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Sample records for fundamental studies program

  1. Status of Fundamental Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Update of the Fundamental Physics Program. JEM/EF Slip. 2 years delay. Reduced budget. Community support and advocacy led by Professor Nick Bigelow. Reprogramming led by Fred O Callaghan/JPL team. LTMPF M1 mission (DYNAMX and SUMO). PARCS. Carrier re baselined on JEM/EF.

  2. Business Fundamentals. Program CIP: Business Fundamentals: 52.0101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Ashleigh Barbee, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Secondary career-technical education programs in Mississippi are faced with many challenges resulting from sweeping educational reforms at the national and state levels. Schools and teachers are increasingly being held accountable for providing true learning activities to every student in the classroom. This accountability is measured through…

  3. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D' Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-05-26

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world's experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding.

  4. Fundamental studies of catalytic gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A.

    1991-06-01

    The major purpose of this project was to finding catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. This quarter, experiments with steam gasification of graphite were performed. Catalysts studied were potassium, calcium, and nickel oxides. Reaction kinetics are discussed. 28 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Recombinant Hydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W

    2014-01-25

    This research addressed the long term goals of understanding the assembly and organization of hydrogenase enzymes, of reducing them in size and complexity, of determining structure/function relationships, including energy conservation via charge separation across membranes, and in screening for novel H2 catalysts. A key overall goal of the proposed research was to define and characterize minimal hydrogenases that are produced in high yields and are oxygen-resistant. Remarkably, in spite of decades of research carried out on hydrogenases, it is not possible to readily manipulate or design the enzyme using molecular biology approaches since a recombinant form produced in a suitable host is not available. Such resources are essential if we are to understand what constitutes a “minimal” hydrogenase and design such catalysts with certain properties, such as resistance to oxygen, extreme stability and specificity for a given electron donor. The model system for our studies is Pyrococcus furiosus, a hyperthermophile that grows optimally at 100°C, which contains three different nickel-iron [NiFe-] containing hydrogenases. Hydrogenases I and II are cytoplasmic while the other, MBH, is an integral membrane protein that functions to both evolve H2 and pump protons. Three important breakthroughs were made during the funding period with P. furiosus soluble hydrogenase I (SHI). First, we produced an active recombinant form of SHI in E. coli by the co-expression of sixteen genes using anaerobically-induced promoters. Second, we genetically-engineered P. furiosus to overexpress SHI by an order of magnitude compared to the wild type strain. Third, we generated the first ‘minimal’ form of SHI, one that contained two rather than four subunits. This dimeric form was stable and active, and directly interacted with a pyruvate-oxidizing enzyme with any intermediate electron carrier. The research resulted in five peer-reviewed publications.

  7. Improtance of fundamental study in hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majima, Hiroshi

    1995-02-01

    Recent developments in modeling and optimization studies using computer technology have had a remarkable effect on all areas of extractive metallurgy. However, a lack of fundamental data regarding, for instance, activities, diffusion coefficients, limiting current densities, etc. obstructs the reliable use of this method. In studying hydrometallurgy, I recognized the importance of fundamental analysis and continued such works throughout my university life. For example, activities of water and solutes of the solution systems H2SO4-Mx(SO4)y-H2O and HCl-MClx-H2O were determined, and the results were employed to analyze the dissolution mechanism of metal oxides as well as metal sulfides in those solutions. In this article, fundamental studies mainly made in my laboratory to understand hydrometallurgical phenomena will be discussed.

  8. Fundamental studies on cavitation melt processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanakis, I.; Hodnett, M.; Lebon, G. S. B.; Eskin, D. G.; Pericleous, K.

    2016-05-01

    The application of ultrasound to industrial casting processes has attracted research interest during the last 50 years. However, the transfer and scale-up of this advanced and promising technology to industry has been hindered by difficulties in treating large volumes of liquid metal due to the lack of understanding of certain fundamentals. In the current study experimental results on ultrasonic processing in deionised water and in liquid aluminium (Al) are reported. Cavitation activity was determined in both liquid environments and acoustic pressures were successfully measured using an advanced high-temperature cavitometer sensor. Results showed that highest cavitation intensity in the liquid bulk is achieved at lower amplitudes of the sonotrode tip than the maximum available, suggesting nonlinearity in energy transfer to the liquid, while the location of the sonotrode is seen to substantially affect cavitation activity within the liquid. Estimation of real-time acoustic pressures distributed inside a crucible with liquid Al was performed for the first time.

  9. COMPARISON OF CONVENTIONAL AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION IN TEACHING AVIONICS FUNDAMENTALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONGO, ALEXANDER A.; MAYO, G. DOUGLAS

    THIS STUDY, PART OF A SERIES INVOLVING A VARIETY OF COURSE CONTENT AND TRAINING CONDITIONS, COMPARED PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION WITH CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTION TO GAIN INFORMATION ABOUT THE GENERAL UTILITY OF PROGRAMED METHODS. THE PERFORMANCE OF 200 NAVY TRAINEES TAKING 26 HOURS OF CONVENTIONAL INSTRUCTION IN ELECTRICAL CALCULATIONS, DIRECT CURRENT…

  10. The R software fundamentals of programming and statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Lafaye de Micheaux, Pierre; Liquet, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    The contents of The R Software are presented so as to be both comprehensive and easy for the reader to use. Besides its application as a self-learning text, this book can support lectures on R at any level from beginner to advanced. This book can serve as a textbook on R for beginners as well as more advanced users, working on Windows, MacOs or Linux OSes. The first part of the book deals with the heart of the R language and its fundamental concepts, including data organization, import and export, various manipulations, documentation, plots, programming and maintenance.  The last chapter in this part deals with oriented object programming as well as interfacing R with C/C++ or Fortran, and contains a section on debugging techniques. This is followed by the second part of the book, which provides detailed explanations on how to perform many standard statistical analyses, mainly in the Biostatistics field. Topics from mathematical and statistical settings that are included are matrix operations, integration, o...

  11. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R.E.

    1998-01-30

    Lodestar has carried out a vigorous research program in the areas of rf, edge plasma and divertor physics, with emphasis largely geared towards improving the understanding and performance of ion-cyclotron heating and current drive (ICRF) systems. Additionally, a research program in the field of edge plasma and divertor modeling was initiated. Theoretical work on high power rf sheath formation for multi-strap rf arrays was developed and benchmarked against recent experimental data from the new JET A2 antennas. Sophisticated modeling tools were employed to understand the sheath formation taking into account realistic three-dimensional antenna geometry. A novel physics explanation of an observed anomaly in the low power loading of antennas was applied to qualitatively interpret data on DIII-D in terms of rf sheaths, and potential applications of the idea to develop a near-field sheath diagnostic were explored. Other rf-wave related topics were also investigated. Full wave ICRF modeling studies were carried out in support of ongoing and planned tokamaks experiments, including the investigation of low frequency plasma heating and current drive regimes for IGNITOR. In a cross-disciplinary study involving both MHD and ICRF physics, ponderomotive feedback stabilization by rf was investigated as a potential means of controlling external kink mode disruptions. In another study, the instability of the ion hybrid wave (IHW) in the presence of fusion alpha particles was studied. In the field of edge plasma and divertor modeling studies, Lodestar began the development of a theory of generalized ballooning and sheath instabilities in the scrape off layer (SOL) of divertor tokamaks. A detailed summary of the technical progress in these areas during the contract period is included, as well as where references to published work can be found. A separate listing of publications, meeting abstracts, and other presentations is also given at the end of this final report.

  12. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of some atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findley, G.L.; McGlynn, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Molecular electronic transitions that lie in the vuv (vacuum ultraviolet) spectral region initiate many harmful photochemical modifications in the upper atmosphere. Consequently, investigations have focused on molecules that are primary atmospheric pollutants, but which are simple enough structurally to yield detailed photophysical information. Terminal electronic states for vuv transitions can be either valence or Rydberg and, at low enough energies, the distinction between the two becomes fuzzy. A major thrust of this program has been the classification and characterization of Rydberg transitions in an attempt to gain insight into Rydberg/valence state mixing Rydberg studies. It is concluded that in order to understand the nature of photochemical reactions of molecules in the upper atmosphere, it is necessary to understand the structure and function of high-energy molecular electronic states. It is also necessary to understand the ways in which these states interact and, thereby, facilitate energy transfer. The study of molecular Rydberg states provides information crucial to such an understanding.

  13. A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON LONG- TERM INVESTMENT DECISION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P Selvam; N Punitavati

    2012-01-01

      A Fundamental study on Capital Budgeting has been viewed with the intention of providing fundamental knowledge to investors whose inclination is making a profit by investing in long term securities...

  14. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  15. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Muller, Isabelle S.; Shuh, David K.; Pegg, Ian L.

    2007-10-12

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term disposal of high-level nuclear waste posed by this element. The primary issues examined during the course of this project were the behavior of technetium and its surrogate rhenium during waste vitrification and glass corrosion. Since the redox behavior of technetium can play a large role in determining its volatility, one goal of this research was to better understand the behavior of technetium in glass as a function of the redox potential of the glass melt. In addition, the behavior of rhenium was examined, since rhenium is commonly used as a surrogate for technetium in waste vitrification studies. A number of glasses similar to Hanford Low Activity Waste (LAW) glasses were prepared under controlled atmospheres. The redox state of the glass was determined from the Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio in the cooled glass, and the speciation of technetium and rhenium was determined by x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. The behavior of rhenium and technetium during glass alteration was also examined using the vapor hydration test (VHT).

  16. Fundamental and Applied Studies of Polymer Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrogno, Joseph

    Four major areas have been studied in this research: 1) synthesizing novel monomers, e.g. chiral monomers, to produce new types of functionalized membranes for the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, 2) hydrophobic brush membranes for desalinating brackish water, sea water, and separating organics, 3) fundamental studies of water interactions at surfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG), and 4) discovering new surface chemistries that will control the growth and differentiation of stem cells. We have developed a novel synthesis method in order to increase the breadth of our high throughput screening library. This library was generated using maleimide chemistry to react a common methacrylate linker with a variety of different functions groups (R groups) in order to form new monomers that were grafted from the surface of PES ultrafiltration membranes. From this work, we discovered that the chirality of a membrane can affect performance when separating chiral feed streams. This effect was observed when filtering bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin in a high salt phosphate buffered saline (PBS, 150 mM salt). The Phe grafted membranes showed a large difference in performance when filtering BSA with selectivity of 1.13 and 1.00 for (S) and (R) Phe, respectively. However, when filtering ovalbumin, the (S) and (R) modified surfaces showed selectivity of 2.06 and 2.31, respectively. The higher selectivity enantiomer switched for the two different proteins. Permeability when filtering BSA was 3.06 LMH kPa-1 and 4.31 LMH kPa -1 for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively, and 2.65 LMH kPa -1 and 2.10 LMH kPa-1 when filtering ovalbumin for (S)- and (R)- Phe, respectively. Additionally, these effects were no longer present when using a low salt phosphate buffer (PB, 10 mM salt). Since, to our knowledge, membrane chirality is not considered in current industrial systems, this discovery could have a large impact on the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. We

  17. TURING MACHINE AS UNIVERSAL ALGORITHM EXECUTOR AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE PROCESS OF HIGH-SCHOOL STUDENTS` ADVANCED STUDY OF ALGORITHMIZATION AND PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr B. Yashchyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of studying the notion of algorithm and its formal specification using Turing machines. In the article it was identified the basic hypothesis of the theory of algorithms for Turing as well as reviewed scientific research of modern scientists devoted to this issue and found the main principles of the Turing machine as an abstract mathematical model. The process of forming information competencies components, information culture and students` logical thinking development with the inclusion of the topic “Study and Application of Turing machine as Universal Algorithm Executor” in the course of Informatics was analyzed.

  18. Fundamental Mechanisms, Predictive Modeling, and Novel Aerospace Applications of Plasma Assisted Combustion: Laminar Flow Reactor and Nanoparticle Studies at Low to Intermediate Temperatures. Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-04

    dip asma   ue  ox at on an   gn t on mec an sms,  nc u ng  surrogate fuels ‐Development of reduced plasma chemical fuel oxidation...Studies will be conducted to investigate the effects of nanoparticles th l h t i ti d ti ki ti l ion e p asma c arac er s cs an reac on ne cs, e.g

  19. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  20. Research program to investigate the fundamental chemistry of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuh, David K.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Burns, Carol J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of this research is to increase the knowledge of the fundamental technetium chemistry that is necessary to address challenges to the safe, long-term remediation of high-level waste posed by this element. These challenges may be divided into two categories: unexpected behavior of technetium in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites and the behavior of technetium in waste forms.

  1. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  2. Fundamental issues in the study of second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulstijn, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    The study of second language acquisition (SLA) forms a young academic discipline, emerging from fundamental paradigm shifts in SLA’s parent disciplines, linguistics and psychology. This paper gives a brief overview of how the study of SLA came into existence, formulates the fundamental questions

  3. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    injectors, but can be a consideration in preburners, where the desire to keep turbine inlet temperatures as cool as possible can make it advantageous for the preburners to operate as far from stoichiometry as can be tolerated. For some missions such as single stage to orbit, all of the above requirements must be maintained over a throttleable range, for example 5:1 to 10:1. Finally, the injectors must be ignitable during startup where pressures and temperatures are far from design conditions, and ignition transients must be minimized in order to avoid damage to engine components. In order to satisfy these various constraints, the injector designer must be able to perform design tradeoff studies, and it is important that this be done with minimal time and costs. In fact, it can easily be argued that reducing engine development time and costs is essential to maintaining U.S. competitiveness in space. The Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory has invested in a number of programs to advance liquid rocket engine technology, and several of these are directed at improving design tools for liquid rocket injectors. The purpose of the presentation will be to describe some of these latter programs.

  4. Fundamental study of single biomass particle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is a comprehensive study of single biomass particle combustion. The effect of particle shape and size and operating conditions on biomass conversion characteristics were investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental samples were divided in two groups: particles with regular shapes (spheres and cylinders) and particles with irregular shapes (almost flake-like). A CAMSIZER analyser (Retsch Technology GMBH) was used to determine the size and shape of the particles via Dynamical Digital Image Processing. The experiments were performed in a single particle reactor under well-defined conditions, and the complete combustion processes were recorded as video sequences by a CCD camera installed in the set-up. One of the project objectives is to simulate conditions reasonably close to the conditions in a power plant boiler, i.e., reasonably high temperatures (up to 1600 deg. C) and varying oxygen concentrations in the 5 to 20% range. A one-dimensional mathematical model was used to simulate all the intraparticle conversion processes (drying, recondensation, devolatilisation, char gasification/oxidation and heat/mass/momentum transfer) within single particles of different shapes and size under various conditions. The model also predicts the flame layer domain of a single particle. The model was validated by experimental results under different conditions; good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental data was observed. Both the experimental and modelling results showed that cylindrical particles lose mass faster than spherical particles of a similar volume (mass) and that the burnout time is reduced by increasing the particle aspect ratio (surface area to volume ratio). Very similar conversion times were observed for cylindrical particles with nearly identical surface area to volume ratios. Similar conversion times were also observed for two size classes of pulverised particles (with irregular shapes) made from the same type of

  5. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, E Jean; Keats, Melanie R; Kolen, Angela M

    Fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency or the ability to perform basic skills (e.g., throwing, catching and jumping) has been linked to participation in lifelong physical activity. FMS proficiency amongst children has declined in the previous 15 years, with more children performing FMS at a low-mastery level. These declines may help explain the insufficient levels of participation in health promoting physical activity seen in today's youth. The after school time period (e.g., 3 to 6 p.m.), is increasingly considered an opportune time for physical activity interventions. To date, little research has examined the potential for after school programming to improve FMS proficiency. Participants (n=40, 6-10 years) of two existent physical activity based after school programs, a low-organized games and a sports-based program, were pre- and post-tested for FMS proficiency using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) over an 11-week period. The sports-based program participants showed no improvement in FMS over the 11-week study (p=0.91, eta(2)=0.00) and the games-based program participants significantly improved their proficiency (p=0.00, eta(2)=0.30). No significant (p=0.13, eta(2) = 0.06), differences were found in change in FMS scores between the low-organized games program participants and the sport-based program participants. These results suggest that after school programs with a low-organized games-based focus may support a moderate improvement in FMS proficiency in young children. Better training of after school program leaders on how to teach FMS may be necessary to assist children in acquiring sufficient proficiency in FMS.

  6. Java programming fundamentals problem solving through object oriented analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Premchand S

    2008-01-01

    While Java texts are plentiful, it's difficult to find one that takes a real-world approach, and encourages novice programmers to build on their Java skills through practical exercise. Written by an expert with 19 experience teaching computer programming, Java Programming Fundamentals presents object-oriented programming by employing examples taken from everyday life. Provides a foundation in object-oriented design principles and UML notation Describes common pitfalls and good programming practicesFurnishes supplemental links, documents, and programs on its companion website, www.premnair.netU

  7. Fundamental study of a one-step ambient temperature ferrite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fundamental study of a one-step ambient temperature ferrite process for treatment ... The approach involves the controlled oxidation of ferrous-containing AMD water at ... The resulting oxidation product is the ferrite (M13+2M22+O4) magnetite ...

  8. Fundamental Studies of Hydroporphyrin Architectures for Solar-Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Bocian, David F. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Holten, Dewey [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Kirmaier, Christine [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2013-10-30

    /electron transfer between (hydro)porphyrins as a function of array size, distance between components, linker type, site of linker connection, and frontier molecular orbital composition. (iv) Build upon the results of the aforementioned studies to design, synthesize, and characterize integrated architectures that incorporate a panchromatic absorber and other molecular components that that afford efficient hole/electron migration and long-lived charge separation. Such architectures will be examined on solid substrates to explore the viability of the component parts and processes under application-oriented conditions. Such architectures or successors may prove directly useful for solar-energy conversion systems. An equally important attribute is to serve as a test-bed for successful integration of the requisite properties and processes, some of which require rather weak coupling between constituents, some of which require very strong electronic interactions to elicit the desired behavior, and all of which should be tunable under molecular design control to the extent possible. Collectively, the proposed studies will provide fundamental insights into molecular properties, interactions, and processes relevant to the design of molecular architectures for solar-energy conversion. The accomplishment of these goals is only possible through a highly synergistic program that encompasses molecular design, synthesis, and in-depth characterization.

  9. Fundamental Issues Concerning the Sustainment and Scaling Up of Professional Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther

    2015-01-01

    The issue of sustaining and scaling up professional development for mathematics teachers raises several fundamental issues for researchers. This commentary addresses various definitions for sustainability and scaling up and how these definitions may affect the design of programs as well as the design of research. We consider four of the papers in…

  10. High-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, H-Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry for fundamental studies in metrology and atomic, nuclear and particle physics requires extreme sensitivity and efficiency as well as ultimate resolving power and accuracy. An overview will be given on the global status of high-accuracy mass spectrometry for fundamental physics and metrology. Three quite different examples of modern mass spectrometric experiments in physics are presented: (i) the retardation spectrometer KATRIN at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, employing electrostatic filtering in combination with magnetic-adiabatic collimation-the biggest mass spectrometer for determining the smallest mass, i.e. the mass of the electron anti-neutrino, (ii) the Experimental Cooler-Storage Ring at GSI-a mass spectrometer of medium size, relative to other accelerators, for determining medium-heavy masses and (iii) the Penning trap facility, SHIPTRAP, at GSI-the smallest mass spectrometer for determining the heaviest masses, those of super-heavy elements. Finally, a short view into the future will address the GSI project HITRAP at GSI for fundamental studies with highly-charged ions.

  11. A fundamental study on materials for Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, V.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    In April 1997 the program "Decentralized Production and Storage for Large-Scale Application of Renewable Energy" of the Delft Interfaculty Research Centre (DIOC) was launched. In this program various groups from several Faculties of the Delft University of Technology studied the feasibility of large

  12. The Effect of Use of Classroom Management Software in Programming Fundamentals Course with Collaborative Method on Student Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya ASLAY

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of use of classroom management software in “Programming Fundamentals” course with collaborative method on student success. The sample of the study consisted of the students studying at Computer Programming program of Vocational School, Erzincan University and taking the course of Programming Fundamentals. Random experimental design with pretest-posttest control groups was used in the study. Depending on the experimental design, experimental group (n=35 and control group (n=35 were determined by using random sampling method. The questions asked by students in the experimental group were projected to blackboard by using classroom management software and the solution was asked to be found with other students in the group according to collaborative learning method. The students in the control group were answered directly from student’s monitor with classroom management software by instructor. It was seen as a result of study that they were statistically more significant when the posttest results of the students in the course of Programming Fundamentals were examined. According the results of interview made with student, it was concluded that the students saw their mistakes, they freely expressed their thoughts, their recall skills increased and they understood the code structure better.

  13. Fundamental studies of fusion plasmas. Annual performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aamodt, R.E.; Catto, P.J.; D`Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.

    1992-05-26

    The major portion of this program is devoted to critical ICH phenomena. The topics include edge physics, fast wave propagation, ICH induced high frequency instabilities, and a preliminary antenna design for Ignitor. This research was strongly coordinated with the world`s experimental and design teams at JET, Culham, ORNL, and Ignitor. The results have been widely publicized at both general scientific meetings and topical workshops including the speciality workshop on ICRF design and physics sponsored by Lodestar in April 1992. The combination of theory, empirical modeling, and engineering design in this program makes this research particularly important for the design of future devices and for the understanding and performance projections of present tokamak devices. Additionally, the development of a diagnostic of runaway electrons on TEXT has proven particularly useful for the fundamental understanding of energetic electron confinement. This work has led to a better quantitative basis for quasilinear theory and the role of magnetic vs. electrostatic field fluctuations on electron transport. An APS invited talk was given on this subject and collaboration with PPPL personnel was also initiated. Ongoing research on these topics will continue for the remainder fo the contract period and the strong collaborations are expected to continue, enhancing both the relevance of the work and its immediate impact on areas needing critical understanding.

  14. MCRG study of 12 fundamental flavors with mixed fundamental-adjoint gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    I discuss the infrared behavior of the SU(3) gauge model with 12 fundamental fermions. Using a Monte Carlo renormalization group technique I investigate the fixed point structure in the chiral limit and show that this system has an infrared fixed point and consequently conformal infrared dynamics. I am able to reach the FP by using a new analysis method for the 2-lattice matching MCRG technique that significantly reduces finite volume effects and by choosing a lattice action that avoids a spurious ultraviolet fixed point created by strong coupling lattice artifacts.

  15. Damage analysis and fundamental studies. Quarterly progress report, January--March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1979-05-01

    This report is the fifth in a series of Quarterly Technical Progress Reports on Damage Analysis and Fundamental Studies (DAFS) which is one element of the Fusion Reactor Materials Program, conducted in support of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. This report is organized along topical lines in parallel to a Program Plan of the same title (to be published) so that activities and accomplishments may be followed readily relative to that Program Plan. Thus, the work of a given laboratory may appear throughout the report. Chapters 1 and 2 report topics which are generic to all of the DAFS Program: DAFS Task Group Activities and Irradiation Test Facilities, respectively. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 report the work that is specific to each of the subtasks around which the program is structured: A) Environmental Characterization, B) Damage Production, and C) Damage Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Behavior.

  16. A fundamental study on analyte adsorption onto metallophthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc L.

    A Web of Science search shows that the number of articles found in the literature pertaining to Phthalocyanines has doubled in the last eight years alone in comparison to all previous years. Based on the types of articles found, it is clear that the potential applications for Metal Phthalocyanines (MPcs) are multifaceted. Initially, MPcs were used as blue and green dye products. Subsequent interest in MPcs increased due to its similarities to the biologically relevant porphyrin. More recently, MPcs have been integrated into information storage systems, liquid crystal color displays and as the active material in semiconductor devices. Their diverse electronic properties, chemical and thermal robustness and ease of deposition (spin coating and organic molecular beam epitaxy) make them an attractive and economical candidate for use in chemical sensors. Although the literature contains many studies pertaining to MPcs, most are focused on the applications aspect of the material or on the fundamental understanding of the electronic properties of the Pcs in the absence of an analyte. This dissertation attempts to obtain an atomic level understanding of the fundamental mechanisms in which analytes interact with MPcs.

  17. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, R., E-mail: roland.friedl@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik (EPP), Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} plasmas showed that n{sub e} and T{sub e} in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of n{sub e} close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions.

  18. Fundamental Studies on Droplet Interactions in Dense Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-02

    high pressure conditions, the ideal gas equation of state is replaced by a Redlich - Kwong equation of state combined with mixing rules. The enthalpy of...Member, NASA Space Science and Applications Advisory Committee; Member, National Research Council Space Studies Board and Chairman, Committee on...Council for Microgravity Science and Applications . Dr. Sirignano has been involved in other research programs funded by AFWAL, AFAL, and ONR that have

  19. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  20. DB2 10.1 fundamentals certification study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Roger E

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an explanation of the certification process and working through fundamental exam objectives, this guide gives test-takers all they need to know to pass IBM's DB2 10.1 Fundamentals certification exam (Exam 610). All the subjects covered on the exam are included: planning, security, data concurrency, working with databases and database objects, working with data using SQL and XQuery, working with DB2 tables, views, and indexes-and more. The book concludes with an

  1. Fundamental Studies of Fluid Mechanics: Stability in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George M. Homsy

    2005-04-28

    This work has been concerned with theoretical, computational and experimental studies of a variety of flow and transport problems that are of generic interest and applicability in energy-related and energy-intensive processes. These include the following. (1) Problems associated with oil recovery: the global economy continues to be dependent on the stable and predictable supply of oil and fossil fuels. This will remain the case for the near term, as current estimates are that world production of oil will peak between 2025 and 2100, depending on assumptions regarding growth. Most of these resources reside in porous rocks and other naturally occurring media. Studies of flow-induced instabilities are relevant to the areas of secondary and enhanced oil recovery. (2) Small scale and Stokes flows: flows in microgeometries and involving interfaces and surfactants are of interest in a myriad of energy-related contexts. These include: pore-level modeling of the fundamental processes by which oil held in porous materials is mobilized and produced; heating and cooling energy cycles involving significant expenditure of energy in conditioning of human environments, heat pipes, and compact heat exchangers; and energy efficiency in large scale separation processes such as distillation and absorption-processes that underlie the chemical process industries. (3) Coating flows: these are of interest in information technologies, including the manufacture of integrated circuits and data storage and retrieval devices. It is estimated that 50-70% of the starting raw materials and intermediate devices in information technology processes must be discarded as a result of imperfections and failure to meet specifications. These in turn are often the result of the inability to control fluid-mechanical processes and flow instabilities. Our work over the grant period is primarily fundamental in nature. We are interested in establishing general principles and behaviors that relate to a variety of

  2. Francium sources and traps for fundamental interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancari, G.; Atutov, S. N.; Calabrese, R.; Corradi, L.; Dainelli, A.; de Mauro, C.; Khanbekyan, A.; Mariotti, E.; Minguzzi, P.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Veronesi, S.

