990 - 2000) and bibliographic review of textbooks and review articles. Twenty-three articles were selected from the literature that specifically addressed the stated purpose. Fungal infections in organ transplant patients were generally divided into two types: (1) disseminated primary or reactivation infection with one of the geographically restricted systemic mycoses; (2) opportunistic infection by fungal species that rarely cause invasive infection in normal hosts. The risk factors of fungal infection after a transplant can be evaluated and predicted according to the organ recipient's conditions before, during and after the transplant. Progress in early diagnostic methods during the past 10 years has mainly revolved around two aspects, culture and non-culture. It is important to undertake a systemic evaluation on the condition of the organ recipient before, during and after a transplant; should any risk factor for fungal infection be suspected, diagnosis should be made as early as possible by employing mycological techniques including culture and non-culture methods.

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  17. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  2. Dermatitis, contact (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This picture shows a skin inflammation (dermatitis) caused by contact with a material that causes an allergic reaction in this person. Contact dermatitis is a relatively common condition, and can be caused ...

  3. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.; Quevedo-Ló pez, Manuel Angel Quevedo; Majhi, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  6. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  7. Hydrogenation of passivated contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemeth, William; Yuan, Hao-Chih; LaSalvia, Vincenzo; Stradins, Pauls; Page, Matthew R.

    2018-03-06

    Methods of hydrogenation of passivated contacts using materials having hydrogen impurities are provided. An example method includes applying, to a passivated contact, a layer of a material, the material containing hydrogen impurities. The method further includes subsequently annealing the material and subsequently removing the material from the passivated contact.

  8. Mixed Lubricated Line Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraon, I.C.

    2005-01-01

    The present work deals with friction in mixed lubricated line contacts. Components in systems are becoming smaller and due to, for instance power transmitted, partial contact may occur. In industrial applications, friction between the moving contacting surfaces cannot be avoided, therefore it is

  9. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  10. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  11. Fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvez, T.

    2003-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients with prolonged neutropenia following chemotherapy. Recent trends indicate a change toward infections by Aspergillus species, non-albicans species of Candida, and previously uncommon fungal pathogens. These have decreased susceptibility to current antifungal agents. In the last decade there has been much effort to find solutions for these changing trends. This article reviews current approaches to prevention and treatment of opportunistic fungal infections in postchemotherapy neutropenic patients and discussion future antifungal approaches and supportive methods. (author)

  12. Flexible textile-based strain sensor induced by contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the contact effects are used as the key sensing element to develop flexible textile-structured strain sensors. The structures of the contact are analyzed theoretically and the contact resistances are investigated experimentally. The electromechanical properties of the textiles are investigated to find the key factors which determine the sensitivity, repeatability, and linearity of the sensor. The sensing mechanism is based on the change of contact resistance induced by the change of the configuration of the textiles. In order to improve the performance of the textile strain sensor, the contact resistance is designed based on the electromechanical properties of the fabric. It can be seen from the results that the performance of the sensor is largely affected by the structure of the contacts, which are determined by the morphology of fiber surface and the structures of the yarn and fabric. (paper)

  13. PNNL Fungal Biotechnology Core DOE-OBP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Scott E.; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Butcher, Mark G.; Collett, James R.; Culley, David E.; Dai, Ziyu; Magnuson, Jon K.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2009-11-30

    In 2009, we continued to address barriers to fungal fermentation in the primary areas of morphology control, genomics, proteomics, fungal hyperproductivity, biomass-to-products via fungal based consolidated bioprocesses, and filamentous fungal ethanol. “Alternative renewable fuels from fungi” was added as a new subtask. Plans were also made to launch a new advanced strain development subtask in FY2010.

  14. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles to control fungal infections in indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyá, Cecilia; Bellotti, Natalia

    2017-06-01

    Fungi grow especially in dark and moist areas, deteriorating the indoor environment and causing infections that particularly affect immunosuppressed individuals. Antimicrobial coatings have as principal objective to prevent biofilm formation and infections by incorporation of bioactive additives. In this sense, metallic nanoparticles, such as silver, have proven to be active against different microorganisms specially bacteria. Biosynthesized method is a promising environmentally friendly option to obtain nanoparticles. The aim of this research was assess the employment of plants extracts of Aloysia triphylla (cedrón), Laurelia sempervirens (laurel) and Ruta chalepensis (ruda) to obtain silver nanoparticles to be used as an antimicrobial additive to a waterborne coating formulation. The products obtained were assessed against fungal isolates from biodeteriorated indoor coatings. The fungi were identified by conventional and molecular techniques as Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate. The results revealed that the coating with silver nanoparticles obtained with L. sempervirens extract at 60 °C with a size of 9.8 nm was the most efficient against fungal biofilm development.

  15. Nutrition acquisition strategies during fungal infection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divon, Hege H; Fluhr, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In host-pathogen interactions, efficient pathogen nutrition is a prerequisite for successful colonization and fungal fitness. Filamentous fungi have a remarkable capability to adapt and exploit the external nutrient environment. For phytopathogenic fungi, this asset has developed within the context of host physiology and metabolism. The understanding of nutrient acquisition and pathogen primary metabolism is of great importance in the development of novel disease control strategies. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on how plant nutrient supplies are utilized by phytopathogenic fungi, and how these activities are controlled. The generation and use of auxotrophic mutants have been elemental to the determination of essential and nonessential nutrient compounds from the plant. Considerable evidence indicates that pathogen entrainment of host metabolism is a widespread phenomenon and can be accomplished by rerouting of the plant's responses. Crucial fungal signalling components for nutrient-sensing pathways as well as their developmental dependency have now been identified, and were shown to operate in a coordinate cross-talk fashion that ensures proper nutrition-related behaviour during the infection process.

  16. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  17. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  18. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  19. Fungal rhino sinusitisin in tehran, iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nazeri, M.; Hashemi, S.J.; Ardehali, M.; Rezaei, S.; Seyedmousavi, S.; Zareei, M.; Hosseinjani, E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fungal rhino sinusitis (FRS) is an important infection of para nasal sinuses, which encompasses two main categories; invasive and noninvasive forms according to histopathological findings. Aspergillus spp are the most common species isolated from noninvasive form, while Mucorales are

  20. Zoosporic fungal parasites of marine biota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, C.

    laboratory media. In such instances, a detailed and careful examination of the disease symptoms and the endobiotic fungal parasites is to be recorded. Maintaining dual culture of the healthy and infected host also helps to fulfill these postulates partially....

  1. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal pneumonia. Because of this, it’s important ... the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  2. Air Contamination With Fungals In Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlat, Iuliana; Haiducu, Maria; Stepa, Raluca

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the studies was to determine the level and kind of fungal contamination of air in museum, deposits patrimony, restoration and conservation laboratories and their effects on health of workers. Microbiological air purity was measured with a SAS-100 Surface Air System impactor. The fungal contamination was observed in all 54 rooms where we made determinations. The highest levels of fungal were recorded at rooms with hygroscopic patrimony objects, eg carpets, chairs, upholstered chairs, books etc. The most species identified included under common allergens: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Mucor. There fungal species belonging to the genus identified in this study, can trigger serious diseases museum workers, such as for example Aspergillus fumigatus, known allergies and toxic effects that may occur. In some places of the museum, occupational exposure limit values to fungi present in the air in the work environment, recommended by the specialized literature, have been overcome.

  3. Fungal keratitis - improving diagnostics by confocal microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Esben; Heegaard, S; Prause, J U

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Introducing a simple image grading system to support the interpretation of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images in filamentous fungal keratitis. Setting: Clinical and confocal studies took place at the Department of Ophthalmology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. Histopathological...... analysis was performed at the Eye Pathology Institute, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Methods: A recent series of consecutive patients with filamentous fungal keratitis is presented to demonstrate the results from in-house IVCM. Based upon our experience...... with IVCM and previously published images, we composed a grading system for interpreting IVCM images of filamentous fungal keratitis. Results: A recent case series of filamentous fungal keratitis from 2011 to 2012 was examined. There were 3 male and 3 female patients. Mean age was 44.5 years (range 12...

  4. Human Fungal Pathogens of Mucorales and Entomophthorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Leonel; Vilela, Raquel; Voelz, Kerstin; Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Voigt, Kerstin; Lee, Soo Chan

    2014-11-06

    In recent years, we have seen an increase in the number of immunocompromised cohorts as a result of infections and/or medical conditions, which has resulted in an increased incidence of fungal infections. Although rare, the incidence of infections caused by fungi belonging to basal fungal lineages is also continuously increasing. Basal fungal lineages diverged at an early point during the evolution of the fungal lineage, in which, in a simplified four-phylum fungal kingdom, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota belong to the basal fungi, distinguishing them from Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Currently there are no known human infections caused by fungi in Chytridiomycota; only Zygomycotan fungi are known to infect humans. Hence, infections caused by zygomycetes have been called zygomycosis, and the term "zygomycosis" is often used as a synonym for "mucormycosis." In the four-phylum fungal kingdom system, Zygomycota is classified mainly based on morphology, including the ability to form coenocytic (aseptated) hyphae and zygospores (sexual spores). In the Zygomycota, there are 10 known orders, two of which, the Mucorales and Entomophthorales, contain species that can infect humans, and the infection has historically been known as zygomycosis. However, recent multilocus sequence typing analyses (the fungal tree of life [AFTOL] project) revealed that the Zygomycota forms not a monophyletic clade but instead a polyphyletic clade, whereas Ascomycota and Basidiomycota are monophyletic. Thus, the term "zygomycosis" needed to be further specified, resulting in the terms "mucormycosis" and "entomophthoramycosis." This review covers these two different types of fungal infections. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Biological roles of fungal carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Javier; Carmen Limón, M

    2015-08-01

    Carotenoids are terpenoid pigments widespread in nature, produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. They are also found in animals, which usually obtain them through the diet. Carotenoids in plants provide striking yellow, orange or red colors to fruits and flowers, and play important metabolic and physiological functions, especially relevant in photosynthesis. Their functions are less clear in non-photosynthetic microorganisms. Different fungi produce diverse carotenoids, but the mutants unable to produce them do not exhibit phenotypic alterations in the laboratory, apart of lack of pigmentation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functional basis for carotenoid production in fungi. Different lines of evidence support a protective role of carotenoids against oxidative stress and exposure to visible light or UV irradiation. In addition, the carotenoids are intermediary products in the biosynthesis of physiologically active apocarotenoids or derived compounds. This is the case of retinal, obtained from the symmetrical oxidative cleavage of β-carotene. Retinal is the light-absorbing prosthetic group of the rhodopsins, membrane-bound photoreceptors present also in many fungal species. In Mucorales, β-carotene is an intermediary in the synthesis of trisporoids, apocarotenoid derivatives that include the sexual hormones the trisporic acids, and they are also presumably used in the synthesis of sporopollenin polymers. In conclusion, fungi have adapted their ability to produce carotenoids for different non-essential functions, related with stress tolerance or with the synthesis of physiologically active by-products.

  6. A novel pseudopodial component of the dendritic cell anti-fungal response: the fungipod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron K Neumann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathologies are seen in immunocompromised and healthy humans. C-type lectins expressed on immature dendritic cells (DC recognize fungi. We report a novel dorsal pseudopodial protrusion, the "fungipod", formed by DC after contact with yeast cell walls. These structures have a convoluted cell-proximal end and a smooth distal end. They persist for hours, exhibit noticeable growth and total 13.7+/-5.6 microm long and 1.8+/-0.67 microm wide at the contact. Fungipods contain clathrin and an actin core surrounded by a sheath of cortactin. The actin cytoskeleton, but not microtubules, is required for fungipod integrity and growth. An apparent rearward flow (225+/-55 nm/second exists from the zymosan contact site into the distal fungipod. The phagocytic receptor Dectin-1 is not required for fungipod formation, but CD206 (Mannose Receptor is the generative receptor for these protrusions. The human pathogen Candida parapsilosis induces DC fungipod formation strongly, but the response is species specific since the related fungal pathogens Candida tropicalis and Candida albicans induce very few and no fungipods, respectively. Our findings show that fungipods are dynamic actin-driven cellular structures involved in fungal recognition by DC. They may promote yeast particle phagocytosis by DC and are a specific response to large (i.e., 5 microm particulate ligands. Our work also highlights the importance of this novel protrusive structure to innate immune recognition of medically significant Candida yeasts in a species specific fashion.

  7. Burden of fungal infections in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiane, Aida S; Ndiaye, Daouda; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Senegal has a high rate of tuberculosis and a low HIV seropositivity rate and aspergilloma, life-threatening fungal infections, dermatophytosis and mycetoma have been reported in this study. All published epidemiology papers reporting fungal infection rates from Senegal were identified. Where no data existed, we used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in each to estimate national incidence or prevalence. The results show that tinea capitis is common being found in 25% of children, ~1.5 million. About 191,000 Senegalese women get recurrent vaginal thrush, ≥4 times annually. We estimate 685 incident cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) following TB and prevalence of 2160 cases. Asthma prevalence in adults varies from 3.2% to 8.2% (mean 5%); 9976 adults have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and 13,168 have severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS). Of the 59,000 estimated HIV-positive patients, 366 develop cryptococcal meningitis; 1149 develop Pneumocystis pneumonia and 1946 develop oesophageal candidiasis, in which oral candidiasis (53%) and dermatophytosis (16%) are common. Since 2008-2010, 113 cases of mycetoma were diagnosed. In conclusion, we estimate that 1,743,507 (12.5%) people in Senegal suffer from a fungal infection, excluding oral candidiasis, fungal keratitis, invasive candidiasis or aspergillosis. Diagnostic and treatment deficiencies should be rectified to allow epidemiological studies. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. CONTACT RESISTANCE MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. LOSKUTOV

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the contribution of the real contact spots distribution in the total conductivity of the conductors contact. Methodology. The electrical contact resistance research was carried out on models. The experimental part of this work was done on paper with a graphite layer with membranes (the first type and conductive liquids with discrete partitions (the second type. Findings. It is shown that the contact electrical resistance is mainly determined by the real area of metal contact. The experimental dependence of the electrical resistance of the second type model on the distance between the electrodes and the potential distribution along the sample surface for the first type model were obtained. The theoretical model based on the principle of electric field superposition was considered. The dependences obtained experimentally and calculated by using the theoretical model are in good agreement. Originality. The regularity of the electrical contact resistance formation on a large number of membranes was researched for the first time. A new model of discrete electrical contact based on the liquid as the conducting environment with nuclear membrane partitions was developed. The conclusions of the additivity of contact and bulk electrical resistance were done. Practical value. Based on these researches, a new experimental method of kinetic macroidentation that as a parameter of the metal surface layer deformation uses the real contact area was developed. This method allows to determine the value of average contact stresses, yield point, change of the stress on the depth of deformation depending on the surface treatment.

  9. Contact and symplectic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Colin, Vincent; Stipsicz, András

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic and contact geometry naturally emerged from the mathematical description of classical physics. The discovery of new rigidity phenomena and properties satisfied by these geometric structures launched a new research field worldwide. The intense activity of many European research groups in this field is reflected by the ESF Research Networking Programme "Contact And Symplectic Topology" (CAST). The lectures of the Summer School in Nantes (June 2011) and of the CAST Summer School in Budapest (July 2012) provide a nice panorama of many aspects of the present status of contact and symplectic topology. The notes of the minicourses offer a gentle introduction to topics which have developed in an amazing speed in the recent past. These topics include 3-dimensional and higher dimensional contact topology, Fukaya categories, asymptotically holomorphic methods in contact topology, bordered Floer homology, embedded contact homology, and flexibility results for Stein manifolds.

  10. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  11. Automated in vivo identification of fungal infection on human scalp using optical coherence tomography and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kavita; Srivastava, Vishal; Singh Mehta, Dalip

    2018-04-01

    Early identification of fungal infection on the human scalp is crucial for avoiding hair loss. The diagnosis of fungal infection on the human scalp is based on a visual assessment by trained experts or doctors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability to capture fungal infection information from the human scalp with a high resolution. In this study, we present a fully automated, non-contact, non-invasive optical method for rapid detection of fungal infections based on the extracted features from A-line and B-scan images of OCT. A multilevel ensemble machine model is designed to perform automated classification, which shows the superiority of our classifier to the best classifier based on the features extracted from OCT images. In this study, 60 samples (30 fungal, 30 normal) were imaged by OCT and eight features were extracted. The classification algorithm had an average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 92.30, 90.90 and 91.66%, respectively, for identifying fungal and normal human scalps. This remarkable classifying ability makes the proposed model readily applicable to classifying the human scalp.

  12. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... smaller. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | JOBS AT NIDDK | RSS FEEDS | GET ... External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program HealthSense Home Make a Plan Articles About HealthSense Diabetes HealthSense ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial ...

  14. Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Önder

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis is the delayed type hypersensitivity reaction to exogenous agents. Allergic contact dermatitis may clinically present acutely after allergen exposure and initial sensitization in a previously sensitized individual. Acute phase is characterized by erythematous, scaly plaques. In severe cases vesiculation and bullae in exposed areas are very characteristic. Repeated or continuous exposure of sensitized individual with allergen result in chronic dermatitis. Lichenification, erythematous plaques, hyperkeratosis and fissuring may develop in chronic patients. Allergic contact dermatitis is very common dermatologic problem in dermatology daily practice. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis requires the careful consideration of patient history, physical examination and patch testing. The knowledge of the clinical features of the skin reactions to various contactans is important to make a correct diagnosis of contact dermatitis. It can be seen in every age, in children textile product, accessories and touch products are common allergens, while in adults allergic contact dermatitis may be related with topical medicaments. The contact pattern of contact dermatitis depends on fashion and local traditions as well. The localization of allergic reaction should be evaluated and patients’ occupation and hobbies should be asked. The purpose of this review is to introduce to our collaques up dated allergic contact dermatitis literatures both in Turkey and in the World.

  15. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  16. Fungal-host diversity among mycoheterotrophic plants increases proportionally to their fungal-host overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sofia I F; Merckx, Vincent S F T; Saavedra, Serguei

    2017-05-01

    The vast majority of plants obtain an important proportion of vital resources from soil through mycorrhizal fungi. Generally, this happens in exchange of photosynthetically fixed carbon, but occasionally the interaction is mycoheterotrophic, and plants obtain carbon from mycorrhizal fungi. This process results in an antagonistic interaction between mycoheterotrophic plants and their fungal hosts. Importantly, the fungal-host diversity available for plants is restricted as mycoheterotrophic interactions often involve narrow lineages of fungal hosts. Unfortunately, little is known whether fungal-host diversity may be additionally modulated by plant-plant interactions through shared hosts. Yet, this may have important implications for plant competition and coexistence. Here, we use DNA sequencing data to investigate the interaction patterns between mycoheterotrophic plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We find no phylogenetic signal on the number of fungal hosts nor on the fungal hosts shared among mycoheterotrophic plants. However, we observe a potential trend toward increased phylogenetic diversity of fungal hosts among mycoheterotrophic plants with increasing overlap in their fungal hosts. While these patterns remain for groups of plants regardless of location, we do find higher levels of overlap and diversity among plants from the same location. These findings suggest that species coexistence cannot be fully understood without attention to the two sides of ecological interactions.

  17. Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

    1998-06-30

    The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters.

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, N; Samayoa, B; Lau-Bonilla, D; Denning, D W; Herrera, R; Mercado, D; Guzmán, B; Pérez, J C; Arathoon, E

    2017-06-01

    Guatemala is a developing country in Central America with a high burden of HIV and endemic fungal infections; we attempted to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections for the country. A full literature search was done to identify epidemiology papers reporting fungal infections from Guatemala. We used specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies in the population to estimate national rates. The population of Guatemala in 2013 was 15.4 million; 40% were younger than 15 and 6.2% older than 60. There are an estimated 53,000 adults with HIV infection, in 2015, most presenting late. The estimated cases of opportunistic fungal infections were: 705 cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, 408 cases of cryptococcal meningitis, 816 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia, 16,695 cases of oral candidiasis, and 4,505 cases of esophageal candidiasis. In the general population, an estimated 5,568 adult asthmatics have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) based on a 2.42% prevalence of asthma and a 2.5% ABPA proportion. Amongst 2,452 pulmonary tuberculosis patients, we estimated a prevalence of 495 for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis in this group, and 1,484 for all conditions. An estimated 232,357 cases of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis is likely. Overall, 1.7% of the population are affected by these conditions. The true fungal infection burden in Guatemala is unknown. Tools and training for improved diagnosis are needed. Additional research on prevalence is needed to employ public health measures towards treatment and improving the reported data of fungal diseases.

  19. Geological remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Charlotte; Rivard, Benoit; de Souza Filho, Carlos; van der Meer, Freek

    2018-02-01

    Geology is defined as the 'study of the planet Earth - the materials of which it is made, the processes that act on these materials, the products formed, and the history of the planet and its life forms since its origin' (Bates and Jackson, 1976). Remote sensing has seen a number of variable definitions such as those by Sabins and Lillesand and Kiefer in their respective textbooks (Sabins, 1996; Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000). Floyd Sabins (Sabins, 1996) defined it as 'the science of acquiring, processing and interpreting images that record the interaction between electromagnetic energy and matter' while Lillesand and Kiefer (Lillesand and Kiefer, 2000) defined it as 'the science and art of obtaining information about an object, area, or phenomenon through the analysis of data acquired by a device that is not in contact with the object, area, or phenomenon under investigation'. Thus Geological Remote Sensing can be considered the study of, not just Earth given the breadth of work undertaken in planetary science, geological features and surfaces and their interaction with the electromagnetic spectrum using technology that is not in direct contact with the features of interest.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up ... contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. ...

  1. Electric contact arcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuthrell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Electrical contacts must function properly in many types of components used in nuclear weapon systems. Design, application, and testing of these components require detailed knowledge of chemical and physical phenomena associated with stockpile storage, stockpile testing, and operation. In the past, investigation of these phenomena has led to significant discoveries on the effects of surface contaminants, friction and wear, and the mechanics of closure on contact performance. A recent investigation of contact arcing phenomena which revealed that, preceding contact closure, arcs may occur at voltages lower than had been previously known is described. This discovery is important, since arcing may damage contacts, and repetitive testing of contacts performed as part of a quality assurance program might produce cumulative damage that would yield misleading life-test data and could prevent proper operation of the contacts at some time in the future. This damage can be avoided by determining the conditions under which arcing occurs, and ensuring that these conditions are avoided in contact testing

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  3. Sciences & Nature: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Ehouan Etienne Ehile Professor University of Abobo-Adjamé 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02. Phone: (+225) 2030 4201. Fax: (+225) 2030 4203. Email: eh_ehile@yahoo.fr. Support Contact. Irie Zoro Bi Email: banhiakalou@yahoo.fr. ISSN: 1812-0741. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  4. Contact Us | DOepatents

    Science.gov (United States)

    advance. Your help is appreciated. Contact us by email Email doepatentscomments@osti.gov NOTE: Email us by phone Phone Phone (865) 241-5275 Contact us in writing Mail U.S. Department of Energy Office of non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site. Javascript Not Enabled Email Link

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  6. Contact dermatitis. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Benezra, C; Burrows, D

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in our understanding of contact dermatitis. This paper is a review of our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in contact dermatitis and related phenomena, the investigation of these events and the emergence of significant new allergens during...

  7. Contact Hamiltonian mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravetti, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.bravetti@iimas.unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Matemáticas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Cruz, Hans, E-mail: hans@ciencias.unam.mx [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico); Tapias, Diego, E-mail: diego.tapias@nucleares.unam.mx [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70543, México, DF 04510 (Mexico)

    2017-01-15

    In this work we introduce contact Hamiltonian mechanics, an extension of symplectic Hamiltonian mechanics, and show that it is a natural candidate for a geometric description of non-dissipative and dissipative systems. For this purpose we review in detail the major features of standard symplectic Hamiltonian dynamics and show that all of them can be generalized to the contact case.

  8. Contact Quality in Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Jensen, Olav Storm

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the concept of participation from the perspective of quality of the contact in the communicative interactions between participants. We argue for the need for an academic-personal competence that qualifies the human contact central in all Participatory Design (PD) activities as a way...

  9. Nigerian Food Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Food Journal. ... Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > Nigerian Food Journal: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Mailing Address. Department of Food Science and Technology University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  11. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  12. Fungal endophytes: modifiers of plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Posy E; Ridout, Mary; Newcombe, George

    2016-04-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated that non-pathogenic fungi within plant microbiomes, i.e., endophytes ("endo" = within, "phyte" = plant), can significantly modify the expression of host plant disease. The rapid pace of advancement in endophyte ecology warrants a pause to synthesize our understanding of endophyte disease modification and to discuss future research directions. We reviewed recent literature on fungal endophyte disease modification, and here report on several emergent themes: (1) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease span the full spectrum from pathogen antagonism to pathogen facilitation, with pathogen antagonism most commonly reported. (2) Agricultural plant pathosystems are the focus of research on endophyte disease modification. (3) A taxonomically diverse group of fungal endophytes can influence plant disease severity. And (4) Fungal endophyte effects on plant disease severity are context-dependent. Our review highlights the importance of fungal endophytes for plant disease across a broad range of plant pathosystems, yet simultaneously reveals that complexity within plant microbiomes presents a significant challenge to disentangling the biotic environmental factors affecting plant disease severity. Manipulative studies integrating eco-evolutionary approaches with emerging molecular tools will be poised to elucidate the functional importance of endophytes in natural plant pathosystems that are fundamental to biodiversity and conservation.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of fungal ABC transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, Andriy; Driessen, Arnold J M

    2010-03-16

    The superfamily of ABC proteins is among the largest known in nature. Its members are mainly, but not exclusively, involved in the transport of a broad range of substrates across biological membranes. Many contribute to multidrug resistance in microbial pathogens and cancer cells. The diversity of ABC proteins in fungi is comparable with those in multicellular animals, but so far fungal ABC proteins have barely been studied. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the ABC proteins extracted from the genomes of 27 fungal species from 18 orders representing 5 fungal phyla thereby covering the most important groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some of the subfamilies of ABC proteins remained highly conserved in fungi, while others have undergone a remarkable group-specific diversification. Members of the various fungal phyla also differed significantly in the number of ABC proteins found in their genomes, which is especially reduced in the yeast S. cerevisiae and S. pombe. Data obtained during our analysis should contribute to a better understanding of the diversity of the fungal ABC proteins and provide important clues about their possible biological functions.

