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Sample records for fundamental studies program

  1. Damage analysis and fundamental studies program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Farrar, H. IV; Goland, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described

  2. Damage analysis and fundamental studies program. Paper 78-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Reuther, T.C.; Robinson, M.T.

    1978-01-01

    The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described

  3. Damage analysis and fundamental studies program. Paper 78-97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D G; Reuther, T C; Robinson, M T

    1978-01-01

    The Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Task Group has been formed by the Office of Fusion Energy to develop procedures for applying data obtained in various irradiation test facilities to projected fusion environments. A long-range program plan has been prepared and implementation has begun. The plan and technical status are briefly described.

  4. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fundamental radiation effects studies in the US Fusion Materials Program generally fall under the aegis of the Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) Program. In a narrow sense, the problem addressed by the DAFS program is the prediction of radiation effects in fusion devices using data obtained in non-representative environments. From the onset, the program has had near-term and long-term components. The premise for the latter is that there will be large economic penalties for uncertainties in predictive capability. Fusion devices are expected to be large and complex and unanticipated maintenance will be costly. It is important that predictions are based on a maximum of understanding and a minimum of empiricism. Gaining this understanding is the thrust of the long-term component. (orig.)

  5. Program for studying fundamental interactions at the PIK reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serebrov, A. P.; Vassiljev, A. V.; Varlamov, V. E.; Geltenbort, P.; Gridnev, K. A.; Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A.; Egorov, A. I.; Ezhov, V. F.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ivanov, S. A.; Kolomensky, E. A.; Konoplev, K. A.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Lasakov, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A.; Martemyanov, V. P.

    2016-01-01

    A research program aimed at studying fundamental interactions by means of ultracold and polarized cold neutrons at the GEK-4-4′ channel of the PIK reactor is presented. The apparatus to be used includes a source of cold neutrons in the heavy-water reflector of the reactor, a source of ultracold neutrons based on superfluid helium and installed in a cold-neutron beam extracted from the GEK-4 channel, and a number of experimental facilities in neutron beams. An experiment devoted to searches for the neutron electric dipole moment and an experiment aimed at a measurement the neutron lifetime with the aid of a large gravitational trap are planned to be performed in a beam of ultracold neutrons. An experiment devoted to measuring neutron-decay asymmetries with the aid of a superconducting solenoid is planned in a beam of cold polarized neutrons from the GEK-4′ channel. The second ultracold-neutron source and an experiment aimed at measuring the neutron lifetime with the aid of a magnetic trap are planned in the neutron-guide system of the GEK-3 channel. In the realms of neutrino physics, an experiment intended for sterile-neutrino searches is designed. The state of affairs around the preparation of the experimental equipment for this program is discussed.

  6. Program for studying fundamental interactions at the PIK reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebrov, A. P., E-mail: serebrov@pnpi.spb.ru; Vassiljev, A. V.; Varlamov, V. E. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Geltenbort, P. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Gridnev, K. A. [St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, S. P.; Dovator, N. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Egorov, A. I.; Ezhov, V. F.; Zherebtsov, O. M.; Zinoviev, V. G.; Ivochkin, V. G.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ivanov, S. A.; Kolomensky, E. A.; Konoplev, K. A.; Krasnoschekova, I. A.; Lasakov, M. S.; Lyamkin, V. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Martemyanov, V. P. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); and others

    2016-05-15

    A research program aimed at studying fundamental interactions by means of ultracold and polarized cold neutrons at the GEK-4-4′ channel of the PIK reactor is presented. The apparatus to be used includes a source of cold neutrons in the heavy-water reflector of the reactor, a source of ultracold neutrons based on superfluid helium and installed in a cold-neutron beam extracted from the GEK-4 channel, and a number of experimental facilities in neutron beams. An experiment devoted to searches for the neutron electric dipole moment and an experiment aimed at a measurement the neutron lifetime with the aid of a large gravitational trap are planned to be performed in a beam of ultracold neutrons. An experiment devoted to measuring neutron-decay asymmetries with the aid of a superconducting solenoid is planned in a beam of cold polarized neutrons from the GEK-4′ channel. The second ultracold-neutron source and an experiment aimed at measuring the neutron lifetime with the aid of a magnetic trap are planned in the neutron-guide system of the GEK-3 channel. In the realms of neutrino physics, an experiment intended for sterile-neutrino searches is designed. The state of affairs around the preparation of the experimental equipment for this program is discussed.

  7. Fundamental radiation effects studies in the fusion-materials program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1981-10-01

    Some examples of progress being made in DAFS studies are given. The primary parameters in which most damage models are expressed are total displacements per atom (dpa), total helium concentration (appm), and the helium-to-dpa ratio. The concentrations of other transmutation products than helium have assumed significance in certain cases as will be seen below. The number of dpa is generally taken proportional to the damage energy, the total energy deposited in a material, corrected for the fraction dissipated in electronic excitation and ionization

  8. Fusion reactor materials program plan. Section 2. Damage analysis and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The scope of this program includes: (1) Development of procedures for characterizing neutron environments of test facilities and fusion reactors, (2) Theoretical and experimental investigations of the influence of irradiation environment on damage production, damage microstructure evolution, and mechanical and physical property changes, (3) Identification and, where appropriate, development of essential nuclear and materials data, and (4) Development of a methodology, based on damage mechanisms, for correlating the mechanical behavior of materials exposed to diverse test environments and projecting this behavior to magnetic fusion reactor (MFR) environments. Some major problem areas are addressed

  9. Fundamental geosciences program. Annual report, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Apps, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The geoscience program relating to geothermal energy consists of four projects. In the project on reservoir dynamics, sophisticated codes have been written to simulate the dynamics of heat flow in geothermal reservoir systems. These codes have also been applied to the investigations of natural aquifers as a storage system for thermal energy. In the second project, core samples are studied to determine the high temperature and high pressure behavior of aquifers in the presence of saturating fluids. The third project covers the systematic evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes in order to interpret the behavior of geothermal fluids. The fourth project involves hydrothermal solubility measurements of various minerals to elucidate the chemistry and mass transfer in geothermal systems. The second major program includes four projects which involve precise measurements and analysis of physical and chemical properties of geologic materials. These include measurements of the thermodynamic properties (viscosity, density and heat capacity) of silicate materials to help understand magma genesis and evolution, high-precision neutron activation analysis of rare and trace elements in magmatic materials, and the precise measurement of seismic wave velocities near geological faults, in order to determine the buildup of stress in the earth's crust. Third, the development program in fundamental geosciences includes six innovative projects. These projects include research in the in situ leaching of uranium ore, properties of magmas, removal of pyrite from coal, properties of soils and soft rocks, stress flow behavior of fractured rock systems, and high-precision mass spectrometry.

  10. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding

  11. Damage analysis and fundamental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    As a planning activity, the objectives of the workshop were to list, prioritize and milestone the activities necessary to understand, interpret and control the mechanical behavior of candidate fusion reactor alloys. Emphasis was placed on flow and fracture processes which are unique to the fusion environment since the national fusion materials program must evaluate these effects without assistance from other reactor programs. The working group on flow processes and properties was concerned with the time-dependent and independent flow. This included radiation hardening and steady state and cyclic creep. The working group on the effect of flow on fracture was concerned with the relationships between the unique flow properties of irradiated materials, such as dislocation channeling, and the fracture properties of these materials. The working group on time-dependent fracture was concerned with high-temperature, time-dependent fracture, such as stress-rupture and fatigue fracture, while also being concerned with time-dependent environmental effects on fracture. The working group on radiation-induced or enhanced embrittlement was concerned primarily with time-independent fracture of materials for near-term fusion device applications

  12. Fundamentals of a patient safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, Karen S.

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of people are injured or die from medical errors and adverse events each year, despite being cared for by hard-working, intelligent and well-intended health care professionals, working in the highly complex and high-risk environment of the American health care system. Patient safety leaders have described a need for health care organizations to make error prevention a major strategic objective while at the same time recognizing the importance of transforming the traditional health care culture. In response, comprehensive patient safety programs have been developed with the aim of reducing medical errors and adverse events and acting as a catalyst in the development of a culture of safety. Components of these programs are described, with an emphasis on strategies to improve pediatric patient safety. Physicians, as leaders of the health care team, have a unique opportunity to foster the culture and commitment required to address the underlying systems causes of medical error and harm. (orig.)

  13. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R; Russell, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: ICRF impurity studies; ICRF convective cells; sheath plasma waves and anomalous IBW loading; a quasilinear description for fast wave minority heating permitting off magnetic axis heating in a tokamak; and runaway electrons studies in support of TEXT

  14. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1990-03-01

    This paper discusses tokamak transport, auxiliary heating physics; ICRF impurity study; ponderomotive stabilization studies; ICRF induced fluxes in the edge plasma; runaway electron confinement in TEXT; rf sheath modelling for ICRF antenna Faraday screens; and isotropic energetic in fluxes in tokamaks

  15. The Fundamental Ontology of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tyson E.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to disrupt the hegemonic dominance of learning theory, in this article Tyson Lewis explores the unique educational logic of studying. Drawing on the work of Giorgio Agamben, we can understand the operation of study as one of suspension through three modes: preferring not; no longer, not yet; and as not. But the relationship between…

  16. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Work on ICRF interaction with the edge plasma is reported. ICRF generated convective cells have been established as an important mechanism for influencing edge transport and interaction with the H-mode, and for controlling profiles in the tokamak scrape-off-layer. Power dissipation by rf sheaths has been shown to be significant for some misaligned ICRF and IIBW antenna systems. Near-field antenna sheath work has been extended to the far-field case, important for experiments with low single pass absorption. Impurity modeling and Faraday screen design support has been provided for the ICRF community. In the area of core-ICRF physics, the kinetic theory of heating by applied ICRF waves has been extended to retain important geometrical effects relevant to modeling minority heated tokamak plasmas, thereby improving on the physics base that is standard in presently employed codes. Both the quasilinear theory of ion heating, and the plasma response function important in wave codes have been addressed. In separate studies, it has been shown that highly anisotropic minority heated plasmas can give rise to unstable field fluctuations in some situations. A completely separate series of studies have contributed to the understanding of tokamak confinement physics. Additionally, a diffraction formalism has been produced which will be used to access the focusability of lower hybrid, ECH, and gyrotron scattering antennas in dynamic plasma configurations

  17. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  18. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  19. Annual report from the realization of the Central Program of the Fundamental Studies no 01.09. ''Studies of elementary particles and nuclear processes'' in 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Report on the realization of research program in the domain of high and medium energy physics, structural studies by means of nuclear physics methods, nuclear chemistry and high-energy instrumentation in 1987 is presented. Program is coordinated by Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow, Institute of Physics of Jagiellonian University in Cracow and Institute of Nuclear Studies in Swierk. The information on international cooperation and costs of the realization of the program are given. Lists of the 487 most important publications are presented. (M.F.W.)

  20. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  1. Engine Fundamentals: Automotive Mechanics Instructional Program. Block 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ralph D.

    The second of six instructional blocks in automotive mechanics, the lessons and supportive information in the document provide a guide for teachers in planning an instructional program in engine fundamentals at the secondary and postsecondary level. The material, as organized, is a suggested sequence of instruction within each block. Each lesson…

  2. Fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.C.; Compton, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    For several years the authors have performed fundamental studies of molecular multiphoton ionization (MPI). We will present a potpourri of techniques and results chosen to illustrate the interesting complexities of molecular MPI. Techniques used include time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, supersonic expansion cooling of molecular beams, harmonic generation, two-color laser MPI, and polarization spectroscopy. Whenever possible the relevance of these results to resonance ionization spectroscopy schemes will be delineated. 23 references, 10 figures

  3. Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, Norman M.; Burns, Carol J.; Shuh, David D.; Lukens, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc, half-life = 2.13x105 years, b-emitter) is one of the radionuclides of major concern for nuclear waste disposal. This concern is due to the long half-life of 99Tc, the ease with which pertechnetate, TcO4 -, migrates in the geosphere, and the corresponding regulatory considerations. The problem of mobility of pertechnetate in the environment is compounded by the fact that pertechnetate is the thermodynamically stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. These two factors present challenges for the safe, long term immobilization of technetium in waste forms. Because of the stability of pertechnetate, technetium has been assumed to exist as pertechnetate in the aqueous phase of nuclear waste tanks. However, recent studies indicate that a significant fraction of the technetium is in a different chemical form. This program addresses the fundamental solution chemistry of technetium in the waste tank environment, and in a second part, the stability of technetium in various waste forms. The chemistry of this element will be studied in aqueous solutions at high pH, with various added salts such as nitrate, nitrite, and organic complexants, and as a function of radiation dose, to determine whether radiolysis effects can reduce TcO4 -. A separate facet of this research is the search for chemical forms of technetium that may be thermodynamically and/or kinetically stable and may be incorporated in various waste forms for long term storage. This phase of the program will address the problem of the possible oxidation of lower valent technetium species in various waste form matrices and the subsequent leaching of the highly soluble TcO4 -

  4. The R software fundamentals of programming and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lafaye de Micheaux, Pierre; Liquet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The contents of The R Software are presented so as to be both comprehensive and easy for the reader to use. Besides its application as a self-learning text, this book can support lectures on R at any level from beginner to advanced. This book can serve as a textbook on R for beginners as well as more advanced users, working on Windows, MacOs or Linux OSes. The first part of the book deals with the heart of the R language and its fundamental concepts, including data organization, import and export, various manipulations, documentation, plots, programming and maintenance.  The last chapter in this part deals with oriented object programming as well as interfacing R with C/C++ or Fortran, and contains a section on debugging techniques. This is followed by the second part of the book, which provides detailed explanations on how to perform many standard statistical analyses, mainly in the Biostatistics field. Topics from mathematical and statistical settings that are included are matrix operations, integration, o...

  5. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    Lodestar has carried out a vigorous research program in the areas of rf, edge plasma and divertor physics, with emphasis largely geared towards improving the understanding and performance of ion-cyclotron heating and current drive (ICRF) systems. Additionally, a research program in the field of edge plasma and divertor modeling was initiated. Theoretical work on high power rf sheath formation for multi-strap rf arrays was developed and benchmarked against recent experimental data from the new JET A2 antennas. Sophisticated modeling tools were employed to understand the sheath formation taking into account realistic three-dimensional antenna geometry. A novel physics explanation of an observed anomaly in the low power loading of antennas was applied to qualitatively interpret data on DIII-D in terms of rf sheaths, and potential applications of the idea to develop a near-field sheath diagnostic were explored. Other rf-wave related topics were also investigated. Full wave ICRF modeling studies were carried out in support of ongoing and planned tokamaks experiments, including the investigation of low frequency plasma heating and current drive regimes for IGNITOR. In a cross-disciplinary study involving both MHD and ICRF physics, ponderomotive feedback stabilization by rf was investigated as a potential means of controlling external kink mode disruptions. In another study, the instability of the ion hybrid wave (IHW) in the presence of fusion alpha particles was studied. In the field of edge plasma and divertor modeling studies, Lodestar began the development of a theory of generalized ballooning and sheath instabilities in the scrape off layer (SOL) of divertor tokamaks. A detailed summary of the technical progress in these areas during the contract period is included, as well as where references to published work can be found. A separate listing of publications, meeting abstracts, and other presentations is also given at the end of this final report

  6. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  7. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  8. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Shuh, David K.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2007-10-12

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste posed by this element. The primary issues examined during the course of this project were the behavior of technetium and its surrogate rhenium during waste vitrification and glass corrosion. Since the redox behavior of technetium can play a large role in determining its volatility, one goal of this research was to better understand the behavior of technetium in glass as a function of the redox potential of the glass melt. In addition, the behavior of rhenium was examined, since rhenium is commonly used as a surrogate for technetium in waste vitrification studies. A number of glasses similar to Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glasses were prepared under controlled atmospheres. The redox state of the glass was determined from the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in the cooled glass, and the speciation of technetium and rhenium was determined by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The behavior of rhenium and technetium during glass alteration was also examined using the vapor hydration test (VHT).

  9. TURING MACHINE AS UNIVERSAL ALGORITHM EXECUTOR AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE PROCESS OF HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS` ADVANCED STUDY OF ALGORITHMIZATION AND PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr B. Yashchyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of studying the notion of algorithm and its formal specification using Turing machines. In the article it was identified the basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms for Turing as well as reviewed scientific research of modern scientists devoted to this issue and found the main principles of the Turing machine as an abstract mathematical model. The process of forming information competencies components, information culture and students` logical thinking development with the inclusion of the topic “Study and Application of Turing machine as Universal Algorithm Executor” in the course of Informatics was analyzed.

  10. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  11. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms

  12. Fundamental solution of the problem of linear programming and method of its determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunin, S. V.

    1978-01-01

    The idea of a fundamental solution to a problem in linear programming is introduced. A method of determining the fundamental solution and of applying this method to the solution of a problem in linear programming is proposed. Numerical examples are cited.

  13. One Step Membrane Filtration : A fundamental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidari, A.H.

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on spiral-wound membrane (SWM) modules, which are the most common commercially available membrane modules for reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). While RO membranes can remove almost all kinds of substances from the feed water, they are usually equipped with pretreatment

  14. Fundamental study of bulk power HVDC transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Study on the HVDC power transmission have been conducted since 1956. Shinshinano-Frequency Changer had been operated at first on 1977, as our home product, and Hokkaido-Honshu DC transmission also realized at 1979. Research and Development of the bulk power HVDC have been promoted by the UHV transmission special committee in our Institute from 1980. This paper is a comprehensive report published in the parts of operating control, insulation of DC line and countermeasure of fault current, and interferences in order to contribute for planning, design and operating of the UHV DC transmission in future. (author)

  15. Fundamental Study of Single Biomass Particle Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momenikouchaksaraei, Maryam

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles...... well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600°C...

  16. A fundamental study of the supersonic microjet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, M. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. D. [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under-and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results; two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length.

  17. A fundamental study of the supersonic microjet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, M. S.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. D.

    2001-01-01

    Microjet flows are often encountered in many industrial applications of micro-electro-mechanical systems as well as in medical engineering fields such as a transdermal drug delivery system for needle-free injection of drugs into the skin. The Reynolds numbers of such microjets are usually several orders of magnitude below those of larger-scale jets. The supersonic microjet physics with these low Reynolds numbers are not yet understood to date. Computational modeling and simulation can provide an effective predictive capability for the major features of the supersonic microjets. In the present study, computations using the axisymmetic, compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are applied to understand the supersonic microjet flow physics. The pressure ratio of the microjets is changed to obtain both the under-and over-expanded flows at the exit of the micronozzle. Sonic and supersonic microjets are simulated and compared with some experimental results available. Based on computational results; two microjets are discussed in terms of total pressure, jet decay and supersonic core length

  18. Fundamental study of photoradiation therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimura, Hiromasa; Kawakita, Isao; Nakahara, Akira; Sai, Shoki; Mitamura, Keiji; Fukutomi, Hisayuki; Sakita, Takao

    1984-12-01

    In an attempt to obtain basic data for endoscopical photoactivation therapy for cancer, photoactivation effect of various porphyrins have been studied using a human hepatoceller carcinoma cell line (PLC/PRF/5) and its transplanted tumors. Porphyrins tested were hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD), protoporphyrin disodium (PPNa), hematoporphyrin (Hp), coproporphyrin, and cobalt-protoporphyrin (COPP). To investigate cytocidal effects by laser irradiation with these drugs, the /sup 51/Cr release assay was used. The results indicate that laser irradiation only has no cytocidal effect, while PPNa has more intense cytocidal effect than that of HpD. To investigate anti-tumor effect by PRT further, 2mg of HpD, 2mg of PPNa or 0.9% NaCl were injected into human hepatocellar cartinomas transplanted to the flanks of BALB/c nu nu mice 48 hours before laser irradiation (514.5nm, 0.1 W, 30 min). The results were analized with respect to effects on tumor regression curve and their histology. The results suggest that laser irradiation alone has no antitumor effect, while PRT with PPNa has stronger anti-tumor effect than PRT with HpD. Therefore, PPNa may be used as a new photosensitizer for photoradiation therapy for cancer. (author).

  19. Fundamental studies of bloodstain formation and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Craig D

    2012-06-10

    A detailed understanding of blood droplet impact dynamics and stain formation is an essential prerequisite to the interpretation of both individual bloodstains and spatter patterns. The current literature on theoretical models for the spreading and splashing of liquid drops on surfaces relevant to the forensic context of bloodstain formation has been reviewed. These models have been evaluated for a paper substrate using experimental data obtained as function of droplet size, impact velocity and angle. It is shown that for perpendicular impact there are fairly simple mathematical models for the spreading diameter and the number of scallops or spines formed around the stain though these have quite limited ranges of validity in their basic form. In particular, predictions for the diameter are best for small droplets impacting at high velocity and the number of spines saturates for higher impact velocities. In the case of spreading, a modification to the energy conservation model is found to provide excellent agreement with experimental stain diameters across a wide range of impact velocities. For non-perpendicular impact, the width of stains is found to depend principally on the normal component of impact velocity and may be predicted by an appropriate modification to the expression for the perpendicular case. Limitations in the calculation of impact angle from the stain aspect ratio are identified and a theoretical basis for the prediction of spines around an elliptical stain is proposed. Some key issues for future research are identified which include a systematic, quantitative study of the effect of surface properties on bloodstain formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies of Fundamental Particle Dynamics in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Roger; Trolinger, James D.; Coimbra, Carlos F. M.; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work summarizes theoretical and experimental concepts used to design the flight experiment mission for SHIVA - Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus. SHIVA is a NASA project that exploits a unique, holography-based, diagnostics tool to understand the behavior of small particles subjected to transient accelerations. The flight experiments are designed for testing model equations, measuring g, g-jitter, and other microgravity phenomena. Data collection will also include experiments lying outside of the realm of existing theory. The regime under scrutiny is the low Reynolds number, Stokes regime or creeping flow, which covers particles and bubbles moving at very low velocity. The equations describing this important regime have been under development and investigation for over 100 years and yet a complete analytical solution of the general equation had remained elusive yielding only approximations and numerical solutions. In the course of the ongoing NASA NRA, the first analytical solution of the general equation was produced by members of the investigator team using the mathematics of fractional derivatives. This opened the way to an even more insightful and important investigation of the phenomena in microgravity. Recent results include interacting particles, particle-wall interactions, bubbles, and Reynolds numbers larger than unity. The Space Station provides an ideal environment for SHIVA. Limited ground experiments have already confirmed some aspects of the theory. In general the space environment is required for the overall experiment, especially for cases containing very heavy particles, very light particles, bubbles, collections of particles and for characterization of the space environment and its effect on particle experiments. Lightweight particles and bubbles typically rise too fast in a gravitational field and heavy particles sink too fast. In a microgravity environment, heavy and light particles can be studied side-by-side for

  1. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  2. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-11-01

    injectors, but can be a consideration in preburners, where the desire to keep turbine inlet temperatures as cool as possible can make it advantageous for the preburners to operate as far from stoichiometry as can be tolerated. ignitable during startup where pressures and temperatures are far from design conditions, and ignition transients must be minimized in order to avoid damage to engine components. In order to satisfy these various constraints, the injector designer must be able to perform design tradeoff studies, and it is important that this be done with minimal time and costs. In fact, it can easily be argued that reducing engine development time and costs is essential to maintaining U.S. competitiveness in space. *The Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory has invested in a number of programs to advance liquid rocket engine technology, and several of these are directed at improving design tools for liquid rocket injectors. -The purpose of the presentation will be to describe some of these latter programs.

  3. Interorganizational networks: fundamental to the Accreditation Canada program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan I; Nicklin, Wendy; MacDonald, Bernadette

    2014-01-01

    Within the Canadian healthcare system, the term population-accountable health network defines the use of collective resources to optimize the health of a population through integrated interventions. The leadership of these networks has also been identified as a critical factor, highlighting the need for creative management of resources in determining effective, balanced sets of interventions. In this article, using specific principles embedded in the Accreditation Canada program, the benefits of a network approach are highlighted, including knowledge sharing, improving the consistency of practice through standards, and a broader systems-and-population view of healthcare delivery across the continuum of care. The implications for Canadian health leaders to leverage the benefits of interorganizational networks are discussed.

  4. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1991-09-01

    The philosophy of the program at the University of California Santa Barbara has been to develop a fundamental understanding of both the basic damage processes and microstructural evolution that take place in a material during neutron irradiation and the consequent dimensional and mechanical property changes. This fundamental understanding can be used in conjunction with empirical data obtained from a variety of irradiation facilities to develop physically-based models of neutron irradiation effects in structural materials. The models in turn can be used to guide alloy development and to help extrapolate the irradiation data base (expected to be largely fission reactor based) to the fusion reactor regime. This philosophy is consistent with that of the national and international programs for developing structural materials for fusion reactors

  5. PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS TEACHING TO THE STUDENTS OF PHYSICO-MATHEMATICAL PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychyn Tatiana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article provides methodical recommendations on studying of the discipline "Informatics" for the specialists preparation of the first (Bachelor level of higher education of the field of knowledge 01 "Education" of the specialty 014.04 "Secondary education (mathematics", 014.08 "Secondary education (physics". This discipline plays a particularly important role in the higher education establishments physical and mathematical field specialists training, since it combines both the fundamental concepts and principles of various mathematical and informatics disciplines, as well as applied models and algorithms for their application. The methodological aspects of the discipline "Informatics" study include the pedagogical feasibility of the forms, methods and means of training for students who are qualified as a teacher of mathematics and a physics teacher respectively. The discipline program includes issues on informatics theoretical foundations, applied software, and the basics of programming. Students are encouraged to consider the basics of programming in the C ++ environment. Basic C ++ language designs have a convenient, professional programming toolkit. Integrated C ++ environment is characterized by speed, convenience in debugging and compiling of the program. Therefore, the article focuses on the practical skills formation in the C ++ environment for the students of the physical and mathematical profile and highlights the methodological aspects of the C ++ programming language use in the course of the discipline "Informatics" teaching. The formation of practical skills takes place during the performance of laboratory works, namely: the original problem setting, the construction of an algorithm for its solution, analysis of the received results.

  6. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, E Jean; Keats, Melanie R; Kolen, Angela M

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today's youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m.), is increasingly considered an opportune time for physical activity interventions. To date, little research has examined the potential for after school programming to improve FMS proficiency. Participants (n=40, 6-10 years) of two existent physical activity based after school programs, a low-organized games and a sports-based program, were pre- and post-tested for FMS proficiency using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) over an 11-week period. The sports-based program participants showed no improvement in FMS over the 11-week study ( p =0.91, eta 2 =0.00) and the games-based program participants significantly improved their proficiency ( p =0.00, eta 2 =0.30). No significant ( p =0.13, eta 2 = 0.06), differences were found in change in FMS scores between the low-organized games program participants and the sport-based program participants. These results suggest that after school programs with a low-organized games-based focus may support a moderate improvement in FMS proficiency in young children. Better training of after school program leaders on how to teach FMS may be necessary to assist children in acquiring sufficient proficiency in FMS.

  7. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1979-05-01

    This report is the third in a series of Quarterly Technical Progress Reports on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) which is one element of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program, conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to Section II, Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DOE/ET-0032/2), of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program Plan so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. Chapters 1 and 2 report topics which are generic to all of the DAFS Program: DAFS Task Group Activities and Irradiation Test Facilities, respectively. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 report the work that is specific to each of the subtasks around which the program is structured: A) Environmental Characterization, B) Damage Production, and C) Damage Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior.

  8. Java programming fundamentals problem solving through object oriented analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Premchand S

    2008-01-01

    While Java texts are plentiful, it's difficult to find one that takes a real-world approach, and encourages novice programmers to build on their Java skills through practical exercise. Written by an expert with 19 experience teaching computer programming, Java Programming Fundamentals presents object-oriented programming by employing examples taken from everyday life. Provides a foundation in object-oriented design principles and UML notation Describes common pitfalls and good programming practicesFurnishes supplemental links, documents, and programs on its companion website, www.premnair.netU

  9. Fundamental symmetry studies at Los Alamos using epithermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, C.D.; Bowman, J.D.; Yuan, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental symmetry studies using intense polarized beams of epithermal neutrons are underway at the LANSCE facility of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Three classes of symmetry experiments can be explored: parity violation, and time reversal invariance violation for both parity-violating and parity-conserved observables. The experimental apparatus is described and performance illustrated with examples of recent measurements. Possible improvements in the facilities and prospective experiments are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs

  10. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  11. Studies and Movements on the Fundamentals of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiva Afonso Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a project of teaching entitled "Audio classes, screen capture and video classes for lessons of Fundamentals Socio-Historical-Philosophical of Education" linked to a research project more full-bodied, entitled " The bias of language to think interactivity and collaborative learning in the distance modality in/of UFPEL. With the objective of develop the courseware for the discipline of Fundamentals Socio-historical-Philosophical of Education, we use as methodology multimedia resources to help in the motivation of the learning, the clarification and deepening of the content. In addition to the bibliographic research and meetings between counselor and scholarship students, which led to the change of direction of the education project making it one tensioner between the boundaries of the disciplines of Education Fundamentals area through the realization of a documentary rescuing / knowing / recognizing the trajectories of disciplines and content already worked by teachers who, over the past 39 years, "set the tone" for Foundations of Education in FAE (Faculty of Education and BSc courses UFPel - will be made to rescue the memory of those affected by discipline (teachers and students. The research is in the process of collection of interviews with five teachers who are or will be retired till the end of 2015.

  12. Fundamentals of successful monitoring, reporting, and verification under a cap-and-trade program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Schakenbach; Robert Vollaro; Reynaldo Forte [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Atmospheric Programs, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed and implemented the Acid Rain Program (ARP), and NOx Budget Trading Programs (NBTP) using several fundamental monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) elements: (1) compliance assurance through incentives and automatic penalties; (2) strong quality assurance (QA); (3) collaborative approach with a petition process; (4) standardized electronic reporting; (5) compliance flexibility for low-emitting sources; (6) complete emissions data record required; (7) centralized administration; (8) level playing field; (9) publicly available data; (10) performance-based approach; and (11) reducing conflicts of interest. Each of these elements is discussed in the context of the authors' experience under two U.S. cap-and-trade programs and their potential application to other cap and-trade programs. The U.S. Office of Management and Budget found that the Acid Rain Program has accounted for the largest quantified human health benefits of any federal regulatory program implemented in the last 10 yr, with annual benefits exceeding costs by {gt} 40 to 1. The authors believe that the elements described in this paper greatly contributed to this success. EPA has used the ARP fundamental elements as a model for other cap-and-trade programs, including the NBTP, which went into effect in 2003, and the recently published Clean Air Interstate Rule and Clean Air Mercury Rule. The authors believe that using these fundamental elements to develop and implement the MRV portion of their cap-and-trade programs has resulted in public confidence in the programs, highly accurate and complete emissions data, and a high compliance rate. 2 refs.

  13. A fundamental study on materials for Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, V.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In April 1997 the program "Decentralized Production and Storage for Large-Scale Application of Renewable Energy" of the Delft Interfaculty Research Centre (DIOC) was launched. In this program various groups from several Faculties of the Delft University of Technology studied the feasibility of large

  14. Fundamental studies of interferences in ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, L.K

    2000-11-01

    Methods of temperature measurement by mass spectrometry have been critically reviewed. It was concluded that the most appropriate method depended critically on the availability of fundamental data, hence a database of fundamental spectroscopic constants, for diatomic ions which cause interferences in ICP-MS, was compiled. The equilibration temperature, calculated using the different methods and using various diatomic ions as the thermometric probes, was between c.a. 400 - 10,000 K in the central channel, and between c.a. 600 - 16,000 K when the plasma was moved 1.8 mm off-centre. The wide range in temperature reflected the range of temperature measurement methods and uncertainty in the fundamental data. Optical studies using a fibre optic connected to a monochromator were performed in order to investigate the presence of interferences both in the plasma and the interface region of the ICP-MS, and the influence of a shielded torch on these interferences. It was possible to determine the presence of some species in the plasma, such as the strongly bound metal oxides, however, no species other than OH were detected in the interface region of the ICP-MS. The OH rotational temperature within the interface region of the ICP-MS was calculated to be between 2,000 - 4,000 K. The effect of sampling depth, operating power, radial position and solvent loading, with and without the shielded torch, on the dissociation temperature of a variety of polyatomic interferences was investigated. These calculated temperatures were then used to elucidate the site of formation for different polyatomic interferences. Results confirmed that strongly bound ions such as MO{sup +} were formed in the plasma, whereas weakly bound ions such as ArO{sup +} were formed in the interface region due to gross deviation of the calculated temperatures from those expected for a system in thermal equilibrium. (author)

  15. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1979-05-01

    This report is the fourth in a series of Quarterly Technical Progress Reports on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) which is one element of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program, conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title (to be published) so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily relative to the Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. Chapters 1 and 2 report topics which are generic to all of the DAFS Program: DAFS Task Group Activities and Irradiation Test Facilities, respectively. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 report the work that is specific to each of the subtasks around which the program is structured: A) Environmental Characterization, B) Damage Production, and C) Damage Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior.

  16. Lunar Flight Study Series: Volume 8. Earth-Moon Transit Studies Based on Ephemeris Data and Using Best Available Computer Program. Part 3: Analysis of Some Lunar Landing Site Problems Utilizing Two Fundamental Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, W. B.; Hooper, H. L.

    1963-01-01

    This report presents two fundamental properties of lunar trajectories and makes use of these properties to solve various lunar landing site problems. Not only are various problems treated and solved but the properties and methods are established for use in the solution of other problems. This report presents an analysis of lunar landing site problems utilizing the direct mission mode as well as the orbital mission mode. A particular landing site is then specified and different flight profiles are analyzed for getting an exploration vehicle to that landing site. Rendezvous compatible lunar orbits for various stay-times at the landing site are treated. Launch opportunities are discussed for establishing rendezvous compatible lunar orbits without powered plane changes. Then, the minimum required plane changes for rendezvous in the lunar orbit are discussed for launching from earth on any day. On days that afford rendezvous compatible opportunities, there are no powered plane change requirements in the operations from launch at AMR through the rendezvous in lunar orbit, after the stay at the lunar site.

  17. Fundamental principles of conducting a surgery economic analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsis, Sandra V; Chung, Kevin C

    2010-02-01

    The use of economic evaluation in surgery is scarce. Economic evaluation is used even less so in plastic surgery, in which health-related quality of life is of particular importance. This article, part of a tutorial series on evidence-based medicine, focuses on the fundamental principles of conducting a surgery economic analysis. The authors include the essential aspects of conducting a surgical cost-utility analysis by considering perspectives, costs, outcomes, and utilities. The authors also describe and give examples of how to conduct the analyses (including calculating quality-adjusted life-years and discounting), how to interpret the results, and how to report the results. Although economic analyses are not simple to conduct, a well-conducted one provides many rewards, such as recommending the adoption of a more effective treatment. For comparing and interpreting economic analysis publications, it is important that all studies use consistent methodology and report the results in a similar manner.

  18. Fundamental and clinical study for PHT (parathyroid hormone) kit 'Yamasa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Furukawa, Takako; Morita, Rikushi

    1987-01-01

    A commercially available radioimmunoassay kit (Yamasa) for parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the midregion-specific assay system. Fundamental study of the PTH kit gave favorable results for specificity, reproducibility, dilution, and recovery. The serum PTH concentration was detectable among all 41 normal volunteers. The upper and lower limits of normal for PTH in serum were found to be 600 pg/ml and 184 pg/ml, respectively. PTH values were high for chronic renal failure (6/7) and primary hyperparathyroidism (41/41), and low for malignancy associated with hypercalcemia (5/25). It seems possible to discriminate hypercalcemic from normal subjects. The serum PTH concentration from the present assay system was significantly correlated with that from conventional carboxyl-terminal PTH, midregion PTH, amino-terminal PTH, and (1 - 84) PTH assay systems. The results indicate the potential of the Yamasa kit in evaluating calcium metabolism, as well as in detecting the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. DB2 10.1 fundamentals certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an explanation of the certification process and working through fundamental exam objectives, this guide gives test-takers all they need to know to pass IBM's DB2 10.1 Fundamentals certification exam (Exam 610). All the subjects covered on the exam are included: planning, security, data concurrency, working with databases and database objects, working with data using SQL and XQuery, working with DB2 tables, views, and indexes-and more. The book concludes with an

  20. Suitability of a structured Fundamental Movement Skills program for long day care centres: a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrunoff, Nick; Lloyd, Beverley; Watson, Natalie; Morrisey, David

    2009-04-01

    Early childhood presents an opportunity to encourage development of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS). Implementation of a structured program in the Long Day Care (LDC) setting presents challenges. Implementation of a structured FMS program FunMoves was assessed in LDC in metropolitan New South Wales. LDC staff attended a training session conducted by trained Health Promotion Officers (HPOs) and completed an evaluation. During implementation HPOs completed lesson observations. De-identified attendance data was collected and director and staff feedback on the program including barriers to implementation was obtained via questionnaire. Qualitative information relevant to process evaluation was obtained via open questions on questionnaires, and a de-brief diary recording feedback from directors and staff. Knowledge of FMS and FunMoves and staff confidence to deliver the program were high after training. On average, staff stated they ran lessons more than the suggested twice weekly and the majority of children attended 1-3 lessons per week. However, lesson delivery was not as designed, and staff found FunMoves disruptive and time consuming. Six directors and the majority of staff thought that FunMoves could be improved. Structured program delivery was hampered by contextual issues including significant staff turnover and program length and structure being at odds with the setting. Implementation could be enhanced by guidelines for more flexible delivery options including less structured approaches, shorter and simpler lessons, ongoing conversations with the early childhood sector, in-centre engagement of staff and post-training support.