    2007-11-01

    Francium is one of the best candidates for atomic parity nonconservation (APNC) and for the search of permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). APNC measurements test the weak force between electrons and nucleons at very low momentum transfers. They also represent a unique way to detect weak nucleon-nucleon interactions. EDMs are instead related to the time-reversal symmetry. Preliminary to these fundamental measurements are precision studies in atomic spectroscopy and the development of magneto-optical traps (MOT), which partially compensate for the lack of stable Fr isotopes. At LNL Legnaro, francium is produced by fusion of 100-MeV 18O with 197Au in a thick target, followed by evaporation of neutrons from the compound nucleus. Francium diffuses inside the hot target (1200 K) and is surface ionized for injection at 3 keV in an electrostatic beamline. Typically, we produce 1×106 (210Fr ions)/s for a primary flux of 1.5×1012 particles/s. We have studied Fr yields as a function of primary beam energy, intensity, and target temperature. Information on the efficiency of bulk diffusion, surface desorption and ionization is deduced. The beam then enters a Dryfilm-coated cell, where it is neutralized on a heated yttrium plate. The escape time of neutral Fr (diffusion + desorption) is approximately 20 s at 950 K, as measured with a dedicated setup. In the MOT, we use 6 orthogonal Ti:sapphire laser beams for the main pumping transition and 6 beams from a stabilized diode repumper. Fluorescence from trapped atoms is observed with a cooled CCD camera, in order to reach noise levels from stray light equivalent to approximately 50 atoms. Systematic tests are being done to improve the trapping efficiency. We plan to further develop Fr traps at LNL; in parallel, we will study APNC and EDM techniques and systematics with stable alkalis at Pisa, Siena, and Ferrara.

  3. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics: Studies of fundamental interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The New Mexico Center/UNM group research program includes the CDF experiment at Fermilab and the SDC experiment at the SSC. In both experiments the UNM group research focuses on silicon strip tracking systems. The present research goals are to develop and utilize precision silicon tracking to increase significantly the physics reach of the Tevatron, and to make possible the study of high-P[sub t] physics at the SSC. The search for the t-quark in CDF is the primary goal of the upcoming Tevatron runs. This Progress Report summarizes our research accomplishments from the last year.

  4. Summary of the 2008 NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Cliff, Susan; Nangert, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    The Supersonics Project of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program organized an internal sonic boom workshop to evaluate near- and mid-field sonic boom prediction capability at the Fundamental Aeronautics Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8, 2008. Workshop participants computed sonic boom signatures for three non-lifting bodies and two lifting configurations. A cone-cylinder, parabolic, and quartic bodies of revolution comprised the non-lifting cases. The lifting configurations were a simple 69-degree delta wing body and a complete low-boom transport configuration designed during the High Speed Research Project in the 1990s with wing, body, tail, nacelle, and boundary layer diverter components. The AIRPLANE, Cart3D, FUN3D, and USM3D ow solvers were employed with the ANET signature propagation tool, output-based adaptation, and a priori adaptation based on freestream Mach number and angle of attack. Results were presented orally at the workshop. This article documents the workshop, results, and provides context on previously available and recently developed methods.

  5. A Fundamental Study and Applied Exploration of Some Novel Photo-functional Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jiannian; Fan Meigong; Fu Hongbing; Ye Cheng; Shen Yuquan

    2005-01-01

    @@ This project focuses on fundamental problems in the interdisciplinary research of chemistry and materials,covering main achievements on fundamental study and applied exploration of novel photo-functional materials.

  6. Minimalist Program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from Agreement Asymmetry in Standard Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Horais

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:auto; mso-para-margin-right:1.0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:auto; mso-para-margin-left:2.0cm; text-align:justify; text-indent:-1.0cm; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky  (1993, 1995. In that time, Chomsky (1998: 5 presents Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is  to provide a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the art of minimalist approach to the theory of grammar. In this regard, this paper discusses some new ideas articulated recently by Chomsky, and have led to several fundamental improvements in syntactic theory  such as changing the function of movement and the Extended Projection Principle (EPP feature, or proposing new theories such as Phases and Feature Inheritance. In order to evidence the significance of these fundamental improvements, the current paper provides a minimalist analysis to account for agreement and word-order asymmetry in Stranded Arabic. This fresh minimalist account meets the challenges (to the basic tenets of syntactic theory occurred

  7. Fundamentals of Physics, Student Study Guide, Extended 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-06-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  8. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  9. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainotti, Maria; Gilbertson, Christian; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2017-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, $T_a$, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, $L_{a}$, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, $L_{peak}$, which is an extension of the two dimensional Dainotti relation. This 3D relation identifies a GRB fundamental plane whose existence we confirmed. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 {\\it Swift} GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous `gold sample' (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained an intrinsic scatter compatible within one $\\sigma$ with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, a sample of only long duration GRBs (132), selected from the total sample by excluding GRBs of the previous categories, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus. We evaluated the relation planes for each of the mentioned categories and showed that they are not statistically different from the plane derived from the gold sample and that the fundamental plane derived from the gold sample has an intrinsic scatter smaller than any plane derived from the other sample categories. We compared the jet opening angles tabulated in literature with the angles derived using the $E_{iso}-E_{gamma}$ relation of the method in Pescalli et al. (2015) and calculated the relation plane for a sample of long GRBs accounting for the different jet opening angles. We observed that this correction does not significantly reduce the scatter. In an extended analysis, we found that the fundamental plane is independent from several prompt and afterglow parameters, such as the jet opening angle, $\\theta

  10. Fundamental study for development magnetic drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Y., E-mail: y-hirota@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Side-effects and lowering effects by diffusion of drugs such as anticancer agents is one of the serious issues in medication. To solve this problem, it is necessary to control the drugs quantitatively, spatially and temporally within the human body. Magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is one of the technologies to make it possible, in which the ferromagnetic drug injected into the blood vessel is conducted to diseased part by external magnetic force. As a fundamental experiment, the accumulation experiment using ferromagnetic particles were performed with simulated capillary vessels composed of glass beads channels in this work. Additionally, accumulation calculation of ferromagnetic particles was conducted to check the validity of accumulation experiment. From these result, the 2D distribution of particle accumulation in the experiment corresponded with that of particle accumulation in the calculation. It was suggested that the proper position of magnet should be changed according to the depth of diseased part.

  11. Fundamental studies of chalcogenide nanocrystals, carbonaceous nanoparticles, and chromatographic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jared Scott

    2011-12-01

    The development of novel nanomaterials and the understanding of their fundamental physical and chemical properties represent an exciting area of research. These materials are continuously being sought for ever-increasing applications; finding their way into uses that influence mankind on a daily basis. Combining elements from traditional nanoparticle characterization with electrophoretic-based techniques, this dissertation presents the analysis of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) generated from a novel source (candle soot) as well as a unique perspective on the reactivity and degradation process of magic-sized cadmium chalcogenide nanocrystals. One potential application of CNPs is their use as an alternative fluorophore in a separation-based sensor system. Laser-induced-fluorescence (LIF) is a commonly used manner of detection in this type of platform, but is limited in many cases by problems associated with the fluorophore. Carbon-based nanoparticles have the potential to improve upon traditional fluorophores in applications that make use of LIF as the detection scheme. CNPs were extracted from the carbonaceous material produced by the incomplete combustion of a candle. The soot was submitted to an oxidizing treatment and extraction/filtration procedures rendering watersoluble luminescent species. Electron microscopy was used to identify globular, amorphous structures in the nanometer size-range. An aqueous suspension of CNPs demonstrated excellent stability in terms of its electronic properties, showing little change in absorption and emission spectra upon storage under ambient conditions over a two-year period. Capitalizing on the strengths of capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a characterization technique, we have analyzed the negatively-charged CNPs in terms of charge and size by studying the influence of variable CE conditions on the resulting separation. Separations at different pH revealed a highly complex mixture of CNPs, containing species with large

  12. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  13. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  14. CrossFit athletes exhibit high symmetry of fundamental movement patterns. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Silvio; Notarnicola, Angela; Monno, Antonello; Ferretti, Francesco; Moretti, Biagio

    2016-01-01

    even if CrossFit training programs accounted actually more than 7500 gyms affiliated in the USA and more than 2000 in Europe and involved today more than 1 million of people, actually there were not several studies about the effect of the CrossFit on the health and sport performance. The aim of these research was to evaluate the performance in 7 fundamental movement patterns using a standardized methods, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS). we enrolled three groups of athletes (age 17-40 years; >6 months of training programs): CrossFitters, body builders and professional weightlifters. FMS test was performed to all people enrolled. Scores of FMS test was examined comparing three groups. no differences in the three groups were showed in the mean score values of each test and in total score, except for shoulder mobility test (higher among CrossFitters) and trunk stability push-up test (higher among weightlifter). Agreement between the test performed on the two sides was higher in CrossFit groups for hurdle step (93.2%), in line lung (86%), rotary stability test (95.3%) and shoulder mobility (90.7%; pCrossFit seems to produce marked symmetry in some fundamental movements compared to weightlifting and bodybuilding.

  15. Review of the studies on fundamental issues in LBE corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinsuo [International Nuclear System Engineering Group, Decision Application Division, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Material Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)], E-mail: jszhang@lanl.gov; Li Ning [International Nuclear System Engineering Group, Decision Application Division, MS K-575, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Material Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) technology is being developed for applications in advanced nuclear systems and high-power spallation neutron targets. In this paper, the current understanding of corrosion and the fundamental issues relevant to corrosion when using LBE as a heavy liquid metal nuclear coolant are reviewed. Corrosion mechanisms and processes in LBE are examined. Prospective methods to mitigate corrosion are briefly surveyed. We then discuss the oxygen control technique for corrosion mitigation in detail, including the range of oxygen concentrations in LBE, oxygen sensors, and the surface oxidation kinetics. Existing experimental results are summarized and reviewed. Theoretical corrosion models for non-isothermal liquid metal loops are refined and compared each other. The applications of these models to a few practical lead-alloy systems are used to illustrate the corrosion mechanisms and the parameter dependency, and to benchmark. Based on the current state of knowledge, a number of R and D tasks are proposed to fill the gaps and firmly establish the scientific underpinning before LBE nuclear coolant technology is ready for programmatic and industrial applications.

  16. Downer reactor: From fundamental study to industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.; Wu, C.N.; Zhu, J.X.; Wei, F.; Jin, Y. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-04-15

    Downer reactor, in which gas and solids move downward co-currently, has unique features such as the plug-flow reactor performance and relatively uniform flow structure compared to other gas-solids fluidized bed reactors, e.g., bubbling bed, turbulent bed and riser. Downer is therefore acknowledged as a novel multiphase flow reactor with great potential in high-severity operated processes, such as the high temperature, ultra-short contact time reactions with the intermediates as the desired products. Typical process developments in industry have directed to (1) the new-generation refinery process for cracking of heavier feedstock to gasoline and light olefins (e.g., propylene) as by-products; and (2) coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma which opens up a direct means for producing acetylene, i.e., a new route to synthesize chemicals from a clean coal utilization process. This paper gives a comprehensive review on the development of fundamental research on downer reactors as well as the particular industrial demonstrations for the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of heavy oils and coal pyrolysis in thermal plasma.

  17. A Study of the Gamma-Ray Burst Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Dainotti, Maria; Postnikov, Sergey; Nagataki, Shigehiro; Willingale, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A class of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a plateau phase in their X-ray afterglows obeys a three-dimensional (3D) relation (Dainotti et al. 2016), between the rest-frame time at the end of the plateau, Ta, its corresponding X-ray luminosity, La, and the peak luminosity in the prompt emission, Lpeak. We extended the original analysis with X-ray data from July 2014 to July 2016 achieving a total sample of 183 Swift GRBs with afterglow plateaus and known redshifts. We added the most recent GRBs to the previous 'gold sample' (now including 45 GRBs) and obtained a relation plane with intrinsic scatter compatible within one sigma with the previous result. We compared several GRB categories, such as short with extended emission, X-ray Flashes, GRBs associated with SNe, long-duration GRBs, and the gold sample, composed only by GRBs with light curves with good data coverage and relatively flat plateaus and evaluated their relation planes. We found that they are not statistically different from the fundamental plan...

  18. Fundamental studies of retrograde reactions in direct liquefaction. Final report, September 20, 1988--November 20, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serio, M.A.; Solomon, P.R.; Kroo, E.; Charpenay, S.; Bassilakis, R.

    1991-12-17

    The overall objective of the program was to improve the understanding of retrograde reactions and their dependencies on coal rank and structure, and/or coal modifications and reaction conditions. Because retrograde reactions are competitive with bond breaking reactions, an understanding of both is required to shift the competition in favor of the latter. Related objectives were to clarify the conflicting observations reported in literature on such major topics as the role of oxygen groups in retrograde reactions and to provide a bridge from very fundamental studies on pure compounds to phenomenological studies on actual coal. This information was integrated into the FG-DVC model, which was improved and extended to the liquefaction context.

  19. Fundamental studies of tin whiskering in microelectronics finishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinol, Lesly Agnes

    Common electronics materials, such as tin, copper, steel, and brass, are ambient reactive under common use conditions, and as such are prone to corrosion. During the early 1940s, reports of failures due to electrical shorting of components caused by 'whisker' (i.e., filamentary surface protrusion) growth on many surface types---including the aforementioned metals---began to emerge. Lead alloying of tin (3--10% by weight, typically in the eutectic proportion) eliminated whiskering risk for decades, until the July 2006 adoption of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) directive was issued by the European Union. This directive, which has since been adopted by California and parts of China, severely restricted the use of lead (market, imposing the need for developing reliable new "lead-free" alternatives to SnPb. In spite of the abundance of modern-day anecdotes chronicling whisker-related failures in satellites, nuclear power stations, missiles, pacemakers, and spacecraft navigation equipment, pure tin finishes are still increasingly being employed today, and the root cause(s) of tin whiskering remains elusive. This work describes a series of structured experiments exploring the fundamental relationships between the incidence of tin whiskering (as dependent variable) and numerous independent variables. These variables included deposition method (electroplating, electroless plating, template-based electrochemical synthesis, and various physical vapor deposition techniques, including resistive evaporation, electron beam evaporation, and sputtering), the inclusion of microparticles and organic contamination, the effects of sample geometry, and nanostructuring. Key findings pertain to correlations between sample geometry and whisker propensity, and also to the stress evolution across a series of 4"-diameter silicon wafers of varying thicknesses with respect to the degree of post-metallization whiskering. Regarding sample geometry, it was found that smaller

  20. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Weber, Wolfgang J; Schuster, Peter; Grosjean, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at our repository extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progress in mathematical competence thus fostering motivation. Furthermore in case of learning difficulties he or she is given supplementary explanations and in case of individual needs supplementary exercises and applications. So the sequence of the studies is ind...

  1. Mathematics for physicists and engineers fundamentals and interactive study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weltner, Klaus; Grosjean, Jean; Schuster, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mathematics is the basic language in physics and engineering. It is an essential tool which first and second year students have to master as soon as possible. A lack of competence in mathematics is the main reason for failure and drop out in the beginning periods of study. This textbook offers an accessible and highly approved approach which is characterized by the combination of the textbook with a detailed study guide available online at extras.springer.com. This study guide divides the whole learning task into small units which the student is very likely to master successfully. Thus he or she is asked to read and study a limited section of the textbook and to return to the study guide afterwards. Working with the study guide his or her learning results are controlled, monitored and deepened by graded questions, exercises, repetitions and finally by problems and applications of the content studied. Since the degree of difficulties is slowly rising the students gain confidence and experience their own progre...

  2. Fundamental studies in cryogenic cooling of power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L. C.; Sehmbey, M. S.; Hahm, O. J.; Chui, C. J.

    1994-09-01

    This study details the results from experiments conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during liquid nitrogen spray cooling and pool boiling from a heater array. Four different nozzles at various pressures were used to study the variation in spray cooling heat transfer at liquid nitrogen temperature. Effect of nozzle and flow rate on the critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient are presented. This study also provides empirical correlations for the spray cooling characteristics. The critical heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient have been correlated using nondimensional numbers. The study also shows the importance of surface roughness for spray cooling with liquid nitrogen. The rougher surfaces were shown to have significantly higher heat transfer rates and similar critical heat fluxes occurring at lower temperatures. The results from experiments conducted to study the pool boiling heat transfer from a vertical array with flush mounted heat sources are also presented. The lower heaters were found to enhance the heat transfer from the upper heaters due to bubble pumped convection.

  3. Sports training program at school – Athlete at School: logical fundamentals and historical circumstances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadson Santana Reis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is an initial attempt to assess the "Sports Training Program at School - Athlete at School" and is structured according to its wide three "lines of action", namely: encouragement and democratization of sports practices at school; development and dissemination of the Olympic and Paralympic values among students of basic education; and identification and guidance of young talents. In the case of the first two lines, the results show weaknesses, mismatches, and inaccuracies between the theoretical conceptual framework and the technical operational design. On the other hand, the last line confers identity and compliancy to the program, (redirecting the school and physical education to the old "game" of sports massification, and identification and selection of talents. Therefore, the considerations indicate the need to counteract the renewed risk of using the school, physical education, and educational sports policies in accordance with the desires and prerogatives of the sports sector stricto sensu.

  4. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlieb, C.A.; Thaddeus, P. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Highly reactive carbenes and carbon-chain radicals are studied at millimeter wavelengths by observing their rotational spectra. The purpose is to provide definitive spectroscopic identification, accurate spectroscopic constants in the lowest vibrational states, and reliable structures of the key intermediates in reactions leading to aromatic hydrocarbons and soot particles in combustion.

  5. Fundamental spectroscopic studies of carbenes and hydrocarbon radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-03-12

    Determination of bond dissociation energies and heats of formation of hydrocarbon radicals and carbenes requires knowledge of their structures, but this is not provided by standard mass spectrometric studies; what is needed is high-resolution spectroscopy, often best achieved at centimeter and millimeter wavelengths. Nearly 60 reactive organic molecules were investigated in the period from 1988--1998.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Fluid Mechanics: Stability in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsy, George M. [University of California, Santa Barbara

    2014-02-12

    We summarize our research results in three main areas: coating flows; electrohydrodynamics of drops; and wetting and spreading of drops. Experimental, computational and analytical methods are used to address a variety of issues. Coating flow studies include the effect of roughness, surfactants, and adsorbed particles on the dynamics of dip-coating. Electrohydrodynamic studies include drop deformation in uniform electric fields, shape distortion due to charge convection in sedimenting drops, and driving chaotic advection by either an electric field inclined to the direction of drop motion or time-periodic changes in the direction of the electric field. Heat and mass transport from chaotically mixed droplets exhibit unexpected and remarkable increases in the rates of transport. Finally, we develop an analytical solution to the problem of a static droplet, and use numerical techniques to predict its migration due to surface tension gradients.

  7. Electronics: Mott Transistor: Fundamental Studies and Device Operation Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    hopping transport . It is well known that localized states exist in the forbidden gap of doped semiconductors /disordered insulators. For a semiconductor , σ... semiconductors and their response to electric fields. This is relevant to their eventual use as advanced semiconductors in microwave devices or high speed...transistors where collective effects are exploited to design switches.The report presents our progress in studying electron transport mechanisms in

  8. Mathematical and computational modeling and simulation fundamentals and case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Moeller, Dietmar P F

    2004-01-01

    Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation - a highly multi-disciplinary field with ubiquitous applications in science and engineering - is one of the key enabling technologies of the 21st century. This book introduces to the use of Mathematical and Computational Modeling and Simulation in order to develop an understanding of the solution characteristics of a broad class of real-world problems. The relevant basic and advanced methodologies are explained in detail, with special emphasis on ill-defined problems. Some 15 simulation systems are presented on the language and the logical level. Moreover, the reader can accumulate experience by studying a wide variety of case studies. The latter are briefly described within the book but their full versions as well as some simulation software demos are available on the Web. The book can be used for University courses of different level as well as for self-study. Advanced sections are marked and can be skipped in a first reading or in undergraduate courses...

  9. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens Jr., Wayne W.; Fickes, Michael J.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Burns, Carol J.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Shuh, David K.

    2000-12-23

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium.

  10. Final Report, Research Program to Investigate the Fundamental Chemistry of Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens Jr., Wayne W.; Fickes, Michael J.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Burns, Carol J.; Edelstein, Norman M.; Shuh, David K.

    2000-12-23

    The purpose is to increase the basic scientific understanding of technetium chemistry to better understand the behavior of technetium in chemical environments relevant to DOE. Two important areas in need of study are the behavior of technetium in highly alkaline solutions similar to high-level nuclear waste, and its behavior in different waste forms. This research program addressed these two needs. Two separate approaches were used in this program. The first focus was to understand the basic solution chemistry of technetium, which underlies its behavior in the highly alkaline environment of the nuclear waste tanks located at the Savannah River and Hanford Sites. The specific problems at these sites are related to the anomalous oxidation state of technetium (Schroeder 1995). Although, at high pH, technetium should exist in its highest oxidation state as TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, soluble, lower-valent technetium species have been observed in certain wastes. The specific unknowns that this program sought to answer are the nature of lower valent technetium species that can be formed in highly alkaline solution and whether pertechnetate undergoes radiolytic reduction in highly alkaline solution when nitrate is present in excess. The second focus area is the behavior of technetium immobilized in various waste forms. The behavior of technetium in cement wastes was examined to gain information about its long-term stability. Specifically, this research examined the oxidation of reduced technetium species by components present in high-level waste that are incorporated into cement waste along with technetium.

  11. Fundamental Study about the Landscape Estimation and Analysis by CG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshio; Miyagoshi, Takashi; Takamatsu, Mamoru; Sassa, Kazuhiro

    In recent years, the color of advertising signboards or vending machines on the streets should be harmonized with the surrounding landscape. In this study, we investigated how the colors (red and white) of the vending machines virtually installed by CG would affect the traditional landscape. 20 subjects estimated landscape samples in Hida-Furukawa by the SD technique. The result of our experiment shows that the vending machines have great influence on the surrounding landscape. On the other hand, we have confirmed that they can harmonize with the circumference landscape by the color to use.

  12. Microfluidic platforms and fundamental electrocatalysis studies for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jamie Lee

    The fabrication and testing of a planar membraneless microchannel fuel cell, based on a silicon microchannel, is described in detail. Laminar flow of fuel and oxidant streams, one on top of the other, prevents fuel crossover while allowing ionic transport at the interface between the two solutions. By employing laminar flow, the useful functions of a membrane are retained, while bypassing its inherent limitations. The planar design maximizes the anode and cathode areas, and elimination of the membrane affords broad flexibility in the choice of fuel and oxidant. Fuels including formic acid, methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and hydrogen were tested along with oxidants such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and potassium permanganate. Steps taken to improve voltage, current density, and overall power output have been addressed, including the testing of a dual electrolyte system and the use of micro-patterned electrode surfaces to enhance fuel utilization. As the complexity of the fuels studied in the microchannel fuel cell increased, it was imperative to characterize these fuels using electrochemical techniques prior to utilization in the fuel cell. The oxidation pathway of the liquid fuel methanol was studied rigorously because of its importance for micro-fuel cell applications. Activation energies for methanol oxidation at a Ptpoly surface were determined using electrochemical techniques, providing a benchmark for the comparison of activation energies of other Pt-based electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation at a given potential. A protocol to obtain Ea values was established in three different electrolytes and experimental parameters that influence the magnitude of these values are discussed in detail. The oxidation pathways of sodium borohydride were also examined at Au, Pt, and Pd surfaces using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and rotating disk electrode voltammetry. In addition to studies on bulk Ptpoly surfaces, new bulk intermetallic catalysts were

  13. Studies on Slurry Design Fundamentals for Advanced CMP Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Basim, G. B.

    2013-06-14

    New developments and device performance requirements in microelectronics industry add to the challenges in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. One of the recently introduced materials is germanium which enables improved performance through better channel mobility in shallow trench isolation (STI) applications. This paper reports on the slurry design alternatives for Ge CMP with surfactant mediation to improve on the silica/germanium selectivity using colloidal silica slurry. In addition to the standard CMP tests to evaluate the material removal rates, atomic force microscopy (AFM) based wear tests were also conducted to evaluate single particle-surface interaction of the polishing system. Furthermore, nature of the surface oxide film of germanium was studied through contact angle measurements and surface roughness tested by AFM. It was observed that the CMP selectivity of the silica/germanium system and defectivity control were possible with a reasonable material removal rate value by using self-assembled structures of cationic surfactants.

  14. Fundamental study of phosphor separation by controlling magnetic force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Kohei, E-mail: kohei@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic Archimedes separation method. •In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used. •We succeeded to separate HP and developed the continuous separation system. •The separation system enables successive separation and recovery of HP. -- Abstract: The phosphor wastes consist of phosphors with different emission colors, green (LAP), red (YOX), blue (BAM) and white (HP). It is required to recover and reuse the rare earth phosphors with high market value. In this study, we tried to separate the phosphor using the magnetic separation by HTS bulk magnet utilizing the differences of magnetic susceptibility by the type of phosphors. We succeeded in the successive separation of HP with low market value from YOX and BAM including the rare earth using the magnetic Archimedes method. In this method, vertical and radial components of the magnetic force were used.