  14. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Fueling the Future with Fungal Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2014-10-27

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the JGI Fungal Genomic Program. One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts and pathogens) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation and sugar fermentation) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Science Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 400 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics will lead to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such ‘parts’ suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  16. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  17. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  18. Noneczematous Contact Dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foti, Caterina; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Irritant or allergic contact dermatitis usually presents as an eczematous process, clinically characterized by erythematoedematovesicous lesions with intense itching in the acute phase. Such manifestations become erythematous-scaly as the condition progresses to the subacute phase and papular-hyperkeratotic in the chronic phase. Not infrequently, however, contact dermatitis presents with noneczematous features. The reasons underlying this clinical polymorphism lie in the different noxae and contact modalities, as well as in the individual susceptibility and the various targeted cutaneous structures. The most represented forms of non-eczematous contact dermatitis include the erythema multiforme-like, the purpuric, the lichenoid, and the pigmented kinds. These clinical entities must obviously be discerned from the corresponding “pure” dermatitis, which are not associated with contact with exogenous agents. PMID:24109520

  19. Rarely reported fungal spores and structures: An overlooked source of probative trace evidence in criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawksworth, David L; Wiltshire, Patricia E J; Webb, Judith A

    2016-07-01

    The value of pollen and plant spores as trace evidence has long been established, but it is only in the last eight years that fungal spores have been analysed routinely from the same palynological samples. They have greatly enhanced the specificity of links between people, objects, and places. Most fungal species occupy restricted ecological niches and their distributions can be limited both spatially and geographically. Spores may be dispersed over very short distances from the fungal sporophore,(1) and their presence in any palynological assemblage may indicate a restricted area of ground, or the presence of particular plants (even specific dead plant material). Fungal spores can represent primary, secondary, or even tertiary proxy evidence of a location, and can indicate the presence of a plant even though the plant is not obvious at a crime scene. In some cases, spores from fungi which have rarely been reported, and are considered to be rare, have been of particular value in providing intelligence or evidence of contact. Ten examples are given from case work in which rarely reported or unusual fungi have proved to be important in criminal investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Diagnostics for Soilborne Fungal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Paplomatas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Several classical approaches have been developed to detect and identify soil fungal inhabitants through the years. Selective media have been devised to exclude the large number of soil organisms and allow growth of target fungi. However the advent of molecular biology has offered a number of revolutionary insights into the detection and enumeration of soilborne fungal pathogens and also has started to provide information on the identification of unknown species from DNA sequences. This review paper focuses on the application of various molecular techniques in the detection, identification, characterization and quantification of soilborne fungal plant pathogens. This is based on information from the literature and is combined with personal research findings of the author.

  1. Fungal endophytes of sorghum in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zida, E P; Thio, I G; Néya, B J

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted to assess the natural occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in sorghum in relation to plant performance in two distinct agro-ecological zones in Burkina Faso. Sorghum farm-saved seeds were sown in 48 farmers’ fields in Sahelian and North Sudanian zones to produce...... sorghum plants. In each field, leaf samples were collected from five well-developed (performing) and five less-developed (non-performing) plants at 3-5 leaf stage, while at plant maturity leaf, stem and root samples were collected from the same plants and fungal endophytes were isolated. A total of 39...... fungal species belonging to 25 genera were isolated. The most represented genera included Fusarium, Leptosphaeria, Curvularia, Nigrospora and Penicillium. The genera Fusarium and Penicillium occurred significantly higher in performing plants as compared to non-performing plants while the genera...

  2. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  3. Pervasive sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, David J.

    2000-11-01

    The coordinated exploitation of modern communication, micro- sensor and computer technologies makes it possible to give global reach to our senses. Web-cameras for vision, web- microphones for hearing and web-'noses' for smelling, plus the abilities to sense many factors we cannot ordinarily perceive, are either available or will be soon. Applications include (1) determination of weather and environmental conditions on dense grids or over large areas, (2) monitoring of energy usage in buildings, (3) sensing the condition of hardware in electrical power distribution and information systems, (4) improving process control and other manufacturing, (5) development of intelligent terrestrial, marine, aeronautical and space transportation systems, (6) managing the continuum of routine security monitoring, diverse crises and military actions, and (7) medicine, notably the monitoring of the physiology and living conditions of individuals. Some of the emerging capabilities, such as the ability to measure remotely the conditions inside of people in real time, raise interesting social concerns centered on privacy issues. Methods for sensor data fusion and designs for human-computer interfaces are both crucial for the full realization of the potential of pervasive sensing. Computer-generated virtual reality, augmented with real-time sensor data, should be an effective means for presenting information from distributed sensors.

  4. Mucormycosis: a devastating fungal infection in diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Bari, A.; Mehmood, S.; Tariq, K.M.; Haq, I.; Niwaz, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a highly invasive, devastating and usually fatal fungal infection of the sinuses, brain, or lungs that occurs primarily in people with immune disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, a high mortality still exists. We present a middle aged diabetic male with this serious fungal infection involving nose, paranasal area and adjacent periorbital regions with a high risk of progressing further towards the dura mater. He was promptly diagnosed and managed with serial surgical debridements with systemic antifungals and was later fitted with a nasal prosthesis. (author)

  5. Fungal infections of the lung in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toma, Paolo; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; D' Andrea, Maria Luisa [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Bertaina, Alice; Mastronuzzi, Angela [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology and Transfusion Medicine, Rome (Italy); Castagnola, Elio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Infective Diseases, Genoa (Italy); Finocchi, Andrea [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rome (Italy); Lucidi, Vincenzina [IRCCS Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital, Cystic Fibrosis Center, Rome (Italy); Granata, Claudio [IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    Fungal infections of the lungs are relatively common and potentially life-threatening conditions in immunocompromised children. The role of imaging in children with lung mycosis is to delineate the extension of pulmonary involvement, to assess response to therapy, and to monitor for adverse sequelae such as bronchiectasis and cavitation. The aim of this paper is to show imaging findings in a series of patients with fungal pneumonia from two tertiary children's hospitals, to discuss differential diagnoses and to show how imaging findings can vary depending on the host immune response. (orig.)

  6. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  7. Biomimicry of volatile-based microbial control for managing emerging fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, K T; Joseph Sexton, D; Cornelison, C T

    2018-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to be produced by a wide range of micro-organisms and for a number of purposes. Volatile-based microbial inhibition in environments such as soil is well-founded, with numerous antimicrobial VOCs having been identified. Inhibitory VOCs are of interest as microbial control agents, as low concentrations of gaseous VOCs can elicit significant antimicrobial effects. Volatile organic compounds are organic chemicals typically characterized as having low molecular weight, low solubility in water, and high vapour pressure. Consequently, VOCs readily evaporate to the gaseous phase at standard temperature and pressure. This contact-independent antagonism presents unique advantages over traditional, contact-dependent microbial control methods, including increased surface exposure and reduced environmental persistence. This approach has been the focus of our recent research, with positive results suggesting it may be particularly promising for the management of emerging fungal pathogens, such as the causative agents of white-nose syndrome of bats and snake fungal disease, which are difficult or impossible to treat using traditional approaches. Here, we review the history of volatile-based microbial control, discuss recent progress in formulations that mimic naturally antagonistic VOCs, outline the development of a novel treatment device, and highlight areas where further work is needed to successfully deploy VOCs against existing and emerging fungal pathogens. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Information transmission in microbial and fungal communication: from classical to quantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2018-06-01

    Microbes have their own communication systems. Secretion and reception of chemical signaling molecules and ion-channels mediated electrical signaling mechanism are yet observed two special ways of information transmission in microbial community. In this article, we address the aspects of various crucial machineries which set the backbone of microbial cell-to-cell communication process such as quorum sensing mechanism (bacterial and fungal), quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation, gene expression, virulence, swarming, quorum quenching, role of noise in quorum sensing, mathematical models (therapy model, evolutionary model, molecular mechanism model and many more), synthetic bacterial communication, bacterial ion-channels, bacterial nanowires and electrical communication. In particular, we highlight bacterial collective behavior with classical and quantum mechanical approaches (including quantum information). Moreover, we shed a new light to introduce the concept of quantum synthetic biology and possible cellular quantum Turing test.

  9. MycoCosm, an Integrated Fungal Genomics Resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabalov, Igor; Grigoriev, Igor

    2012-03-16

    MycoCosm is a web-based interactive fungal genomics resource, which was first released in March 2010, in response to an urgent call from the fungal community for integration of all fungal genomes and analytical tools in one place (Pan-fungal data resources meeting, Feb 21-22, 2010, Alexandria, VA). MycoCosm integrates genomics data and analysis tools to navigate through over 100 fungal genomes sequenced at JGI and elsewhere. This resource allows users to explore fungal genomes in the context of both genome-centric analysis and comparative genomics, and promotes user community participation in data submission, annotation and analysis. MycoCosm has over 4500 unique visitors/month or 35000+ visitors/year as well as hundreds of registered users contributing their data and expertise to this resource. Its scalable architecture allows significant expansion of the data expected from JGI Fungal Genomics Program, its users, and integration with external resources used by fungal community.

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a ... prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  12. Contact Line Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, Gunilla; Holmgren, Hanna; Kronbichler, Martin; Ge, Anthony; Brant, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The conventional no-slip boundary condition leads to a non-integrable stress singularity at a moving contact line. This makes numerical simulations of two-phase flow challenging, especially when capillarity of the contact point is essential for the dynamics of the flow. We will describe a modeling methodology, which is suitable for numerical simulations, and present results from numerical computations. The methodology is based on combining a relation between the apparent contact angle and the contact line velocity, with the similarity solution for Stokes flow at a planar interface. The relation between angle and velocity can be determined by theoretical arguments, or from simulations using a more detailed model. In our approach we have used results from phase field simulations in a small domain, but using a molecular dynamics model should also be possible. In both cases more physics is included and the stress singularity is removed.

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  15. SAM Technical Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    These technical contacts are available to help with questions regarding method deviations, modifications, sample problems or interferences, quality control requirements, the use of alternative methods, or the need to address analytes or sample types.

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  18. GAS-FOVEAL CONTACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Mark; la Cour, Morten

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare gas-foveal contact in face-down positioning (FDP) and nonsupine positioning (NSP), to analyze causes of gas-foveal separation and to determine how gas-foveal contact affects clinical outcome after idiopathic macular hole repair. METHODS: Single center, randomized controlled...... study. Participants with an idiopathic macular hole were allocated to either FDP or NSP. Primary outcome was gas-foveal contact, calculated by analyzing positioning in relation to intraocular gas fill. Positioning was measured with an electronic device recording positioning for 72 hours postoperatively....... RESULTS: Positioning data were available for 33/35 in the FDP group and 35/37 in the NSP group, thus results are based on 68 analyzed participants. Median gas-foveal contact was 99.82% (range 73.6-100.0) in the FDP group and 99.57% (range 85.3-100.0) in the NSP group (P = 0.22). In a statistical model...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from a licensed eye ... available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... have given blind patients some functional vision, using human embryonic stem cells. Two blind patients regained enough ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that decorative lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact ... By Kate Rauch In a small but intriguing study, scientists in England have given blind patients some ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  16. Ergonomics SA: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: j.mcdougall@ru.ac.za ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ... Care Apr 23, 2018 How long does it take the eye to go back to its original ...

  2. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  3. Fragrance allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy; Zug, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    Fragrances are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in Europe and in North America. They can affect individuals at any age and elicit a spectrum of reactions from contact urticaria to systemic contact dermatitis. Growing recognition of the widespread use of fragrances in modern society has fueled attempts to prevent sensitization through improved allergen identification, labeling, and consumer education. This review provides an overview and update on fragrance allergy. Part 1 discusses the epidemiology and evaluation of suspected fragrance allergy. Part 2 reviews screening methods, emerging fragrance allergens, and management of patients with fragrance contact allergy. This review concludes by examining recent legislation on fragrances and suggesting potential additions to screening series to help prevent and detect fragrance allergy.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  12. Volatiles from the fungal microbiome of the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Lena; Barac, Paul; König, Gabriele M; Crüsemann, Max; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2017-09-13

    The volatiles emitted by five fungal strains previously isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia cf. flammea were captured with a closed-loop stripping apparatus (CLSA) and analyzed by GC-MS. Besides several widespread compounds, a series of metabolites with interesting bioactivities were found, including the quorum sensing inhibitor protoanemonin, the fungal phytotoxin 3,4-dimethylpentan-4-olide, and the insect attractant 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene. In addition, the aromatic polyketides isotorquatone and chartabomone that are both known from Eucalyptus and a new O-desmethyl derivative were identified. The biosynthesis of isotorquatone was studied by feeding experiments with isotopically labeled precursors and its absolute configuration was determined by enantioselective synthesis of a reference compound. Bioactivity testings showed algicidal activity for some of the identified compounds, suggesting a potential ecological function in sponge defence.

  13. Lettuce contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-to-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Field emission sensing for non-contact probe recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Fèbre, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In probe recording an array of thousands of nanometer-sharp probes is used to write and read on a storage medium. By using micro-electromechanical system technology (MEMS) for fabrication, small form factor memories with high data density and low power consumption can be obtained. Such a system is

  15. Packaging conditions hindering fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1997-01-01

    Fungal contamination is one of the most important quality deteriorating factors on cheese. During the last 5 years we have studied in detail the underlying factors controlling these unwanted processes in a collaborative project financed by the Danish Dairy Board and the Ministry of Agriculture...

  16. Fungal peroxidases : molecular aspects and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conesa, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    Peroxidases are oxidoreductases that utilize hydrogen peroxide to catalyze oxidative reactions. A large number of peroxidases have been identified in fungal species and are being characterized at the molecular level. In this manuscript we review the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of this

  17. Fungal Planet description sheets: 400-468

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P.W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Le Roux, J. J.; Strasberg, D.; Edwards, J.; Roets, F.; Hubka, V.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Heykoop, M.; Martín, M.P.; Moreno, G.; Sutton, D.A.; Wiederhold, N.P.; Barnes, C.W.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Gené, J.; Giraldo, A.; Guarnaccia, V.; Guarro, J.; Hernández-Restrepo, M.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Manjón, J.L.; Pascoe, I.G.; Popov, E.S.; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Acharya, K.; Alexandrova, A.V.; Alvarado, P.; Barbosa, R.N.; Baseia, I.G.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Burgess, T.I.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; Čmoková, A.; Dimitrov, R.A.; Dyakov, M.Yu.; Dueñas, M.; Dutta, A.K.; Esteve- Raventós, F.; Fedosova, A.G.; Fournier, J.; Gamboa, P.; Gouliamova, D.E.; Grebenc, T.; Groenewald, M.; Hanse, B.; Hardy, G.E.St.J.; Held, B.W.; Jurjević, Ž.; Kaewgrajang, T.; Latha, K.P.D.; Lombard, L.; Luangsa-Ard, J.J.; Lysková, P.; Mallátová, N.; Manimohan, P.; Miller, A.N.; Mirabolfathy, M.; Morozova, O.V.; Obodai, M.; Oliveira, N.T.; Otto, E.C.; Paloi, S.; Peterson, S.W.; Phosri, C.; Roux, J.; Salazar, W.A.; Sánchez, A.; Sarria, G.A.; Shin, H.-D.; Silva, B.D.B.; Silva, G.A.; Smith, M.Th.; Souza-Motta, C.M.; Stchigel, A.M.; Stoilova-Disheva, M.M.; Sulzbacher, M.A.; Telleria, M.T.; Toapanta, C.; Traba, J.M.; Valenzuela-Lopez, N.; Watling, R.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, July (2016), s. 316-458 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.511, year: 2016

  18. A biotechnology perspective of fungal proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Monteiro de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Proteases hydrolyze the peptide bonds of proteins into peptides and amino acids, being found in all living organisms, and are essential for cell growth and differentiation. Proteolytic enzymes have potential application in a wide number of industrial processes such as food, laundry detergent and pharmaceutical. Proteases from microbial sources have dominated applications in industrial sectors. Fungal proteases are used for hydrolyzing protein and other components of soy beans and wheat in soy sauce production. Proteases can be produced in large quantities in a short time by established methods of fermentation. The parameters such as variation in C/N ratio, presence of some sugars, besides several other physical factors are important in the development of fermentation process. Proteases of fungal origin can be produced cost effectively, have an advantage faster production, the ease with which the enzymes can be modified and mycelium can be easily removed by filtration. The production of proteases has been carried out using submerged fermentation, but conditions in solid state fermentation lead to several potential advantages for the production of fungal enzymes. This review focuses on the production of fungal proteases, their distribution, structural-functional aspects, physical and chemical parameters, and the use of these enzymes in industrial applications.

  19. High prevalence of a fungal prion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debets, A.J.M.; Dalstra, H.J.P.; Slakhorst, S.M.; Koopmanschap-Memelink, A.B.; Hoekstra, R.F.; Saupe, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prions are infectious proteins that cause fatal diseases in mammals. Prions have also been found in fungi, but studies on their role in nature are scarce. The proposed biological function of fungal prions is debated and varies from detrimental to benign or even beneficial. [Het-s] is a prion of the

  20. October 2012 Multistate Fungal Meningitis Outbreak

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-17

    This podcast gives an overview of the October 2012 multistate fungal meningitis outbreak, including symptoms to watch for and a website for up-to-date information.  Created: 10/17/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  2. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to

  3. Fungal Planet description sheets: 371-399

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crous, P. W.; Wingfield, M. J.; Le Roux, J. J.; Richardson, D. M.; Strasberg, D.; Shivas, R.G.; Alvarado, P.; Edwards, J.; Moreno, G.; Sharma, R.; Sonawane, M.S.; Tan, Y.P.; Altés, A.; Barasubiye, T.; Barnes, C.W.; Blanchette, R.A.; Boertmann, D.; Bogo, A.; Carlavilla, J.R.; Cheewangkoon, R.; Daniel, R.; de Beer, Z.W.; de Yáňez-Morales, J.; Duong, T.A.; Fernández-Vicente, J.; Geering, A.D.W.; Guest, D.I.; Held, B.W.; Heykoop, M.; Hubka, V.; Ismail, A.M.; Kajale, S.C.; Khemmuk, W.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Kurli, R.; Lebeuf, R.; Levesque, C.A.; Lombard, L.; Magista, D.; Manjón, J.L.; Marincowitz, S.; Mohedano, J.M.; Nováková, Alena; Oberlies, N.H.; Otto, E.C.; Paguigan, N.D.; Pascoe, I.G.; Peréz-Butrón, J.L.; Perrone, G.; Rahi, P.; Raja, H.A.; Rintoul, T.; Sanhueza, R.M.V.; Scarlett, K.; Shouche, Y.S.; Shuttleworth, L.A.; Taylor, P.W.J.; Thorn, R.G.; Vawdrey, L.L.; Solano-Vidal, R.; Voitk, A.; Wong, P.T.W.; Wood, A.R.; Zamora, J.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, December (2015), s. 264-327 ISSN 0031-5850 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : ITS DNA barcodes * LSU * novel fungal species Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 5.725, year: 2015

  4. Fungal ABC Transporter Deletion and Localization Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalchuk, A.; Weber, S.S.; Nijland, J.G.; Bovenberg, R.A.L.; Driessen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal cells are highly complex as their metabolism is compartmentalized harboring various types of subcellular organelles that are bordered by one or more membranes. Knowledge about the intracellular localization of transporter proteins is often required for the understanding of their biological

  5. CT scan findings of fungal pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckmann, M.; Uder, M.; Bautz, W.; Heinrich, M.

    2008-01-01

    The importance of fungal infection of the lung in immunocompromised patients has increased substantially during the last decades. Numerically the most patients are those with neutropenia, e.g. patients with malignancies or solid organ and stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, corticosteroid use and HIV infection. Although fungal infections can occur in immunocompetent patients, their frequency in this population is rare. The clinical symptoms such as fever accompanied with non-productive cough are unspecific. In some patients progression to hypoxemia and dyspnea may occur rapidly. In spite of improved antifungal therapy morbidity and mortality of these infections are still high. Therefore an early and non-invasive diagnosis is very important. That is why CT and even better High-Resolution-CT (HR-CT) is a very important modality in examining immunocompromised patients with a probability of fungal infection. CT is everywhere available and, as a non-invasive method, able to give the relevant diagnose efficiently. This paper should give an overview about the radiologic findings and possible differential diagnosis of diverse pulmonary fungal infections in CT. Pneumonias caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Candida, Histoplasma, Mucor and Geotrichum capitatum are illustrated. (orig.)

  6. The Amstersam declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19–20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...

  7. 50-plus years of fungal viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghabrial, Said A., E-mail: saghab00@email.uky.edu [Plant Pathology Department, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Castón, José R. [Department of Structure of Macromolecules, Centro Nacional Biotecnologıa/CSIC, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Jiang, Daohong [State Key Lab of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Nibert, Max L. [Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Institute of Plant Science and Resources, Okayama University, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Mycoviruses are widespread in all major taxa of fungi. They are transmitted intracellularly during cell division, sporogenesis, and/or cell-to-cell fusion (hyphal anastomosis), and thus their life cycles generally lack an extracellular phase. Their natural host ranges are limited to individuals within the same or closely related vegetative compatibility groups, although recent advances have established expanded experimental host ranges for some mycoviruses. Most known mycoviruses have dsRNA genomes packaged in isometric particles, but an increasing number of positive- or negative-strand ssRNA and ssDNA viruses have been isolated and characterized. Although many mycoviruses do not have marked effects on their hosts, those that reduce the virulence of their phytopathogenic fungal hosts are of considerable interest for development of novel biocontrol strategies. Mycoviruses that infect endophytic fungi and those that encode killer toxins are also of special interest. Structural analyses of mycoviruses have promoted better understanding of virus assembly, function, and evolution. - Highlights: • Historical perspective of fungal virus research. • Description, classification and diversity of fungal virus families. • Structural features of fungal virus particles. • Hypovirulence and exploitation of mycoviruses in biological control of plant pathogenic fungi.

  8. Fungal peritonitis in children on peritoneal dialysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, R.; Schroder, C.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Cornelissen, E.A.M.; Warris, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fungal peritonitis is a rare but serious complication in children on peritoneal dialysis (PD). In this study, risk factors were evaluated, and therapeutic measures were reviewed. A retrospective, multi-centre study was performed in 159 Dutch paediatric PD patients, between 1980 and 2005 (3,573

  9. Patients with multiple contact allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Menné, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    Patients with multiple contact allergies, also referred to as polysensitized, are more frequent than predicted from prevalence of single sensitivities. The understanding of why some people develop multiple contact allergies, and characterization of patients with multiple contact allergies...... of developing multiple contact allergies. Evidence of allergen clusters among polysensitized individuals is also reviewed. The literature supports the idea that patients with multiple contact allergies constitute a special entity within the field of contact allergy. There is no generally accepted definition...... of patients with multiple contact allergies. We suggest that contact allergy to 3 or more allergens are defined as multiple contact allergies....

  10. UV-guided isolation of fungal metabolites by HSCCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, P.W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Analytical standardised reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) data can be helpful in finding a suitable solvent combination for isolation of fungal metabolites by high-speed counter current chromatography. Analysis of the distribution coefficient (K-D) of fungal metabolites in a series...... peptides from a crude fungal extract....

  11. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Wadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the burden of fungal infections in Jordan for the first time. Material and Methods: Population data was from UN 2011 statistics and TB cases from WHO in 2012. Fewer than 100 patients with HIV were recorded in Jordan in 2013. Approximately 100 renal transplants and eight liver transplants are performed annually. There were 12,233 major surgical procedures in Jordan in 2013, of which 5.3% were major abdominal surgeries; candidemia was estimated in 5% of the population based on other countries, with 33% occurring in the ICU. Candida peritonitis/intra-abdominal candidiasis was estimated to affect 50% of the number of ICU candidemia cases. No adult asthma rates have been recorded for Jordan, so the rate from the Holy Land (8.54% clinical asthma from To et al. has been used. There are an estimated 49,607 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients in Jordan, with 64% symptomatic, 25% Gold stage 3% or 4%, and 7% (3472 are assumed to be admitted to hospital each year. No cystic fibrosis cases have been recorded. Literature searches on fungal infections revealed few data and no prevalence data on fungal keratitis or tinea capitis, even though tinea capitis comprised 34% of patients with dermatophytoses in Jordan. Results: Jordan has 6.3 million inhabitants (65% adults, 6% are >60 years old. The current burden of serious fungal infections in Jordan was estimated to affect ~119,000 patients (1.9%, not including any cutaneous fungal infections. Candidemia was estimated at 316 cases and invasive aspergillosis in leukemia, transplant, and COPD patients at 84 cases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis prevalence was estimated to affect 36 post-TB patients, and 175 in total. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS prevalence in adults with asthma were estimated at 8900 and 11,748 patients. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis was estimated to affect 97,804 patients, using a 6

  12. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  13. Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remote RemoteRemoteRemote sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing potential for sensing p. A Ngie, F Ahmed, K Abutaleb ...

  14. The Contact Dynamics method: A nonsmooth story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédéric; Acary, Vincent; Jean, Michel

    2018-03-01

    When velocity jumps are occurring, the dynamics is said to be nonsmooth. For instance, in collections of contacting rigid bodies, jumps are caused by shocks and dry friction. Without compliance at the interface, contact laws are not only non-differentiable in the usual sense but also multi-valued. Modeling contacting bodies is of interest in order to understand the behavior of numerous mechanical systems such as flexible multi-body systems, granular materials or masonry. These granular materials behave puzzlingly either like a solid or a fluid and a description in the frame of classical continuous mechanics would be welcome though far to be satisfactory nowadays. Jean-Jacques Moreau greatly contributed to convex analysis, functions of bounded variations, differential measure theory, sweeping process theory, definitive mathematical tools to deal with nonsmooth dynamics. He converted all these underlying theoretical ideas into an original nonsmooth implicit numerical method called Contact Dynamics (CD); a robust and efficient method to simulate large collections of bodies with frictional contacts and impacts. The CD method offers a very interesting complementary alternative to the family of smoothed explicit numerical methods, often called Distinct Elements Method (DEM). In this paper developments and improvements of the CD method are presented together with a critical comparative review of advantages and drawbacks of both approaches. xml:lang="fr"

  15. Presentation and management of allergic fungal sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thahim, K.; Jawaid, M.A.; Marfani, S.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the presentation of allergic fungal sinusitis and describe the line of management in our setup. Culture and sensitivity / fungal stain proven 20 cases of allergic fungal sinusitis were selected for the study, irrespective of age and gender. Data including age, gender, socioeconomic status, signs, symptoms, laboratory findings (especially Immunoglobulin E and eosinophil count) and imaging studies (Computed Tomography and /or Magnetic Resonance Imaging) were noted for the study. Pre and postoperative medical treatment, surgery performed, follow-up; residual/recurrence disease and revised surgery performed were also recorded. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was a disease of younger age group with an average age of 20.75 years with male dominance (70%). Poor socioeconomic status (80%), allergic rhinitis (100%) and nasal polyposis (100%) were important associated factors. Nasal obstruction (100%), nasal discharge (90%), postnasal drip (90%) and unilateral nasal and paranasal sinuses involvement (60%) were the commonest presenting features. Aspergillus (60%) was the most common etiological agent. In all cases (100%), increased eosinophil count and IgE levels were present. Orbital (20%) and intracranial (10%) involvement were also seen. Surgical management was preferred in all cases. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery in 90% cases and lateral rhinotomy in 10% cases were performed. Recurrence / residual disease was seen in 20% cases. In this series, allergic fungal sinusitis was seen in immunocompetent, young males, belonging to poor socioeconomic status, suffering from allergic rhinitis and nasal polyposis, presenting with nasal obstruction, nasal discharge and postnasal drip. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was the most important problem solving procedure while lateral rhinotomy was reserved for extensive disease. (author)

  16. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  17. A prospective survey of air and surface fungal contamination in a medical mycology laboratory at a tertiary care university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, Marc; Dalle, Frédéric; Olivieri, Claire; L'ollivier, Coralie; Enderlin, Emilie; Salome, Elsa; Chovelon, Isabelle; Vagner, Odile; Sixt, Nathalie; Fricker-Pap, Véronique; Aho, Serge; Fontaneau, Olivier; Cachia, Claire; Bonnin, Alain

    2009-04-01

    Invasive filamentous fungi infections resulting from inhalation of mold conidia pose a major threat in immunocompromised patients. The diagnosis is based on direct smears, cultural symptoms, and culturing fungi. Airborne conidia present in the laboratory environment may cause contamination of cultures, resulting in false-positive diagnosis. Baseline values of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory have not been determined to date. A 1-year prospective survey of air and surface contamination was conducted in a clinical mycology laboratory during a period when large construction projects were being conducted in the hospital. Air was sampled with a portable air system impactor, and surfaces were sampled with contact Sabouraud agar plates. The collected data allowed the elaboration of Shewhart graphic charts. Mean fungal loads ranged from 2.27 to 4.36 colony forming units (cfu)/m(3) in air and from 0.61 to 1.69 cfu/plate on surfaces. Strict control procedures may limit the level of fungal contamination in a clinical mycology laboratory even in the context of large construction projects at the hospital site. Our data and the resulting Shewhart graphic charts provide baseline values to use when monitoring for inappropriate variations of the fungal contamination in a mycology laboratory as part of a quality assurance program. This is critical to the appropriate management of the fungal risk in hematology, cancer and transplantation patients.