  1. Fundaments for the study of orality in written language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gaston Hilgert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we put forth some reflections upon the production of effects of orality in written texts in light of the fundaments of enunciation. In this theoretical context, we show that the study of orality in written language should not depart from the random identification of lexical and syntactic, figurative and thematic, stylistic or rhetoric resources. What matters is the identification of the interactive scenario in which these linguistic resources are manifested. The interactive scenario is configured by the relationship between narrator/narratee revealed in the text. If this relation takes place by means of the interaction between an I (narrator and a you (narratee, either explicit or implicit, then it is instituted, in this scenario, the basic principle of dialog, of conversation, which defines the proximity condition of the interlocutors and, therefore, the interactive scenario favorable to the use of orality resources. When this relation, however, takes place in the form of a third person narrator who addresses him/herself to an implicit reader, the scenario of distancing is installed, in which orality resources may be unfit or, if they occur, they may have specific functions. This text addresses special attention to the interactive scenario set by the interaction between I/you, showing, in different examples, traits of orality determined by such interaction, and also the various degrees of proximity that this interaction may reveal in its various manifestations.

  2. Studies on fundamental technologies for producing tokamak-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Yoshimi

    1987-10-01

    The report describes studies on fundamental technologies to produce tokamak-plasma of the JFT-2 and JFT-2M tokamaks. (1) In order to measure the particle number of residual gases, calibration methods of vacuum gauges have been developed. (2) Devices for a Taylor-type discharge cleaning (TDC), a glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and ECR discharge cleaning (ECR-DC) have been made and the cleaning effects have been investigated. In TDC the most effective plasma for cleaning is obtained in the plasma with 5 eV of electron temperature. GDC is effective in removing carbon impurities, but is less effective for removing oxygen impurities. ECR-DC has nearly the similar effect as TDC. The cleaning effect of these three types were studied by comparing the properties of resulting tokamak plasmas in the JFT-2M tokamak. (3) Experimental studies of pre-ionization showed as following results; A simple pre-ionization equipment as a hot-electron-gun and a J x B gun was effective in reducing breakdown voltage. An ordinary mode wave of the electron cyclotron frequency was very effective for pre-ionization. The RF power whose density is 3.6 x 10 -2 W/cm 3 produced plasma of an electron density of 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . In this case, it is possible to start up with negligible consumption of the magnetic flux caused by the plasma resistance. (4) Concerning to studies on plasma control, the following results were obtained; In order to obtain constant plasma current, a pulse forming network was constructed and sufficient constant plasma current was achieved. In applying an iso-flux method for measuring the plasma position, it is no problem practically to use only one loop-coil and one magnetic probe. (author)

  3. Inclusive intervention to enhance the fundamental movement skills of children without hearing: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, Ferda

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess an intervention program on the fundamental movement skill of students with and without hearing impairment, using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) standardized Turkish norm. Preschool children with and without hearing impairment participated in this study. At the beginning of the study, most of the children with hearing impairment demonstrated developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale (6/7), as did about one-third (4/11) of the children without hearing impairment. For the Object control subscale, 4/7 of children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay prior to the intervention program. After the intervention program, 3/7 children with hearing impairment had developmental delay on the Locomotor subscale. On the Object control subscale, 2/7 children with hearing impairment and none without hearing impairment showed developmental delay. The six-week intervention program improved TGMD-2 scores of children with hearing impairment, yet did not yield statistically significant improvement of fundamental movement skills.

  4. The summary of the fundamental power development program for fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masami

    1982-01-01

    The Power Source Development Coordination Council put tentatively the target of starting construction in fiscal 1981 at hydraulic 1,000 MW, thermal 5,000 MW and nuclear 5,000 MW, totaling 11,000 MW. Subsequently, after the coordination among the ministries and agencies concerned, the following development program was formally decided for fiscal 1981: hydraulic power 290 MW at 22 sites, thermal power 5,480 MW at 9 sites and nuclear power 1,980 MW at two sites, totaling 7,750 MW at 33 sites. This is 70 % of the tentative target. Nuclear power generation thus put in the fundamental power development program was: one BWR unit of 825 MW in Maki, Niigata Prefecture (Tohoku Electric), and two PWR units of 579 MW each in Kyowa-Tomari in Hokkaido (Hokkaido Electric). (J.P.N.)

  5. Evaluation of the revised training program for senior control room staff: science fundamentals and equipment principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, R.E.; Evans, G.J.

    1996-10-01

    Canadian nuclear utilities have formed an Inter-Utility Working Group to revise their program for training nuclear generating station senior control room staff, namely Control Room Operators and Shift Supervisors, in Science Fundamentals and Equipment Principles. This report documents the findings of an external review of this revision process, addressing, amongst other topics, the process of revision undertaken by the Working Group, their outline of topics to be included, and, the pertinence and comprehensiveness of the detailed training objectives identified for two of the courses. The approach to revising the program being followed by the Working Group appears to be reasonable insomuch that some training needs have been identified and used to construct detailed sets of training objectives. However, as assessed by the consultants without full documentation being available, some important steps appear to have been missed. Specifically, much of the basis of the revision process has not been documented, neither has the approach selected for the revision process, nor has any justification for not performing a CANDU specific job and task analysis been offered. Furthermore, the Working Group has not yet proposed any criteria for evaluation of the program or provided any test items. As a result, the consultants have had to develop criteria for evaluation of the overall program and of individual courses. These criteria were applied in a more detailed review of the training objectives for two particular courses: Plant Chemistry, and Nuclear Physics and Reactor Theory. Many of the training objectives for these courses were found to be too qualitative or ones that require trainees to memorize blocks of information rather than develop in them an ability to arrive at conclusions about scientific phenomena using principles and reasoning. This assessment indicates that the training objectives are designed to achieve too low a level of cognition, inconsistent with developing an

  6. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics: Studies of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The New Mexico Center/UNM group research program includes the CDF experiment at Fermilab and the SDC experiment at the SSC. In both experiments the UNM group research focuses on silicon strip tracking systems. The present research goals are to develop and utilize precision silicon tracking to increase significantly the physics reach of the Tevatron, and to make possible the study of high-P t physics at the SSC. The search for the t-quark in CDF is the primary goal of the upcoming Tevatron runs. This Progress Report summarizes our research accomplishments from the last year

  7. Studies of hypothetical and fundamental decay properties of positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, W.

    1985-05-01

    For the solution of the CP problem in the standard theory of the strong interaction the existence of a neutral pseudoscalar boson was postulated which couples to quarks and leptons. If the mass of this so-called axion is smaller than two electron masses for orthopositronium 'o-Ps' the decay into one photon and axion is expected in concurrence to the standard decay into three photons. The detection of a monoenergetic photon would be an indication for this decay channel because the axion would only very weakly interact with matter. In the spectrum no lineshape of a monoenergetic photon is observed. From this results in dependence on the mass of a hypothetical particle and with a confidence limit of 90% for the branching ratio of o-Ps an upper limit which is in the range between 320 keV and 950 keV less than 10 -7 . Applied to the axion model an upper limit for the mass of the standard axion of 250 keV results. For the study of the fundamental decay properties of positronium the lifetime of o-Ps and the 3γ energy distribution of the decay quanta were measured. Furthermore the rare 4γ decay of para-positronium 'p-Ps' was searched for. The measured lifetime of o-Ps τ=141.2±1.2ns agrees well with the theoretical value. Calculations on the 3γ energy distribution are confirmed. For the 4γ decay of p-Ps predicted by QED with a branching ratio of ≅ 1.5x10 -6 an upper limit of 2x10 -5 results. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Accurate Q value measurements for fundamental physics studies at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T., E-mail: tommi.o.eronen@jyu.fi; Kolhinen, V. S. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: JYFLTRAP collaboration

    2011-07-15

    We have measured several Q values at JYFLTRAP for superallowed {beta} decays that contribute to testing the Standard Model and candidate nuclei that one could use for the search of neutrinoless double-{beta} decay. These results play important roles in the research of fundamental physics that have scopes beyond Standard Model.

  9. Fundamental studies in isotope chemistry. Progress report, 1 July 1976--30 Jun 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.; Harris, T.H.

    1977-01-01

    The current thrust of the program is the use of isotope effects to study the fundamental properties of matter, measurement and calculation of isotope fractionation factors of systems of potential technological importance and the correlation of isotope effects with molecular structure. The first measurements of the isotopic fractionation factors for two components in a solution were completed by the study of argon-krypton mixtures. The measurements cover the range from pure argon to pure krypton and extrapolate very well to previous measurements on the pure components. The vapor pressure isotope effects between solid-vapor and liquid-vapor for the rare gases neon, argon, and krypton is given

  10. Why Do We Need to Study the Fundamentals of Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This paper makes the case for revisiting our understanding and valuing of basic or fundamental nursing care. Despite the interest in movements such as the person-centred or patient-centred care agenda, there continues to be concern about patient safety, quality of experience and getting the simple things right. Part of this debate is around whether meeting patients' fundamental care needs (such as personal hygiene, elimination and eating and drinking) within acute care settings constitutes legitimate nursing responsibilities or whether these needs ought to become part of "hotel services" executed by care assistants with elementary training or, as in many lower-income health systems, undertaken by relatives. Copyright © 2016 Longwoods Publishing.

  11. Fundamental study on recovery uranium oxide from HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumida, T.; Noguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers of spent HEPA filters are produced at uranium fuel fabrication facilities. Uranium oxide particles have been collected on these filters. Then, a spent HEPA filter treatment system was developed from the viewpoint of recovering the UO 2 and minimizing the volume. The system consists of a mechanical separation process and a chemical dissolution process. This paper describes the results of fundamental experiments on recovering UO 2 from HEPA filters

  12. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainotti, M. G.; Hernandez, X.; Postnikov, S.; Nagataki, S.; O’brien, P.; Willingale, R.; Striegel, S.

    2017-01-01

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T a , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L a , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L peak . This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T a as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  13. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dainotti, M. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México 04510, México (Mexico); Postnikov, S. [The Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Nagataki, S. [RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako Saitama (Japan); O’brien, P.; Willingale, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Striegel, S., E-mail: mdainott@stanford.edu, E-mail: dainotti@oa.uj.edu.pl, E-mail: mariagiovannadainotti@yahoo.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: postsergey@gmail.com, E-mail: shigehiro.nagataki@riken.jp, E-mail: zrw@le.ac.uk, E-mail: stephanie.striegel@sjsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Jose State University, One Washington Square, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obey a 3D relation, between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, T {sub a} , its corresponding X-ray luminosity, L {sub a} , and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, L {sub peak}. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we here confirm. Here we include the most recent GRBs observed by Swift to define a “gold sample” (45 GRBs) and obtain an intrinsic scatter about the plane compatible within 1 σ with the previous result. We compare GRB categories, such as short GRBs with extended emission (SEE), X-ray flashes, GRBs associated with supernovae, a sample of only long-duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We find that the relation planes for each of these categories are not statistically different from the gold fundamental plane, with the exception of the SSE, which are hence identified as a physically distinct class. The gold fundamental plane has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. Thus, the distance of any particular GRB category from this plane becomes a key parameter. We computed the several category planes with T {sub a} as a dependent parameter obtaining for each category smaller intrinsic scatters (reaching a reduction of 24% for the long GRBs). The fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters.

  14. Fundamental studies for CT in the oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinichiro

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental studies were attempted regarding the clinical application of CT (TCT-60A) in the oral region. The investigation assessed the following: 1) calculation of CT-No for oral hard tissues, 2) test for linearity CT-No vs. the linear attenuation coefficient in high X-ray attenuation materials, 3) observation of artifacts caused by dental materials and 4) measurement of patient doses of CT used at the maxillary sinus. The results obtained were as follows. 1) Calculated CT-No (E=70 KeV) values for oral hard tissues were enamel 3.51 x 10 3 , dentine 2.40 x 10 3 , cementum 1.88 x 10 3 , cortical bone 1.48 x 10 3 and mandible 1.01 x 10 3 . 2) Linearity for CT-No vs. the linear attenuation coefficient gave a good relative coefficient between lucite and teflon, but linearity between lucite and aluminum was not good enough. 3) Three different artifacts from the copper rod were observed: (1) connection line artifact, (2) star-burst artifact and (3) figure-eight artifact. 4) Under shot caused by composite resin was observed, and artifact from both the radiopaque composite resin and amalgam were the same kinds as those from the copper rod. 5) Calculated CT-No (E=66 KeV) values for dental materials were copper 5.48 x 10 4 , composite resin 1.24 x 10 3 , radiopaque composite resin 4.65 x 10 3 and amalgam 2.27 x 10 5 . 6) Absorbed doses of lenses and thyroid gland using CT at the mixillary sinus region were 59 mrad (59 x 10 -2 mGy) and 17 mrad (17 x 10 -2 mGy) for a single scanning. 7) The volume dose of the head under a single CT scanning was estimated as 820 g.rad (820 x 10 -5 Kg.Gy) by the TLD method, and 900 g.rad (900 x 10 -5 Kg.Gy) by the film dosimetry method. The difference in these values was considered to be the effect arising from ununiformity of the X-ray beam. (author)

  15. Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental studies of superconductors, concentrating on three scanning magnetic microscopies—scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM), scanning Hall bar microscopy (SHM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I briefly discuss the history, sensitivity, spatial resolution, invasiveness and potential future developments of each technique. I then discuss a selection of applications of these microscopies. I start with static imaging of magnetic flux: an SSM study provides deeper understanding of vortex trapping in narrow strips, which are used to reduce noise in superconducting circuitry. Studies of vortex trapping in wire lattices, clusters and arrays of rings and nanoholes show fascinating ordering effects. The cuprate high-Tc superconductors are shown to have predominantly d-wave pairing symmetry by magnetic imaging of the half-integer flux quantum effect. Arrays of superconducting rings act as a physical analog for the Ising spin model, with the half-integer flux quantum effect helping to eliminate one source of disorder in antiferromagnetic arrangements of the ring moments. Tests of the interlayer tunneling model show that the condensation energy available from this mechanism cannot account for the high critical temperatures observed in the cuprates. The strong divergence in the magnetic fields of Pearl vortices allows them to be imaged using SSM, even for penetration depths of a millimeter. Unusual vortex arrangements occur in samples comparable in size to the coherence length. Spontaneous magnetization is not observed in Sr2RuO4, which is believed to have px ± ipy pairing symmetry, although effects hundreds of times bigger than the sensitivity limits had been predicted. However, unusual flux trapping is observed in this superconductor. Finally, unusual flux arrangements are also observed in magnetic superconductors. I then turn to vortex dynamics: imaging of vortices in rings of highly underdoped

  16. Fundamental studies of superconductors using scanning magnetic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirtley, J R [Center for Probing the Nanoscale, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2010-12-01

    In this review I discuss the application of scanning magnetic imaging to fundamental studies of superconductors, concentrating on three scanning magnetic microscopies-scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM), scanning Hall bar microscopy (SHM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM). I briefly discuss the history, sensitivity, spatial resolution, invasiveness and potential future developments of each technique. I then discuss a selection of applications of these microscopies. I start with static imaging of magnetic flux: an SSM study provides deeper understanding of vortex trapping in narrow strips, which are used to reduce noise in superconducting circuitry. Studies of vortex trapping in wire lattices, clusters and arrays of rings and nanoholes show fascinating ordering effects. The cuprate high-T{sub c} superconductors are shown to have predominantly d-wave pairing symmetry by magnetic imaging of the half-integer flux quantum effect. Arrays of superconducting rings act as a physical analog for the Ising spin model, with the half-integer flux quantum effect helping to eliminate one source of disorder in antiferromagnetic arrangements of the ring moments. Tests of the interlayer tunneling model show that the condensation energy available from this mechanism cannot account for the high critical temperatures observed in the cuprates. The strong divergence in the magnetic fields of Pearl vortices allows them to be imaged using SSM, even for penetration depths of a millimeter. Unusual vortex arrangements occur in samples comparable in size to the coherence length. Spontaneous magnetization is not observed in Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4}, which is believed to have p{sub x} {+-} ip{sub y} pairing symmetry, although effects hundreds of times bigger than the sensitivity limits had been predicted. However, unusual flux trapping is observed in this superconductor. Finally, unusual flux arrangements are also observed in magnetic superconductors. I then turn to vortex dynamics: imaging of vortices

  17. Minimalist Program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from Agreement Asymmetry in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Horais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky  (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is  to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory  such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred

  18. Fundamental symmetries studies with cold trapped francium atoms at ISAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwinner, G.; Gomez, E.; Orozco, L. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Sheng, D.; Zhao, Y.; Sprouse, G. D.; Behr, J. A.; Jackson, K. P.; Pearson, M. R.; Aubin, S.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-01-01

    Francium combines a heavy nucleus (Z = 87) with the simple atomic structure of alkalis and is a very promising candidate for precision tests of fundamental symmetries such as atomic parity non-conservation measurements. Fr has no stable isotopes, and the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF, equipped with an actinide target, promises to provide record quantities of Fr atoms, up to 10 10 /s for some isotopes. We discuss our plans for a Fr on-line laser trapping facility at ISAC and experiments with samples of cold Fr atoms. We outline our plans for a measurement of the nuclear anapole moment - a parity non-conserving, time-reversal conserving moment that arises from weak interactions between nucleons - in a chain of Fr isotopes. Its measurement is a unique probe for neutral weak interactions inside the nucleus.

  19. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  20. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17-40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; pCrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding.

  1. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Harvard University Office for Sponsored Programs...including journal references , in the following categories: (b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 03/21/2016 03/21/2016 03...limited kinetics of electron doping in correlated oxides, Applied Physics Letters (07 2015) TOTAL: 1 Books Number of Manuscripts: Patents Submitted

  2. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  3. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  4. Fundamentals studies of a magnetically steered vacuum arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walke, Paul

    In recent years demand from production industry for high performance cutting tools, aero and automobile engine parts has prompted research into both existing and novel methods of laying down hard, low friction coatings . A key process for the production of such coatings has been Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) which has proved to be a consistent and reliable tool for industry. For this technique to continue to be improved and more advanced coatings to be produced, research at the fundamental level is required. This thesis describes research investigating the behaviour of the steered arc cathode spot and methods of improving existing steered arc coating technology.The majority of existing steered arc systems use either permanent magnets or a combination of permanent and electromagnets to steer the arc. Described here is a novel system which employs a pair of electromagnetic coils of cylindrical geometry which enable the arc to be positioned on a circular orbit through a range of continuously variable radii. In addition to this the coils are capable of controlling the transverse and normal magnetic field profiles independently of the steering radius selected. This enables the behaviour of the arc spot to be investigated under a range of magnetic field conditions thus allowing the comparison of measured arc behaviour with a new model of arc motion. Care has described the motion of the arc spot as a biased random walk and has derived an analytical solution to describe the time dependent, probability density function for the arc position in two dimensions. Two distributions are proposed (one in each dimension); the first describes the probability density for the arc position in the direction of driven motion, the second the probability density in the direction of arc confinement. The shape of these distributions is dependent upon the transverse and normal components of the applied magnetic field.A series of experiments are described here that measure the shape of these

  5. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Weber, Wolfgang J; Schuster, Peter; Grosjean, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at our repository extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progress in mathematical competence thus fostering motivation. Furthermore in case of learning difficulties he or she is given supplementary explanations and in case of individual needs supplementary exercises and applications. So the sequence of the studies is ind...

  6. Fundamental study of dynamic ECT by dual detector gammacamera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakegawa, M.; Matsui, S.; Maeda, H.; Takeda, K.; Nakagawa, T.

    1982-01-01

    The improvement of image quality of reconstructed image by the simple pre-processing of projections is studied. Using the improved algorithm and dual detector gammacamera system, the possibility of dynamic ECT is studied. As shown in clinical examples, renal flow study using Tc-99m-DTPA, dynamic ECT imaging is possible with measuring time of 1 or 2 minutes. By this method cortex and medulla are separately imaged and each function can be analyzed more precisely. Using high sensitive collimator it will be possible to take ECT images every 30 sec. with little resolution loss quantitative three dimensional time activity analysis is under study

  7. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Grosjean, Jean; Schuster, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is the basic language in physics and engineering. It is an essential tool which first and second year students have to master as soon as possible. A lack of competence in mathematics is the main reason for failure and drop out in the beginning periods of study. This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progre...

  8. Fundamental studies of separation processes. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.B.

    1975-06-01

    Studies using high-precision gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography have produced new types of information on liquid crystals and on behavior of substances in the region of the critical temperature, respectively. In addition, the first successful studies of the effects of pressure on cation exchange have been made using aqueous solutions of alkali metal nitrates. In contrast, progress on separations of isotopic species using gas chromatography has been disappointing. In that area, the chief accomplishment has been a determination of the levels of accuracy and precision with which isotopic abundances can be measured using our quadrupole mass spectrometer. (U.S.)

  9. Application of fundamental principles to mineral scale reduction : case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2005-01-01

    This paper will present several successful case studies where scale has been eliminated in mills including calcium carbonate scale in a white liquor strainer, calcium oxalate scale in the D0 stage, enzymatic treatment of brown stock to eliminate oxalate scale, and control of barium sulfate scale.

  10. A study of the fundamental characteristics of 2175A extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, Jason A.; Savage, Blair D.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of interstellar extinction were studied in the region of the 2175 A feature for lines of sight which appear to exhibit unusually weak ultraviolet extinction. The analysis was based upon a parameterization of the observed extinction via fitting specific mathematical functions in order to determine the position and width of the 2175 A feature. The data are currently being analyzed.

  11. Fundamental studies on multicharged impurities of the Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, J. de; Geller, R.; Jacquot, B.; Jacquot, C.

    1979-11-01

    We describe Micromafios which is an Ion source delivering particles up to completely stripped Carbon, Nitrogen and Oxygen ions. The beams are utilized on an experiment device for cross section measurements enabling fondamental studies for Tokamak impurity ions. The source is a miniaturized Supermafios device where the minimum B configuration is obtained with Samarium Cobalt magnetized Ferrites and a solenoidal axial field [fr

  12. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  13. Fundamental Studies of Fluid Mechanics: Stability in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsy, George M. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Department of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering

    2014-02-12

    We summarize our research results in three main areas: coating flows; electrohydrodynamics of drops; and wetting and spreading of drops. Experimental, computational and analytical methods are used to address a variety of issues. Coating flow studies include the effect of roughness, surfactants, and adsorbed particles on the dynamics of dip-coating. Electrohydrodynamic studies include drop deformation in uniform electric fields, shape distortion due to charge convection in sedimenting drops, and driving chaotic advection by either an electric field inclined to the direction of drop motion or time-periodic changes in the direction of the electric field. Heat and mass transport from chaotically mixed droplets exhibit unexpected and remarkable increases in the rates of transport. Finally, we develop an analytical solution to the problem of a static droplet, and use numerical techniques to predict its migration due to surface tension gradients.

  14. Mathematical and computational modeling and simulation fundamentals and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Dietmar P F

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation - a highly multi-disciplinary field with ubiquitous applications in science and engineering - is one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century. This book introduces to the use of Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation in order to develop an understanding of the solution characteristics of a broad class of real-world problems. The relevant basic and advanced methodologies are explained in detail, with special emphasis on ill-defined problems. Some 15 simulation systems are presented on the language and the logical level. Moreover, the reader can accumulate experience by studying a wide variety of case studies. The latter are briefly described within the book but their full versions as well as some simulation software demos are available on the Web. The book can be used for University courses of different level as well as for self-study. Advanced sections are marked and can be skipped in a first reading or in undergraduate courses...

  15. An approach to fundamental study of beam loss minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The accelerator design rules involving rms matching, developed at CERN in the 1970's, are discussed. An additional rule, for equipartitioning the beam energy among its degrees of freedom, may be added to insure an rms equilibrium conditions. If the strong stochasticity threshold is avoided, as it is in realistic accelerator designs, the dynamics is characterized by extremely long transient settling times, making the role of equipartitioning hard to explain. An approach to systematic study using the RFQ accelerator as a simulation testbed is discussed. New methods are available from recent advances in research on complexity, nonlinear dynamics, and chaos

  16. Calculation programs as a didactic generator of the discipline “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Baslyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of teaching the subject “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques” was suggested in the paper. This method is using the specialized calculation programs as a didactic tool for forming the educational material not only for practical training, but for the theoretical course too. A brief review of the educational literature on rocket and space techniques, published over the past decades was made. Organizational and methodological problems, associated with the teaching discipline are indicated: to define the educational material volume and content, the need to establish interdisciplinary connections, the search of tasks, which have numerical initial data and solution.The overview of pedagogical technologies and the requirements for modern didactic tools is made. On the basis of this analysis the principles of developing a new didactic tool are formulated. The educational technology with the educational process formation on the ahead basis is used. The knowledge is represented in a collapsed form. The combination of procedures for modeling and analysis of the knowledge is realized. The visualization of knowledge is achieved by considering of numerical illustration. The inductive synthesis and deductive analysis are used as psychological and pedagogical methods, as well as the formation of problematic situations.Three specialized calculation programs are used in the implementation of this didactic tool. The programs are: TERRA (B.Trusov – the calculation of chemical and phase equilibrium of multicomponent systems; RK1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of flight characteristics and geometrical parameters of the single-stage ballistic missile with liquid rocket engine; TRIJ1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of trajectory for leading out the payload of the single-stage ballistic missile. The study of the subject begins with the programs interfaces studying and tests performing. After that, the content of programs TERRA, RK1 and TRIJ1

  17. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  18. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.; Karagoz, A.; Ozdemir, Z.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Chen, Long

    2013-01-01

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  19. Measurement of endotoxin. I. Fundamental studies on radioimmunoassay of endotoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, H [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-08-01

    A method for estimating endotoxin by radioimmunoassay was recently introduced. The present paper describes improvements in the speed and sensitivity on this endotoxin measurement. Antigen was purified from E. coli 0111: B4(B) lipopolysaccharide by centrifugation and dialysis. Purified anti-endotoxin antibody was prepared from immunized rabbit serum. A radioimmunoassay system was established with the antigen and antibody. Dextran-coated charcoal was used to separate the antibody-bound antigen from free antigen. Experimental studies were also performed on possible factors related to the antigen-antibody reaction. Accurate measurements on quantitites as low as 100 pg/ml (10 ng/ml in the plasma) were performed by the dextran-coated charcoal method, and the reaction time was reduced to 2 hr at 4/sup 0/C. This new method does not require strict sterilization or aseptic handling, and therefore is quite practical for quantitative measurements of endotoxin.

  20. Experimental study on fundamental performance of reverse flow diverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yanfang; Xu Cong; Jing Shan

    2008-01-01

    The Reverse Flow Diverter (RFD) is one of the key components affecting the liquid-delivered efficiency. The effects of inflow structure, outflow structure, area ratio and suction gap on the performance of RFDs were studied in this paper. It can be found experimentally that expected entrainment phenomenon can be achieved when the outlet velocity of fluid for RFDs' inflow structure is sufficient. There is less liquid delivered by an RFD with a long receiver than that without a receiver. Because of back-flow caused by vortex separation, oversize area ratio cannot have better entrainment phenomenon and the optimum area ratio is 1.5. When the ratio of suction gap length to inlet diameter of outflow structure is 0.9-1.0, the excellent liquid-delivered efficiency can be obtained. (authors)

  1. Fundamental flow and fracture studies of HT-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Maiti, R.; Sheckherd, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Results of electron microscopy studies of cleavage crack formation and propagation in HT-9 are consistent with a model for stress-controlled cleavage in which the critical stress sigma/sub f//sup */ is related to the lath packet size. Moreover, sigma/sub f//sup */ appears to undergo a sharp transition at low temperatures and high strain rates; this is probably a result of a change in mechanism from slip- to twinning-nucleated cleavage. This change in sigma/sub f//sup */ effects corresponding changes in lower shelf fracture toughness. A simple two-parameter approach is shown to be a reasonable basis for predicting fracture loads for various size and crack-geometry bend specimens. These results indicated that cleavage fracture will occur near plastic collapse loads for thin wall structures containing shallow surface cracks. Results of an initial study of ductility in the cleavage regime indicate deflectional displacements on the order of 1-2 cm/m will be the limit for such shallow surface cracks in thin walls. The effects of dissolved hydrogen and stress state variations induced by side grooving were investigated. Hydrogen charges resulted in an average reduction in measured K/sub O/ values of about 17% and 5% in the ratio of maximum load fracture-to-collapse stress ratios. No significant effect of hydrogen on ductility was observed. Side grooving resulted in increases in both apparent K/sub O/ toughness levels and fracture-to-collapse stress ratios. Side grooving decreased ductility for shallow cracks and increased it for deep cracks. In general these effects are judged to be relatively modest compared to uncertainties in the measurements and the effects of significant variations in size and strength levels

  2. Fundamental study on interfacial area transport model (I) (contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Nakamura, Hideo

    2001-03-01

    Recently, improvement in the best-estimate (BE) code predictive capability is attempted by incorporating the interfacial area transport model (IATM) into a one-dimensional two-fluid model to represent gas-liquid two-phase flows in detail with less uncertainty in the flow predictions. Internationally, the nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) and Purdue University in the U.S.A. and CEA in France have promoted the renewal of their BE codes such as TRAC, RELAP5 and CATHARE, by introducing the IATM in cooperative manner. In Japan, JAERI is underway to develop a one-dimensional code based primarily on the IATM against the licensing procedures of next-generation nuclear reactors. The IATM has a possibility to correctly predict flow transient along flow path for such flows as developing flows, multi-dimensional flows, transitional flows, boiling flows, which are difficult to accurately predict by the two-fluid models employed in the current BE codes. The newly developed code with the IATM would dramatically improve the accuracy in the flow prediction. The model, however, is under development and needs great effort to overcome many difficulties with plenty of theoretical considerations based on much of data bases to be acquired further. This study attempts to measure interfacial area in air-water two-phase flows in a large-diameter tube to understand the characteristic of multi-dimensional flows that usually appear in large-diameter tube flows, and provide data bases, to contribute the development of the IATM. The results obtained by such institutes as Purdue University and CEA France were reviewed first. Clarified are the current status and problems of the IATM, basics and practical methods to measure the interfacial area using multi-sensor miniature local probes; metal needle electro-resistance probe and fiber-optic probe. It was found that the applicability of the IATM is limited mostly to a one-dimensional bubbly flow, and is far from satisfactory for multi

  3. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  4. A fundamental study of a variable critical nozzle flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jea Hyung; Kim, Heuy Dong; Park, Kyung Am

    2003-01-01

    The mass flow rate of gas flow through critical nozzle depends on the nozzle supply conditions and the cross-sectional area at the nozzle throat. In order that the critical nozzle can be operated at a wide range of supply conditions, the nozzle throat diameter should be controlled to change the flow passage area. This can be achieved by means of a variable critical nozzle. In the present study, both experimental and computational works are performed to develop variable critical nozzle. A cone-cylinder with a diameter of d is inserted into conventional critical nozzle. It can move both upstream and downstream, thereby changing the cross-sectional area of the nozzle throat. Computational work using the axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes equations is carried out to simulate the variable critical nozzle flow. An experiment is performed to measure the mass flow rate through variable critical nozzle. The present computational results are in close agreement with measured ones. The boundary layer displacement and momentum thickness are given as a function of Reynolds number. An empirical equation is obtained to predict the discharge coefficient of variable critical nozzle

  5. A fundamental study on nuclear power plant diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Sei-ichi; Fujimoto, Junzo

    1987-01-01

    Diagnosis of nuclear power plant is a large application field of knowledge engineering. But, the study examples are few and the diagnosis method is not established yet. This report describes the diagnosis method using cross correlation coefficients and describes the knowledge acquisition method of undefined transients in order to enhance the system performance. The usefulness of the system was verified by putting some data into the system. Main results are as follows. (1) Diagnosis method. Some transients are selected by the first judgement and one of them is identified by the second judgement using the cross correlation. (2) Knowledge aquisition method. When putting new data into the knowledge-base, the system indicates the inconsistency by arranging the aquired data, and the operators input new transient names and corresponding manipulation methods after analyzing the indicated results. (3) Usefulness of the system. Freedwater controller failures(2 transients), 2 recirculation pumps trip and a dummy datum combined 2 transients(one is feedwater controller failure and one is 2 recirculation pumps trip) were put into the system. It was proved that the system identified the transients correctly and it indicated the first hit and the inconsisency of the transients in the course of knowledge acquisition. (author)

  6. Fundamental studies on the insulin receptor in rabbit erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinomiya, Y; Kagawa, S; Konishi, Y; Morimoto, H; Tsumura, Y [Hyogo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1975-09-01

    The authors studied the binding of insulin to rabbit erythrocytes as a mode case in the hope of characterizing the physiologic role of the binding of insulin to receptor in both normal adults and patients. Specific binding sites for insulin were detected in rabbit erythrocytes. The characteristics of the binding were similar to those observed in other target tissues. The specific binding of /sup 125/I-labeled insulin was competitively inhibited by a small amount of unlabeled insulin and was completely inhibited by 1,000 ng/ml of unlabeled insulin. Glucagon, however, had no effect on the insulin binding to fat cells or liver membranes nor had it any effect on the binding of insulin to rabbit erythrocytes. Scatchard analysis of this binding reaction indicated two different binding sites with Ksub(aff)=3.2 x 10/sup 8//M, Ksub(diss)=3.1 x 10/sup -9/M; Ksub(aff)=1.4 x 10/sup 8//M, Ksub(diss)=7.1 x 10/sup -9/M respectively, and the binding capacities of each site were estimated at 0.011 ng/4 x 10/sup 8/ cells and 0.138 ng/4 x 10/sup 8/ cells. The binding of /sup 125/I-insulin to rabbit erythrocytes was a saturable function of the insulin concentration and was a linear function of cell concentration. The pH optimum for the reaction was 7.4 at 0/sup 0/C, the amount of insulin binding increased continuously under the reaction and this binding reaction reached a steady state after 10 to 15hr. On the other hand, the specific binding of insulin at higher temperatures showed maximal amounts after 20 to 30 min. and subsequently fell off at later time points.

  7. Sports training program at school – Athlete at School: logical fundamentals and historical circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson Santana Reis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.

  8. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Fickes, Michael J.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Burns, Carol J.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Shuh, David K.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO 4 - , soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium

  9. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens Jr., Wayne W.; Fickes, Michael J.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Burns, Carol J.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Shuh, David K.

    2000-12-23

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium.

  10. A Fundamental Study of Laser Beam Welding Aluminum-Lithium Alloy 2195 for Cryogenic Tank Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martukanitz, R. P.; Jan. R.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the potential for decreasing costs of joining stiffeners to skin by laser beam welding, a fundamental research program was conducted to address the impediments identified during an initial study involving laser beam welding of aluminum-lithium alloys. Initial objectives of the program were the identification of governing mechanism responsible for process related porosity while establishing a multivariant relationship between process parameters and fusion zone geometry for laser beam welds of alloy 2195. A three-level fractional factorial experiment was conducted to establish quantitative relationships between primary laser beam processing parameters and critical weld attributes. Although process consistency appeared high for welds produced during partial completion of this study, numerous cracks on the top-surface of the welds were discovered during visual inspection and necessitated additional investigations concerning weld cracking. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of filler alloy additions on crack sensitivity: the first experiment was used to ascertain the effects of various filler alloys on cracking and the second experiment involved modification to process parameters for increasing filler metal dilution. Results indicated that filler alloys 4047 and 4145 showed promise for eliminating cracking.

  11. A Fundamental Study of Gas and Vapor Bubble Dynamics in Micro-Channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this project was to carry out a fundamental study of the basic: Physics underlying the applications of gas and vapor bubbles in heat transfer systems, pumps, actuators, and other small-scale systems...

  12. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  13. Probabilistic studies for a safety assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, S.S.; Davis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The adequate supply of energy is always a matter of concern for any country. Nuclear power has played, and will continue to play an important role in supplying this energy. However, safety in nuclear power production is a fundamental prerequisite in fulfilling this role. This paper outlines a program to ensure safe operation of a nuclear power plant utilizing the Probabilistic Safety Studies

  14. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Validity evidence for the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program as an assessment tool: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Benjamin; Ruparel, Raaj K; Cook, David A

    2016-02-01

    The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) program uses five simulation stations (peg transfer, precision cutting, loop ligation, and suturing with extracorporeal and intracorporeal knot tying) to teach and assess laparoscopic surgery skills. We sought to summarize evidence regarding the validity of scores from the FLS assessment. We systematically searched for studies evaluating the FLS as an assessment tool (last search update February 26, 2013). We classified validity evidence using the currently standard validity framework (content, response process, internal structure, relations with other variables, and consequences). From a pool of 11,628 studies, we identified 23 studies reporting validity evidence for FLS scores. Studies involved residents (n = 19), practicing physicians (n = 17), and medical students (n = 8), in specialties of general (n = 17), gynecologic (n = 4), urologic (n = 1), and veterinary (n = 1) surgery. Evidence was most common in the form of relations with other variables (n = 22, most often expert-novice differences). Only three studies reported internal structure evidence (inter-rater or inter-station reliability), two studies reported content evidence (i.e., derivation of assessment elements), and three studies reported consequences evidence (definition of pass/fail thresholds). Evidence nearly always supported the validity of FLS total scores. However, the loop ligation task lacks discriminatory ability. Validity evidence confirms expected relations with other variables and acceptable inter-rater reliability, but other validity evidence is sparse. Given the high-stakes use of this assessment (required for board eligibility), we suggest that more validity evidence is required, especially to support its content (selection of tasks and scoring rubric) and the consequences (favorable and unfavorable impact) of assessment.