  15. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF LOW-NOx COMBUSTION FLY ASH UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERIC M. SUUBERG; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-10-19

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  16. Fundamental study of cesium decontamination from soil by superconducting magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igarashi, Susumu, E-mail: igarashi@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mishima, Fumihito; Akiyama, Yoko, E-mail: yoko-ak@see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The method for the soil decontamination by the superconducting magnet is proposed. •Cesium ion can be absorbed by Prussian blue in potassium iodide wash fluid. •It is possible to recover Cs{sup +} ion-adsorbing Prussian blue with a high rate by HGMS. •It is expected that HGMS can be applied to the actual soil decontamination. -- Abstract: The radioactive substances have been spread out all over the surrounding area of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the accident in March 2011. Decontamination and volume reduction of radioactive substances, especially cesium ion, are desired issue. This study proposed a decontamination method of the soil by the magnetic separation using superconducting magnet. Cesium ion was adsorbed by Prussian blue in the potassium iodide solution. We succeeded in separating selectively the cesium ion-adsorbed Prussian blue out of the liquid phase by high gradient magnetic separation. High recovery ratio of the Prussian blue was achieved by this method.

  17. MCRG study of 8 and 12 fundamental flavors

    CERN Document Server

    Petropoulos, Gregory; Hasenfratz, Anna; Schaich, David

    2012-01-01

    We study the renormalization group properties of SU(3) gauge theories with N_f=8 and 12 nearly-massless fermions, using Monte Carlo Renormalization Group (MCRG) two-lattice matching techniques to predict bare step-scaling functions s_b. Traditional MCRG two-lattice matching requires that the renormalization scheme be optimized for each bare lattice coupling, so that s_b is a composite of many different discrete beta functions. We propose an improved procedure that uses the Wilson flow to eliminate the need for this optimization of the RG blocking transformation. While our 12-flavor results indicate an infrared fixed point, s_b for N_f=8 is significantly different from zero until strong-coupling lattice artifacts obstruct two-lattice matching. Although both procedures produce qualitatively similar bare step-scaling functions, the new s_b obtained by combining the Wilson flow with MCRG two-lattice matching have the distinct advantage of corresponding to unique discrete beta functions.

  18. Studies of the fundamentals of solids state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, K. M.; Alamgir, M.

    1990-11-01

    Several methods have been developed to dimensionally stabilize polymer electrolytes based on poly-(bis (methoxy ethoxy ethoxide) phosphazene), known as MEEP. In contrast to the poor dimensional stability exhibited by complexes of MEEP with most Li salts, those prepared with LiAlCl4 have been isolated as the first example of free-standing MEEP-(LiX)n films. The mechanical properties of dimensionally unstable MEEP-(LIX)n complexes can be significantly improved by forming composites with polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide), poly(propylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol diacrylate) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone). The conductivity of 6.7 x 10(exp -5) ohm(exp -1) cm(exp -1) at 25 C exhibited by 55 w/o MEEP/45 w/o PEO-(LiN(CF3SO2)2)0.13 is among the highest values reported to date for a dimensionally stable electrolyte. The preparation, and conductivity, calorimetric and electrochemical studies of these electrolytes are described. Cyclic voltammetric data indicated that these electrolytes have anodic stability at least up to 4.5V versus Li(+)/Li. They have shown excellent compatibility with Li metal making them suitable for use as Li(+) conductive solid electrolytes in solid-state Li batteries. Li/TiS2 solid-state cells utilizing some of these electrolytes have exceeded 200 cycles.

  19. Radiation Hydrodynamic Simulations in the Planar Scheme for the Fundamental Studies of Shock Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yunsong; Yang, Jiamin; Song, Tianming; Zhu, Tuo; Huang, Chengwu

    2016-04-01

    As a fundamental and crucial research topic in the direct-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF), especially for shock ignition (SI), investigation on the laser coupling with planar low-Z targets is beneficial for deep physical comprehension at the primary phase of SI. The production of the intense shock and the shock coalescence in the multi-layer targets, driven by the 3ω intense laser (351 nm the wavelength), were studied in detail with the 1D and 2D radiation hydrodynamic simulations. It was inferred that the 1D simulation would overrate the shock velocity and the ablation pressure of the spike; the coalescence time and the velocity of the coalescence shock depended evidently on the pulse shape and the start time of the spike. The present study can also provide a semi-quantitative reference for the design of the SI decomposition experiments on the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. supported by the National High-Tech R&D Program (863 Program) of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11205143, 11505167)

  20. Fundamental Studies of Underpotential Metal Deposition and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    7AD-At30 099 FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF UNDERPOTENTIAL METAL DEPOSITION 1 BUFFALO DEPT OF CHEMISTRY S BRUCKENSTEIN 1982 UNCLASSIFIED AFOSR-TR-83-0557...T’S CAT A--CG t,-V5EP A . ITE(ad utilS TYPE OF REPCRT 0 0 .’EOEt’ Fundamental Studies of Underpotential Metal Final Deposition and Trace411111110...siectrocatalyls (by underpotential metal deposition ). A second objective was to develop new approaches to studying electrcxhemical reactions at solid

  1. Fundamental frequency and voice perturbation measures in smokers and non-smokers: An acoustic and perceptual study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Allison

    This research examined the fundamental frequency and perturbation (jitter % and shimmer %) measures in young adult (20-30 year-old) and middle-aged adult (40-55 year-old) smokers and non-smokers; there were 36 smokers and 36 non-smokers. Acoustic analysis was carried out utilizing one task: production of sustained /a/. These voice samples were analyzed utilizing Multi-Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) software, which provided values for fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer %.These values were analyzed for trends regarding smoking status, age, and gender. Statistical significance was found regarding the fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for smokers as compared to non-smokers; smokers were found to have significantly lower fundamental frequency values, and significantly higher jitter % and shimmer % values. Statistical significance was not found regarding fundamental frequency, jitter %, and shimmer % for age group comparisons. With regard to gender, statistical significance was found regarding fundamental frequency; females were found to have statistically higher fundamental frequencies as compared to males. However, the relationships between gender and jitter % and shimmer % lacked statistical significance. These results indicate that smoking negatively affects voice quality. This study also examined the ability of untrained listeners to identify smokers and non-smokers based on their voices. Results of this voice perception task suggest that listeners are not accurately able to identify smokers and non-smokers, as statistical significance was not reached. However, despite a lack of significance, trends in data suggest that listeners are able to utilize voice quality to identify smokers and non-smokers.

  2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration fundamental research program. Information utilization and evaluation, appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Eisgruber, L.

    1981-01-01

    Important points presented and recommendations made at an information and decision processes workshop held in Asilomar, California; at a data and information performance workshop held in Houston, Texas; and at a data base use and management workshop held near San Jose, California are summarized. Issues raised at a special session of the Soil Conservation Society of America's remote sensing for resource management conference in Kansas City, Missouri are also highlighted. The goals, status and activities of the NASA program definition study of basic research requirements, the necessity of making the computer science community aware of user needs with respect to information related to renewable resources, performance parameters and criteria for judging federal information systems, and the requirements and characteristics of scientific data bases are among the topics reported.

  3. Fundamental Physics with the ASI Lunar Mission MAGIA (Phase A Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Currie, D.; Delle Monache, G.; Vittori, R.; Bellettini, G.; March, R.; Tauraso, R.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; Martini, M.; Prosperi, C.

    2008-07-01

    MAGIA is a mission selected by ASI for Phase A study for the planetology science and fundamental physics measurements: Gravitational Redshift; Precursor test of Proposal LLRRA-21 (NASA LSSO); Measurement of the Selenocenter.

  4. Minimalist program and its fundamental improvements in syntactic theory: evidence from agreement asymmetry in standard Arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Horais, Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The Minimalist Program is a major line of inquiry that has been developing inside Generative Grammar since the early nineties, when it was proposed by Chomsky (1993, 1995). At the outset, Chomsky (1998: 5) presented Minimalist Program as a program, not as a theory, but today, the Minimalist Program lays out a very specific view of the basis of syntactic grammar that, when compared to other formalisms, is often taken to look very much like a theory. The prime concern of this paper, however, is...

  5. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Program for fundamental and applied research of fuel cells in VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisin, A.V.; Borisseonock, V.A.; Novitskii, Y.Z.; Potyomckin, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    According to VNIIEF the integral part of development of fuel cell power plants is fundamental and applied research. This paper describes areas of research on molten carbonate fuel cells. Topics include the development of mathematical models for porous electrodes, thin film electrolytes, the possibility of solid nickel anodes, model of activation polarization of anode, electrolyte with high solubility of oxygen. Other areas include research on a stationary mode of stack operation, anticorrosion coatings, impedance diagnostic methods, ultrasound diagnostics, radiation treatments, an air aluminium cell, and alternative catalysts for low temperature fuel cells.

  7. Programming iOS 4 Fundamentals of iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch Development

    CERN Document Server

    Neuburg, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Get a solid grounding in all the fundamentals of Cocoa Touch, and avoid problems during iPhone and iPad app development. With Programming iOS 4, you'll dig into Cocoa and learn how to work effectively with Objective-C and Xcode. This book covers iOS 4 in a rigorous, orderly fashion-ideal whether you're approaching iOS for the first time or need a reference to bolster existing skills. Learn Objective-C language details and object-oriented programming conceptsUnderstand the anatomy of an Xcode project and all the stages of its lifecycleGrasp key Cocoa concepts such as relationships between clas

  8. The fundamentals of integrating service in a post-licensure RN to BSN program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Brown, Linda; Ritchie, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Integrating service in a post-licensure registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing (RN to BSN) program provides licensed registered nurse (RN) students the opportunity to learn, develop, and experience different cultures while serving the community and populations in need (McKinnon & Fitzpatrick, 2012). Service to the community, integrated with academic learning can be applied in a wide variety of settings, including schools, universities, and community faith-based organizations. Academic service-learning (ASL) can involve a group of students, a classroom, or an entire school. In the RN to BSN program, the authors use a student-directed service learning approach that integrates service-learning throughout the curriculum. RN students are introduced to service-learning at program orientation prior to the start of classes and receive reinforcement and active engagement throughout the curriculum. The students and volunteer agencies receive and give benefits from the services provided and the life lessons gained through mentorship, education, and hands-on experiences.

  9. Fundamentally updating fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail; Barton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values.

  10. Fundamental studies of energy-and hole/electron- transfer in hydroporphyrin architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, David F. [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2014-08-20

    of spectra for naturally occurring and synthetic hydroporphyrins. The availability of such data should augment efforts in the design of light-harvesting systems where spectral coverage in the red and near-infrared regions is desired. Collectively, the proposed studies will provide fundamental insights into molecular properties, interactions, and processes relevant to the design of molecular architectures for solar-energy conversion. The accomplishment of these goals is only possible through a highly synergistic program that encompasses molecular design, synthesis, and characterization.

  11. A space instrument for fundamental materials science problems - The Mephisto program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouzaud, A.; Favier, J. J.; Thevenard, D.

    The Mephisto program and the Mephisto instrument, a device offering the possibility of continuous characterization of crystal growth undercooling, are reviewed. The Mephisto instrument allows on-line in situ measurements of the real undercooling of a solidification front using a nonperturbing thermoelectric method; it also allows the on-line supervision of the effect of convective motions on crystal growth. First results obtained during the ground testing of a space mockup are presented, and the accuracy of the results is assessed with respect to the onset of morphological stability and interface response to unsteady perturbations.

  12. A Study of Thermal Analyses and Fundamental Combustion Characteristics for Thermal Utility with Biomass Volatile Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Tamio; Namba, Kunihiko; Sano, Hiroshi

    Based on un-use biomass utilities, Carbonized technology is noticed as material utilities and solid fuel. Therefore, this technology is tackling by national project as large-scale utilities. But, this technology is dehydrated volatiles matter during carbonized from biomass. Especially, Woody tar into one of volatile matter has vicious handling to get into trouble in carbonized equipment. In this study, we propose to get fundamental knowledge for effective thermal utility through thermal decompositions and fundamental combustion properties on experimental results. Woody tar has high caloric value (approximately 30MJ/kg) and high carbon ration. On the other hand, a woody vinegar liquid has thermal decomposition property close to water property with heat absorption as evaporation latent heat of water. In fundamental combustion experimental result, a woody tar has fl ammable combustion and surface combustion. Especially, a total combustion and ignition time properties has hyperbola relation to environment temperatures in furnace.

  13. ULTRASONIC STUDIES OF THE FUNDAMENTAL MECHANISMS OF RECRYSTALLIZATION AND SINTERING OF METALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER, JOSEPH A.

    2005-11-30

    The purpose of this project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the interaction of an ultrasonic wave with complex media, with specific emphases on recrystallization and sintering of metals. A combined analytical, numerical, and experimental research program was implemented. Theoretical models of elastic wave propagation through these complex materials were developed using stochastic wave field techniques. The numerical simulations focused on finite element wave propagation solutions through complex media. The experimental efforts were focused on corroboration of the models developed and on the development of new experimental techniques. The analytical and numerical research allows the experimental results to be interpreted quantitatively.

  14. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  15. Small aromatic molecules studied by spectroscopy : what fundamental research tells us

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmers, Catharina Maria

    2000-01-01

    Aromatic molecules form an extensively studied group of molecules. They can be found in a large number of everyday materials, such as fuels, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and fertilizers. Understanding the fundamentals about aromatic molecules can therefore help to understand the way these molecules

  16. Organic Chemistry Educators' Perspectives on Fundamental Concepts and Misconceptions: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with 23 organic chemistry educators to discover what general chemistry concepts they typically review, the concepts they believe are fundamental to introductory organic chemistry, the topics students find most difficult in the subject, and the misconceptions they observe in undergraduate organic chemistry…

  17. Fundamental symmetries and interactions studied with radioactive isotopes in atom traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, H.W.E.M.; Gacsi, Z; Dombradi, Z; Krasznahorkay, A

    2005-01-01

    The structure of certain nuclei and atoms allow one to study fundamental symmetries and interactions. In this review we consider the search for Time-Reversal invariance Violation (TRV). We consider two options: TRV in beta decay or the search for the forbidden Electric Dipole Moment (EDM). In both c

  18. Experiential Learning of Robotics Fundamentals Based on a Case Study of Robot-Assisted Stereotactic Neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Carlos; Vale, Carolina; Machado, Toni; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Rito, Manuel; Monteiro, Sérgio; Bicho, Estela

    2016-01-01

    Robotics has been playing an important role in modern surgery, especially in procedures that require extreme precision, such as neurosurgery. This paper addresses the challenge of teaching robotics to undergraduate engineering students, through an experiential learning project of robotics fundamentals based on a case study of robot-assisted…

  19. Second international conference on fundamentals of fracture. Program and abstract book. Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The approximately 95 papers and abstracts are grouped under the following headings: atomic theory, continuum theory, experimental studies, environmental effects, fatigue, ceramics, high-temperature phenomena, and interfacial fracture. (DLC)

  20. An Overview of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Ultra High Bypass Partnership Research Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) mission and goals is presented. One of the subprograms under the FAP, the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project (SFW), is the focus of the presentation. The SFW system environmental metrics are discussed, along with highlights of planned, systematic approach to research to reduce the environmental impact of commercial aircraft in the areas of acoustics, fuel burn and emissions. The presentation then focuses on collaborative research being conducted with U.S. Industry on the Ultra High Bypass (UHB) engine cycle, the propulsion cycle selected by the SFW to meet the system goals. The partnerships with General Electric Aviation to investigate Open Rotor propulsion concepts and with Pratt & Whitney to investigate the Geared Turbofan UHB engine are highlighted, including current and planned future collaborative research activities with NASA and each organization.

  1. Fundamental Studies of the Reforming of Oxygenated Compounds over Supported Metal Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    microcopy (STEM) to measure size and structure, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to measure atomic composition, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to measure oxidation state and metal coordination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to study adsorbed species, laser Raman spectroscopy to probe metal oxide promoters, and temperature programmed reaction/desorption to study the energetics of adsorption and desorption processes. We have studied our bimetallic catalysts for the selective cleavage of carbon-oxygen bonds, and we have studied the effects of adding metal oxide promoters to supported platinum and gold catalysts for water-gas shift (i.e., the production of hydrogen by reaction of carbon monoxide with water). We anticipate that the knowledge obtained from our studies will allow us to identify promising directions for new catalysts that show high activity, selectivity, and stability for important reactions, such as the conversion of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons to fuels and chemicals.

  2. A Novel Method for Fundamental Interaction Studies with Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Vaintraub, S; Aviv, O; Heber, O; Mardor, I

    2010-01-01

    Trapped radioactive atoms present exciting opportunities for the study of fundamental interactions and symmetries. For example, detecting beta decay in a trap can probe the minute experimental signal that originates from possible tensor or scalar terms in the weak interaction. Such scalar or tensor terms affect, e.g., the angular correlation between a neutrino and an electron in the beta-decay process, thus probing new physics of "beyond-the-standard-model" nature. In particular, this article focuses on a novel use of an innovative ion trapping device, the Electrostatic Ion Beam Trap (EIBT). Such a trap has not been previously considered for Fundamental Interaction studies and exhibits potentially very significant advantages over other schemes. These advantages include improved injection efficiency of the radionuclide under study, an extended field-free region, ion-beam kinematics for better efficiency and ease-of-operation and the potential for a much larger solid angle for the electron and recoiling atom co...

  3. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  4. High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise - Fundamental Studies and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-24

    decades, however methods of measurably controlling -reducing jet noise in an efficient and robust manner remain evasive. Previous research has shown...2016 1-May-2013 30-Apr-2016 High Temperature Supersonic Jet Noise - Fundamental Studies and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods The views...and Control using Advanced Actuation Methods Report Title Understanding and controlling jet noise has been the focus of analytical, computational and

  5. Fundamental remote science research program. Part 2: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of he Earth from remotely sensed measurements of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inferences about the Earth. This report summarizes the progress that has been made toward this program goal by each of the principal investigators in the MPRIA Program.

  6. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  7. International Research and Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  8. Density functional theory study of vibrational spectra, and assignment of fundamental modes of dacarbazine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Gunasekaran; S Kumaresan; R Arunbalaji; G Anand; S Srinivasan

    2008-05-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of dacarbazine were recorded in the regions 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometry, wavenumber, polarizability and several thermodynamic properties of dacarbazine were studied using ab initio Hartree-Fock, MP2 and DFT methods. A complete vibrational assignment aided by the theoretical harmonic wavenumber analysis was proposed. The calculated harmonic vibrational frequencies were compared with experimental FTIR and FT Raman spectra. Based on the comparison between calculated and experimental results and the comparison with related molecules, assignments of fundamental vibrational modes were made. The X-ray geometry and experimental frequencies were compared with the results of theoretical calculations.

  9. (Fundamental studies of new magnetic heterostructures: Their growth, crystallographic structure, magnetic and electronic properties)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onellion, M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA). Dept. of Physics); Dowben, P.A. (Syracuse Univ., NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-01-01

    As part of our request for renewal of our grant, we include this progress report on the significant results obtained under grant number FG02-89ER45319, Fundamental Studies of New Magnetic Heterostructures: Their Growth, Crystallographic Structure, Magnetic and Electronic Properties,'' since the inception of the grant. The results include the scientific accomplishments, the instrumentation developed, and the technological applications of our work. Each area is discussed separately and an initial summary of all areas is provided before the detailed discussion.

  10. Fundamental processes on TiO2(110) studied under dark and UV-light conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk

    2010-01-01

    microscope (STM), with its unique spatial resolution and versatility, is a suitable tool for investigating fundamental properties of such systems at the atomic level. The main topics covered in this thesis are the structures, diffusion and reactions of water (H2O), ethanol (EtOH) and oxygen (O2......) on differently prepared, well-defined TiO2(110) model surfaces. Moreover, the photoreactions of EtOH on TiO2(110) surfaces were studied and different reaction pathways were identified arising from different adsorption sites. Finally, the nucleation, growth and stability of silver (Ag) nanoclusters on TiO2......(110) surfaces were investigated and charge transfer processes recognized. All findings are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations and complementary measurements using photoemission spectroscopy (PES), temperature programmed desorption/reaction (TPD/TPR) spectroscopy, and isothermal mass...

  11. Fundamental remote sensing science research program. Part 1: Status report of the mathematical pattern recognition and image analysis project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    The Mathematical Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis (MPRIA) Project is concerned with basic research problems related to the study of the Earth from remotely sensed measurement of its surface characteristics. The program goal is to better understand how to analyze the digital image that represents the spatial, spectral, and temporal arrangement of these measurements for purposing of making selected inference about the Earth.

  12. An Evaluation of Top Notch Fundamentals B: A Four Phase Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzie Ahmadi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Textbooks play an important role in educational contexts especially in EFL contexts their role are more highlighted. Textbook evaluation in any type, predictive or retrospective, is a necessary part of curriculum design and in this sense is a worthwhile means of conducting research. Recently, Top Notch series have become widely used in Iranian English Institutes and in high schools and pre-university schools. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Top Notch Fundamentals B based on first, authors’ objectives, and second, the cultural content of the book based on the framework proposed by Ferit Kilickaya (2004. Thirdly, the universal characteristics of EFL materials proposed by Ansari and Babaii was used to see to what extent the book matches those characteristics. The amount and type(s of technological use was also examined. The strengths and some drawbacks of the book for EFL setting use were also mentioned in the study. The findings would be beneficial for teachers and material developers in EFL contexts.Keywords:  Material, material evaluation, Top Notch Fundamentals B, Ferit Kilickaya framework, Ansari and Babaii framework, technological use, authors’ claims

  13. Fundamental Movement Skills Development under the Influence of a Gymnastics Program and Everyday Physical Activity in Seven-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culjak, Zoran; Miletic, Durdica; Kalinski, Suncica Delas; Kezic, Ana; Zuvela, Frane

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were: a) to examine the influence of an 18-week basic artistic gymnastics program on fundamental movement skills (FMS) development in seven-year-old children; b) to determine correlations between children's daily activities and successful performance of FMS and basic artistic gymnastics skills. Seventy five first grade primary school children took part in this study. A physical education teacher specialized in artistic gymnastics conducted a gymnastics program for 18 weeks, three times a week. The level of gymnastics skills and FMS were identified at the beginning and at the end of the program. The level of gymnastics skills was evaluated by performance of eight artistic gymnastics skills, while FMS were evaluated by the use of FMS-polygon. Physical activity and inactivity was evaluated by using a proxy-questionnaire "Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire˝ (NPAQ). According to the dependent samples t test, significant differences were found in the FMS-polygon and all gymnastics skills before and after the 18-week gymnastics program. Increasing correlations were established over time between gymnastics skills and the FMS-polygon. Unorganized daily activity of children significantly correlated with their mastering of gymnastics skills and FMS. The presented findings confirm: (1) the thesis that basic artistic gymnastics skills and FMS could be developed simultaneously, (2) the theory of positive transfer of similar skills between FMS and artistic gymnastic skills. Mastering basic artistic gymnastics skills will provoke improvement of FMS and finally become a prerequisite for successful introduction of learning more complex gymnastics skills. The obtained results imply that an increase of children's unorganized daily activities can improve the mastering of basic gymnastics skills and simultaneously the development of FMS.

  14. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Developing an information security program that adheres to the principle of security as a business enabler must be the first step in an enterprise's effort to build an effective security program. Following in the footsteps of its bestselling predecessor, Information Security Fundamentals, Second Edition provides information security professionals with a clear understanding of the fundamentals of security required to address the range of issues they will experience in the field.The book examines the elements of computer security, employee roles and r

  15. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  16. Fundamental study of failure mechanisms of pressure vessels under thermo-mechanical cycling in multiphase environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penso Mula, Jorge Antonio

    Cracking and bulging in welded and internally lined pressure vessels that work in thermal-mechanical cycling services have been well known problems in the petrochemical, power and nuclear industries. Published literature and industry surveys show that similar problems have been occurring during the last 50 years. Understanding the causes of cracking and bulging would lead to improvements in the reliability of these pressure vessels. This study attempts to add information required for improving the knowledge and fundamental understanding of these problems. Cracking and bulging, most often in the weld areas, commonly experienced in delayed coking units (e.g. coke drums) in oil refineries are typical examples. The coke drum was selected for this study because of the existing field experience and past industrial investigation results that were available to serve as the baseline references for the analytical studies performed for this dissertation. Another reason for selecting the delayed coking units for this study was due to their high economical yields. Shutting down these units would cause a high negative economic impact on the refinery operations. Several failure mechanisms were hypothesized. The finite element method was used to analyze these significant variables and to verify the hypotheses. In conclusion, a fundamental explanation of the occurrence of bulging and cracking in pressure vessels in multiphase environments has been developed. Several important factors have been identified, including the high convection coefficient of the boiling layer during filling and quenching, the mismatch in physical, thermal and mechanical properties in the dissimilar weld of the clad plates and process conditions such as heating and quenching rate and warming time. Material selection for coke drums should consider not only fatigue strength but also corrosion resistance at high temperatures and low temperatures. Cracking occurs due to low cycle fatigue and corrosion. The FEA

  17. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  18. Conformal or Walking? Monte Carlo renormalization group studies of SU(3) gauge models with fundamental fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hasenfratz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Strongly coupled gauge systems with many fermions are important in many phenomenological models. I use the 2-lattice matching Monte Carlo renormalization group method to study the fixed point structure and critical indexes of SU(3) gauge models with 8 and 12 flavors of fundamental fermions. With an improved renormalization group block transformation I am able to connect the perturbative and confining regimes of the N_f=8 flavor system, thus verifying its QCD-like nature. With N_f=12 flavors the data favor the existence of an infrared fixed point and conformal phase, though the results are also consistent with very slow walking. I measure the anomalous mass dimension in both systems at several gauge couplings and find that they are barely different from the free field value.