  18. Rough Surface Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nguyen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the contact of general rough curved surfaces having nearly identical geometries, assuming the contact at each differential area obeys the model proposed by Greenwood and Williamson. In order to account for the most general gross geometry, principles of differential geometry of surface are applied. This method while requires more rigorous mathematical manipulations, the fact that it preserves the original surface geometries thus makes the modeling procedure much more intuitive. For subsequent use, differential geometry of axis-symmetric surface is considered instead of general surface (although this “general case” can be done as well in Chapter 3.1. The final formulas for contact area, load, and frictional torque are derived in Chapter 3.2.

  19. Acrylate Systemic Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Maxwell B; Pratt, Melanie D

    2015-01-01

    Acrylates, the 2012 American Contact Dermatitis Society allergen of the year, are found in a range of products including the absorbent materials within feminine hygiene pads. When fully polymerized, acrylates are nonimmunogenic; however, if not completely cured, the monomers can be potent allergens.A 28-year-old woman is presented, who had her teeth varnished with Isodan (Septodont, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, France) containing HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) with no initial reaction. Approximately 1 month later, the patient developed a genital dermatitis secondary to her feminine hygiene pads. The initial reaction resolved, but 5 months later, the patient developed a systemic contact dermatitis after receiving a second varnishing.The patient was dramatically patch test positive to many acrylates. This case demonstrates a reaction to likely unpolymerized acrylates within a feminine hygiene pad, as well as broad cross-reactivity or cosensitivity to acrylates, and possibly a systemic contact dermatitis with systemic re-exposure to unpolymerized acrylates.

  20. Shoe allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Erin; Zahir, Amir; Ehrlich, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Foot dermatitis is a widespread condition, affecting men and women of all ages. Because of the location, this condition may present as a debilitating problem to those who have it. Allergic contact dermatitis involving the feet is frequently due to shoes or socks. The allergens that cause shoe dermatitis can be found in any constituent of footwear, including rubber, adhesives, leather, dyes, metals, and medicaments. The goal of treatment is to identify and minimize contact with the offending allergen(s). The lack of product information released from shoe manufacturers and the continually changing trends in footwear present a challenge in treating this condition. The aim of this study is to review the current literature on allergic contact shoe dermatitis; clinical presentation, allergens, patch testing, and management will be discussed. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were used for the search, with a focus on literature updates from the last 15 years.

  1. HORIZON SENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry G. Stolarczyk

    2003-03-18

    With the aid of a DOE grant (No. DE-FC26-01NT41050), Stolar Research Corporation (Stolar) developed the Horizon Sensor (HS) to distinguish between the different layers of a coal seam. Mounted on mining machine cutter drums, HS units can detect or sense the horizon between the coal seam and the roof and floor rock, providing the opportunity to accurately mine the section of the seam most desired. HS also enables accurate cutting of minimum height if that is the operator's objective. Often when cutting is done out-of-seam, the head-positioning function facilitates a fixed mining height to minimize dilution. With this technology, miners can still be at a remote location, yet cut only the clean coal, resulting in a much more efficient overall process. The objectives of this project were to demonstrate the feasibility of horizon sensing on mining machines and demonstrate that Horizon Sensing can allow coal to be cut cleaner and more efficiently. Stolar's primary goal was to develop the Horizon Sensor (HS) into an enabling technology for full or partial automation or ''agile mining''. This technical innovation (R&D 100 Award Winner) is quickly demonstrating improvements in productivity and miner safety at several prominent coal mines in the United States. In addition, the HS system can enable the cutting of cleaner coal. Stolar has driven the HS program on the philosophy that cutting cleaner coal means burning cleaner coal. The sensor, located inches from the cutting bits, is based upon the physics principles of a Resonant Microstrip Patch Antenna (RMPA). When it is in proximity of the rock-coal interface, the RMPA impedance varies depending on the thickness of uncut coal. The impedance is measured by the computer-controlled electronics and then sent by radio waves to the mining machine. The worker at the machine can read the data via a Graphical User Interface, displaying a color-coded image of the coal being cut, and direct the machine

  2. ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisna Yuliharti Tersinanda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Allergic contact dermatitis is an immunologic reaction that tends to involve the surrounding skin and may even spread beyond affected sites. This skin disease is one of the more frequent, and costly dermatologic problems. Recent data from United Kingdom and United States suggest that the percentage of occupational contact dermatitis due to allergy may be much higher, thus raising the economic impact of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is not enough data about the epidemiology of allergic contact dermatitis in Indonesia, however based on research that include beautician in Denpasar, about 27,6 percent had side effect of cosmetics, which is 25,4 percent of it manifested as allergic contact dermatitis. Diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis is based on anamnesis, physical examination, patch test, and this disease should be distinguished from other eczematous skin disease. The management is prevention of allergen exposure, symptomatic treatment, and physicochemical barrier /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. An approximate JKR solution for a general contact, including rough contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the present note, we suggest a simple closed form approximate solution to the adhesive contact problem under the so-called JKR regime. The derivation is based on generalizing the original JKR energetic derivation assuming calculation of the strain energy in adhesiveless contact, and unloading at constant contact area. The underlying assumption is that the contact area distributions are the same as under adhesiveless conditions (for an appropriately increased normal load), so that in general the stress intensity factors will not be exactly equal at all contact edges. The solution is simply that the indentation is δ =δ1 -√{ 2 wA‧ /P″ } where w is surface energy, δ1 is the adhesiveless indentation, A‧ is the first derivative of contact area and P‧‧ the second derivative of the load with respect to δ1. The solution only requires macroscopic quantities, and not very elaborate local distributions, and is exact in many configurations like axisymmetric contacts, but also sinusoidal waves contact and correctly predicts some features of an ideal asperity model used as a test case and not as a real description of a rough contact problem. The solution permits therefore an estimate of the full solution for elastic rough solids with Gaussian multiple scales of roughness, which so far was lacking, using known adhesiveless simple results. The result turns out to depend only on rms amplitude and slopes of the surface, and as in the fractal limit, slopes would grow without limit, tends to the adhesiveless result - although in this limit the JKR model is inappropriate. The solution would also go to adhesiveless result for large rms amplitude of roughness hrms, irrespective of the small scale details, and in agreement with common sense, well known experiments and previous models by the author.

  4. Fungal polyketide azaphilone pigments as future natural food colorants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mapari, Sameer Shamsuddin; Thrane, Ulf; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... functionality and to expand the color palette of contemporary natural food colorants.......The recent approval of fungal carotenoids as food colorants by the European Union has strengthened the prospects for fungal cell factories for the production of polyketide pigments. Fungal production of colorants has the main advantage of making the manufacturer independent of the seasonal supply...... of raw materials, thus minimizing batch-to-batch variations. Here, we review the potential of polyketide pigments produced from chemotaxonomically selected non-toxigenic fungal strains (e.g. Penicillium and Epicoccum spp.) to serve as food colorants. We argue that the production of polyketide azaphilone...

  5. Fungal atopy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, M

    2012-02-03

    This study set out to estimate the prevalence of atopy to a variety of common ubiquitous fungi, including A. fumigatus, in cystic fibrosis (CF), and to evaluate the investigations by which the diagnosis was made. Particular attention was paid to the usefulness of skin testing and immunoassays in detecting which patients had simple fungal atopy, and which patients were at high risk of developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycoses. This cross-sectional study included 21 adult CF patients and 20 matched controls. Serum samples were taken for the measurement of total serum IgE and specific serum IgE to nine common fungi. Immediate hypersensitivity skin prick testing to each of the fungi was also performed. Simple fungal atopy was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 100 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 1 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 3 mm to the same fungus. \\'High risk\\' for developing allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) was described in subjects fulfilling the following criteria: total serum IgE > 200 KU l(-1) with specific radioimmunoassay > or = grade 2 to at least one fungus and a positive skin prick test (SPT) > or = 6 mm to the same fungus. The adult CF group had a significantly higher total SPT score (P=0.005) and mean total serum IgE (P<0.05) than controls. Forty-three percent of CF patients fulfilled the criteria for fungal atopy to at least a single fungus. Over half this group had an atopic tendency to more than one fungus. Nineteen percent of the CF group were at least \\'high risk\\' of developing ABPM. Skin prick testing is a better marker of fungal atopy and a better predictor of those adult CF patients at higher risk of developing ABPM than specific radioimmunoassay serum testing. There is a high prevalence of fungal atopy in the adult CF population. Total serum IgE and skin prick testing are good predictors of fungal atopy and help predict those at

  6. Symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, D J; Ducket, J G; Francis, R; Ligron, R; Russell, A

    2000-06-29

    An analysis of the current state of knowledge of symbiotic fungal associations in 'lower' plants is provided. Three fungal phyla, the Zygomycota, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, are involved in forming these associations, each producing a distinctive suite of structural features in well-defined groups of 'lower' plants. Among the 'lower' plants only mosses and Equisetum appear to lack one or other of these types of association. The salient features of the symbioses produced by each fungal group are described and the relationships between these associations and those formed by the same or related fungi in 'higher' plants are discussed. Particular consideration is given to the question of the extent to which root fungus associations in 'lower' plants are analogous to 'mycorrhizas' of 'higher' plants and the need for analysis of the functional attributes of these symbioses is stressed. Zygomycetous fungi colonize a wide range of extant lower land plants (hornworts, many hepatics, lycopods, Ophioglossales, Psilotales and Gleicheniaceae), where they often produce structures analogous to those seen in the vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizas of higher plants, which are formed by members of the order Glomales. A preponderance of associations of this kind is in accordance with palaeohbotanical and molecular evidence indicating that glomalean fungi produced the archetypal symbioses with the first plants to emerge on to land. It is shown, probably for the first time, that glomalean fungi forming typical VA mycorrhiza with a higher plant (Plantago lanceolata) can colonize a thalloid liverwort (Pellia epiphylla), producing arbuscules and vesicles in the hepatic. The extent to which these associations, which are structurally analogous to mycorrhizas, have similar functions remains to be evaluated. Ascomycetous associations are found in a relatively small number of families of leafy liverworts. The structural features of the fungal colonization of rhizoids and underground axes of

  7. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Al Salmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. Results: A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8% had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans, followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. Conclusions: This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no

  8. Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-04-24

    Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.

  9. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Department of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | JOBS AT NIDDK | RSS FEEDS | GET E-MAIL UPDATES External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program HealthSense Home Make a Plan Articles About ...

  10. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... E-MAIL UPDATES External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program HealthSense Home Make a Plan Articles About ... of Information Act | Accessibility | Disclaimers | Copyright | Sitemap | For Staff Only | Jobs at NIDDK | Contact Us The National ...

  11. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | JOBS AT NIDDK | RSS FEEDS | GET E-MAIL UPDATES External Link Disclaimer National Diabetes Education Program HealthSense Home Make a Plan Articles About ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  16. Fermilab | Contact Fermilab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Safety Sustainability and Environment Contact Related Links DOE FRA UChicago URA Newsroom -840-3000 Fax: 630-840-4343 Shipping address Fermilab Receiving Wilson Street and Kirk Road Batavia IL 60510-5011 Phone: 630-840-3000 Visiting address Fermilab entrance Kirk Road and Pine Street Batavia IL

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  18. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2016-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.......Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present...... new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22...

  19. Contact allergy to spices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Van den Akker Th. (W.); I.D. Roesyanto-Mahadi (I.); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); Th. van Joost (Theo)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractA group of 103 patients suspected of contact allergy was tested with the European standard series, wood tars and spices; paprika, cinnamon, laurel, celery seed, nutmeg, curry, black pepper, cloves, while pepper, coriander, cacao and garlic. 32 patients (Group I) were selected on the

  20. Fermilab Education Office - Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search The Office of Education and Public Outreach: Contacts All telephone numbers require area code Presentations for Presenters 840-3094 Office of Education and Public Outreach Spencer Pasero spasero@fnal.gov Education Office 840-3076 Fermilab Friends for Science Education General Questions Susan Dahl sdahl@fnal.gov

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  2. Mathematics Connection: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Kofi Mereku Executive Editor Department of Mathematics Education, UCE Mathematical Association of Ghana, C/o Department of Mathematics Education University College of Education of Winneba P. O. Box 25, Winneba, Ghana Phone: +233244961318. Email: dkmereku@uew.edu.gh ...

  3. Contact activation: a revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaier, A H

    1997-07-01

    In conclusion, a revised view of the contact system has been presented. This system has little to do with the initiation of hemostasis. Like lupus anticoagulants, deficiencies of contact proteins give prolonged APTTs but may be risk factors for thrombosis. BK from kininogens is a potent modulator of vascular biology inducing vasodilation, tissue plasminogen activator release, and prostacyclin liberation. Kininogens, themselves, are selective inhibitors of alpha-thrombin-induced platelet activation preventing alpha-thrombin from cleaving the cloned thrombin receptor after arginine41. Kininogens' alpha-thrombin inhibitory activity exists in intact kininogens, BK, and all of BK's breakdown products. HK also is the pivotal protein for contact protein assembly on endothelium. It is the receptor for prekallikrein which when bound to HK becomes activated to kallikrein by an endothelial cell enzyme system independent of activated forms of plasma factor XII. Prekallikrein activation on endothelial cells results in kinetically favorable single chain urokinase and plasminogen activation. Thus the "physiologic, negatively charged surface" for contact system activation is really the assembly of these proteins on cell membranes and activation by membrane-associated enzymes.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  5. Language Contact and Bilingualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel, René; Muysken, Pieter

    2006-01-01

    What happens - sociologically, linguistically, educationally, politically - when more than one language is in regular use in a community? How do speakers handle these languages simultaneously, and what influence does this language contact have on the languages involved? Although most people in the

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  7. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  8. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  9. Rigid Bodies in Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebe, Sarah Maria

    . A contact point determination method, based on boolean surface maps, is developed to handle collisions between tetrahedral meshes. The novel nonsmooth nonlinear conjugate gradient (NNCG) method is presented. The NNCG method is comparable in terms of accuracy to the state-of-the-art method, projected Gauss...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  11. Contact allergy to cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T

    1999-01-01

    In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...

  12. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  13. Fiber, food, fuel, and fungal symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L; Marx, D H

    1979-10-26

    Virtually all plants of economic importance form mycorrhizae. These absorbing organs of higher plants result from a symbiotic union of beneficial soil fungi and feeder roots. In forestry, the manipulation of fungal symbionts ecologically adapted to the planting site can increase survival and growth of forest trees, particularly on adverse sites. Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae, which occur not only on many trees but also on most cultivated crops, are undoubtedly more important to world food crops. Imperatives for mycorrhizal research in forestry and agriculture are (i) the development of mass inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi, (ii) the interdisciplinary coordination with soil management, plant breeding, cultivation practices, and pest control to ensure maximum survival and development of fungal symbionts in the soil, and (iii) the institution of nursery and field tests to determine the circumstances in which mycorrhizae benefit plant growth in forestry and agri-ecosystems.

  14. Fungal enzymes in the attine ant symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Schiøtt, Morten; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    the more basal attine genera use substrates such as flowers, plant debris, small twigs, insect feces and insect carcasses. This diverse array of fungal substrates across the attine lineage implies that the symbiotic fungus needs different enzymes to break down the plant material that the ants provide...... or different efficiencies of enzyme function. Fungal enzymes that degrade plant cell walls may have functionally co-evolved with the ants in this scenario. We explore this hypothesis with direct measurements of enzyme activity in fungus gardens in 12 species across 8 genera spanning the entire phylogeny...... and diversity of life-styles within the attine clade. We find significant differences in enzyme activity between different genera and life-styles of the ants. How these findings relate to attine ant coevolution and crop optimization are discussed....

  15. Molecular dynamics study of contact mechanics: contact area and interfacial separation from small to full contact

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, C.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of the contact between a rigid solid with a randomly rough surface and an elastic block with a flat surface. We study the contact area and the interfacial separation from small contact (low load) to full contact (high load). For small load the contact area varies linearly with the load and the interfacial separation depends logarithmically on the load. For high load the contact area approaches to the nominal contact area (i.e., complete contact), and the i...

  16. Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing and Geoinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Patmio, E. N.

    2012-07-01

    Earth and its environment are studied by different scientific disciplines as geosciences, science of engineering, social sciences, geography, etc. The study of the above, beyond pure scientific interest, is useful for the practical needs of man. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. Therefore, according to this definition, photogrammetry and remote sensing can support studies of the above disciplines for acquisition of geoinformation. This paper concerns basic concepts of geosciences (geomorphology, geology, hydrology etc), and the fundamentals of photogrammetry-remote sensing, in order to aid the understanding of the relationship between photogrammetry-remote sensing and geoinformation and also structure curriculum in a brief, concise and coherent way. This curriculum can represent an appropriate research and educational outline and help to disseminate knowledge in various directions and levels. It resulted from our research and educational experience in graduate and post-graduate level (post-graduate studies relative to the protection of environment and protection of monuments and historical centers) in the Lab. of Photogrammetry - Remote Sensing in Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

  17. Burden of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugnani, H C; Denning, D W; Rahim, R; Sadat, A; Belal, M; Mahbub, M S

    2017-06-01

    In Bangladesh there are several published papers on superficial mycoses. Deep mycoses are also recognized as an important emerging problem. Here, we estimate the annual incidence and prevalence of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh. Demographic data were obtained from world population reports and the data on TB and HIV extracted from the online publications on tuberculosis in Bangladesh and Asia Pacific research statistical data information resources AIDS Data HUB. All the published papers on fungal infections in Bangladesh were identified through extensive search of literature. We estimated the number of affected people from populations at risk and local epidemiological data. Bangladesh has a population of ∼162.6 million, 31% children and only 6% over the age of 60 years. The pulmonary TB caseload reported in 2014 was 119,520, and we estimate a prevalence of 30,178 people with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, 80% attributable to TB. An anticipated 90,262 and 119,146 patients have allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or severe asthma with fungal sensitization. Only 8,000 people are estimated to be HIV-infected, of whom 2900 are not on ART with a CD4 count Bangladesh. Candida bloodstream infection was estimated based on a 5 per 100,000 rate (8100 cases) and invasive aspergillosis based primarily on leukemia and COPD rates, at 5166 cases. Histoplasmosis was documented in 16 cases mostly with disseminated disease and presumed in 21 with HIV infection. This study constitutes the first attempt to estimate the burden of several types of serious fungal infections in Bangladesh.

  18. Burden of serious fungal infections in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanov, Ali; Denning, David W

    2015-10-01

    Ukraine has high rates of TB, AIDS and cancer. We estimated the burden of fungal disease from epidemiology papers and specific populations at risk and fungal infection frequencies. HIV/AIDS cases and deaths (2012) and tuberculosis statistics were obtained from the State Service of Ukraine, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) cases were from M. Miravitlles et al., Thorax 64, 863-868 (2009). Annual estimates are 893,579 Ukrainian women get recurrent vaginal thrush (≥4× per year), 50,847 cases of oral candidiasis and 13,727 cases of oesophageal candidiasis in HIV, and 101 (1%) of 10,085 new AIDS cases develop cryptococcal meningitis, 6152 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (13.5 cases per 100,000). Of the 29,265 cases of active respiratory TB in 2012, it is estimated that 2881 new cases of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) occurred and that the 5-year period prevalence is 7724 cases with a total CPA burden of 10,054 cases. Assuming adult asthma prevalence is ~2.9%, 28,447 patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are likely and 37,491 with severe asthma with fungal sensitisation. We estimate 2278 cases and 376 postsurgical intra-abdominal Candida infections. Invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients is estimated at 303 patients annually; 930 cases in COPD patients. Ninety cases of mucormycosis (2 per 1,000,000) are estimated. In total, ~1,000,000 (2.2%) people in Ukraine develop serious fungal infections annually. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Fungal Anticancer Metabolites: Synthesis Towards Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Margherita; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Fungi are a well-known and valuable source of compounds of therapeutic relevance, in particular of novel anticancer compounds. Although seldom obtainable through isolation from the natural source, the total organic synthesis still remains one of the most efficient alternatives to resupply them. Furthermore, natural product total synthesis is a valuable tool not only for discovery of new complex biologically active compounds but also for the development of innovative methodologies in enantioselective organic synthesis. We undertook an in-depth literature searching by using chemical bibliographic databases (SciFinder, Reaxys) in order to have a comprehensive insight into the wide research field. The literature has been then screened, refining the obtained results by subject terms focused on both biological activity and innovative synthetic procedures. The literature on fungal metabolites has been recently reviewed and these publications have been used as a base from which we consider the synthetic feasibility of the most promising compounds, in terms of anticancer properties and drug development. In this paper, compounds are classified according to their chemical structure. This review summarizes the anticancer potential of fungal metabolites, highlighting the role of total synthesis outlining the feasibility of innovative synthetic procedures that facilitate the development of fungal metabolites into drugs that may become a real future perspective. To our knowledge, this review is the first effort to deal with the total synthesis of these active fungi metabolites and demonstrates that total chemical synthesis is a fruitful means of yielding fungal derivatives as aided by recent technological and innovative advancements. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Bacterial, Fungal, Parasitic, and Viral Myositis

    OpenAIRE

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2008-01-01

    Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyo...

  1. Fungal Systematics and Evolution: FUSE 1

    OpenAIRE

    Crous, Pedro W; Schumacher, René K; Wingfield, Michael J; Lombard, Lorenzo; Giraldo, Alejandra; Christensen, Martha; Gardiennet, Alain; Nakashima, Chiharu; Pereira, Olinto L; Smith, Alexander J; Groenewald, Johannes Z

    2015-01-01

    Fungal Systematics and Evolution (FUSE) is introduced as a new series to expedite the publication of issues relating to the epitypification of formerly described species, report new sexual-asexual connections, the merging of sexual and asexual gen¬era following the end of dual nomenclature, and to describe species or note interesting observations regarding fungi. This first paper includes 18 new combinations, 13 new species, three new genera and one new family. All taxa are ascomycetes, excep...

  2. Invasive fungal infections in endogenous Cushing's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Rafael Selbach; Dora, José Miguel; Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Aquino, Valério; Maia, Ana Luiza; Canani, Luis Henrique; Goldani, Luciano Z.

    2010-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a condition characterized by elevated cortisol levels that can result from either augmented endogenous production or exogenous administration of corticosteroids. The predisposition to fungal infections among patients with hypercortisolemia has been noted since Cushing's original description of the disease. We describe here a patient with endogenous Cushing's syndrome secondary to an adrenocortical carcinoma, who developed concomitant disseminated cryptococcosis and candidiasis in the course of his disease. PMID:24470886

  3. Burden of Serious Fungal Infections in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando O. Riera

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of fungal infections at any given time in Argentina is not known. Here we estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Argentina for the first time. Specific population statistics were searched from multiple sources, local literature was identified, and estimates made. Some additional data were sourced from the Ministry of Health, the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA program, and national haematology and transplant societies. Argentina has a population of 43.8 million, with 25% of this total being children under 15 years. The predicted candidemia annual incidence is 2193 cases, with 50% occurring in the ICU. At a 6% prevalence rate, an estimated 593,695 women suffer from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Invasive aspergillosis is relatively common because of high smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD rates, with 268 cases in immunocompromised patients and another 1938 in the 168,000 COPD patients admitted to hospital. Asthma is also common, affecting 14% of adults, and so allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (SAFS are major problems. An estimated 432 cases of cryptococcal meningitis (CM—90% of them in AIDS patients—and 1177 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP occur each year. The estimated annual case number of disseminated histoplasmosis is 404 in AIDS patients, almost as frequent as CM. Paracoccidioidomycosis annual incidence is estimated at 219, and coccidioidomycosis at 16 cases. At least 881,023 people (>2.01% in Argentina are affected by a serious fungal disease annually, with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  4. Lethal and pre-lethal effects of a fungal biopesticide contribute to substantial and rapid control of malaria vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blanford

    Full Text Available Rapidly emerging insecticide resistance is creating an urgent need for new active ingredients to control the adult mosquitoes that vector malaria. Biopesticides based on the spores of entomopathogenic fungi have shown considerable promise by causing very substantial mortality within 7-14 days of exposure. This mortality will generate excellent malaria control if there is a high likelihood that mosquitoes contact fungi early in their adult lives. However, where contact rates are lower, as might result from poor pesticide coverage, some mosquitoes will contact fungi one or more feeding cycles after they acquire malaria, and so risk transmitting malaria before the fungus kills them. Critics have argued that 'slow acting' fungal biopesticides are, therefore, incapable of delivering malaria control in real-world contexts. Here, utilizing standard WHO laboratory protocols, we demonstrate effective action of a biopesticide much faster than previously reported. Specifically, we show that transient exposure to clay tiles sprayed with a candidate biopesticide comprising spores of a natural isolate of Beauveria bassiana, could reduce malaria transmission potential to zero within a feeding cycle. The effect resulted from a combination of high mortality and rapid fungal-induced reduction in feeding and flight capacity. Additionally, multiple insecticide-resistant lines from three key African malaria vector species were completely susceptible to fungus. Thus, fungal biopesticides can block transmission on a par with chemical insecticides, and can achieve this where chemical insecticides have little impact. These results support broadening the current vector control paradigm beyond fast-acting chemical toxins.