  16. Program for fundamental and applied research of fuel cells in VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisin, A.V.; Borisseonock, V.A.; Novitskii, Y.Z.; Potyomckin, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    According to VNIIEF the integral part of development of fuel cell power plants is fundamental and applied research. This paper describes areas of research on molten carbonate fuel cells. Topics include the development of mathematical models for porous electrodes, thin film electrolytes, the possibility of solid nickel anodes, model of activation polarization of anode, electrolyte with high solubility of oxygen. Other areas include research on a stationary mode of stack operation, anticorrosion coatings, impedance diagnostic methods, ultrasound diagnostics, radiation treatments, an air aluminium cell, and alternative catalysts for low temperature fuel cells.

  17. Wind resource assessment handbook: Fundamentals for conducting a successful monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, B.H.; McDonald, S.L.; Bernadett, D.W.; Markus, M.J.; Elsholz, K.V.

    1997-01-01

    This handbook presents industry-accepted guidelines for planning and conducting a wind resource measurement program to support a wind energy feasibility initiative. These guidelines, which are detailed and highly technical, emphasize the tasks of selecting, installing, and operating wind measurement equipment, as well as collecting and analyzing the associated data, once one or more measurement sites are located. The handbook's scope encompasses state-of-the-art measurement and analysis techniques at multiple heights on tall towers (e.g., 40 m) for a measurement duration of at least one year. These guidelines do not represent every possible method of conducting a quality wind measurement program, but they address the most important elements based on field-proven experience. The intended audience for this handbook is any organization or individual who desires the planning framework and detailed procedures for conducting a formally structured wind measurement program. Personnel from the management level to field technicians will find this material applicable. The organizational aspects of a measurement program, including the setting of clear program objectives and designing commensurate measurement and quality assurance plans, all of which are essential to ensuring the program's successful outcome, are emphasized. Considerable attention is also given to the details of actually conducting the measurement program in its many aspects, from selecting instrumentation that meets minimum performance standards to analyzing and reporting on the collected data. 5 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Fundamental attributes of a practical configuration management program for nuclear plant design control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.M.

    1988-06-01

    This summarizes the results of an evaluation of findings identifies during a number of Safety-System Functional Inspections and Safety System Outage Modification Inspections which are related to configuration management for nuclear plant design control. A computerized database of these findings was generated from a review of the design inspection reports. Based on the results of the evaluation, attributes of a configuration management program were developed which are responsive to minimizing these types of inspection findings. Incorporation of these key attributes is considered good practice in the development of a configuration management program for design control at operating nuclear plants

  19. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Scene radiation and atmospheric effects characterization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, R. E.; Deering, D. W.

    1984-01-01

    Brief articles summarizing the status of research in the scene radiation and atmospheric effect characterization (SRAEC) project are presented. Research conducted within the SRAEC program is focused on the development of empirical characterizations and mathematical process models which relate the electromagnetic energy reflected or emitted from a scene to the biophysical parameters of interest.

  20. A Study of 8 Fundamental Moral Characteristics among Thai Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngammuk, Patariya

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the eight fundamental moral characteristics of undergraduate students in order to benefit instructional model development. The eight moral characteristics are diligence, frugality, honesty, discipline, politeness, cleanliness, unity and generosity. The study findings rank these eight moral characteristics…

  1. Fundamental studies of energy-and hole/electron- transfer in hydroporphyrin architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, David F. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2014-08-20

    of spectra for naturally occurring and synthetic hydroporphyrins. The availability of such data should augment efforts in the design of light-harvesting systems where spectral coverage in the red and near-infrared regions is desired. Collectively, the proposed studies will provide fundamental insights into molecular properties, interactions, and processes relevant to the design of molecular architectures for solar-energy conversion. The accomplishment of these goals is only possible through a highly synergistic program that encompasses molecular design, synthesis, and characterization.

  2. The fundamentals of integrating service in a post-licensure RN to BSN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Brown, Linda; Ritchie, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Integrating service in a post-licensure registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing (RN to BSN) program provides licensed registered nurse (RN) students the opportunity to learn, develop, and experience different cultures while serving the community and populations in need (McKinnon & Fitzpatrick, 2012). Service to the community, integrated with academic learning can be applied in a wide variety of settings, including schools, universities, and community faith-based organizations. Academic service-learning (ASL) can involve a group of students, a classroom, or an entire school. In the RN to BSN program, the authors use a student-directed service learning approach that integrates service-learning throughout the curriculum. RN students are introduced to service-learning at program orientation prior to the start of classes and receive reinforcement and active engagement throughout the curriculum. The students and volunteer agencies receive and give benefits from the services provided and the life lessons gained through mentorship, education, and hands-on experiences.

  3. Programming iOS 4 Fundamentals of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch Development

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Get a solid grounding in all the fundamentals of Cocoa Touch, and avoid problems during iPhone and iPad app development. With Programming iOS 4, you'll dig into Cocoa and learn how to work effectively with Objective-C and Xcode. This book covers iOS 4 in a rigorous, orderly fashion-ideal whether you're approaching iOS for the first time or need a reference to bolster existing skills. Learn Objective-C language details and object-oriented programming conceptsUnderstand the anatomy of an Xcode project and all the stages of its lifecycleGrasp key Cocoa concepts such as relationships between clas

  4. Experiential Learning of Robotics Fundamentals Based on a Case Study of Robot-Assisted Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carlos; Vale, Carolina; Machado, Toni; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Rito, Manuel; Monteiro, Sérgio; Bicho, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has been playing an important role in modern surgery, especially in procedures that require extreme precision, such as neurosurgery. This paper addresses the challenge of teaching robotics to undergraduate engineering students, through an experiential learning project of robotics fundamentals based on a case study of robot-assisted…

  5. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  6. Fundamental R and D program on water chemistry of supercritical pressure water under radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yosuke; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi; Wada, Yoichi; Yotsuyanagi, Tadasu

    2003-01-01

    In a supercritical water-cooled reactor, property of water changes significantly around the critical point. It is expected that irradiation and change of water property will affect the chemistry and material corrosion. Deep understanding of interactions between supercritical water and materials under irradiation is important. However, comprehensive data on radiolysis, kinetics, corrosion and thermodynamics have not been obtained due to the severe experimental condition. To get such data by experiments and computer simulations, a national program funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) has been started since December 2002. (author)

  7. A fundamental study of ''contribution'' transport theory and channel theory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this three-year study is to develop a technique called ''channel theory'' that can be used in interpreting particle transport analysis such as frequently required in radiation shielding design and assessment. Channel theory is a technique used to provide insight into the mechanisms by which particles emitted from a source are transported through a complex system and register a response on some detector. It is based on the behavior of a pseudo particle called a ''contributon,'' which is the response carrier through space and energy channels that connect the source and detector. ''Contributons'' are those particles among all the ones contained in the system which will eventually contribute some amount of response to the detector. The specific goals of this projects are to provide a more fundamental theoretical understanding of the method, and to develop computer programs to apply the techniques to practical problems encountered in radiation transport analysis. The overall project can be divided into three components to meet these objectives: (a) Theoretical Development, (b) Code Development, and (c) Sample Applications. During the present third year of this study, an application of contributon theory to the analysis of radiation heating in a nuclear rocket has been completed, and a paper on the assessment of radiation damage response of an LWR pressure vessel and analysis of radiation propagation through space and energy channels in air at the Hiroshima weapon burst was accepted for publication. A major effort was devoted to developing a new ''Contributon Monte Carlo'' method, which can improve the efficiency of Monte Carlo calculations of radiation transport by tracking only contributons. The theoretical basis for Contributon Monte Carlo has been completed, and the implementation and testing of the technique is presently being performed

  8. ULTRASONIC STUDIES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF RECRYSTALLIZATION AND SINTERING OF METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER, JOSEPH A.

    2005-11-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction of an ultrasonic wave with complex media, with specific emphases on recrystallization and sintering of metals. A combined analytical, numerical, and experimental research program was implemented. Theoretical models of elastic wave propagation through these complex materials were developed using stochastic wave field techniques. The numerical simulations focused on finite element wave propagation solutions through complex media. The experimental efforts were focused on corroboration of the models developed and on the development of new experimental techniques. The analytical and numerical research allows the experimental results to be interpreted quantitatively.

  9. Fundamental Studies of the Reforming of Oxygenated Compounds over Supported Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    microcopy (STEM) to measure size and structure, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to measure atomic composition, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to measure oxidation state and metal coordination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study adsorbed species, laser Raman spectroscopy to probe metal oxide promoters, and temperature programmed reaction/desorption to study the energetics of adsorption and desorption processes. We have studied our bimetallic catalysts for the selective cleavage of carbon-oxygen bonds, and we have studied the effects of adding metal oxide promoters to supported platinum and gold catalysts for water-gas shift (i.e., the production of hydrogen by reaction of carbon monoxide with water). We anticipate that the knowledge obtained from our studies will allow us to identify promising directions for new catalysts that show high activity, selectivity, and stability for important reactions, such as the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons to fuels and chemicals.

  10. Second international conference on fundamentals of fracture. Program and abstract book. Summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The approximately 95 papers and abstracts are grouped under the following headings: atomic theory, continuum theory, experimental studies, environmental effects, fatigue, ceramics, high-temperature phenomena, and interfacial fracture

  11. Second international conference on fundamentals of fracture. Program and abstract book. Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The approximately 95 papers and abstracts are grouped under the following headings: atomic theory, continuum theory, experimental studies, environmental effects, fatigue, ceramics, high-temperature phenomena, and interfacial fracture. (DLC)

  12. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  13. European Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR): the new international center for fundamental physics and its research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Sharkov, Boris Yu; Stöker, H

    2012-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) accelerator center at Darmstadt, Germany, will provide the international scientific community with unique experimental opportunities of a scope and scale out of reach for any other large-scale facility in the world. With its staff of over 2500, it is expected to fundamentally expand our knowledge of hadron, nuclear, and atomic physics and their application to cosmology, astrophysics, and technology. In this review, the design details of the accelerator complex are discussed and the experimental research program for FAIR is presented. Particular attention is paid to experiments on the extreme state of matter arising from the isochoric heating of a material by heavy-ion beams. One of the largest facilities of its kind in Europe, FAIR is a part of the strategic development roadmap for the European Strategic Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). (physics of our days)

  14. Fundamental study of droplet spray characteristics in photomask cleaning for advanced lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. L.; Yu, C. H.; Liu, W. H.; Hsu, Luke; Chin, Angus; Lee, S. C.; Yen, Anthony; Lee, Gaston; Dress, Peter; Singh, Sherjang; Dietze, Uwe

    2010-09-01

    The fundamentals of droplet-based cleaning of photomasks are investigated and performance regimes that enable the use of binary spray technologies in advanced mask cleaning are identified. Using phase Doppler anemometry techniques, the effect of key performance parameters such as liquid and gas flow rates and temperature, nozzle design, and surface distance on droplet size, velocity, and distributions were studied. The data are correlated to particle removal efficiency (PRE) and feature damage results obtained on advanced photomasks for 193-nm immersion lithography.

  15. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  16. Transatlantic Multispecialty Consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills: Results of a Delphi Consensus Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, H; Aggarwal, R; Macdonald, S; Vermassen, F; Van Herzeele, I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a consensus on Fundamental Endovascular Skills (FES) for educational purposes and development of training curricula for endovascular procedures. The term "Fundamental Endovascular Skills" is widely used; however, the current literature does not explicitly describe what skills are included in this concept. Endovascular interventions are performed by several specialties that may have opposing perspectives on these skills. A two round Delphi questionnaire approach was used. Experts from interventional cardiology, interventional radiology, and vascular surgery from the United States and Europe were invited to participate. An electronic questionnaire was generated by endovascular therapists with an appropriate educational background but who would not participate in subsequent rounds. The questionnaire consisted of 50 statements describing knowledge, technical, and behavioral skills during endovascular procedures. Experts received the questionnaires by email. They were asked to rate the importance of each skill on a Likert scale from 1 to 5. A statement was considered fundamental when more than 90% of the experts rated it 4 or 5 out of 5. Twenty-three of 53 experts invited agreed to participate: six interventional radiologists (2 USA, 4 Europe), 10 vascular surgeons (4 USA, 6 Europe), and seven interventional cardiologists (4 USA, 3 Europe). There was a 100% response rate in the first round and 87% in the second round. Results showed excellent consensus among responders (Cronbach's alpha = .95 first round; .93 second round). Ninety percent of all proposed skills were considered fundamental. The most critical skills were determined. A transatlantic multispecialty consensus was achieved about the content of "FES" among interventional radiologists, interventional cardiologists, and vascular surgeons from Europe and the United States. These results can serve as directive principles for developing endovascular training curricula

  17. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu

    1989-01-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author)

  18. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author).

  19. Fundamental remote science research program. Part 2: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of he Earth from remotely sensed measurements of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inferences about the Earth. This report summarizes the progress that has been made toward this program goal by each of the principal investigators in the MPRIA Program.

  20. Superallowed Beta Decay Studies at TRIUMF --- Nuclear Structure and Fundamental Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zganjar, E. F.; Achtzehn, T.; Albers, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Andreyev, A. N.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Behr, J. A.; Biosvert, G. C.; Bricault, P.; Bishop, S.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Churchman, R.; Cross, D.; Cunningham, E.; D'Auria, J. M.; Dombsky, M.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Hanemaayer, V.; Hardy, J. C.; Hodgson, D. F.; Hyland, B.; Iacob, V.; Klages, P.; Koopmans, K. A.; Kulp, W. D.; Lassen, J.; Lavoie, J. P.; Leslie, J. R.; Linder, T.; MacDonald, J. A.; Mak, H.-B.; Melconian, D.; Morton, A. C.; Ormand, W. E.; Osborne, C. J.; Pearson, C. J.; Pearson, M. R.; Phillips, A. A.; Piechaczek, A.; Ressler, J.; Sarazin, F.; Savard, G.; Schumaker, M. A.; Scraggs, H. C.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Towner, I. S.; Waddington, J. C.; Walker, P. M.; Wendt, K.; Wood, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    Precision measurement of the beta -decay half-life, Q-value, and branching ratio between nuclear analog states of Jpi = 0+ and T=1 can provide critical and fundamental tests of the Standard Model's description of electroweak interactions. A program has been initiated at TRIUMF-ISAC to measure the ft values of these superallowed beta transitions. Two Tz = 0, A > 60 cases, 74Rb and 62Ga, are presented. These are particularly relevant because they can provide critical tests of the calculated nuclear structure and isospin-symmetry breaking corrections that are predicted to be larger for heavier nuclei, and because they demonstrate the advance in the experimental precision on ft at TRIUMF-ISAC from 0.26% for 74Rb in 2002 to 0.05% for 62Ga in 2006. The high precision world data on experimental ft and corrected Ft values are discussed and shown to be consistent with CVC at the 10-4 level, yielding an average Ft = 3073.70(74) s. This Ft leads to Vud = 0.9737(4) for the up-down element of the Standard Model's CKM matrix. With this value and the Particle Data Group's 2006 values for Vus and Vub, the unitarity condition for the CKM matrix is met. Additional measurements and calculations are needed, however, to reduce the uncertainties in that evaluation. That objective is the focus of the continuing program on superallowed-beta decay at TRIUMF-ISAC.

  1. From fundamental studies of reactivity on single crystals to the design of catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Larsen, Jane; Chorkendorff, Ib

    One of the prominent arguments for performing surface science studies have for many years been to improve and design new and better catalysts. Although surface science has provided the fundamental framework and tools for understanding heterogeneous catalysis until now there have been extremely few examples of actually designing new catalysts based solely on surface science studies. In this review, we shall demonstrate how a close collaboration between different fundamental disciplines like structural-, theoretical-and reactivity-studies of surfaces as well as a strong interaction with industry can have strong synergetic effects and how this was used to develop a new catalyst. As so often before the studies reviewed here were not initiated with the objective to solve a specific problem, but realizing that a new class of very stable two-dimensional alloys could be synthesized from otherwise immiscible metals made it possible to present a new solution to a specific problem in the industrial catalysis relating to methane activation in the steam reforming process. Methane is the main constituent of natural gas and it is an extremely important raw material for many large scale chemical processes such as production of hydrogen, ammonia, and methanol. In the steam reforming process methane and water are converted into a mixture of mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide, the so-called synthesis gas. Industrially the steam reforming process usually takes place over a catalyst containing small nickel crystallites highly dispersed on a porous support material like aluminum/magnesium oxides in order to achieve a high active metal area. There is a general consensus that the rate limiting step of this process is the dissociative sticking of methane on the nickel surface. Driven by the desire to understand this step and hopefully be able to manipulate the reactivity, a large number of investigations of the methane/nickel interaction have been performed using nickel single crystals as

  2. Study on Java Programming Education

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 信宏

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider the content and key points for inclusion in a Java programming course for beginners. The Java programming language has a variety of functions and has the largest application field of all such languages, containing many themes that are appropriate for any such programming course. The multifunctional and wide-ranging functions of Java, however, may actually act as a barrier to study for beginners. The core content of a programming class for beginners sho...

  3. Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults : The fundamental challenge of the last mile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangen, M. J.J.; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A.; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G. A.; Steenbergen, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are

  4. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, Mitra; Motta, Arthur; Marquis, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  5. HVEM-ion accelerator facility with its application to fundamental studies on nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Chiken; Nakai, Kiyomichi; Kutsuwada, Masanori

    1992-01-01

    High voltage electron microscopy combined with an ion accelerator, analytical electron microscopy and high resolution electron microscopy have been used for in-situ observation of radiation-induced phenomena in alloys and ceramics. Systematic experiments and their analyses have led to an understanding of the fundamental aspects of radiation effects in metallic, ionic and covalent crystals. The present paper reviews the progress of our studies on induced phenomena in alloys and ceramics under irradiation with electrons and/or ions. Particular emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of radiation-induced phenomena, such as defect aggregation, chemical disordering, precipitation, spinodal decomposition and amorphization. This paper also shows a trend of our studies on the synergistic effect of dual-beam irradiation with ions and electrons which is extremely important for designing nuclear materials. (author)

  6. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  7. A fundamental study on brain scanning with sup(99m)Tc-citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yamada, Nobuaki; Horiike, Shigeharu; Nakazawa, Keiji

    1978-01-01

    We examined the sup(99m)Tc-citrate obtained by labelling citrate with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate using Solcocitran Kit. For our fundamental study--we measured the ratio of labelling by means of paper chromatography. By picking out each organs of each rats we also measured the velocity at which radiopharmaceuticals disappeared in each of their organs, and the distribution of radio-pharmaceuticals in their organs. For our clinical study--we performed brain scanning on 47 patients. The following are the results; Citrate was labelled as much as 99 - 95% into sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. The velocity of disappearance in each organ of the rats was quicker than in the case of sup(99m)TcO 4 - . Accumulation in the choroid plexus and salivary gland was not obserbed despite the fact that we did not use KClo 4 , and images of brain tumor were obtainable to a high degree. (author)

  8. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  9. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  10. NMR Computational Studies of Solid Acidity/Fundamental Studies of Catalysis by Solid Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Haw

    2008-06-28

    This project focused on catalysis by zeolites and the synergy of spectroscopic characterization and theoretical modeling. In collaboration with the Waroquier group in Belgium we used state-of-the-art quantum chemical simulations on a supramolecular model of both the HZSM-5 zeolite and the co-catalytic hydrocarbon pool species and calculated a full catalytic cycle (including all rate constants) for methanol-to-olefin (MTO) catalysis involving a hydrocarbon pool species. This work not only represents the most robust computational analysis of a successful MTO route to date, but it also succeeds in tying together the many experimental clues. That work was featured on the cover of Angewandte Chemie. More recently we elucidated several unsuspected roles for formaldehyde in methanol to olefin catalysis. Formaldehyde proves to be a key species responsible for both the growth of the catalytically active hydrocarbon pool and its inevitable aging into deactivated polycyclic aromatic species. The apparent inevitability of formaldehyde formation at high temperatures, in particular in contact with active metal or metal oxide surfaces, may put some fundamental limitations on the economic potential of conversion of methanol to olefins.

  11. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Conceição, F C; Borges, P P; Gomes, J F S

    2016-01-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K_2Cr_2O_7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses. (paper)

  12. Physical, experimental and numerical study of fundamental mechanisms involved in two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Benoit

    2003-01-01

    In this work, small-scale phenomena in two-phase flows with phase change are studied. First, some fundamental phenomena related to the heat and mass transfer at small scale are recalled. A physical model is then built in order to describe moving contact lines with phase change. In the second part, a numerical simulation method is built, that is able to describe the growth of a single bubble on a heated wall. Compared to existing methods, major improvements are obtained with respect to the conservation of the mass, the spurious currents related to interfacial forces and the physical description of the contact lines. Finally, an experimental investigation of the singular heat and mass transfer at the contact line is carried out. Preliminary results obtained on a simplified configuration are presented. (author) [fr

  13. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  14. A fundamental study of fission product deposition on the wall surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, R.; Sakashita, H.; Sugiyama, K.

    1987-01-01

    Deposition of soluble matters on wall surfaces is studied in the present report for the purpose to understand a mechanism of fission product deposition on the wall surface in a molten salt reactor. Calcium carbonate solution is used to observe the fundamental mechanism of deposition. The experiments are performed under conditions of turbulent flow of the solution over a heated wall. According to the experimental results a model is proposed to estimate deposition rate. The model consists of two parts, one is the initial nucleus formation on a clean wall surface and the other is the constant increase of deposition succeeding to the first stage. The model is assessed by comparing it with the experimental results. Both results coincide well in some parameters, but not so well in others. (author)

  15. Fundamental Movement Skills Development under the Influence of a Gymnastics Program and Everyday Physical Activity in Seven-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.

  16. Fundamental Studies on Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties of Fusion Welds in Advanced Naval Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    naval and structural applications. However, prior to this research project, a fundamental understanding of the phase transformation behavior under the...prior to this research project, a fundamental understanding of the phase transformation behavior under the high heating and cooling rates associated...HAZ mechanical properties. Such a treatment is expensive, time consuming , and cannot be practically applied to large structures. However, the absence

  17. School-Based Fundamental-Motor-Skill Intervention for Children With Autism-Like Characteristics: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Lloyd, Meghann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to demonstrate the impact of a fundamental-motor-skill (FMS) intervention on the motor skills of 3- to 7-year-old children with autism-like characteristics in an early intervention classroom. A secondary purpose was to qualitatively assess the impact of the program as described by the classroom's special education teacher. All children in the classroom (N = 5) took part in an FMS intervention for two 6-wk blocks (fall 2013 and winter 2014). Motor-skill proficiency and social skills were assessed at 3 times: baseline, after Block 1 of the intervention, and after Block 2 of the intervention. In addition, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher after Assessment 3 to draw further insights into the relative success and impact of the program. Results were analyzed through a visual analysis and presented individually. They indicated improvements in the participants' individual FMS and social-skill scores, possible improvements in declarative knowledge, and an increase in the special education teacher's readiness to teach FMS; further research with larger, controlled samples is warranted.

  18. Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults: The fundamental challenge of the last mile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangen, M-J J; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G A; van Steenbergen, J E

    2017-05-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are men having sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSW) and hard drug users (HDU). Heterosexuals with a high partner change rate (HRP) were included until 1-November-2007. Based on participant, vaccination and serology data collected up to 31-December-2012, the number of participants and program costs were estimated. Observed anti-HBc prevalence was used to estimate the probability of susceptible individuals per risk-group to become infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in their remaining life. We distinguished two time-periods: 2002-2006 and 2007-2012, representing different recruitment strategies and target groups. Correcting for observed vaccination compliance, the number of future HBV-infections avoided was estimated per risk-group. By combining these numbers with estimates of life-years lost, quality-of-life losses and healthcare costs of HBV-infections - as obtained from a Markov model-, the benefit of the program was estimated for each risk-group separately. The overall incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the program was €30,400/QALY gained, with effects and costs discounted at 1.5% and 4%, respectively. The program was more cost-effective in the first period (€24,200/QALY) than in the second period (€42,400/QALY). In particular, the cost-effectiveness for MSM decreased from €20,700/QALY to €47,700/QALY. This decentralised targeted HBV-vaccination program is a cost-effective intervention in certain unvaccinated high-risk adults. Saturation within the risk-groups, participation of individuals with less risky behaviour, and increased recruitment investments in the second period made the program less cost-effective over time. The project should therefore

  19. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  20. Radiodermatitis prevention with sucralfate in breast cancer: fundamental and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkowski, Sabrina; Trouillas, Patrick; Duroux, Jean-Luc; Bonnetblanc, Jean-Marie; Clavère, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Acute radiodermatitis induced by radiotherapy may affect the quality of life and in some cases requires withholding treatment. The present study concerns the protective effect of a 1% sucralfate lotion. We propose joint fundamental and clinical points of view. The free radical scavenging capacity of sucralfate was measured with electron spin resonance and was supported by theoretical calculations. The clinical effects of sucralfate lotion were evaluated on 21 women treated for breast cancer. Breast skin response was evaluated at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Gy, according to (1) the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) acute toxicity scale and (2) spectrophotometry data obtained with X-Rite SP60. Sucralfate appeared as a relatively poor free radical scavenger (compared to reference compounds such as vitamin E). The sucralfate-containing lotion used in the present study did not provide systematic radiodermatitis prevention. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the skin response to irradiation appeared to be a very effective and more sensitive technique than the RTOG scale. Its use should be recommended to study cutaneous radioprotective action.

  1. Fundamental studies of graphene/graphite and graphene-based Schottky photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Xiaochang

    In the carbon allotropes family, graphene is one of the most versatile members and has been extensively studied since 2004. The goal of this dissertation is not only to investigate the novel fundamental science of graphene and its three-dimensional sibling, graphite, but also to explore graphene's promising potential in modern electronic and optoelectronic devices. The first two chapters provide a concise introduction to the fundamental solid state physics of graphene (as well as graphite) and the physics at the metal/semiconductor interfaces. In the third chapter, we demonstrate the formation of Schottky junctions at the interfaces of graphene (semimetal) and various inorganic semiconductors that play dominating roles in today's semiconductor technology, such as Si, SiC, GaAs and GaN. As shown from their current-voltage (I -V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics, the interface physics can be well described within the framework of the Schottky-Mott model. The results are also well consist with that from our previous studies on graphite based Schottky diodes. In the fourth chapter, as an extension of graphene based Schottky work, we investigate the photovoltaic (PV) effect of graphene/Si junctions after chemically doped with an organic polymer (TFSA). The power conversion efficiency of the solar cell improves from 1.9% to 8.6% after TFSA doping, which is the record in all graphene based PVs. The I -V, C-V and external quantum efficiency measurements suggest 12 that such a significant enhancement in the device performance can be attributed to a doping-induced decrease in the series resistance and a simultaneous increase in the built-in potential. In the fifth chapter, we investigate for the first time the effect of uniaxial strains on magneto-transport properties of graphene. We find that low-temperature weak localization effect in monolayer graphene is gradually suppressed under increasing strains, which is due to a strain-induced decreased intervalley

  2. Intermediate-Scale Experimental Study to Improve Fundamental Understanding of Attenuation Capacity for Leaking CO2 in Heterogeneous Shallow Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plampin, Michael R.; Porter, Mark L.; Pawar, Rajesh J.; Illangasekare, Tissa H.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the risks of Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to understand the fundamental physicochemical processes that may occur if and when stored CO2 leaks upward from a deep storage reservoir into the shallow subsurface. Intermediate-scale experiments allow for improved understanding of the multiphase evolution processes that control CO2 migration behavior in the subsurface, because the boundary conditions, initial conditions, and porous media parameters can be better controlled and monitored in the laboratory than in field settings. For this study, a large experimental test bed was designed to mimic a cross section of a shallow aquifer with layered geologic heterogeneity. As water with aqueous CO2 was injected into the system to mimic a CO2-charged water leakage scenario, the spatiotemporal evolution of the multiphase CO2 plume was monitored. Similar experiments were performed with two different sand combinations to assess the relative effects of different types of geologic facies transitions on the CO2 evolution processes. Significant CO2 attenuation was observed in both scenarios, but by fundamentally different mechanisms. When the porous media layers had very different permeabilities, attenuation was caused by local accumulation (structural trapping) and slow redissolution of gas phase CO2. When the permeability difference between the layers was relatively small, on the other hand, gas phase continually evolved over widespread areas near the leading edge of the aqueous plume, which also attenuated CO2 migration. This improved process understanding will aid in the development of models that could be used for effective risk assessment and monitoring programs for GCS projects.

  3. Fundamental Studies on the Mechanical Behavior and Fracture Characteristics of Metal-Ceramic Interfaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mukai, K

    1995-01-01

    .... There is need for a fundamental level of understanding of the strength characteristics and the origin of failure of the interface since it is the means by which load is transferred from the matrix to reinforcement...

  4. Fundamental study on dynamic behaviors of fuel debris bed. Research report in 2007 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Suzuki, Tohru; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2009-05-01

    It is important to make a reasonable evaluation of coolability of debris bed with decay heat source in assessing post accident heat removal of a liquid metal cooled fast reactor. In general, the coolability of fuel debris depends on coolant convection, boiling and debris bed movement. In the present study, to understand fundamental characteristics of debris movement, self-leveling behavior caused by the coolant boiling was investigated experimentally using simulant materials. The present experiments employed depressurization boiling of water to simulate void distribution in a debris bed, which consists of solid particles of alumina. A rough estimation model of self-leveling occurrence was proposed and compared with the experimental results. Its extrapolation to reactor accident conditions was also discussed. In addition, solid-liquid flow experiments, which are relevant to debris bed movement behaviors, were analyzed to verify the validity of multiphase flow models employed in a safety analysis code. In the present verification study, basic validity of the code was demonstrated by analyzing experiments of water-column sloshing with solid particles. (author)

  5. A comparative study of the mastery of fundamental movement skills between different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garbeloto dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that guidance, encouragement and opportunity are crucial factors for children’s motor development. They are especially important to promote the mastery of fundamental movement skills. The present study investigated the association between two elements related to those factors – proposed curriculum of physical education and the most popular sport in a given country – and the incidence of mastery in the FMS in children from 4 to 10 years of age. In order to carry out a cross-cultural comparison, three studies from different countries (Portugal, China and USA that used TGMD-II were selected. The results indicated association between proposed curriculum and the number of children mastering FMS. This association increases in older age groups of children from USA, the most structured curriculum related to FMS, presenting the highest average percentage of mastery.  Additionally, we did not find association of the most popular sports in a given country with the mastery of the related skill. These results are interpreted as evidence for the importance of guidance on the mastery of FMS.

  6. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  7. Regional Studies Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzyck, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on methodology studies with regard to hydrologic analysis; atmospheric transport; forest growth models; distribution of sensitive species; agricultural analysis; and environmental objectives in energy facility siting. National coal utilization assessment studies are reported with regard to technology characterization; air quality impacts; water resources; regional characterization; forest impacts; coal extraction impacts on sensitive animal species; and health impacts. The following special projects were carried out: water resource aspects of inexhaustible technology deployment; ecological constraints on the rapidly expanded use of coal; and U.S. coal and the global carbon problem

  8. Fundamental study of polonium contamination by neutron irradiated lead-bismuth eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, T.; Miura, T.; Sekimoto, H.

    2005-01-01

    As a fundamental study of polonium contamination by neutron irradiated LBE, it was investigated to remove polonium surface contamination by baking method. The baking experiments were performed using quartz glass plates contaminated by material evaporated from neutron irradiated LBE liquid. The contaminated quartz glass plates were baked in vacuum (2 Pa) at various temperatures. The experimental results clearly show that polonium evaporated from LBE can be removed by baking samples at temperatures 300 deg. C and above. It is of note that the decrease in the weight of deposited materials baked at 300 deg. C differed from that observed at 400 deg. C or higher temperatures. At temperature of 300 deg. C, no change in weight was observed. The mass of polonium in the LBE samples was so small that no weight change could be observed by release of polonium. Thus, it might show that only the polonium among the adherent materials was removed by baking at 300 deg. C without removing other adhered material. The method is rather simple, so it is easy to apply the method for practical application. One of the expected applications may be the removal of polonium contamination in a primary loop before maintenance work of the loop. Also it shows that this method can be used to avoid the release of polonium from contaminated material, in case of an accident, by keeping the contaminated material at low temperature

  9. The fundamental study for Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 containing simulated TRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Ken-ichi; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Issei; Muraoka, Susumu; Yanagi, Tadashi.

    1991-06-01

    Borosilicate glass waste form is considered to be the most suitable material for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). However when the salt-free process on Purex method is adopted and the group partitioning technique of HLW is completely developed, ceramic waste forms which are excellent in thermal stability seem better for the immobilization of hazardous TRU elements. This work is a fundamental study on the solidification of TRU with Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 . In this work, Ce and Nd were used as substitutes for Pu and Am or Cm. TZ-8Y (submicron powder) and designed Ce(NO 3 ) 3 or Nd(NO 3 ) 3 solution were mixed into paste. After dried, the paste was pelletized by the rubber press, and then sintered at 1400degC for 16h. Densities of the sintered pellets were measured and their microstructure was observed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that (1) the relative density of ceramic pellet sample was as high as 96.4%, (2) each element was distributed homogeneously and only cubic phase existed. From leach tests in nitric acid and distilled water at 150degC, those ceramic pellet samples showed aqueous corrosion rates which were about 10 2 to 10 3 times lower than that of a glass waste form(PO500). (author)

  10. The Army Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-09

    STUDDIES BY CATEGORY STUDY TITLE SPONSOR NMtTHOO PPA ADM RE:MOTE LINK PRUG DARCOM CONTRACT ADV TECH MODEL FULL DARCON CONTRACT ARMY COMMAND ANDi CONTROL...HOUUSE NUN -RLCURRIN 1 LMANUS DARCON I"-HUSL FF-TH-hLLI TM~k ECUNLNI(. ANALYSIS DARCOM CUNTRALT FOR SFELTKUM ANALYZERS UPLRA1IUN&L FLt)AI/EKPSL TKADL...TECHNULOGY A5 AESM:NT TRADOC bUTH *TEN YEAR INSTRUMENTATIOft ANALYSkIS OCSA ot" PHASE I TERRAIN MODELS DARCOM bUTH lEST CRITLRIA FUOR NUN -IIILLL-K WEAPUN

  11. Predicting fundamental and realized distributions based on thermal niche: A case study of a freshwater turtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco; Ribeiro, Bruno R.

    2018-04-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) have been broadly used in ecology to address theoretical and practical problems. Currently, there are two main approaches to generate SDMs: (i) correlative, which is based on species occurrences and environmental predictor layers and (ii) process-based models, which are constructed based on species' functional traits and physiological tolerances. The distributions estimated by each approach are based on different components of species niche. Predictions of correlative models approach species realized niches, while predictions of process-based are more akin to species fundamental niche. Here, we integrated the predictions of fundamental and realized distributions of the freshwater turtle Trachemys dorbigni. Fundamental distribution was estimated using data of T. dorbigni's egg incubation temperature, and realized distribution was estimated using species occurrence records. Both types of distributions were estimated using the same regression approaches (logistic regression and support vector machines), both considering macroclimatic and microclimatic temperatures. The realized distribution of T. dorbigni was generally nested in its fundamental distribution reinforcing theoretical assumptions that the species' realized niche is a subset of its fundamental niche. Both modelling algorithms produced similar results but microtemperature generated better results than macrotemperature for the incubation model. Finally, our results reinforce the conclusion that species realized distributions are constrained by other factors other than just thermal tolerances.

  12. Comparison of fundamental, second harmonic, and superharmonic imaging: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Neer, Paul L M J; Danilouchkine, Mikhail G; Verweij, Martin D; Demi, Libertario; Voormolen, Marco M; van der Steen, Anton F W; de Jong, Nico

    2011-11-01

    In medical ultrasound, fundamental imaging (FI) uses the reflected echoes from the same spectral band as that of the emitted pulse. The transmission frequency determines the trade-off between penetration depth and spatial resolution. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) employs the second harmonic of the emitted frequency band to construct images. Recently, superharmonic imaging (SHI) has been introduced, which uses the third to the fifth (super) harmonics. The harmonic level is determined by two competing phenomena: nonlinear propagation and frequency dependent attenuation. Thus, the transmission frequency yielding the optimal trade-off between the spatial resolution and the penetration depth differs for THI and SHI. This paper quantitatively compares the concepts of fundamental, second harmonic, and superharmonic echocardiography at their optimal transmission frequencies. Forward propagation is modeled using a 3D-KZK implementation and the iterative nonlinear contrast source (INCS) method. Backpropagation is assumed to be linear. Results show that the fundamental lateral beamwidth is the narrowest at focus, while the superharmonic one is narrower outside the focus. The lateral superharmonic roll-off exceeds the fundamental and second harmonic roll-off. Also, the axial resolution of SHI exceeds that of FI and THI. The far-field pulse-echo superharmonic pressure is lower than that of the fundamental and second harmonic. SHI appears suited for echocardiography and is expected to improve its image quality at the cost of a slight reduction in depth-of-field.