  19. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  20. NMR Computational Studies of Solid Acidity/Fundamental Studies of Catalysis by Solid Acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Haw

    2008-06-28

    This project focused on catalysis by zeolites and the synergy of spectroscopic characterization and theoretical modeling. In collaboration with the Waroquier group in Belgium we used state-of-the-art quantum chemical simulations on a supramolecular model of both the HZSM-5 zeolite and the co-catalytic hydrocarbon pool species and calculated a full catalytic cycle (including all rate constants) for methanol-to-olefin (MTO) catalysis involving a hydrocarbon pool species. This work not only represents the most robust computational analysis of a successful MTO route to date, but it also succeeds in tying together the many experimental clues. That work was featured on the cover of Angewandte Chemie. More recently we elucidated several unsuspected roles for formaldehyde in methanol to olefin catalysis. Formaldehyde proves to be a key species responsible for both the growth of the catalytically active hydrocarbon pool and its inevitable aging into deactivated polycyclic aromatic species. The apparent inevitability of formaldehyde formation at high temperatures, in particular in contact with active metal or metal oxide surfaces, may put some fundamental limitations on the economic potential of conversion of methanol to olefins.

  1. Fundamental Studies and Development of III-N Visible LEDs for High-Power Solid-State Lighting Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, Russell

    2012-02-29

    The goal of this program is to understand in a fundamental way the impact of strain, defects, polarization, and Stokes loss in relation to unique device structures upon the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) and efficiency droop (ED) of III-nitride (III-N) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and to employ this understanding in the design and growth of high-efficiency LEDs capable of highly-reliable, high-current, high-power operation. This knowledge will be the basis for our advanced device epitaxial designs that lead to improved device performance. The primary approach we will employ is to exploit new scientific and engineering knowledge generated through the application of a set of unique advanced growth and characterization tools to develop new concepts in strain-, polarization-, and carrier dynamics-engineered and low-defect materials and device designs having reduced dislocations and improved carrier collection followed by efficient photon generation. We studied the effects of crystalline defect, polarizations, hole transport, electron-spillover, electron blocking layer, underlying layer below the multiplequantum- well active region, and developed high-efficiency and efficiency-droop-mitigated blue LEDs with a new LED epitaxial structures. We believe new LEDs developed in this program will make a breakthrough in the development of high-efficiency high-power visible III-N LEDs from violet to green spectral region.

  2. Efficient solar hydrogen production by photocatalytic water splitting: From fundamental study to pilot demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Dengwei; Guo, Liejin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Ximin; Liu, Huan; Li, Mingtao; Shen, Shaohua; Liu, Guanjie; Hu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhang, Kai; Ma, Lijin; Guo, Penghui [State Key Lab of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Photocatalytic water splitting with solar light is one of the most promising technologies for solar hydrogen production. From a systematic point of view, whether it is photocatalyst and reaction system development or the reactor-related design, the essentials could be summarized as: photon transfer limitations and mass transfer limitations (in the case of liquid phase reactions). Optimization of these two issues are therefore given special attention throughout our study. In this review, the state of the art for the research of photocatalytic hydrogen production, both outcomes and challenges in this field, were briefly reviewed. Research progress of our lab, from fundamental study of photocatalyst preparation to reactor configuration and pilot level demonstration, were introduced, showing the complete process of our effort for this technology to be economic viable in the near future. Our systematic and continuous study in this field lead to the development of a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) based photocatalytic hydrogen production solar rector for the first time. We have demonstrated the feasibility for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under direct solar light. The exiting challenges and difficulties for this technology to proceed from successful laboratory photocatalysis set-up up to an industrially relevant scale are also proposed. These issues have been the object of our research and would also be the direction of our study in future. (author)

  3. Fundamental measure density functional theory study of hard spheres solid-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshavsky, Vadim

    2005-03-01

    Interfacial free energy is an important characteristic of solid-liquid interface as it is one of the crucial parameters in many formula of interface thermodynamics such the nucleation theory. Previously different aspects of crystal-melt interfaces were intensively studied with simulations [1,2,3], but theoretical studies with Density Functional Theories (DFT) are inconclusive [4,5]. In this report the structure of hard spheres fcc crystal-melt interfaces and the anisotropy of the interfacial free energies are studied using the Rosenfeld's Fundamental Measure DFT as such a functional leads to reliable coexistence results not only for the hard sphere system but also for the Lennard-Jones systems [6]. The parameters of interfacial density profile were calculated by a proper minimization procedure. For the equilibrium density profile the interfacial free energies were compared with simulation results. 1. R.L.Davidchak and B.B.Laird, Phys.Rev.Lett., 85, 4751(2000). 2. J.J. Hoyt, M. Asta and A. Karma, Phys.Rev.Lett., 86, 5530 (2001). 3. J.R.Morris and X.Song, J.Chem.Phys., 119, 3920 (2003). 4. W.A.Curtin, Phys.Rev.B, 39, 6775(1989). 5. R.Ohnesorge, H.Lowen, and H.Wagner, Phys.Rev.E, 50, 4801 (1994). 6. V.Warshavsky and X.Song, Phys.Rev.E, 69, 061113 (2004).

  4. Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion: Report No. 2, Phase 1 (October 1984-November 1986)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D. T.; Lien, S. J.; Grace, T. M.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.; Amin, N.; Charagundla, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of kraft black liquor combustion are being studied in a five year project. This report covers the second and third years of work by The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the US Department of Energy. The burning processes are being studied in two continuous flow reactor systems designed to both study overall process and single particle phenomena. Black liquor burning is divided into four distinct phases: drying, volatiles burning, char burning, and smelt coalescence. Phase 1, In-flight Processes, is the main focus of this report. In-flight processes include mainly the stages of drying and volatiles burning. Testing results in both flow reactors and in two specially designed single particle reactors are presented. Dynamic droplet velocity and swelling have been measured for the first time. A direct link between initial liquor viscosity and burning behavior in the early stages has also been identified. During the fourth year Phase 1 will be completed and Phases 2 (Char Burning) and 3 (Fume Processes) will begin.

  5. Fundamental Research on Enhancing Operation Reliadility for Lange-Scale Interconnected Power Crids——An interview with Zhou Xiaoxin,chief scientist of"973 Program"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zha Renbo; Zhou Wen

    2008-01-01

    @@ At the end of last year,the editors from Power and Electrical Engineers interviewedZhou Xiaoxin on "Fundamental Research on Enhancing Operation Reliability for Large-ScaleInterconnected Power Grids",a project of "973 Program".Mr.Zhou,the chief engineer ofChina Electric Power Research Institute (CEPRI) and an academician of Chinese A-cademy of Sciences,is the chief scientist in charge of this research project.

  6. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  7. Fundamental studies on enhancing heat transfer in contact zone during high efficiency grinding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Hongjun(徐鸿钧); FU; Yucan(傅玉灿); XU; Xipeng(徐西鹏); XU; Xipeng

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of research on the thermal effect in grinding contact zone during high effi-ciency grinding, an idea of enhancing heat transfer in contact zone using high pressure water jetimpinging is advanced. Fundamental heat transfer experiments on enhancing heat transfer withhigh pressure water jet impinging were completed. The maximum speed of jet impinging reaches110m/s. The experimental results of transient and steady-state experiment prove that the criticalheat flux and the heat-transfer coefficient of water jet impinging are 70 and 30 times those of thepool boiling, respectively. Furthermore, a new grinding fluid supply system was employed to en-hance heat transfer in grinding zone by high-pressure water jet impingement during creep feedgrinding. The experimental results show that high-pressure water jet impinging has remarkablecooling effect. The temperature of the workpiece surface can be steadily kept below 100℃, whilethe workpiece is badly burnt with conventional coolant supply. The study will exploit an importantresearch orientation that has great potentialities in the high efficiency grinding. Further perfectionof this study will not only enable us to increase the available material removal rate to a new levelbut also solve the workpiece burn problem of the difficult-to-machining materials in high efficiencygrinding,

  8. A comparative study of the mastery of fundamental movement skills between different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Garbeloto dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that guidance, encouragement and opportunity are crucial factors for children’s motor development. They are especially important to promote the mastery of fundamental movement skills. The present study investigated the association between two elements related to those factors – proposed curriculum of physical education and the most popular sport in a given country – and the incidence of mastery in the FMS in children from 4 to 10 years of age. In order to carry out a cross-cultural comparison, three studies from different countries (Portugal, China and USA that used TGMD-II were selected. The results indicated association between proposed curriculum and the number of children mastering FMS. This association increases in older age groups of children from USA, the most structured curriculum related to FMS, presenting the highest average percentage of mastery.  Additionally, we did not find association of the most popular sports in a given country with the mastery of the related skill. These results are interpreted as evidence for the importance of guidance on the mastery of FMS.

  9. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  10. Fundamental study of subharmonic vibration of order 1/2 in automatic transmissions for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, T.; Nakae, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Nanba, A.; Takikawa, Y.; Ooi, Y.; Sueoka, A.

    2016-09-01

    A torque converter is an element that transfers torque from the engine to the gear train in the automatic transmission of an automobile. The damper spring of the lock-up clutch in the torque converter is used to effectively absorb the torsional vibration caused by engine combustion. A damper with low stiffness reduces fluctuations in rotational speed but is difficult to use because of space limitations. In order to address this problem, the damper is designed using a piecewise-linear spring with three stiffness stages. However, the damper causes a nonlinear vibration referred to as a subharmonic vibration of order 1/2. In the subharmonic vibration, the frequency is half that of the vibrations from the engine. In order to clarify the mechanism of the subharmonic vibration, in the present study, experiments are conducted using the fundamental experimental apparatus of a single-degree-of-freedom system with two stiffness stages. In the experiments, countermeasures to reduce the subharmonic vibration by varying the conditions of the experiments are also performed. The results of the experiments are evaluated through numerical analysis using the shooting method. The experimental and analytical results were found to be in close agreement.

  11. Fundamental study on subharmonic imaging by irradiation of amplitude-modulated ultrasound waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikusa, Norihide; Fukami, Tadanori; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Tamura, Yasutaka; Akatsuka, Takao

    2007-07-01

    The second harmonic and subharmonic components, the frequencies of which are twice and one half the fundamental frequency, are included in echoes from contrast agents. An imaging method, which employs a second harmonic (second harmonic imaging), is widely used in medical diagnoses. On the other hand, subharmonic is expected to provide a higher contrast between biological tissues and blood flow because echo signals are generated only from blood containing the contrast agents. However, the subharmonic component echo signal power from contrast agents is relatively low. This has resulted in little progress in the field of subharmonic imaging. In this study, a new imaging method is proposed using amplitude-modulated waves as transmitted waves combined with the pulse inversion method to enhance subharmonic echo signals. Two optimal frequencies are set, including the modulated waves, F(1) and F(2), so that the subharmonic frequency of F(1) and the second harmonic frequency of F(2) may result in the same value. This allows a more powerful signal at the frequency band because the second harmonic and subharmonic components are integrated. Furthermore, a B-mode ultrasound image of an agar phantom that imitated biological tissue and showed the effectiveness of our method was reconstructed. As a result, the echo power of the subharmonic component was enhanced by approximately 11.8 dB more than the conventional method and the signal to noise ratio showed an improvement of 7.6 dB.

  12. Fundamental study of the austenite formation and decomposition in low-silicon, aluminum added TRIP steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Enrique

    2005-11-01

    TRIP (Transformation Induced Plasticity) steels are under development for automotive applications that require high strength and excellent formability. Conventional TRIP steels consist of a multiphase microstructure comprised of a ferrite matrix with a dispersion of bainite and metastable retained austenite. The high ductility exhibited by these steels results from the transformation of the metastable retained austenite to martensite during straining. In conventional TRIP steel processing, the multiphase microstructure is obtained by controlled cooling from the alpha + gamma region to an isothermal holding temperature. During this holding, bainite forms and carbon is rejected out into the austenite, which lowers the Ms temperature and stabilizes the austenite to room temperature. In this research project, a fundamental study of a low-Si, Mo-Nb added cold rolled TRIP steel with and without Al additions was conducted. In this study, the recrystallization of cold-rolled ferrite, the formation of austenite during intercritical annealing and the characteristics of the decomposition of the intercritically annealed austenite by controlled cooling rates were systematically assessed. Of special interest were: (i) the effect of the initial hot band microstructure, (ii) the formation of epitaxial ferrite during cooling from the intercritical annealing temperature to the isothermal holding temperature, (iii) the influence of the intercritically annealed austenite on the formation of bainite during the isothermal holding temperature, and (iv) the influence of the processing variables on the type, amount, composition and stability of the retained austenite. During this research study, techniques such as OM, SEM, EBSD, TEM, XRD and Magnetometry were used to fully characterize the microstructures. Furthermore, a Gleeble 3500 unit at US Steel Laboratories was used for dilatometry studies and to simulate different CGL processing routes, from which specimens were obtained to evaluate

  13. TRI{mu}P facility for the study of fundamental interaction and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shidling, P.D.; Giri, G.S.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.L.; Sohani, M.; Hoek, D.J. van der; Versolato, O.O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [KVI, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Rare and short lived radioactive isotopes provide unique possibility for the study of fundamental interaction and symmetries. At TRI{mu}P different radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse kinematics mode. Dual magnetic separator is used for separating fast radioactive isotopes of interest from the primary beam. For example, {sup 21}Na are produced with a yield of 10{sup 4}/s/pnA (of primary beam) in the {sup 20}Ne({sup 2}H,n){sup 21}Na reaction. Produced fast radioactive isotopes are converted into low energy ion beams in thermal ionizer. This allows one to collect efficiently and transport the ions into magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) and ions are neutralized in MOT chamber. We will measure {beta}-{nu} energy and angular correlation measurement in {beta} decay for {sup 21}Na. From this measurement, deviation from the weak interaction (V-A type) can be studied. One of the other measurements which are of our particular interest is search of permanent electric dipole moment, and to improve the value for parity non conservation in Ra. Different radium isotopes have been produced in inverse kinematics. {sup 213}Ra has been produced with a typical yield of 10{sup 3} /s/pnA (Pb beam) in {sup 206}Pb({sup 12}C,5n) {sup 213}Ra reaction. A procedure to trap Ra effectively has been successfully developed by the first time trapping of Ba. Details on the facility and new technological approaches for several units of the TRI{mu}P facility are presented.

  14. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hagman

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CASE STUDY METHOD IN DISTANCE LEARNING OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. R. Chepyuk

    2016-01-01

    finding of knowledge and practical skills has been understudied for a long time. The materials of the present article partially close this gap.Practical significance. The discussed case study method in the publication promotes implementation of approach to professional higher education which is oriented to a student. The research and experience of application of cases in distance training of entrepreneurship fundamentals have showed the universality and efficiency of this method.

  16. Fundamental studies of the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, W.D.

    1995-05-01

    We submit here a final technical report for the research program entitled: Fundamental Studies of the Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond, DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER45345-M006. This research program was initiated in 1988 under the direction of the late Professor David A. Stevenson and was renewed in 1992. Unfortunately, at the end of 1992, just as the last phase of this work was getting underway, Professor Stevenson learned that he had developed mesothelioma, a form of cancer based on asbestos. Professor Stevenson died from that disease in February of 1994. Professor William D. Nix, the Chairman of the Materials Science department at Stanford was named the Principal Investigator. Professor Nix has assembled this final technical report. Much of the work of this grant was conducted by Mr. Paul Dennig, a graduate student who will receive his Ph.D. degree from Stanford in a few months. His research findings are described in the chapters of this report and in the papers published over the past few years. The main discovery of this work was that surface topology plays a crucial role in the nucleation of diamond on silicon. Dennig and his collaborators demonstrated this by showing that diamond nucleates preferentially at the tips of asperities on a silicon surface rather than in the re-entrant comers at the base of such asperities. Some of the possible reasons for this effect are described in this report. The published papers listed on the next page of this report also describe this research. Interested persons can obtain copies of these papers from Professor Nix at Stanford. A full account of all of the research results obtained in this work is given in the regular chapters that follow this brief introduction. In addition, interested readers will want to consult Mr. Dennig`s Ph.D. dissertation when it is made available later this year.

  17. A numerical study of fundamental shock noise mechanisms. Ph.D. Thesis - Cornell Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    The results of this thesis demonstrate that direct numerical simulation can predict sound generation in unsteady aerodynamic flows containing shock waves. Shock waves can be significant sources of sound in high speed jet flows, on helicopter blades, and in supersonic combustion inlets. Direct computation of sound permits the prediction of noise levels in the preliminary design stage and can be used as a tool to focus experimental studies, thereby reducing cost and increasing the probability of a successfully quiet product in less time. This thesis reveals and investigates two mechanisms fundamental to sound generation by shocked flows: shock motion and shock deformation. Shock motion is modeled by the interaction of a sound wave with a shock. During the interaction, the shock wave begins to move and the sound pressure is amplified as the wave passes through the shock. The numerical approach presented in this thesis is validated by the comparison of results obtained in a quasi-one dimensional simulation with linear theory. Analysis of the perturbation energy demonstrated for the first time that acoustic energy is generated by the interaction. Shock deformation is investigated by the numerical simulation of a ring vortex interacting with a shock. This interaction models the passage of turbulent structures through the shock wave. The simulation demonstrates that both acoustic waves and contact surfaces are generated downstream during the interaction. Analysis demonstrates that the acoustic wave spreads cylindrically, that the sound intensity is highly directional, and that the sound pressure level increases significantly with increasing shock strength. The effect of shock strength on sound pressure level is consistent with experimental observations of shock noise, indicating that the interaction of a ring vortex with a shock wave correctly models a dominant mechanism of shock noise generation.

  18. Bence Jones proteins: Powerful tool for fundamental study of protein chemistry and pathophysiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, F.J.; Schiffer, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Solomon, A. [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Bence Jones proteins are typically found in patients with monoclonal plasma cell or related B-cell immunoproliferative disorders. Because of their monoclonal origin and resulting chemical homogeneity much of the fundamental information on immunoglobulin structure came initially from their analysis. Amino acid analyses of these components revealed an N-terminal variable (V) and C-terminal constant (C) domain as well as the existence within the V domain of hypervariable segments that account for the specificity and diversity of antibodies. Over the past three decades, the primary structures of hundreds of light chains (complete and partial), from human and other sources, have been determined, aligned, and archived. Bence Jones proteins and V{sub L} dimers were the crystallizable homogeneous proteins which provided much of the early three-dimensional conformational data that helped explain the structural basis of antibody function. Remarkably, a single Bence Jones protein in two solvent systems (low and high ionic strength) exhibited significant differences in the interactions of the two monomeric subunits comprising the dimer, resulting in substantial variation in the structure of the antigen combining site under the two solution conditions. This observation led to a prediction that heterogeneity of domain interactions may contribute to antibody-antigen interactions. Experimental support for this hypothesis has come from comparisons of the detailed structures of antibody-antigen complexes. The interactions at the interface of the V{sub L} dimer are a function of primary structure and solution conditions. Study of these interactions has led to new information on the relationship between protein structure and function and, as discussed below, can account for specific pathophysiological properties associated with Bence Jones proteins.

  19. Analytical Study on Fundamental Frequency Contours of Thai Expressive Speech Using Fujisaki's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In spontaneous speech communication, prosody is an important factor that must be taken into account, since the prosody effects on not only the naturalness but also the intelligibility of speech. Focusing on synthesis of Thai expressive speech, a number of systems has been developed for years. However, the expressive speech with various speaking styles has not been accomplished. To achieve the generation of expressive speech, we need to model the fundamental frequency (F0 contours accurately to preserve the speech prosody. Approach: Therefore this study proposes an analysis of model parameters for Thai speech prosody with three speaking styles and two genders which is a preliminary work for speech synthesis. Fujisaki's modeling; a powerful tool to model the F0 contour has been adopted, while the speaking styles of happiness, sadness and reading have been considered. Seven derived parameters from the Fujisaki's model are as follows. The first parameter is baseline frequency which is the lowest level of F0 contour. The second and third parameters are the numbers of phrase commands and tone commands which reflect the frequencies of surges of the utterance in global and local levels, respectively. The fourth and fifth parameters are phrase command and tone command durations which reflect the speed of speaking and the length of a syllable, respectively. The sixth and seventh parameters are amplitudes of phrase command and tone command which reflect the energy of the global speech and the energy of local syllable. Results: In the experiments, each speaking style includes 200 samples of one sentence with male and female speech. Therefore our speech database contains 1200 utterances in total. The results show that most of the proposed parameters can distinguish three kinds of speaking styles explicitly. Conclusion: From the finding, it is a strong evidence to further apply the successful parameters in the speech synthesis systems or

  20. A Fundamental Study of Inorganic Clathrate and Other Open-Framework Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolas, George [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Due to formidable synthetic challenges, many materials of scientific and technological interest are first obtained as microcrystalline powders. High purity, high yield processing techniques are often lacking and thus care must be taken in interpretation of the observed structural, chemical, and physical properties of powder or polycrystalline materials, which can be strongly influenced by extrinsic properties. Furthermore, the preparation of high-quality single crystals for many materials by traditional techniques can be especially challenging in cases where the elemental constituents have greatly differing melting points and/or vapor pressures, when the desired compound is thermodynamically metastable, or where growth with participation of the melt is generally not possible. New processing techniques are therefore imperative in order to investigate the intrinsic properties of these materials and elucidate their fundamental physical properties. Intermetallic clathrates constitute one such class of materials. The complex crystal structures of intermetallic clathrates are characterized by mainly group 14 host frameworks encapsulating guest-ions in polyhedral cages. The unique features of clathrate structures are intimately related to their physical properties, offering ideal systems for the study of structure-property relationships in crystalline solids. Moreover, intermetallic clathrates are being actively investigated due to their potential for application in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics and opto-electronics, superconductivity, and magnetocaloric technologies. We have developed different processing techniques in order to synthesize phase-pure high yield clathrates reproducibly, as well as grow single crystals for the first time. We also employed these techniques to synthesize new “open-framework” compounds. These advances in materials processing and crystal growth allowed for the investigation of the physical properties of a variety of different clathrate

  1. Comparison of fundamental, second harmonic, and superharmonic imaging: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Neer, P.L.M.J.; Danilouchkine, M.G.; Verweij, M.D.; Demi, L.; Voormolen, M.M.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.; De Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    In medical ultrasound, fundamental imaging (FI) uses the reflected echoes from the same spectral band as that of the emitted pulse. The transmission frequency determines the trade-off between penetration depth and spatial resolution. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) employs the second harmonic of the

  2. Comparison of fundamental, second harmonic, and superharmonic imaging: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neer, P.L.M.J. van; Danilouchkine, M.G.; Verweij, M.D.; Demi, L.; Voormolen, M.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Jong, N. de

    2011-01-01

    In medical ultrasound, fundamental imaging (FI) uses the reflected echoes from the same spectral band as that of the emitted pulse. The transmission frequency determines the trade-off between penetration depth and spatial resolution. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) employs the second harmonic of the

  3. Comparison of fundamental, second harmonic, and superharmonic imaging: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Neer, P.L.M.J.; Danilouchkine, M.G.; Verweij, M.D.; Demi, L.; Voormolen, M.M.; Van der Steen, A.F.W.; De Jong, N.

    2011-01-01

    In medical ultrasound, fundamental imaging (FI) uses the reflected echoes from the same spectral band as that of the emitted pulse. The transmission frequency determines the trade-off between penetration depth and spatial resolution. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) employs the second harmonic of the e

  4. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati......The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies...

  5. Fundamental Studies of the Durability of Materials for Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2006-06-30

    Ferritic stainless steels are a leading candidate material for use as an SOFC interconnect, but have the problem of forming volatile chromia species that lead to cathode poisoning. This project has focused both on optimization of ferritic alloys for SOFC applications and evaluating the possibility of using alternative materials. The initial efforts involved studying the oxidation behavior of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels in the temperature range 700-900 C in atmospheres relevant to solid oxide fuel cell operation. The alloys exhibited a wide variety of oxidation behavior based on composition. A method for reducing the vaporization is to add alloying elements that lead to the formation of a thermally grown oxide layer over the protective chromia. Several commercial steels form manganese chromate on the surface. This same approach, combined with observations of TiO{sub 2} overlayer formation on the chromia forming, Ni-based superalloy IN 738, has resulted in the development of a series of Fe-22 Cr-X Ti alloys (X=0-4 wt%). Oxidation testing has indicated that this approach results in significant reduction in chromia evaporation. Unfortunately, the Ti also results in accelerated chromia scale growth. Fundamental thermo-mechanical aspects of the durability of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnect alloys have also been investigated. A key failure mechanism for interconnects is the spallation of the chromia scale that forms on the alloy, as it is exposed to fuel cell environments. Indentation testing methods to measure the critical energy release rate (Gc) associated with the spallation of chromia scale/alloy systems have been evaluated. This approach has been used to evaluate the thermomechanical stability of chromia films as a function of oxidation exposure. The oxidation of pure nickel in SOFC environments was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the NiO scaling kinetics and a four-point probe was used to measure

  6. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  7. Fundamental properties of the spiralian developmental program are displayed by the basal nemertean Carinoma tremaphoros (Palaeonemertea, Nemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslakova, Svetlana A; Martindale, Mark Q; Norenburg, Jon L

    2004-03-15

    The first description of the cleavage program of the palaeonemertean Carinoma tremaphoros (a member of a basal clade of the Nemertea) is illustrated by confocal microscopy and microinjection and compared to development of more derived nemerteans and other eutrochozoans (Annelida, Mollusca, Sipunculida and Echiurida). Lineage tracers were injected into individual blastomeres of C. tremaphoros at the 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-cell stage. Subsequent development was followed to the formation of simple (so-called planuliform) planktonic larvae to establish the ultimate fates of the blastomeres. Results of labeling experiments demonstrate that the development of C. tremaphoros bears closer similarity to other Eutrochozoa than development of a previously studied hoplonemertean (Nemertopsis bivittata) and a heteronemertean (Cerebratulus lacteus) in that the first cleavage plane bears an invariant relationship to the plane of bilateral symmetry of the larval body. Additionally, our cell-labeling experiments support the earlier suggestion that the transitory pre-oral belt of cells in the larvae of C. tremaphoros corresponds to the prototroch of other Eutrochozoa. A unique feature of development of C. tremaphoros includes the oblique orientation of the trochal lineages with respect to the anterior-posterior axis of the larva. The significance and application of cleavage characters such as presence of molluscan vs. annelid cross for phylogenetic analyses is reviewed. We argue that molluscan or annelid cross, neither of which are present in nemerteans, are merely two out of much greater variety of patterns created by the differences in the relative size and timing of formation of micromere quartets and none can be considered, by itself, as evidence of close phylogenetic relationship between phyla.