  5. A Study Of Fungal Colonization In Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rashid Husain

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors responsible for fungal colonization in newborns? Objective: To study the pattern of and predisposing fac­tors for the development of superficial candidiasis and fungal colonization in the newborns. Study Design: Prospective study. Setting: Neonatology unitof the Paediatrics department of a teaching hospital. Participants: Randomly selected pregnant mothers admit­ted to the maternity ward and the newborns delivered to them. Sample Size: 120 pregnant mothers and the newborns delivered. Study Variables: Candida, Site of colonization. Statistical Analysis: By tests of significance Results: Candida was isolated from 23 (19.16% infants on the first day increasing to 52 (43.33% infants on the sixth day. The most common site of colonization was oral cavity. Candida colonization was more common in prema­ture infants (p<0.05. Oral thrush was seen in 29 (24.17% infants during the study and a significant number of these infants showed colonization from the first day of life. Conclusions: Fungal colonization of the newborns due to Candida species is quite common, and in the first week of life predominantly occurred in the ora I cavity. Superficial clinical candidiasis, especially oral thrush is more common in those colonized on the first day of life.

  6. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic.

  7. Fungal myositis in children: serial ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hee Jung; Choi, Jin Soo

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children. Eleven lesions caused by fungal myositis and occurring in six children were included in this study. Eight lesions in five children were histopathologically proven and the other three were clinically diagnosed. Serial ultrasonographic findings were retrospectively evaluated in terms of size, location, margin, internal echotexture and adjacent cortical change occurring during the follow-up period ranging from five days to two months. Three patients (50%) had multiple lesions. The sites of involvment were the thigh (n=4), calf (n=3), chest wall (n=2), abdominal wall (n=1) and forearm (n=1). Initially, diffuse muscular swelling was revealed, with ill-defined hypoechoic lesions confined to the muscle layer (n=8). Follow-up examination of eight lesions over a period of 5-10 days showed that round central echogenic lesions were surrounded by previous slightly echogenic lesions (n=6, 75%). Long-term follow-up of five lesions over a two-month period revealed periosteal thickening in one case (20%), and the peristence of echogenic solid nodules in four (80%). Pathologic examination showed that the central lesions correlated with a fungus ball and the peripheral slightly echogenic lesions corresponded to hematoma and necrosis. Serial ultrasonographic findings of fungal myositis in children revealed relatively constant features in each case. In particular, the findings of muscular necrosis and a fungus ball over a period of 5-14 days were thought to be characteristic

  8. Bacterial - Fungal Interactions: ecology, mechanisms and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, A; Bonito, G; Uehling, J; Paoletti, M; Becker, M; Bindschedler, S; Hacquard, S; Hervé, V; Labbé, J; Lastovetsky, O A; Mieszkin, S; Millet, L J; Vajna, B; Junier, P; Bonfante, P; Krom, B P; Olsson, S; Elsas, J D van; Wick, L Y

    2018-02-19

    Fungi and bacteria are found living together in a wide variety of environments. Their interactions are significant drivers of many ecosystem functions and are important for the health of plants and animals. A large number of fungal and bacterial families are engaged in complex interactions that lead to critical behavioural shifts of the microorganisms ranging from mutualism to pathogenicity. The importance of bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) in environmental science, medicine and biotechnology has led to the emergence of a dynamic and multidisciplinary research field that combines highly diverse approaches including molecular biology, genomics, geochemistry, chemical and microbial ecology, biophysics and ecological modelling. In this review, we discuss most recent advances that underscore the roles of BFI across relevant habitats and ecosystems. A particular focus is placed on the understanding of BFI within complex microbial communities and in regards of the metaorganism concept. We also discuss recent discoveries that clarify the (molecular) mechanisms involved in bacterial-fungal relationships, and the contribution of new technologies to decipher generic principles of BFI in terms of physical associations and molecular dialogues. Finally, we discuss future directions for researches in order to catalyse a synergy within the BFI research area and to resolve outstanding questions.

  9. Risk of Fungal Infection to Dental Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Lopes Damasceno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi can cause various diseases, and some pathogenic fungi have been detected in the water of dental equipment. This environment offers suitable conditions for fungal biofilms to emerge, which can facilitate mycological contamination. This study verified whether the water employed in the dental units of two dental clinics at the University of Franca was contaminated with fungi. This study also evaluated the ability of the detected fungi to form biofilms. The high-revving engine contained the largest average amount of fungi, 14.93 ± 18.18 CFU/mL. The main fungal species verified in this equipment belonged to the genera Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., Candida spp., and Rhodotorula spp. Among the isolated filamentous fungi, only one fungus of the genus Fusarium spp. did not form biofilms. As for yeasts, all the Candida spp. isolates grew as biofilm, but none of the Rhodotorula spp. isolates demonstrated this ability. Given that professionals and patients are often exposed to water and aerosols generated by the dental procedure, the several fungal species detected herein represent a potential risk especially to immunocompromised patients undergoing dental treatment. Therefore, frequent microbiological monitoring of the water employed in dental equipment is crucial to reduce the presence of contaminants.

  10. Fungal Production and Manipulation of Plant Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sandra; Radhakrishnan, Dhanya; Prasad, Kalika; Chini, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Living organisms are part of a highly interconnected web of interactions, characterised by species nurturing, competing, parasitizing and preying on one another. Plants have evolved cooperative as well as defensive strategies to interact with neighbour organisms. Among these, the plant-fungus associations are very diverse, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. Our current knowledge of plant-fungus interactions suggests a sophisticated coevolution to ensure dynamic plant responses to evolving fungal mutualistic/pathogenic strategies. The plant-fungus communication relies on a rich chemical language. To manipulate the plant defence mechanisms, fungi produce and secrete several classes of biomolecules, whose modeof- action is largely unknown. Upon perception of the fungi, plants produce phytohormones and a battery of secondary metabolites that serve as defence mechanism against invaders or to promote mutualistic associations. These mutualistic chemical signals can be co-opted by pathogenic fungi for their own benefit. Among the plant molecules regulating plant-fungus interaction, phytohormones play a critical role since they modulate various aspects of plant development, defences and stress responses. Intriguingly, fungi can also produce phytohormones, although the actual role of fungalproduced phytohormones in plant-fungus interactions is poorly understood. Here, we discuss the recent advances in fungal production of phytohormone, their putative role as endogenous fungal signals and how fungi manipulate plant hormone balance to their benefits. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Related Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription ...

  12. Sensing our Environment: Remote sensing in a physics classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sivan; Schüttler, Tobias; Cohen-Zada, Aviv L.; Blumberg, Dan G.; Girwidz, Raimund; Maman, Shimrit

    2017-04-01

    Remote sensing is defined as data acquisition of an object, deprived physical contact. Fundamentally, most remote sensing applications are referred to as the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects mainly on Earth or other planets. In the last years there have been efforts to bring the important subject of remote sensing into schools, however, most of these attempts focused on geography disciplines - restricting to the applications of remote sensing and to a less extent the technique itself and the physics behind it. Optical remote sensing is based on physical principles and technical devices, which are very meaningful from a theoretical point of view as well as for "hands-on" teaching. Some main subjects are radiation, atom and molecular physics, spectroscopy, as well as optics and the semiconductor technology used in modern digital cameras. Thus two objectives were outlined for this project: 1) to investigate the possibilities of using remote sensing techniques in physics teaching, and 2) to identify its impact on pupil's interest in the field of natural sciences. This joint project of the DLR_School_Lab, Oberpfaffenhofen of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and the Earth and Planetary Image Facility (EPIF) at BGU, was conducted in 2016. Thirty teenagers (ages 16-18) participated in the project and were exposed to the cutting edge methods of earth observation. The pupils on both sides participated in the project voluntarily, knowing that at least some of the project's work had to be done in their leisure time. The pupil's project started with a day at EPIF and DLR respectively, where the project task was explained to the participants and an introduction to remote sensing of vegetation was given. This was realized in lectures and in experimental workshops. During the following two months both groups took several measurements with modern optical remote sensing systems in their home region with a special focus on flora

  13. Plasmonic sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic sensors typically rely on detection of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding medium. Here, an alternative approach is reported based on electrical surface screening and controlled dissolution of ultrasmall silver nanoparticles (NPs; R ... in the plasmon band. This is demonstrated by using the strong nucleophiles, cyanide and cysteamine, as ligands. The “dissolution paths” in terms of peak wavelength and amplitude shifts differ significantly between different types of analytes, which are suggested as a means to obtain selectivity of the detection...... that cannot be obtained by traditional refractive index sensing, without the use of bioprobes. A simple modified Drude model is used to account for shifts in the plasmon band position due to electrical charging. Here, a screening parameter is introduced in the expression for the free electron density...

  14. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  15. [News on occupational contact dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda

    2014-03-01

    Contact dermatitis--irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis and protein contact dermatitis--are the most common occupational skin diseases, most often localized to the hands. Contact urticaria is rarer The main occupational irritants are wet work, detergents and disinfectants, cutting oils, and solvents. The main occupational allergens are rubber additives, metals (chromium, nickel, cobalt), plastics (epoxy resins, acrylic), biocides and plants. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, medical history and allergy testing. For a number of irritating or sensitizing agents, irritant or allergic dermatitis can be notified as occupational diseases. The two main prevention measures are reducing skin contact with irritants and complete avoidance of skin contact with offending allergens.

  16. Expression of cytokines in aqueous humor from fungal keratitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingnan; Liang, Qingfeng; Liu, Yang; Pan, Zhiqiang; Baudouin, Christophe; Labbé, Antoine; Lu, Qingxian

    2018-04-19

    Although a series of reports on corneal fungal infection have been published, studies on pathogenic mechanisms and inflammation-associated cytokines remain limited. In this study, aqueous humor samples from fungal keratitis patients were collected to examine cytokine patterns and cellular profile for the pathogenesis of fungal keratitis. The aqueous humor samples were collected from ten patients with advanced stage fungal keratitis. Eight aqueous humor samples from patients with keratoconus or corneal dystrophy were taken as control. Approximately 100 μl to 300 μl of aqueous humor in each case were obtained for examination. The aqueous humor samples were centrifuged and the cells were stained and examined under optical microscope. Bacterial and fungal cultures were performed on the aqueous humor and corneal buttons of all patients. Cytokines related to inflammation including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were examined using multiplex bead-based Luminex liquid protein array systems. Fungus infection was confirmed in these ten patients by smear stains and/or fungal cultures. Bacterial and fungal cultures revealed negative results in all aqueous humor specimens. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the predominant infiltrating cells in the aqueous humor of fungal keratitis. At the advanced stages of fungal keratitis, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ in the aqueous humor were significantly increased when compared with control (phumor was associated with fungal keratitis.

  17. The Cell Wall of the Human Fungal Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus: Biosynthesis, Organization, Immune Response, and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latgé, Jean-Paul; Beauvais, Anne; Chamilos, Georgios

    2017-09-08

    More than 90% of the cell wall of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus comprises polysaccharides. Biosynthesis of the cell wall polysaccharides is under the control of three types of enzymes: transmembrane synthases, which are anchored to the plasma membrane and use nucleotide sugars as substrates, and cell wall-associated transglycosidases and glycosyl hydrolases, which are responsible for remodeling the de novo synthesized polysaccharides and establishing the three-dimensional structure of the cell wall. For years, the cell wall was considered an inert exoskeleton of the fungal cell. The cell wall is now recognized as a living organelle, since the composition and cellular localization of the different constitutive cell wall components (especially of the outer layers) vary when the fungus senses changes in the external environment. The cell wall plays a major role during infection. The recognition of the fungal cell wall by the host is essential in the initiation of the immune response. The interactions between the different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell wall pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) orientate the host response toward either fungal death or growth, which would then lead to disease development. Understanding the molecular determinants of the interplay between the cell wall and host immunity is fundamental to combatting Aspergillus diseases.

  18. Digital methods and remote sensing in archaeology archaeology in the age of sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscap...

  19. Transplant tourism and invasive fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salmi, I; Metry, A M; Al Ismaili, F; Hola, A; Al Riyami, M; Khamis, F; Al-Abri, S

    2018-04-01

    Deceased and live-related renal transplants (RTXs) are approved procedures that are performed widely throughout the world. In certain regions, commercial RTX has become popular, driven by financial greed. This retrospective, descriptive study was performed at the Royal Hospital from 2013 to 2015. Data were collected from the national kidney transplant registry of Oman. All transplant cases retrieved were divided into two groups: live-related RTX performed in Oman and commercial-unrelated RTX performed abroad. These groups were then divided again into those with and without evidence of fungal infection, either in the wound or renal graft. A total of 198 RTX patients were identified, of whom 162 (81.8%) had undergone a commercial RTX that was done abroad. Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) were diagnosed in 8% of patients who had undergone a commercial RTX; of these patients, 76.9% underwent a nephrectomy and 23.1% continued with a functioning graft. None of the patients with RTXs performed at the Royal Hospital contracted an IFI. The most common fungal isolates were Aspergillus species (including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, and Aspergillus nigricans), followed by Zygomycetes. However, there was no evidence of fungal infection including Aspergillus outside the graft site. Computed tomography (CT) findings showed infarction of the graft, renal artery thrombosis, aneurysmal dilatation of the external iliac artery, fungal ball, or just the presence of a perigraft collection. Of the total patients with IFIs, 23.1% died due to septic shock and 53.8% were alive and on hemodialysis. The remaining 23.1% who did not undergo nephrectomy demonstrated acceptable graft function. This is the largest single-center study on commercial RTX reporting the highest number of patients with IFI acquired over a relatively short period of time. Aspergillus spp were the main culprit fungi, with no Candida spp being isolated. A high index of suspicion might

  20. Fungal Urinary Tract Infection in Burn Patients‎

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad Yousuf Aldorkee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the most common hospital-acquired infection. Fungal species are unusual causes of urinary tract infection in healthy individuals, but common in the hospital setting or among patients with predisposing diseases and structural abnormalities of the kidney and collecting system. Burn patients are susceptible to nosocomial infections owing to the immunocompromising effects of burn injury, cutaneous and respiratory tract injury, prolonged intensive care unit stays and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Objective: The study population includes adult patients of both genders who presented with different percentages of body burns. Urine sample was collected from each patient at the time of admission and weekly thereafter for 6 weeks and sent for general urine examination and urine culture to test for the possibility of fungal growth. Those who found to develop fungal UTI by urine culture during their hospitalization and had no infection at the time of admission were selected as subjects for our study. Results: 28 (18.6% patients had positive fungal culture during their hospitalization, 11 of them were males and 17 were females, the most common age of presentation was 41-50 years and the mean age ± SD was (44.4 ± 10.7 years. The most common isolated fungi were Candida albicans (64.3%, followed by Candida glabrata (21.4% and Candida tropicalis (7.1%. The majority of patients developed infection within the 2nd and 3rd weeks of hospitalization, however, those who presented with total body surface area burned > 40% developed an earlier infection within the 1st week. Female gender, urethral catheterization and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with higher risk of infection as the P values were 0.03, 0.005 and 0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fungal urinary tract infection occurred in 18.6% of burn patients. The most common causative fungi are candida species. Advanced age, female gender, high percentage of

  1. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  2. Bilateral fungal keratitis with ring infiltrates: a rare scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaniyara, Manthan Hasmukhbhai; Pujari, Amar; Urkude, Jayanand; Sharma, Namrata

    2017-10-09

    A 12-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with chief complaints of pain, redness, discharge and diminution of vision in both eyes over the previous 20 days. There was no history of preceding trauma, contact lens use, any eye drop usage or ocular surgery. Systemic history was not significant. Presenting uncorrected visual acuity in his right eye was counting fingers at 1 m and 20/200 in the left eye, with accurate projection of rays in both eyes. Slit lamp biomicroscopy showed the presence of bilateral diffuse conjunctival congestion, corneal ring infiltrates and epithelial defect with corneal oedema. Potassium hydroxide wet mount showed the presence of septate fungal hyphae. The patient was treated with topical 5% natamycin and 1% voriconazole over a period of 6 weeks. Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/600 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye at 6-month follow-up. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. [Treatment of fungal infections of upper respiratory tract and ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Kurnatowska, Agnieszka K

    2007-01-01

    Fungi, in comparison with other pathogenic factors, have high pathogenicity. The number of fungal species which are able to infect people is over 500. The upper respiratory tract and ear have permanent contact with external environment which makes their ontocenoses open to continuous exchange of microorganisms of which they consist. In etiology of inflammatory processes 21 species which belonging to 3 genera (Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota) of fungi play important role. Administration of antifungal drugs can be: prophylactic, empiric preemptive and therapeutic. Physicians may prescribe antibiotics (mainly pollens: amphotericin B, natamycin and nystatin) and chemiotherapeutics (mainly azoles and fluorpirymidins, pigments, chlorhexidine and chlorquinaldol). In ENT practice topical and systemic drugs can be administrated. Topical lozenges include amphotericin B, clotrimazole, chlorhexidine or chlorquinaldol and oral gels: nystatin and miconazole. Some of drugs are in the form of suspension/solution, which can be used for inhalation, into the sinus, for swabbing or for lavage: amphotericin B, natamycin, nystatin, clotrimazol, flucytosine, miconazole, fluconazole, vorykonazole, caspofungin. It should be underlined that only a few of dugs can be absorbed from the digestive tract: flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, vorykonazole.

  4. Contact dynamics math model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaese, John R.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station Mechanism Test Bed consists of a hydraulically driven, computer controlled six degree of freedom (DOF) motion system with which docking, berthing, and other mechanisms can be evaluated. Measured contact forces and moments are provided to the simulation host computer to enable representation of orbital contact dynamics. This report describes the development of a generalized math model which represents the relative motion between two rigid orbiting vehicles. The model allows motion in six DOF for each body, with no vehicle size limitation. The rotational and translational equations of motion are derived. The method used to transform the forces and moments from the sensor location to the vehicles' centers of mass is also explained. Two math models of docking mechanisms, a simple translational spring and the Remote Manipulator System end effector, are presented along with simulation results. The translational spring model is used in an attempt to verify the simulation with compensated hardware in the loop results.

  5. Contact allergy to lanolin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransen, Marloes; Overgaard, Line E K; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lanolin has been tested as lanolin alcohols (30% pet.) in baseline patch test series since 1969, and this has shown clinically relevant allergic contact dermatitis cases. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the temporal development of lanolin allergy (i.e. positive reaction to lanolin alcohols...... and/or Amerchol™ L-101), and the association between contact allergy to lanolin and patient characteristics from the MOAHLFA index. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of consecutively patch tested dermatitis patients (n = 9577) between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2015 with lanolin...... alcohols 30% pet. and Amerchol™ L-101 50% pet. was performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of lanolin allergy increased from 0.45% in 2004 to 1.81% in 2015. In age-adjusted and sex-adjusted analyses, weak, significant associations were found between atopic dermatitis and lanolin and lanolin alcohols allergy...

  6. Chain scission and anti fungal effect of electron beam on cellulose membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanichapichart, Pikul; Taweepreeda, Wirach; Nawae, Safitree; Choomgan, Pastraporn; Yasenchak, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two types of bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes were produced under a modified H and S medium using sucrose as a carbon source, with (CCB) and without (SHB) coconut juice supplement. Both membranes showed similar crystallinity of 69.24 and 71.55%. After being irradiated with E-beams under oxygen limited and ambient condition, the results from water contact angle showed that only the irradiated membrane CCB was increased from 30 to 40 degrees, and irradiation under oxygen ambient condition provided the greatest value. Comparing with the control membranes, smaller water flux was the cases after electron beam irradiation which indicated a reduction of membrane pore area. However, the results from molecular weight cut off (MWCO) revealed that chain scission was greater for membrane SHB and its cut off was increased from 28,000 Da to more than 35,000 Da. FTIR analysis revealed some changes in membrane functional groups, corresponding with the above results. These changes initiated new property of cellulose membranes, an anti-fungal food wrap. - Highlights: ► Electron beam irradiation increased membrane hydrophobicity and molecular weight cut off. ► The irradiation caused chain scissoring and anti fungal property of cellulose membrane. ► FT-IR studies revealed changes in functional groups causing a decrease in membrane moisture. ► Anti fungal test of cellulose membrane showed the same shelf life as polyethylene sheet.

  7. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact stress sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack [Oakland, CA

    2012-02-07

    A contact stress sensor includes one or more MEMS fabricated sensor elements, where each sensor element of includes a thin non-recessed portion, a recessed portion and a pressure sensitive element adjacent to the recessed portion. An electric circuit is connected to the pressure sensitive element. The circuit includes a thermal compensator and a pressure signal circuit element configured to provide a signal upon movement of the pressure sensitive element.

  9. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals.

  10. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    . This gives a positive patch-test reaction in about 10% of tested patients with eczema, and the most recent estimates show that 1.7-4.1% of the general population are sensitized to ingredients of the fragrance mix. Fragrance allergy occurs predominantly in women with facial or hand eczema. These women...... development to identify contact allergy to new allergens, reflecting the continuous developments and trends in exposure....

  11. Pediatric contact dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Vinod

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD in children, until recently, was considered rare. ACD was considered as a disorder of the adult population and children were thought to be spared due to a lack of exposure to potential allergens and an immature immune system. Prevalence of ACD to even the most common allergens in children, like poison ivy and parthenium, is relatively rare as compared to adults. However, there is now growing evidence of contact sensitization of the pediatric population, and it begins right from early childhood, including 1-week-old neonates. Vaccinations, piercing, topical medicaments and cosmetics in younger patients are potential exposures for sensitization. Nickel is the most common sensitizer in almost all studies pertaining to pediatric contact dermatitis. Other common allergens reported are cobalt, fragrance mix, rubber, lanolin, thiomersol, neomycin, gold, mercapto mix, balsum of Peru and colophony. Different factors like age, sex, atopy, social and cultural practices, habit of parents and caregivers and geographic changes affect the patterns of ACD and their variable clinical presentation. Patch testing should be considered not only in children with lesions of a morphology suggestive of ACD, but in any child with dermatitis that is difficult to control.

  12. Context aware sensing for health monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landete, F.; Chen, W.; Bouwstra, S.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Bambang Oetomo, S.

    2012-01-01

    Health Monitoring systems with textile sensors offer more comfort compared to gel electrodes, however they tend to suffer from poor skin contact and motion artifacts. In order to improve the monitoring reliability, we propose to apply multiple sensors and context aware sensing. A context aware

  13. Gigantic Enhancement in Sensitivity Using Schottky Contacted Nanowire Nanosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Te-Yu

    2009-12-09

    A new single nanowire based nanosensor is demonstrated for illustrating its ultrahigh sensitivity for gas sensing. The device is composed of a single ZnO nanowire mounted on Pt electrodes with one end in Ohmic contact and the other end in Schottky contact. The Schottky contact functions as a "gate" that controls the current flowing through the entire system. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the responsive variation of the surface chemisorbed gases and the amplification role played by the nanowire to Schottky barrier effect, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 32 000% was achieved using the Schottky contacted device operated in reverse bias mode at 275 °C for detection of 400 ppm CO, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using an Ohmic contact device under the same conditions. In addition, the response time and reset time have been shortened by a factor of 7. The methodology and principle illustrated in the paper present a new sensing mechanism that can be readily and extensively applied to other gas sensing systems. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  14. Gigantic Enhancement in Sensitivity Using Schottky Contacted Nanowire Nanosensor

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Te-Yu; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Lu, Shih-Yuan; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2009-01-01

    A new single nanowire based nanosensor is demonstrated for illustrating its ultrahigh sensitivity for gas sensing. The device is composed of a single ZnO nanowire mounted on Pt electrodes with one end in Ohmic contact and the other end in Schottky contact. The Schottky contact functions as a "gate" that controls the current flowing through the entire system. By tuning the Schottky barrier height through the responsive variation of the surface chemisorbed gases and the amplification role played by the nanowire to Schottky barrier effect, an ultrahigh sensitivity of 32 000% was achieved using the Schottky contacted device operated in reverse bias mode at 275 °C for detection of 400 ppm CO, which is 4 orders of magnitude higher than that obtained using an Ohmic contact device under the same conditions. In addition, the response time and reset time have been shortened by a factor of 7. The methodology and principle illustrated in the paper present a new sensing mechanism that can be readily and extensively applied to other gas sensing systems. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  15. Diabetes HealthSense: Resources for Living Well

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the text smaller. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HOME | CONTACT US | ... HealthSense Title/Keywords: Go Diabetes HealthSense provides easy access to resources to help you live well and meet your ...

  16. [Sport injuries in full contact and semi-contact karate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J

    2014-03-01

    Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Metal Chelation as a Powerful Strategy to Probe Cellular Circuitry Governing Fungal Drug Resistance and Morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J Polvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to sense host-relevant cues and coordinate cellular responses, which enable virulence and drug resistance. Defining circuitry controlling these traits opens new opportunities for chemical diversity in therapeutics, as the cognate inhibitors are rarely explored by conventional screening approaches. This has great potential to address the pressing need for new therapeutic strategies for invasive fungal infections, which have a staggering impact on human health. To explore this approach, we focused on a leading human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and screened 1,280 pharmacologically active compounds to identify those that potentiate the activity of echinocandins, which are front-line therapeutics that target fungal cell wall synthesis. We identified 19 compounds that enhance activity of the echinocandin caspofungin against an echinocandin-resistant clinical isolate, with the broad-spectrum chelator DTPA demonstrating the greatest synergistic activity. We found that DTPA increases susceptibility to echinocandins via chelation of magnesium. Whole genome sequencing of mutants resistant to the combination of DTPA and caspofungin identified mutations in the histidine kinase gene NIK1 that confer resistance to the combination. Functional analyses demonstrated that DTPA activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1, and that NIK1 mutations block Hog1 activation in response to both caspofungin and DTPA. The combination has therapeutic relevance as DTPA enhanced the efficacy of caspofungin in a mouse model of echinocandin-resistant candidiasis. We found that DTPA not only reduces drug resistance but also modulates morphogenesis, a key virulence trait that is normally regulated by environmental cues. DTPA induced filamentation via depletion of zinc, in a manner that is contingent upon Ras1-PKA signaling, as well as the transcription factors Brg1 and Rob1. Thus, we establish a new mechanism by which

  18. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  19. Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Joseph E. Jakes; Grant T. Kirker; David Vine; Stefan Vogt

    2017-01-01

    Copper based waterborne wood preservatives are frequently used to extend the service life of wood products when subjected to frequent moisture exposure. While these copper based treatments protect the wood from fungal decay and insect attack, they increase the corrosion of metals embedded or in contact with the treated wood. Previous research has shown the most...