  13. Fundamental studies on miniature dose meter using variable capacitance Si-diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    The results of fundamental studies on development of a miniature dose meter using a semiconductor applicable for dosimetry in both intracavitary and external radiotherapy are described. Many different instruments have been applied in clinical dosimetry for regional lesions, mostly in phantom studies, e. g. the small sized ionization chamber, the fluoroluminescence glass dose meter and the thermoluminescence dose meter. However, there are considerable problems regarding safety, reproducibility, and simplicity for regional dosimetry of intracavitary lesions, such as genitourinary, gastrointestinal and respiratory malignancies. To overcome these problems, an attempt was made to develop a miniature catheter type detector using a variable capacitance Si-diode for gamma ray dosimetry. The newly developed miniature dose meter using a semiconductor has the following characteristics. As the tip of detector (23mm long and 3mm in diameter) is very small, the apparatus unit is easy to manipulate in the dosimetry of intracavitary lesions. As no voltage is supplied to the detector, there is no danger of electric shock from in vivo studies. A strict linearity existed between the radiation dose rate and the generated voltage even when the range of experimental irradiation dose rate was extremely wide. The sensitivity of the detector was affected by the environmental temperature, but it was easy to correct the sensitivity by applying a special calibration chart to the value derived from a thermister enclosed in the detector. Even with the experimental irradiation of more than 50,000R, no changes in the sensitivity of the detector were observed. Thus, the durability of the apparatus was shown to be excellent. (auth.)

  14. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  15. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hagman

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that

  16. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY METHOD IN DISTANCE LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Chepyuk

    2016-01-01

    finding of knowledge and practical skills has been understudied for a long time. The materials of the present article partially close this gap.Practical significance. The discussed case study method in the publication promotes implementation of approach to professional higher education which is oriented to a student. The research and experience of application of cases in distance training of entrepreneurship fundamentals have showed the universality and efficiency of this method.

  17. Calculation of fundamental parameters for the dynamical study of TRIGA-3-Salazar reactor (Mixed reactor core)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viais J, J.

    1994-01-01

    Kinetic parameters for dynamic study of two different configurations, 8 and 9, both with standard fuel, 20% enrichment and Flip (Fuel Life Improvement Program with 70% enrichment) fuel, for TRIGA Mark-III reactor from Mexico Nuclear Center, are obtained. A calculation method using both WIMS-D4 and DTF-IV and DAC1 was established, to decide which of those two configurations has the best safety and operational conditions. Validation of this methodology is done by calculate those parameters for a reactor core with new standard fuel. Configuration 9 is recommended to be use. (Author)

  18. Fundamental study on temperature estimation of steam generator tubes at sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Yoshida, Eiichi

    2008-11-01

    In case of the tube failure in the steam generator of the sodium cooled fast breeder reactor, its adjoined tubes are rapidly heated up by the chemical reaction between sodium and water/steam. And it is known that the tubes have the damage called 'wastage' by the disclosure steam jet. This research is a fundamental study based on the metallography about temperature estimation of the damaged tubes at the sodium-water reaction for the establishment of mechanism analysis technique of the behavior. In the examination, the material which gave the rapid thermal history which imitated sodium-water reaction was produced. And it was investigated whether the thermal history (i.e. maximum temperature and the holding time) of the samples could be presumed from the metallurgical examination of the samples. The major results are as follows: (1) The microstructure of the sample which was given the rapid thermal heating has reserved the influence of the maximum temperature and the time, and the structure can explain by referring to the equilibrium diagram and the continuous cooling transformation diagram. (2) Results of the electrolytic extraction of the samples, the ratio of the remained volume to the electrolyzed volume degreased with the increase of the maximum temperature and the time. Furthermore, it was observed the correlation between the remained volume of each element (Cr, Mo, Fe, V and Nb) and the thermal history. (3) It was obtained that the thermal history of the tubes damaged by sodium-water reaction might be able to be estimated from the metallurgical examinations. (author)

  19. A Fundamental Study of Inorganic Clathrate and Other Open-Framework Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolas, George [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Due to formidable synthetic challenges, many materials of scientific and technological interest are first obtained as microcrystalline powders. High purity, high yield processing techniques are often lacking and thus care must be taken in interpretation of the observed structural, chemical, and physical properties of powder or polycrystalline materials, which can be strongly influenced by extrinsic properties. Furthermore, the preparation of high-quality single crystals for many materials by traditional techniques can be especially challenging in cases where the elemental constituents have greatly differing melting points and/or vapor pressures, when the desired compound is thermodynamically metastable, or where growth with participation of the melt is generally not possible. New processing techniques are therefore imperative in order to investigate the intrinsic properties of these materials and elucidate their fundamental physical properties. Intermetallic clathrates constitute one such class of materials. The complex crystal structures of intermetallic clathrates are characterized by mainly group 14 host frameworks encapsulating guest-ions in polyhedral cages. The unique features of clathrate structures are intimately related to their physical properties, offering ideal systems for the study of structure-property relationships in crystalline solids. Moreover, intermetallic clathrates are being actively investigated due to their potential for application in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics and opto-electronics, superconductivity, and magnetocaloric technologies. We have developed different processing techniques in order to synthesize phase-pure high yield clathrates reproducibly, as well as grow single crystals for the first time. We also employed these techniques to synthesize new “open-framework” compounds. These advances in materials processing and crystal growth allowed for the investigation of the physical properties of a variety of different clathrate

  20. A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.

  1. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  2. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tips of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.

  3. Experimental study on fundamental phenomena in HTGR small break air-ingress accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Soon; Hwang, Jin-Seok; Kim, Eung Soo; Kim, Byung Jun; Oh, Chang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air-ingress phenomena on the small break in a HTGR are experimentally investigated. • Experiment is investigated for various break sizes, angles, and density ratios. • Maximum air-ingress rate is observed at 120° in break angle. • This study reveals that air-ingress in the small break is governed by; buoyancy and flow inertia. • A non-dimensional parameter is newly proposed to determine the air-ingress flow regimes. • Newly proposed parameter is based on buoyancy versus inertia force. - Abstract: This study experimentally investigates fundamental phenomena in the HTGR small break air-ingress accident. Several important parameters including density ratio, break angle, break size, and main flow velocity are considered in the measurement and the analysis. The test-section is made of a circular pipe with small holes drilled around the surface and it is installed in the helium/air flow circulation loop. Oxygen concentrations and flow rates are recorded during the tests with fixed break angles, break sizes, and flow velocities for measurement of the air-ingress rates. According to the experimental results, the higher density difference leads to the higher rates of air-ingress with large sensitivity of the break angles. It is also found that the break angle significantly affects the air-ingress rates, which is gradually increased from 0° to 120° and suddenly decreased to 180°. The minimum air ingress rate is found at 0° and the maximum, at 110°. The air-ingress rate increases with the break size due to the increased flow-exchange area. However, it is not directly proportional to the break area due to the complexity of the phenomena. The increased flow velocity in the channel inside enhances the air-ingress process. However, among all the parameters, the main flow velocity exhibits the lowest effect on this process. In this study, the Froude Number relevant to the small break air-ingress conditions are newly defined considering both heavy

  4. DMA Modern Programming Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    capabilities. The centers are becoming increasingly dependent upon the computer and digital data in the fulfillment of MC&G goals. Successful application...ftticrcsrccessors C140 by Herbert AlteroDigital Citmmuncaticns C141 0 Structuredl Design ’-:orkshocr by Ned Chapin KC 156o Digital Systems En17lrceriirg CC 139 o3...on a programming environment. The study, which resulted in production of a paper entitled An EXEC 8 Programming Support Libary , contends that most of

  5. Polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant for ion foam flotation: fundamental study from solution to foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheau, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Ion foam flotation allows to concentrate ions in a foam phase formed by a soap. For classical systems, the strong interaction between ions and surfactant generally leads to the formation of precipitates and of froth. When the froth collapses, the solid residue thus recovered requires a recycling or conversion. In order to remedy this, the present work uses as collector a polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant, AKYPO RO 90 VG, which forms soluble ion/surfactant complexes, even with multi-charge ions. This work presents a detailed study of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the extraction of ions by foaming. In the first part, surface activity and acid/base properties of the surfactant in solution are determined by combining numerous independent techniques which are pH-metric dosage, tensiometry and small angle scattering. The evolution of these properties in the presence of different nitrate salts (Nd, Eu, Ca, Sr, Cu, Li, Na, Cs) coupled with electrophoretic measurements give a first approach to selectivity. Finally, all of these data combined with a study of the formation of surfactant/ion complexes allow us to determine the speciation of Nd/AKYPO system as a function of pH. In the second part, the analysis of the foam by conductivity and neutron scattering provides information on the wetness and foam film thickness, parameters governing foam stability. The pH and the nature of the added ions, their number of charge and also their chemical nature thus appear to be major parameters that governed wetness and foam film thickness. The last part is devoted to the understanding of the ion extraction/separation experiments by flotation based on all previous results. It is shown that the flotation of neodymium is strongly related to its speciation, which could lead to its re-extraction or its flotation in precipitated form. It is shown that, neodymium induces a phenomenon of mono-charge ion depletion in the foam. This ionic specificity allows to consider the studied

  6. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati......The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies...

  7. Fundamental Magnetofluid Physics Studies on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment: Reconnection and Sustainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The general goal of the Magnetofluids Laboratory at Swarthmore College is to understand how magnetofluid kinetic energy can be converted to magnetic energy as it is in the core of the earth and sun (the dynamo problem) and to understand how magnetic energy can be rapidly converted back to kinetic energy and heat as it is in solar flares (the magnetic reconnection problem). Magnetic reconnection has been studied using the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) which was designed and built under this Junior Faculty Grant. In SSX we generate and merge two rings of magnetized plasma called spheromaks and study their interaction. The spheromaks have many properties similar to solar flares so this work is directly relevant to basic solar physics. In addition, since the spheromak is a magnetic confinement fusion configuration, issues of formation and stability have direct impact on the fusion program

  8. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  9. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  10. Fundamental safety principles. Safety fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purpose. The fundamental safety objective - to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation - applies to all circumstances that give rise to radiation risks. The safety principles are applicable, as relevant, throughout the entire lifetime of all facilities and activities - existing and new - utilized for peaceful purposes, and to protective actions to reduce existing radiation risks. They provide the basis for requirements and measures for the protection of people and the environment against radiation risks and for the safety of facilities and activities that give rise to radiation risks, including, in particular, nuclear installations and uses of radiation and radioactive sources, the transport of radioactive material and the management of radioactive waste

  11. Studying fundamental physics using quantum enabled technologies with trapped molecular ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D. M.; Lorent, V.; Dubessy, R.; Darquié, B.

    2018-03-01

    The text below was written during two visits that Daniel Segal made at Université Paris 13. Danny stayed at Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers the summers of 2008 and 2009 to participate in the exploration of a novel lead in the field of ultra-high resolution spectroscopy. Our idea was to probe trapped molecular ions using Quantum Logic Spectroscopy (QLS) in order to advance our understanding of a variety of fundamental processes in nature. At that time, QLS, a ground-breaking spectroscopic technique, had only been demonstrated with atomic ions. Our ultimate goals were new approaches to the observation of parity violation in chiral molecules and tests of time variations of the fundamental constants. This text is the original research proposal written eight years ago. We have added a series of notes to revisit it in the light of what has been since realized in the field.

  12. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  13. Fundamental movement skills and physical activity among children living in low-income communities: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Callister, Robin; Lubans, David R

    2014-04-08

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children's fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children's fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P=0.002, r=0.15) and after-school (P=0.014, r=0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (Pskill competency appears to be a better predictor of children's MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children's MVPA throughout the day. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN12611001080910.

  14. The Fundamental Lifestyle of a University Community: A Case Study of Higher Education in a Malaysian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Mey, See Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study identified the fundamental lifestyles adopted by a university community in Malaysia. Rapid growth and expansion of higher education in Malaysia is inevitable as the country moves from a production-based economy to one that is innovative and knowledge-based, requiring the development of a highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce.…

  15. Fundamental study on a thin-film ae sensor for measurement of behavior of a multi-pad contact slider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imai, S.; Burger, G.J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    To study the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a multi-pad slider for contact recording, we developed a thin-film piezoelectric acoustic emission array sensor on an Si-suspension with an array pattern similar to that of contact pads. Experiments showed that the sensitivity of the sensor is

  16. Fundamental Study of Micro-Defects in Electropolished EB-Welded and Hydroformed SRF Accelerating Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike

    2014-08-29

    In the area of niobium elecropolishing fundamentals, we focused on understanding the influence of the surface topology, and geometry (with effects from gravity included. The formation of a viscous film is essential for the electropolishing process to take place. The exact nature and composition of the film formed on niobium is still unknown because of its solubility in the electrolyte. Extensive pitting may take place at surface where a stable film cannot form. This has to be taken into consideration while determining the speed with which the SRF cavities are rotated while EP. Hydrodynamic aspects must be taken into consideration while optimizing the polishing parameters. There is improvement in surface finish with polishing time. There is a huge change in surface quality when the EP time is increased from 2 hours to 4 hours but not much change takes place when the time is further increased to 6 hours. So keeping the economic points in view, about 100 um defect layer removal may be sufficient to get the desired performance. In the area of Electropolishing of untreated and treated niobium with Weld Joints we studied untreated and treated Nb, especially for the heat affected areas next to welded bumps, electropolished for different durations. The electropolishing of the untreated Nb caused the formation of pits on the surface at about 15 min but they disappeared when the electropolishing duration was more than 15 min. Electropolishing for 120 min smoothened the surface of untreated Nb by levelling the surface, but the severe formation of pits on the whole surface was found after 240 min. The treatment of Nb significantly changed the Nb surface morphology which was covered by grains of different size that looked light or dark in the optical microscope. The treated Nb was susceptible to pitting during the entire electropolishing starting from 15 min and the dark grains had more susceptibility to pitting than the light grains. In addition, electropolishing for 240 min

  17. A Practical Ethnic Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Asian American Studies Program at the University of Massachusetts (UMass) Boston which complements students' career tracks and engages them in the surrounding Asian American community. For many educators, large numbers of graduates are not only a bragging right, but a goal. However, those involved in the Asian American…

  18. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily, relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. The Table of Contents is annotated for the convenience of the reader

  19. Study on fundamental features of helium turbomachine for high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jie; Gu Yihua

    2004-01-01

    The High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with helium turbine cycle is considered as one of the leading candidates for future nuclear power plants. The HTGR helium turbine cycle was analyzed and optimized. Then the focal point of investigation was concentrated on the fundamental thermodynamic and aerodynamic features of helium turbomachine. As a result, a helium turbomachine is different from a general combustion gas turbine in two main design features, that is a helium turbomachine has more blade stages and shorter blade length, which are caused by the helium property and the high pressure of a closed cycle, respectively. (authors)

  20. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J.; Bool, L.E.; Kang, S.G. [and others

    1995-11-01

    This project is designed to examine the effects of combustion stoichiometry on the fundamental aspects of ash formation and ash deposit initiation. Emphasis is being placed on reducing stoichiometries associated with low-NOx combustion, although a range of oxidant/fuel ratios are being considered. Previous work has demonstrated that ash formation depends strongly upon coal mineralogy, including mineral type, size, amount, and the presence of organically associated inorganic species. Combustion temperature and the oxidation state of iron also play a significant role. As these latter items will vary with changes in stoichiometry, research to determine the net effect on deposition is required.

  1. Collaborative Research: Fundamental Studies of Plasma Control Using Surface Embedded Electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overzet, Lawrence J.; Raja, L.

    2015-01-01

    The research program was collaborative between the researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of Texas at Austin. The primary subject of this program was to investigate the possibility of active control of secondary electron emission (SEE) from surfaces in contact with plasmas and thereby actively control plasmas. Very few studies of ion-induced electron emission (IIEE) from semiconductors exist, and those that do exist primarily used high-energy ion beams in the experiments. Furthermore, those few studies took extreme measures to ensure that the measurements were performed on atomically clean surfaces because of the surface sensitivity of the IIEE process. Even a small exposure to air can change the IIEE yield significantly. In addition, much of the existing data for IIEE from semiconductors was obtained in the 1950s and '60s, when semiconductor materials were first being refined. As a result, nearly all of that data is for p-type Ge and Si. Before this investigation, experimental data on n-type materials was virtually non-existent. While the basic theory assumed that IIEE yields ought to be substantially independent of doping type and concentration, recent measurements of near atmospheric pressure plasmas and of breakdown suggested otherwise. These indirect measurements were made on surfaces that were not atomically clean and seemed to indicate that deep sub-surface changes to the bulk conduction band electron density could lead to substantial variations in the IIEE yield. Exactly in contradiction to the generally accepted theory. Insufficient direct data existed to settle the matter. We performed both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of IIEE yields from both Si and Ge in order to help clarify whether or not conduction band electrons substantially change the IIEE yield. We used three wafers of each material to carry out the investigation: a heavily doped p-type, an intrinsic and a heavily doped n-type wafer. There

  2. Collaborative Research: Fundamental Studies of Plasma Control Using Surface Embedded Electronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overzet, Lawrence J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Raja, L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-06-06

    The research program was collaborative between the researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of Texas at Austin. The primary subject of this program was to investigate the possibility of active control of secondary electron emission (SEE) from surfaces in contact with plasmas and thereby actively control plasmas. Very few studies of ion-induced electron emission (IIEE) from semiconductors exist, and those that do exist primarily used high-energy ion beams in the experiments. Furthermore, those few studies took extreme measures to ensure that the measurements were performed on atomically clean surfaces because of the surface sensitivity of the IIEE process. Even a small exposure to air can change the IIEE yield significantly. In addition, much of the existing data for IIEE from semiconductors was obtained in the 1950s and ‘60s, when semiconductor materials were first being refined. As a result, nearly all of that data is for p-type Ge and Si. Before this investigation, experimental data on n-type materials was virtually non-existent. While the basic theory assumed that IIEE yields ought to be substantially independent of doping type and concentration, recent measurements of near atmospheric pressure plasmas and of breakdown suggested otherwise. These indirect measurements were made on surfaces that were not atomically clean and seemed to indicate that deep sub-surface changes to the bulk conduction band electron density could lead to substantial variations in the IIEE yield. Exactly in contradiction to the generally accepted theory. Insufficient direct data existed to settle the matter. We performed both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of IIEE yields from both Si and Ge in order to help clarify whether or not conduction band electrons substantially change the IIEE yield. We used three wafers of each material to carry out the investigation: a heavily doped p-type, an intrinsic and a heavily doped n-type wafer. There

  3. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  4. A Group Motor Skills Program for Children with Coordination Difficulties: Effect on Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kyra J; Staples, Kerri L

    2016-01-01

    Children with coordination difficulties are at risk of low levels of physical activity (PA) participation. This intervention examined the effects of a multidisciplinary program that emphasized parent participation on motor skill performance and PA. Ten boys (5-7 years) completed a group program consisting of conditioning exercises and activities designed to address child-selected goals. Motor proficiency and PA participation were assessed before and after the program using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and triaxial accelerometers, respectively. Rating scales captured child and parent perceptions of performance for each child's goals. TGMD-2 subtest raw scores, age equivalent and percentile scores improved, along with parent ratings of their child's performance. Six children reported skill improvements. On average, moderate to vigorous PA improved by 10 min per day although these gains were not significant. Time spent in sedentary activities was unchanged. None of the children met the Canadian PA and sedentary behaviour guidelines. The results support effectiveness of a group program to improve gross motor performance and levels of PA in children with coordination difficulties. Gains in both of these domains also have the potential to impact quality of life and reduce health risks associated with inactivity.

  5. Posturas docentes e formação universitária de professores do ensino fundamental Pedagogical postures and undergraduate studies of teacher linked to fundamental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Davis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar se a participação de professores de redes municipais do Estado de São Paulo em um programa de licenciatura em nível superior, oferecido por duas renomadas universidades paulistas, ocasionava alteração nas posturas docentes dos alunos-professores. Os dados - respostas de 1.272 participantes a 17 simulações de situações problemas apresentadas no início e no final do programa - foram analisadas por meio de procedimentos estatísticos. Os resultados mostraram que 30% dos alunos-professores sofreram modificações de perfil nas posturas estudadas no sentido esperado. Isso parece indicar que os participantes apresentaram, ao final do Programa, maior tendência para dominar e planejar situações didáticas que envolviam os conteúdos básicos das áreas de conhecimento; reconhecer e empregar adequadamente os recursos e tecnologias disponíveis no processo de ensino-aprendizagem; e valer-se da teoria para orientar a prática docente e a avaliação.The goal of this study was to evaluate if participation in a university level Education program (devoted to form elementary teachers caused an impact on the postures of pupils that were already teaching at counties' schools. The data - answers given by 1272 participants linked to two highly known universities in the state of São Paulo (Brazil to 17 simulations that encompassed initial and final evaluation - were analyzed by statistical procedures. The results showed that 30% of the subjects had their profiles altered in the expected direction in the focused postures, implying that at the end of the Program they demonstrated a tendency to dominate and plan didactic situations involving basic contents of knowledge areas; recognize and employ adequately the resources and the technologies available to the teaching and learning process; and to use theory to orient teaching and evaluation.

  6. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Demonstration of fundamental statistics by studying timing of electronics signals in a physics-based laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Shaun E.; Semkow, Thomas M.; Remling, David J.; Bradt, Clayton J.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed accessible methods to demonstrate fundamental statistics in several phenomena, in the context of teaching electronic signal processing in a physics-based college-level curriculum. A relationship between the exponential time-interval distribution and Poisson counting distribution for a Markov process with constant rate is derived in a novel way and demonstrated using nuclear counting. Negative binomial statistics is demonstrated as a model for overdispersion and justified by the effect of electronic noise in nuclear counting. The statistics of digital packets on a computer network are shown to be compatible with the fractal-point stochastic process leading to a power-law as well as generalized inverse Gaussian density distributions of time intervals between packets.

  8. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, April-June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) irradiation test facilities, (2) dosimetry and damage parameters, (3) fundamental mechanical behavior, and (4) correlation methodology. Some of the main topics considered are the following: helium generation cross sections for fast neutrons, the effect of irradiation on the order/disorder transformation in Cu Pb, effects of heavy ion irradiation on the phase stability of a Cu-3.4 at. % Be alloy, damage development and hardening in 14-MeV neutron irradiation of Cu alloys at 25 0 C, crack propagation characteristics in He-irradiated stainless steel-316, tensile properties of 20% cold-worked 316 SS, dose and helium injection rate dependence of swelling on dual ion irradiated 316 SS, comparison of swelling and microstructure/microchemical evolution of 316 SS, effects of solid transmutation products on swelling in 316 SS, and the inclusion of transmutant effects on development of fission-fusion correlations

  9. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  10. Fundamental studies in isotope chemistry. Progress report, 1 August 1981-1 August 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigeleisen, J.

    1982-01-01

    This research program is concerned with isotope chemistry and its applications. A summary of isotope separation activities during the past 5 years is included. Isotope effects are used as probes for chemical reactions, geochemistry, meteorology, and molecular biology, and this report also summarizes progress made in this area

  11. Real-time X-ray transmission microscopy for fundamental studies solidification: Al-Al2Au eutectic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Kaukler, William F.; Sen, Subhayu

    1998-01-01

    High resolution real-time X-ray Transmission Microscopy, XTM, has been applied to obtain information fundamental to solidification of optically opaque metallic systems. We have previously reported the measurement of the solute profile in the liquid, phase growth, and detailed solid-liquid interfacial morphology of aluminum based alloys with exposure times less than 2 seconds. Recent advances in XTM furnace design have provided an increase in real-time magnification (during solidification) for the XTM from 40X to 160X. The increased magnification has enabled for the first time the XTM imaging of real-time growth of fibers and particles with diameters of 5 μm. We have previously applied this system to study the kinetics of formation and morphological evolution of secondary fibers and particles in Al-Bi monotectic alloys. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the first real-time observations of fiber morphology evolution in optically opaque bulk metal sample of Aluminum-Gold eutectic alloy. These studies show that the XTM can be applied to study the fundamentals of eutectic and monotectic solidification. We are currently attempting to apply this technology in the fundamentals of solidification in microgravity

  12. Fundamental study on aerodynamic force of floating offshore wind turbine with cyclic pitch mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qing'an; Kamada, Yasunari; Maeda, Takao; Murata, Junsuke; Iida, Kohei; Okumura, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines mounted on floating platforms are subjected to completely different and soft foundation properties, rather than onshore wind turbines. Due to the flexibility of their mooring systems, floating offshore wind turbines are susceptible to large oscillations such as aerodynamic force of the wind and hydrodynamic force of the wave, which may compromise their performance and structural stability. This paper focuses on the evaluation of aerodynamic forces depending on suppressing undesired turbine's motion by a rotor thrust control which is controlled by pitch changes with wind tunnel experiments. In this research, the aerodynamic forces of wind turbine are tested at two kinds of pitch control system: steady pitch control and cyclic pitch control. The rotational speed of rotor is controlled by a variable speed generator, which can be measured by the power coefficient. Moment and force acts on model wind turbine are examined by a six-component balance. From cyclic pitch testing, the direction and magnitude of moment can be arbitrarily controlled by cyclic pitch control. Moreover, the fluctuations of thrust coefficient can be controlled by collective pitch control. The results of this analysis will help resolve the fundamental design of suppressing undesired turbine's motion by cyclic pitch control. - Highlights: • Offshore wind offers additional options in regions with low onshore potential. • Two kinds of pitch control system: Steady pitch control and Cyclic pitch control. • Performance curves and unsteady aerodynamics are investigated in wind tunnel. • Fluctuations of thrust coefficient can be controlled by collective pitch control.

  13. Fundamental and clinical study of direct immunoradiometric assay in human renin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimoto, Fumihiko; Horiuchi, Junko; Sakurai, Hyoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Takita, Takashi; Saruta, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    'Renin RIA Pasteur' kit for directly measuring renin concentration in human plasma (PRC) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. A standard curve for PRC was linear in the range of 10 - 640 pg/ml. Reproducibility, recovery, and stability were satisfactory. There was a significantly positive correlation between direct PRC and conventional plasma renin activity (PRA) and indirect PRC. PRC was directly measured in 119 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with primary aldosteronism (4), Cushing's syndrome (6), or non-functioning tumor (5). The basal PRC was 32.4 +- 18.8 pg/ml for men and 37.9 +- 22.6 pg/ml for women. PRC for primary aldosteronism was below detectable levels, and remained unchanged even after the administratin of ACTH. In the case of Cushing's syndrome, mean PRC and PRA were 19 pg/ml and 1.2 ng/ml/hr, and did not respond to ACTH. Although the administration of ATCH was significantly associated with a decreased PRC, there was only tendency toward the decreased PRA in the case of non-functioning tumors. The results indicate the usefulness of the present kit in terms of its ability to directly measure PRC without any complicated procedures. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Fundamental studies on the reaction process of partial hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O. Yamada; H. Yasuda; M. Kaiho [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2005-07-01

    In order to make up a simulator to support the development of coal partial hydropyrolysis process, material balance of the reaction was investigated precisely. Amount of H{sub 2} evolved by pyrolysis under inert gas atmosphere was found almost equal to that of (CO+2CO{sub 2}), therefore, most of H{sub 2} seemed to be generated through water gas reaction and shift reaction. CH{sub 4} seemed to be stable even at 1073K and 7.1MPa of H{sub 2}, its generation was simply accelerated in proportion to H{sub 2} pressure. Hydrocarbons, other than CH{sub 4}, were fundamentally unstable at 1073K and 0.93 -7.1MPa of H{sub 2}, however the rate of decomposition of them were so slow that amounts of them evolved were apparently proportion to reaction time and H{sub 2} pressure. BTX and naphthalene were increased apparently with H{sub 2} pressure when the reaction time was less than 5s. 4 refs., 20 figs.

  15. An SEU tolerant memory cell derived from fundamental studies of SEU mechanisms in SRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.T.; Axness, C.L.; McBrayer, J.D.; Browning, J.S.; Fu, J.S.; Ochoa, A. Jr.; Koga, R.

    1987-01-01

    A new single event upset (SEU) hardening concept, an LRAM cell, is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Decoupling resistors in the LRAM are used only to protect against the short n-channel transient; longer persisting pulses are reduced in magnitude by a voltage divider, a basically new concept for SEU protection. In such a design, smaller resistors provide SEU tolerance, allowing higher performance, hardened memories. As basis for the LRAM idea, techniques were developed to measure time constants for ion induced voltage transients in conventional static random access memories, SRAM. Time constants of 0.8 and 6.3 nsec were measured for transients following strikes at the n- and p-channel drains, respectively - primary areas of SEU sensitivity. These data are the first transient time measurements on full memory chips and the large difference is fundamental to the LRAM concept. Test structures of the new design exhibit equivalent SEU tolerance with resistors 5-to-10 times smaller than currently used in SRAM. Our advanced transport-plus-circuit numerical simulations of the SEU process predicted this result and account for the LRAM experiments, as well as a variety of experiments on conventional SRAM

  16. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Modifications in Microstructural Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Advanced Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James; Heuser, Brent; Hosemann, Peter; Liu, Xiang

    2018-04-24

    temperature shift) is needed to determine the onset of accelerated void swelling (possibly at lower dose). Nanoindentation measurements show that the irradiation hardening decreases with increasing temperature. Microstructure-property correlation shows that the measured hardening at low dose ( 5 dpa) was mostly contributed by Frank loops at temperatures above 400° and network dislocations at 300°. T91 and G92 are both Fe–9Cr ferritic/martensitic alloy. G92 is optimized composition and heat treatment for improved performance in nuclear applications. The chromium content of T91 and G92 is close to the – 0 phase boundary. Irradiation hardening in ion-irradiated T91 and G92 is largely due to dislocation loops and network dislocations. The dislocation structure evolution was characterized by TEM during in situ 1 MeV Kr++ irradiation at 300, 400, and 500°. At 500°, the loop density at 1–3 dpa is significantly lower and the loops are dominantly h100i type. The loops at 400° are a mixture of h100i loops and h111i loops. The changes in yield strength were calculated at different doses and temperatures based on the microstructure observations. Nanoindentation measurements on bulk-irradiated specimens show that T91 and G92 have similar hardening behavior. The temperature dependence and dose dependence shown by nanoindentation measurements are consistent with the typical hardening behavior of neutron-irradiated F/M steels. In summary, radiation-induced microstructural and mechanical property modifications in proposed advanced structural alloys were systematically investigated in this program. The results and discussions advance the understanding of the material performance under extreme irradiation environment. The results of our accelerated ion beam irradiation also serve as critical reference for further neutron irradiation campaigns. Based on current findings, we are making several recommendations for future irradiation studies of A709 and G92 in the following section.

  17. A Study of the Effect of Emotional State upon the Variation of the Fundamental Frequency of a Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vasile GHIURCAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone banking or brokering, building accesssystems or forensics are some of the areas in which speakerrecognition is continuously developing. Fundamental frequencyrepresents an important speech feature used in theseapplications. In this paper we present a study of the effect ofemotional state of a speaker upon the variation of thefundamental frequency of the speech signal. Human beings arequite frequently overwhelmed by various emotions and most ofthe time one can not really control these emotional states. Forthe purpose of our work we have used the Berlin emotionalspeech database which contains utterances of 10 speakers indifferent emotional situations: happy, angry, fearful, bored andneutral. The mean fundamental frequency and also the standarddeviation for every speaker in all the emotional states werecomputed. The results show a very strong influence of theemotional state upon frequency variation.

  18. Religious fundamentalism and conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffer Ercan Yılmaz

    2006-01-01

    This study provides an analytical discussion for the issue of religious fundamentalism and itsrelevance to conflict, in its broader sense. It is stressed that religious fundamentalism manifests itself in twoways: nonviolent intolerance and violent intolerance. The sources of both types of intolerance and theirconnection to conflict are addressed and discussed in detail. Further research is also suggested on conditionsconnecting religion to nonviolent intolerance so as to cope with the problem...

  19. Fundamental processes on TiO2(110) studied under dark and UV-light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk

    2010-01-01

    (110) surfaces were investigated and charge transfer processes recognized. All findings are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and complementary measurements using photoemission spectroscopy (PES), temperature programmed desorption/reaction (TPD/TPR) spectroscopy, and isothermal mass......The great potential of TiO2 for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, in gas sensors, as supports for active metal nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysts, and as active elements in a variety of photochemical processes has spurred a great deal of research on TiO2-based systems. The scanning tunneling...... microscope (STM), with its unique spatial resolution and versatility, is a suitable tool for investigating fundamental properties of such systems at the atomic level. The main topics covered in this thesis are the structures, diffusion and reactions of water (H2O), ethanol (EtOH) and oxygen (O2...

  20. Fundamental Physics with Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangst, J. S.

    Antihydrogen—the antimatter equivalent of the hydrogen atom—is of fundamental interest as a test bed for universal symmetries—such as CPT and the Weak Equivalence Principle for gravitation. Invariance under CPT requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same spectrum. Antimatter is of course intriguing because of the observed baryon asymmetry in the universe—currently unexplained by the Standard Model. At the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) [1], several groups have been working diligently since 1999 to produce, trap, and study the structure and behaviour of the antihydrogen atom. One of the main thrusts of the AD experimental program is to apply precision techniques from atomic physics to the study of antimatter. Such experiments complement the high-energy searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Antihydrogen is the only atom of antimatter to be produced in the laboratory. This is not so unfortunate, as its matter equivalent, hydrogen, is one of the most well-understood and accurately measured systems in all of physics. It is thus very compelling to undertake experimental examinations of the structure of antihydrogen. As experimental spectroscopy of antihydrogen has yet to begin in earnest, I will give here a brief introduction to some of the ion and atom trap developments necessary for synthesizing and trapping antihydrogen, so that it can be studied.

  1. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation. Annual progress report, March 1976--March 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, D.M. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness

  2. Fundamentals of Filament Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2017-0110 FUNDAMENTALS OF FILAMENT INTERACTION Martin Richardson UNIVERSITY OF CENTRAL FLORIDA Final Report 06/02/2017 DISTRIBUTION...of Filament Interaction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA95501110001 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Martin Richardson 5d. PROJECT...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Martin Richardson a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 407-823-6819 Standard Form

  3. Sexually selected traits: a fundamental framework for studies on behavioral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Geary, David C; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2012-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic-based mechanisms contribute to various aspects of sex differences in brain and behavior. The major obstacle in establishing and fully understanding this linkage is identifying the traits that are most susceptible to epigenetic modification. We have proposed that sexual selection provides a conceptual framework for identifying such traits. These are traits involved in intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual choice of mating partners and generally entail a combination of male-male competition and female choice. These behaviors are programmed during early embryonic and postnatal development, particularly during the transition from the juvenile to adult periods, by exposure of the brain to steroid hormones, including estradiol and testosterone. We evaluate the evidence that endocrine-disrupting compounds, including bisphenol A, can interfere with the vital epigenetic and gene expression pathways and with the elaboration of sexually selected traits with epigenetic mechanisms presumably governing the expression of these traits. Finally, we review the evidence to suggest that these steroid hormones can induce a variety of epigenetic changes in the brain, including the extent of DNA methylation, histone protein alterations, and even alterations of noncoding RNA, and that many of the changes differ between males and females. Although much previous attention has focused on primary sex differences in reproductive behaviors, such as male mounting and female lordosis, we outline why secondary sex differences related to competition and mate choice might also trace their origins back to steroid-induced epigenetic programming in disparate regions of the brain.