  8. Water-gas shift on gold catalysts: catalyst systems and fundamental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Franklin Feng; Ma, Zhen

    2013-10-07

    Since the pioneering finding by Haruta et al. that small gold nanoparticles on reducible supports can be highly active for low-temperature CO oxidation, the synthesis, characterization, and application of supported gold catalysts have attracted much attention. The water-gas shift reaction (WGSR: CO + H2O = CO2 + H2) is important for removing CO and upgrading the purity of H2 for fuel cell applications, ammonia synthesis, and selective hydrogenation processes. In recent years, much attention has been paid to exploration the possibility of using supported gold nanocatalysts for WGSR and understanding the fundamental aspects related to catalyst deactivation mechanisms, nature of active sites, and reaction mechanisms. Here we summarize recent advances in the development of supported gold catalysts for this reaction and fundamental insights that can be gained, and furnish our assessment on the status of research progress.

  9. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  10. Photoreflectance Study of the Fundamental Optical Properties of (Ga,Mn)As Epitaxial Films

    OpenAIRE

    Yastrubchak, O.; Zuk, J.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Domagala, J. Z.; Andrearczyk, T.; J. Sadowski; Wosinski, T.

    2010-01-01

    Fundamental optical properties of thin films of (Ga,Mn)As diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with a low (1%) and high (6%) Mn content and of a reference GaAs film, grown by low-temperature molecular-beam epitaxy, have been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. In addition, the films were subjected to complementary characterization by means of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, Raman spectroscopy, and high resolution X-ray diffractometry. Thorough ...

  11. Fundamental and applied studies in nanoparticle biomedical imaging, stabilization, and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pansare, Vikram J.

    Nanoparticle carrier systems are gaining importance in the rapidly expanding field of biomedical whole animal imaging where they provide long circulating, real time imaging capability. This thesis presents a new paradigm in imaging whereby long wavelength fluorescent or photoacoustically active contrast agents are embedded in the hydrophobic core of nanocarriers formed by Flash NanoPrecipitation. The long wavelength allows for improved optical penetration depth. Compared to traditional contrast agents where fluorophores are placed on the surface, this allows for improved signal, increased stability, and molecular targeting capabilities. Several types of long wavelength hydrophobic dyes based on acene, cyanine, and bacteriochlorin scaffolds are utilized and animal results obtained for nanocarrier systems used in both fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging modes. Photoacoustic imaging is particularly promising due to its high resolution, excellent penetration depth, and ability to provide real-time functional information. Fundamental studies in nanoparticle stabilization are also presented for two systems: model alumina nanoparticles and charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles. Motivated by the need for stable suspensions of alumina-based nanocrystals for security printing applications, results are presented for the adsorption of various small molecule charged hydrophobes onto the surface of alumina nanoparticles. Results are also presented for the production of charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles via Flash NanoPrecipitation, allowing for the independent control of polymer molecular weight and nanoparticle size, which is not possible by traditional emulsion polymerization routes. Lastly, methods for processing nanoparticle systems are explored. The increasing use of nanoparticle therapeutics in the pharmaceutical industry has necessitated the development of scalable, industrially relevant processing methods. Ultrafiltration is particularly well suited for

  12. Nanosecond Pulsed Discharge in Water without Bubbles: A Fundamental Study of Initiation, Propagation and Plasma Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepersad, Yohan

    The state of plasma is widely known as a gas-phase phenomenon, but plasma in liquids have also received significant attention over the last century. Generating plasma in liquids however is theoretically challenging, and this problem is often overcome via liquid-gas phase transition preceding the actual plasma formation. In this sense, plasma forms in gas bubbles in the liquid. Recent work at the Drexel Plasma Institute has shown that nanosecond pulsed electric fields can initiate plasma in liquids without any initial cavitation phase, at voltages below theoretical direct-ionization thresholds. This unique regime is poorly understood and does not fit into any current descriptive mechanisms. As with all new phenomena, a complete fundamental description is paramount to understanding its usefulness to practical applications. The primary goals of this research were to qualitatively and quantitatively understand the phenomenon of nanosecond pulsed discharge in liquids as a means to characterizing properties that may open up niche application possibilities. Analysis of the plasma was based on experimental results from non-invasive, sub-nanosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics, including direct imaging, transmission imaging (Schlieren and shadow), and optical emission spectroscopy. The physical characteristics of the plasma were studied as a function of variations in the electric field amplitude and polarity, liquid permittivity, and pulse duration. It was found that the plasma size and emission intensity was dependent on the permittivity of the liquid, as well as the voltage polarity, and the structure and dynamics were explained by a 'cold-lightning' mechanism. The under-breakdown dynamics at the liquid-electrode interface were investigated by transmission imaging to provide evidence for a novel mechanism for initiation based on the electrostriction. This mechanism was proposed by collaborators on the project and developed alongside the experimental work in this

  13. Image denoising via fundamental anisotropic diffusion and wavelet shrinkage: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Bulent; Analoui, Mostafa

    2004-05-01

    Noise removal faces a challenge: Keeping the image details. Resolving the dilemma of two purposes (smoothing and keeping image features in tact) working inadvertently of each other was an almost impossible task until anisotropic dif-fusion (AD) was formally introduced by Perona and Malik (PM). AD favors intra-region smoothing over inter-region in piecewise smooth images. Many authors regularized the original PM algorithm to overcome its drawbacks. We compared the performance of denoising using such 'fundamental' AD algorithms and one of the most powerful multiresolution tools available today, namely, wavelet shrinkage. The AD algorithms here are called 'fundamental' in the sense that the regularized versions center around the original PM algorithm with minor changes to the logic. The algorithms are tested with different noise types and levels. On top of the visual inspection, two mathematical metrics are used for performance comparison: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and universal image quality index (UIQI). We conclude that some of the regu-larized versions of PM algorithm (AD) perform comparably with wavelet shrinkage denoising. This saves a lot of compu-tational power. With this conclusion, we applied the better-performing fundamental AD algorithms to a new imaging modality: Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT).

  14. Fundamental Studies on the Electrochemical Behaviour of Carbon Steel Exposed in Sulphide and Sulphate-Reducing Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendati...

  15. The Fundamental Lifestyle of a University Community: A Case Study of Higher Education in a Malaysian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Melissa Ng Lee Yen; Mey, See Ching

    2012-01-01

    This study identified the fundamental lifestyles adopted by a university community in Malaysia. Rapid growth and expansion of higher education in Malaysia is inevitable as the country moves from a production-based economy to one that is innovative and knowledge-based, requiring the development of a highly skilled and knowledgeable workforce.…

  16. Fundamental Study of Micro-Defects in Electropolished EB-Welded and Hydroformed SRF Accelerating Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike

    2014-08-29

    In the area of niobium elecropolishing fundamentals, we focused on understanding the influence of the surface topology, and geometry (with effects from gravity included. The formation of a viscous film is essential for the electropolishing process to take place. The exact nature and composition of the film formed on niobium is still unknown because of its solubility in the electrolyte. Extensive pitting may take place at surface where a stable film cannot form. This has to be taken into consideration while determining the speed with which the SRF cavities are rotated while EP. Hydrodynamic aspects must be taken into consideration while optimizing the polishing parameters. There is improvement in surface finish with polishing time. There is a huge change in surface quality when the EP time is increased from 2 hours to 4 hours but not much change takes place when the time is further increased to 6 hours. So keeping the economic points in view, about 100 um defect layer removal may be sufficient to get the desired performance. In the area of Electropolishing of untreated and treated niobium with Weld Joints we studied untreated and treated Nb, especially for the heat affected areas next to welded bumps, electropolished for different durations. The electropolishing of the untreated Nb caused the formation of pits on the surface at about 15 min but they disappeared when the electropolishing duration was more than 15 min. Electropolishing for 120 min smoothened the surface of untreated Nb by levelling the surface, but the severe formation of pits on the whole surface was found after 240 min. The treatment of Nb significantly changed the Nb surface morphology which was covered by grains of different size that looked light or dark in the optical microscope. The treated Nb was susceptible to pitting during the entire electropolishing starting from 15 min and the dark grains had more susceptibility to pitting than the light grains. In addition, electropolishing for 240 min

  17. Collaborative Research: Fundamental Studies of Plasma Control Using Surface Embedded Electronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overzet, Lawrence J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Raja, L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-06-06

    The research program was collaborative between the researchers at the University of Texas at Dallas and the University of Texas at Austin. The primary subject of this program was to investigate the possibility of active control of secondary electron emission (SEE) from surfaces in contact with plasmas and thereby actively control plasmas. Very few studies of ion-induced electron emission (IIEE) from semiconductors exist, and those that do exist primarily used high-energy ion beams in the experiments. Furthermore, those few studies took extreme measures to ensure that the measurements were performed on atomically clean surfaces because of the surface sensitivity of the IIEE process. Even a small exposure to air can change the IIEE yield significantly. In addition, much of the existing data for IIEE from semiconductors was obtained in the 1950s and ‘60s, when semiconductor materials were first being refined. As a result, nearly all of that data is for p-type Ge and Si. Before this investigation, experimental data on n-type materials was virtually non-existent. While the basic theory assumed that IIEE yields ought to be substantially independent of doping type and concentration, recent measurements of near atmospheric pressure plasmas and of breakdown suggested otherwise. These indirect measurements were made on surfaces that were not atomically clean and seemed to indicate that deep sub-surface changes to the bulk conduction band electron density could lead to substantial variations in the IIEE yield. Exactly in contradiction to the generally accepted theory. Insufficient direct data existed to settle the matter. We performed both experimental measurements and theoretical calculations of IIEE yields from both Si and Ge in order to help clarify whether or not conduction band electrons substantially change the IIEE yield. We used three wafers of each material to carry out the investigation: a heavily doped p-type, an intrinsic and a heavily doped n-type wafer. There

  18. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helble, J.J.; Bool, L.E.; Kang, S.G. [and others

    1995-11-01

    This project is designed to examine the effects of combustion stoichiometry on the fundamental aspects of ash formation and ash deposit initiation. Emphasis is being placed on reducing stoichiometries associated with low-NOx combustion, although a range of oxidant/fuel ratios are being considered. Previous work has demonstrated that ash formation depends strongly upon coal mineralogy, including mineral type, size, amount, and the presence of organically associated inorganic species. Combustion temperature and the oxidation state of iron also play a significant role. As these latter items will vary with changes in stoichiometry, research to determine the net effect on deposition is required.

  19. No Fundamental Limitation on Studying Living Organisms and Other Complex Systems with Statistical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Drew M

    2012-01-01

    Although the state of living organisms is affected by many interrelated and unidentified variables, one need not invoke this to explain the "Truth Wears Off" or "decline" effect, and this complexity imposes no fundamental limitation on statistical inference. Similar "decline" effects occur in physics as well as the biomedical sciences; selective reporting and publication bias, and scientists' biases in favour of reporting eye-catching results (in biomedical sciences and psychology) or conforming to others' results (in physics) better explain this feature of the "Truth Wears Off" effect than Rabin's suggested limitation on statistical inference.

  20. The TOUCH program and natalizumab: Fundamental flaw in patient protection [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannadha Avasarala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA since 1993 for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. One such drug is natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan pharmaceuticals which has enjoyed great success in the management of MS since its re-introduction in 2006. One of the complications of using natalizumab is the risk of development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. To mitigate the risk of PML development, Biogen Idec initiated the TOUCH program – this strategy helps monitor the disease. Clinical vigilance remains key in the early diagnosis of PML but serological testing for the John Cunningham Virus Antibody (JCV helps with risk stratification of PML. However, some physicians do not test for the JCV Ab and since they are not required to send such data to the company or inform the patient, one red flag for suspicion of PML is lost particularly if the patient is asymptomatic.  This undercuts the premise of the TOUCH program. In an ideal world, reporting JCV Ab status should be made mandatory since that ensures a basic tenet of the program is met – to identify patients at increased risk of developing PML and make appropriate recommendations based on that finding. Lack of requirement of reporting of this vital finding opens the door for uncertainty in assessment of risk PML development and everyone remains in the dark till it may be too late. This is unacceptable when the company created the TOUCH program specifically with intent to track PML risk in patients on natalizumab. It makes no scientific sense to let the drug be used without setting stringent criteria given the possibility of PML development.

  1. The TOUCH program and natalizumab: Fundamental flaw in patient protection [version 3; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannadha Avasarala

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA since 1993 for treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS. One such drug is natalizumab (Tysabri, Biogen Idec and Elan pharmaceuticals which has enjoyed great success in the management of MS since its re-introduction in 2006. One of the complications of using natalizumab is the risk of development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML. To mitigate the risk of PML development, Biogen Idec initiated the TOUCH program – this strategy helps monitor the disease. Clinical vigilance remains key in the early diagnosis of PML but serological testing for the John Cunningham Virus Antibody (JCV helps with risk stratification of PML. However, some physicians do not test for the JCV Ab and since they are not required to send such data to the company or inform the patient, one red flag for suspicion of PML is lost particularly if the patient is asymptomatic.  This undercuts the premise of the TOUCH program. In an ideal world, reporting JCV Ab status should be made mandatory since that ensures a basic tenet of the program is met – to identify patients at increased risk of developing PML and make appropriate recommendations based on that finding. Lack of requirement of reporting of this vital finding opens the door for uncertainty in assessment of risk PML development and everyone remains in the dark till it may be too late. This is unacceptable when the company created the TOUCH program specifically with intent to track PML risk in patients on natalizumab. It makes no scientific sense to let the drug be used without setting stringent criteria given the possibility of PML development.

  2. Posturas docentes e formação universitária de professores do ensino fundamental Pedagogical postures and undergraduate studies of teacher linked to fundamental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Davis

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar se a participação de professores de redes municipais do Estado de São Paulo em um programa de licenciatura em nível superior, oferecido por duas renomadas universidades paulistas, ocasionava alteração nas posturas docentes dos alunos-professores. Os dados - respostas de 1.272 participantes a 17 simulações de situações problemas apresentadas no início e no final do programa - foram analisadas por meio de procedimentos estatísticos. Os resultados mostraram que 30% dos alunos-professores sofreram modificações de perfil nas posturas estudadas no sentido esperado. Isso parece indicar que os participantes apresentaram, ao final do Programa, maior tendência para dominar e planejar situações didáticas que envolviam os conteúdos básicos das áreas de conhecimento; reconhecer e empregar adequadamente os recursos e tecnologias disponíveis no processo de ensino-aprendizagem; e valer-se da teoria para orientar a prática docente e a avaliação.The goal of this study was to evaluate if participation in a university level Education program (devoted to form elementary teachers caused an impact on the postures of pupils that were already teaching at counties' schools. The data - answers given by 1272 participants linked to two highly known universities in the state of São Paulo (Brazil to 17 simulations that encompassed initial and final evaluation - were analyzed by statistical procedures. The results showed that 30% of the subjects had their profiles altered in the expected direction in the focused postures, implying that at the end of the Program they demonstrated a tendency to dominate and plan didactic situations involving basic contents of knowledge areas; recognize and employ adequately the resources and the technologies available to the teaching and learning process; and to use theory to orient teaching and evaluation.

  3. Fundamental approach to the design of a dose-rate calculation program for use in brachytherapy planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassell, K.J. (Saint Luke' s Hospital, Guildford (UK))

    1983-02-01

    A method, developed from the Quantisation Method, of calculating dose-rate distributions around uniformly and non-uniformly loaded brachytherapy sources is described. It allows accurate and straightforward corrections for oblique filtration and self-absorption to be made. Using this method, dose-rate distributions have been calculated for sources of radium 226, gold 198, iridium 192, caesium 137 and cobalt 60, all of which show very good agreement with existing measured and calculated data. This method is now the basis of the Interstitial and Intracavitary Dosimetry (IID) program on the General Electric RT/PLAN computerised treatment planning system.

  4. Study on fundamental processes of laser welded metals observed with intense x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, T.; Daido, H.; Shobu, T.; Takase, K.; Tsukimori, K.; Kureta, M.; Segawa, M.; Nishimura, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Kawachi, T.

    With use of photon techniques including visible light, soft and hard x-rays, precise fundamental laser welding processes in the repair and maintenance of nuclear plant engineering were reviewed mechanistically. We make discussions centered on the usefulness of an intense soft x-ray beams for evaluations of spatial residual strain distribution and welded metal convection behavior including the surface morphology. Numerical results obtained with a general purpose three-dimensional code SPLICE for the simulation of the welding and solidifying phenomena. Then it is concluded that the x-ray beam would be useful as one of the powerful tools for understanding the mechanisms of various complex phenomena with higher accuracy and higher resolution.

  5. Radioactive ion beam transportation for the fundamental symmetry study with laser-trapped atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arikawa, Hiroshi, E-mail: arikawa@cyric.tohoku.ac.jp; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kawamura, H.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Uchiyama, A.; Sakemi, Y. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Aoki, T. [Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Hatakeyama, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Hatanaka, K.; Yoshida, H. P. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 606-8502 (Japan); Imai, K. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan); and others

    2014-02-15

    The search for the violation of the fundamental symmetry in a radioactive atom is the promising candidate for precision tests of the standard model and its possible extensions. The subtle signal arising from the symmetry violation is enhanced in heavy atoms, such as a francium (Fr). To realize high precision measurements, a large amount of radioactive isotopes is required. The Fr is produced via a nuclear fusion reaction using a melted gold target with a {sup 18}O primary beam at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University. The maximum extraction efficiency of the Fr ion was achieved at approximately 35%. The beam line consists of an electrostatic deflector, three electrostatic quadrupole triplets to the measurement area at 10 m away from the reaction point, and several beam diagnosis systems. We optimized parameters of the beam line.

  6. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkela, E.; Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; McKeough, P.; Hannula, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The project will both broaden and deepen the knowledge base and, in particular, will generate new fundamental information about the most critical process steps from the point of view of the realisation of the technology. The results will be exploited in the ongoing industrial-driven development and demonstration projects. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, in particular the reactions of hydrocarbons at gasification temperatures, during hot-gas filtration and on catalytic surfaces, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) monitoring of developments elsewhere in the world. In addition VTT itself finances two additions subtopics (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. (orig.)

  7. Fundamentals of electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    This book, Electronic Devices and Circuit Application, is the first of four books of a larger work, Fundamentals of Electronics. It is comprised of four chapters describing the basic operation of each of the four fundamental building blocks of modern electronics: operational amplifiers, semiconductor diodes, bipolar junction transistors, and field effect transistors. Attention is focused on the reader obtaining a clear understanding of each of the devices when it is operated in equilibrium. Ideas fundamental to the study of electronic circuits are also developed in the book at a basic level to

  8. A Study of Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy and Fundamental Competencies for Working Persons in Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    田島, 祐奈; 岩瀧, 大樹; 山崎, 洋史

    2016-01-01

    With university students experiencing more difficulty deciding what to do after graduation, and job-turnover rates increasing among young people, it is increasingly necessary to assist graduates smoothly transition into the workforce. It is likely that helping students to equip themselves with fundamental competencies would enable them to make better decisions about their careers and also lead to smoother post-graduation transitions. This study examines the relationships among the "big five" ...

  9. Comparison study of harmonic imaging (HI) and fundamental imaging (FI) in fetal echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博文; 汤富刚; 寿金朵; 徐海珊; 吕江红; 范妙英; 范晓明; 潘美

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To directly compare the quality of harmonic imaging (HI) and fundamental imaging (FI) in fetal echocardiography and to determine any differences in image quality between the two modalities. Methods: Fetal echocardiograms were performed with the use of FI and HI in 58 fetuses, image quality and visualization of left and right atria, left and right ventricles, mitral and tricuspid valves, aortic and pulmonary valves, left and right ventricular outflow tracts were evaluated and compared between FI and HI. Results: Mean HI scores were higher than mean FI scores (2.73±0.43 vs 2.16±0.69, P<0.001)for all the cardiovascular structures evaluated. Compared with FI, HI improved the image quality and visualization of fetal cardiac structures in subjects with both good (2.73±0.43 vs 2.88±0.32, P<0.001) and suboptimal (1.65±0.41 vs 2.58±0.47, P<0.001) echocardiographic windows. The interobserver correlation coefficient for the grading scores was 0.74 (P<0.001). Conclusions: harmonic imaging enhances and improves the image quality of fetal echocardiography; and has important potential role in cardiac imaging in the fetus.

  10. Fundamental interface studies of GaSb and InAs substrates with atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Frank; Baker, L.; Cook, S.; Fisher, A.; Keo, S.; Soibel, A.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Nguyen, J.; Ting, D.; Gunapala, S.

    2012-10-01

    Long Wavelength infrared photodetectors based on Type-II superlattices from the 6.1Å system hold great promise for a wide variety of applications. However, as these materials are fabricated into focal plane arrays for real world applications, the small pixel sizes that are required can result in unacceptably high dark current due to a significant contribution of surface-induced leakage. These surface currents could be substantially reduced or even eliminated by the application of an appropriate passivation material. But, while a considerable amount of effort has gone into developing passivation processes and materials for these detectors (e.g. PECVD SiO2, polyimides, etc.), there is no one widely adopted standard technique in use today. Atomic layer deposition has the possibility of being an excellent method for depositing passivation because of the wide variety of materials that are readily available via ALD and the ability to conformally coat arbitrary topographies that may be found in the patterning of LWIR FPAs. In this work, fundamental materials characterization results and electrical test data will be presented for two wide band gap, high-K dielectrics (Titanium Oxide and Hafnium Oxide) looking at their nucleation and growth behavior on substrates of relevant III-V materials such as GaSb and InAs using ellispometry, XPS, and XRD. These results will be compared to more conventional passivation strategies to highlight the unique features of the ALD technique.

  11. Fundamental and clinical study of direct immunoradiometric assay in human renin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurimoto, Fumihiko; Horiuchi, Junko; Sakurai, Hyoichiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Takita, Takashi; Saruta, Takao.

    1988-05-01

    'Renin RIA Pasteur' kit for directly measuring renin concentration in human plasma (PRC) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. A standard curve for PRC was linear in the range of 10 - 640 pg/ml. Reproducibility, recovery, and stability were satisfactory. There was a significantly positive correlation between direct PRC and conventional plasma renin activity (PRA) and indirect PRC. PRC was directly measured in 119 healthy volunteers and 15 patients with primary aldosteronism (4), Cushing's syndrome (6), or non-functioning tumor (5). The basal PRC was 32.4 +- 18.8 pg/ml for men and 37.9 +- 22.6 pg/ml for women. PRC for primary aldosteronism was below detectable levels, and remained unchanged even after the administratin of ACTH. In the case of Cushing's syndrome, mean PRC and PRA were 19 pg/ml and 1.2 ng/ml/hr, and did not respond to ACTH. Although the administration of ATCH was significantly associated with a decreased PRC, there was only tendency toward the decreased PRA in the case of non-functioning tumors. The results indicate the usefulness of the present kit in terms of its ability to directly measure PRC without any complicated procedures. (Namekawa, K.).

  12. A Study of the Effect of Emotional State upon the Variation of the Fundamental Frequency of a Speaker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Vasile GHIURCAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone banking or brokering, building accesssystems or forensics are some of the areas in which speakerrecognition is continuously developing. Fundamental frequencyrepresents an important speech feature used in theseapplications. In this paper we present a study of the effect ofemotional state of a speaker upon the variation of thefundamental frequency of the speech signal. Human beings arequite frequently overwhelmed by various emotions and most ofthe time one can not really control these emotional states. Forthe purpose of our work we have used the Berlin emotionalspeech database which contains utterances of 10 speakers indifferent emotional situations: happy, angry, fearful, bored andneutral. The mean fundamental frequency and also the standarddeviation for every speaker in all the emotional states werecomputed. The results show a very strong influence of theemotional state upon frequency variation.

  13. Fundamental study of an industrial reactive HPPMS (Cr,Al)N process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobzin, K.; Brögelmann, T.; Kruppe, N. C.; Engels, M.; von Keudell, A.; Hecimovic, A.; Ludwig, A.; Grochla, D.; Banko, L.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a fundamental investigation of an industrial (Cr,Al)N reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HPPMS) process is presented. The results will be used to improve the coating development for the addressed application, which is the tool coating for plastics processing industry. Substrate-oriented plasma diagnostics and deposition of the (Cr,Al)N coatings were performed for a variation of the HPPMS pulse frequency with values from f = 300 Hz to f = 2000 Hz at constant average power P = 2.5 kW and pulse length ton = 40 μs. The plasma was investigated using an oscilloscope, an intensified charge coupled device camera, phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy, and an energy-dispersive mass spectrometer. The coating properties were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, cantilever stress sensors, nanoindentation, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Regarding the plasma properties, it was found that the average energy within the plasma is nearly constant for the frequency variation. In contrast, the metal to gas ion flux ratio is changed from JM/JG = 0.51 to JM/JG = 0.10 for increasing frequency. Regarding the coating properties, a structure refinement as well as lower residual stresses, higher universal hardness, and a changing crystal orientation from (111) to (200) were observed at higher frequencies. By correlating the plasma and coating properties, it can be concluded that the change in the gas ion to metal ion flux ratio results in a competitive crystal growth of the film, which results in changing coating properties.

  14. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  15. Fundamental study of crack initiation and propagation. Annual progress report, March 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, D.M. Jr. (ed.)