  20. Drag force actuated bistable microswitches for flow sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, W.J.; van Baar, J.J.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; de Boer, J.H.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents bistable microswitches with Au contacts with the aim to combine them with artificial hairs for flow sensing. The Au contacts are applied on both ends of a silicon nitride beam, suspended by a torsional bar at its center. The beam is provided with electrodes for electrostatic

  1. Sensitization to fungal allergens: Resolved and unresolved issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuma Fukutomi

    2015-10-01

    Despite its importance in the management of allergic diseases, precise recognition of species-specific IgE sensitization to fungal allergens is often challenging because the majority of fungal extracts exhibit broad cross-reactivity with taxonomically unrelated fungi. Recent progress in gene technology has contributed to the identification of specific and cross-reactive allergen components from different fungal sources. However, data demonstrating the clinical relevance of IgE reactivity to these allergen components are still insufficient.

  2. An elastic-plastic contact model for line contact structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haibin; Zhao, Yingtao; He, Zhifeng; Zhang, Ruinan; Ma, Shaopeng

    2018-06-01

    Although numerical simulation tools are now very powerful, the development of analytical models is very important for the prediction of the mechanical behaviour of line contact structures for deeply understanding contact problems and engineering applications. For the line contact structures widely used in the engineering field, few analytical models are available for predicting the mechanical behaviour when the structures deform plastically, as the classic Hertz's theory would be invalid. Thus, the present study proposed an elastic-plastic model for line contact structures based on the understanding of the yield mechanism. A mathematical expression describing the global relationship between load history and contact width evolution of line contact structures was obtained. The proposed model was verified through an actual line contact test and a corresponding numerical simulation. The results confirmed that this model can be used to accurately predict the elastic-plastic mechanical behaviour of a line contact structure.

  3. Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Willette-Brown, Jami; Song, Na-Young; Lomada, Dakshayani; Song, Yongmei; Xue, Liyan; Gray, Zane; Zhao, Zitong; Davis, Sean R.; Sun, Zhonghe; Zhang, Peilin; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhan, Qimin; Richie, Ellen R.; Hu, Yinling

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell–driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to developing chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop phenotypes reminiscent of APECED, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Using this model, we investigated the potential link between ESCC and fungal infection. Autoreactive CD4 T cells permit fungal infection and incite tissue injury and inflammation. Antifungal treatment or depletion of autoreactive CD4 T cells rescues, whereas oral fungal administration promotes, ESCC development. Inhibition of inflammation or EGFR activity decreases fungal burden. Importantly, fungal infection is highly associated with ESCCs in non-autoimmune human patients. Therefore, autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection, fostered by inflammation and epithelial injury, promote ESCC development. PMID:28407484

  4. Natural occurrence of fungi and fungal metabolites in moldy tomatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    Fresh tomatoes, homegrown and from supermarkets, with developing fungal lesions were collected. Each lesion was sampled, and the resulting fungal cultures were identified morphologically, and extracted for analyzes of secondary metabolites. The tomatoes were incubated at 25 degreesC for a week....... extracted, and analyzed for fungal metabolites. Extracts from pure cultures were compared with extracts from the moldy tomatoes and fungal metabolite standards in two HPLC systems with DAD and FLD detection. The results showed that Penicillium tularense, Stemphylium eturmiunum. and S. cf. lycopersici were...

  5. Conservation, duplication, and loss of the Tor signaling pathway in the fungal kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitman Joseph

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nutrient-sensing Tor pathway governs cell growth and is conserved in nearly all eukaryotic organisms from unicellular yeasts to multicellular organisms, including humans. Tor is the target of the immunosuppressive drug rapamycin, which in complex with the prolyl isomerase FKBP12 inhibits Tor functions. Rapamycin is a gold standard drug for organ transplant recipients that was approved by the FDA in 1999 and is finding additional clinical indications as a chemotherapeutic and antiproliferative agent. Capitalizing on the plethora of recently sequenced genomes we have conducted comparative genomic studies to annotate the Tor pathway throughout the fungal kingdom and related unicellular opisthokonts, including Monosiga brevicollis, Salpingoeca rosetta, and Capsaspora owczarzaki. Results Interestingly, the Tor signaling cascade is absent in three microsporidian species with available genome sequences, the only known instance of a eukaryotic group lacking this conserved pathway. The microsporidia are obligate intracellular pathogens with highly reduced genomes, and we hypothesize that they lost the Tor pathway as they adapted and streamlined their genomes for intracellular growth in a nutrient-rich environment. Two TOR paralogs are present in several fungal species as a result of either a whole genome duplication or independent gene/segmental duplication events. One such event was identified in the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a chytrid responsible for worldwide global amphibian declines and extinctions. Conclusions The repeated independent duplications of the TOR gene in the fungal kingdom might reflect selective pressure acting upon this kinase that populates two proteinaceous complexes with different cellular roles. These comparative genomic analyses illustrate the evolutionary trajectory of a central nutrient-sensing cascade that enables diverse eukaryotic organisms to respond to their natural

  6. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  7. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zaragoza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  8. Complications of hematopoietic stem transplantation: Fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Almaghrabi, Reem S

    2017-12-01

    Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are at increased risk of invasive fungal infections, especially during the early neutropenic phase and severe graft-versus-host disease. Mold-active prophylaxis should be limited to the highest risk groups. Empiric antifungal therapy for HSCT with persistent febrile neutropenia is associated with unacceptable response rates, unnecessary antifungal therapy, increased risk of toxicity, and inflated costs. Empiric therapy should not be a substitute for detailed work up to identify the cause of fever in such patients. The improved diagnostic performance of serum biomarkers such as galactomannan and β-D-glucan, as well as polymerase chain reaction assays has allowed the development of diagnostic-driven antifungal therapy strategies for high risk patients. Diagnostic-driven approaches have resulted in reduced unnecessary antifungal exposure, improved diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, and reduced costs without increased risk of mortality. The appropriateness of diagnostic-driven antifungal strategy for individual HSCT centers depends on the availability and turnaround times for diagnostics, multidisciplinary expertise, and the local epidemiology of invasive fungal infections. Echinocandins are the treatment of choice for invasive candidiasis in most HSCT recipients. Fluconazole may be used for the treatment of invasive candidiasis in hemodynamically stable patients with no prior azole exposure. The primary treatment of choice for invasive aspergillosis is voriconazole. Alternatives include isavuconazole and lipid formulations of amphotericin. Currently available evidence does not support routine primary combination antifungal therapy for invasive aspergillosis. However, combination salvage antifungal therapy may be considered in selected patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring is recommended for the majority of HSCT recipients on itraconazole, posaconazole, or voriconazole. Copyright © 2017

  9. Optic neuropathy due to allergic fungal rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Tresa Cyriac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncommon case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department of our hospital with complaints of blurred vision in the right eye of a few days duration and vague complaints of pain around the eyes. The visual acuity on examination was grossly reduced in the right eye and normal in the left eye. Color vision was normal. Anterior segment examination including pupils was normal. Dilated fundus examination was normal except for temporal pallor in the right optic disc. Automated perimetry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of brain and orbit were done. The imaging report showed a bilateral pansinusitis with pressure on the right optic nerve. Perimetry showed a superior field defect on the right side. ENT consultation and computed tomography (CT with contrast helped to diagnose this as a case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. The patient was started on systemic steroids under the care of the ENT surgeon. After a few days, pre-operative assessment showed a gross improvement of visual acuity. Endoscopic sinus surgery was done to remove the polyps and thick mucus material. Histopathologic examination confirmed allergic fungal mucin. Days after surgery, the visual acuity improved further and repeat perimetry showed gross improvement in the visual field. Good history taking and a detailed ophthalmic examination, keeping in mind the probable causes of loss of vision of few days duration with no findings other than a decreased visual acuity and a suspicious disc, were key to the early diagnosis and investigation in this case. This helped in early referral and management of the case before permanent damage and irreversible visual loss occurred. The optic nerve is a cranial nerve which, once damaged permanently, will not regenerate. The amount of sinus involvement was extensive on both sides and invariably the left optic nerve would have been involved in a few days, if intervention was delayed.

  10. Fungal cell gigantism during mammalian infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Oscar; García-Rodas, Rocío; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan Luis; Casadevall, Arturo

    2010-06-17

    The interaction between fungal pathogens with the host frequently results in morphological changes, such as hyphae formation. The encapsulated pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans is not considered a dimorphic fungus, and is predominantly found in host tissues as round yeast cells. However, there is a specific morphological change associated with cryptococcal infection that involves an increase in capsule volume. We now report another morphological change whereby gigantic cells are formed in tissue. The paper reports the phenotypic characterization of giant cells isolated from infected mice and the cellular changes associated with giant cell formation. C. neoformans infection in mice resulted in the appearance of giant cells with cell bodies up to 30 microm in diameter and capsules resistant to stripping with gamma-radiation and organic solvents. The proportion of giant cells ranged from 10 to 80% of the total lung fungal burden, depending on infection time, individual mice, and correlated with the type of immune response. When placed on agar, giant cells budded to produce small daughter cells that traversed the capsule of the mother cell at the speed of 20-50 m/h. Giant cells with dimensions that approximated those in vivo were observed in vitro after prolonged culture in minimal media, and were the oldest in the culture, suggesting that giant cell formation is an aging-dependent phenomenon. Giant cells recovered from mice displayed polyploidy, suggesting a mechanism by which gigantism results from cell cycle progression without cell fission. Giant cell formation was dependent on cAMP, but not on Ras1. Real-time imaging showed that giant cells were engaged, but not engulfed by phagocytic cells. We describe a remarkable new strategy for C. neoformans to evade the immune response by enlarging cell size, and suggest that gigantism results from replication without fission, a phenomenon that may also occur with other fungal pathogens.

  11. Fungal infections of the mucous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2010-01-01

    A clinical review of three potentially severe fungal diseases, which are characterized in many cases by mucosal involvement, is presented. They are paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and mucormycosis. Mucosal involvement for paracoccidioidomycosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis is frequent. Thus, oral involvement may provide early clue for diagnosis. In paracoccidioidomycosis, the mucosal lesion classically shows superficial ulcers with granular appearance and hemorrhagic points, usually on lips, palate, and jugal mucosa. In mucormycosis, necrosis of the palate followed for purulent discharge is a hallmark of rhinocerebral disease. Treatment with amphotericin B desoxycholate or the new second-generation triazoles is highly efficacious.

  12. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szponar, B.; Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m 3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m 3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as

  13. Fungal Fourniers Gangrene in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Crowell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fournier's Gangrene is a rapidly progressive necrotizing fasciitis of the groin, perianal and perineal region that is often polymicrobial in nature, often averaging 3 species of bacteria per patient. The typical infection can be due to a host of microbes, including gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic species including. Many of the causative organisms are found in the normal microbial flora of the perineum. Therefore, Fourniers is an opportunistic infection most commonly affecting the immunosuppressed. The majority of Fournier's gangrene are bacterial; however there have been cases of fungal Fournier's gangrene reported in the literature.

  14. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  15. Contacting gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.F.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described for contacting substantially immiscible phases to transfer material from one phase to another, which comprises passing the phases through a contactor, while causing portions of at least one phase to be repeatedly passed through at least one other phase. One phase in the contactor is gaseous, and another liquid. A further phase can be liquid or solid The process may be used for extracting impurities from china clay, or extracting uranium values from ore with oxygen gas acting to oxidise the uranium. (author)

  16. Precision contact level gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, M.; Pilat, M.; Stulik, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment was developed measuring the heavy water level in the TR-0 reactor core within an accuracy of several hundredths of a millimeter in a range of around 3.5 m and at a temperature of up to 90 degC. The equipment uses a vibrating needle contact as a high sensitivity level gauge and a servomechanical system with a motion screw carrying the gauge for monitoring and measuring the level in the desired range. The advantage of the unique level gauge consists in that that the transducer converts the measured level position to an electric signal, ie., pulse width, with high sensitivity and without hysteresis. (Kr)

  17. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  18. Contact ionization ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, N.; Van Der Houven Van Oordt, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    An ion source in which an apertured or foraminous electrode having a multiplicity of openings is spaced from one or more active surfaces of an ionisation electrode, the active surfaces comprising a material capable of ionising by contact ionization a substance to be ionized supplied during operation to the active surface or surfaces comprises means for producing during operation a magnetic field which enables a stable plasma to be formed in the space between the active surface or surfaces and the apertured electrode, the field strength of the magnetic field being preferably in the range between 2 and 8 kilogauss. (U.S.)

  19. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimal contact definition for reconstruction of Contact Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stehr Henning

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact maps have been extensively used as a simplified representation of protein structures. They capture most important features of a protein's fold, being preferred by a number of researchers for the description and study of protein structures. Inspired by the model's simplicity many groups have dedicated a considerable amount of effort towards contact prediction as a proxy for protein structure prediction. However a contact map's biological interest is subject to the availability of reliable methods for the 3-dimensional reconstruction of the structure. Results We use an implementation of the well-known distance geometry protocol to build realistic protein 3-dimensional models from contact maps, performing an extensive exploration of many of the parameters involved in the reconstruction process. We try to address the questions: a to what accuracy does a contact map represent its corresponding 3D structure, b what is the best contact map representation with regard to reconstructability and c what is the effect of partial or inaccurate contact information on the 3D structure recovery. Our results suggest that contact maps derived from the application of a distance cutoff of 9 to 11Å around the Cβ atoms constitute the most accurate representation of the 3D structure. The reconstruction process does not provide a single solution to the problem but rather an ensemble of conformations that are within 2Å RMSD of the crystal structure and with lower values for the pairwise average ensemble RMSD. Interestingly it is still possible to recover a structure with partial contact information, although wrong contacts can lead to dramatic loss in reconstruction fidelity. Conclusions Thus contact maps represent a valid approximation to the structures with an accuracy comparable to that of experimental methods. The optimal contact definitions constitute key guidelines for methods based on contact maps such as structure prediction through

  1. Allergic contact dermatitis from octylisothiazolinone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Anja Pahlow; Frost, Simon; Ohlund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen.......Octylisothiazolinone is a biocide that has been reported as a moderate, but rare contact allergen....

  2. Chlorine-rich plasma polymer coating for the prevention of attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont-Friedrich, Stephanie J; Michl, Thomas D; Giles, Carla; Griesser, Hans J; Coad, Bryan R

    2016-01-01

    The attachment of pathogenic fungal cells onto materials surfaces, which is often followed by biofilm formation, causes adverse consequences in a wide range of areas. Here we have investigated the ability of thin film coatings from chlorinated molecules to deter fungal colonization of solid materials by contact killing of fungal cells reaching the surface of the coating. Coatings were deposited onto various substrate materials via plasma polymerization, which is a substrate-independent process widely used for industrial coating applications, using 1,1,2-trichloroethane as the process vapour. XPS surface analysis showed that the coatings were characterized by a highly chlorinated hydrocarbon polymer nature, with only a very small amount of oxygen incorporated. The activity of these coatings against human fungal pathogens was quantified using a recently developed, modified yeast assay and excellent antifungal activity was observed against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata . Plasma polymer surface coatings derived from chlorinated hydrocarbon molecules may therefore offer a promising solution to preventing yeast and mould biofilm formation on materials surfaces, for applications such as air conditioners, biomedical devices, food processing equipment, and others. (paper)

  3. Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Contaminations in Iranian Alginate, Foreign Alginate and Speedex Used for Impression in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Falah Tafti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Since impression materials usually contact with saliva, blood, and oral soft tissues, their microbial contamination are harmful in immunocompromised patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the bacterial and fungal contamination in common impression materials. Materials and Methods: In current lab trial study, 5 different samples from each 4 impression materials were homogenized in 1 ml Tween 80 and then 100µl of each sample were cultured onto blood agar, EMB, or sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacterial and fungal cultures were incubated at 37º C and 30º C, respectively. The isolated bacterial and fungal colonies were enumerated and identified using specific diagnostic media and tests. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Totally 75% of samples had one or several bacterial contaminations. Iranian alginate and Speedex (putty were the most contaminated samples. On the other hand, Speedex (light body and foreign alginate showed lower contamination. Species of Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacilluses, Corynebacteria, gram negative Citrobacter, Actinomycetes and Neisseria were isolated from the analyzed impression materials. Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Sepdonium were the fungi isolated from impression materials. Statistical significant difference was shown between bacterial contamination of Iranian and foreign alginates (P=0.001. There was no statistical significant differences between the bacterial and fungal isolated colonies (CFU/gr of 4 tested impression materials (P=0.21. Conclusion: Several opportunistic bacteria and fungi were isolated from impression materials especially from Iranian alginate and Speedex putty which indicated their contamination.

  4. Detection of fungi by conventional methods and semi-nested PCR in patients with presumed fungal keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghani, I; Amirinia, F; Nowroozpoor-Dailami, K; Shokohi, T

    2015-06-01

    Fungal keratitis is a suppurative, ulcerative, and sight-threatening infection of the cornea that sometimes leads to blindness. The aims of this study were: recuperating facilities for laboratory diagnosis, determining the causative microorganisms, and comparing conventional laboratory diagnostic tools and semi-nested PCR. Sampling was conducted in patients with suspected fungal keratitis. Two corneal scrapings specimens, one for direct smear and culture and the other for semi- nested PCR were obtained. Of the 40 expected cases of mycotic keratitis, calcofluor white staining showed positivity in 25%, culture in 17.5%, KOH in 10%, and semi-nested PCR in 27.5%. The sensitivities of semi-nested PCR, KOH, and CFW were 57.1%, 28.5%, and 42% while the specificities were 78.7%, 94%, and 78.7%, respectively. The time taken for PCR assay was 4 to 8 hours, whereas positive fungal cultures took at least 5 to 7 days. Due to the increasing incidence of fungal infections in people with weakened immune systems, uninformed using of topical corticosteroids and improper use of contact lens, fast diagnosis and accurate treatment of keratomycosis seems to be essential . Therefore, according to the current study, molecular methods can detect mycotic keratitis early and correctly leading to appropriate treatment.

  5. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  7. Sexual Reproduction of Human Fungal Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitman, Joseph; Carter, Dee A.; Dyer, Paul S.; Soll, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We review here recent advances in our understanding of sexual reproduction in fungal pathogens that commonly infect humans, including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans/gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Where appropriate or relevant, we introduce findings on other species associated with human infections. In particular, we focus on rapid advances involving genetic, genomic, and population genetic approaches that have reshaped our view of how fungal pathogens evolve. Rather than being asexual, mitotic, and largely clonal, as was thought to be prevalent as recently as a decade ago, we now appreciate that the vast majority of pathogenic fungi have retained extant sexual, or parasexual, cycles. In some examples, sexual and parasexual unions of pathogenic fungi involve closely related individuals, generating diversity in the population but with more restricted recombination than expected from fertile, sexual, outcrossing and recombining populations. In other cases, species and isolates participate in global outcrossing populations with the capacity for considerable levels of gene flow. These findings illustrate general principles of eukaryotic pathogen emergence with relevance for other fungi, parasitic eukaryotic pathogens, and both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotic organisms. PMID:25085958

  8. Burden of serious fungal infections in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-León, D E; Armstrong-James, D; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    Serious fungal infections (SFIs) could be more frequent than are recognised. Estimates of the incidence and prevalence of SFIs are essential in order to identify public health problems. We estimated the rates of SFIs in Mexico, following a methodology similar to that used in prior studies. We obtained information about the general population and populations at risk. A systematic literature search was undertaken to identify epidemiological reports of SFIs in Mexico. When Mexican reports were unavailable, we based our estimates on international literature. The most prevalent SFIs in Mexico are recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (5999 per 100,000) followed by allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (60 per 100,000), chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (15.9 per 100,000), fungal keratitis (10.4 per 100,000), invasive candidiasis (8.6 per 100,000) and SFIs in HIV (8.2 per 100,000); coccidioidomycosis (7.6 per 100,000), IA (4.56 per 100,000). These correspond to 2,749,159 people affected in any year (2.45% of the population), probably >10,000 deaths and 7000 blind eyes. SFIs affect immunocompromised and healthy populations. Most are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Validation of these estimates with epidemiological studies is required. The burdens indicate that an urgent need to improve medical skills, surveillance, diagnosis, and management of SFIs exists. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. After Contact - Then What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    Few topics ignite the imagination as do the prospects of encountering extraterrestrial life - and what this may mean for individuals, societies, and cultures. Until recently speculation fell largely within the realms of philosophy, science fiction, and UFO studies. By 1960, however, the theoretical feasibility of interstellar transmissions coupled with Frank Drake's initial empirical search, Project Ozma, established a need to put such speculation on a firmer footing. Drake's work had gained the attention of Donald Norman, a psychologist who was developing a report on the peaceful uses of outer space for the US Congress. Whereas most of this report dealt with topics such as communications satellites, remote sensing, and human space exploration, portions dwelled on the possible implications of the discovery.

  10. Physicochemical Properties of Fungal Detoxified Cassava Mash and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical properties of fungal detoxified cassava mash and sensory characteristics of wheat-detoxified cassava composite doughnuts were investigated. Fungal isolates from soils collected at cassava processing sites were isolated, quantified and identified. Cassava mash from grated tuber was partially ...

  11. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dean, R.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Pretorius, Z.A.; Hammond-Kosack, K.E.; Pietro, Di A.; Spanu, P.D.; Rudd, J.J.; Dickman, M.; Kahmann, R.; Ellis, J.; Foster, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a ‘Top 10’ based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international

  12. Chronic invasive fungal granulomatous rhino-sinusitis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal Rhino-Sinusitis (FRS) is a relatively uncommon entity. The chronic invasive granulomatous form of FRS (FGRS) is a slowly progressive form of fungal infection characterized by chronic granulomatous process with a time course of longer than 12 weeks. The aim of this report is to draw the attention of colleagues to ...

  13. Structure and biosynthesis of fungal alpha-glucans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grün, Christian Hugo

    2003-01-01

    The fungal cell wall is unique among eukaryotes and therefore it forms an ideal target for the development of novel antifungal drugs. Fungal cell morphology and integrity depend on a cell-surrounding wall, which is composed of glycoproteins and polysaccharides. Disrupting enzymes that are involved

  14. First genomic survey of human skin fungal diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungal infections of the skin affect 29 million people in the United States. In the first study of human fungal skin diversity, National Institutes of Health researchers sequenced the DNA of fungi that thrive at different skin sites of healthy adults to d

  15. Studies on the fungal flora of Garri, processed cassava ( Manihot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nsukka area of southeastern Nigeria, garri is usually displayed in the open market for sale which no doubt exposes the food stuff to dust particles from moving vehicles, wind and other sources. Thus, fungal spores from the air and soil environment could serve as major sources of fungal contamination of this product.

  16. Isolation and identification of fungal species from dried date palm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 360 dried date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits were collected from hawkers, shops and market places within Maiduguri metropolis for the detection of the presence of fungal species. Investigation was based on cultural, microscopically and biochemical tests. Of the 327 (90.83%) fungal isolates recovered on ...

  17. Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of Microbial Protease from Selected Soil Fungal Isolates. ... Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology ... and 500C. The optimal pH on the enzyme production was observed to be between pH 3.5 and 5.5 for the organisms. Keywords: Soil microorganism, fungal isolate, incubation period, microbial enzyme. Nig J. Biotech.

  18. New perspectives towards analising fungal communities in terrestrial environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    Fungi play key roles in numerous ecosystem functions, and recent advances in the study of fungal diversity and ecology have led to a greater appreciation of this group of microeukaryotes. The application of a variety of nucleic acid techniques to fungal classification and phylogeny has led to a

  19. Inositol Polyphosphate Kinases, Fungal Virulence and Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic fungi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Developing new treatments to combat invasive fungal disease is challenging given that fungal and mammalian host cells are eukaryotic, with similar organization and physiology. Even therapies targeting unique fungal cell features have limitations and drug resistance is emerging. New approaches to the development of antifungal drugs are therefore needed urgently. Cryptococcus neoformans, the commonest cause of fungal meningitis worldwide, is an accepted model for studying fungal pathogenicity and driving drug discovery. We recently characterized a phospholipase C (Plc1-dependent pathway in C. neoformans comprising of sequentially-acting inositol polyphosphate kinases (IPK, which are involved in synthesizing inositol polyphosphates (IP. We also showed that the pathway is essential for fungal cellular function and pathogenicity. The IP products of the pathway are structurally diverse, each consisting of an inositol ring, with phosphate (P and pyrophosphate (PP groups covalently attached at different positions. This review focuses on (1 the characterization of the Plc1/IPK pathway in C. neoformans; (2 the identification of PP-IP5 (IP7 as the most crucial IP species for fungal fitness and virulence in a mouse model of fungal infection; and (3 why IPK enzymes represent suitable candidates for drug development.

  20. Structure of fungal oxyluciferin, the product of the bioluminescence reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, K V; Osipova, Z M; Petushkov, V N; Rodionova, N S; Tsarkova, A S; Kotlobay, A A; Chepurnykh, T V; Gorokhovatsky, A Yu; Yampolsky, I V; Gitelson, J I

    2017-11-01

    The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was determined, the enzymatic bioluminescence reaction under substrate saturation conditions with discrete monitoring of formed products was conducted, and the structures of the end products of the reaction were established. On the basis of these studies, the scheme of oxyluciferin degradation to the end products was developed. The structure of fungal oxyluciferin was confirmed by counter synthesis.

  1. Fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D

    2003-01-01

    in the same products. This means that it is difficult to avoid exposure, as products labelled as 'fragrance free' have also been shown to contain fragrance ingredients, either because of the use of fragrance ingredients as preservatives or masking perfumes, or the use of botanicals. About 2500 different...... fragrance ingredients are currently used in the composition of perfumes and at least 100 of these are known contact allergens. Therefore, it is advisable to supplement standard patch testing with the patient's own stay-on cosmetic products, as well as the fragrance chemical hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexane...... carboxaldehyde, which on its own gives responses in 1-3% of tested patients. The focus in recent years on the ingredients of the fragrance mix will probably result in the fragrance industry changing the composition of perfumes, and thus make the current diagnostic test less useful. New diagnostic tests are under...

  2. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  3. Hair dye contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søsted, Heidi; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2004-01-01

    Colouring of hair can cause severe allergic contact dermatitis. The most frequently reported hair dye allergens are p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine, which are included in, respectively, the patch test standard series and the hairdressers series. The aim of the present study...... was to identify dye precursors and couplers in hair dyeing products causing clinical hair dye dermatitis and to compare the data with the contents of these compounds in a randomly selected set of similar products. The patient material comprised 9 cases of characteristic clinical allergic hair dye reaction, where...... exposure history and patch testing had identified a specific hair dye product as the cause of the reaction. The 9 products used by the patients were subjected to chemical analysis. 8 hair dye products contained toluene-2,5-diamine (0.18 to 0.98%). PPD (0.27%) was found in 1 product, and m-aminophenol (0...