  4. A Fundamental Study of Stretch-Drawing Process of Sheet Metals : Single and Double Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Manabu; Kim, Young-soo; Yamashita, Minoru

    1998-05-01

    Fundamental and informative data of axisymmetric stretch-drawing of several sheet metals with thichness of 0.7 1.0 mm are presented especially for single and double operations. Very small radius is applied to the die-profile (or -shoulder) in all operations to induce wall-thinning by the effect of bending-under-tension, from which the name `stretch-drawing' comes. It is clearly demonstrated that deeper cups could be formed by the single and double stretch-drawings from smaller cirlcular blanks due to such wall-thinning action than in the usual deep-drawing of larger blanks. From this fact, it is emphasized that the deep-drawability of a sheet metal is not evaluated simply by the conventional LDR (=limiting drawing ratio), but the depth of the drawn cup should also be taken into account. Many experimental data about various metals and thicknesses given in this paper offer a valueable information on this process for more general use which recommends to replace the conventional deep-drawing process by the stretch-drawing process both for single and double operations. In the single stretch-drawing, it is also confirmed that a deeper cup can be produced by raising the blank-holding force at later stage of operation. Fracturing is found to occur at the middle section of the wall part or at the die-profile other than at the punch profile common in the usual deep-drawing process. Numerical simulation of the single stretch-drawing process is also performed by use of DYNA-3D code to confirm that a satisfactory prediction especially in the depth of the drawn-cup can be done at least in a practical sense, although this kind of numerical analysis is very difficult because of the severity or localization of deformation around the die profile. The drawn cup of SUS304 among others fractures in a couple of weeks after the operation due to the residual circumferential tensile stress, whereas that of SUS304L does not. In the double stretch-drawing, it is confirmed that very deeper

  5. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  6. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  7. An Initial Study of the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Van Zante, Judith F.; King, Michael C.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an initial study of the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL). Ice accretion due to the ingestion of ice-crystals is being attributed to numerous jet-engine power-loss events. The NASA PSL is an altitude jet-engine test facility which has recently added a capability to inject ice particles into the flow. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. The present study utilized a NACA0012 airfoil. The mixed-phase conditions were generated by partially freezing the liquid-water droplets ejected from the spray bars. This paper presents data regarding (1) the freeze out characteristics of the cloud, (2) changes in aerothermal conditions due to the presence of the cloud, and (3) the ice accretion characteristics observed on the airfoil model. The primary variable in this test was the PSL plenum humidity which was systematically varied for two duct-exit-plane velocities (85 and 135 ms) as well as two particle size clouds (15 and 50 m MVDi). The observed clouds ranged from fully glaciated to fully liquid, where the liquid clouds were at least partially supercooled. The air total temperature decreased at the test section when the cloud was activated due to evaporation. The ice accretions observed ranged from sharp arrow-like accretions, characteristic of ice-crystal erosion, to cases with double-horn shapes, characteristic of supercooled water accretions.

  8. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  9. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  10. Fundamental study on REV based on crack tensor at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, Takeo; Sato, Toshinori; Sanada, Hiroyuki; Hikima, Ryoichi; Kumasaka, Hiroo; Tada, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    The crack tensor model which is a kind of equivalent continuum model has been studied in rock mechanical investigation in the MIU. The fractured rock mass is modeled as the elastic continuum model with this crack tensor. In this study, this crack tensor based on the geological observation in the MIU project was calculated, and Representative Elementary Volume (REV) in the ventilation shaft and -300 m access/research gallery was studied based on the relative error of this crack tensor. As a result, the convergence of the relative error was faster in the -300 m access/research gallery than in the ventilation shaft. (author)

  11. Fundamentals of multicore software development

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It

  12. New fundamental experimental studies on α-Mg(BH4)2 and other borohydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, Hans; D'Anna, Vincenza; Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Cerny, Radovan; Filinchuk, Yaroslav; Kim, Ki Chul; Sholl, David S.; Parker, Stewart F.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Eutectic behavior is observed in the LiBH4 -Mg(BH4)2 system. → New INS data show good agreement with theoretical DFT calculations. → Temperature dependent Raman spectra complement previous NMR studies. - Abstract: Several new studies of Mg(BH 4 ) 2 are reported. A 1:1 LiBH 4 :Mg(BH 4 ) 2 mixture was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and reveals an eutectic behavior with the eutectic composition more rich in Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , and the eutectic temperature lower than 456 K. No dual cation compound was observed in this experiment. New vibrational spectra including INS data have been obtained and are compared with theoretical DFT calculations and recent NMR studies, showing good agreement.

  13. New fundamental experimental studies on {alpha}-Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} and other borohydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagemann, Hans, E-mail: Hans-Rudolf.Hagemann@unige.ch [Dept. de Chim. Phys, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); D' Anna, Vincenza [Dept. de Chim. Phys, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Rapin, Jean-Philippe; Cerny, Radovan [Lab. Crystallography, Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland); Filinchuk, Yaroslav [Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines at ESRF, Grenoble (France); Kim, Ki Chul; Sholl, David S. [School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Inst. Technol., Atlanta (United States); Parker, Stewart F. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Research highlights: > Eutectic behavior is observed in the LiBH4 -Mg(BH4)2 system. > New INS data show good agreement with theoretical DFT calculations. > Temperature dependent Raman spectra complement previous NMR studies. - Abstract: Several new studies of Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} are reported. A 1:1 LiBH{sub 4}:Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2} mixture was studied by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and reveals an eutectic behavior with the eutectic composition more rich in Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}, and the eutectic temperature lower than 456 K. No dual cation compound was observed in this experiment. New vibrational spectra including INS data have been obtained and are compared with theoretical DFT calculations and recent NMR studies, showing good agreement.

  14. Fundamental Study of two Selected Tropical Biomasses for Energy : coconut and cashew nut shells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsamba, Alberto Júlio

    2008-01-01

     Cashew nut and coconut shells are two potential renewable and environmentally friendly energy sources that are commonly found as agro-industrial wastes in tropical countries. Despite this fact, they are not yet widely studied as such. Given this lack of specific technical and reliable data, technologies for their conversion into energy cannot be designed with confidence as it happens with other commonly studied biomass feedstock. Thus, the need to generate these data guided this research in ...

  15. Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Fundamentals and Case Studies of Natural Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lorrain, Paul; Houle, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    This book concerns the generation of electric currents and of electric space charges inside conducting media that move in magnetic fields. The authors postulate nothing but the Maxwell equations. They discuss at length the disk dynamo, which serves as a model for the natural self-excited dynamos that generate magnetic fields such as that of sunspots. There are 36 Examples and 13 Case Studies. The Case Studies concern solar phenomena -- magnetic elements, sunspots, spicules, coronal loops -- and the Earth's magnetic field.

  16. Fundamentals of the NEA Thermochemical Database and its influence over national nuclear programs on the performance assessment of deep geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussi, Maria-Eleni; Costa, Davide

    2017-03-14

    For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field. As a result, a number of important national initiatives with regard to waste management programs have used the NEA TDB as their basis, both in terms of recommended data and guidelines. In this article we describe the fundamentals and achievements of the project together with the characteristics of some databases developed in national nuclear waste disposal programs that have been influenced by the NEA TDB. We also give some insights on how this work could be seen as an approach to be used in broader areas of environmental interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for Evaluating a Freshman Studies Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketkar, Kusum; Bennett, Shelby D.

    1989-01-01

    The study developed an economic model for the evaluation of Seaton Hall University's freshman studies program. Two techniques used to evaluate the economic success of the program are break-even analysis and elasticity coefficient. (Author/MLW)

  18. Programming language fundamentals by example

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, DE

    2006-01-01

    A WORD ABOUT USING THIS TEXT Expectations for the Student and InstructorOpening Comments Possible Semester Course Detailed Semester Plan Milestone Maps INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Memorandum From the President Background SOL Primitive Data and Primitive Operations Primitive Data OperationsControl Structures ExpressionsInput File Structures and File Scope Derived Types Scope and Persistence Type System Primitive Functions and Arguments Built-in Values, Functions and Pseudo-Functions Type Conversions Part 1. Milestones GENERAL INFORMATION General Information on Milestones Milestone Report Genera

  19. Neutron study of fast neutron reactor systems by exponential experiments on Harmonie - Graphite program HUG-PHUG - Oxide program PHRIXOS - Uranium program UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desprets, Alain.

    1977-12-01

    Exponential experiments allow to obtain the fundamental characteristics of a lattice (material buckling, reaction rate ratios) more economically than critical experiments. This report describes the experimental techniques and the methods of analysis used for this type of experiments. The results obtained with three programs performed with the source reactor HARMONIE are given: graphite-lattices program (3 U-fueled and 3 Pu-fueled lattices); oxide-fuel program (4 PuO 2 -UO 2 lattices); pure uranium program (one lattice). Some of these lattices were also studied in critical experiments. The coherence of the results obtained by the two types of experiments is established [fr

  20. The application of the electron beam process in water and wastewater treatment: Fundamental and applied studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.J.; Tobien, T.

    2001-01-01

    We have undertaken a three phase research project that has as the overall goal to better understand the application of the EB process to water, wastewater and sludge treatment. We have conducted studies to examine bimolecular rate constants for several halogenated methanes, several of which are common disinfection by-products when chlorination is practised. The second phase examines the ability to destroy odour causing compounds, we have selected thioanisole as the model compound, in wastewater and sludge treatment. The third phase of our study is to better understand the destruction mechanism and kinetic modelling of the fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether, a common ground water contaminant in the US. We report here several new and re-evaluated bimolecular rate constants and the results of large scale EB treatment of water containing the compounds under study. ( author)

  1. Fundamental study on thermo-hydraulic behaviors during power transient, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinano, M.; Inoue, A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic behaviors during power transient of nuclear reactors are studied. Boiling around test rod heated transiently forces to flow out liquid in the test section and generates high pressure pulse. In this study, it is investigated experimentally and analytically that magnitude of pressure pulse and energy conversion efficiency to the mechanical works in cases of fragmentation and non-fragmentation. In analysis, effects of increasing of heat transfer and of interaction area due to fragmentation is considered. Consequently, 1) magnitude of pressure pulse on fragmentation is about 10 times greater than that on non-fragmentation. 2) analytical model can show characteristics of fragmentation processes qualitatively. (author)

  2. Applied dendroecology and environmental forensics. Characterizing and age dating environmental releases: fundamentals and case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Balouet; Gil Oudijk; Kevin T. Smith; Ioana Petrisor; Hakan Grudd; Bengt. Stocklassa

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecology, or the use of ring patterns to assess the age of trees and environmental factors controlling their growth, is a well-developed method in climatologic studies. This method holds great potential as a forensic tool for age dating, contamination assessment, and characterization of releases. Moreover, the method is independent of the physical presence of...

  3. Study of the fundamental characteristics of 2175A extinction. semiannual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardelli, J.A.; Savage, B.D.

    1987-06-01

    The characteristics of interstellar extinction were studied in the region of the 2175 A feature for lines of sight which appear to exhibit unusually weak ultraviolet extinction. The analysis was based upon a parameterization of the observed extinction via fitting specific mathematical functions in order to determine the position and width of the 2175 A feature. The data are currently being analyzed

  4. FLIPPED: A Case Study in Fundamental of Accounting in Malaysian Polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Rozinah; Osman, Siti Zuraidah Md; Yusof, Wan Mustaffa Wan; Jasni, Nur Farrah Azwa

    2016-01-01

    The new pedagogical flipped classroom was designed, developed and implemented using Flexible environments, Learning culture, Intentional content, Professional educators, Progressive activities, Engaging experiences, and Diversified platforms, also known as the FLIPPED model. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of student…

  5. Racism in Interracial Dating: A Case Study in Southern Culture and Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephanie Firebaugh; Firmin, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study of Bob Jones University (BJU), a fundamentalist Christian institution located in South Carolina that is known within the context of U.S. higher education for its conservatism on multiple levels. Our analysis traces the beliefs of the institution's founder and subsequent leaders, in addition to particular…

  6. TAMU-TRAP facility - program for the study of fundamental weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidling, P.D.; Mehlman, M.; Melconian, Dan; Fenker, Ben; Behling, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the Standard Model (SM) for a possible admixture of a scalar (S) or tensor (T) type of interaction in T = 2 superallowed β-delayed proton emitters. This information will be inferred from the shape of the proton energy spectrum. The main component of the facility are an RFQ cooler/buncher for cooling and bunching the ions, a Penning trap system with two cylindrical Penning traps. Additional goals for this system are mass measurements, lifetime measurements, and ft-values. A brief overview of the TAMU-TRAP set-up and T-REX upgrade facility will be presented. (author)

  7. Quantitative evaluation in tumor SPECT and the effect of tumor size. Fundamental study with phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Takashi; Yui, Nobuharu; Kinoshita, Fujimi; Yanagisawa, Masamichi

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study with phantoms was performed in order to evaluate the effect of the tumor volume on the quantitative estimation in tumor SPECT. The ratio of mean count/pixel in the phantom to that of the background (T/N ratio) was well correlated with the size of the phantom; even when the concentration of the Tc-99m O 4 - solution of globular phantoms with diameters of 29, 37 and 46 mm was constant, the greater the size of the phantom, the higher was the T/N ratio. This study showed that we should understand that the T/N ratio was certainly affected by the reduction of the tumor size itself whenever we evaluate treatment response or assess tumor viability after treatment by reference to the T/N ratio. (author)

  8. Fundamental study on the extraction of transuranium elements from high-level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Tochiyama, Osamu; Inoue, Yasushi.

    1988-01-01

    A great many extractants have been studied for the separation of transuranium elements. The present study deals with the survey and classification of the extractants appearing in literature, bearing in mind the relationship between the molecular structure of extractants and their extractability for the transuranium elements from the standpoint of their selective separation from high-level liquid waste (HLW) generated from fuel reprocessing. The extractants surveyed were classified into six groups; unidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds, acidic organophosphorus compounds, amines and ammonium salts, N,N-disubstituted amides and the other compounds. These extractants are not always applicable to the separation of transuranium elements from HLW because of their limitations in extractability and radiation durability. Only a limited number of extractants belonging to the bidentate neutral organophosphorus compounds and the acidic organophosphorus compounds are considered to be suitable for the present purpose. (author)

  9. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  10. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  11. Fundamental Studies of Transient, Atmospheric-Pressure, Small-Scale Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    C. Jiang, R. Heller, J. Lane, and K. H. Schoenbach, " Ozone -free nitric oxide production using an atmospheric pressure surface discharge – a way to...Electrostatic modeling and energy-dependent studies showed that the direct and indirect electron-induced processes in the pulsed plasma jet are responsible for...Coupled sliding discharges : a scalable nonthermal plasma system utilizing positive and negative streamers on DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution

  12. A fundamental study on sodium-water reaction in the double-pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Akimoto, Tokuzo

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pressure rise by large sodium-water reaction in the Double-Pool LMFBR, basic tests on pressure wave celerity in rectangular tube are carried out. The initial spike pressure in rectangular-shelled steam generator of the Double Pool reactor, strongly depends on pressure wave celerity. In this study, celerity was measured as a function of pressure wave rising time and pulse height, and influence of water around the test section on celerity was investigated. (author)

  13. Nuclear structure studies with low-energy light ions: fundamental and applied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in low and medium energy nuclear physics have been dominated by heavy-ion induced reactions for last five decades. Heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions have enriched our knowledge of the structural evolutions and intricacies of reaction dynamics of the nuclear many-body systems. However, the emergence and rise of heavy-ion physics have seen a general decline in studies with low- and medium-energy light-ion beams. The harsh reality of dwindling number of low-energy light ion facilities adversely affect research in nuclear physics. Very low-energy and high current light-ion facilities immediately conjures up in our minds the studies in nuclear astrophysics. Measurements of light-ion capture cross sections and astrophysical S factors are the major themes of research at most of the light-ion facilities. However, the importance low energy light-ion beams is multifarious. A variety of measurements providing vital support and inputs to heavy-ion research can only be carried out at the low-energy, light-ion facilities. Light-ion beams are also useful for generation of mono-energetic neutron beams. In this talk I will draw from some of our recent measurements to show the importance of light-ion beams in nuclear astrophysics and also in applied nuclear physics. (author)

  14. Recombination properties of diode structures by study of thermal emission beyond the fundamental absorption band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, T; Wȩgrzecki, M; Czerwinski, A; Teslenko, G I; Malyutenko, O Y; Malyutenko, V K

    2014-01-01

    The study presents the possibilities of applying the measurement of spatial and temporal distribution of thermal radiation of a p-n junction structure located in a homogeneous temperature field higher than the ambient temperature, modulated by the presence of excess carriers injected through the junction, to determine surface recombination velocity at the injecting contact of the diode emitter and to measure the diffusion length in the base. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental results and calculations based on solutions of the transport equations.

  15. A fundamental study of a regenerator for an Ericsson magnetic refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Ito, T.; Numazawa, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Kuriyama, T.; Nakagome, H.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied an Ericsson magnetic refrigerator above 20 K. The magnetic working material passes through the regenerator during internal heat transfer processes. In the temperature range above 20 K, a solid is indispensable for a regenerator in need of the large volumetric heat capacity. Therefore lead is used for the testing regenerator. As thermal conduction of gaseous helium is expected to be useful for the heat transfer between the regenerator and the working material, the authors have made the gap between them small in order to achieve good heat transfer. They investigated the heat transfer process between working material and regenerator experimentally in the temperature from 25 K to 55 K

  16. Numerical study of fundamental processes of severe accidents using a particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A particle method has been developed for multiphase flows with large deformation of phase interfaces. The method is called Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) which enables us to analyze incompressible fluid dynamics based on a semi-implicit algorithm. The MPS method has been applied to complex thermal-hydraulic problems in light water reactors and sodium-cooled fast reactors. The present paper provides the review of the past studies using MPS and an introduction of a new research project for severe accident analysis of fast reactors. (author)

  17. Fundamental studies of elastomers. Annual progress report, June 15, 1985-March 21, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichinger, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    The progress report for the first year of this grant described computer simulations on random networks, shape distributions, synthesis of chelation networks, and coordination polymers. Work has continued in all four of these areas in the past year. Highlighted here is the work that we have been doing on computer simulations of random cross-linking, wherein radiation damage is a very important feature of the chemical reactions that occur. Furthermore, we have made a coordination compound which looks quite encouraging at the present time. Our efforts on chelation networks are proceeding and we are developing very promising methods for creating the polymers that we need for these studies

  18. Radiation Chemistry and Physical Chemistry of Chitosan and Other Polysaccharides. Fundamental Studies and Practical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, Janusz M.; Czechowska-Biskup, Renata; Rokita, Bożena; Olejnik, Alicja K.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the second year of activities performed at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry (IARC) within the framework of the CRP project. It consists of two parts. Part I is a brief account of the activities related to design, tests, sample procurement and characterization and formulation of “Protocol for determination of intrinsic viscosity of chitosan” designed to be the basis of the interlaboratory study on viscometric determination of chitosan molecular weight as well as on radiation degradation of chitosan in controlled conditions. Part II contains the text of the Protocol, and is given in the Annex. (author)

  19. Fundamental Experiments at Liquid Helium Temperatures (Low Temperature Studies of Anomalous Surface Shielding and Related Phenomena).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-30

    study of the copper surface indicated that the copper oxide layer was approximately 20 Angstroms thick. Hanni and Madey 3 2 have evaluated the...REFERENCES 1. John Bardeen, "Comments on Shielding by Surface States," in Near Zero: New Frontiers of Physics, to be published. 2. R. S. Hanni and...Michel, H. E. Rorschach, and G. T. Trammel, Phys. Rev. 168 (1968), 737. 31. C. Herring, Phys. Rev. 171 (1968), 1361. 32. R. S. Hanni and J.M.J. Madey

  20. Fundamental studies of aluminum corrosion in acidic and basic environments: Theoretical predictions and experimental observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashgari, Mohsen; Malek, Ali M.

    2010-01-01

    Using quantum electrochemical approaches based on density functional theory and cluster/polarized continuum model, we investigated the corrosion behavior of aluminum in HCl and NaOH media containing phenol inhibitor. In this regard, we determined the geometry and electronic structure of the species at metal/solution interface. The investigations revealed that the interaction energies of hydroxide corrosive agents with aluminum surface should be more negative than those of chloride ones. The inhibitor adsorption in acid is more likely to have a physical nature while it appears as though to be chemical in basic media. To verify these predictions, using Tafel plots, we studied the phenomena from experimental viewpoint. The studies confirmed that the rate of corrosion in alkaline solution is substantially greater than in HCl media. Moreover, phenol is a potential-molecule having mixed-type inhibition mechanism. The relationship between inhibitory action and molecular parameters was discussed and the activity in alkaline media was also theoretically anticipated. This prediction was in accord with experiment.

  1. The Neutron, a Tool and an Object for Fundamental and Nuclear Physics Studies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research institute which operates the currently most powerful source of neutrons in the world, a 58 MW reactor. The neutron beams provided by the reactor feed a broad range of instruments which are dedicated to a wide variety of research activities. The majority of instruments are dedicated to the study of solid-state physics, materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, and earth sciences. However, nuclear and low energy particle physics studies are also vigorously pursued with the aid of neutrons. The talk will mainly concentrate on this latter aspect. We make use of hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons with velocities of between a few kilometers and a few meters per second, corresponding to kinetic energies in the electronvolt-to-nanoelectronvolt range. It will be briefly discussed how thermal neutrons can be used to investigate the structure and behavior of nuclei by generating excited nuclear states. The main part of the talk will be dedicated...

  2. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  3. Fundamental study on formulation design of skin care products by modeling of tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoko; Mishima, Fumihito; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to construct a method to quantify and formulate the human tactile sensation. We have tried to indicate the sensory scores of tactile sensation as a combination of the physical values of skin care products. Consequently, the extracted principle factors of the sensory properties could be related to the physical values by multiple regression analysis. For the next step, we investigated the physical mechanism of tactile sensation, and proposed a method to formulate the sensory properties. A method to formulate the sensory properties of skin care products was constructed based on the relation between sensory values, principal factors, physical values and composition. The method was verified by sensory evaluation.

  4. Fundamental studies of low velocity impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T/sub G/ and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. Linear polymers, which contain no active groups for cross-linking, do not toughen composites because the fiber-matrix interfacial bond is not of sufficient strength to prevent interfacial failure from occurring. Toughness must be built into the basic polymer backbone and cross-linking structure

  5. Fundamental studies of ceramic/metal interfacial reactions at elevated temperatures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2000-12-14

    This work characterizes the interfaces resulting from exposing oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates to zirconium metal and stainless steel-zirconium containing alloys. The ceramic/metal systems together were preheated at about 600 C and then the temperatures were increased to the test maximum temperature, which exceeded 1800 C, in an atmosphere of high purity argon. Metal samples were placed onto ceramic substrates, and the system was heated to elevated temperatures past the melting point of the metallic specimen. After a short stay at the peak temperature, the system was cooled to room temperature and examined. The chemical changes across the interface and other microstructural developments were analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This paper reports on the condition of the interfaces in the different systems studied and describes possible mechanisms influencing the microstructure.

  6. A fundamental study on stress corrosion cracking of SUS 304 steel in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masato

    1985-01-01

    SCC susceptibility of sensitized SUS 304 stainless steel in high temperature water was studied. The results obtained are as follows. SCC susceptibility was increased by adding crevices to the tensile specimen surface, for the corrodent became acidified by hydrolysis in crevices. SCC susceptibility was best fit to TTS curve obtained by EPR test, not by other corrosion tests such as Strauss test or the grain boundary corrosion test in high temperature water. In addition, by giving a simulated weld thermal cycle before the sensitizing heat treatment, the sensitization was clearly promoted. This seemed to be caused by the reason that nucleation of carbide occured in the simulated weld thermal cycle process and it promoted the carbide growth and the formation of Cr poor layer around carbide in the subsequent sensitization process. (author)

  7. Fundamental study on gene transfer utilizing magnetic force and jet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nakagami, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishjima, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed.

  8. Fundamental aspects of municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli: field studies 1994-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayoub, G.M.; Acra, A.; Abdallah, R.; Merhebi, F.

    1996-01-01

    This study presents socio-economic survey on collection and analysis of data pertaining to the municipal refuse generated in Beirut and Tripoli, Two big cities of Lebanon.Although the collection process applied in Beirut has progressed immensely in the past two years, the unsatisfactory methods of disposal that have been employed until now has an impact on the environment:marine environment as well as the air pollution becoming problems in the city of Beirut. In this respect, solid wastes characterization and generation rates in both cities of Beirut and Tripoli are presented. Mapping of refuse collection and disposal services in the two cities is described. Sources of refuse like hospitals, industries, household,...are enumerated. Recycling potentials of plastics, paper and cardboard, glass wastes, metallic wastes, textile wastes are described

  9. Fundamental study on gene transfer utilizing magnetic force and jet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nakagami, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishjima, S.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed

  10. Experimental studies of fundamental aspects of Auger emission process in Cu(100) and Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joglekar, Prasad Vivek

    Auger spectra at the low energies are accompanied by large contributions unrelated to the Auger transition. The Auger unrelated contributions can obscure the Auger peak and affect the quantitative analysis of the materials under investigation. In this dissertation we present a methodology to measure experimentally the Auger unrelated contributions and eliminate it from the Auger spectrum for obtaining an Auger spectrum inherent to the Auger transition. We used Auger Photoelectron Coincidence Spectroscopy (APECS) to obtain the Auger spectrum. APECS measures the Auger spectrum in coincidence with the core energy level and thus discriminating the contributions arising from secondary electrons and electrons arising from the non-Auger transition. Although APECS removes most of the Auger unrelated contributions, it cannot distinguish the contribution which is measured in coincidence with the inelastically scattered valence band electrons emitted at the core energy. To measure this inelastically scattered valence band contribution we did a series of measurements on Ag(100) to study NVV Auger spectrum in coincidence with 4p energy level and Cu(100) to study MVV Auger spectrum in coincidence with 3p energy level. The coincidence detection of the core and Auger-valence electrons was achieved by the two cylindrical mirror analyzers (CMAs). One CMA was fixed over a range of energies in between VB and core energy level while other CMA scanned corresponding low energy electrons from 0 to70eV. The spectrums measured were fit to a parameterized function which was extrapolated to get an estimate of inelastically scattered valence band electrons. The estimated contribution was subtracted for the Ag and Cu APECS spectrum to obtain a spectrum solely due to Auger transition with inelastically scattered Auger electron and multi Auger decay contributions associated with the transition. In the latter part of this dissertation, we propose a theoretical model based on the spectral intensity

  11. Formation of imploding plasma liners for fundamental HEDP studies and MIF Standoff Driver Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Hatcher, Richard [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Stanic, Milos [Univ. of AL in Huntsville

    2013-08-17

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ~ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear fusion relevant parameters.

  12. Fundamental basis and implementation of shell and tube heat exchanger project design: condenser and evaporator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkilic, A. S.; Acikgoz, O.; Tapan, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2016-12-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is used as a condenser and an evaporator in this theoretical study. Parametric performance analyses for various actual refrigerants were performed using well-known correlations in open sources. Condensation and evaporation were occurred in the shell side while the water was flowing in the tube side of heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate from tube side was kept constant for condenser and evaporator design. Condensing temperatures were varied from 35 to 60 °C whereas evaporating temperatures were ranging from -15 to 10 °C for the refrigerants of R12, R22, R134a, R32, R507A, R404A, R502, R407C, R152A, R410A and R1234ZE. Variation of convective heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants, total heat transfer coefficients with Reynolds numbers and saturation temperatures were given as validation process considering not only fouling resistance and omission of it but also staggered (triangular) and line (square) arrangements. The minimum tube lengths and necessary pumping powers were calculated and given as case studies for the investigated refrigerants considering validation criteria. It was understood that refrigerant type, fouling resistance and arrangement type are one of the crucial issues regarding the determination of heat exchanger's size and energy consumption. Consequently, R32 and R152a were found to require the shortest tube length and lowest pumping power in the condenser, whereas R507 and R407C have the same advantages in the evaporator. Their heat transfer coefficients were also determined larger than others as expectedly.

  13. O ingresso de crianças de 6 anos no ensino fundamental: uma pesquisa em Rondônia The enrolment of six-year-olds in fundamental education: a study in Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Pansini

    2011-04-01

    results of a research carried out with eight schools of the Rondônia state school system, all located in the same municipality, with the objective of investigating under which conditions the implementation of the nine-year fundamental education occurred. Based on a qualitative approach, the data were produced from the analysis of documents, individual and group interviews, and photographic records. Results indicate that the implementation of the above-mentioned program at the schools studied was hasty, lacking the preparation that would guarantee the necessary structural changes in the schools, the curriculum adaptations and/or discussions/creation of pedagogical teams, teachers and communities. They also reveal that the lack of clarity regarding the pedagogical proposals to be implemented with six-year-olds could have predicted the failure experienced by a large fraction of children in their literacy process.

  14. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  15. Fundamental study on dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) by quartz crystal microbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Yoshitake, Shusuke; Kozawa, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Ionizing radiations such as extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and electron beam (EB) are the most promising exposure source for next-generation lithographic technology. In the realization of high resolution lithography, it is necessary for resist materials to improve the trade-off relationship among sensitivity, resolution, and line width roughness (LWR). In order to overcome them, it is essential to understand basic chemistry of resist matrices in resist processes. In particular, the dissolution process of resist materials is a key process. Therefore, it is essential for next-generation resist design for ionizing radiation to clarify the dissolution behavior of the resist film into developer. However, the details in dissolution process of EUV and EB resist films have not been investigated thus far. In this study, main chain scission and dissolution behavior of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as main chain scission type resist was investigated using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) in order to understand the relationship between the degree of PMMA degradation and dissolution behavior. The relationship between the molecular weight after irradiation and the swelling behavior was clarified.

  16. A fundamental study of dynamic CT for hemodynamics in experimental hepatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Fumiko

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic CT was performed using iodamide meglumine (2 ml/kg) to investigate hemodynamics in experimental hepatic tumors, tumor margins and in normal hepatic tissue as well in rabbits with VX 2 -induced hepatic tumors. Peak time (PT) and first moment (M1) were calculated from a time density curve prepared by eight consecutive 3-second scans over a period of 55 seconds. PT and M1 in tumors were significantly shorter than those in tumor margins and normal tissue, but were not influenced by tumor size. PT and M1 in tumor margins and normal tissue became longer with enlargement of the tumor. Ligation of the hepatic artery caused (1) no change in PT or M1 in normal tissue and tumor margins and (2) difficulty in measuring PT and M1 in tumors. Ligation of the portal vein caused (1) difficulty in measuring PT and M1 in normal tissue and tumor margins and (2) no change in PT or M1 in tumors. Pathological studies of specimens taken from each region of interest (ROI) showed that hemodynamics in the tumors reflected tumor-specific vascular structures. (author)

  17. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  18. Fundamental Tongue Motions for Trumpet Playing: A Study Using Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Cine MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhashi, Hiroko; Chikui, Toru; Inadomi, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Tomoko; Yoshiura, Kazunori

    2017-12-01

    Though the motions of structures outside the mouth in trumpet performance have been reported, the dynamics of intraoral structures remain unelucidated. This study explored the tongue's movement in trumpet playing using cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine MRI) and demonstrated the effects of intraoral anatomical structures on changes in pitch and dynamics. Cine MRI was applied to 18 trumpet players, who were divided into two groups (7 beginner, 11 advanced) based on their ability to play a certain high note. They were instructed to play a custom-made MRI-compatible simulated trumpet. Pitch-change tasks and dynamics-change tasks were assigned. The positions of the anatomical points and intraoral areas were identified on outlined images, and the changes associated with each task were evaluated. A forward and upward projection of the tongue was observed in the production of higher pitches, and there were no significant differences in all areas. In louder dynamics, a backward and downward bending of the tongue occurred, the tongue area became smaller (pcine MRI that certain tongue movements were associated with each task. Tongue protrusion in the production of higher pitch and bending in louder dynamics can be rationalized using acoustics theory and the movements of anatomical structures. These findings seem to be consistent regardless of the player's proficiency.

  19. A Fundamental Study on Influence of Concurrently Presented Visual Stimulus Upon Loudness Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Abe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As a basic study on the influence of the dynamic properties of the audio-visual stimuli upon interaction between audition and vision, the effect of the simple movement involved in the visual stimulus on the loudness perception of the audio stimulus was investigated via psychophysical experiment. In this experiment, the visual stimulus given to subjects along with the audio stimulus is a bar appeared on a display, one side of which is flexibly expanding and contracting. The loudness of the audio stimulus with such a visual effect concurrently presented was rated as an absolute numerical value by using the Magnitude Estimation method. The reference of the bar length is determined so as to correspond to the Zwicker's loudness calculated for the given audio stimulus. As a result, the visual stimulus did not affect the loudness perception, when the bar was presented with its length same as the reference. On the other hand, the rating of the loudness for the same audio stimulus was significantly increased when the bar length was longer than the reference. This indicates that the change in the correspondence between the audio and the visual stimuli affect the loudness perception.

  20. Fundamental studies on the development of C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazawa, N; Maki, K; Ogawa, H; Ikeda, O [Daiichi Radioisotope Labs. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-05-01

    We have studied the development of the C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit which is usable in the pancreatic function test with satisfactory results. The C-peptide antiserum was prepared by immunizing rabbits with synthetic human connecting peptide. The antiserum revealed no cross reaction with any C-peptides other than human C-peptide, porcine insulin and gastrointestinal hormone, and showed high specificity to human C-peptide. We adopted the double antibody method in B,F separation, and chose 4/sup 0/C, 48 hrs. for 1st. incubation and 4/sup 0/C, 24 hrs. for 2nd. incubation. On this kit, the assay range was 0.5 ng/ml-30 ng/ml, the recovery rate was 98.4%-107.8% in the recovery test, the coefficient of variance was 6.2% in the intra assay and was 7.6% in the inter assay. We think this kit is sufficiently usable to assay C-peptide in blood.

  1. Fundamental studies on the development of C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Nobuhiko; Maki, Kentaro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ikeda, Osamu

    1976-01-01

    We have studied the development of the C-peptide radioimmunoassay kit which is usable in the pancreatic function test with satisfactory results. The C-peptide antiserum was prepared by immunizing rabbits with synthetic human connecting peptide. The antiserum revealed no cross reaction with any C-peptides other than human C-peptide, porcine insulin and gastrointestinal hormone, and showed high specificity to human C-peptide. We adopted the double antibody method in B,F separation, and chose 4 0 C, 48 hrs. for 1st. incubation and 4 0 C, 24 hrs. for 2nd. incubation. On this kit, the assay range was 0.5 ng/ml-30 ng/ml, the recovery rate was 98.4%-107.8% in the recovery test, the coefficient of variance was 6.2% in the intra assay and was 7.6% in the inter assay. We think this kit is sufficiently usable to assay C-peptide in blood. (auth.)

  2. A Fundamental study of remedial technology development to prevent stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Gyu; Lee, Chang Soon [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Most of the PWR Steam generators with tubes in Alloy 600 alloy are affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking, such as PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) and ODSCC(Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). This study was undertaken to establish the background for remedial technology development to prevent SCC. in the report are included the following topics: (1) General: (i) water chemistry related factors, (ii) Pourbaix(Potential-pH) Diagram, (iii) polarization plot, (iv) corrosion mode of Alloy 600, 690, and 800, (v) IGA/SCC growth rate, (vi) material suspetibility of IGA/SCC, (vii) carbon solubility of Alloy 600 (2) Microstructures of Alloy 600 MA, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 600 SEN Alloy 690 TT(Optical, SEM, and TEM) (3) Influencing factors for PWSCC initiation rate of Alloy 600: (i) microstructure, (ii) water chemistry(B, Li), (iii) temperature, (iv) plastic deformation, (v) stress relief annealing (4) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) water chemistry(B, Li), (ii) Scott Model, (iii) intergranular carbide, (iv) temperature, (v) hold time (5) Laboratory conditions for ODSCC initiation rate: 1% NaOH, 316 deg C; 1% NaOH, 343 deg C; 50% NaOH, 288 deg C; 10% NaOH, 302 deg C; 10% NaOH, 316 deg C; 50% NaOH, 343 deg C (6) Sludge effects for ODSCC initiation rate: CuO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (7) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) Caustic concentration effect, (ii) carbonate addition effect (8) Sulfate corrosion: (i) sulfate ratio and pH effect, (ii) wastage rate of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (9) Crevice corrosion: (i) experimental setup for crevice corrosion, (ii) organic effect, (iii) (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NaOH) effect (10) Remedial measures for SCC: (i) Inhibitors, (ii) ZnO effect. (author). 30 refs., 174 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. Fundamental study on carbon composite iron ore hot briquette used as blast furnace burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Man-sheng; Liu, Zheng-gen; Wang, Zhao-cai [Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China); Yagi, Jun-ichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Carbon composite iron ore hot briquette (CCB) is the product of fine iron ore and fine coal by hot briquetting process, which attracts more and more attention as a new type of ironmaking raw materials aiming to improve the operation efficiency and reduce the coke consumption of blast furnace. This paper is devoted to experimental study on metallurgical properties of CCB and numerical simulation of the BF operation with CCB charging. At first, the metallurgical properties of CCB, including cold crushing strength, RDI, RSI, reducibility, high temperature strength, and softening and dripping are experimentally tested and compared with the common burdens, which revealed that the CCB possesses the required metallurgical properties and is suitable to use as the blast furnace burden. Then, the effects of charging CCB on the dripping properties of comprehensive burdens are elucidated based on the experiments under simulated blast furnace conditions. The results showed that the maximum charging ratio of CCB in the iron burdens is 40%-50% for achieving appropriate dripping properties of the mixed burdens. Finally, a multi-fluid blast furnace model is used to simulate BF operation with CCB charging. According to model simulations, charging CCB will cause the temperature level to decreases in the furnace and the location of the cohesive zone shifts downward. On the other hand, the productivity tends to increase while coke rate and total reducing agent rate decrease, the heat efficiency improves remarkably and the operation performance of BF is effectively enhanced. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction. Quarterly report No. 7, April 1--July 1, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, D.S.