    1977-06-01

    Ductile fracture in nuclear pressure vessel steel was characterized using a computer model of material damage. The model predicts crack initiation and growth and contains constants that are set by computer simulation of the following fracture tests: the simple tension test, the circumferentially notched round tension test, the blunt-notched compact tension test, and the Charpy V-notch test. The simulations provide the stress and strain states of these tests at fracture. The major goal of our characterization program is to determine the correlation between Charpy toughness and fracture toughness.

  16. Return to swimming protocol for competitive swimmers: a post-operative case study and fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigelman, Tracy; Sciascia, Aaron; Uhl, Tim

    2014-10-01

    A large percentage of swimmers report shoulder pain during their swimming career. Shoulder pain in swimmers has been attributed to duration of swim practice, total yardage, and break down in stroke technique. Rehabilitation programs are generally land-based and cannot adequately address the intricacies of the swimming strokes. Return to swimming protocols (RTSP) that address progression of yardage are scarce, yet needed. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to familiarize the clinician with the culture and vernacular of swimming, and to provide a suggested yardage based RTSP for high school and collegiate level swimmers. 5.

  17. Fundamental Studies of Surfaces Processes and Trace Analysis Using Solid Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-10

    electroanalytical chemistry . The completed studies have been categorized below under the headings, Physical Electrochemistry, Crystal Microbalance Studies...Amperometric Porous Electrodes Studies, Conductometric Porous Electrode Studies, Electroanalytical Chemistry and Electrochemical Instrumentation, and is

  18. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  19. Information security fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Blackley, John A; Peltier, Justin

    2004-01-01

    Effective security rules and procedures do not exist for their own sake-they are put in place to protect critical assets, thereby supporting overall business objectives. Recognizing security as a business enabler is the first step in building a successful program.Information Security Fundamentals allows future security professionals to gain a solid understanding of the foundations of the field and the entire range of issues that practitioners must address. This book enables students to understand the key elements that comprise a successful information security program and eventually apply thes

  20. Fundamental Studies of Irradiation-Induced Defect Formation and Fission Product Dynamics in Oxide Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbins, James

    2012-12-19

    The objective of this research program is to address major nuclear fuels performance issues for the design and use of oxide-type fuels in the current and advanced nuclear reactor applications. Fuel performance is a major issue for extending fuel burn-up which has the added advantage of reducing the used fuel waste stream. It will also be a significant issue with respect to developing advanced fuel cycle processes where it may be possible to incorporate minor actinides in various fuel forms so that they can be 'burned' rather than join the used fuel waste stream. The potential to fission or transmute minor actinides and certain long-lived fission product isotopes would transform the high level waste storage strategy by removing the need to consider fuel storage on the millennium time scale.

  1. Fundamental studies on the nature and properties of ceramic fiber insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, J. I.; Whittemore, O. J., Jr.; Scott, W. D.; Miller, A. D.; Smiser, L. W.; Leiser, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    Silica and mullite fibers used to fabricate reusable surface insulation (RSI) for the space shuttle orbiter may devitrify/recrystallize within the temperature range anticipated upon reentry. This is shown to be dependent upon impurity level, temperature, and time at temperature. It is determined that the effects of the material improvement and optimization program are positive. The degree of crystallinity is shown to have a predominant effect upon the strength of fabricated RSI tile, and limits are determined. Models are developed to predict tensile strengths and shrinkage rates of silica tile based upon readily measurable parameters. Thermal cycling which simulates reentry results in an increase in the crystallinity and in the porosity of tile coatings.

  2. Fundamentals of the NEA Thermochemical Database and its influence over national nuclear programs on the performance assessment of deep geological repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragoussi, Maria-Eleni; Costa, Davide

    2017-03-14

    For the last 30 years, the NEA Thermochemical Database (TDB) Project (www.oecd-nea.org/dbtdb/) has been developing a chemical thermodynamic database for elements relevant to the safety of radioactive waste repositories, providing data that are vital to support the geochemical modeling of such systems. The recommended data are selected on the basis of strict review procedures and are characterized by their consistency. The results of these efforts are freely available, and have become an international point of reference in the field. As a result, a number of important national initiatives with regard to waste management programs have used the NEA TDB as their basis, both in terms of recommended data and guidelines. In this article we describe the fundamentals and achievements of the project together with the characteristics of some databases developed in national nuclear waste disposal programs that have been influenced by the NEA TDB. We also give some insights on how this work could be seen as an approach to be used in broader areas of environmental interest.

  3. Study Abroad Programs: Making Safety a Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddan, Michael Craig; Budden, Connie B.; Juban, Rusty; Baraya, Aristides

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, students are participating in study abroad programs. Such programs provide participants a variety of learning experiences. Developing cross-cultural appreciation, communication skills, maturity and a less ethno-centric mindset are among the impacts study abroad programs offer. However, care must be taken to assure student safety and…

  4. Fundamental studies of high-temperature corrosion reactions. Fifth annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, R.A.

    1980-02-01

    The in-situ study of metal oxidation reactions and the mechanism of the sulfidation of molybdenum by sulfur gases were studied. Equipment including a SEM microscope, heater and power supply which were used is described. (FS)

  5. Fundamentals of multicore software development

    CERN Document Server

    Pankratius, Victor; Tichy, Walter F

    2011-01-01

    With multicore processors now in every computer, server, and embedded device, the need for cost-effective, reliable parallel software has never been greater. By explaining key aspects of multicore programming, Fundamentals of Multicore Software Development helps software engineers understand parallel programming and master the multicore challenge. Accessible to newcomers to the field, the book captures the state of the art of multicore programming in computer science. It covers the fundamentals of multicore hardware, parallel design patterns, and parallel programming in C++, .NET, and Java. It

  6. The Testing Effect: Illustrating a Fundamental Concept and Changing Study Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Gilles O.; Mullet, Hillary G.; Harrison, Tyler L.

    2012-01-01

    An important recent finding is that testing improves learning and memory. In this article, the authors describe a demonstration that illustrates this principle and helps students incorporate more testing into their learning. The authors asked students to read one text using a Study-Study strategy and one text using a Study-Test strategy. One week…

  7. Study Guide for Fundamentals of Solar Heating: A Correspondence Course for the Airconditioning Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This study guide groups eleven lessons into four study units. The first unit discusses the development and basic concepts of solar heating. The second unit deals with the nomenclature of the solar heating system. The third study unit covers sizing of the solar heating system to meet demand and discusses the operation of the total system. The…

  8. Fundamental Studies on the Use of Laser-Driven Proton Beams for Fast Ignition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Theobald, W.; Habara, H.; Tanaka, K.; Yabuuchi, T.; Foord, M. E.; Patel, P. K.; McLean, H. S.; Roth, M.; McKenna, P.

    2015-11-01

    A short-pulse-laser-driven intense proton beam remains a candidate for Fast Ignition heater due to its focusability and high current. However, the proton current density necessary for FI in practice has never been produced in the laboratory and there are many physics issues that should be addressed using current and near-term facilities. For example, the extraction of sufficient proton charge from the short-pulse laser target could be evaluated with the multi-kilojoule NIF ARC laser. Transport of the beam through matter, such as a cone tip, and deposition in the fuel must be considered carefully as it will isochorically heat any material it enters and produce a rapidly-evolving, warm dense matter state with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we share experimental measurements of the proton spectra after passing through metal cones and foils taken with the kilojoule-class, multi-picosecond OMEGA EP and LFEX lasers. We also present complementary PIC simulations of beam generation and transport to and in the foils. Upcoming experiments to further evaluate proton beam performance in proton FI will also be outlined. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA NLUF program, Contract DE-NA0002034 and by the AFOSR under Contract FA9550-14-1-0346.

  9. An Initial Study of the Fundamentals of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Van Zante, Judith F.; King, Michael C.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an initial study of the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL). Ice accretion due to the ingestion of ice-crystals is being attributed to numerous jet-engine power-loss events. The NASA PSL is an altitude jet-engine test facility which has recently added a capability to inject ice particles into the flow. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. The present study utilized a NACA0012 airfoil. The mixed-phase conditions were generated by partially freezing the liquid-water droplets ejected from the spray bars. This paper presents data regarding (1) the freeze out characteristics of the cloud, (2) changes in aerothermal conditions due to the presence of the cloud, and (3) the ice accretion characteristics observed on the airfoil model. The primary variable in this test was the PSL plenum humidity which was systematically varied for two duct-exit-plane velocities (85 and 135 ms) as well as two particle size clouds (15 and 50 m MVDi). The observed clouds ranged from fully glaciated to fully liquid, where the liquid clouds were at least partially supercooled. The air total temperature decreased at the test section when the cloud was activated due to evaporation. The ice accretions observed ranged from sharp arrow-like accretions, characteristic of ice-crystal erosion, to cases with double-horn shapes, characteristic of supercooled water accretions.

  10. Programming language fundamentals by example

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, DE

    2006-01-01

    A WORD ABOUT USING THIS TEXT Expectations for the Student and InstructorOpening Comments Possible Semester Course Detailed Semester Plan Milestone Maps INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM Memorandum From the President Background SOL Primitive Data and Primitive Operations Primitive Data OperationsControl Structures ExpressionsInput File Structures and File Scope Derived Types Scope and Persistence Type System Primitive Functions and Arguments Built-in Values, Functions and Pseudo-Functions Type Conversions Part 1. Milestones GENERAL INFORMATION General Information on Milestones Milestone Report Genera

  11. Fundamental study on long-term stability of rock from the macroscopic point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, Seisuke [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-03-01

    In 1994, this project was started. A pneumatic creep testing machine was modified. Inada granite was purchased, and the preliminary tests were carried out. In 1995, a specimen of Tage tuff under water-saturated condition had been loaded in uniaxial condition in the pneumatic creep testing machine. The uniaxial compression and tension tests, and the short-term creep test of Inada granite were also carried out in the servo-controlled testing machines to obtain the complete stress-strain curves. In 1996, creep, compression and tension tests were carried out. Two types of pressure maintenance equipment (hydraulic and pneumatic types) were developed. In 1997, creep, compression and tension tests etc. were again carried out on the basis of the results heretofore. The experimental results of long-term creep testing of Tage tuff are, and of middle-term creep testing of Inada granite, are described. Two types of pressure maintenance equipment were developed and examined in 1996. One was hydraulic type and another was pneumatic type. The hydraulic type equipment modified for long-term creep testing especially in the measurement system to ensure durability and stability was found to be precise and reliable. The results of triaxial compression test are described. In 1997, a specimen was unloaded and re-loaded through a uniaxial tension test to obtain behaviour more precisely. A constitutive equation of variable compliance type was discussed based on the experimental results. Though the equation has relatively simple form, it can be applied beyond the strength failure point up to the post-failure region. The constitutive equation was implemented in two and three dimensional FEM programs. Preliminary evaluation of equipment and materials for pore-pressure controlled testing was described. (J.P.N.)

  12. Stock Market Market Crash of 2008: an empirical study of the deviation of share prices from company fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Kaizoji, Taisei; Miyano, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate quantitatively whether share prices deviated from company fundamentals in the stock market crash of 2008. For this purpose, we use a large database containing the balance sheets and share prices of 7,796 worldwide companies for the period 2004 through 2013. We develop a panel regression model using three financial indicators--dividends per share, cash flow per share, and book value per share--as explanatory variables for share price. We then estimate in...

  13. Fundamental studies of hydrogen interaction with supported meta and bimetallic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, S.

    1993-12-07

    The thesis is divided into 3 parts: interaction of H with silica supported Ru catalysts (high pressure in situ NMR), in situ NMR study of H interaction with supported Ru-group IB bimetallic catalysts, and in-situ NMR study of H effects on silica-supported Pt, Rh and Ru catalysts.

  14. Fundamental Study on the Ozone Posttreatment of Reverse Osmosis Permeates from Army Wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    and the stripping apparatus used in this study are described later. 76 The dynamic headspace stripping technique was evaluated to study the...results in Table 27 show that this apparatus offers higher efficiency under the same stripping conditior.s. Thus, dynamic headspace stripping, even with

  15. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  16. Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Fundamentals and Case Studies of Natural Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lorrain, Paul; Houle, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    This book concerns the generation of electric currents and of electric space charges inside conducting media that move in magnetic fields. The authors postulate nothing but the Maxwell equations. They discuss at length the disk dynamo, which serves as a model for the natural self-excited dynamos that generate magnetic fields such as that of sunspots. There are 36 Examples and 13 Case Studies. The Case Studies concern solar phenomena -- magnetic elements, sunspots, spicules, coronal loops -- and the Earth's magnetic field.

  17. Collaborative Research: Fundamental studies of plasma control using surface embedded electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raja, Laxminarayan L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); PanneerChelvam, PremKumar [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Levko, Dimtry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-26

    The proposed study will investigate the effect of active electron injection of from electrode surfaces To the best of our knowledge, no such a study has ever been attempted even though it could lead to the formation of whole new classes of plasma based devices and systems. We are motivated by recent articles and simple theory which gives strong reason to believe that embedded electronic devices can be used to exert control over the SEE coefficient of semiconductor surfaces (and maybe other surface types as well). Furthermore, the research will explore how such sub-surface electronic devices can best be used to exert control over an associated plasma.

  18. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  19. Fundamental time-domain wind turbine models for wind power studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoso, Surya; Le, Ha Thu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    One critical task in any wind power interconnection study involves the modelling of wind turbines. This paper provides the most basic yet comprehensive time-domain wind turbine model upon which more sophisticated models along with their power and speed control mechanisms, can be developed. For this reason, this paper concentrates on the modelling of a fixed-speed wind turbine. The model includes turbine's aerodynamic, mechanical, and electrical components. Data for the rotor, drive-train, and electrical generator are given to allow replication of the model in its entirety. Each of the component-blocks of the wind turbine is modelled separately so that one can easily expand the model to simulate variable-speed wind turbines or customise the model to suit their needs. Then, an aggregate wind turbine model, or wind farm, is developed. This is followed by four case studies to demonstrate how the models can be used to study wind turbine operation and power grid integration issues. Results obtained from the case studies show that the models perform as expected. (author)

  20. In vitro methods to study bubble-cell interactions: Fundamentals and therapeutic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; De Cock, Ine; Coussios, Constantin C.; Lentacker, Ine; Le Gac, Séverine; Stride, Eleanor; Versluis, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Besides their use as contrast agents for ultrasound imaging,microbubbles are increasingly studied for a wide range of therapeutic applications. In particular, their ability to enhance the uptake of drugs through the permeabilization of tissues and cell membranes shows great promise. In order to full

  1. Racism in Interracial Dating: A Case Study in Southern Culture and Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephanie Firebaugh; Firmin, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case study of Bob Jones University (BJU), a fundamentalist Christian institution located in South Carolina that is known within the context of U.S. higher education for its conservatism on multiple levels. Our analysis traces the beliefs of the institution's founder and subsequent leaders, in addition to particular…

  2. Twelve Factors Leading to Fundamental Pedagogical Change in a Primary School: A Case-Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Cathleen; Soloway, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    A school can change. In this case study, the authors describe the 12 factors they have identified as being key in the transformation of the core pedagogical practices at Nan Chiau Primary School, Singapore, from direct instruction to inquiry, from a 20th to a 21st century school. While the adoption of 1:1 mobile devices played a catalytic role in…

  3. Fundamental Study of Three Dimensional Two Phase Flow in Combustion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    computational modelling. Flow of this class may be devided in three groups (I) Homogeneous isotropic turbulence. This is the simplest type of turbulence. In...shows the computed and measured behaviour of the flow studied by Townsend. Not a great difference is obseved in the predictions of the three models

  4. Fundamental studies on dynamic wear behavior of SBR rubber compounds modified by SBR rubber powder

    OpenAIRE

    Euchler, Eric; Heinrich, Gert; Michael, Hannes; Gehde, Michael; Stocek, Radek; Kratina, Ondrej; Kipscholl, Reinhold; Bunzel, Jörg-Michael; Saal, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is focused on the experimental investigation of dynamic wear behavior of carbon black filled rubber compounds comprising pristine styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) together with incorporated SBR ground rubber (rubber powder). We also analyzed and described quantitatively the service conditions of some dynamically loaded rubber products, which are liable to wear (e.g. conveyor belts, tires). Beside the well-known standard test method to characterize wear resistance at steady...

  5. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  6. Fundamental Study of Interactions Between High-Density Pulsed Plasmas and Materials for Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    interactions studies (plasma too cold and too “dirty.”) We have built and tested a new, gas -fed, non- ablative, rep-rated capillary plasma source for our...those encountered in space propulsion devices including Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT), Magneto-Plasma Dynamic (MPD) thrusters and capillary plasma...based thrusters . The ongoing research work brings together a team of researchers from the University of Texas at Austin (UT) and the University of

  7. Supramolecular Polymers with Multiple Types of Binding Motifs: From Fundamental Studies to Multifunctional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-10

    studies metallo and hydrogen bonded supramolecular polymers that exhibit defect healing characteristics and multi- 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4...supramolecular polymers that exhibit defect healing characteristics and multi-responsive actuators. It also report on a new class of supramolecular glasses. (a...Swiss Academy of Sciences (SCNAT), the Swiss Chemical Society (SCS) and the Swiss Society for Food and Environmental Chemistry (SSFEC). The award was

  8. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...

  9. Fundamental Study on Coke Degradation in BF with Oxygen Enriched Blast and High Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; LI Jia-xin; ZHOU Li-ying

    2005-01-01

    The effects of gas composition, temperature, ore to coke ratio and prereduction rate of ore on coke degradation were studied. The results showed that 1% increment in solution loss of coke reduces coke strength by 0.6%, and the coke degradation is accelerated with the temperature. The higher the temperature, the more coke surface is involved in reactions, and the less negative effect on coke strength is. Hydrogen exerts stronger effect on coke degradation than CO at high temperature. The coke degradation is decreased with the reduction of ore to coke ratio and increase of ore prereduction rate.

  10. Emotions beyond the laboratory: theoretical fundaments, study design, and analytic strategies for advanced ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Questionnaire and interview assessment can provide reliable data on attitudes and self-perceptions on emotion, and experimental laboratory assessment can examine functional relations between stimuli and reactions under controlled conditions. On the other hand, ambulatory assessment is less constrained and provides naturalistic data on emotion in daily life, with the potential to (1) assure external validity of laboratory findings, (2) provide normative data on prevalence, quality and intensity of real-life emotion and associated processes, (3) characterize previously unidentified emotional phenomena, and (4) model real-life stimuli for representative laboratory research design. Technological innovations now allow for detailed ambulatory study of emotion across domains of subjective experience, overt behavior and physiology. However, methodological challenges abound that may compromise attempts to characterize biobehavioral aspects of emotion in the real world. For example, emotional effects can be masked by social engagement, mental and physical workloads, as well as by food intake and circadian and quasi-random variation in metabolic activity. The complexity of data streams and multitude of factors that influence them require a high degree of context specification for meaningful data interpretation. We consider possible solutions to typical and often overlooked issues related to ambulatory emotion research, including aspects of study design decisions, recording devices and channels, electronic diary implementation, and data analysis.

  11. Fundamental Study of Evaluation at Berthing Training for Pilot Trainees Using a Ship Maneuvering Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Inoue

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of the ship maneuvering simulator (SMS is at the core of pilot trainees education and training, so it is desirable to have an evaluation method that can be completed shortly after each berthing training session. There are basically two methods of docking maneuvering that pilot trainees learn: one in which the ship enters from outside the port and is berthed directly at the target quay, and a second method in which the vessel carries out a turn in front of the target quay before berthing. The authors suggested an evaluation index in a previous study concerning the first docking method. In the present study, the authors propose an evaluation method for the case of berthing the vessel using the turning maneuver. Since the index obtained by this method offers a single numerical benchmark, it is an easy–to-understand result of the training exercise. The authors carried out experiments using a SMS and confirmed that the proposed evaluation method is effective and helpful to improve the effectiveness of SMS training.

  12. The Neutron, a Tool and an Object for Fundamental and Nuclear Physics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research institute which operates the currently most powerful source of neutrons in the world, a 58 MW reactor. The neutron beams provided by the reactor feed a broad range of instruments which are dedicated to a wide variety of research activities. The majority of instruments are dedicated to the study of solid-state physics, materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, and earth sciences. However, nuclear and low energy particle physics studies are also vigorously pursued with the aid of neutrons. The talk will mainly concentrate on this latter aspect. We make use of hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons with velocities of between a few kilometers and a few meters per second, corresponding to kinetic energies in the electronvolt-to-nanoelectronvolt range. It will be briefly discussed how thermal neutrons can be used to investigate the structure and behavior of nuclei by generating excited nuclear states. The main part of the talk will be dedicated...

  13. Fundamental Studies of Assembly and Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Unilamellar Vesicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi

    This dissertation work focuses on: (i) obtaining a phospholipid bilayer membrane (LBM)/conducting electrode system with low defect density and optimized rigidity; (ii) investigating vesicle stability and mechanical properties. LBM is a simplified yet representative cell membrane model. LBMs assembled on conductive surfaces can probe protein-LBM interactions activities electrochemically. Sterically stabilized vesicles could be used as cell models or for drug delivery. The main challenges for LBM assembly on gold are vesicles do not spontaneously rupture to form LBMs on gold and the roughness of the gold substrate has considerable influence on molecular film defect density. In this study, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles were functionalized with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-poly(ethylene glycol)-2000-N-[3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate] (DSPE-PEG-PDP) to yield stable LBMs on gold without surface modification. A template-stripping method was used to obtain atomically flat and pristine gold surfaces. The critical force to initiate vesicle rupture decreases with increasing DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration, indicating that gold-thiolate bonding between DSPE-PEG-PDP and gold substrates promotes LBM formation. Mechanical properties of LBMs and vesicles were investigated as a function of DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration via Atomic Force Microscopy. The elastic moduli of LBMs were determined with DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration ranging from 0mol% to 24mol% and were found to depend on PEG chain conformation. Incorporating DSPE-PEG-PDP molecules with PEG in mushroom conformation results in a decrease of LBM rigidity, while incorporating PEG in brush conformation leads to LBM stiffening. Contrarily, mechanical properties of functionalized vesicles did not vary significantly by varying DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration. LBM with tunable rigidity by adjusting DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration provides a versatile cell membrane model for studying protein or

  14. Fundamental studies of ceramic/metal interfacial reactions at elevated temperatures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, S. M.; Billings, G. W.; Indacochea, J. E.

    2000-12-14

    This work characterizes the interfaces resulting from exposing oxide and non-oxide ceramic substrates to zirconium metal and stainless steel-zirconium containing alloys. The ceramic/metal systems together were preheated at about 600 C and then the temperatures were increased to the test maximum temperature, which exceeded 1800 C, in an atmosphere of high purity argon. Metal samples were placed onto ceramic substrates, and the system was heated to elevated temperatures past the melting point of the metallic specimen. After a short stay at the peak temperature, the system was cooled to room temperature and examined. The chemical changes across the interface and other microstructural developments were analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This paper reports on the condition of the interfaces in the different systems studied and describes possible mechanisms influencing the microstructure.

  15. Fundamental Study on New Micro Fluidic Drive Method Based on Liquid Crystalline Backflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a one-dimensional simple model for predicting the performance of the new micro fluidic drive and then we have a research of the control method based on liquid crystalline backflow by combining the motion of the upper plate of a liquid crystal cell and the flow of a liquid crystal. Comparison of the numerical predictions and the experimental results shows that the proposed model is useful to predict qualitatively the motion the upper plate. The drive efficiency is affected by applied voltage, the frequency, the duty ratio and the gap of the cell. The ideal drive quality can be achieved when the rotation range of the molecules at the center of the cell is controlled within 50-80°.

  16. Fundamental study on gene transfer utilizing magnetic force and jet injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T.; Nakagami, H.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishjima, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Recently, DNA vaccination is attracting attentions as a new therapeutic method for lifestyle diseases and autoimmune diseases. However, its clinical applications are limited because a safe and efficient gene transfer method has not been established yet. In this study, a new method of gene transfer was proposed which utilizes the jet injection and the magnetic transfection. The jet injection is a method to inject medical liquid by momentary high pressure without needle. The injected liquid diffuses in the bio tissue and the endocytosis is considered to be improved by the diffusion. The magnetic transfection is a method to deliver the conjugates of plasmid DNA and magnetic particles to the desired site by external magnetic field. It is expected that jet injection of the conjugates causes slight membrane disruptions and the traction of the conjugates by magnetic field induces the efficient gene transfer. In conclusion, the possibility of improvement of the gene expression by the combination of jet injection and magnetic transfection was confirmed.

  17. Lattice study for conformal windows of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Cynthia Y -H; Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji; Ohki, Hiroshi; Ramos, Alberto; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We present our investigation of SU(2) gauge theory with 8 flavours, and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 flavours. For the SU(2) case, at strong bare coupling, $\\beta \\lesssim 1.45$, the distribution of the lowest eigenvalue of the Dirac operator can be described by chiral random matrix theory for the Gaussian symplectic ensemble. Our preliminary result indicates that the chiral phase transition in this theory is of bulk nature. For the SU(3) theory, we use high-precision lattice data to perform the step-scaling study of the coupling, $g_{{\\rm GF}}$, in the Gradient Flow scheme. We carefully examine the reliability of the continuum extrapolation in the analysis, and conclude that the scaling behaviour of this SU(3) theory is not governed by possible infrared conformality at $g_{{\\rm GF}}^{2} \\lesssim 6$.

  18. Lattice study for conformal windows of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories with fundamental fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Cynthia Y.-H.; Lin, C.-J. David; Ogawa, Kenji; Ohki, Hiroshi; Ramos, Alberto; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2015-10-30

    We present our investigation of SU(2) gauge theory with 8 flavours, and SU(3) gauge theory with 12 flavours. For the SU(2) case, at strong bare coupling, $\\beta \\lesssim 1.45$, the distribution of the lowest eigenvalue of the Dirac operator can be described by chiral random matrix theory for the Gaussian symplectic ensemble. Our preliminary result indicates that the chiral phase transition in this theory is of bulk nature. For the SU(3) theory, we use high-precision lattice data to perform the step-scaling study of the coupling, $g_{{\\rm GF}}$, in the Gradient Flow scheme. We carefully examine the reliability of the continuum extrapolation in the analysis, and conclude that the scaling behaviour of this SU(3) theory is not governed by possible infrared conformality at $g_{{\\rm GF}}^{2} \\lesssim 6$.