  4. Reducing contact resistance in graphene devices through contact area patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua T; Franklin, Aaron D; Farmer, Damon B; Dimitrakopoulos, Christos D

    2013-04-23

    Performance of graphene electronics is limited by contact resistance associated with the metal-graphene (M-G) interface, where unique transport challenges arise as carriers are injected from a 3D metal into a 2D-graphene sheet. In this work, enhanced carrier injection is experimentally achieved in graphene devices by forming cuts in the graphene within the contact regions. These cuts are oriented normal to the channel and facilitate bonding between the contact metal and carbon atoms at the graphene cut edges, reproducibly maximizing "edge-contacted" injection. Despite the reduction in M-G contact area caused by these cuts, we find that a 32% reduction in contact resistance results in Cu-contacted, two-terminal devices, while a 22% reduction is achieved for top-gated graphene transistors with Pd contacts as compared to conventionally fabricated devices. The crucial role of contact annealing to facilitate this improvement is also elucidated. This simple approach provides a reliable and reproducible means of lowering contact resistance in graphene devices to bolster performance. Importantly, this enhancement requires no additional processing steps.

  5. Contact angle and local wetting at contact line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ri; Shan, Yanguang

    2012-11-06

    This theoretical study was motivated by recent experiments and theoretical work that had suggested the dependence of the static contact angle on the local wetting at the triple-phase contact line. We revisit this topic because the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter is still not widely understood and clearly known. To further clarify the relationship of the static contact angle with wetting, two approaches are applied to derive a general equation for the static contact angle of a droplet on a composite surface composed of heterogeneous components. A global approach based on the free surface energy of a thermodynamic system containing the droplet and solid surface shows the static contact angle as a function of local surface chemistry and local wetting state at the contact line. A local approach, in which only local forces acting on the contact line are considered, results in the same equation. The fact that the local approach agrees with the global approach further demonstrates the static contact angle as a local wetting parameter. Additionally, the study also suggests that the wetting described by the Wenzel and Cassie equations is also the local wetting of the contact line rather than the global wetting of the droplet.

  6. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contact and Non-contact Measurements of Grinding Pins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdziak Marek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of contact and non-contact measurements of external profiles of selected grinding pins. The measurements were conducted in order to choose the appropriate measuring technique in the case of the considered measurement task. In the case of contact measurements the coordinate measuring machine ACCURA II was applied. The used coordinate measuring machine was equipped with the contact scanning probe VAST XT and the Calypso inspection software. Contact coordinate measurements were performed by using of different measurement strategies. The applied strategies included different scanning velocities and distances between measured points. Non-contact measurements were conducted by means of the tool presetter produced by the Mahr company. On the basis of gained results the guidelines concerning measurements of grinding pins were formulated. The measurements of analyzed grinding pins performed by means of the non-contact measuring system are characterized by higher reproducibility than the contact measurements. The low reproducibility of contact measurements may be connected with the inaccuracy of the selected coordinate measuring machine and the measuring probe, the measurement parameters and environmental conditions in the laboratory where the coordinate measuring machine is located. Moreover, the paper presents the possible application of results of conducted investigations. The results of non-contact measurements can be used in the simulation studies of grinding processes. The simulations may reduce the costs of machining processes.

  8. Acute fungal sinusitis in neutropenic patients of Namazi hospital/ Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fungal sinusitis is a well known disease in immunocompromised patients, but recently many reports have indicated an increased prevalence of fungal sinusitis in otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of invasive fungal sinusitis (IFS in neutropenic patients and to determine outcome factors that may affect their survival. Methods: A total of 142 patients who were undergoing chemotherapy were followed by clinical and radiological features suggestive of fungal sinusitis. Patients with fever, headache, facial swelling and radiological finding underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The biopsy materials were studied by mycological and histopathological methods. Results: Eleven from 142 patients were identified to have IFS. The ethiologic agents were Aspergillus flavus (5 cases, Alternaria sp. (3 cases, Aspergillus fumigatus (2 cases and mucor (1 case. Eight of 11 cases died. Conclusions: Invasive fungal sinusitis causes a high rate of mortality among immunocompromised patients. Therefore, early diagnosis with aggressive medical and surgical intervention is critical for survival.

  9. The Interface between Fungal Biofilms and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Kernien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal biofilms are communities of adherent cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. These biofilms are commonly found during infection caused by a variety of fungal pathogens. Clinically, biofilm infections can be extremely difficult to eradicate due to their resistance to antifungals and host defenses. Biofilm formation can protect fungal pathogens from many aspects of the innate immune system, including killing by neutrophils and monocytes. Altered immune recognition during this phase of growth is also evident by changes in the cytokine profiles of monocytes and macrophages exposed to biofilm. In this manuscript, we review the host response to fungal biofilms, focusing on how these structures are recognized by the innate immune system. Biofilms formed by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus have received the most attention and are highlighted. We describe common themes involved in the resilience of fungal biofilms to host immunity and give examples of biofilm defenses that are pathogen-specific.

  10. Fungal endophytes characterization from four species of Diplazium Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affina-Eliya, A. A.; Noraini, T.; Nazlina, I.; Ruzi, A. R.

    2014-09-01

    Four species on genus Diplazium namely Diplazium tomentosum, D. sorzogonense, D. asperum and D. accedens of Peninsular Malaysia were studied for presence of fungal endophyte. The objective of this study is to characterize fungal endophytes in the rhizome of four Diplazium species. The rhizome was surface sterilized and incubated to isolate fungal endophytes. Characterization of the colonies was performed by macroscopic morphological, microscopic identification, types of hyphae and mycelium, and spore structure. For isolation that produces spores, the structure of conidiophores and conidia were identified. From this study, four fungal have been isolated and determined as Aspergillus sp. (isolates AE 1), Aspergillus fumigatus (isolates AE 2), Aspergillus versicolor (isolates AE 3) and Verticillium sp. (isolates AE 4). The fungal isolates from this study were classified from the same family Moniliaceae.

  11. Adaptations in bacterial and fungal communities to termite fungiculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otani, Saria

    in the bacterial and fungal communities. To do this, we used pyrosequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation, light and confocal microscopy, enzymatic assays, chemical extractions, in vitro assays, and feeding experiments in this thesis work to elucidate these predicted changes in fungus-growing termite...... in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. However, gut microbiotas remained distinct from those of termites after Termitomyces-feeding, indicating that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions......, and possibly gut microenvironment constrain the magnitude of change. This thesis also characterises the fungus comb fungal communities (mycobiotas) in fungusgrowing termites, and shows that non-Termitomyces fungi were essentially absent in combs, and that Termitomyces fungal crops are maintained...

  12. Pyrosequencing assessment of rhizosphere fungal communities from a soybean field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Akifumi; Ueda, Yoshikatsu; Takase, Hisabumi; Yazaki, Kazufumi

    2014-10-01

    Soil fungal communities play essential roles in soil ecosystems, affecting plant growth and health. Rhizosphere bacterial communities have been shown to undergo dynamic changes during plant growth. This study utilized 454 pyrosequencing to analyze rhizosphere fungal communities during soybean growth. Members of the Ascomycota and Basiodiomycota dominated in all soils. There were no statistically significant changes at the phylum level among growth stages or between bulk and rhizosphere soils. In contrast, the relative abundance of small numbers of operational taxonomic units, 4 during growth and 28 between bulk and rhizosphere soils, differed significantly. Clustering analysis revealed that rhizosphere fungal communities were different from bulk fungal communities during growth stages of soybeans. Taken together, these results suggest that in contrast to rhizosphere bacterial communities, most constituents of rhizosphere fungal communities remained stable during soybean growth.

  13. The burden of serious fungal diseases in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimko, N; Kozlova, Y; Khostelidi, S; Shadrivova, O; Borzova, Y; Burygina, E; Vasilieva, N; Denning, D W

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Russia is unknown. We estimated the burden of fungal infections in Russia according to the methodology of the LIFE program (www.LIFE-worldwide.org). The total number of patients with serious and chronic mycoses in Russia in 2011 was three million. Most of these patients (2,607,494) had superficial fungal infections (recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral and oesophageal candidiasis with HIV infection and tinea capitis). Invasive and chronic fungal infections (invasive candidiasis, invasive and chronic aspergillosis, cryptococcal meningitis, mucormycosis and Pneumocystis pneumonia) affected 69,331 patients. The total number of adults with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation was 406,082. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Optical properties of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Adverdi; V-Hernandez, Alejandra; Rudamas, Carlos; Dreyer, Beatriz

    2008-01-01

    It was already reported by B. Dreyer at al. [1] that all fungal structures, both intra- and extra-radical fluoresced under blue light excitation regardless of their state (dead or alive). The source of the so called autofluorescence appears to be localized in the fungal cell wall. This supports the use of photoluminescence for the evaluation of AM colonization. However, the interpretation of these results is still in discussion [1-4]. In this work, arbuscular mycorrhizal spores were isolated from the rhizosphere of mango (Mangifera indica L.) plants by the method of wet sieving and decanting of Gerdemann and Nicolson [5] and studied by photoluminescence spectroscopy. Our experimental setup consists of an epifluorescence microscope (EM) coupled to a CCD-spectrometer through an arrangement of a home-made-telescope + fiber optic. This experimental setup allows the capture of images of the mycorrhizal structures (as usual in a standard epifluorescence microscope) combined with measurements of their corresponding emission bands. The preliminary results based on images obtained by standard EM do not clearly show that the emission is originated in the fungal cell walls as reported in Ref. 1. On the other hand, a very broad emission band in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum was observed in these spores by exciting at 450-490 nm and 300- 380 nm. We obtain a Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of around 200 nm for this emission band whichis centered at 515 nm. This broad band seems to be composed of two narrower bands peaked around 494 and 547 nm and with FWHM of 50 nm and 150 nm, respectively. The profile of the observed emission band is in good agreement with the bands reported in Ref. 1 for vesicles, arbuscules and spores measured using the λ-Scan of a confocal laser scanning microscope. However, our results for spores show that the maxima of the narrower bands are shifted to higher energies in comparison to the corresponding bands observed in Ref. 1

  15. Specific recognition of fungal pathogens by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knogge, W.; Gierlich, A.; Max-Planck-Institute for Plant Breeding,; Van't Slot, K.A.E.; Papavoine, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Induction of plant defence reactions and, hence, genotype-specific disease resistance results from the interaction of highly specific plant resistance (R) genes with matching pathogen avirulence (Avr) genes (gene-for-gene interactions). More than thirty R genes acting against different types of pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes) have been isolated from various plants species. However, with few exceptions it remains to be shown how their products recognise the complementary Avr gene products. To date, Avr genes and their products have been characterised from only three fungal species. These include the NIP1 gene from Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of barley leaf scald. It encodes a small, secreted protein, NIP1, that triggers defence reactions exclusively in barley cultivars expressing the R gene Rrs1. NIP1 also non-specifically stimulates the H + -ATPase activity in barley plasma membranes, suggesting that the host recognition system targets a putative fungal virulence factor. Virulent fungal strains lack the gene or carry an allele encoding a non-functional product. Four NIP1 iso-forms have been characterised; NIP1-I and NIP1-II although both elicitor-active display different levels of activity, whereas the isoforms NIP1-III and NIP1-IV are inactive. After establishing a heterologous expression system, the single amino acids specifying NIP1-III and NIP1-IV were integrated into the NIP1-I sequence and yielded the inactive mutant proteins NIP1-III* and NIP1-IV*. The elicitor-inactive isoforms were also unable to stimulate the H + -ATPase, suggesting that both functions of NIP1 are mediated by a single plant receptor. The 3D structure of NIP1-I has been elucidated by 1 H- and 15 N-NMR spectroscopy. Binding studies using 125 I-NIP1-I revealed a single class of high-affinity binding sites on membranes from both Rrs1- and rrs1-cultivars, suggesting that NIP1-binding is not sufficient for defence triggering and that an

  16. Selection of Infective Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Isolates for Field Inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pellegrino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play a key role in host plant growth and health, nutrient and water uptake, plant community diversity and dynamics. AM fungi differ in their symbiotic performance, which is the result of the interaction of two fungal characters, infectivity and efficiency. Infectivity is the ability of a fungal isolate to establish rapidly an extensive mycorrhizal symbiosis and is correlated with pre-symbiotic steps of fungal life cycle, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. Here, different AM fungal isolates were tested, with the aim of selecting infective endophytes for field inoculation. Greenhouse and microcosm experiments were performed in order to assess the ability of 12 AM fungal isolates to produce spores, colonize host roots and to perform initial steps of symbiosis establishment, such as spore germination and hyphal growth. AM fungal spore production and root colonization were significantly different among AM fungal isolates. Spore and sporocarp densities ranged from 0.8 to 7.4 and from 0.6 to 2.0 per gram of soil, respectively, whereas root colonization ranged from 2.9 to 72.2%. Percentage of spore or sporocarp germination ranged from 5.8 to 53.3% and hyphal length from 4.7 to 79.8 mm. The ordination analysis (Redundancy Analysis, RDA showed that environmental factors explained about 60% of the whole variance and their effect on fungal infectivity variables was significant (P = 0.002. The biplot clearly showed that variables which might be used to detect infective AM fungal isolates were hyphal length and root colonization. Such analysis may allow the detection of the best parameters to select efficient AM fungal isolates to be used in agriculture.

  17. Characterizations of contact and sheet resistances of vertically aligned carbon nanotube forests with intrinsic bottom contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yingqi; Wang Pengbo; Lin Liwei, E-mail: jiangyq99@gmail.com, E-mail: lwlin@me.berkeley.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of California at Berkeley (United States)

    2011-09-07

    Comprehensive studies on the sheet and contact resistances of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forests with as-grown bottom contacts to the metal layer have been conducted. Using microfabrication and four distinct methods: (1) the transfer length method (TLM), (2) the contact chain method, (3) the Kelvin method, and (4) the four point probe method, we have designed multiple testing devices to characterize the resistances of CNT-forest-based devices. Experimental results show that devices based on stripe-shaped CNT forests 100 {mu}m in height and 100 {mu}m in width have a sheet resistance of approximately 100{Omega}/{open_square}. The corresponding specific contact resistance to the molybdenum layer is roughly 5 x 10{sup 4} {Omega} {mu}m{sup 2}. Consistency of the results from the four different methods validates the study. After two months of storage of the CNT forest samples in open air, less than 0.9% deviations in the resistance values were observed. We further demonstrated one application of CNT forests as an NH{sub 3} gas sensor and measured 0.5 ppm of sensing resolution with a detection response time of 1 min.

  18. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  19. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  20. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  1. Modelling Fungal Fermentations for Enzyme Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Mads Orla; Gernaey, Krist; Hansen, Morten S.

    We have developed a process model of fungal fed-batch fermentations for enzyme production. In these processes, oxygen transfer rate is limiting and controls the substrate feeding rate. The model has been shown to describe cultivations of both Aspergillus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei strains in 550......L stirred tank pilot plant reactors well. For each strain, 8 biological parameters are needed as well as a correlation of viscosity, as viscosity has a major influence on oxygen transfer. The parameters were measured averages of at least 9 batches for each strain. The model is successfully able...... to cover a wide range of process conditions (0.3-2 vvm of aeration, 0.2-10.0 kW/m3 of specific agitation power input, and 0.1-1.3 barg head space pressure). Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have shown that the uncertainty of the model is mainly due to difficulties surrounding the estimation...

  2. 2. The Amsterdam Declaration on fungal nomenclature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawksworth, David L.; Crous, Pedro W.; Redhead, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current...... to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except...... where there is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated...

  3. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  4. Fungal Phytotoxins in Sustainable Weed Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurro, Maurizio; Boari, Angela; Casella, Francesca; Zonno, Maria Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Fungal phytotoxins are natural secondary metabolites produced by plant pathogenic fungi during host-pathogen interactions. They have received considerable particular attention for elucidating disease etiology, and consequently to design strategies for disease control. Due to wide differences in their chemical structures, these toxic metabolites have different ecological and environmental roles and mechanisms of action. This review aims at summarizing the studies on the possible use of these metabolites as tools in biological and integrated weed management, e.g. as: novel and environmentally friendly herbicides; lead for novel compounds; sources of novel mechanisms of action. Moreover, the limiting factors for utilizing those metabolites in practice will also be briefly discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Quaternionic contact Einstein structures and the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Stefan; Vassilev, Dimiter

    2014-01-01

    A partial solution of the quaternionic contact Yamabe problem on the quaternionic sphere is given. It is shown that the torsion of the Biquard connection vanishes exactly when the trace-free part of the horizontal Ricci tensor of the Biquard connection is zero and this occurs precisely on 3-Sasakian manifolds. All conformal transformations sending the standard flat torsion-free quaternionic contact structure on the quaternionic Heisenberg group to a quaternionic contact structure with vanishing torsion of the Biquard connection are explicitly described. A "3-Hamiltonian form" of infinitesimal conformal automorphisms of quaternionic contact structures is presented.

  6. Fungal infection risk groups among school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ejdas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between ocurrence of fungi in children and living environment (city - countryside, sex, age, diet, undergone diseases therapy with antibiotics and exposure to hospital environment, and to indicate children potentially vulnerable to fungal infections. The material was consisted of swabs collected from the oral cavily, the throat and the nose of healthy children, aged 6-9 and 10-15, from both urban and rural environmens. Candida albicans, the basic aetiological factor in thc majority of mycoses recorded in humans, unquestionably prevailed in the group of the 13 speciec of yeast-like fungi and yeasts isolated. Records of C. glabrata and C. krusei increasing numbers of whose strains show resistance to basic antimycoties, as well as relatively frequent records of Trichosporon beigelii, Saccharomycopsis capsularis and Saccharomyces sp., fungi whose expansiveness and enzymatic activity have been growing, may be considered disconcerting. Vulnerability to fungal infection increases following anti-bacterial antibiotic therapy in the majority of subjects regardless season or age. This is particularly true primarily of the most stable ontocoenosis of the throat. Younger children, on the other hand, are the most vulnerable foUowing infection of the respiratory system. Fungi are likely to colonise the nose in this case. Children living in the countryside who had been ll immediately prior to the collection of the material constitute the highest risk group of the occurrence of fungi in any of the ontocoenoses studied. A greater number of positive inoculations were recorded in these children in comparison to the children from the city. It may be indicative of a more extensive spectrum of natural reservoirs of fungi and the vectors of their transmission in rural areas than those in the city, lower health hygiene and lower immunity or of a more common carriage of fungi among rural children.

  7. [Contact glass tonometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, P W; Kanngiesser, H; Robert, Y C

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a tonometer built into a contactlens, which allows to measure the eye-pressure and to perform ophthalmoscopy at the same time. Artificially induced changes of the eye-pressure and their influence on the visible fundus can now be checked simultaneously. The contactlens-tonometer (CGT) also is able to record continuously the pulse-curve, which can indicate any circulatory problem. So, the device is expected to give us additional diagnostic criteria of early glaucoma. Each ophthalmologyst in the field will be able to perform with this device a oculodynamometry in an easy way. By this it is possible to estimate the pressure-tolerance of the optic disk from glaucoma-patients. There have been taken some measurements on enucleated human eyes, comparing our device with a Statham-transducer in the vitreous. We found a good correlation. In a second step, we made measurements (65) on healthy volunteers, comparing the device with Perkins-Tonometry. We found a correlation (R = 0.58). The error of the measurements was about +/- 3 mm Hg. Considering both, the deviation of the Perkins-Tonometer with which our results were compared, and the fact of a good correlation (R = 0.999) in the study with the enucleated human eyes, we found that the contact-lens-tonometer measures the intraocular pressure exactly. In future studies, we want to analyze the dynamic component of the measurements.

  8. Contact sport and osteoarthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, Michael G

    2011-04-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.

  9. The importance of contact quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian; Gerritsen, Marinel; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    Establishing contact between expatriates and a local host has been found to reap benefits with regard to Interaction Adjustment, Host National Social Support, Open-mindedness, and Social Initiative. This longitudinal study examines the role of the quality of contact for these four aspects....... Expatriates in the Netherlands were randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 33) of which 21 developed high-quality contact with their host, and a control group (n = 32) without host. The results show that contact quality plays an important role and suggest that the higher the quality of the contact......, the more benefit the expatriate experienced. Moreover, expatriates with low-quality contact did not experience a detrimental effect....

  10. Antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the botanical medicine goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Joseph M; Kaur, Amninder; Raja, Huzefa A; Kellogg, Joshua J; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-09-01

    The potential of fungal endophytes to alter or contribute to plant chemistry and biology has been the topic of a great deal of recent interest. For plants that are used medicinally, it has been proposed that endophytes might play an important role in biological activity. With this study, we sought to identify antimicrobial fungal endophytes from the medicinal plant goldenseal ( Hydrastis canadensis L., Ranunculaceae), a plant used in traditional medicine to treat infection. A total of 23 fungal cultures were obtained from surface-sterilized samples of H. canadensis roots, leaves and seeds. Eleven secondary metabolites were isolated from these fungal endophytes, five of which had reported antimicrobial activity. Hydrastis canadensis plant material was then analyzed for the presence of fungal metabolites using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolving power mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound alternariol monomethyl ether was detected both as a metabolite of the fungal endophyte Alternaria spp. isolated from H. canadensis seeds, and as a component of an extract from the H. canadensis seed material. Notably, fungi of the Alternaria genus were isolated from three separate accessions of H. canadensis plant material collected in a time period spanning 5 years. The concentration of alternariol monomethyl ether (991 mg/kg in dry seed material) was in a similar range to that previously reported for metabolites of ecologically important fungal endophytes. The seed extracts themselves, however, did not possess antimicrobial activity.

  11. Impact of metal pollution on fungal diversity and community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op De Beeck, Michiel; Lievens, Bart; Busschaert, Pieter; Rineau, Francois; Smits, Mark; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Colpaert, Jan V

    2015-06-01

    The impact of metal pollution on plant communities has been studied extensively in the past, but little is known about the effects of metal pollution on fungal communities that occur in metal-polluted soils. Metal-tolerant ecotypes of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Suillus luteus are frequently found in pioneer pine forests in the Campine region in Belgium on metal-polluted soils. We hypothesized that metal pollution would play an important role in shaping below-ground fungal communities that occur in these soils and that Suillus luteus would be a dominant player. To test these hypotheses, the fungal communities in a young pine plantation in soil polluted with zinc, and cadmium were studied using 454 amplicon pyrosequencing. Results show that zinc, cadmium and soil organic matter content were strongly correlated with the fungal community composition, but no effects on fungal diversity were observed. As hypothesized, S. luteus was found to be a dominant member of the studied fungal communities. However, other dominant fungal species, such as Sistotrema sp., Wilcoxina mikolae and Cadophora finlandica were found as well. Their presence in metal-polluted sites is discussed. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A novel model of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; An, Yunfang; Li, Zeqing; Zhao, Changqing

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS) is a life-threatening inflammatory disease that affects immunocompromised patients, but animal models of the disease are scarce. This study aimed to develop an IFRS model in neutropenic rats. The model was established in three consecutive steps: unilateral nasal obstruction with Merocel sponges, followed by administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA), and, finally, nasal inoculation with Aspergillus fumigatus. Fifty healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, with group I as the controls, group II undergoing unilateral nasal obstruction alone, group III undergoing nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation, group IV undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA, and group V undergoing nasal obstruction with administration of CPA and fungal inoculation. Hematology, histology, and mycology investigations were performed. The changes in the rat absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) were statistically different across the groups. The administration of CPA decreased the ANCs, whereas nasal obstruction with fungal inoculation increased the ANCs, and nasal obstruction did not change them. Histological examination of the rats in group V revealed the hyphal invasion of sinus mucosa and bone, thrombosis, and tissue infarction. No pathology indicative of IFRS was observed in the remaining groups. Positive rates of fungal culture in tissue homogenates from the maxillary sinus (62.5%) and lung (25%) were found in group V, whereas groups I, II, III, and IV showed no fungal culture in the homogenates. A rat IFRS model was successfully developed through nasal obstruction, CPA-induced neutropenia, and fungal inoculation. The disease model closely mimics the pathophysiology of anthropic IFRS.

  13. Pyrosequencing Reveals Fungal Communities in the Rhizosphere of Xinjiang Jujube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are important soil components as both decomposers and plant symbionts and play a major role in ecological and biogeochemical processes. However, little is known about the richness and structure of fungal communities. DNA sequencing technologies allow for the direct estimation of microbial community diversity, avoiding culture-based biases. We therefore used 454 pyrosequencing to investigate the fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube. We obtained no less than 40,488 internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA reads, the number of each sample was 6943, 6647, 6584, 6550, 6860, and 6904, and we used bioinformatics and multivariate statistics to analyze the results. The index of diversity showed greater richness in the rhizosphere fungal community of a 3-year-old jujube than in that of an 8-year-old jujube. Most operational taxonomic units belonged to Ascomycota, and taxonomic analyses identified Hypocreales as the dominant fungal order. Our results demonstrated that the fungal orders are present in different proportions in different sampling areas. Redundancy analysis (RDA revealed a significant correlation between soil properties and the abundance of fungal phyla. Our results indicated lower fungal diversity in the rhizosphere of Xinjiang jujube than that reported in other studies, and we hope our findings provide a reference for future research.

  14. Mites as selective fungal carriers in stored grain habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Jan; Stejskal, Václav; Kubátová, Alena; Munzbergová, Zuzana; Vánová, Marie; Zd'árková, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Mites are well documented as vectors of micromycetes in stored products. Since their vectoring capacity is low due to their small size, they can be serious vectors only where there is selective transfer of a high load of specific fungal species. Therefore the aim of our work was to find out whether the transfer of fungi is selective. Four kinds of stored seeds (wheat, poppy, lettuce, mustard) infested by storage mites were subjected to mycological analysis. We compared the spectrum of micromycete species isolated from different species of mites (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Caloglyphus rhizoglyphoides and Cheyletus malaccensis) and various kinds of stored seeds. Fungi were separately isolated from (a) the surface of mites, (b) the mites' digestive tract (= faeces), and (c) stored seeds and were then cultivated and determined. The fungal transport via mites is selective. This conclusion is supported by (i) lower numbers of isolated fungal species from mites than from seeds; (ii) lower Shannon-Weaver diversity index in the fungal communities isolated from mites than from seeds; (iii) significant effect of mites/seeds as environmental variables on fungal presence in a redundancy analysis (RDA); (iv) differences in composition of isolated fungi between mite species shown by RDA. The results of our work support the hypothesis that mite-fungal interactions are dependent on mite species. The fungi attractive to mites seem to be dispersed more than others. The selectivity of fungal transport via mites enhances their pest importance.