    1993-07-14

    In our last report we discussed observations in our cell concerning the behavior or Illinois No. 6 coal in tetralin to 460{degrees}C. We noted that there were possibly two distinct types of particles comprising the organic phase, reacting respectively at 420{degrees}--430{degrees}C, and at 450{degrees}--460{degrees}C. Alternatively we could interpret the data as describing a range of reactivity bounded by those temperatures. As evidenced by the contraction of the particles, the reactions were rapid. The particles lost half of their substance within 1 min, and we suggested that the rates were too fast to be accommodated by the commonly held scheme for coal liquefaction involving thermolytic scission of weak, bibenzyl-like bonds. Our analyses were aided by our use of Adobe Photoshop, which allows us to store, digitized versions of our recorded images. The images can then be manipulated at will to provide quantitative data on morphological changes. We noted in our last report that printer limitations prevented us from presenting images with the desirable quality, and we are at present attempting to find access to equipment which will provide satisfactory figures. Accordingly our progress will be described here without any photographs, and we expect to present a more complete account of our work in our next report. The work reported here includes studies of Illinois No. 6 coal with water as the medium, and a control run with argon as medium. Our temperature ramping was like that used last time, 25{degrees}C/min to 250{degrees}C, and then 10{degrees}C/min to 450{degrees}C. The results from the earlier work and the data presented here can therefore be directly compared.

  5. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  6. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  7. Fundamental Study of Disposition and Release of Methane in a Shale Gas Reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Xiong, Yongliang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Repository Performance; Criscenti, Louise J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Ho, Tuan Ahn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Weck, Philippe F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Storage and Transportation Technology; Ilgen, Anastasia G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geochemistry; Matteo, Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Kruichak, Jessica N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Mills, Melissa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Waste Disposal Research and Analysis; Dewers, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Geomechanics; Gordon, Margaret E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Materials, Devices and Energy Technologies; Akkutlu, Yucel [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2016-09-01

    simulations also indicate that a significant fraction (3 - 35%) of methane deposited in kerogen can potentially become trapped in isolated nanopores and thus not recoverable. We have successfully established experimental capabilities for measuring gas sorption and desorption on shale and model materials under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions. Both low and high pressure measurements show significant sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto clays, implying that methane adsorbed on clay minerals could contribute a significant portion of gas-in-place in an unconventional reservoir. We have also studied the potential impact of the interaction of shale with hydrofracking fluid on gas sorption. We have found that the CH4-CO2 sorption capacity for the reacted sample is systematically lower (by a factor of ~2) than that for the unreacted (raw) sample. This difference in sorption capacity may result from a mineralogical or surface chemistry change of the shale sample induced by fluid-rock interaction. Our results shed a new light on mechanistic understanding gas release and production decline in unconventional reservoirs.

  8. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  9. Industrial separation processes : fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de A.B.; Bosch, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Separation processes on an industrial scale comprise well over half of the capital and operating costs. They are basic knowledge in every chemical engineering and process engineering study. This book provides comprehensive and fundamental knowledge of university teaching in this discipline,

  10. Fundamental Study of Electron Beam Welding of AA6061-T6 Aluminum Alloy for Nuclear Fuel Plate Assembly (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soosung; Lee, Haein; Lee, Donbae; Park, Jongman; Lee, Yoonsang

    2013-01-01

    Certain characteristics, such as solidification cracking, porosity, HAZ (Heat-affected Zone) degradation must be considered during welding. Because of high energy density and low heat input, especially LBW and EBW processes posses the advantage of minimizing the fusing zone and HAZ and producing deeper penetration than arc welding processes. In present study, to apply for the nuclear fuel plate fabrication and assembly, a fundamental EBW experiment using AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy specimens was conducted. Furthermore, to establish the welding process, and satisfy the requirements of the weld quality, EBW apparatus using a electron welding gun and vacuum chamber was developed, and preliminary investigations for optimizing the welding parameters of the specimens using AA6061-T6 aluminum plates were also performed. In this experiment, a feasibility test was carried out by tensile tester, bead-on-plate welding and metallographic examination to comply with the aluminum welding procedure. The EB weld quality of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy for the fuel plate assembly has been also studied by the mechanical testing and microstructure examinations. This study was carried out to determine the suitable welding process and to investigate tensile strength of AA6061-T6 aluminum alloy. In the present experiment, satisfactory EBW of the square butt weld specimens was developed. In comparison with the rolling directions of test specimens, the tensile strengths were no difference between the longitudinal and transverse welds. Based on this fundamental study, fabrication and assembly of the nuclear fuel plates will be provided for the future Kijang research reactor project

  11. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  12. Development and fundamental study on a superconducting induction/synchronous motor incorporated with MgB2 cage windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Yamada, Y; Nishio, H; Sugano, M; Amemiya, N; Kajikawa, K; Wakuda, T; Takahashi, M; Okada, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB 2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB 2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.

  13. Hypotheses and fundamental study design characteristics for evaluating potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part I: Heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Carter, Walter H; Davies, Bruce D; Krauss, Marc R; Lee, Peter N; Schleef, Raymond R; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    The risk-reducing effect of a potential reduced-risk tobacco product (PRRP) can be investigated conceptually in a long-term, prospective study of disease risks among cigarette smokers who switch to a PRRP and in appropriate comparison groups. Our objective was to provide guidance for establishing the fundamental design characteristics of a study intended to (1) determine if switching to a PRRP reduces the risk of lung cancer (LC) compared with continued cigarette smoking, and (2) compare, using a non-inferiority approach, the reduction in LC risk among smokers who switched to a PRRP to the reduction in risk among smokers who quit smoking entirely. Using standard statistical methods applied to published data on LC incidence after smoking cessation, we show that the sample size and duration required for a study designed to evaluate the potential for LC risk reduction for an already marketed PRRP, compared with continued smoking, varies depending on the LC risk-reducing effectiveness of the PRRP, from a 5-year study with 8000-30,000 subjects to a 15-year study with <5000 to 10,000 subjects. To assess non-inferiority to quitting, the required sample size tends to be about 10 times greater, again depending on the effectiveness of the PRRP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of fundamental and second-harmonic ICRF wave propagation and damping at high density in the Alcator tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.

    1981-09-01

    Due to the versatility of the high power apparatus, the fast magnetosonic branch is used with ω 0 = 1,2,3,4 ω/sub ci/, unlike most other ICRF experiments. Unusually high magnetic field (B 0 = 40 to 80 kG), plasma density (n/sub e/ = 10 13 - 5 x 10 14 /cm 3 ), generator frequency (f 0 = 90 to 200 MHz) and transmitter power, with shielded and unshielded antennas, are the key parameters of the experiment. This wide parameter range allows a direct comparison between fundamental and second harmonic regimes, and shielded and unshielded antennas, our prime goals. The real and imaginary parts of the parallel and perpendicular wave numbers are measured with extensive magnetic probe diagnostics for a spectrum of plasma parameters and compared with theory. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the wave structure and scaling laws are derived analytically in simple geometries and computed numerically for realistic plasma parameters and profiles. General figures of merit, such as radiation resistance and quality factor, are also derived and compared with the experiment. Secondary effects of the high power wave launching, such as changes in plasma current, density, Z/sub eff/, energetic neutral flux, soft x-rays, neutron flux, and impurities are also discussed. Most important, a general synthesis of the many engineering, physics, and experimental problems and conclusions of the Alcator A ICRF program are inspected in detail. Finally, the derived and experimentally determined scaling laws and engineering constraints are used to estimate the ICRF requrements, advantages, and potential pitfalls of the next generations of experiments on the Alcator tokamaks

  15. THE PHENOMENON OF (ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM IN A NON-‘RELIGIOUS’ CAMPUS: A CASE STUDY AT HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufani Taufani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe and examine the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism on the campus of Hasanuddin University (UNHAS. Islamic fundamentalism is a phenomenon that emerged after the reform and it is commonly encountered in the campus world. The trend shows that the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism is growing in the campus that has no particular religious affiliation and is often driven by the propagation of the Campus Dakwah Organization (LDK. This research would like to test the thesis that whether it is relevant to the context of the Hasanuddin University that in fact is not a religiously-affiliated campus or the contrary. The method of collecting data was done through observation of the activities of the LDK activist at the Hasanuddin University (UNHAS Campus Dakwah Organization’s Musholla Lovers (LDK-MPM, in-depth interviews, documentation/review of previous research and papers. This research shows that Islamic fundamentalism led by LDK-MPM is growing at the Hasanuddin University. This phenomenon emerged as the implications of the post-reform freedom, so that these opportunities are exploited by activists to channel their euphoria, because at the time of the new order, their propagation had a fairly limited space. Another factor that led to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and growing at Hasanuddin University is because the students did not have comprehensive Islamic references, so that they had no checklist for critiquing and examining the ideology of Islamic fundamentalism. In addition, the emergence of modernity considered to bring the negative excesses also serves as another factor being the cause of Islamic fundamentalism. Therefore, the ideology of Islamic fundamentalism emerged as an alternative to counteract the negative excesses. Keywords: Islamic Fundamentalism, LDK-MPM, Hasanuddin University.

  16. Assessing the Content and Quality of Commercially Available Reading Software Programs: Do They Have the Fundamental Structures to Promote the Development of Early Reading Skills in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Amy; Wood, Eileen; Gottardo, Alexandra; Evans, Mary Ann; Phillips, Linda; Savage, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a…

  17. Bibliography of Ethnic Heritage Studies Program Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Greta; And Others

    The Ethnic Heritage Studies Program was designed to teach students about the nature of their heritage and to study the contributions of the cultural heritage of other ethnic groups. This is a bibliography of materials developed by projects which received Federal Ethnic Heritage Studies Program grants during fiscal year 1974-75 and 1975-76.…

  18. SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumta, Prashant [University of Pittsburgh

    2014-10-03

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would

  19. Assessment of Student Performance for Course Examination Using Rasch Measurement Model: A Case Study of Information Technology Fundamentals Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohamed Talib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a measurement model that is used to measure the student performance in the final examination of Information Technology (IT Fundamentals (IT280 course in the Information Technology (IT Department, College of Computer & Information Sciences (CCIS, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU. The assessment model is developed based on students’ mark entries of final exam results for the second year IT students, which are compiled and tabulated for evaluation using Rasch Measurement Model, and it can be used to measure the students’ performance towards the final examination of the course. A study on 150 second year students (male = 52; female = 98 was conducted to measure students’ knowledge and understanding for IT280 course according to the three level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The results concluded that students can be categorized as poor (10%, moderate (42%, good (18%, and successful (24% to achieve Level 3 of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This study shows that the students’ performance for the set of IT280 final exam questions was comparatively good. The result generated from this study can be used to guide us to determine the appropriate improvement of teaching method and the quality of question prepared.

  20. Longitudinal study of the fundamental frequency of hunger cries along the first 6 months of healthy babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeck, Heidi Elisabeth; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2007-09-01

    Potentially rich in information, the baby's cry has motivated several researches along the years. Although most of these studies have generated important knowledge about the baby's cry, they were focused on the neonatal period. The few longitudinal studies on changes in the acoustical features of the cry over the baby's growth have been done with a small sample and a large recording interval. Aiming to overcome such methodological limitations, this work investigated hunger cries using a more representative sample size (30 babies) and time resolution (biweekly intervals) from birth to 6 months of baby's age. The findings indicate that the fundamental frequency (f0) of the cry signals did vary more than previously reported in the literature. The results showed a widespread oscillatory behavior in f0 evolution along all the 6 months with an especially significant decrease from birth to the 15th day of life. The present results are not clinically applicable yet, but they pointed some novel aspects of the f0 mean values along the baby's growth. These findings and further longitudinal studies can help standardize age-related cry parameters, which are essential for medical and language development researches.

  1. Comparative Study of Outlier Detection Algorithms via Fundamental Analysis Variables: An Application on Firms Listed in Borsa Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senol Emir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In a data set, an outlier refers to a data point that is considerably different from the others. Detecting outliers provides useful application-specific insights and leads to choosing right prediction models. Outlier detection (also known as anomaly detection or novelty detection has been studied in statistics and machine learning for a long time. It is an essential preprocessing step of data mining process. In this study, outlier detection step in the data mining process is applied for identifying the top 20 outlier firms. Three outlier detection algorithms are utilized using fundamental analysis variables of firms listed in Borsa Istanbul for the 2011-2014 period. The results of each algorithm are presented and compared. Findings show that 15 different firms are identified by three different outlier detection methods. KCHOL and SAHOL have the greatest number of appearances with 12 observations among these firms. By investigating the results, it is concluded that each of three algorithms makes different outlier firm lists due to differences in their approaches for outlier detection.

  2. Fundamental studies on initiation and evolution of multi-channel discharges and their application to next generation pulsed power machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Jens; Savage, Mark E.; Lucero, Diego Jose; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Seals, Kelly Gene; Pitts, Todd Alan; Hautzenroeder, Brenna M.; Laine, Mark Richard; Karelitz, David B.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    Future pulsed power systems may rely on linear transformer driver (LTD) technology. The LTD's will be the building blocks for a driver that can deliver higher current than the Z-Machine. The LTD's would require tens of thousands of low inductance ( %3C 85nH), high voltage (200 kV DC) switches with high reliability and long lifetime ( 10 4 shots). Sandia's Z-Machine employs 36 megavolt class switches that are laser triggered by a single channel discharge. This is feasible for tens of switches but the high inductance and short switch life- time associated with the single channel discharge are undesirable for future machines. Thus the fundamental problem is how to lower inductance and losses while increasing switch life- time and reliability. These goals can be achieved by increasing the number of current-carrying channels. The rail gap switch is ideal for this purpose. Although those switches have been extensively studied during the past decades, each effort has only characterized a particular switch. There is no comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics that would allow predictive capability for arbitrary switch geometry. We have studied rail gap switches via an extensive suite of advanced diagnostics in synergy with theoretical physics and advanced modeling capability. Design and topology of multichannel switches as they relate to discharge dynamics are investigated. This involves electrically and optically triggered rail gaps, as well as discrete multi-site switch concepts.

  3. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  4. An educational laboratory virtual instrumentation suite assisted experiment for studying fundamentals of series resistance-inductance-capacitance circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, K. P. S.; Kumar, Vineet; Mendiratta, Jatin

    2017-11-01

    One of the most elementary concepts in freshmen Electrical Engineering subject comprises the Resistance-Inductance-Capacitance (RLC) circuit fundamentals, that is, their time and frequency domain responses. For a beginner, generally, it is difficult to understand and appreciate the step and the frequency responses, particularly the resonance. This paper proposes a student-friendly teaching and learning approach by inculcating the multifaceted versatile software LabVIEWTM along with the educational laboratory virtual instrumentation suite hardware, for studying the RLC circuit time and frequency domain responses. The proposed approach has offered an interactive laboratory experiment where students can model circuits in simulation and hardware circuits on prototype board, and then compare their performances. The theoretical simulations and the obtained experimental data are found to be in very close agreement, thereby enhancing the conviction of students. Finally, the proposed methodology was also subjected to the assessment of learning outcomes based on student feedback, and an average score of 8.05 out of 10 with a standard deviation of 0.471 was received, indicating the overall satisfaction of the students.

  5. Fundamental study on reactivities of gluten protein types from wheat, rye and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-12-15

    Monitoring the compliance of gluten-free foods to the regulatory threshold of 20mg/kg of gluten is essential for celiac disease patients. The different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for gluten detection each have specific characteristics, but there are only a few systematic comparisons. This fundamental study compared the specificities and sensitivities of the R5, G12 and Skerritt monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to well-defined gluten protein types (GPT) isolated from wheat, rye and barley flours. Quantitation of protein concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography provided independent reference values. The ELISA responses showed high variability depending on the type of cereal, the GPT and the antibody used. Overall, ω1,2-gliadins and γ-75k-secalins were most reactive, whereas ω5-gliadins and γ-, B- and D-hordeins were detected with the lowest sensitivities. These results revealed which GPT each antibody is most sensitive to and provided novel insights that will be helpful for appropriate calibration of ELISAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Motor development of preterm and term infants in the fundamental movement phase: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Karla Machado da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Motor development is a continuous process of motor behavior changes throughout life, allowing for movement control. Premature birth can affect this process, with a greater risk of delays in acquiring these skills. Objective: Compare motor development during the fundamental movement phase of preterm infants submitted to early stimulation and full-term babies. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study with convenience sampling, performed with twenty 3-year-old children of both sexes, distributed into two groups: the preterm group (n = 10, which received physical therapy in the first months of life, and the term group (n = 10. Motor development stages were assessed between January and April 2013, using the Motor Development Scale (Escala de Desenvolvimento Motor - EDM developed by Francisco Rosa Neto, with an average execution time of thirty minutes. Statistical analysis was performed using BioEstat 5.0 software, and the Shapiro-Wilk test was applied to verify data normality. A significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was adopted, analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The term group exhibited significant differences in relation to the preterm group for the variables Fine and Gross Motor Skills, and Spatial and Temporal Awareness, with no differences in Balance and Body Scheme. Conclusion: Only the premature infants submitted to early intervention achieved normal levels of Balance and Body Scheme on the EDM Scale.

  7. A study of some fundamental physicochemical variables on the morphology of mesoporous silica nanoparticles MCM-41 type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Osuna, Ángela A.; Gómez Ribelles, José L.; Perilla, Jairo E.

    2017-12-01

    All variables affecting the morphology of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) should be carefully analyzed in order to truly tailored design their mesoporous structure according to their final use. Although complete control on MCM-41 synthesis has been already claimed, reproducibility and repeatability of results remain a big issue due to the lack of information reported in literature. Stirring rate, reaction volume, and system configuration (i.e., opened or closed reactor) are three variables that are usually omitted, making the comparison of product characteristics difficult. Specifically, the rate of solvent evaporation is seldom disclosed, and its influence has not been previously analyzed. These variables were systematically studied in this work, and they were proven to have a fundamental impact on final particle morphology. Hence, a high degree of circularity ( C = 0.97) and monodispersed particle size distributions were only achieved when a stirring speed of 500 rpm and a reaction scale of 500 mL were used in a partially opened system, for a 2 h reaction at 80 °C. Well-shaped spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a diameter of 95 nm, a pore size of 2.8 nm, and a total surface area of 954 m2 g-1 were obtained. Final characteristics made this product suitable to be used in biomedicine and nanopharmaceutics, especially for the design of drug delivery systems.

  8. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  9. Estudo da freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadoras de diferentes graus de perda auditiva Study of the fundamental frequency in elderly women with hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana dos Santos Baraldi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva, dentre outros, é um dos distúrbios mais referidos pela população idosa. Sabe-se que o sistema de feedback auditivo é primordial para o monitoramento dos parâmetros vocais, como a freqüência fundamenta. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a audição e os valores de F0 (freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadores de diferentes graus de sensibilidade auditiva. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Transversal descritivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Amostra de 30 idosas, idades média de 76,23, portadoras de audição normal ou perda auditiva neurossensorial descendente simétrica. Foram submetidas a anamnese, avaliação auditiva (audiometria tonal limiar, IPRF e imitanciometria e avaliação vocal. Os resultados de ambas as avaliações foram correlacionados. RESULTADOS: A F0 da produção vocal de idosas com perda leve (144,44 foi significantemente menor que para perda moderada (160,3, moderadamente severa (188,23 e severa (201,27, tanto utilizando a classificação de grau da perda auditiva para freqüências baixas como altas. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto mais elevado o grau da perda auditiva, maior o valor de freqüência fundamental encontrado.Increased life expectancy raises demands for special attention for the elderly population; speech, language and hearing science deals with their communication disorders. Hearing loss is a common disorder affecting this age group. It is known that the auditory feedback system is essential to human vocalizing, as it organizes voice production. AIM: To assess and correlate the hearing system and the Fundamental Frequency (F0 of women who have variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive study. 30 women with a mean age of 75.95 (SD = 7,41 were included. Inclusion criteria were: symmetric sensorineural hearing loss, a high-frequency sloping configuration, and a type A tympanogram. Subjects underwent Pure Tone Audiometry, a Word Recognition Test, Tympanometry

  10. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Final report, August 1981-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.I.; Tierney, J.W.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Huang, S.; Qamar, I.; Venkatadri, R.

    1984-12-01

    Fine coal in slurry form must be dewatered to minimize handling and transportation problems and be reduced to a desirable level for subsequent preparation of coal/water mixtures as a substitute utility fuel. The current practice is inadequate for the dewatering of fine coal, particularly for coal particles with sizes smaller than 400 mesh. Therefore, it is most desirable to develop improved mechanical methods for reducing the moisture content of fine coal. In the light of this, a fundamental study of the dewatering of fine coal/refuse was initiated in June 1979 and continued through 1984. The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of the basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and the microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal. During the past year, filter cakes from coals with widely varying size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. Modules of the network model for calculating single phase and two phase permeabilities were formulated and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for 1984-1985; detailed description of technical progress; and appendices. 21 refs., 55 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  12. The Study Abroad Experience: A Crucial Element in Globalizing Business School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiero, George A.; Kraten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a fundamental reality of modern business practice. Participation in a study abroad program is a crucial element in helping students become well rounded global business leaders; it is an increasingly important element of a well rounded business curriculum. A semester or summer abroad, properly conceived and designed, can provide…

  13. Integrating Social Responsibility into an Entrepreneurship Education Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy; Ramdhani, Jugathambal

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education in South Africa is often presented as a neutral discipline. Yet fundamental to any entrepreneurship education program should be the integration of key issues, such as ethics, values and social responsibility. This paper reports on a study that set out to explore student teachers experiences of engaging in an…

  14. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  15. Study of personnel monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them

  16. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); McGrady, Sean [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB (Canada); Severa, Godwin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Eliseo, Jennifer [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chong, Marina [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  17. Studying creativity training programs: A methodological analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder

    2017-01-01

    Throughout decades of creativity research, a range of creativity training programs have been developed, tested, and analyzed. In 2004 Scott and colleagues published a meta‐analysis of all creativity training programs to date, and the review presented here sat out to identify and analyze studies...... published since the seminal 2004 review. Focusing on quantitative studies of creativity training programs for adults, our systematic review resulted in 22 publications. All studies were analyzed, but comparing the reported effectiveness of training across studies proved difficult due to methodological...... inconsistencies, variations in reporting of results as well as types of measures used. Thus a consensus for future studies is called for to answer the question: Which elements make one creativity training program more effective than another? This is a question of equal relevance to academia and industry...

  18. Fusion Studies Program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Continuation of work in two areas, impurity control and transient electromagnetics, is proposed. In the tokamak impurity control area, an innovative supplemental mechanism, NB-driven impurity flow reversal, has been developed partly under this contract; and the proposed effort is aimed at completing this development, verifying the methodology by comparison with experiment and evaluating its potential in future tokamak experiments. In the tokamak transient electromagnetics area, the proposed effort is aimed at developing a new and more efficient methodology for calculating the currents and resulting magnetic fields in the torus structure and coil systems, which will allow a detailed representation of the latter that can be coupled to the distributed-current plasma model that was implemented for vertical stability and disruption control studies in previous work under this contract; and the application of this methodology to study the control of vertical instabilities and disruptions

  19. Fundamental study of microelectronic chip response under laser ultrasonic-interferometric inspection using C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Gong, Jie; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    In modern surface mount packaging technologies, such as flip chips, chip scale packages, and ball grid arrays(BGA), chips are attached to the substrates/printed wiring board (PWB) using solder bump interconnections. The quality of solder bumps between the chips and the substrate/board is difficult to inspect. Laser ultrasonic-interferometric technique was proved to be a promising approach for solder bump inspection because of its noncontact and nondestructive characteristics. Different indicators extracted from received signals have been used to predict the potential defects, such as correlation coefficient, error ratio, frequency shifting, etc. However, the fundamental understanding of the chip behavior under laser ultrasonic inspection is still missing. Specifically, it is not sure whether the laser interferometer detected out-of-plane displacements were due to wave propagation or structural vibration when the chip was excited by pulsed laser. Plus, it is found that the received signals are chip dependent. Both challenges impede the interpretation of acquired signals. In this paper, a C-scan method was proposed to study the underlying phenomenon during laser ultrasonic inspection. The full chip was inspected. The response of the chip under laser excitation was visualized in a movie resulted from acquired signals. Specifically, a BGA chip was investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. By characterizing signals using discrete wavelet transform(DWT), both ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration were observed. Separation of them was successfully achieved using ideal band-pass filter and visualized in resultant movies, too. The observed ultrasonic waves were characterized and their respective speeds were measured by applying 2-D FFT. The C-scan method, combined with different digital signal processing techniques, was proved to be an very effective methodology to learn the behavior of chips under laser excitation. This general procedure can be

  20. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  1. Fundamentals and Applications of Semiconductor Nanocrystals : A study on the synthesis, optical properties, and interactions of quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on both the fundamental aspects as well as applications of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs). Due to the unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties of QDs, they hold great promise for a wide range of applications like solar cells,

  2. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.

    2016-01-01

    in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  3. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  4. Fundamental research on positive systems of waste disposal and environmental protection using redox reaction and enriching ability of iron for pollutant. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H11-003. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hiroshi; Sato, Seichi; Kozaki, Tamotsu

    2002-03-01

    Iron corrosion products have a potential ability to retard the transport of pollutant in soil by sorption, co-precipitation and redox reaction. In this research program, an electrokinetic soil treatment method using iron anode, which can remove the pollutant and form an iron corrosion product layer in soil, was proposed as a new promising environmental remediation technique for contaminated soil with toxic heavy metal, organic materials and/or radioactive nuclides. As a fundamental study of the electrokinetic soil treatment, the formation mechanism of the corrosion product layer was discussed with the experimental data of the ion migration and the time dependence of the electric current during the treatment. In addition, diffusion behavior of Na + ions and He gas in the clay, which are closely related to the treatment, were studied. Furthermore, the potential ability of the iron corrosion layer to retard the transport of pollutant in soil was evaluated in terms of sorption coefficient of Se and Np onto the iron corrosion products and Fe-montmorillonite, which are the major component of the iron corrosion product layer. As results of these studies, it was confirmed that the electrokinetic soil treatment method using iron anode is one of promising environmental remediation techniques for contaminated soil. (author)

  5. Influence of Economic Value and Fundamental Analysis Toward Stock Market (Studies on the Retail Trade Industry Sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmini, Widyatmini; Damanik, Michael Valentino

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research is to measure the influence of economics value added and fundamental analysis toward stock price on retail industry. Data which was deployed on this research are company financial report and stock price. Further, data was analyzed using regression method by deploying SPSS software. Research result shows that all independent variables proposed (economics value added, current ratio, quick ratio, total asset turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, gross profit ma...

  6. A Preliminary Study of Library Programs Related to American Indian Studies Programs in Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    The presence of library programs and their relationship to academic programs of Native American Studies were surveyed in 27 institutions of higher education. Institutions surveyed were those with (1) a program for recruiting American Indians, (2) a distinct staff devoted to American Indians, and (3) some course about American Indians offered in a…

  7. Quivers, words and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattioli, Paolo; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study of holomorphic gauge invariant operators in general N=1 quiver gauge theories, with unitary gauge groups and bifundamental matter fields, was recently presented in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP04(2013)094. For large ranks a simple counting formula in terms of an infinite product was given. We extend this study to quiver gauge theories with fundamental matter fields, deriving an infinite product form for the refined counting in these cases. The infinite products are found to be obtained from substitutions in a simple building block expressed in terms of the weighted adjacency matrix of the quiver. In the case without fundamentals, it is a determinant which itself is found to have a counting interpretation in terms of words formed from partially commuting letters associated with simple closed loops in the quiver. This is a new relation between counting problems in gauge theory and the Cartier-Foata monoid. For finite ranks of the unitary gauge groups, the refined counting is given in terms of expressions involving Littlewood-Richardson coefficients.

  8. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  9. Fundamental Studies of The Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters Via Reduction By Zero-Valent metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites, and in other areas of the U.S.. A potential remediation method is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron (ZVI). We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant compounds with Fe filings and single- and poly-crystalline surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop the physical and chemical understanding that is necessary for the development of cleanup techniques and procedures

  10. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  11. FIELD CLASS AS PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN TEACHING OF GEOGRAPHY FOR FUNDAMENTAL EDUCATION: proposed methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Michael Pinheiro Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of significant change and transformation of society in recent decades at the global level, geography had to rethink its role in the condition of traditional discipline of the school curriculum. With the need for new teaching practices that apply to the daily lives of students, field classes emerge as an important activity to support the teaching of geography. At this perspective, based on recent results of the Project Expedições Geográficas (UFPR/Licenciar, this paper proposes a methodology for planning and organizing field classes at the local scale, based on three points: the pre-field (planning and organization stage, the field (realization of the activity and post-field (evaluation and discussion stage, which resulted in the case study with students from 6th grade (elementary school of Aline Picheth School, located in Curitiba/PR. Altogether six field classes were performed, with themes proposed initially, with emphasis on orientation/location, geotechnologies insertion and interpretation and recognition of landscape elements. The recorded proposals by the students during the activity denoted the fast assimilation of the contents against the reality experienced in loco, presenting satisfactory results and demonstrating the potential of the field class as an auxiliary teaching-pedagogical resource. RESUMO: No contexto das significativas mudanças e transformações da sociedade nas últimas décadas em nível global, a geografia teve de repensar sua função na condição de tradicional disciplina do currículo escolar. Com a necessidade de novas práticas pedagógicas que se apliquem ao cotidiano dos alunos, as aulas de campo surgem como importante atividade de apoio ao ensino de geografia. Nessa perspectiva, com base nos resultados recentes do Projeto Expedições Geográficas (UFPR/Licenciar, o presente trabalho propõe uma metodologia para o planejamento e organização de aulas de campo em escala local, pautada em tr

  12. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  13. Program of Studies, Aesthetic Education: Art, Grades 9-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD. Dept. of Instructional Planning and Development.

    Brief course descriptions and educational objectives of the art program in grades 9-12, Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, Maryland, are provided. Courses are elective and may be grouped into two sequences. Students with broad interests may elect Fundamentals of Art and continue with a series of studio art classes. Students interested in…

  14. Damage analysis and fundamental studies for fusion reactor materials development for the period March 1, 1991--February 28, 1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The philosophy of the program at the University of California Santa Barbara has been to develop a fundamental understanding of both the basic damage processes and microstructural evolution that take place in a material during neutron irradiation and the consequent dimensional and mechanical property changes. This fundamental understanding can be used in conjunction with empirical data obtained from a variety of irradiation facilities to develop physically-based models of neutron irradiation effects in structural materials. The models in turn can be used to guide alloy development and to help extrapolate the irradiation data base to the fusion reactor regime. This philosophy is consistent with that of the national and international programs for developing structural materials for fusion reactors. During this period work has encompassed: (1) analysis of the degradation of the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steels for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of using these steels in ITER; (2) examining helium effects on radiation damage in austenitic and ferritic stainless steels; (3) development and application of electropotential drop techniques to monitor the growth of cracks in steel specimens for a variety of specimen geometries (4) development of advanced methods of measuring fracture properties; (5) combining micromechanical modeling of fracture with finite element calculations of crack and notch-tip stress and strain fields to predict failure; (6) developing a data base on flow and fracture properties of ferritic steels. Each of these activities is described in more detail below and in greater detail in the attached publications

  15. ANALISIS KESIAPAN PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PRODUCTION BASED EDUCATION: STUDI PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 AKUNTANSI POLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Noor Ardiansah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clear studies to identify, verify and analyze readiness program resources in order to study the implementation of PBE resulted in initial position (existing point is not clear that the priority programs and activities that are carried out per year tend to be responsive and not directed priorities. These conditions resulted in analysis of resource readiness courses in the management of production-based learning pattern PBE draw conducted This study aims to identify and verify and analyze readiness resources management courses in the pattern of production based learning, particularly in the Accounting Studies Program. This research is expected to be used to increase the effectiveness of learning and vocational education to improve the quality and relevance of polytechnic graduates. Total score was 33 the existence of resources from the scale of 12-60. The average score is 2.75. The average score was shown the position of Prodi's resources have been used, but its role is unclear (repeatable tend to have clearly defined functions, communicated and documented (defined. Resources have been managed, monitored and evaluated well (managed are: curriculum resources, networking courses, lab facilities, ISO-based management. Resources have been used but not optimal role: resources module practice, the formulation of an internship, practice material / TA, the performance of IC-based lecturer

  16. ANALISIS KESIAPAN PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PRODUCTION BASED EDUCATION: STUDI PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 AKUNTANSI POLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Noor Ardiansah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clear studies to identify, verify and analyze readiness program resources in order to study the implementation of PBE resulted in initial position (existing point is not clear that the priority programs and activities that are carried out per year tend to be responsive and not directed priorities. These conditions resulted in analysis of resource readiness courses in the management of production-based learning pattern PBE draw conducted This study aims to identify and verify and analyze readiness resources management courses in the pattern of production based learning, particularly in the Accounting Studies Program. This research is expected to be used to increase the effectiveness of learning and vocational education to improve the quality and relevance of polytechnic graduates. Total score was 33 the existence of resources from the scale of 12-60. The average score is 2.75. The average score was shown the position of Prodi's resources have been used, but its role is unclear (repeatable tend to have clearly defined functions, communicated and documented (defined. Resources have been managed, monitored and evaluated well (managed are: curriculum resources, networking courses, lab facilities, ISO-based management. Resources have been used but not optimal role: resources module practice, the formulation of an internship, practice material / TA, the performance of IC-based lecturer

  17. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  18. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL FUNDAMENTAL ISSUES IN HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a laboratory-scale program investigating several fundamental issues involved in hazardous waste incineration. The key experiment for each study was the measurement of waste destruction behavior in a sub-scale turbulent spray flame. (1) Atomization Qual...

  20. Global Studies: Hurdles to Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patricia J.; Masters, Paul E.; Goolsby, Amy

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we examine a new global studies program that departs from the traditional state-centric approach and uses a geocentric, or earth-centered, approach that emphasizes the roles of individuals, grassroots organizations, cultural groups, and international organizations in an attempt to help students conceptualize global events and…

  1. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  2. Program for parameter studies of steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    R2-GEN is a computer code for stationary thermal parameter studies of steam generators. The geometry and data are valid for Ringhals-2 generators. Subroutines and relevant calculations are included. The program is based on a heterogeneous flow model and some applications on tubes with varying contamination are presented. (G.B.)

  3. Case study in designing a research fundamentals curriculum for community health workers: a university-community clinic collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard L

    2014-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community's characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. An interactive training course on research fundamentals for CHWs was designed and implemented jointly by a community agency serving a primarily Latino, rural population and an academic health center. A focus group of community members and input from community leaders comprised a community-based participatory research model to create three 3-hour interactive training sessions. The resulting curriculum was interactive and successfully stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. By choosing course activities that elicited community-specific responses into each session's discussion, researchers learned about the community as much as the training course educated CHWs about research. The approach is readily adaptable, making it useful to other communities where CHWs are part of the health system.

  4. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    other system parameter permits the construction of whole new classes of devices with greatly expanded capabilities compared to conventional approaches. These ''tailored edge-ray'' designs have dramatically broadened the range of geometries in which nonimaging optics can provide a significant performance improvement. Considerable progress continues to be made in furthering the incorporation of nonimaging secondaries into practical high concentration and ultra-high concentration solar collector systems. In parallel with the continuing development of nonimaging geometrical optics, our group has been working to develop an understanding of certain fundamental physical optics concepts in the same context. In particular, our study of the behavior of classical radiance in nonimaging systems, has revealed some fundamentally important new understandings that we have pursued both theoretically and experimentally. The field is still relatively new and is rapidly gaining widespread recognition because it fuels many industrial applications. Because of this, during the final years of the project, our group at Chicago has been working more closely with a team of industrial scientists from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) at first informally, and later more formally, beginning in 1998, under a formal program initiated by the Department of Energy and incrementally funded through this existing grant. This collaboration has been very fruitful and has led to new conceptual breakthroughs which have provided the foundation for further exciting growth. Many of these concepts are described in some detail in the report.

  5. Fundamental neutron physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslattes, R.; Dombeck, T.; Greene, G.; Ramsey, N.; Rauch, H.; Werner, S.