  19. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass - UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), Email: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T.P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering); Linnekoski, J.; Roenkkoenen, E. (Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Industrial Chemistry.)

    2010-10-15

    The research is directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project are (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself finances also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprises experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project is steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work is carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology has been closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. (orig.)

  20. Formation of imploding plasma liners for fundamental HEDP studies and MIF Standoff Driver Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassibry, Jason [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Hatcher, Richard [Univ. of AL in Huntsville; Stanic, Milos [Univ. of AL in Huntsville

    2013-08-17

    The disciplines of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are characterized by hypervelocity implosions and strong shocks. The Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) is focused on reaching HEDP and/or ICF relevant regimes in excess of 1 Mbar peak pressure by the merging and implosion of discrete plasma jets, as a potentially efficient path towards these extreme conditions in a laboratory. In this work we have presented the first 3D simulations of plasma liner, formation, and implosion by the merging of discrete plasma jets in which ionization, thermal conduction, and radiation are all included in the physics model. The study was conducted by utilizing a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHC) and was a part of the plasma liner experiment (PLX). The salient physics processes of liner formation and implosion are studied, namely vacuum propagation of plasma jets, merging of the jets (liner forming), implosion (liner collapsing), stagnation (peak pressure), and expansion (rarefaction wave disassembling the target). Radiative transport was found to significantly reduce the temperature of the liner during implosion, thus reducing the thermal leaving more pronounced gradients in the plasma liner during the implosion compared with ideal hydrodynamic simulations. These pronounced gradients lead to a greater sensitivity of initial jet geometry and symmetry on peak pressures obtained. Accounting for ionization and transport, many cases gave higher peak pressures than the ideal hydrodynamic simulations. Scaling laws were developed accordingly, creating a non-dimensional parameter space in which performance of an imploding plasma jet liner can be estimated. It is shown that HEDP regimes could be reached with ~ 5 MJ of liner energy, which would translate to roughly 10 to 20 MJ of stored (capacitor) energy. This is a potentially significant improvement over the currently available means via ICF of achieving HEDP and nuclear fusion relevant parameters.

  1. Fundamental and clinical studies on imaging of adrenergic nervous system of the heart, using radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunari, Ichiro (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the myocardial distribution of radioiodonated metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in normal and reserpinized rats and to evaluate myocardial adrenergic innervation and function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The distribution of MIBG in the rat heart was higher in the right ventricle, basal segment and epicardial segment, which is mostly compatible with previous reports on the distribution and uptake of norepinephrine in the heart. The increased uptake of MIBG in the epicardial segment was a new finding, which seemed to indicate the difference of innervation between the epicardial and endocardial segments of the left ventricle in the rat heart. The uptake of MIBG was decreased in the reserpinized rats by 64% compared with that of the control, indicating there was MIBG uptake into intra-ventricular sites. Dual isotope autoradiogram also showed a decreased uptake of MIBG into the endocardium. The dual isotope autoradiogram revealed a significant decrease of MIBG uptake and a homogeneous distribution of {sup 201}Tl in the denervated myocardium, induced by phenol application. Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-MIBG and {sup 201}Tl was performed in 29 patients with HCM. In the visual evaluation of the SPECT images, the {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake was substantially lower than the {sup 201}Tl uptake in the hypertrophied septum in the early (20 minutes after infection) image in 48% of the HCM patients, suggesting less extraneuronal uptake in the human heart than in the rat heart. The septal {sup 123}I-MIBG/{sup 201}Tl uptake ratio at 20 minutes and 3 hours after injection inversely related with the septal thickness (R=-0.49 and R=-0.53). Significant positive correlation was observed between the septal MIBG clearance and the septal thickness (R=0.51). The MIBG clearance and uptake in conjunction with the {sup 201}Tl study seemed to reflect the severity of hypertrophy in HCM. (J.P.N.).

  2. Fundamental basis and implementation of shell and tube heat exchanger project design: condenser and evaporator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkilic, A. S.; Acikgoz, O.; Tapan, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2016-12-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is used as a condenser and an evaporator in this theoretical study. Parametric performance analyses for various actual refrigerants were performed using well-known correlations in open sources. Condensation and evaporation were occurred in the shell side while the water was flowing in the tube side of heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate from tube side was kept constant for condenser and evaporator design. Condensing temperatures were varied from 35 to 60 °C whereas evaporating temperatures were ranging from -15 to 10 °C for the refrigerants of R12, R22, R134a, R32, R507A, R404A, R502, R407C, R152A, R410A and R1234ZE. Variation of convective heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants, total heat transfer coefficients with Reynolds numbers and saturation temperatures were given as validation process considering not only fouling resistance and omission of it but also staggered (triangular) and line (square) arrangements. The minimum tube lengths and necessary pumping powers were calculated and given as case studies for the investigated refrigerants considering validation criteria. It was understood that refrigerant type, fouling resistance and arrangement type are one of the crucial issues regarding the determination of heat exchanger's size and energy consumption. Consequently, R32 and R152a were found to require the shortest tube length and lowest pumping power in the condenser, whereas R507 and R407C have the same advantages in the evaporator. Their heat transfer coefficients were also determined larger than others as expectedly.

  3. Experimental studies of fundamental issues in electron transfer through nanometer scale devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiromichi

    Electron transfer reactions constitute many of the primary events in materials science, chemistry, physics, and biochemistry, e.g. the electron transport properties and photoexcited processes in solids and molecules, chemical reactions, corrosion, photosynthesis, respiration, and so forth. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film provides us with a unique environment not only to understand and manipulate the surface electronic properties of a solid, but also to control electron transfer processes at the interface. The first topic in this thesis describes the structure and electron tunneling characterization of alkanethiol SAMs on InP(100). Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the bonding of alkanethiols to n-InP surfaces and to measure the monolayer thickness. The results showed that the sulfur binds to In atoms on the surface, and provided film thicknesses of 6.4 A for C8H17SH, 11.1 A for C12H25SH, and 14.9 A for C16H 33SH, resulting in an average tilt angle of 55°. The analysis indicated that super-exchange coupling between the alkane chains plays an important role in defining electron tunneling barriers, especially for highly tilted chains. The second topic describes studies of cytochrome c bound to pure and mixed SAMs of o-terminated alkanethiol (terminated with pyridine, imidazole or nitrile groups) and alkanethiol on gold. Electrochemical methods are used to determine electron transfer rate constants of cytochrome c, and scanning tunneling microscopy to observe the cytochrome c on the SAM. Detailed analysis revealed direct association of the heme of cytochrome c with the terminal groups of the SAMs and a 'turning-over' of the electron transfer of cytochrome c from adiabatic to non-adiabatic regime. The third topic describes studies of oxidation and reduction of cytochrome c in solution through eleven different self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold electrodes by cyclic voltammetry. Electron transfer rate constants of

  4. Studies of fundamental properties of rutherfordium (Element 104) using organic complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Chemical properties of rutherfordium (Rf) have been investigated with the organic ligands triisooctylamine (TIOA), tributylphosphate (TBP), and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). The TIOA studies showed that Rf behaves differently than Th and Eu and most similarly to Zr, only Zr and Rf extract from 12 M HCI. This result is further evidence that Rf is a Group 4 element. Studies with TBP showed that Rf chemical behavior differed from the other Group 4 elements. The extraction by TBP at different chloride concentrations showed that Rf at times behaves more like Pu4+ than Zr or Hf. At high chloride concentrations, Rf and Pu extraction decreased. Under the same conditions, Zr, Hf and Th extraction increased. In addition, Rf extraction by TBP was affected by hydrogen ion concentration, while Zr and Hf extraction was not. TTA extractions were used to determine the Keq, Khyd, and the ionic radius of Rf. The of Keq for Rf with TTA was calculated to be 3.18 ± 0.90. The first four log Khyd's for Rf are calculated to be -2.6 ± 0.7, -5.9 ± 1.7, -10.2 ± 2.9, and -14.5 ± 4.1. These hydrolysis constants indicate that Rf will not hydrolyze at conditions under which Zr, Hf, and Pu will. Calculations of the ionic radius were made with the log Keq for Rf derived with TTA. The ionic radius of Rf was calculated to be 91 ± 4 pm for the 6-coordinate species and 102 ± 4 pm for the 8-coordinate species. A search for the isotope 263Rf was conducted using TTA chemistry. In 300 experiments, seven SF events and no alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. The observed SF events attributed to 263Rf and had a half-life of 500 ±$300\\atop{200}$ seconds and a production cross section of 140 ± 50 pb.

  5. Studies of fundamental properties of rutherfordium (Element 104) using organic complexing agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerwinski, Kenneth R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Chemical properties of rutherfordium (Rf) have been investigated with the organic ligands triisooctylamine (TIOA), tributylphosphate (TBP), and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). The TIOA studies showed that Rf behaves differently than Th and Eu and most similarly to Zr, only Zr and Rf extract from 12 M HCI. This result is further evidence that Rf is a Group 4 element. Studies with TBP showed that Rf chemical behavior differed from the other Group 4 elements. The extraction by TBP at different chloride concentrations showed that Rf at times behaves more like Pu4+ than Zr or Hf. At high chloride concentrations, Rf and Pu extraction decreased. Under the same conditions, Zr, Hf and Th extraction increased. In addition, Rf extraction by TBP was affected by hydrogen ion concentration, while Zr and Hf extraction was not. TTA extractions were used to determine the Keq, Khyd, and the ionic radius of Rf. The of Keq for Rf with TTA was calculated to be 3.18 - 0.90. The first four log Khyd's for Rf are calculated to be -2.6 - 0.7, -5.9 - 1.7, -10.2 ± 2.9, and -14.5 ± 4.1. These hydrolysis constants indicate that Rf will not hydrolyze at conditions under which Zr, Hf, and Pu will. Calculations of the ionic radius were made with the log Keq for Rf derived with TTA. The ionic radius of Rf was calculated to be 91 ± 4 pm for the 6-coordinate species and 102 ± 4 pm for the 8-coordinate species. A search for the isotope 263Rf was conducted using TTA chemistry. In 300 experiments, seven SF events and no alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. The observed SF events attributed to 263Rf and had a half-life of 500 ±$300\\atop{200}$ seconds and a production cross section of 140 ± 50 pb.

  6. Fundamental study on magnetic separation of aquatic organisms for preservation of marine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Izumi, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2009-10-01

    Recently, destruction and disturbance of marine ecosystem have been caused by changes in global environment and transplants of farmed fishes and shellfishes. To solve the problems, water treatment techniques to kill or to remove aquatic organisms are necessary. In this study, application of magnetic separation for removal of the aquatic organisms was examined in order to establish the process with high-speed, compact device and low environmental load. Techniques of magnetic seeding and magnetic separation using superconducting magnet are important for high-speed processing of aquatic organisms. Magnetic seeding is to adhere separating object to the surface of ferromagnetic particles, and magnetic separation is to remove aquatic organisms with magnetic force. First, we confirmed the possibility of magnetic seeding of aquatic organisms, and then interaction between aquatic organisms and ferromagnetic particles was examined. Next, for practical application of magnetic separation system using superconducting magnet for removal of aquatic organisms, particle trajectories were simulated and magnetic separation experiment using superconducting magnet was performed in order to design magnetic separation system to achieve high separation efficiency.

  7. A fundamental study on hyper-thermal neutrons for neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kanda, K

    1994-12-01

    The utilization of hyper-thermal neutrons, which have an energy spectrum with a Maxwellian distribution at a higher temperature than room temperature (300 K), was studied in order to improve the thermal neutron flux distribution at depth in a living body for neutron capture therapy. Simulation calculations were carried out using a Monte Carlo code 'MCNP-V3' in order to investigate the characteristics of hyper-thermal neutrons, i.e. (i) depth dependence of the neutron energy spectrum, and (ii) depth distribution of the reaction rate in a water phantom for materials with 1/v neutron absorption. It is confirmed that hyper-thermal neutron irradiation can improve the thermal neutron flux distribution in the deeper areas in a living body compared with thermal neutron irradiation. When hyper-thermal neutrons with a 3000 K Maxwellian distribution are incident on a body, the reaction rates of 1/v materials such as 14N, 10B etc are about twice that observed for incident thermal neutrons at 300 K, at a depth of 5 cm. The limit of the treatable depth for tumours having 30 ppm 10B is expected to be about 1.5 cm greater by utilizing hyper-thermal neutrons at 3000 K compared with the incidence of thermal neutrons at 300 K.

  8. Fundamental study to manufacture thermal fatigue crack of SA106 Grade B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woong Gi; Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Jae Seong; Lee, Bo Young [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Thermal fatigue crack is one of the life-limiting mechanisms in nuclear power plant conditions. During the operation of a power plant thermal fatigue cracks can initiate and grow in various components (straight pipe sections, valve bodies, pipe elbows, and collector head screw holes). Causes for this are mixing, striping or stratification of hot and cold water. A typical component, where thermal fatigue cracking occurs, is a T-joint where hot and cold fluids meet and mix. The turbulent mixing of fluids with different temperatures induces rapid temperature changes to the pipe wall. The resulting uneven temperature distribution prevents thermal expansion and gives rise to thermal stresses. The successive thermal transients cause varying, cyclic thermal stresses. These cyclic thermal stresses cause fatigue crack initiation and growth similar to cyclic mechanical stresses. The aim of this study is to fulfill the need by developing an artificial crack manufacturing method, which would produce realistic cracks. The test material was used SA106 Grade B. pipes

  9. Fundamental and analytical studies of optical emission from the Mach disk extracted from an ICP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luan, S.; Pang, H.; Houk, R.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An inductively coupled plasma is extracted into a small quartz vacuum chamber (approximately 1 torr) through a sampling orifice in a copper disk. Optical emission from the Mach disk region is measured with a new type of echelle spectrometer with two segmented-array charge-coupled device detectors (SCD), the Optima 3000 from Perkin-Elmer. This detector provides excellent quantum efficiency throughout the UV-visible region, as well as low dark current and readout noises. The spectral background emitted by the Mach disk is very low. If analyte line intensities from the Mach disk can be enhanced, the combined ICP-Mach disk-Optima instrument should provide excellent detection limits for simultaneous multielement analysis. Axial profiles of the optical emission of various atom and ion lines are measured. Intensities of various lines are maximized at the Mach disk location. The relationship between the location of the Mach disk and the vacuum operating pressure is studied, using a cathetometer to measure small changes in the location of the Mach disk. The effects of aerosol gas flow rate on the intensities of various lines are also investigated. Finally, several schemes for boosting the intensity from the Mach disk will be presented.

  10. FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES OF THE DURABILITY OF MATERIALS FOR INTERCONNECTS IN SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick S. Pettit; Gerald H. Meier

    2003-06-30

    This report describes the result of the first eight months of effort on a project directed at improving metallic interconnect materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The results include cyclic oxidation studies of a group of ferritic alloys, which are candidate interconnect materials. The exposures have been carried out in simulated fuel cell atmospheres. The oxidation morphologies have been characterized and the ASR has been measured for the oxide scales. The effect of fuel cell electric current density on chromia growth rates has been considered The thermomechanical behavior of the scales has been investigated by stress measurements using x-ray diffraction and interfacial fracture toughness measurements using indentation. The ultimate goal of this thrust is to use knowledge of changes in oxide thickness, stress and adhesion to develop accelerated testing methods for evaluating SOFC interconnect alloys. Finally a theoretical assessment of the potential for use of ''new'' metallic materials as interconnect materials has been conducted and is presented in this report. Alloys being considered include materials based on pure nickel, materials based on the ''Invar'' concept, and coated materials to optimize properties in both the anode and cathode gases.

  11. Fundamental Study Of Nucleation And Growth Kinetics In A Gold Precipitation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Viera Nieves, O

    2003-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles were formed from the reduction of gold (III) and sulfite in aqueous solution and monitored with a Stopped Flow Reactor Analyzer. After the reduction stage, intermediate species were observed with absorption peak near 378 [nm]. The complete process least a few seconds and the particle growth was monitored by using a UV-vis diode array. The plasmon resonance allowed us to follow the evolution of the size particle. This was modeled using Mie's equation, which related the extinction spectra of the particle to its dielectric function, when a high energy light is applied. The function of the maximum absorption peak (plasmon resonance) is directly related to the particle size. The effects of temperature as well as changing in the ionic strength were studied. Initial growth rates were obtained as a function of temperature. The plots of size vs. temperature shown a range of sizes between ∼60 [nm]–120 [nm] were formed during the reaction. At higher concentrations of gold and sulfite...

  12. [Fundamental study on effect of high-mineral drinking water for osteogenesis in calciprivia ovariectomized rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Fumihiko; Nagai, Noriaki; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kawasaki, Naohito

    2014-01-01

    Since osteoporosis is a major public health problem in Japan, it is important to clarify the effect of high-mineral drinking water consumption on osteogenesis. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the relationship between high-mineral drinking water consumption and osteogenesis in ovariectomized rats that received a low-calcium diet and purified water (PW group) or a low-calcium diet and high-mineral drinking water (CR group). High-mineral drinking water affected the rats' body weight. After 3 months, the bone density of the CR group was higher than that of the PW group (pmineral drinking water contributes to the maintenance of bone density and not to the amount of calcium in bone. On the other hand, serum alkaline phosphatase levels in the PW group at 3 months were higher than those in the CR group, which indicates that the blood concentration of calcium in the CR group was maintained. Moreover, the amount of magnesium in the bones and the blood concentration of magnesium in the CR group after 3 months were higher than the corresponding values in the PW group. These results suggest that consumption of high-mineral drinking water could be beneficial for osteogenesis (i.e., for maintaining bone quantity).

  13. Fundamental study of expression-library immunization against Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Munehiro; Matsumoto, Kanako; Shibui, Akiko; Shibahara, Toshiyuki; Ito, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Expression-library immunization has been proposed as an effective means to screen a large number of genes of the pathogen as candidate protective molecules. In this study, we examined the efficacy of expression-library immunization using a T. taeniaeformis rat model system. Total RNAs were isolated from the last 15 segments of adult T. taeniaeformis and poly A RNA was purified. cDNA library was produced using SuperScript Plasmid System, which contains a mammalian expression vector, pCMV*SPORT6. From about 3,500 clones examined, more than 800 clones were found to contain DNA fragments. About 200 clones were sequenced and the homology search was carried out. The blast search revealed that 29% of the expression genes were mitochondrial genes (rRNA; 17%, protein; 12%). Nuclear rRNA genes (10%), nuclear protein (9%) and genes from Escherichia coli were also detected. Forty-two percent of sequences did not show a significant similarity to any genes deposited in the public database. Rats were immunized with expression-library and injected orally with 1,000 T. taeniaeformis eggs. However the protective effect of expression-library vaccine was not confirmed.

  14. [Fundamental and clinical studies of imipenem/cilastatin sodium in the field of obstetrics and gynecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, A; Hino, K; Shimamoto, I; Ichijo, M

    1986-05-01

    Imipenem (MK-0787), a new carbapenem antibiotic, combined with cilastatin sodium (MK-0791), was studied clinically and microbiologically. The following results were obtained: Concentrations of MK-0787 in the plasma and internal genital tissues were measured at 1 hour after an intravenous drip infusion of MK-0787/MK-0791 (500 mg/500 mg) for 30 minutes. Mean plasma levels higher than 11.8 micrograms/ml and mean tissue levels higher than 2.3 micrograms/g were observed. When its MIC values are considered, MK-0787/MK-0791 appeared to be bactericidal against many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria except some Pseudomonas sp. and Enterococcus faecium. Clinical effects of the therapy with MK-0787/MK-0791 (500 mg/500 mg) using a drip infusion twice daily were evaluated in 3 patients with pyometra and 3 patients with Bartholin's gland abscess. Clinical responses were good in 5 of the 6 patients. One patient with pyometra due to E. coli didn't respond to the therapy. No side effects or abnormal laboratory findings due to the drug were noted.

  15. Experimental study of the mapping relationship based near-field acoustic holography with spherical fundamental solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haijun; Jiang, Weikang

    2017-04-01

    This paper is a consequent work of the previously proposed mapping relationship based near-field acoustic holography (MRS-based NAH), [H.J.Wu W.K. Jiang and H.B. Zhang, JSV, 373:66-88, 2016]. It is devoted to the performance study of its practical application with error analysis and experimental validation. Two types of errors, the truncation errors due to the limited number of participant modes, and the inevitable measurement errors caused by uncertainties in the experiment, are considered in the analysis. The influences of the errors on the performance of MRS-based NAH are systematically investigated. First of all, expression of the relative reconstruction error of the pressure energy is derived based on the two types of errors. An approach is developed to estimate the lower and upper bounds of the relative error. It gives a guide to predict the error for a reconstruction under the condition that the truncation error and the signal-to-noise ratio are given. Then, the condition number of the inverse operator is investigated to measure the sensitivity of the reconstruction to the input errors. Asymptotic expressions of the condition number for a special case, conformal spherical model and hologram, are obtained, which indicates the condition number has a geometric growth with the number of participant modes. Numerical examples with different kinds of errors are elaborately designed to validate the stability as well as the correctness of the error analysis. At last, the MRS-based NAH is further examined and verified by a physical experiment, a vibrating cubic model reconstructed from measurement on a spherical hologram. A satisfied agreement with the directly measured pressure on a validation surface is observed for both quantity and distribution of the reconstructed pressure.

  16. A Fundamental study of remedial technology development to prevent stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, In Gyu; Lee, Chang Soon [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    Most of the PWR Steam generators with tubes in Alloy 600 alloy are affected by Stress Corrosion Cracking, such as PWSCC(Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking) and ODSCC(Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking). This study was undertaken to establish the background for remedial technology development to prevent SCC. in the report are included the following topics: (1) General: (i) water chemistry related factors, (ii) Pourbaix(Potential-pH) Diagram, (iii) polarization plot, (iv) corrosion mode of Alloy 600, 690, and 800, (v) IGA/SCC growth rate, (vi) material suspetibility of IGA/SCC, (vii) carbon solubility of Alloy 600 (2) Microstructures of Alloy 600 MA, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 600 SEN Alloy 690 TT(Optical, SEM, and TEM) (3) Influencing factors for PWSCC initiation rate of Alloy 600: (i) microstructure, (ii) water chemistry(B, Li), (iii) temperature, (iv) plastic deformation, (v) stress relief annealing (4) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) water chemistry(B, Li), (ii) Scott Model, (iii) intergranular carbide, (iv) temperature, (v) hold time (5) Laboratory conditions for ODSCC initiation rate: 1% NaOH, 316 deg C; 1% NaOH, 343 deg C; 50% NaOH, 288 deg C; 10% NaOH, 302 deg C; 10% NaOH, 316 deg C; 50% NaOH, 343 deg C (6) Sludge effects for ODSCC initiation rate: CuO, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (7) Influencing factors for PWSCC growth rate of Alloy 600: (i) Caustic concentration effect, (ii) carbonate addition effect (8) Sulfate corrosion: (i) sulfate ratio and pH effect, (ii) wastage rate of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690 (9) Crevice corrosion: (i) experimental setup for crevice corrosion, (ii) organic effect, (iii) (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + NaOH) effect (10) Remedial measures for SCC: (i) Inhibitors, (ii) ZnO effect. (author). 30 refs., 174 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Y.; Ma, Q.; Ellis, G.S.; Dai, J.; Katz, B.; Zhang, S.; Tang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using ??D values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the ??13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that ??D values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that ??D values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Radiolytic Modification of Sulfur Containing Acidic Amino Residues in Model Peptides: Fundamental Studies for Protein Footprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu,G.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Protein footprinting based on hydroxyl radical-mediated modification and quantitative mass spectroscopic analysis is a proven technique for examining protein structure, protein-ligand interactions, and structural allostery upon protein complex formation. The reactive and solvent-accessible amino acid side chains function as structural probes; however, correct structural analysis depends on the identification and quantification of all the relevant oxidative modifications within the protein sequence. Sulfur-containing amino acids are oxidized readily and the mechanisms of oxidation are particularly complex, although they have been extensively investigated by EPR and other spectroscopic methods. Here we have undertaken a detailed mass spectrometry study (using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry) of model peptides containing cysteine (Cys-SH), cystine (disulfide bonded Cys), and methionine after oxidation using {gamma}-rays or synchrotron X-rays and have compared these results to those expected from oxidation mechanisms proposed in the literature. Radiolysis of cysteine leads to cysteine sulfonic acid (+48 Da mass shift) and cystine as the major products; other minor products including cysteine sulfinic acid (+32 Da mass shift) and serine (-16 Da mass shift) are observed. Radiolysis of cystine results in the oxidative opening of the disulfide bond and generation of cysteine sulfonic acid and sulfinic acid; however, the rate of oxidation is significantly less than that for cysteine. Radiolysis of methionine gives rise primarily to methionine sulfoxide (+16 Da mass shift); this can be further oxidized to methionine sulfone (+32 Da mass shift) or another product with a -32 Da mass shift likely due to aldehyde formation at the {gamma}-carbon. Due to the high reactivity of sulfur-containing amino acids, the extent of oxidation is easily influenced by secondary oxidation events or the presence of redox reagents used in standard proteolytic

  19. Fundamental studies on kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of hydrogen isotope fractionation in natural gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yunyan; Ma, Qisheng; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Dai, Jinxing; Katz, Barry; Zhang, Shuichang; Tang, Yongchun

    2011-05-01

    Based on quantum chemistry calculations for normal octane homolytic cracking, a kinetic hydrogen isotope fractionation model for methane, ethane, and propane formation is proposed. The activation energy differences between D-substitute and non-substituted methane, ethane, and propane are 318.6, 281.7, and 280.2 cal/mol, respectively. In order to determine the effect of the entropy contribution for hydrogen isotopic substitution, a transition state for ethane bond rupture was determined based on density function theory (DFT) calculations. The kinetic isotope effect (KIE) associated with bond rupture in D and H substituted ethane results in a frequency factor ratio of 1.07. Based on the proposed mathematical model of hydrogen isotope fractionation, one can potentially quantify natural gas thermal maturity from measured hydrogen isotope values. Calculated gas maturity values determined by the proposed mathematical model using δD values in ethane from several basins in the world are in close agreement with similar predictions based on the δ 13C composition of ethane. However, gas maturity values calculated from field data of methane and propane using both hydrogen and carbon kinetic isotopic models do not agree as closely. It is possible that δD values in methane may be affected by microbial mixing and that propane values might be more susceptible to hydrogen exchange with water or to analytical errors. Although the model used in this study is quite preliminary, the results demonstrate that kinetic isotope fractionation effects in hydrogen may be useful in quantitative models of natural gas generation, and that δD values in ethane might be more suitable for modeling than comparable values in methane and propane.