  15. INCIDENCE OF ALLERGIC FUNGAL SINUSITIS AMONG PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC RHINOSINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND This study aims to evaluate the incidence of allergic fungal sinusitis among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS is a widely prevalent condition globally as well as in India. Fungal rhinosinusitis is classified into two subgroups: three invasive forms (acute necrotizing, chronic invasive, granulomatous invasive, and two noninvasive forms (fungal ball and allergic fungal. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients attending the Department of ENT at Adesh institute of medical science & research, Bathinda (Punjab between Jan 2016 and Dec 2016 one year duration 82 cases were included in this retrospective analysis with features suggestive of chronic rhinosinusitis. Based on clinical, endoscopic and radiological parameters, 82 cases were diagnosed to have rhinosinusitis. In these cases, postoperatively after HPE examination, 16 cases were confirmed to have mycotic infection. RESULTS Out of 16 cases, In Allergic fungal rhino sinusitis(AFRS, Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus was the most common fungus isolated ten cases (71.42%.. In fungal ball, A. flavus was isolated in two cases (14.25% and Aspergillus niger (A. niger was isolated in two cases (14.25%. In invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (IFRS mucormycosis was isolated in two cases (12.5%. CONCLUSION The incidence of ARFS is about 12.2% of chronic rhinosinusitis. The commonest age group is second & third decade

  16. Assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Efaq Ali; Al-Gheethi, A A; Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik Ab; Nagao, H; Ab Kadir, M O

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in Penang Malaysia. Different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. One hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. They were purified by using single spore isolation technique. Subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on morphological and culture characteristics on different culture media. Among all fungal isolates, Aspergillus spp. in section Nigri 10.2 %, Aspergillus niger 9.5 %, Aspergillus fumigatus 8.8 %, Penicillium. simplicissium 8 %, Aspergillus tubingensis 7.3 %, Aspergillus terreus var. terreus 6.6 %, Penicillium waksmanii 5.9 % and Curvularia lunata 6.5 % were the most frequent. Among five sections of the Wellness Centre, the clinical wastes collected from the diagnostic labs of haematology section had the highest numbers of fungal species (29 species). Glove wastes had the highest numbers of fungal species (19 species) among 17 types of clinical wastes screened. Among all fungal species, Aspergillus spp. exhibited higher growth at 37 °C than at 28 °C, indicating the potential of these opportunistic fungi to cause diseases in human. These results indicated the potential of hospital wastes as reservoirs for fungal species.

  17. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  18. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  19. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  20. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  1. Fungal Evolution: Mucor and Phycomyces See Double.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajich, Jason E

    2016-08-22

    Newly available genome sequences of two Mucoralean fungi, Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides, provide evidence for an ancient whole-genome duplication that contributed to the generation of expanded gene families. These fungi have robust responses to light that can be correlated with the expansion of gene networks involved in light sensing and signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-contact ultrasound techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazali Mohd Zin

    2001-01-01

    Non-contact ultrasound plays significant role in material characterisation and inspection. Unlike conventional ultrasonic techniques, non-contact ultrasonic is mostly applicable to areas where the former has its weaknesses and limitations. It is interesting to note that the non-contact ultrasonic technique has an important significant application in industry. The technique is signified by the fact that the object to be inspected is further away from the ultrasonic source, no couplant is needed and inconsistent pressure between the transducer and the specimen can be eliminated. The paper discusses some of the non-contact ultrasound technique and its applications. (Author)

  3. Occupational contact dermatitis in hairdressers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwensen, Jakob F; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Veien, Niels K

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational contact dermatitis among hairdressers is frequent, owing to daily exposure to irritants and allergens. OBJECTIVES: To identify sensitization to the most common allergens associated with the occupation of hairdressing. METHODS: Patch test results of 399 hairdressers and 1995...... matched controls with contact dermatitis, registered by the Danish Contact Dermatitis Group between January 2002 and December 2011, were analysed. All patients were patch tested with the European baseline series, and hairdressers were additionally tested with the hairdressing series. RESULTS: Occupational...... contact dermatitis (p dermatitis was less commonly observed among hairdressers (21.3%) than among controls (29.4%) (p 

  4. Schottky-contact plasmonic rectenna for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavirad, Mohammad; Siadat Mousavi, Saba; Roy, Langis; Berini, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    We propose a plasmonic gold nanodipole array on silicon, forming a Schottky contact thereon, and covered by water. The behavior of this array under normal excitation has been extensively investigated. Trends have been found and confirmed by identification of the mode propagating in nanodipoles and its properties. This device can be used to detect infrared radiation below the bandgap energy of the substrate via internal photoelectric effect (IPE). Also we estimate its responsivity and detection limit. Finally, we assess the potential of the structure for bulk and surface (bio) chemical sensing. Based on modal results an analytical model has been proposed to estimate the sensitivity of the device. Results show a good agreement between numerical and analytical interpretations.

  5. Periprosthetic fungal infection of a hip caused by Trichosporon inkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico José Burgo, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An immunocompromised patient with a history of multiple hip implant revisions extended courses of empiric antibiotic treatment, and a retained metallic rod in the femoral medullary canal was transferred for diagnostic studies and treatment. A high suspicion of fungal infection and utilization of extended and specific fungal cultures were the diagnostic keys for infection with Trichosporon inkin. The treatment consisted in a debridement surgery with the use of a functional spacer with cement supplemented with voriconazole and vancomycin plus a 6-month systemic treatment with voriconazole. After 2 years of follow-up, the patient is free of symptoms. Keywords: Hip arthroplasty, Periprosthetic fungal infection, Trichosporon inkin

  6. The Fungal Spores Survival Under the Low-Temperature Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soušková, Hana; Scholtz, V.; Julák, J.; Savická, D.

    This paper presents an experimental apparatus for the decontamination and sterilization of water suspension of fungal spores. The fungicidal effect of stabilized positive and negative corona discharges on four fungal species Aspergillus oryzae, Clacosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium crustosum and Alternaria sp. was studied. Simultaneously, the slower growing of exposed fungal spores was observed. The obtained results are substantially different in comparison with those of the analogous experiments performed with bacteria. It may be concluded that fungi are more resistant to the low-temperature plasma.

  7. Fungal NRPS-dependent siderophores: From function to prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Knudsen, Michael; Hansen, Frederik Teilfeldt

    2014-01-01

    discuss the function of siderophores in relation to fungal iron uptake mechanisms and their importance for coexistence with host organisms. The chemical nature of the major groups of siderophores and their regulation is described along with the function and architecture of the large multi-domain enzymes...... responsible for siderophore synthesis, namely the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs). Finally, we present the most recent advances in our understanding of the structural biology of fungal NRPSs and discuss opportunities for the development of a fungal NRPS prediction server...

  8. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high. PMID:24351637

  9. Mobile sensing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Elsa; Suarez, Alvaro; Lloret, Jaime

    2013-12-16

    Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  10. Mobile Sensing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Macias

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rich-sensor smart phones have made possible the recent birth of the mobile sensing research area as part of ubiquitous sensing which integrates other areas such as wireless sensor networks and web sensing. There are several types of mobile sensing: individual, participatory, opportunistic, crowd, social, etc. The object of sensing can be people-centered or environment-centered. The sensing domain can be home, urban, vehicular… Currently there are barriers that limit the social acceptance of mobile sensing systems. Examples of social barriers are privacy concerns, restrictive laws in some countries and the absence of economic incentives that might encourage people to participate in a sensing campaign. Several technical barriers are phone energy savings and the variety of sensors and software for their management. Some existing surveys partially tackle the topic of mobile sensing systems. Published papers theoretically or partially solve the above barriers. We complete the above surveys with new works, review the barriers of mobile sensing systems and propose some ideas for efficiently implementing sensing, fusion, learning, security, privacy and energy saving for any type of mobile sensing system, and propose several realistic research challenges. The main objective is to reduce the learning curve in mobile sensing systems where the complexity is very high.

  11. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  12. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  13. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence,

  14. Journal of Business Research: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Goski Alabi Mrs Institute of Professional Studies (IPS) P. 0 Box 149 Institute Of Professional Studies (IPS) Legon, Accra Ghana Phone: +233 24 64 52798. Fax: +233 21 513539. Email: goskia@yahoo.com. Support Contact. Anthony Afeadie. Phone: +233 21 500171. Email: ipsjournal@yahoo.com.

  15. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  16. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  17. Learning Grasp Strategies Composed of Contact Relative Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Of central importance to grasp synthesis algorithms are the assumptions made about the object to be grasped and the sensory information that is available. Many approaches avoid the issue of sensing entirely by assuming that complete information is available. In contrast, this paper proposes an approach to grasp synthesis expressed in terms of units of control that simultaneously change the contact configuration and sense information about the object and the relative manipulator-object pose. These units of control, known as contact relative motions (CRMs), allow the grasp synthesis problem to be recast as an optimal control problem where the goal is to find a strategy for executing CRMs that leads to a grasp in the shortest number of steps. An experiment is described that uses Robonaut, the NASA-JSC space humanoid, to show that CRMs are a viable means of synthesizing grasps. However, because of the limited amount of information that a single CRM can sense, the optimal control problem may be partially observable. This paper proposes expressing the problem as a k-order Markov Decision Process (MDP) and solving it using Reinforcement Learning. This approach is tested in a simulation of a two-contact manipulator that learns to grasp an object. Grasp strategies learned in simulation are tested on the physical Robonaut platform and found to lead to grasp configurations consistently.

  18. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  19. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...

  20. Modified atmospheric conditions controlling fungal growth on cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1997-01-01

    Effective control of fungal growth on cheese under storage conditions is of great concern for the dairy industry. Therefore we designed a research project together with the Danish dairy industry on modelling fungal growth on cheese as affected by the combined effect of storage conditions (O2 and CO......2 level, relative humidity and temperature) and the composition of the cheese. All fungal species commonly found on cheese, starter cultures as well as contaminants, were examined.The most important factors influencing fungal growth are temperature, water activity of the medium and the carbon...... a competitive advantage over other fungi in moist conditions with high carbon dioxide levels, such as inside a roquefort cheese or in gas tight grain storage. The key to success in food packaging is to recognise the food ecosystem, as it enables us to identify which micro...

  1. Physico-chemical and microbiological profile of bacterial and fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    discharge respectively. Several bacterial and fungal genera were isolated from the River water samples. ...... global climate change, Potential impacts on inland freshwater and ... India: Discharge scenarios and case for participatory ecosystem.

  2. Fungal isolates and their toxicity from different ecosystems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... fungal species behave unexpectedly in different ecosystems. That is why the main ... All the isolates from marine environment were non toxic to brine ... by animals or humans. Severe health problems and death have occurred.

  3. Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosling, A.; Landeweert, R.; Lindahl, B.D.; Larsson, K.H.; Kuyper, T.W.; Taylor, A.F.S.; Finlay, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in forest soils are usually restricted to the uppermost organic horizons. Boreal forest podzols are highly stratified and little is known about the vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal communities in the underlying mineral horizons. Ectomycorrhizal

  4. Evolution and genome architecture in fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Mareike; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2017-12-01

    The fungal kingdom comprises some of the most devastating plant pathogens. Sequencing the genomes of fungal pathogens has shown a remarkable variability in genome size and architecture. Population genomic data enable us to understand the mechanisms and the history of changes in genome size and adaptive evolution in plant pathogens. Although transposable elements predominantly have negative effects on their host, fungal pathogens provide prominent examples of advantageous associations between rapidly evolving transposable elements and virulence genes that cause variation in virulence phenotypes. By providing homogeneous environments at large regional scales, managed ecosystems, such as modern agriculture, can be conducive for the rapid evolution and dispersal of pathogens. In this Review, we summarize key examples from fungal plant pathogen genomics and discuss evolutionary processes in pathogenic fungi in the context of molecular evolution, population genomics and agriculture.

  5. Fungal biogeography. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedersoo, Leho; Bahram, Mohammad; Põlme, Sergei; Kõljalg, Urmas; Yorou, Nourou S; Wijesundera, Ravi; Villarreal Ruiz, Luis; Vasco-Palacios, Aída M; Thu, Pham Quang; Suija, Ave; Smith, Matthew E; Sharp, Cathy; Saluveer, Erki; Saitta, Alessandro; Rosas, Miguel; Riit, Taavi; Ratkowsky, David; Pritsch, Karin; Põldmaa, Kadri; Piepenbring, Meike; Phosri, Cherdchai; Peterson, Marko; Parts, Kaarin; Pärtel, Kadri; Otsing, Eveli; Nouhra, Eduardo; Njouonkou, André L; Nilsson, R Henrik; Morgado, Luis N; Mayor, Jordan; May, Tom W; Majuakim, Luiza; Lodge, D Jean; Lee, Su See; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Kohout, Petr; Hosaka, Kentaro; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Henkel, Terry W; Harend, Helery; Guo, Liang-dong; Greslebin, Alina; Grelet, Gwen; Geml, Jozsef; Gates, Genevieve; Dunstan, William; Dunk, Chris; Drenkhan, Rein; Dearnaley, John; De Kesel, André; Dang, Tan; Chen, Xin; Buegger, Franz; Brearley, Francis Q; Bonito, Gregory; Anslan, Sten; Abell, Sandra; Abarenkov, Kessy

    2014-11-28

    Fungi play major roles in ecosystem processes, but the determinants of fungal diversity and biogeographic patterns remain poorly understood. Using DNA metabarcoding data from hundreds of globally distributed soil samples, we demonstrate that fungal richness is decoupled from plant diversity. The plant-to-fungus richness ratio declines exponentially toward the poles. Climatic factors, followed by edaphic and spatial variables, constitute the best predictors of fungal richness and community composition at the global scale. Fungi show similar latitudinal diversity gradients to other organisms, with several notable exceptions. These findings advance our understanding of global fungal diversity patterns and permit integration of fungi into a general macroecological framework. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. Scientists discover how deadly fungal microbes enter host cells

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2010-01-01

    A research team led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech has discovered a fundamental entry mechanism that allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease.

  7. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activities of extracts from fungal isolates of Lake Magadi. Keno David Kowanga, Joan John Eliona Munissi, Rose Masalu, Stephen Samwel Nyandoro, Pax Masimba, Erastus Gatebe ...

  8. Fungal burden exposure assessment in podiatry clinics from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Carla; Coggins, Ann Marie; Faria, Tiago; Caetano, Liliana Aranha; Gomes, Anita Quintal; Sabino, Raquel; Verissimo, Cristina; Roberts, Nigel; Watterson, David; MacGilchrist, Claire; Fleming, Gerard T A

    2018-03-26

    Fungi are amongst the bioaerosols of most importance, as indicated by the growing interest in this field of research. The aim was to characterize the exposure to fungal burden in podiatry clinics using culture-based and molecular methods. Airborne fungi were collected using an impaction air sampler and surface samples were also performed. Fourteen air samples were collected for direct detection of fungal DNA from filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. Overall, 63.6 % of the evening samples and 46 % of the morning samples surpassed the threshold values (150 CFU/m 3 ). Molecular detection, by real time PCR, of the target fungal species/strains (Aspergillus and Stachybotrys species) was negative for all samples collected. Trichophyton rubrum was detected by PCR analysis in one DNA sample collected on day six. Results suggest the use of both culture-based and molecular methodologies are desirable for a complete evaluation of fungal burden in this particular health care setting.

  9. Analysis of computed tomography features of fungal sinusitis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT) features of fungal sinusitis and to correlate them with nasal endoscopy and histopathological findings. Materials and Methods: Our study included 16 patients of either sex and any age group who presented in the otorhinolaryngology clinic at ...

  10. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Gavito-Higuera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome.

  11. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... staining solution. Slightly crush the seeds. Use caution to prevent carryover hyphae of fungal endophyte... compound microscope at 100-400x magnification, scoring a seed as positive if any identifiable hyphae are...

  12. Fungal infections in animals: a patchwork of different situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Bosco, Sandra De M G; De Hoog, Sybren

    2018-01-01

    The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans....... In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed....... Opportunistic mycoses are responsible for a wide range of diseases from localized infections to fatal disseminated diseases, such as aspergillosis, mucormycosis, candidiasis, cryptococcosis and infections caused by melanized fungi. The amphibian fungal disease chytridiomycosis and the Bat White-nose syndrome...

  13. [Biosorption of heavy metals in fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pei-wu; Hu, Wei; Hu, Ya-qiang; Tan, Zhao-yang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the biosorption technology of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction by fungal mycelium. Four factors including fungal mycelium amount, adsorption time, pH value and temperature were employed to estimate the fungal biomass adsorption conditions for removing the heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction. Then an orthogonal experimental design was taken to optimize the biosorption process, and the removal efficiency was also evaluated. Under the optimized conditions of 1.0 g/50 mL Fluoritum decoction, 3 hours adsorption time, pH 5.0 and 40 degrees C, a result of 70.12% heavy metals removal rate was accomplished with 35.99% calcium ion loss. The study indicates that removing of heavy metals in Fluoritum decoction through fungal mycelium is feasible, and the experiment results can also provide a basis for further research on biosorption of heavy metals in traditional Chinese medicine

  14. Nutrients, phytochemicals, fungal flora and aflatoxin in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ob

    In this study, the effect of salting on the pH, phytochemicals, fungal flora and nutrient composition of. Vernonia .... Vitamin C, β-carotene, carbohydrates, protein and moisture: ..... on rats fed a high cholesterol diet. ... male New Zealand rabbits.

  15. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Grünbaum, Thor

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...

  16. Non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs. This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases. Majority of cases present with diffuse infiltrate, mimicking herpes simplex or fungal keratitis. The diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of corneal scraping material and culture on nonnutrient agar with an overlay of Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy can help diagnosis in patients with deep infiltrate; however, experience with technique and interpretation of images influences its true value. Primary treatment of the infection is biguanides with or without diamidines. Most patients respond to medical treatment. Corticosteroids play an important role in the management and can be used when indicated after due consideration to established protocols. Surgery is rarely needed in patients where definitive management is initiated within 3 weeks of onset of symptoms. Lamellar keratoplasty has been shown to have good outcome in cases needing surgery. Since the clinical features of AK in nonusers of CL are different, it will be important for ophthalmologists to be aware of the scenario wherein to suspect this infection. Medical treatment is successful if the disease is diagnosed early and management is initiated soon.

  17. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Novak Babič

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  18. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak Babič, Monika; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Vargha, Márta; Tischner, Zsófia; Magyar, Donát; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Viegas, Carla; Meyer, Wieland; Brandão, João

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological drinking water safety is traditionally monitored mainly by bacterial parameters that indicate faecal contamination. These parameters correlate with gastro-intestinal illness, despite the fact that viral agents, resulting from faecal contamination, are usually the cause. This leaves behind microbes that can cause illness other than gastro-intestinal and several emerging pathogens, disregarding non-endemic microbial contaminants and those with recent pathogenic activity reported. This white paper focuses on one group of contaminants known to cause allergies, opportunistic infections and intoxications: Fungi. It presents a review on their occurrence, ecology and physiology. Additionally, factors contributing to their presence in water distribution systems, as well as their effect on water quality are discussed. Presence of opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in drinking water can pose a health risk to consumers due to daily contact with water, via several exposure points, such as drinking and showering. The clinical relevance and influence on human health of the most common fungal contaminants in drinking water is discussed. Our goal with this paper is to place fungal contaminants on the roadmap of evidence based and emerging threats for drinking water quality safety regulations.

  19. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Gabriela Albara; Marconatto, Letícia; Kessler, Felipe; Lopes, William; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Weibel, Daniel Eduardo

    2017-07-18

    Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU) are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae , when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  20. UV-Surface Treatment of Fungal Resistant Polyether Polyurethane Film-Induced Growth of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Albara Lando

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic polymers are the cause of some major environmental impacts due to their low degradation rates. Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers, and their growing use in industry has produced an increase in plastic waste. A commercial polyether-based thermoplastic PU with hydrolytic stability and fungus resistance was only attacked by an entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhiziumanisopliae, when the films were pre-treated with Ultraviolet (UV irradiation in the presence of reactive atmospheres. Water contact angle, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode (FTIR-ATR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and profilometer measurements were mainly used for analysis. Permanent hydrophilic PU films were produced by the UV-assisted treatments. Pristine polyether PU films incubated for 10, 30, and 60 days did not show any indication of fungal growth. On the contrary, when using oxygen in the UV pre-treatment a layer of fungi spores covered the sample, indicating a great adherence of the microorganisms to the polymer. However, if acrylic acid vapors were used during the UV pre-treatment, a visible attack by the entomopathogenic fungi was observed. SEM and FTIR-ATR data showed clear evidence of fungal development: growth and ramifications of hyphae on the polymer surface with the increase in UV pre-treatment time and fungus incubation time. The results indicated that the simple UV surface activation process has proven to be a promising alternative for polyether PU waste management.

  1. Sugarcane Bagasse: A Potential Medium for Fungal Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Arushdeep Sidana; Umar Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, sugarcane industries produce tons of sugarcane bagasse as residual/waste material. This residual material is rich in complex lignocellulosic substances and may be used as a low cost carbon and energy source for the growth of fungal species. The present work was aimed at designing a sugarcane waste-based medium as a substitute for expensive commercial media for growing fungal cultures. Eight species of fungi, namely, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Fus...

  2. Influence of storage on fungal infestation in spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, T.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    The present work was carried out to study the influence of storage and gamma radiation on fungal control in spices. The spices were irradiated with 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and stored under ambient conditions for 12 months. Fungal infestation decreased to undetectable levels upon irradiation of these spices especially at higher doses and increased with advanced storage period both the irradiated and unirradiated samples. (orig. /A.B.)

  3. Fungal nanoscale metal carbonates and production of electrochemical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianwei; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2017-09-01

    Fungal biomineralization of carbonates results in metal removal from solution or immobilization within a solid matrix. Such a system provides a promising method for removal of toxic or valuable metals from solution, such as Co, Ni, and La, with some carbonates being of nanoscale dimensions. A fungal Mn carbonate biomineralization process can be applied for the synthesis of novel electrochemical materials. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Darkness: A Crucial Factor in Fungal Taxol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh S. M. Soliman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal Taxol acquired lots of attention in the last few decades mainly because of the hope that fungi could be manipulated more easily than yew trees to scale up the production level of this valuable anticancer drug. Several researchers have studied diverse factors to enhance fungal Taxol production. However, up to date fungal Taxol production has never been enhanced to the commercial level. We have hypothesized that optimization of fungal Taxol production may require clear understanding of the fungal habitat in its original host plant. One major feature shared by all fungal endophytes is that they are located in the internal plant tissues where darkness is prominent; hence here the effect of light on fungal Taxol production was tested. Incubation of Taxol-producing endophytic SSM001 fungus in light prior to inoculation in Taxol production culture media showed dramatic loss of Taxol accumulation, significant reduction in Taxol-containing resin bodies and reduction in the expression of genes known to be involved in Taxol biosynthesis. The loss of Taxol production was accompanied by production of dark green pigments. Pigmentation is a fungal protection mechanism which is photoreceptor mediated and induced by light. Opsin, a known photoreceptor involved in light perception and pigment production, was identified in SSM001 by genome sequencing. SSM001 opsin gene expression was induced by white light. The results from this study indicated that the endophytic fungus SSM001 required the dark habitat of its host plant for Taxol production and hence this biosynthetic pathway shows a negative response to light.

  5. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  6. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  7. Invasive fungal infections in Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Alza, Y; Sánchez-Bautista, J; Fajardo-Rivero, J F; Figueroa, C L

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease with multi-organ involvement. Complications, such as invasive fungal infections usually occur in patients with a greater severity of the disease. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk variables associated with invasive fungal infections in a Colombian systemic lupus erythematosus population. Materials and methods A cross-sectional, retrospective study that evaluated patients with systemic lupus erythematosus for six years. The primary outcome was invasive fungal infection. Descriptive, group comparison and bivariate analysis was performed using Stata 12.0 software. Results Two hundred patients were included in this study; 84.5% of the patients were women and the median age was 36 years; 68% of the subjects had haematological complications; 53.3% had nephropathy; 45% had pneumopathy and 28% had pericardial impairment; 7.5% of patients had invasive fungal infections and the most frequently isolated fungus was Candida albicans. Pericardial disease, cyclophosphamide use, high disease activity, elevated ESR, C3 hypocomplementemia, anaemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with invasive fungal infection ( P lupus erythematosus, which was higher than that reported in other latitudes. In this population the increase in disease activity, the presence of pericardial impairment and laboratory alterations (anaemia, lymphopenia, increased ESR and C3 hypocomplementemia) are associated with a greater possibility of invasive fungal infections. Regarding the use of drugs, unlike other studies, in the Colombian population an association was found only with the previous administration of cyclophosphamide. In addition, patients with invasive fungal infections and systemic lupus erythematosus had a higher prevalence of mortality and hospital readmission compared with patients with systemic lupus erythematosus without invasive fungal infection.

  8. ILC2s and fungal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Kita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs have emerged recently as an important component of the immune system and the cell type that regulates mucosal immune responses and tissue homeostasis. Group 2 ILCs (ILC2s, a subset of ILCs, reside in various tissues and are characterized by their capacity to produce type 2 cytokines and tissue growth factors. These ILC2s play an important role in allergic immune responses by linking signals in the atmospheric environment to the immune system. Fungi are one of the major allergens associated with human asthma, and animal and in vitro models using the fungal allergens have provided significant information toward our understanding of the mechanisms of allergic disease. In mouse models of fungus-induced allergic airway inflammation, IL-33, IL-25, and TSLP are released by airway epithelial cells. Lung ILC2s that respond to these cytokines quickly produce a large quantity of type 2 cytokines, resulting in airway eosinophilia, mucus production, and airway hyperreactivity even in the absence of adaptive immune cells. Evidence also suggests that ILC2s interact with conventional immune cells, such as CD4+ T cells, and facilitate development of adaptive immune response and persistent airway inflammation. ILC2s are also present in respiratory mucosa in humans. Further investigations into the biology of ILC2s and their roles in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases will provide major conceptual advances in the field and may provide useful information toward development of new therapeutic strategies for patients.

  9. Invasive Fungal Infections Secondary to Traumatic Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kronen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infection (IFI is a rare but serious complication of traumatic injury. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology, natural history, mycology, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes associated with post-traumatic IFI in military and civilian populations. The epidemiology of post-traumatic IFI is poorly characterized, but incidence appears to be rising. Patients often suffer from severe injuries and require extensive medical interventions. Fungi belonging to the order Mucorales are responsible for most post-traumatic IFI in both civilian and military populations. Risk factors differ between these cohorts but include specific injury patterns and comorbidities. Diagnosis of post-traumatic IFI typically follows positive laboratory results in the appropriate clinical context. The gold standard of treatment is surgical debridement in addition to systemic antifungal therapy. Patients with post-traumatic IFI may be at greater risk of amputation, delays in wound healing, hospital complications, and death as compared to trauma patients who do not develop IFI. More research is needed to understand the factors surrounding the development and management of post-traumatic IFI to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with this disease.

  10. Fungal melanins and their interactions with metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, R V; Tobin, J M

    1996-09-01

    Fungal melanins are dark brown or black pigments located in cell walls. They also exist as extracellular polymers. Melanized fungi possess increased virulence and resistance to microbial attack as well as enhanced survival while under environmental stress. Melanins contain various functional groups which provide an array of multiple nonequivalent binding sites for metal ions. Pigmented Cladosporium cladosporoides was shown to biosorb 2.5- to four-fold more Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb than albino Penicillium digitatum and at four- to six-fold higher rates. Metal desorption was significantly lower for extracellular melanin than from pigmented or albino biomass which indicated the strength of the melanin-metal bond. At equilibrium, tributyltin chloride (TBTC) concentrations of 2.5 mM, pigmented and albino Aureobasidium pullulans absorbed approximately 0.9 and 0.7 mumol TBTC mg -1 dry wt, respectively, whereas purified extracellular melanin exhibited uptake levels of approximately 22 mumol TBTC mg-1 dry wt at an equilibrium concentration of only 0.4 mM. Addition of melanin to the growth medium reduced the toxic effect of CuSO4 and TBTC due to melanin metal binding and sequestration.