    1984-01-01

    Fundamental physics experiments of merit can be conducted at the proposed intense neutron sources. Areas of interest include: neutron particle properties, neutron wave properties, and fundamental physics utilizing reactor produced γ-rays. Such experiments require intense, full-time utilization of a beam station for periods ranging from several months to a year or more

  6. Fundamental Studies of the Removal of Contaminants from Ground and Waste Waters via Reduction by Zero-Valent Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoff, Jory A.; Amrhein, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Contaminated groundwater and surface waters are a problem throughout the United States and the world. In many instances, the types of contamination can be directly attributed to man's actions. For instance, the burial of chemical wastes, casual disposal of solvents in unlined pits, and the development of irrigated agriculture have all contributed to groundwater and surface water contamination. The kinds of contaminants include chlorinated solvents and toxic trace elements (including radioisotopes) that are soluble and mobile in soils and aquifers. Oxyanions of uranium, selenium, chromium, arsenic, technetium, and chlorine (as perchlorate) are frequently found as contaminants on many DOE sites. Uranium is a particularly widespread contaminant at most DOE sites including Oak Ridge, Rocky Flats, Hanford, Idaho (INEEL), and Fernald. The uranium contamination is associated with mining and milling of uranium ore (UMTRA sites), isotope separation and enrichment, and mixed waste and TRU waste burial. In addition, the careless disposal of halogenated solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride and trichloroethylene, has further contaminated many groundwaters at these sites. A potential remediation method for many of these oxyanions and chlorinated-solvents is to react the contaminated water with zero-valent iron. In this reaction, the iron serves as both an electron source and as a catalyst. Elemental iron is already being used on an experimental basis at many DOE sites. Both in situ reactive barriers and above-ground reactors are being developed for this purpose. However, the design and operation of these treatment systems requires a detailed process-level understanding of the interactions between the contaminants and the iron surfaces. We are performing fundamental investigations of the interactions of the relevant chlorinated solvents and trace element-containing compounds with single- and poly-crystalline Fe surfaces. The aim of this work is to develop th e fundamental

  7. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  8. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  9. Computability, complexity, and languages fundamentals of theoretical computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1983-01-01

    Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa

  10. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  11. The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion control is a concern for many drinking water utilities. The Lead and Copper Rule established a regulatory need to maintain a corrosion control program. Other corrosion-related issues such as “red” water resulting from excessive iron corrosion and copper pinhole leaks ...

  12. Relativities of fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    2017-08-01

    S-dualities have been held to have radical implications for our metaphysics of fundamentality. In particular, it has been claimed that they make the fundamentality status of a physical object theory-relative in an important new way. But what physicists have had to say on the issue has not been clear or consistent, and in particular seems to be ambiguous between whether S-dualities demand an anti-realist interpretation of fundamentality talk or merely a revised realism. This paper is an attempt to bring some clarity to the matter. After showing that even antecedently familiar fundamentality claims are true only relative to a raft of metaphysical, physical, and mathematical assumptions, I argue that the relativity of fundamentality inherent in S-duality nevertheless represents something new, and that part of the reason for this is that it has both realist and anti-realist implications for fundamentality talk. I close by discussing the broader significance that S-dualities have for structuralist metaphysics and for fundamentality metaphysics more generally.

  13. Thermal and Mechanical Non-Equilibrium Effects on Turbulent Flows: Fundamental Studies of Energy Exchanges Through Direct Numerical Simulations, Molecular Simulations and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    photochemical TNE generation, and chemistry of non- equilibrium phenomena. We have investigated a new concept to generate turbulence using photo-initiated...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0104 Thermal and mechanical non- equilibrium effects on turbulent flows:fundamental studies of energy exchanges through direct...Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15-09-2012 to 14-11-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Thermal and mechanical non- equilibrium effects on turbulent

  14. KARAKTERISTIK KONSELOR BAGI MAHASISWA ( PROGRAM STUDI LANGKA PEMINAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Rosyid

    2014-01-01

    is to be educators their employment at the madrasah / school. In contrast to the scholars of Tafsir, the science of faith, or the science of da’wa that their employment is still considered biased. This assumption becomes the cause of the decline in student interest so need extra role played counselor figure lecturers and ranking officials for the students at the department  of rare registrants. The main role of the counselor to convince the students to remain optimistic completed the study to get a degree. Counselors play a role in the course and outside the lecture are required to carry out three fundamental things include introducing about optimism in the Department of Da’wa, the extent of the prospect of undergraduate alumni  of Da’wa, and the principle of excellent service counselors. Keywords:Basic Capital, Counselor Characteristics  and the study program rare registrants.

  15. Case Study in Designing a Research Fundamentals Curriculum for Community Health Workers: A University - Community Clinic Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbauld, Jill; Kalichman, Michael; Bell, Yvonne; Dagnino, Cynthia; Taras, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community health workers are increasingly incorporated into research teams. Training them in research methodology and ethics, while relating these themes to a community’s characteristics, may help to better integrate these health promotion personnel into research teams. Approach and Strategies This pilot project involved the design and implementation of an interactive training course on research fundamentals for community health workers from clinics in a rural, predominately Latino setting. Curriculum development was guided by collaborative activities arising from a university - clinic partnership, a community member focus group, and the advice of community-based researchers. The resulting curriculum was interactive and stimulated dialogue between trainees and academic researchers. Discussion and Conclusions Collaboration between researchers and health agency professionals proved to be a practical method to develop curriculum for clinic staff. An interactive curriculum allowed trainees to incorporate community-specific themes into the discussion. This interaction educated course instructors from academia about the community as much as it educated course participants about research. The bidirectional engagement that occurs during the development and teaching of this course can potentially lead to research partnerships between community agencies and academia, better-informed members of the public, and research protocols that accommodate community characteristics. PMID:24121537

  16. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Behavior of fine droplet flow. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-7. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Yoshida, Kenji; Matsuura, Keizo

    2002-03-01

    Analytical and experimental researches were carried out on the behavior of fine droplet flow in relation to the fundamental phenomena of thermohydraulics in severe accident. Simulation program of fine droplet behavior in turbulent gas flow was developed based on the eddy interaction model with improvement of Graham's stochastic model on eddy lifetime and eddy size. Furthermore, the developed program are capable of simulating the droplet behavior in annular dispersed flow based on the models of droplet entrainment from liquid film and turbulence modification of gas phase by liquid film. This program was confirmed by the various experimental data on droplet diffusion, deposition. Furthermore, this program was applied to the three dimensional droplet flow with the satisfactory agreement of experimental data. This means the developed program can be used as a simulation program for analysis of severe accident. Experimental research was carried out on the effect of liquid film on the turbulence field of gas flow in annular and annular dispersed flow. Averaged and turbulent velocity of gas phase were measured under various gas and liquid film flow rates. Turbulent velocity of gas phase in annular flow increased compared with single phase gas flow. This is due to turbulence generation by waves in liquid film. Corresponding to the turbulence modification by liquid film, distribution of averaged velocity of gas phase became flattened compared with single phase gas flow. (author)

  17. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Behavior of fine droplet flow. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-7. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, Isao; Yoshida, Kenji [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka (Japan); Matsuura, Keizo [Nuclear Fuel Industry, Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Analytical and experimental researches were carried out on the behavior of fine droplet flow in relation to the fundamental phenomena of thermohydraulics in severe accident. Simulation program of fine droplet behavior in turbulent gas flow was developed based on the eddy interaction model with improvement of Graham's stochastic model on eddy lifetime and eddy size. Furthermore, the developed program are capable of simulating the droplet behavior in annular dispersed flow based on the models of droplet entrainment from liquid film and turbulence modification of gas phase by liquid film. This program was confirmed by the various experimental data on droplet diffusion, deposition. Furthermore, this program was applied to the three dimensional droplet flow with the satisfactory agreement of experimental data. This means the developed program can be used as a simulation program for analysis of severe accident. Experimental research was carried out on the effect of liquid film on the turbulence field of gas flow in annular and annular dispersed flow. Averaged and turbulent velocity of gas phase were measured under various gas and liquid film flow rates. Turbulent velocity of gas phase in annular flow increased compared with single phase gas flow. This is due to turbulence generation by waves in liquid film. Corresponding to the turbulence modification by liquid film, distribution of averaged velocity of gas phase became flattened compared with single phase gas flow. (author)

  18. Annual report from realization of Central Program of Fundamental Research no.01.09 ''Investigations of elementary particles and nuclear processes'' for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis of the results obtained in 1989 is given. The difficulties and the delays in realization of the program are presented. The cost are listed. The realization of particular subjects is shortly described. The conclusions, statistical data and lists of 593 publications are also given. (A.S.)

  19. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  20. Fundamentals of ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the fundamentals of ion exchange mechanisms and their thermodynamics are described. A range of ion exchange materials is considered and problems of communication and technology transfer between scientists working in the field are discussed. (UK)

  1. Land Prices and Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Nakamura; Yumi Saita

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the long-term relationship between macro economic fundamentals and the weighted-average land price indicators, which are supposed to be more appropriate than the official land price indicators when analyzing their impacts on the macro economy. In many cases, we find the cointegrating relationships between the weighted-average land price indicators and the discounted present value of land calculated based on the macro economic fundamentals indicators. We also find that the ...

  2. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  3. Fundamentals of statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulholland, Henry

    1968-01-01

    Fundamentals of Statistics covers topics on the introduction, fundamentals, and science of statistics. The book discusses the collection, organization and representation of numerical data; elementary probability; the binomial Poisson distributions; and the measures of central tendency. The text describes measures of dispersion for measuring the spread of a distribution; continuous distributions for measuring on a continuous scale; the properties and use of normal distribution; and tests involving the normal or student's 't' distributions. The use of control charts for sample means; the ranges

  4. Characterization of a new Hencken burner with a transition from a reducing-to-oxidizing environment for fundamental coal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Adewale; Huang, Qian; Li, Tianxiang; Gopan, Akshay; Wang, Xuebin; Li, Shuiqing; Axelbaum, Richard L.

    2018-02-01

    In pulverized coal burners, coal particles usually transition from a locally reducing environment to an oxidizing environment. The locally reducing environment in the near-burner region is due to a dense region of coal particles undergoing devolatilization. Following this region, the particles move into an oxidizing environment. This "reducing-to-oxidizing" transition can influence combustion processes such as ignition, particulate formation, and char burnout. To understand these processes at a fundamental level, a system is required that mimics such a transition. Hence, we have developed and characterized a two-stage Hencken burner to evaluate the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction (which characterizes dense region of coal particles) on ignition and ultrafine aerosol formation. The two-stage Hencken burner allows coal particles to experience a reducing environment followed by a transition to an oxidizing environment. This work presents the results of the design and characterization of the new two-stage Hencken burner and its new coal feeder. In a unique approach to the operation of the flat-flame of the Hencken burner, the flame configurations are operated as either a normal flame or inverse flame. Gas temperatures and oxygen concentrations for the Hencken burner are measured in reducing-to-oxidizing and oxidizing environments. The results show that stable flames with well-controlled conditions, relatively uniform temperatures, and species concentrations can be achieved in both flame configurations. This new Hencken burner provides an effective system for evaluating the effect of the reducing-to-oxidizing transition and particle-to-particle interaction on early-stage processes of coal combustion such as ignition and ultrafine particle formation.

  5. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Hongsen.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T e ) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n e ) is in the range 10 8 --10 10 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10 4 --10 5 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z 2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z 2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument

  6. Fundamentalism and science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Pigliucci

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The many facets of fundamentalism. There has been much talk about fundamentalism of late. While most people's thought on the topic go to the 9/11 attacks against the United States, or to the ongoing war in Iraq, fundamentalism is affecting science and its relationship to society in a way that may have dire long-term consequences. Of course, religious fundamentalism has always had a history of antagonism with science, and – before the birth of modern science – with philosophy, the age-old vehicle of the human attempt to exercise critical thinking and rationality to solve problems and pursue knowledge. “Fundamentalism” is defined by the Oxford Dictionary of the Social Sciences1 as “A movement that asserts the primacy of religious values in social and political life and calls for a return to a 'fundamental' or pure form of religion.” In its broadest sense, however, fundamentalism is a form of ideological intransigence which is not limited to religion, but includes political positions as well (for example, in the case of some extreme forms of “environmentalism”.

  7. Fundamentals of precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon

    2018-01-01

    Imagine a world where clinicians make accurate diagnoses and provide targeted therapies to their patients according to well-defined, biologically-informed disease subtypes, accounting for individual differences in genetic make-up, behaviors, cultures, lifestyles and the environment. This is not as utopic as it may seem. Relatively recent advances in science and technology have led to an explosion of new information on what underlies health and what constitutes disease. These novel insights emanate from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, as well as epigenomics and exposomics—such ‘omics data can now be generated at unprecedented depth and scale, and at rapidly decreasing cost. Making sense and integrating these fundamental information domains to transform health care and improve health remains a challenge—an ambitious, laudable and high-yield goal. Precision dentistry is no longer a distant vision; it is becoming part of the rapidly evolving present. Insights from studies of the human genome and microbiome, their associated transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes, and epigenomics and exposomics have reached an unprecedented depth and scale. Much more needs to be done, however, for the realization of precision medicine in the oral health domain. PMID:29227115

  8. Program for transfer research and impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusnak, J. J.; Freeman, J. E.; Hartley, J. M.; Kottenstette, J. P.; Staskin, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    Research activities conducted under the Program for Transfer Research and Impact Studies (TRIS) during 1972 included: (1) preparation of 10,196 TSP requests for TRIS application analysis; (2) interviews with over 500 individuals concerning the technical, economic, and social impacts of NASA-generated technology; (3) preparation of 38 new technology transfer example files and 101 new transfer cases; and (4) maintenance of a technology transfer library containing more than 2,900 titles. Six different modes of technology utilization are used to illustrate the pervasiveness of the transfer and diffusion of aerospace innovations. These modes also provide a basis for distinguishing the unique characteristics of the NASA Technology Utilization Program. An examination is reported of the ways in which NASA-generated technology is contributing to beneficial social change in five major areas of human concern: health, environment, safety, transportation, and communication.

  9. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  10. Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.

    2005-06-01

    Quantum mechanics has evolved from a subject of study in pure physics to one with a wide range of applications in many diverse fields. The basic concepts of quantum mechanics are explained in this book in a concise and easy-to-read manner emphasising applications in solid state electronics and modern optics. Following a logical sequence, the book is focused on the key ideas and is conceptually and mathematically self-contained. The fundamental principles of quantum mechanics are illustrated by showing their application to systems such as the hydrogen atom, multi-electron ions and atoms, the formation of simple organic molecules and crystalline solids of practical importance. It leads on from these basic concepts to discuss some of the most important applications in modern semiconductor electronics and optics. Containing many homework problems and worked examples, the book is suitable for senior-level undergraduate and graduate level students in electrical engineering, materials science and applied physics. Clear exposition of quantum mechanics written in a concise and accessible style Precise physical interpretation of the mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics Illustrates the important concepts and results by reference to real-world examples in electronics and optoelectronics Contains homeworks and worked examples, with solutions available for instructors

  11. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  12. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quint, Wolfgang; Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The individual topics are covered by leading experts in the respective fields of research. Provides readers with present theory and experiments in this field. A useful reference for researchers. This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  13. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  14. Credit cycles and macro fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, S.J.; Kraeussl, R.G.W.; Lucas, A.; Monteiro, A.

    2009-01-01

    We use an intensity-based framework to study the relation between macroeconomic fundamentals and cycles in defaults and rating activity. Using Standard and Poor's U.S. corporate rating transition and default data over the period 1980-2005, we directly estimate the default and rating cycle from micro

  15. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  16. Arguing against fundamentality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kerry

    This paper aims to open up discussion on the relationship between fundamentality and naturalism, and in particular on the question of whether fundamentality may be denied on naturalistic grounds. A historico-inductive argument for an anti-fundamentalist conclusion, prominent within the contemporary metaphysical literature, is examined; finding it wanting, an alternative 'internal' strategy is proposed. By means of an example from the history of modern physics - namely S-matrix theory - it is demonstrated that (1) this strategy can generate similar (though not identical) anti-fundamentalist conclusions on more defensible naturalistic grounds, and (2) that fundamentality questions can be empirical questions. Some implications and limitations of the proposed approach are discussed.

  17. Avatar: An Assessment of the Fundamental Aspects of Outsourcing in an Observational StudyHttp://Dx.Doi.Org/10.5585/Riae.V9i3.1684

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Queiroz Machado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the several existing organizational strategies, outsourcing has achieved increasing prominence in the business field, where it is already considered to be notably generalized, requiring a continuous review of its fundamental aspects. Therefore, this study aspires to present, through an observational study, an analysis of the outsourcing strategy from Avatar, the motion picture. The choice of research was driven by the relationship between two organizations constituting the background of the narrative: RDA and the Avatar Program. Data was analyzed to identify elements either described by the theory or diverging from it. Finally, it was concluded that the entire outsourcing process should take into account critical success factors, such as: organizational culture or the difference in perception of business between all involved companies.

  18. Supplementary report: millimeter wave study program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jory, H.R.; Symons, R.S.

    1976-02-01

    This report describes work done during the months of December 1975 and January 1976, following the writing of the final report on the millimeter wave study program for generation of 100 kW or more power at 120 GHz. The work has been directed to three areas for application to gyrotron devices, small signal analysis, electron beam simulation, and microwave measurements on cavity coupling. A small signal analysis is presented, which allows determination of beam loading in cavities. The results are similar to previous published work, but contain a higher order relativistic correction. The electron beam simulations include two magnetron type guns and one based on electrostatic lenses

  19. A physico-chemical study of some areas of fundamental significance to biophysics: Annual report, 1988--1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: Density Effects on High-n Rydbergs of Methyl Iodide; Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Biologically Active Molecules; Laser Optogalvanic Spectroscopy; Luminescence Studies; and Photoionization Studies

  20. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  1. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  2. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kunzman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately help strengthen the broader civic fabric.

  3. Fundamentals of reactor chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatsu, Eiko

    1981-12-01

    In the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI, many courses are presented for the people working in and around the nuclear reactors. The curricula of the courses contain also the subject material of chemistry. With reference to the foreign curricula, a plan of educational subject material of chemistry in the Nuclear Engineering School of JAERI was considered, and the fundamental part of reactor chemistry was reviewed in this report. Since the students of the Nuclear Engineering School are not chemists, the knowledge necessary in and around the nuclear reactors was emphasized in order to familiarize the students with the reactor chemistry. The teaching experience of the fundamentals of reactor chemistry is also given. (author)

  4. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  5. Site characterization studies in the NWTS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipler, D.; Evans, G.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to identify sites and construct and operate facilities for the storage or isolation of spent fuel and/or reprocessing radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program has been initiated by the DOE to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of burial and isolation of high level radioactive waste in deep geologic formations. The NTWS Program plan which sets forth the criteria, procedures, and other considerations required to characterize and select a site in a comprehensive stepwise manner is discussed. The plan is not specific to any given geologic medium but serves as a guide for site selection in any geohydrologic system deemed appropriate for consideration for a deep geologic repository. The plan will be used by all NWTS Project Offices in the conduct of their site characterization program. The plan will be updated, as warranted, to reflect technology development, National policies, rulemakings by regulatory agencies, and other changing political, social, and institutional considerations. Site characterization begins with the identification of regions believed to have suitable geologic, hydrologic, and environmental characteristics for repository siting. This is followed by an iterative process of data collection and analysis to identify areas and locations which appear most suitable for further investigations. In addition, screening studies of the DOE's nuclear complexes has led to the selection of the Nevada Test Site and the Hanford Site for further characterization studies. The site characterization process results in a number of candidate sites from which a site will be selected and proposed to the NRC for licensing

  6. STUDY OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY SPECIATION IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS UNDER SIMULATED POST-COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses a continuation of the study on mercury speciation initiated in the fiscal year 1997 (FY97). The previous study found that cupric oxide (CuO) and ferric oxide (Fe2O3) in the presence of hydrogen chloride (HCl) promote elemental mercury oxidation in simulated f...

  7. Fundamentals - longitudinal motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    There are many ways to accelerate charged particles to high energy for physics research. Each has served its purpose but eventually has encountered fundamental limitations of one kind or another. Looking at the famous Livingston curve, the initial birth and final level-off of all types of accelerators is seen. In fact, in the mid-80s we personally witnessed the creation of a new type of collider - the Stanford Linear Collider. Also witnessed, was the resurgence of study into novel methods of acceleration. This paper will cover acceleration and longitudinal motion in a synchrotron. A synchrotron is a circular accelerator with the following three characteristics: (1) Magnetic guiding (dipole) and confinement (quadrupole) components are placed in a small neighborhood around the equilibrium orbit. (2) Particles are kept in resonance with the radio-frequency electric field indefinitely to achieve acceleration to higher energies. (3) Magnetic fields are varied adiabatically with the energy of the particle. D. Edwards described the transverse oscillations of particles in a synchrotron. Here the author talks about the longitudinal oscillations of particles. The phase stability principle was invented by V. Veksler and E. McMillan independently in 1945. The phase stability and strong focusing principle, invented by Courant and Livingston in 1952, enabled the steady energy gain of accelerators and storage rings witnessed during the past 30 years. This paper is a unified overview of the related rf subjects in an accelerator and a close coupling between accelerator physics and engineering practices, which is essential for the major progress in areas such as high intensity synchrotrons, a multistage accelerator complex, and anti-proton production and cooling, made possible in the past 20 years

  8. ANALISIS VARIABEL-VARIABEL FUNDAMENTAL YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP PRICE EARNING RATIO SEBAGAI DASAR PENILAIAN SAHAM (Studi Pada Saham-Saham indeks LQ 45 di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   The existence of the Indonesian Capital Market is very important for Indonesian economic activity, due to the fact that capital market development is one indicated of the betterment of national economy. In terms of investment, capital market development is determined by the economic fundamentals, public company performance, and investor’s tendency to invest. Stock, being the main investment object, offers several preferences to choose by the investor, one of which is LQ 45 stock indices. The Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX focus is put on the trade of LQ 45 stock indices. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the LQ 45 stock indices by taking into account the four main variables as suggested by the Gordon model. In line with the above, this study concerns stock evaluation based on the fundamental analysis by the price earning ratio approach. Explanatory variable is dividend payout ratio, return on equity, earning growth and financial leverage, dependent variable is price earning ratio. Purposive random sampling and multiple regression using 16 emittent of LQ 45 stock indices samples were used]. The aims of this research is to know the influence of the fundamental variables on the price earning ratio, and the naturalness of LQ 45 stock indices value. The samples used are the big, established and stable companies included in  calculation of LQ 45 indices, and thus would not apply to non LQ 45 indices at the JSX from 1999 through 2000. The results of the study indicate that (1 out of the four explanatory variables used: dividend payout ratio, return on equity, earning growth and financial leverage whereas simultaneously, all the variables showed significant influence; (2 dividend payout ratio was the most significant explanatory variable influencing the price earning ratio; (3 based on the price earning ratio analysis, no natural value was evidence of LQ 45 stock indices at the JSX.   Keywords: Price Earning Ratio as Bases in Stock

  9. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are

  10. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  11. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  12. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  13. Grenoble Fundamental Research Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A summary of the various activities of the Fundamental Research Institute, Grenoble, France is given. The following fields are covered: Nuclear physics, solid state physics, physical chemistry, biology and advanced techniques. Fore more detailed descriptions readers are referred to scientific literature [fr

  14. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  15. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from...

  16. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  17. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  18. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  19. Fast fundamental frequency estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    Modelling signals as being periodic is common in many applications. Such periodic signals can be represented by a weighted sum of sinusoids with frequencies being an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. Due to its widespread use, numerous methods have been proposed to estimate the funda...

  20. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Workplace Wellness Programs Study: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Mattke, Soeren; Liu, Hangsheng; Caloyeras, John; Huang, Christina Y.; Van Busum, Kristin R.; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Shier, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the characteristics of workplace wellness programs, their prevalence, their impact on employee health and medical cost, facilitators of their success, and the role of incentives in such programs.

  2. An Overview of Head Start Program Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Jeanne Morris

    2017-01-01

    Johnson's "War on Poverty" administrative team campaigned for committee members to join the War on Poverty efforts to create and develop programs for children born into poverty (Zigler, 2003). Poverty based programs, such as the Head Start program, continue to put into place proactive measures to increase preschooler's cognitive…

  3. Programa de educação nutricional em escola de ensino fundamental de zona rural Nutrition education program in a rural elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faber Boog

    2010-12-01

    -mediated man-environment interaction. METHODS: The approach was guided by the concepts of health promotion, community nutrition and problem-solving education. The program, called "Teaching to love the land and what the land produces" was developed together with 155 students from preschool to seventh grade from a rural elementary school in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The nutrition education program consisted of: presentation of the diagnosis to the teachers and students' families; development of a story based on diagnostic elements; construction of a scale model of the area; tasting of fruits cultivated locally; and exhibition of the scale-model to the families. RESULTS: The methods and technologies used awakened interest in the activities because they reflected their daily routines and valued their work, history and cultural identity, strengthening the families' self-esteem. Fruits received a new meaning, being a right of the producer. There were also conflicts of interest between the city hall and the researchers. CONCLUSION: It was possible to create a food and nutrition program based on the work-mediated man/environment relationship, where the theme diet was not based on nutrition science, but on a diagnosis of the consumption practices, values and representations that promote the development of interventional technologies. The above mentioned conflicts of interest must be borne in mind when public policies on food and nutrition security are planned.

  4. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  5. Large Coil Program magnetic system design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, S.D.; Johnson, N.E.

    1977-01-01

    The primary objective of the Large Coil Program (LCP) is to demonstrate the reliable operation of large superconducting coils to provide a basis for the design principles, materials, and fabrication techniques proposed for the toroidal magnets for the THE NEXT STEP (TNS) and other future tokamak devices. This paper documents a design study of the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) in which the structural response of the Toroidal Field (TF) Coils and the supporting structure was evaluated under simulated reactor conditions. The LCP test facility structural system consists of six TF Coils, twelve coil-to-coil torsional restraining beams (torque rings), a central bucking post with base, and a Pulse Coil system. The NASTRAN Finite Element Structural Analysis computer Code was utilized to determine the distribution of deflections, forces, and stresses for each of the TF Coils, torque rings, and the central bucking post. Eleven load conditions were selected to represent probable test operations. Pulse Coils suspended in the bore of the test coil were energized to simulate the pulsed field environment characteristic of the TNS reactor system. The TORMAC Computer Code was utilized to develop the magnetic forces in the TF Coils for each of the eleven loading conditions examined, with or without the Pulse Coils energized. The TORMAC computer program output forces were used directly as input load conditions for the NASTRAN analyses. Results are presented which demonstrate the reliability of the LCTF under simulated reactor operating conditions

  6. Physico-chemical study of some areas of fundamental significance to biophysics. Final report, 1974--1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, S.P.

    1977-08-18

    The comprehensive report includes a complete list of publications resulting from the work and a review of studies made in the vacuum ultraviolet, photoelectron spectroscopy, excited states and electron structure of inorganic salts, a model for polar molecules, application of abstract mathematics to the genetic code, the orbital approximation in which orbital properties are related to state properties. (JSR)

  7. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Capio

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  8. Competency to Study and Learn in Stressful Contests: Fundamentals of the "e-Coping with Academic Stress"™ Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesús; López, Mireia; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose Manuel; Vera, Manuel Mariano; Solinas, Giulliana; Fadda, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing research interest in achievement emotions in university teaching-learning processes in recent years. While their importance has been firmly established, there continues to be a need for assessment and intervention models. The objective of this report is to present the "Competency Model for Studying, Learning and…

  9. Physico-chemical study of some areas of fundamental significance to biophysics. Final report, 1974--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlynn, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    The comprehensive report includes a complete list of publications resulting from the work and a review of studies made in the vacuum ultraviolet, photoelectron spectroscopy, excited states and electron structure of inorganic salts, a model for polar molecules, application of abstract mathematics to the genetic code, the orbital approximation in which orbital properties are related to state properties

  10. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  11. Fundamental studies of desulfurization processes: reaction of methanethiol on ZnO and Cs/ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Joseph; Jirsak, Tomas; Rodriguez, José A.

    2001-05-01

    The reaction of methanethiol on ZnO and Cs promoted ZnO surfaces has been studied with synchrotron based photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopy. On ZnO, methanethiol undergoes selective reaction to produce carbon monoxide (37-58%), methane (23-38%), formaldehyde (12-15%), ethane (1-11%), and a mixture of ethylene and acetylene (3-13%). At low temperatures (cleavage occurs to yield methyl intermediate and atomic S. Carbon is removed from the surface as gaseous products above 500 K, and atomic sulfur remains bound to the zinc sites of the surface. Submonolayer amounts of cesium do not have a significant promotional effect on C-S bond cleavage, whereas Cs multilayers are found to significantly lower the activation barrier for C-S bond cleavage. This study illustrates the chemistry associated with the desulfurization of thiols on a catalytically relevant oxide surface.

  12. Fundamental study on repairing technique for cracked or damaged parts of structures by cold gas dynamic spray technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Amao, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Yuji; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative technique for repairing of cracked or damaged parts of structures, such as nuclear or thermal power plants, by means of cold gas dynamic spray (CS) technique. In the case of generation of cracks etc. in the structure, the cracks can be repaired by welding. However, the welding spends considerable time on repair, and also needs special skills. The CS technique is known as a new technique not only for coatings but also for thick depositions. It has many advantages, i.e. dense deposition, high deposition rate and low oxidation. Therefore, it has a possibility to apply the CS technique instead of welding to repair the cracks etc. In this study, the cold gas dynamic spray technique as a new repairing technique for some structures is introduced. (author)

  13. Fundamental study on the salt distillation from the mixtures of rare earth precipitates and LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H. C.; Eun, H. C.; Cho, Y. Z.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, I. T.

    2008-01-01

    An electrorefining process of spent nuclear fuel generates waste salt containing some radioactive metal chlorides. The most effective method to reduce salt waste volume is to separate radioactive metals from non-radioactive salts. A promising approach is to change radioactive metal chlorides into salt-insoluble oxides by an oxygen sparging. Following this, salt distillation process is available to effectively separate the precipitated particulate metal oxides from salt. This study investigated the distillation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt under different vacuums at elevated temperatures. The first part study investigated distillation rates of eutectic salt under different vacuums at high temperatures by using thermo-gravimetric furnace system. In the second part, we tested the removal of eutectic salt from the RE precipitates by using the laboratory vacuum distillation furnace system. Investigated variables were the temperature of mixture, the degree of vacuum and the time

  14. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  15. Fundamental study for improvement of dewatering of fine coal/refuse. Annual report, August 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, S.H.; Klinzing, G.E.; Morsi, B.J.; Tierney, J.W.; Adams, J.; Bhat, N.; Binkley, T.; Chi, S.M.; Kakwani, R.; Qamar, I.

    1983-09-01

    The overall objective of the study is to seek improved methods of dewatering through a better understanding of the filtration and post-filtration processes. As a first step, efforts have been focused on the mechanism of dewatering in terms of basic properties of coal (and refuse) particles and microstructures of filter cakes, and their relations to filtration rate and final moisture content. Pittsburgh seam-Bruceton Mine coal was used as a base coal with experiments also being conducted with Upper Freeport and Illinois No. 6 coals. During the past year, filter cakes from the above coals with widely varied size ranges were micrographically characterized. The effects of a number of surface active agents and of entrapped air bubbles on the filter cake properties were also studied. A module of the network model for calculating single phase permeabilities was completed and tested. The report is divided into four parts: summary and deliverables; work forecast for the 1983-84; detailed descriptions of technical progress for particle/filter cake characterization; theoretical modeling, and enhanced dewatering methods; and appendices. 11 references, 35 figures, 11 tables.

  16. Molecular modeling of directed self-assembly of block copolymers: Fundamental studies of processing conditions and evolutionary pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Gurdaman Singh

    Rapid progress in the semi-conductor industry has pushed for smaller feature sizes on integrated electronic circuits. Current photo-lithographic techniques for nanofabrication have reached their technical limit and are problematic when printing features small enough to meet future industrial requirements. "Bottom-up'' techniques, such as the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP), are the primary contenders to compliment current "top-down'' photo-lithography ones. For industrial requirements, the defect density from DSA needs to be less than 1 defect per 10 cm by 10 cm. Knowledge of both material synthesis and the thermodynamics of the self-assembly process are required before optimal operating conditions can be found to produce results adequate for industry. The work present in this thesis is divided into three chapters, each discussing various aspects of DSA as studied via a molecular model that contains the essential physics of BCP self-assembly. Though there are various types of guiding fields that can be used to direct BCPs over large wafer areas with minimum defects, this study focuses only on chemically patterned substrates. The first chapter addresses optimal pattern design by describing a framework where molecular simulations of various complexities are coupled with an advanced optimization technique to find a pattern that directs a target morphology. It demonstrates the first ever study where BCP self-assembly on a patterned substrate is optimized using a three-dimensional description of the block-copolymers. For problems pertaining to DSA, the methodology is shown to converge much faster than the traditional random search approach. The second chapter discusses the metrology of BCP thin films using TEM tomography and X-ray scattering techniques, such as CDSAXS and GISAXS. X-ray scattering has the advantage of being able to quickly probe the average structure of BCP morphologies over large wafer areas; however, deducing the BCP morphology

  17. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    and economic development in the 20th century. There is however a downside to this development and we are seeing significant pollution and pressure on resources. Catalysis therefore has an increasingly important role in limiting pollution and optimizing the use of resources. This development will depend on our...... fundamental understanding of catalytic processes and our ability to make use of that understanding. This thesis presents fundamental studies of catalyst nanoparticles with particular focus on dynamic processes. Such studies often require atomic-scale characterization, because the catalytic conversion takes...... important that we only study intrinsic structures and phenomena and not those that may be induced by the high energy electrons used to image the specimen. This requires careful consideration of the influence of the electron beam in order to understand, control and minimize that influence. I present four...

  18. Ratings of Sovereign Risk and the Macroeconomics Fundamentals of the countries: a Study Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cândido da Silva Filho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the consequences of asymmetric information, the sovereign risk ratings are instruments that constitute a key piece in the determination of credit market conditions, essential to the growth of developing countries like Brazil. In the present work we studied based on macroeconomics foundations, a classification to sovereign risk ratings realized by the ratings agencies finding the classification using Artificial Neural Networks. We observed homogeneity degree between the attributions of agencies and macroeconomics foundations in the countries of sample which four of foundations seem to be more directly connected with these attributions. After, in a comparative static exercise, we use the model to make simulations of scenarios of the credit external conditions for the Brazilian economy, changing the macroeconomics foundations which we noted that agencies expected for more per capita income increasing and decrease of public debt. (Full article in Portuguese only

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the fundamental flow characteristics of a 3D gully box under drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro; Carvalho, Rita F; Leandro, Jorge

    2017-05-01

    Numerical studies regarding the influence of entrapped air on the hydraulic performance of gullies are nonexistent. This is due to the lack of a model that simulates the air-entrainment phenomena and consequently the entrapped air. In this work, we used experimental data to validate an air-entrainment model that uses a Volume-of-Fluid based method to detect the interface and the Shear-stress transport k-ω turbulence model. The air is detected in a sub-grid scale, generated by a source term and transported using a slip velocity formulation. Results are shown in terms of free-surface elevation, velocity profiles, turbulent kinetic energy and discharge coefficients. The air-entrainment model allied to the turbulence model showed a good accuracy in the prediction of the zones of the gully where the air is more concentrated.

  20. Towards a Capacitive Enzyme Sensor for Direct Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fundamental Studies and Aspects of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mulchandani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of a miniaturised potentiometric enzyme biosensor is presented. The biosensor chip utilises the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH for the direct determination of pesticides. The transducer structure of the sensors chip consists of a pH-sensitive capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure that reacts towards pH changes caused by the OPH-catalised hydrolysis of the organophosphate compounds. The biosensor is operated versus a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V and the constant capacitance (ConCap mode for the two different pesticides paraoxon and parathion. For the development of this new type of biosensor, different immobilisation strategies, influence of buffer composition and concentration, transducer material, detection limit, long-term stability and selectivity have been studied.

  1. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  2. Novel approaches to a study of the fundamental organic chemistry of coal. Final report, September 1, 1977-September 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giam, C.S.; Goodwin, T.E.; Tabor, R.L.; Neff, G.; Smith, S.; Ionescu, F.; Trujillo, D.

    1979-01-01

    The studies are preliminary in nature, and the following conclusions are tentative. (1) The results with mixed carboxylic-sulfonic anhydrides seem to indicate an increase in polymerization of the coal molecular structure, when based on the results of pyrolysis/gas chromatographic analyses. The mixed anhydrides are such powerful acylating reagents that they should be capable of causing profound and dramatic structural modifications of coal and the results suggest sub-optimal reaction conditions. The results may also be due to the presence of only a small number of ether linkages connecting large molecular units together. Possibly, at elevated pressures and larger concentrations of mixed anhydride, a greater extent of depolymerization would occur, coupled perhaps with acylation. (2) The Nimz lignin degradation reaction has now been fully implemented and good conditions have been found for lignite reaction. The products from this degradation were basically hydrocarbon in nature. Thus, in the absence of monolignols, we postulate that such phenolic linkages of the type found in lignin are not found to a large degree in Texas lignites. (3) Our recently developed technique of analyzing methylene to methyl ratios by IR spectroscopy represents a useful method for characterization of both soluble and insoluble coal-derived products. The technique is less expensive than mass spectroscopy and not limited by solubility as in the case of NMR spectroscopy. (4) From the measurements of the acidic hydrogen content of the lignites studies, we have formed a postulate as to the involvement of heteroatoms (especially oxygen) in the lignite structure. We feel that heteroatoms in Texas lignites are involved mainly in carbonyl, low molecular weight alkoxy and/or heterocyclic units. (5) Conditions for depolymerizing and solubilizing lignites by use of t-butyllithium have been developed and utilized successfully.