  11. Fungal Laccases and Their Applications in Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddolla Viswanath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laccases are blue multicopper oxidases, which catalyze the monoelectronic oxidation of a broad spectrum of substrates, for example, ortho- and para-diphenols, polyphenols, aminophenols, and aromatic or aliphatic amines, coupled with a full, four-electron reduction of O2 to H2O. Hence, they are capable of degrading lignin and are present abundantly in many white-rot fungi. Laccases decolorize and detoxify the industrial effluents and help in wastewater treatment. They act on both phenolic and nonphenolic lignin-related compounds as well as highly recalcitrant environmental pollutants, and they can be effectively used in paper and pulp industries, textile industries, xenobiotic degradation, and bioremediation and act as biosensors. Recently, laccase has been applied to nanobiotechnology, which is an increasing research field, and catalyzes electron transfer reactions without additional cofactors. Several techniques have been developed for the immobilization of biomolecule such as micropatterning, self-assembled monolayer, and layer-by-layer techniques, which immobilize laccase and preserve their enzymatic activity. In this review, we describe the fungal source of laccases and their application in environment protection.

  12. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  13. Fungal biology: compiling genomes and exploiting them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Uehling, Jessie K [ORNL; Payen, Thibaut [INRA; Plett, Jonathan [University of Western Sydney, Australia

    2014-01-01

    The last 10 years have seen the cost of sequencing complete genomes decrease at an incredible speed. This has led to an increase in the number of genomes sequenced in all the fungal tree of life as well as a wide variety of plant genomes. The increase in sequencing has permitted us to study the evolution of organisms on a genomic scale. A number of talks during the conference discussed the importance of transposable elements (TEs) that are present in almost all species of fungi. These TEs represent an especially large percentage of genomic space in fungi that interact with plants. Thierry Rouxel (INRA, Nancy, France) showed the link between speciation in the Leptosphaeria complex and the expansion of TE families. For example in the Leptosphaeria complex, one species associated with oilseed rape has experienced a recent and massive burst of movement by a few TE families. The alterations caused by these TEs took place in discrete regions of the genome leading to shuffling of the genomic landscape and the appearance of genes specific to the species, such as effectors useful for the interactions with a particular plant (Rouxel et al., 2011). Other presentations showed the importance of TEs in affecting genome organization. For example, in Amanita different species appear to have been invaded by different TE families (Veneault-Fourrey & Martin, 2011).

  14. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential methods of localisation of fungal endophytes in the seagrasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sections of three seagrass species (Halophila ovalis, Cymodocea serrulata and Halodule pinifolia were assessed for endophytes based on differential staining using light and fluorescence microscopy method. Acridine orange and aniline blue detected endophytic fungi in 20% and 10% of the segments, respectively, whereas lactophenol cotton blue was more sensitive to detect the fungal hyphae in 70% of the segments. Hyphae were the principal fungal structures generally observed under the cuticle, within the epidermal cells, mesophyll (Parenchyma cells and occasionally within the vascular tissue that varied in type, size and location within the leaf tissue. Present study also recorded the sporulation for the first time from the seagrass endophytes. Successfully amplified products of the ITS region of endophytic fungal DNA, directly from seagrass tissue and also from culture-dependent fungal DNA clearly depicted the presence of endophytic fungi in H. ovalis with two banding patterns (903 and 1381 bp confirming the presence of two dominant fungal genera. The fingerprinting of endophytic fungal community within the seagrass tissue was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE that derived with multiple bands that clarified the presence of more than one taxon within the seagrass tissue.

  17. Plasma membrane lipids and their role in fungal virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable evidence in recent years suggesting that plasma membrane lipids are important regulators of fungal pathogenicity. Various glycolipids have been shown to impart virulent properties in several fungal species, while others have been shown to play a role in host defense. In addition to their role as virulence factors, lipids also contribute to other virulence mechanisms such as drug resistance, biofilm formation, and release of extracellular vesicles. In addition, lipids also affect the mechanical properties of the plasma membrane through the formation of packed microdomains composed mainly of sphingolipids and sterols. Changes in the composition of lipid microdomains have been shown to disrupt the localization of virulence factors and affect fungal pathogenicity. This review gathers evidence on the various roles of plasma membrane lipids in fungal virulence and how lipids might contribute to the different processes that occur during infection and treatment. Insight into the role of lipids in fungal virulence can lead to an improved understanding of the process of fungal pathogenesis and the development of new lipid-mediated therapeutic strategies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Changes in Soil Fungal Community Structure with Increasing Disturbance Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyunjun; Kim, Mincheol; Tripathi, Binu; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    Although disturbance is thought to be important in many ecological processes, responses of fungal communities to soil disturbance have been little studied experimentally. We subjected a soil microcosm to physical disturbance, at a range of frequencies designed to simulate ecological disturbance events. We analyzed the fungal community structure using Illumina HiSeq sequencing of the ITS1 region. Fungal diversity was found to decline with the increasing disturbance frequencies, with no sign of the "humpback" pattern found in many studies of larger sedentary organisms. There is thus no evidence of an effect of release from competition resulting from moderate disturbance-which suggests that competition and niche overlap may not be important in limiting soil fungal diversity. Changing disturbance frequency also led to consistent differences in community composition. There were clear differences in OTU-level composition, with different disturbance treatments each having distinct fungal communities. The functional profile of fungal groups (guilds) was changed by the level of disturbance frequency. These predictable differences in community composition suggest that soil fungi can possess different niches in relation to disturbance frequency, or time since last disturbance. Fungi appear to be most abundant relative to bacteria at intermediate disturbance frequencies, on the time scale we studied here.

  19. Fungal contamination assessment in Portuguese elderly care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, C; Almeida-Silva, M; Gomes, A Quintal; Wolterbeek, H T; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend 80-90% of their day indoors and elderly subjects are likely to spend even a greater amount of time indoors. Thus, indoor air pollutants such as bioaerosols may exert a significant impact on this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize fungal contamination within Portuguese elderly care centers. Fungi were measured using conventional as well as molecular methods in bedrooms, living rooms, canteens, storage areas, and outdoors. Bioaerosols were evaluated before and after the microenvironments' occupancy in order to understand the role played by occupancy in fungal contamination. Fungal load results varied from 32 colony-forming units CFU m(-3) in bedrooms to 228 CFU m(-3) in storage areas. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated (38.1%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (16.3%) and Chrysonilia sp. (4.2%). With respect to Aspergillus genus, three different fungal species in indoor air were detected, with A. candidus (62.5%) the most prevalent. On surfaces, 40 different fungal species were isolated and the most frequent was Penicillium sp. (22.2%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (17.3%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not detect the presence of A. fumigatus complex. Species from Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were the most abundant in air and surfaces. The species A. fumigatus was present in 12.5% of all indoor microenvironments assessed. The living room was the indoor microenvironment with lowest fungal concentration and the storage area was highest.

  20. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  1. An Estimate of the Burden of Fungal Disease in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingvild Nordøy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the burden of fungal disease in Norway, contributing to a worldwide effort to improve awareness of the needs for better diagnosis and treatment of such infections. We used national registers and actual data from the Departments of Microbiology from 2015 and estimated the incidence and/or prevalence of superficial, allergic and invasive fungal disease using published reports on specific populations at risk. One in 6 Norwegians suffered from fungal disease: Superficial skin infections (14.3%: 745,600 and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in fertile women (6%: 43,123 were estimated to be the most frequent infections. Allergic fungal lung disease was estimated in 17,755 patients (341/100,000. Pneumocystis jirovecii was diagnosed in 262 patients (5/100,000, invasive candidiasis in 400 patients (7.7/100,000, invasive aspergillosis in 278 patients (5.3/100,000 and mucormycosis in 7 patients (0.1/100,000. Particular fungal infections from certain geographic areas were not observed. Overall, 1.79% of the population was estimated to be affected by serious fungal infections in Norway in 2015. Even though estimates for invasive infections are small, the gravity of such infections combined with expected demographic changes in the future emphasizes the need for better epidemiological data.

  2. Evaluation of nested PCR in diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Gandomi, Behrooz; Sabz, Gholamabbass; Khodami, Bijan; Choopanizadeh, Maral; Jafarian, Hadis

    2015-02-01

    Given the importance of rapid diagnosis for fungal rhinosinusitis, this study aimed to evaluate the use of nested PCR to identify Aspergillus and Mucor species in clinical samples from patients with suspected fungal rhinosinusitis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery specimens were collected from 98 patients with rhinosinusitis from 2012 to 2013. All samples were ground and cultured on sabouraud dextrose agar. The isolated fungi were identified based on their macroscopic and microscopic features. Fungal DNA was extracted from the tissue samples and nested PCR was performed with two sets of primers for Mucor and Aspergillus. Direct microscopic showed that 5.1% contained fungal components and 9.2% exhibited growth of fungi in culture. The most common agents isolated were Aspergillus fumigatus (n= 3), Aspergillus flavus (n=2), Penicillium sp (n=3) and Alternaria sp. (n=1). Mucor sp. was identified in the pathology smear from 1 patient. Positive results for fungal rhinosinusitis were obtained for a total of 10.2% by culture or pathology smear. Positive PCR results were obtained in 72 samples for Aspergillus and 31 samples for Mucor. Our results suggest that endoscopic sinus surgery specimens are not suitable for nested PCR, probably because of the accumulation of fungi that contaminate the environmental air. This drawback is a limiting factor for diagnosis with nasal cavity specimens. Therefore, molecular methods and conventional culture techniques are helpful complementary diagnostic methods to detect fungal rhinosinusitis and determine appropriate management for these patients.

  3. Comparison on the sensitivity of laboratory diagnosis technology in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the correlation and clinical significance of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination in the diagnosis of fungalkeratitis. METHODS:One hundred and ten cases(110 eyeswith fungal keratitis from January 2012 to December 2014 were collected. The results of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination results were analyzed retrospectively. Fungal smear was detected by 10% KOH wet microscopy and gram staining microscopy. Fungal culture was used potato dextrose agar(PDAmedium. The specimens of pathological examination were from corneal transplantation surgery. paraffin section, HE and hexamine silver and PAS staining was used in the pathological examination. RESULTS:Of the 110 cases of fungal keratitis, fungal smear positive were observed in 50 cases(45.5%, fungal culture positive were observed in 55 cases(50.0%; pathological examination positive were observed in 88 cases(80.0%. Fifty cases were both fungal smear and pathological examination positive and 22 cases were both fungal smear and pathological examination negative. The coincidence rate of fungal smear and pathologic examination was 65.5%. Fifty-five cases were both fungal culture and pathological examination positive and 22 cases were both fungal culture and pathological examination negative. The coincidence rate of fungal culture and pathologic examination was 70.0%. In the 60 cases of fungal smear negative results, 38 cases(63.3%were confirmed positive through pathological examination. In the 55 cases of fungus culture negative results, 33 cases(60.0%were confirmed positive by pathological examination. CONCLUSION:The accuracy of pathological examination is the highest. The combined application of fungal smear, fungal culture and pathological examination can improve the diagnostic accuracy of fungal keratitis.

  4. Plasma membrane organization promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Lois M; Konopka, James B

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen capable of causing lethal systemic infections. The plasma membrane plays key roles in virulence because it not only functions as a protective barrier, it also mediates dynamic functions including secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, endocytosis, and nutrient uptake. Consistent with this functional complexity, the plasma membrane is composed of a wide array of lipids and proteins. These components are organized into distinct domains that will be the topic of this review. Some of the plasma membrane domains that will be described are known to act as scaffolds or barriers to diffusion, such as MCC/eisosomes, septins, and sites of contact with the endoplasmic reticulum. Other zones mediate dynamic processes, including secretion, endocytosis, and a special region at hyphal tips that facilitates rapid growth. The highly organized architecture of the plasma membrane facilitates the coordination of diverse functions and promotes the pathogenesis of C. albicans.

  5. Plasma membrane organization promotes virulence of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Lois M.; Konopka, James. B.

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen capable of causing lethal systemic infections. The plasma membrane plays key roles in virulence because it not only functions as a protective barrier, it also mediates dynamic functions including secretion of virulence factors, cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, endocytosis, and nutrient uptake. Consistent with this functional complexity, the plasma membrane is composed of a wide array of lipids and proteins. These components are organized into distinct domains that will be the topic of this review. Some of the plasma membrane domains that will be described are known to act as scaffolds or barriers to diffusion, such as MCC/eisosomes, septins, and sites of contact with the endoplasmic reticulum. Other zones mediate dynamic processes, including secretion, endocytosis, and a special region at hyphal tips that facilitates rapid growth. The highly organized architecture of the plasma membrane facilitates the coordination of diverse functions and promotes the pathogenesis of C. albicans. PMID:26920878

  6. A laboratory assessment of the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) using individual samples of pollen and fungal spore material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, David A.; O'Connor, David J.; Burke, Aoife M.; Sodeau, John R.

    2012-12-01

    A Bioaerosol sensing instrument referred to as WIBS-4, designed to continuously monitor ambient bioaerosols on-line, has been used to record a multiparameter “signature” from each of a number of Primary Biological Aerosol Particulate (PBAP) samples found in air. These signatures were obtained in a controlled laboratory environment and are based on the size, asymmetry (“shape”) and auto-fluorescence of the particles. Fifteen samples from two separate taxonomic ranks (kingdoms), Plantae (×8) and Fungi (×7) were individually introduced to the WIBS-4 for measurement along with two non-fluorescing chemical solids, common salt and chalk. Over 2000 individual-particle measurements were recorded for each sample type and the ability of the WIBS spectroscopic technique to distinguish between chemicals, pollen and fungal spore material was examined by identifying individual PBAP signatures. The results obtained show that WIBS-4 could potentially be a very useful analytical tool for distinguishing between natural airborne PBAP samples, such as the fungal spores and may potentially play an important role in detecting and discriminating the toxic fungal spore, Aspergillus fumigatus, from others in real-time. If the sizing range of the commercial instrument was customarily increased and permitted to operate simultaneously in its two sizing ranges, pollen and spores could potentially be discriminated between. The data also suggest that the gain setting sensitivity on the detector would also have to be reduced by a factor >5, to routinely detect, in-range fluorescence measurements for pollen samples.

  7. Clinical use of fungal PCR from deep tissue samples in the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-Houhala, M; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Antikainen, J; Valve, J; Kirveskari, J; Anttila, V-J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the clinical use of panfungal PCR for diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs). We focused on the deep tissue samples. We first described the design of panfungal PCR, which is in clinical use at Helsinki University Hospital. Next we retrospectively evaluated the results of 307 fungal PCR tests performed from 2013 to 2015. Samples were taken from normally sterile tissues and fluids. The patient population was nonselected. We classified the likelihood of IFD according to the criteria of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG), comparing the fungal PCR results to the likelihood of IFD along with culture and microscopy results. There were 48 positive (16%) and 259 negative (84%) PCR results. The sensitivity and specificity of PCR for diagnosing IFDs were 60.5% and 91.7%, respectively, while the negative predictive value and positive predictive value were 93.4% and 54.2%, respectively. The concordance between the PCR and the culture results was 86% and 87% between PCR and microscopy, respectively. Of the 48 patients with positive PCR results, 23 had a proven or probable IFD. Fungal PCR can be useful for diagnosing IFDs in deep tissue samples. It is beneficial to combine fungal PCR with culture and microscopy. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent for recurrent maxillary fungal rhinosinusitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunmade Adekunle D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Fungal infection of the paranasal sinuses is an increasingly recognized entity both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Treatment has been via use of either surgical or medical modalities, or a combination of the two. Here, we present a case of utilization of intra-antral application of an anti-fungal agent in the management of recurrent fungal sinusitis in an indigent Nigerian patient. Case presentation We present the case of a 30-year-old West African Yoruba man, an indigent Nigerian clergyman, who presented to our facility with a history of recurrent nasal discharge (about one year, recurrent nasal blockage (about five months, and right facial swelling (about one week. After intra-nasal antrostomy for debulking with a systemic anti-fungal agent, our patient had a recurrence after four months. Our patient subsequently had an intra-antral application of flumetasone and clioquinol (Locacorten®-Vioform® weekly for six weeks with improvement of symptoms and no recurrence after six months of follow-up. Conclusions We conclude that topical intra-antral application of anti-fungal agents is effective in patients with recurrent fungal maxillary sinusitis after surgical debulking.

  9. Correction: Comparative analysis of fungal genomes reveals different plant cell wall degrading capacity in fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The version of this article published in BMC Genomics 2013, 14: 274, contains 9 unpublished genomes (Botryobasidium botryosum, Gymnopus luxurians, Hypholoma sublateritium, Jaapia argillacea, Hebeloma cylindrosporum, Conidiobolus coronatus, Laccaria amethystina, Paxillus involutus, and P. rubicundulus) downloaded from JGI website. In this correction, we removed these genomes after discussion with editors and data producers whom we should have contacted before downloading these genomes. Removing these data did not alter the principle results and conclusions of our original work. The relevant Figures 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6; and Table 1 have been revised. Additional files 1, 3, 4, and 5 were also revised. We would like to apologize for any confusion or inconvenience this may have caused. Background Fungi produce a variety of carbohydrate activity enzymes (CAZymes) for the degradation of plant polysaccharide materials to facilitate infection and/or gain nutrition. Identifying and comparing CAZymes from fungi with different nutritional modes or infection mechanisms may provide information for better understanding of their life styles and infection models. To date, over hundreds of fungal genomes are publicly available. However, a systematic comparative analysis of fungal CAZymes across the entire fungal kingdom has not been reported. Results In this study, we systemically identified glycoside hydrolases (GHs), polysaccharide lyases (PLs), carbohydrate esterases (CEs), and glycosyltransferases (GTs) as well as carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) in the predicted proteomes of 94 representative fungi from Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Zygomycota. Comparative analysis of these CAZymes that play major roles in plant polysaccharide degradation revealed that fungi exhibit tremendous diversity in the number and variety of CAZymes. Among them, some families of GHs and CEs are the most prevalent CAZymes that are distributed in all of the fungi analyzed

  10. Whole-cell fungal transformation of precursors into dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosz-Wilkołazka Anna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical methods of producing dyes involve extreme temperatures and unsafe toxic compounds. Application of oxidizing enzymes obtained from fungal species, for example laccase, is an alternative to chemical synthesis of dyes. Laccase can be replaced by fungal biomass acting as a whole-cell biocatalyst with properties comparable to the isolated form of the enzyme. The application of the whole-cell system simplifies the transformation process and reduces the time required for its completion. In the present work, four fungal strains with a well-known ability to produce laccase were tested for oxidation of 17 phenolic and non-phenolic precursors into stable and non-toxic dyes. Results An agar-plate screening test of the organic precursors was carried out using four fungal strains: Trametes versicolor, Fomes fomentarius, Abortiporus biennis, and Cerrena unicolor. Out of 17 precursors, nine were transformed into coloured substances in the presence of actively growing fungal mycelium. The immobilized fungal biomass catalyzed the transformation of 1 mM benzene and naphthalene derivatives in liquid cultures yielding stable and non-toxic products with good dyeing properties. The type of fungal strain had a large influence on the absorbance of the coloured products obtained after 48-hour transformation of the selected precursors, and the most effective was Fomes fomentarius (FF25. Whole-cell transformation of AHBS (3-amino-4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid into a phenoxazinone dye was carried out in four different systems: in aqueous media comprising low amounts of carbon and nitrogen source, in buffer, and in distilled water. Conclusions This study demonstrated the ability of four fungal strains belonging to the ecological type of white rot fungi to transform precursors into dyes. This paper highlights the potential of fungal biomass for replacing isolated enzymes as a cheaper industrial-grade biocatalyst for the synthesis of dyes and other

  11. Climate Controls AM Fungal Distributions from Global to Local Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlin, S. N.; Hawkes, C.; Muscarella, R.; Treseder, K. K.; Kazenel, M.; Lynn, J.; Rudgers, J.

    2016-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have key functions in terrestrial biogeochemical processes; thus, determining the relative importance of climate, edaphic factors, and plant community composition on their geographic distributions can improve predictions of their sensitivity to global change. Local adaptation by AM fungi to plant hosts, soil nutrients, and climate suggests that all of these factors may control fungal geographic distributions, but their relative importance is unknown. We created species distribution models for 142 AM fungal taxa at the global scale with data from GenBank. We compared climate variables (BioClim and soil moisture), edaphic variables (phosphorus, carbon, pH, and clay content), and plant variables using model selection on models with (1) all variables, (2) climatic variables only (including soil moisture) and (3) resource-related variables only (all other soil parameters and NPP) using the MaxEnt algorithm evaluated with ENMEval. We also evaluated whether drivers of AM fungal distributions were phylogenetically conserved. To test whether global correlates of AM fungal distributions were reflected at local scales, we then surveyed AM fungi in nine plant hosts along three elevation gradients in the Upper Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA. At the global scale, the distributions of 55% of AM fungal taxa were affected by both climate and soil resources, whereas 16% were only affected by climate and 29% were only affected by soil resources. Even for AM fungi that were affected by both climate and resources, the effects of climatic variables nearly always outweighed those of resources. Soil moisture and isothermality were the main climatic and NPP and soil carbon the main resource related factors influencing AM fungal distributions. Distributions of closely related AM fungal taxa were similarly affected by climate, but not by resources. Local scale surveys of AM fungi across elevations confirmed that climate was a key driver of AM fungal

  12. Molecular characterization, biofilm analysis and experimental biofouling study of Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in New York State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonoff William A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize Fusarium isolates from recent cases of fungal keratitis in contact lens wearers, and to investigate fungal association with MoistureLoc solution. Methods We studied six fungal isolates from recent cases of keratitis in New York State. The isolates were characterized by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, and then typed using minisatellite and microsatellite probes. Experimental fungal biofilm formation was tested by standard methods. MoistureLoc solutions were tested in biofouling studies for their efficacy in elimination of Fusarium contamination. Results Fusarium solani – corneal ulcers (2 isolates, lens case (1 isolate, and F. oxysporum – corneal ulcer (1 isolate, eye (1 isolate, were recovered from five patients. An opened bottle of MoistureLoc solution provided by a patient also yielded F. solani. Two distinct genotypes of F. solani as well as of F. oxysporum were present in the isolated strains. Remarkably, F. solani strains from the lens case and lens solution in one instance were similar, based on phylogenetic analyses and molecular typing. The solution isolate of F. solani formed biofilm on contact lenses in control conditions, but not when co-incubated with MoistureLoc solution. Both freshly opened and 3-month old MoistureLoc solutions effectively killed F. solani and F. oxysporum, when fungal contamination was simulated under recommended lens treatment regimen (4-hr. However, simulation of inappropriate use (15 – 60 min led to the recovery of less than 1% of original inoculum of F. solani or F. oxysporum. Conclusion Temporary survival of F. solani and F. oxysporum in MoistureLoc suggested that improper lens cleaning regimen could be a possible contributing factor in recent infections.

  13. Nordic project food contact materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ågot; Tesdal Håland, Julie; Petersen, Jens Højslev

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013––2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic...... countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls....... The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates....

  14. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  15. Research in Hospitality Management: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr Sjoerd A Gehrels Editor-in-Chief Stenden Hotel Management School, Academy of International Hospitality Research, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands Email: sjoerd.gehrels@stenden.com ...

  16. EPA Alternative Dispute Resolution Contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's ADR efforts depends on a network of talented and experienced professionals in Headquarters offices and EPA Regions. For Agency-wide ADR information, please contact the Conflict Prevention and Resolution Center.

  17. Pulsed growth of fungal hyphal tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Franco, R; Bartnicki-Garcia, S; Bracker, C E

    1994-12-06

    Somatic fungal hyphae are generally assumed to elongate at steady linear rates when grown under constant environmental conditions with ample nutrients. However, patterns of pulsed hyphal elongation were detected during apparent steady growth of hyphal tips in fungi from several major taxonomic groups (Oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum and Saprolegnia ferax; Zygomycetes, Gilbertella persicaria; Deuteromycetes, Trichoderma viride; Ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium culmorum; Basidiomycetes, Rhizoctonia solani). Growing hyphal tips were recorded with video-enhanced phase-contrast microscopy at high magnification, and digital images were measured at very short time intervals (1-5 s). In all fungi tested, the hyphal elongation rate was never perfectly steady but fluctuated continuously with alternating periods of fast and slow growth at more or less regular intervals. Pulsed growth was observed in fungi differing in cell diameter, overall growth rate, taxonomic position, and presence and pattern of Spitzenkörper organization, suggesting that this is a general phenomenon. Frequency and amplitude of the pulses varied among the test organisms. T. viride and N. crassa showed the most frequent pulses (average of 13-14 per min), and F. culmorum the least frequent (2.7 per min). Average pulse amplitude varied from 0.012 microns/s for F. culmorum to 0.068 microns/s for G. persicaria. In F. culmorum and T. viride, the fast phase of the growth pulses was correlated with the merger of satellite Spitzenkörper with the main Spitzenkörper. These findings are consistent with a causal relationship between fluctuations in the overall rate of secretory vesicle delivery/discharge at the hyphal apex and the fluctuations in hyphal elongation rate.

  18. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  19. Embodied Archives as Contact Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vidiella

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection about affective politics from locating some theoretical and conceptual genealogies like «emotion», «affection», «zones of contact»…, that understand them as action and force fields. These contributions allow us to rethink the relation of affects with politics and strategies of archive linked to performance, and understood as zones of friction, collision, circulation and contact: performative writing, repertoire, memes…

  20. [Contact allergy to henna tattoos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkjer, Bjarte; Stangeland, Katarina Zak; Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer

    2011-03-18

    Tattoos with henna colours have become very popular and the prevalence of contact allergy seems to increase. This is a short review article based on our own clinical experience and literature identified through a search in PubMed with the words "henna", "paraphenylendiamin" and "allergic contact dermatitis." A case report is included. It is well documented that many experience skin reactions after henna tattoos. The cause is almost always contact allergy to the azo compound paraphenylendiamin, which is added to speed up the process and make the colour darker. Most people, including children, get henna tattoos during vacations in Asia or the Mediterranean. Established contact allergy is permanent. Many hair-colour products contain paraphenylendiamin, and persons with contact allergy against the product may develop a very strong contact allergic eczema by use of such substances. Acute reactions are treated with local cortisone products, or with systemic steroids. Cross reaction to substances with a similar chemical structure may occur. Tattoos with paraphenylendiamin-containing henna colours should be avoided.