  3. A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON SOLUBILITY OF HEAVY METAL OXIDES IN AMMONIUM AND PHOSPHONIUM BASED DEEP EUTECTIC SOLVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHANGGARY RAJENDRAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution has become increasingly prevalent in our daily lives and has caused a serious threat at a global level. Among the various pollutants that exist,heavy metal pollution has become an issue of great concern due to their high toxicity, greater bioaccumulation in human body and food chain, nonbiodegradability nature, and carcinogenic effects to humans. This study aims to address the heavy metal ion contamination in wastewater by providing a low cost and efficient removal technique using DESs. In this investigation, the solubility of CuO and ZnO heavy metal oxide ions with concentration of 20g/L was studied in ammonium and phosphonium based DESs. The samples were left to stir at 250 rpm at 28, 45 and 65°C respectively for four hours in an incubator orbital shaker and the solubility of the heavy metal ions were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS using serial dilution technique. Phosphonium based DES which contain Methyl Triphenyl Phosphonium Bromide (MTPB showed higher solubility of CuO and ZnO ions. Based on the results obtained, DES 6 (MTPB: Glycerol has the highest solubility of CuO, 0.197 mg/L at 65°C and the solubility of ZnO was found to be the highest in DES 7 (MTPB: Glycerol, 1.225 mg/L at 65°C. Higher solubility was observed in samples containing ZnO as they are more ionic compared to CuO.

  4. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Dharmasena, Ruchira Ravinath; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-17

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P 16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li 16 P 16 ). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g -1 , depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ∼453 mAh g -1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  5. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  6. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, Cliff

    Choosing an intermediate-level geophysics text is always problematic: What should we teach students after they have had introductory courses in geology, math, and physics, but little else? Fundamentals of Geophysics is aimed specifically at these intermediate-level students, and the author's stated approach is to construct a text “using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and equations in which the student can follow each derivation step-by-step.” Moreover, for Lowrie, the Earth is round, not flat—the “fundamentals of geophysics” here are the essential properties of our Earth the planet, rather than useful techniques for finding oil and minerals. Thus this book is comparable in both level and approach to C. M. R. Fowler's The Solid Earth (Cambridge University Press, 1990).

  7. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, A.; Murthy, S.

    2007-06-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d ( d = 3, . . . , 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings. (author)

  8. Fundamental superstrings as holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabholkar, Atish; Murthy, Sameer

    2008-01-01

    The worldsheet of a macroscopic fundamental superstring in the Green-Schwarz light-cone gauge is viewed as a possible boundary hologram of the near horizon region of a small black string. For toroidally compactified strings, the hologram has global symmetries of AdS 3 x S d-1 x T 8-d (d = 3, ..., 8), only some of which extend to local conformal symmetries. We construct the bulk string theory in detail for the particular case of d = 3. The symmetries of the hologram are correctly reproduced from this exact worldsheet description in the bulk. Moreover, the central charge of the boundary Virasoro algebra obtained from the bulk agrees with the Wald entropy of the associated small black holes. This construction provides an exact CFT description of the near horizon region of small black holes both in Type-II and heterotic string theory arising from multiply wound fundamental superstrings

  9. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  10. Fundamental steps in experimental design for animal studies Passos fundamentais em desenhos experimentais de estudos envolvendo animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies continue to have a vital role in science development. The aim of this review is to provide to new investigators an overview of the important steps involved in experimental designs and also to suggest some practical information that is commonly associated with this process. Investigators should adhere to the ethical procedure and follow strictly the scientific method. Both the aims and well-formulated hypothesis are essential and practical. In this regard a profound literature search and the aid of an experienced statistician is encouraged. The need of randomization, blinding, and attempting to minimize variation is discussed and recommended. The choosing of good control groups and the employment of pilot studies are useful. Finally, the formulation of new questions to be further responded is expected.Estudos em animais continuam a ser vital para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O objetivo dessa revisão é o de apresentar a novos pesquisadores, uma visão geral dos passos importantes envolvidos no desenho experimental e, ao mesmo tempo, sugerir algumas informações de ordem prática que geralmente estão incluídas no processo da pesquisa. Os pesquisadores devem atentar sempre aos princípios éticos e seguir estritamente o método científico. Hipóteses bem formuladas e objetivas claros são essenciais e práticos. Nesse contexto, uma pesquisa bibliográfica profunda deve ser executada previamente e o pesquisador deve contar, se possível, com o auxilio de um estatístico experiente. A necessidade de randomização, de planejar um estudo cego e de se minimizar a variação são discutidas e enfatizadas. A escolha de bons grupos controles e o emprego de um estudo piloto são recomendados. Finalmente, a formulação de novas questões para serem respondidas por novas pesquisas é esperada.

  11. Injury patterns of the acromioclavicular ligament complex in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations: a cross-sectional, fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Dirk; Jaeger, Martin; Reising, Kilian; Feucht, Matthias J; Südkamp, Norbert P; Izadpanah, Kaywan

    2016-09-06

    Horizontal instability impairs clinical outcome following acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction and may be caused by insufficient healing of the superior acromioclavicular ligament complex (ACLC). However, characteristics of acute ACLC injuries are poorly understood so far. Purposes of this study were to identify different ACLC tear types, assess type-specific prevalence and determine influencing cofactors. This prospective, cross-sectional study comprised 65 patients with acute-traumatic Rockwood-5 (n = 57) and Rockwood-4 (n = 8) injuries treated operatively by means of mini-open ACJ reduction and hook plate stabilization. Mean age at surgery was 38.2 years (range, 19-57 years). Standardized pre- and intraoperative evaluation included assessment of ACLC tear patterns and cofactors related to the articular disc, the deltoid-trapezoidal (DT) fascia and bony ACJ morphology. Articular disc size was quantified as 0 = absent, 1 = remnant, 2 = meniscoid and 3 = complete. All patients showed complete ruptures of the superior ACLC, which could be assigned to four different tear patterns. Clavicular-sided (AC-1) tears were observed in 46/65 (70.8 %), oblique (AC-2) tears in 12/65 (18.5 %), midportion (AC-3) tears in 3/65 (4.6 %) and acromial-sided (AC-4) tears in 4/65 (6.1 %) of cases. Articular disc size manifestation was significantly (P < .001) more pronounced in patients with AC-1 tears (1.89 ± 0.57) compared to patients with AC-2 tears (0.67 ± 0.89). Other cofactors did not influence ACLC tear patterns. ACLC dislocation with incarceration caused mechanical impediment to anatomical ACJ reduction in 14/65 (21.5 %) of cases including all Rockwood-4 dislocations. Avulsion "in continuity" was a consistent mode of failure of the DT fascia. Type-specific operative strategies enabled anatomical ACLC repair of all observed tear types. Acute ACLC injuries follow distinct tear patterns. There exist clavicular-sided (AC-1

  12. Fundamentals for an Osteopathic Obesity Designed Study: The Effects of Education on Osteopathic Medical Students' Attitudes Regarding Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayer, Gregory G; Weiss, Jennifer; Clearfield, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a major health concern in the United States, and its prevalence continues to rise. Although it is a common health issue, many people, including health care professionals, are biased against people with obesity. To determine whether a comprehensive obesity curriculum presented to students in medical school can positively influence their attitudes toward obesity. The study was designed around a comprehensive educational obesity curriculum at Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine-CA, involving the classes of 2013 through 2018. A survey to assess student attitudes toward obesity was distributed to first-year students before the curriculum, directly after completion, and each year after until graduation (graduating classes of 2015 through 2018). Second- and third-year medical students in 2011 (graduating classes of 2014 and 2013), who did not complete the curriculum, were given an examination to establish baseline values and served as the control group. The obesity curriculum consisted of lectures delivered during the first and second year of medical school and case study simulations during the third year. Knowledge gained from the curriculum was assessed with a multiple-choice examination, and bias was assessed using the Fat Phobia Scale. A total of 718 first- through fourth-year students were included. Students who completed the first year of the obesity curriculum (n=528) showed significantly greater medical knowledge regarding obesity-related epidemiology, pathogenesis, biochemistry, pathophysiology, and metabolic factors; nutrition, diet, physical activity, self-control, and behavior modification; pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions; and associated chronic disorders, based on their multiple-choice examination scores compared with the control group. The examination scores indicated significant increases in medical knowledge compared with the precurriculum cohort after the curriculum (OMS I students: 130 [72.4%]; 133 [92.6%]; 133

  13. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  14. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  16. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  17. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  18. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  19. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton

    2016-01-01

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating @@), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  20. Fundamental concepts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The fundamental concepts on energy and the different forms in which it is manifested are presented. Since it is possible to transform energy in a way to other, the laws that govern these transformations are discussed. The energy transformation processes are an essential compound in the capacity humanizes to survive and be developed. The energy use brings important economic aspects, technical and political. Because this, any decision to administer energy system will be key for our future life

  1. Fundamentals of powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.H.; Qureshi, K.A.; Minhas, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    This book is being presented to introduce the fundamentals of technology of powder metallurgy. An attempt has been made to present an overall view of powder metallurgy technology in the first chapter, whereas chapter 2 to 8 deal with the production of metal powders. The basic commercial methods of powder production are briefly described with illustrations. Chapter 9 to 12 describes briefly metal powder characteristics and principles of testing, mixing, blending, conditioning, compaction and sintering. (orig./A.B.)

  2. Fundamentals of Physical Volcanology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Bruce

    2010-04-01

    Fundamentals haunt me. Certain words ignite unavoidable trains of thought, trains that begin in a cascade, unexpectedly leaping chasm after chasm, rushing from single words to whole paragraphs to full books to men's lives. So it is with me with seeing the word “fundamental” in print. I cannot evade the euphoric excitement of thinking that someone has found something terribly original and simple, understandable by every journeyman, explaining everything.

  3. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  4. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  5. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF DETECTION OF MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY-ORIENTED GENE DOPING BY MYOSTATIN KNOCK DOWN USING RNA INTERFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohru Takemasa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the feasibility of developing a method for detection of gene doping in power-athletes, we devised an experimental model system. Myostatin is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth, and myostatin-knockout mice exhibit a double-muscle phenotype. To achieve knockdown, we constructed plasmids expressing short hairpin interfering RNAs (shRNAs against myostatin. These shRNAs were transfected into C2C12 cultured cells or injected into the tibialis anterior (TA muscle of adult mice. By performing in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that some shRNAs effectively reduced the expression of myostatin, and that the TA muscle showed hypertrophy of up to 27.9%. Then, using real-time PCR, we tried to detect the shRNA plasmid in the serum or muscles of mice into which it had been injected. Although we were unable to detect the plasmid in serum samples, it was detectable in the treated muscle at least four weeks after induction. We were also able to detect the plasmid in muscle in the vicinity of the TA. This gene doping model system will be useful for further studies aimed at doping control

  6. Final report for Fundamental study of long-short interfacial wave interactions with application for flow regime development

    CERN Document Server

    McCready, M

    2000-01-01

    The long waves that cause slugs almost always form more slowly than short waves, and linear stability always predicts that the growth rate for long waves is much less than that for short waves. However, at many conditions above neutral stability, long waves dominate the wave field. Three different studies were undertaken as part of the funded work: (1) linear interaction for unsteady flows; (2) wave evolution in oil-water channel flows; (3) retrograde stability and subcritical bifurcations. The oil-water system was used as a surrogate for gas-liquid systems because the gas phase is usually turbulent, and this complication is thus avoided although the phenomena involved are similar. The following overall conclusions about flow regime development were reached: (a) Oscillations in pressure and flow rate, due to interfacial waves or a malfunctioning pump, can cause significant growth rate changes in short waves within narrow FR-equency ranges, but probably do not have a large effect on long waves and thus regime ...

  7. Fundamental Study on the Development of Structural Lightweight Concrete by Using Normal Coarse Aggregate and Foaming Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Seung; Ismail, Mohamed A.; Woo, Young-Je; Min, Tae-Beom; Choi, Hyun-Kook

    2014-01-01

    Structural lightweight concrete (SLWC) has superior properties that allow the optimization of super tall structure systems for the process of design. Because of the limited supply of lightweight aggregates in Korea, the development of structural lightweight concrete without lightweight aggregates is needed. The physical and mechanical properties of specimens that were cast using normal coarse aggregates and different mixing ratios of foaming agent to evaluate the possibility of creating structural lightweight concrete were investigated. The results show that the density of SLWC decreases as the dosage of foaming agent increases up to a dosage of 0.6%, as observed by SEM. It was also observed that the foaming agent induced well separated pores, and that the size of the pores ranged from 50 to 100 μm. Based on the porosity of concrete specimens with foaming agent, compressive strength values of structural lightweight foam concrete (SLWFC) were obtained. It was also found that the estimated values from proposed equations for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of SLWFC, and values obtained by actual measurements were in good agreement. Thus, this study confirms that new structural lightweight concrete using normal coarse aggregates and foaming agent can be developed successfully. PMID:28788691

  8. Electron bombardment fusion and continuous casting of uranium carbide. Fundamental study of the metallurgical and thermal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouve, J.

    1968-02-01

    During a pilot production run, about 1.200 kg of uranium carbide cylindrical rods were prepared by electron bombardment fusion and continuous casting in an apparatus making it possible to operate in a constant vacuum automatically. In order to make the most of the fusion technique used, it was necessary to resolve a certain number of problems involved in this production. It was found that the energy yield for the electron bombardment heating using accelerating voltages of about 10 kV was 100 per cent; about 40 per cent of the electrons are re-emitted by back-scattering. These electrons leave the surface with practically zero energy. The fusion technique leads to the elimination of the majority of the metallic impurities. In order to explain the variations in the non-metallic impurity contents the different reactions occurring in the molten uranium monocarbide have been determined. A micrographic study of the rods obtained has shown various types of crystallization depending on the rate of casting and, despite the uniaxial symmetry of the cooling, no texture has been observed, whatever the rate of fusion employed. The aspects of the fracture surfaces observed on certain rods can be explained by theory in the domain where the material is elastic. Furthermore it has been shown that a decrease in the brittleness occurs as a result of the formation of fine precipitates of the Wiedmanstatten structure type. (authors) [fr

  9. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  10. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the Netherlands
    Fundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  13. Fundamental study on cavitation erosion in liquid metal. Effect of liquid parameter on cavitation erosion in liquid metals (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Kurachi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Fumitaka; Watashi, Katsumi; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Yada, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Cavitation erosion, which possibly occurs on the surfaces of fluid machineries and components contacting flowing liquid and causes sponge-like damage on the material surface, is important problem, since it may become the cause of performance deduction, life shortening, noise, vibration of mechanical components and moreover failure of machine. Research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal is very important to confirm the safety of fast breeder reactor using sodium coolant and to avoid serious damage of the target vessel of spallation neutron source containing liquid-mercury. But the research on cavitation erosion in liquid metal has been hardly performed because of its specially in comparison with that in water. In this study, a cavitation erosion test apparatus was developed to carry out the erosion tests in low-temperature liquid metals. Cavitation erosion tests were carried out in liquid lead-bismuth alloy and in deionized water. We discuss the effect of liquid parameters and temperature effects on the erosion rate. We reach to the following conclusions. The erosion rate was evaluated in terms of a relative temperature which was defind as the percentage between freezing and boiling points. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate is 10 times in lead-bismuth alloy, and 2 to 5 times in sodium, compared with that in deionized water. At 14degC relative temperature, the erosion rate can be evaluated in terms of the following parameter. 1 / (1/ρ L /C L +1/ρ S C S )√ρ L . Where ρ is the material density and c is the velocity of sound, L and S denote liquid and solid. In the relative temperature between 14 and 30degC, the temperature dependence on the erosion rate is due to the increase in vapor pressure. (author)

  14. Seawater pumped storage systems and offshore wind parks in islands with low onshore wind potential. A fundamental case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaprakakis, Dimitris Al.; Christakis, Dimitris G.

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to investigate the effects of introducing a WP-PSS (Wind Powered Pumped Storage System) in isolated electricity systems assuming unfavourable conditions such as low onshore wind potential and low PSS head height. These disadvantages can be compensated with the installation of offshore wind parks, larger reservoirs and double penstocks to allow simultaneous water fall and pumping using pipes of the greatest diameter that are currently commercially available. With the above modifications, the energy efficiency of the WP-PSS improves while the installation costs rise. A new operation algorithm for the WP-PSS is created to fully utilize the capacity of the double penstock and ultimately maximise wind energy penetration. A case study for a WP-PSS on the island of Rhodes is presented in this paper. Despite unfavourable conditions, the WP-PSS model leads to the following results: • Annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50% of the annual electricity consumption. • The WP-PSS exhibits attractive financial induces without including any subsidies. The WP-PSS presented in this paper proved to be technically and economically feasible and revealed that WP-PSSs are a guaranteed choice for large scale penetration of R.E.S. in electrical systems. - Highlights: • Offshore wind parks (WPs) and seawater PSS can guarantee power production in autonomous systems. • The examined system is proved technically and economically feasible under unfavourable conditions. • A new operational algorithm is developed to maximise the wind energy penetration. • The annual wind energy penetration exceeds 50%. The economic indexes are acceptable. • The WP-PSS is a guaranteed choice for wind energy penetration maximisation

  15. Fundamental and practical studies on high-performance liquid affinity chromatography of biopolymers with novel stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacolod, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Rigid microparticulate stationary phases having surface-bound metal chelating functions were developed and evaluated in high performance metal chelate affinity chromatography of proteins. Silica- and polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based metal chelate sorbents were produced in wide pore and in non-porous type of column packings. A major effort has been placed on development of non-porous highly crosslinked polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PSDVB). These PSDVB microparticles were produced by a two-step swelling polymerization, and exhibited excellent mechanical strength over a wide range of flow-rates and composition used in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Simple and reproducible hydrophilic coatings were developed for the surface modification of hydrophobic PSDVB supports. A tetradentate metal chelating ligand, ethylenediamine-N, N[prime]-diacetic acid (EDDA), was covalently bound to the surface of the various supports. Sorbents having iminodiacetic acid (IDA) metal chelating functions were also evaluated. The hydrophilic character and surface coverage of various stationary phases were assessed chromatographically. Studies concerning the effects of eluent pH as well as the nature and concentration of salts on retention and selectivity with different metal chelate stationary phases having various immobilized metal ions were carried out. Elution schemes were developed for rapid separation of proteins in metal chelate affinity chromatography. EDDA stationary phases in metal forms can be viewed as complementary to IDA stationary phases since they afforded different selectivity and retentivity toward proteins. Hydrophilic PSDVB could be functionalized with IDA or EDDA metal chelating ligands or lectins. The non-porous metal chelate stationary phases afforded rapid separation of proteins by the development of multiple gradient systems, which permitted higher column peak capacity, enabling the separation of a greater number of proteins in a single chromatographic run.

  16. Fundamental study of detection of muscle hypertrophy-oriented gene doping by myostatin knock down using RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemasa, Tohru; Yakushiji, Naohisa; Kikuchi, Dale Manjiro; Deocaris, Custer; Widodo; Machida, Masanao; Kiyosawa, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of developing a method for detection of gene doping in power-athletes, we devised an experimental model system. Myostatin is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle development and growth, and myostatin-knockout mice exhibit a double-muscle phenotype. To achieve knockdown, we constructed plasmids expressing short hairpin interfering RNAs (shRNAs) against myostatin. These shRNAs were transfected into C2C12 cultured cells or injected into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of adult mice. By performing in vitro and in vivo experiments, we found that some shRNAs effectively reduced the expression of myostatin, and that the TA muscle showed hypertrophy of up to 27.9%. Then, using real-time PCR, we tried to detect the shRNA plasmid in the serum or muscles of mice into which it had been injected. Although we were unable to detect the plasmid in serum samples, it was detectable in the treated muscle at least four weeks after induction. We were also able to detect the plasmid in muscle in the vicinity of the TA. This gene doping model system will be useful for further studies aimed at doping control. Key pointsUsing a myostatin knockdown plasmid, we have succeeded in creating a model system for gene doping using mice that resulted in muscle hypertrophy greater than that reported previously.We confirmed that there was a limit of gene doping detection using real-time PCR, either from serum or muscle smple.This model experimental system can be utilized for examining indirect methods of gene doping detection such as immune responses to gene transfer or a profiling approach using DNA microarray.

  17. Study of vitamin B/sub 12/ absorption by a whole-body counter (plastic). I. The fundamental considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, R; Furumatsu, C [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-08-01

    An absorption test of vitamin B/sub 12/ was studied by using the whole body spectrometer (plastic) in a low background room. Four plastic scintillation probes were set under the bed. Each plastic scintillation probe contains a 50x50x15 cm/sup 3/ scintillator and four photomultiplier tubes. Each subject was measured in supine and prone positions and the mean was used. Measurement was made before (body background), 35 minutes after (100%), and again 7 days after the oral administration of 0.17 to 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.16 ..mu..Ci) /sup 60/Co-B/sub 12/ or of 0.2 ..mu..g(below 0.4 ..mu..Ci) /sup 58/Co-B/sub 12/. No meal or medicine was given at least 2 hours after the oral uptake of radioactive B/sub 12/. To correct for the radioactive decay and any counter instability, all measurements were corrected using a standard source. The results of B/sub 12/ absorption were expressed as the retention percentage of the labeled B/sub 12/ within the body on the seventh day. Present methods of measuring intestinal absorption of radioactive B/sub 12/ include measurements of the radioactivity (1) in the feces, (2) in the urine, (3) in the serum, or over the liver projection. While all these methods give clinically valuable results, B/sub 12/ absorption is determined most accurately by direct measurement of the amount remaining in the body with a whole-body counter after the unabsorbed radio-B/sub 12/ is excreted in the feces. It is more quantitative and simpler than the Schilling test and permits the measurement ofradioactive B/sub 12/ at a considerably lower level than the maximum permissible body burdens.

  18. A Taiwan Study Abroad Program on Aging, Culture, and Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces a Taiwan Study Abroad program on aging, culture, and healthcare. The program is a short-term academic summer program (6 credits) to bring U.S. students to Taiwan. During 2011 ~ 2015, a total of four groups including over 54 students and faculty members participated. This program partnered with multiple universities,…

  19. Statistical competencies for medical research learners: What is fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Felicity T; Lindsell, Christopher J; Welty, Leah J; Benn, Emma K T; Perkins, Susan M; Mayo, Matthew S; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Kidwell, Kelley M; Thurston, Sally W; Spratt, Heidi; Grambow, Steven C; Larson, Joseph; Carter, Rickey E; Pollock, Brad H; Oster, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    It is increasingly essential for medical researchers to be literate in statistics, but the requisite degree of literacy is not the same for every statistical competency in translational research. Statistical competency can range from 'fundamental' (necessary for all) to 'specialized' (necessary for only some). In this study, we determine the degree to which each competency is fundamental or specialized. We surveyed members of 4 professional organizations, targeting doctorally trained biostatisticians and epidemiologists who taught statistics to medical research learners in the past 5 years. Respondents rated 24 educational competencies on a 5-point Likert scale anchored by 'fundamental' and 'specialized.' There were 112 responses. Nineteen of 24 competencies were fundamental. The competencies considered most fundamental were assessing sources of bias and variation (95%), recognizing one's own limits with regard to statistics (93%), identifying the strengths, and limitations of study designs (93%). The least endorsed items were meta-analysis (34%) and stopping rules (18%). We have identified the statistical competencies needed by all medical researchers. These competencies should be considered when designing statistical curricula for medical researchers and should inform which topics are taught in graduate programs and evidence-based medicine courses where learners need to read and understand the medical research literature.

  20. Research on spherically converging ion-beam fusion neutron source for the fundamental research of atomic energy. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-050. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Yamazaki, Tetsuo

    2002-03-01

    Potential well formation due to space charge associated with spherically converging ion beams plays a key and essential role in the beam-beam colliding fusion, which is the major mechanism of the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) devices. Many theoretical results so far predicted strongly localized potential well formation, and actually for the past 30 years, many experiments were dedicated to clarify this mechanism, but neither could provide definitive evidence. In this study, we succeeded for the first time in the world in observing the double-well potential profile by use of the laser-induced fluorescence method that makes use of Stark effects, which put a period to the controverse for 30 years on the existence of the double-well potential profile. Furthermore, aiming at demonstrating a numerical prediction of a strongly nonlinear dependence of the fusion reaction rate on the discharge current on negligence of the charge exchange processes, triple-grid auxiliary system was introduced in order to reduce the operating gas pressure, with a successful result of reducing the pressure down to 1/5 of the conventional one required for glow discharge with single-grid system. Also, we measured accelerated atoms' kinetic energies through Doppler shift spectroscopy, and found the maximum energy increases proportionally to the applied voltage, which implies an enhancement of the fusion reaction cross-section with an increasing applied voltage in the near future. (author)

  1. The Swift Project Contamination Control Program: A Case Study of Balancing Cost, Schedule and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Patricia A.; Day, Diane T.; Secunda, Mark S.; Rosecrans, Glenn P.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory will be launched in early 2004 to examine the dynamic process of gamma ray burst (GRB) events. The multi-wavelength Observatory will study the GRB afterglow characteristics, which will help to answer fundamental questions about both the structure and the evolution of the universe. The Swift Observatory Contamination Control Program has been developed to aid in ensuring the success of the on-orbit performance of two of the primary instruments: the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) and the X-Ray Telescope (XRT). During the design phase of the Observatory, the contamination control program evolved and trade studies were performed to assess the risk of contaminating the sensitive UVOT and XRT optics during both pre-launch testing and on-orbit operations, within the constraints of the overall program cost and schedule.

  2. Fundamental Hyperelastic Material Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research is part of an innovative effort to use hyperelastic materials to produce flexible and seamless aircraft structures that reduce drag and...

  3. Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Louise L; King, Lesley; Farrell, Louise; Macniven, Rona; Howlett, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Children who do not master FMS are more likely to experience failure in the motor domain and less likely to participate in sport and games during childhood and adolescence. Studies among primary school aged children report low levels of FMS mastery indicating the need to implement FMS programs during the preschool years. Cross-sectional study of 425 children attending preschools in the Sydney, Australia in 2008. FMS were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 including locomotor (run, gallop, hop, horizontal jump) and object control (strike, catch, kick overhand throw) skills. Data were analysed using linear regression and chi-squared analyses. Total locomotor score was higher among girls compared with boys (pskills and boys had higher mastery of object control skills. These findings highlight the need to provide structured opportunities which facilitate children's acquisition of FMS, which may include providing gender separated games, equipment and spaces. That mastery of FMS is low in primary school children indicates the importance of early intervention programs in preschools. Preschools and child care centers hold promise as a key setting for implementing FMS programs.

  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  5. Fundamental Properties of Salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toni Y Gutknecht; Guy L Fredrickson

    2012-11-01

    Thermal properties of molten salt systems are of interest to electrorefining operations, pertaining to both the Fuel Cycle Research & Development Program (FCR&D) and Spent Fuel Treatment Mission, currently being pursued by the Department of Energy (DOE). The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner may be adversely impacted by the build-up of fission products in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided, during electrorefining operations, include (i) fissile elements build up in the salt that might approach the criticality limits specified for the vessel, (ii) electrolyte freezing at the operating temperature of the electrorefiner due to changes in the liquidus temperature, and (iii) phase separation (non-homogenous solution). The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can be monitored by studying the thermal characteristics of the molten salts as a function of impurity concentration. Simulated salt compositions consisting of the selected rare earth and alkaline earth chlorides, with a eutectic mixture of LiCl-KCl as the carrier electrolyte, were studied to determine the melting points (thermal characteristics) using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The experimental data were used to model the liquidus temperature. On the basis of the this data, it became possible to predict a spent fuel treatment processing scenario under which electrorefining could no longer be performed as a result of increasing liquidus temperatures of the electrolyte.

  6. Fundamentals of C

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, N

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a contemporary approach to programming. Complte C programs are presented as and when it is required. This Book is not a cookbook . To get the maximum benefit from this book, you should take as active a role as possible. Don`t just read the examples. Enter it into your system and try them out.

  7. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  8. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  9. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  10. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limitin...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  11. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  12. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  13. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  14. Scientific and technological fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Specific ultimate repositories in a given geological formation have to be assessed on the basis of a safety analysis, taking into account the site specifics of the repository system 'Overall geological situation - ultimate disposal facility - waste forms'. The fundamental possibilities and limits of waste disposal are outlined. Orientation values up to about 10 6 years are derived for the isolation potential of ultimate disposal mines, and about 10 4 years for the calculation of effects of emplaced radioactive wastes also on man. (DG) [de

  15. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  16. Fundamental formulas of physics

    CERN Document Server

    1960-01-01

    The republication of this book, unabridged and corrected, fills the need for a comprehensive work on fundamental formulas of mathematical physics. It ranges from simple operations to highly sophisticated ones, all presented most lucidly with terms carefully defined and formulas given completely. In addition to basic physics, pertinent areas of chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, biology, and electronics are also included.This is no mere listing of formulas, however. Mathematics is integrated into text, for the most part, so that each chapter stands as a brief summary or even short textbook of

  17. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  18. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Getzlaff, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a tremendous progress has taken place in understanding the basis of magnetism, especially in reduced dimensions. In the first part, the fundamentals of magnetism are conveyed for atoms and bulk-like solid-state systems providing a basis for the understanding of new phenomena which exclusively occur in low-dimensional systems as the giant magneto resistance. This wide field is discussed in the second part and illustrated by copious examples. This textbook is particularly suitable for graduate students in physical and materials sciences. It includes numerous examples, exercises, and references.

  19. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Chemistry Handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. The handbook includes information on the atomic structure of matter; chemical bonding; chemical equations; chemical interactions involved with corrosion processes; water chemistry control, including the principles of water treatment; the hazards of chemicals and gases, and basic gaseous diffusion processes. This information will provide personnel with a foundation for understanding the chemical properties of materials and the way these properties can impose limitations on the operation of equipment and systems

  20. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  1. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  2. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  3. DOE fundamentals handbook: Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook was developed to assist nuclear facility operating contractors in providing operators, maintenance personnel, and the technical staff with the necessary fundamentals training to ensure a basic understanding of chemistry. This volume contains the following modules: reactor water chemistry (effects of radiation on water chemistry, chemistry parameters), principles of water treatment (purpose; treatment processes [ion exchange]; dissolved gases, suspended solids, and pH control; water purity), and hazards of chemicals and gases (corrosives [acids, alkalies], toxic compounds, compressed gases, flammable/combustible liquids)

  4. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates.

  5. Fundamental study on the characteristics of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter with no energy compensation filter for measuring patient entrance doses in cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mamoru; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi; Koguchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tadaya; Kadowaki, Ken; Oosaka, Hajime; Tosa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac interventional procedures have been increasing year by year. However, radiation skin injuries have been still reported. There is a necessity to measure the patient entrance skin dose (ESD), but an accurate dose measurement method has not been established. To measure the ESD, a lot of radiophotoluminescence dosemeters (RPLDs) provide an accurate measurement of the direct actual ESD at the points they are arrayed. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of RPLD to measure the ESD. As a result, X-ray permeable RPLD (with no tin filter) did not interfere with the percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. The RPLD also had good fundamental performance characteristics. Although the RPLD had a little energy dependence, it showed excellent dose and dose-rate linearity, and good angular dependence. In conclusion, by calibrating the energy dependence, RPLDs are useful dosemeter to measure the ESD in cardiac intervention. (authors)

  6. Healthier students are better learners: high-quality, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs must be a fundamental mission of schools to help close the achievement gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To discuss implications for educational policy and practice relevant to closing the achievement gap based on the literature review and synthesis presented in 7 articles of the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health. Implications for closing the achievement gap are drawn from analyses of current literature. During the past several decades, school reform efforts to close the achievement gap have focused on various strategies, yielding very limited progress. Educationally relevant health disparities influence students' motivation and ability to learn, but reducing these disparities has been largely overlooked as an element of an overall strategy for closing the achievement gap. If these health problems are not addressed, the educational benefits of other school reform efforts will be jeopardized. Healthier students are better learners. School health programs and services that are evidence based, strategically planned to influence academic achievement, and effectively coordinated warrant validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative for closing the achievement gap. National, state, and local responsibilities for supporting school health are outlined, including shared strategies; leadership from the U.S. Department of Education; policy development; guidance, technical assistance, and professional development; accountability and data and software systems; and a research agenda. To date, the U.S. Department of Education has not provided leadership for integrating evidence-based, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs and services into the fundamental mission of schools. Now is an opportune time for change. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  7. Fundamental symmetries and astrophysics with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.

    1996-04-01

    A major new initiative at TRIUMF pertains to the use of radioactive beams for astrophysics and for fundamental symmetry experiments. Some recent work is described in which the β-decay-followed by alpha particle emission of 16 N was used to find the resonance parameters dominating the alpha particle capture in 12 C and thus to find the astrophysical S-factor of this reaction which is of crucial importance for alpha-particle burning and the subsequent collapse of stars. In some work underway trapped neural atoms of radioactive potassium atoms will be used to study fundamental symmetries of the weak interactions. Trapping has been achieved and soon 38m K decay will be used to search for evidence of scalar interactions and 37 K decay to search for right-handed gauge-bosom interactions. Future experiments are planned to look for parity non-conservation in trapped francium atoms. This program is part of a revitalization for the TRIUMF laboratory accompanied by the construction of the radioactive beam facility (ISAC). (author)

  8. Fundamental Perspectives on Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Hoenen, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present literature study is to find the fundamental perspectives/models in the realm of supply chain management and to investigate whether they can be extended based on recent literature findings. The fundamental perspectives were found using a two-tier snowball collection method,

  9. The Kamehameha Schools Program of Hawaiian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Donald D.

    1975-01-01

    Article described the efforts of the Kamehameha Schools to teach a program of Hawaiian subjects to help the young citizens of Hawaii in their quest for knowledge and skills in this culture. (Author/RK)

  10. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  11. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  12. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  13. Study on the ocean drilling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Han, Hyun Chul; Chin, Jae Wha; Lee, Sung Rok; Park, Kwan Soon; Lee, Young Joo; Park, Young Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Geoscience research trend of the world nations is focusing on the study of climate changes and preventing people from the natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic activities. For this study, it is necessary for scientists to interpret ancient climate changes preserved in ocean sediments, and to observe plate motions. Thus, geological and geophysical studies should be proceeded for the core samples recovered from the deep sea sediments and basement. It is essential to join the ODP(Ocean Drilling Program) that drills ocean basins and crusts using the drilling vessel with the ability of deploying almost 9 km of drilling string. The first year (1995) was focused on the analyzing the appropriateness Korea to join the ODP. The second year (1996) has been stressed on being an ODP member country based on results of the first year study, and planning the future activities as a member. The scope of study is joining the ODP as a Canada-Australia Consortium member and to set up the Korean ODP organization and future activities. The results and suggestions are as follows. 1) Necessities of Korea joining the ODP: If Korea becomes a member of the ODP, the benefits could be obtained based on the activities of other ODP members through academic, social and economic sectors. 2) Korean membership of ODP: Korea becomes a member of the Australia-Canada Consortium for ODP. AGSO (Austrian Geological Survey Organization), GSC (Geological Survey of Canada), and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials) on behalf of their own countries will each pay a share of the full member financial contribution to the ODP. AGSO and GSC will pay one third of the full member financial contribution, and KIGAM will pay one twelfth. 3) Korean ODP structure and future activities: To enhance the efficiency of initial activities after joining the ODP, it has been decided to have a relatively simple organization. The primary governing arm of the Korean ODP organizations is the Korean ODP

  14. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  15. Making physics more fundamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1988-07-15

    The stellar death throes of supernovae have been seen and admired since time immemorial. However last year's was the first to come under the combined scrutiny of space-borne radiation detectors and underground neutrino monitors as well as terrestrial optical telescopes and even gravity wave antennae. The remarkable results underline the power of modern physics to explain and interrelate processes in the furthest reaches of the cosmos and the deep interior of nuclear particles. In recent years this common ground between 'Big Bang' cosmology and particle physics has been regularly trodden and retrodden in the light of fresh new insights and new experimental results, and thinking has steadily converged. In 1983, the first Symposium on Astronomy, Cosmology and Fundamental Physics, organized by CERN and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), was full of optimism, with new ideas ('inflation') to explain how the relatively small variations in the structure of the Universe could have arisen through the quantum structure of the initial cataclysm.

  16. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  17. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-11-07

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  18. Theory of fundamental interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    In the present article the theory of fundamental interactions is derived in a systematic way from the first principles. In the developed theory there is no separation between space-time and internal gauge space. Main equations for basic fields are derived. In is shown that the theory satisfies the correspondence principle and gives rise to new notions in the considered region. In particular, the conclusion is made about the existence of particles which are characterized not only by the mass, spin, charge but also by the moment of inertia. These are rotating particles, the particles which represent the notion of the rigid body on the microscopical level and give the key for understanding strong interactions. The main concepts and dynamical laws for these particles are formulated. The basic principles of the theory may be examined experimentally not in the distant future. 29 refs

  19. Fundamentals of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is a novel technique to analyze trace elements. It is a very simple method, its sensitivity is very high, multiple elements in a sample can be simultaneously analyzed and a few 10 μg of a sample is enough to be analyzed. Owing to these characteristics, the PIXE analysis is now used in many fields (e.g. biology, medicine, dentistry, environmental pollution, archaeology, culture assets etc.). Fundamentals of the PIXE analysis are described here: the production of characteristic x-rays and inner shell ionization by heavy charged particles, the continuous background in PIXE spectrum, quantitative formulae of the PIXE analysis, the detection limit of PIXE analysis, etc. (author)

  20. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.