  20. Pragmatic electrical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2011-01-01

    Pragmatic Electrical Engineering: Fundamentals introduces the fundamentals of the energy-delivery part of electrical systems. It begins with a study of basic electrical circuits and then focuses on electrical power. Three-phase power systems, transformers, induction motors, and magnetics are the major topics.All of the material in the text is illustrated with completely-worked examples to guide the student to a better understanding of the topics. This short lecture book will be of use at any level of engineering, not just electrical. Its goal is to provide the practicing engineer with a practi

  1. Fundamentals of continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnicki, John W

    2014-01-01

    A concise introductory course text on continuum mechanics Fundamentals of Continuum Mechanics focuses on the fundamentals of the subject and provides the background for formulation of numerical methods for large deformations and a wide range of material behaviours. It aims to provide the foundations for further study, not just of these subjects, but also the formulations for much more complex material behaviour and their implementation computationally.  This book is divided into 5 parts, covering mathematical preliminaries, stress, motion and deformation, balance of mass, momentum and energ

  2. Fundamentals of magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Reis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Magnetism is a truly unique reference text, that explores the study of magnetism and magnetic behavior with a depth that no other book can provide. It covers the most detailed descriptions of the fundamentals of magnetism providing an emphasis on statistical mechanics which is absolutely critical for understanding magnetic behavior. The books covers the classical areas of basic magnetism, including Landau Theory and magnetic interactions, but features a more concise and easy-to-read style. Perfect for upper-level graduate students and industry researchers, The Fu

  3. Fundamental studies of interfacial excited-state charge transfer in molecularly tethered semiconductor nanoassemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Diane Greer

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on elucidating the parameters affecting dynamics and yield of electron transfer reactions in semiconducting nanoparticle assemblies through the use of time-resolved spectroscopy. In particular, the dissertation focuses on photoinduced electron injection in assemblies of CdSe, CdS, or PbS quantum dots covalently bound to either metal oxide films or each other through the use of bifunctional molecular linkers. Chapter 2 elucidates the influence of electronic coupling on excited-state electron transfer from CdS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticles via molecular linkers with phenylene bridges. We establish that the efficiency of electron injection from CdS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticle varies dramatically with electronic coupling, which can be controlled by tuning the properties of molecular linkers. Chapter 3 presents the role of excitation energy on interfacial electron transfer in tethered assemblies of CdSe quantum dots and TiO2 nanoparticles. Through this work, we determined that injection efficiency from band-edge states is independent of excitation energy. However, the efficiency of injection from trap-states decreases at lower-energy excitation. We attribute the decrease to a lower energy distribution of emissive trap-states from which injection is less efficient. Chapter 4 presents the observation of multiphasic electron injection dynamics from photoexcited PbS quantum dots to TiO2 nanoparticles. In this collaborative study with Dr. Masumoto from the University of Tsukuba we observed electron injection on multiple timescales. We determined that electron injection occurred in this system through two different mechanisms. The first involved injection from thermalized PbS excited states and the second through injection of hot electrons through Auger recombination of biexcitons that creates high lying excitonic states. Chapter 5 investigates charge transfer in covalently bound quantum dot assemblies. We utilize

  4. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  5. A comparative study of Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams of urban road networks governed by different traffic signal systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lele; de Gier, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Using a stochastic cellular automaton model for urban traffic flow, we study and compare Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams (MFDs) of arterial road networks governed by different types of adaptive traffic signal systems. In particular, we simulate realistic signal systems that include signal linking and adaptive cycle times, and compare their performance against a network using highly adaptive self-organizing traffic signals. We find that for networks with time- independent boundary conditions, well-defined stationary MFDs are observed, whose shape depends on the particular signal system used, and also on the level of heterogeneity in the system. We find that the spatial heterogeneity of both density and flow provide important indicators of network performance. We also study networks with time-dependent boundary conditions, containing morning and afternoon peaks. In this case, intricate hysteresis loops are observed in the MFDs which are strongly correlated with the density heterogeneity. Our results show that ...

  6. Development and fundamental study on a superconducting induction/synchronous motor incorporated with MgB2 cage windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Yamada, Y.; Nishio, H.; Kajikawa, K.; Sugano, M.; Amemiya, N.; Wakuda, T.; Takahashi, M.; Okada, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a fundamental study of the rotating characteristics of a induction/synchronous motor by use of superconducting MgB2 cage windings is carried out based on analysis and experiment. Current transport properties of the produced monofilamentary MgB2 wires are firstly characterized, and then utilized for the determination of the current carrying capacity of the rotor bars. Then, the motor model is designed and fabricated with the aid of conventional (copper) stator windings. We successfully observe the synchronous rotation of the fabricated motor at a rotation speed range from 300 to 1800 rpm. We can also realize an almost constant torque versus speed curve, and this characteristic is explained from the steep take-off of the electric field versus the current density curve, based on the nonlinear electrical equivalent circuit. These results are promising for the practical applications of a high efficiency motor for a liquid hydrogen circulation pump.

  7. Application of the subtraction technique to the radiological diagnosis of temporomandibular joint disorders. On the fundamental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Tohru; Tanaka, Toshio; Imaizumi, Satoru; Imaizumi, Eiichi; Yoshihara, Junya; Ohtani, Masatoshi

    1985-02-01

    The oblique lateral transcranial projection (OLTP) of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is widely used for the diagnosis of TMJ disease. The OLTP is a simple and valuable technique for the lateral projection of the TMJ, but is sometimes reveals a complex radiographic findings due to the overlapping of the pars petrosa and the mastoid process to the TMJ. We have recently applied a photographic subtraction technique to the OLTP for reduction of the complex radiographic findings in the OLTP. The purpose of this study is to know the value of the photographic subtraction technique in the OLTP fundamentally. The results obtained are as follows: 1) The shape of the condyle was clearly demonstrated by the subtraction technique. 2) Diagnostic ability on disease of the condyle was increased by applying the subtraction technique. 3) Location of the condyle in the fossa was easily detected by the subtraction technique. (author).

  8. Paralegal Studies Program. Curriculum Utilization. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Doris D.

    A program developed a paralegal studies program for Delaware County Community College in the Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) metropolitan area. Activities included gathering of information on paralegal studies as it related to curriculum content; advisory group establishment; curriculum development; training/educational material development; and…

  9. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  10. Fundamental Study of Nano-Scale Adhesion and Friction Properties of Graphene in Ambient Air and Liquid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramayanam, Sai Suvineeth

    The aim of this study is to understand the fundamental tribological interactions of model contacts developed between a 'single' asperity silicon tip and a few layer graphene surface in ambient air, ionic liquid, and lubricating oil environments. The motivation to investigate such fundamental interactions stems from the need to gain an understanding of the tribological properties, morphology and defects of few layer graphene with respect to different synthesis methods including both bottom-up and top-down approaches. In particular, the surface properties of atomically thin sheets of graphene synthesized by three methods; (i) liquid phase exfoliation of graphene, (ii) chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, on a silicon oxide substrate, and (iii) graphene synthesis by halogen based plasma etching on a silicon carbide substrate are studied using atomic force microscopy, lateral force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Friction of Si 'single' asperities sliding against a few layer graphene surface in ambient air, ionic liquid, and lubricating oil environments is reported. It is found that oxygen based defects play a major role in controlling the friction and adhesion properties of few layer graphene surfaces. The role of substrate and its bonding with the few layer graphene is also an important parameter. In liquids, we report a newly observed Stribeck like behavior in the nanoscale. This work can lead to important device applications with reduced friction such as contact-based microelectromechanical systems. It also sheds light on liquid-graphene interfacial characteristics which can be proved vital in applications spanning from electrochemical energy devices to nanolubricants.

  11. Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ibe, Oliver C

    2011-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to understanding queueing and graphical networks In today's era of interdisciplinary studies and research activities, network models are becoming increasingly important in various areas where they have not regularly been used. Combining techniques from stochastic processes and graph theory to analyze the behavior of networks, Fundamentals of Stochastic Networks provides an interdisciplinary approach by including practical applications of these stochastic networks in various fields of study, from engineering and operations management to communications and the physi

  12. THE PHENOMENON OF (ISLAMIC RELIGIOUS FUNDAMENTALISM IN A NON-‘RELIGIOUS’ CAMPUS: A CASE STUDY AT HASANUDDIN UNIVERSITY MAKASSAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufani Taufani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe and examine the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism on the campus of Hasanuddin University (UNHAS. Islamic fundamentalism is a phenomenon that emerged after the reform and it is commonly encountered in the campus world. The trend shows that the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism is growing in the campus that has no particular religious affiliation and is often driven by the propagation of the Campus Dakwah Organization (LDK. This research would like to test the thesis that whether it is relevant to the context of the Hasanuddin University that in fact is not a religiously-affiliated campus or the contrary. The method of collecting data was done through observation of the activities of the LDK activist at the Hasanuddin University (UNHAS Campus Dakwah Organization’s Musholla Lovers (LDK-MPM, in-depth interviews, documentation/review of previous research and papers. This research shows that Islamic fundamentalism led by LDK-MPM is growing at the Hasanuddin University. This phenomenon emerged as the implications of the post-reform freedom, so that these opportunities are exploited by activists to channel their euphoria, because at the time of the new order, their propagation had a fairly limited space. Another factor that led to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism and growing at Hasanuddin University is because the students did not have comprehensive Islamic references, so that they had no checklist for critiquing and examining the ideology of Islamic fundamentalism. In addition, the emergence of modernity considered to bring the negative excesses also serves as another factor being the cause of Islamic fundamentalism. Therefore, the ideology of Islamic fundamentalism emerged as an alternative to counteract the negative excesses. Keywords: Islamic Fundamentalism, LDK-MPM, Hasanuddin University.

  13. Effective ABE Programming: Nine Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The document presents an indepth study of nine selected exemplary adult basic education (ABE) programs in Region 8: Volunteers Clearing House, Fort Collins, Colorado; Utah Navajo Development Council, Blanding, Utah; Adult Education Tutorial Program, Denver, Colorado; Project SAVE, Lemmon, South Dakota; Gates Rubber Company, Denver, Colorado;…

  14. SISGR-Fundamental Experimental and Theoretical Studies on a Novel Family of Oxide Catalyst Supports for Water Electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumta, Prashant [University of Pittsburgh

    2014-10-03

    Identification and development of non-noble metal based electro-catalysts or electro-catalysts with significant reduction of expensive noble metal contents (E.g. IrO2, Pt) with comparable electrochemical performance as the standard noble metal/metal oxide for proton exchange membrane (PEM) based water electrolysis would constitute a major breakthrough in the generation of hydrogen by water electrolysis. Accomplishing such a system would not only result reduction of the overall capital costs of PEM based water electrolyzers, but also help attain the targeted hydrogen production cost [< $ 3.0 / gallon gasoline equivalent (gge)] comparable to conventional liquid fuels. In line with these goals, it was demonstrated that fluorine doped IrO2 thin films and nanostructured high surface area powders display remarkably higher electrochemical activity, and comparable durability as pure IrO2 electro-catalyst for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in PEM based water electrolysis. Furthermore, corrosion resistant SnO2 and NbO2 support has been doped with F and coupled with IrO2 or RuO2 for use as an OER electro-catalyst. A solid solution of SnO2:F or NbO2:F with only 20 - 30 mol.% IrO2 or RuO2 yielding a rutile structure in the form of thin films and bulk nanoparticles displays similar electrochemical activity and stability as pure IrO2/RuO2. This would lead to more than 70 mol.% reduction in the noble metal oxide content. Novel nanostructured ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 thin films of different compositions FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRO-CATALYSTS WITH REDUCED NOBLE METAL CONTENT FOR PEM BASED WATER ELECTROLYSIS 4 have also been studied. It has been shown that (Ir0.40Sn0.30Nb0.30)O2 shows similar electrochemical activity and enhanced chemical robustness as compared to pure IrO2. F doping of the ternary (Ir,Sn,Nb)O2 catalyst helps in further decreasing the noble metal oxide content of the catalyst. As a result, these reduced noble metal oxide catalyst systems would

  15. Teaching Fundamentals of Robotics to Computer Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a methodology to reinforce the teaching of fundamentals of robotics to computer scientists. The pedagogical basis is focused on engaging students in an in-depth study of the subject using computing in a substantive way. The approach consists in complementing the lectures by programming assignments focused on giving students a deeper understanding of how robotic systems work from the inside. This article presents the author's experience in the use of this approach, as wel...

  16. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Numerical simulation of fundamental process of vapor explosion using particle method. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-5. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Liu, Jie; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    A vapor explosion may happen when the hot liquid of the molten core contacts with the cold fluid of the coolant in severe accidents. Water jet impingement on a molten tin drop, which appears at collapse of a vapor film surrounding the hot drop, is analyzed in three dimensions using a particle method to investigate the fundamental processes is vapor explosions. As the result, the melt is extruded from the drop like filaments, which is the same behavior observed in the X-ray photographs obtained by Ciccarelli and Frost. Rapid boiling caused by spontaneous nucleation is necessary for strong fragmentation as shown in the X-ray photographs. In the case of the molten core, the interface temperature falls below the solidification temperature after direct contact with the water jets. Therefore, the rapid fragmentation is unlikely and a strong vapor explosion is unlikely as well. A one-dimensional code for propagation of pressure waves is developed. A spontaneous nucleation model is employed for thermal fragmentation. A one-dimensional test calculation of propagation of a pressure wave is carried out. The present result agrees with the past calculations in references. (author)

  17. The Study Abroad Experience: A Crucial Element in Globalizing Business School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiero, George A.; Kraten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a fundamental reality of modern business practice. Participation in a study abroad program is a crucial element in helping students become well rounded global business leaders; it is an increasingly important element of a well rounded business curriculum. A semester or summer abroad, properly conceived and designed, can provide…

  18. Integrating Social Responsibility into an Entrepreneurship Education Program: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistry, Suriamurthee Moonsamy; Ramdhani, Jugathambal

    2010-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education in South Africa is often presented as a neutral discipline. Yet fundamental to any entrepreneurship education program should be the integration of key issues, such as ethics, values and social responsibility. This paper reports on a study that set out to explore student teachers experiences of engaging in an…

  19. The Study Abroad Experience: A Crucial Element in Globalizing Business School Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiero, George A.; Kraten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a fundamental reality of modern business practice. Participation in a study abroad program is a crucial element in helping students become well rounded global business leaders; it is an increasingly important element of a well rounded business curriculum. A semester or summer abroad, properly conceived and designed, can provide…

  20. Fundamental studies on initiation and evolution of multi-channel discharges and their application to next generation pulsed power machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Jens; Savage, Mark E.; Lucero, Diego Jose; Jaramillo, Deanna M.; Seals, Kelly Gene; Pitts, Todd Alan; Hautzenroeder, Brenna M.; Laine, Mark Richard; Karelitz, David B.; Porter, John L.

    2014-09-01

    Future pulsed power systems may rely on linear transformer driver (LTD) technology. The LTD's will be the building blocks for a driver that can deliver higher current than the Z-Machine. The LTD's would require tens of thousands of low inductance ( %3C 85nH), high voltage (200 kV DC) switches with high reliability and long lifetime ( 10 4 shots). Sandia's Z-Machine employs 36 megavolt class switches that are laser triggered by a single channel discharge. This is feasible for tens of switches but the high inductance and short switch life- time associated with the single channel discharge are undesirable for future machines. Thus the fundamental problem is how to lower inductance and losses while increasing switch life- time and reliability. These goals can be achieved by increasing the number of current-carrying channels. The rail gap switch is ideal for this purpose. Although those switches have been extensively studied during the past decades, each effort has only characterized a particular switch. There is no comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics that would allow predictive capability for arbitrary switch geometry. We have studied rail gap switches via an extensive suite of advanced diagnostics in synergy with theoretical physics and advanced modeling capability. Design and topology of multichannel switches as they relate to discharge dynamics are investigated. This involves electrically and optically triggered rail gaps, as well as discrete multi-site switch concepts.

  1. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rule, Gordon S

    2006-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful technique to study the structure and dynamics of biological macromolecules. Fundamentals of Protein NMR Spectroscopy is a comprehensive textbook that guides the reader from a basic understanding of the phenomenological properties of magnetic resonance to the application and interpretation of modern multi-dimensional NMR experiments on 15N/13C-labeled proteins. Beginning with elementary quantum mechanics, a set of practical rules is presented and used to describe many commonly employed multi-dimensional, multi-nuclear NMR pulse sequences. A modular analysis of NMR pulse sequence building blocks also provides a basis for understanding and developing novel pulse programs. This text not only covers topics from chemical shift assignment to protein structure refinement, as well as the analysis of protein dynamics and chemical kinetics, but also provides a practical guide to many aspects of modern spectrometer hardware, sample preparation, experimental set-up, and data pr...

  2. 34 CFR 477.1 - What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ANALYSIS ASSISTANCE AND POLICY STUDIES PROGRAM General § 477.1 What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program? The State Program Analysis Assistance and Policy Studies Program... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the State Program Analysis Assistance and...

  3. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  4. Fundamental solution of Laplace's equation in oblate spheroidal coordinates and Galerkin's matrix for Neumann's problem in Earth's gravity field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holota, Petr; Nesvadba, Otakar

    2015-04-01

    In this paper the reciprocal distance is used for generating Galerkin's approximations in the weak solution of Neumann's problem that has an important role in Earth's gravity field studies. The reciprocal distance has a natural tie to the fundamental solution of Laplace's partial differential equation and in the paper it is represented by means of an expansion into a series of oblate spheroidal harmonics. Subsequently, the gradient vector of the reciprocal distance is constructed. In the computation of its components the expansion mentioned above is employed. The paper then focuses on the scalar product of reciprocal distance gradients in two different points and in particular on a series representation of a volume integral of the scalar product spread over an unbounded domain given by the exterior of an oblate spheroid (oblate ellipsoid of revolution). The integral yields the entries of Galerkin's matrix. The numerical interpretation of all the expansions used as well as the respective software implementation within the OpenCL framework is treated, which concerns also a numerical evaluation of Legendre functions of a real and an imaginary argument. In parallel an approximate closed formula expressing the entries of Galerkin's matrix (with an accuracy up to terms multiplied by the square of numerical eccentricity) is derived for convenience and comparison. The paper is added extensive numerical examples that illustrate the approach applied and demonstrate the accuracy of the derived formulas. Aspects related to practical applications are discussed.

  5. Fundamental study on reactivities of gluten protein types from wheat, rye and barley with five sandwich ELISA test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexhaller, Barbara; Tompos, Christine; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-12-15

    Monitoring the compliance of gluten-free foods to the regulatory threshold of 20mg/kg of gluten is essential for celiac disease patients. The different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for gluten detection each have specific characteristics, but there are only a few systematic comparisons. This fundamental study compared the specificities and sensitivities of the R5, G12 and Skerritt monoclonal and two polyclonal antibodies to well-defined gluten protein types (GPT) isolated from wheat, rye and barley flours. Quantitation of protein concentrations by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography provided independent reference values. The ELISA responses showed high variability depending on the type of cereal, the GPT and the antibody used. Overall, ω1,2-gliadins and γ-75k-secalins were most reactive, whereas ω5-gliadins and γ-, B- and D-hordeins were detected with the lowest sensitivities. These results revealed which GPT each antibody is most sensitive to and provided novel insights that will be helpful for appropriate calibration of ELISAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estudo da freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadoras de diferentes graus de perda auditiva Study of the fundamental frequency in elderly women with hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana dos Santos Baraldi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficiência auditiva, dentre outros, é um dos distúrbios mais referidos pela população idosa. Sabe-se que o sistema de feedback auditivo é primordial para o monitoramento dos parâmetros vocais, como a freqüência fundamenta. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a audição e os valores de F0 (freqüência fundamental da voz de idosas portadores de diferentes graus de sensibilidade auditiva. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Transversal descritivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Amostra de 30 idosas, idades média de 76,23, portadoras de audição normal ou perda auditiva neurossensorial descendente simétrica. Foram submetidas a anamnese, avaliação auditiva (audiometria tonal limiar, IPRF e imitanciometria e avaliação vocal. Os resultados de ambas as avaliações foram correlacionados. RESULTADOS: A F0 da produção vocal de idosas com perda leve (144,44 foi significantemente menor que para perda moderada (160,3, moderadamente severa (188,23 e severa (201,27, tanto utilizando a classificação de grau da perda auditiva para freqüências baixas como altas. CONCLUSÃO: Quanto mais elevado o grau da perda auditiva, maior o valor de freqüência fundamental encontrado.Increased life expectancy raises demands for special attention for the elderly population; speech, language and hearing science deals with their communication disorders. Hearing loss is a common disorder affecting this age group. It is known that the auditory feedback system is essential to human vocalizing, as it organizes voice production. AIM: To assess and correlate the hearing system and the Fundamental Frequency (F0 of women who have variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a cross-sectional descriptive study. 30 women with a mean age of 75.95 (SD = 7,41 were included. Inclusion criteria were: symmetric sensorineural hearing loss, a high-frequency sloping configuration, and a type A tympanogram. Subjects underwent Pure Tone Audiometry, a Word Recognition Test, Tympanometry

  7. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  8. Sources of Image Degradation in Fundamental and Harmonic Ultrasound Imaging: A Nonlinear, Full-Wave, Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). This numerical method is used to simulate propagation of a diagnostic ultrasound pulse through a measured representation of the human abdomen with heterogeneities in speed of sound, attenuation, density, and nonlinearity. Conventional delay-and-sum beamforming is used to generate point spread functions (PSF) that display the effects of these heterogeneities. For the particular imaging configuration that is modeled, these PSFs reveal that the primary source of degradation in fundamental imaging is due to reverberation from near-field structures. Compared to fundamental imaging, reverberation clutter in harmonic imaging is 27.1 dB lower. Simulated tissue with uniform velocity but unchanged impedance characteristics indicates that for fundamental imaging, the primary source of degradation is phase aberration. PMID:21507753

  9. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M. Capio; Cindy H.P. Sit; Kathlynne F. Egui; Bruce Abernethy; Richard S.W. Masters

    2015-01-01

    Background: A positive association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA) has been shown in previous research of children with and without disability. This pilot study explored a causal mechanism for such relationship, and hypothesized that when FMS proficiency is improved, enhanced PA uptake will be found in children with and without disability. It was further hypothesized that improving FMS proficiency will have a greater impact on children with disability than those without disability. Methods:Participants include typically developing (TD) children without disability and children with cerebral palsy (CP), who were allocated to FMS training groups (CP-FMS n=12, TD-FMS n=13) and control groups (CP-C n=12, TD-C n=13). Training groups practiced five FMS (run, jump, kick, throw, catch) in weekly 45-min sessions for 4 weeks. Control groups had their regular physiotherapy (CP) or physical education (TD) sessions. FMS were evaluated using process-and product-oriented measures, and PA was measured using accelerometers, before and after training. Results:It was verified that training groups gained improvements in FMS while control groups did not. No significant changes in weekday PA were found. Increased weekend moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was found in the CP-FMS group, while decreased weekend sedentary time was found in the CP-FMS and TD-FMS groups. The percentages of participants who exceeded the minimum detectable change (MDC90) in MVPA and sedentary time were larger in children with CP than in children without disability. Conclusion:The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  10. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); McGrady, Sean [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB (Canada); Severa, Godwin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Eliseo, Jennifer [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chong, Marina [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  11. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [University of Hawaii; McGrady, Sean [University of New Brunswick; Severa, Godwin [University of Hawaii; Eliseo, Jennifer [University of Hawaii; Chong, Marina [University of Hawaii

    2015-02-08

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH₃), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH₃ and γ-AlD₃. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190ºC). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the dehydrogenation making re

  12. Fundamental study of microelectronic chip response under laser ultrasonic-interferometric inspection using C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Gong, Jie; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    In modern surface mount packaging technologies, such as flip chips, chip scale packages, and ball grid arrays(BGA), chips are attached to the substrates/printed wiring board (PWB) using solder bump interconnections. The quality of solder bumps between the chips and the substrate/board is difficult to inspect. Laser ultrasonic-interferometric technique was proved to be a promising approach for solder bump inspection because of its noncontact and nondestructive characteristics. Different indicators extracted from received signals have been used to predict the potential defects, such as correlation coefficient, error ratio, frequency shifting, etc. However, the fundamental understanding of the chip behavior under laser ultrasonic inspection is still missing. Specifically, it is not sure whether the laser interferometer detected out-of-plane displacements were due to wave propagation or structural vibration when the chip was excited by pulsed laser. Plus, it is found that the received signals are chip dependent. Both challenges impede the interpretation of acquired signals. In this paper, a C-scan method was proposed to study the underlying phenomenon during laser ultrasonic inspection. The full chip was inspected. The response of the chip under laser excitation was visualized in a movie resulted from acquired signals. Specifically, a BGA chip was investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. By characterizing signals using discrete wavelet transform(DWT), both ultrasonic wave propagation and vibration were observed. Separation of them was successfully achieved using ideal band-pass filter and visualized in resultant movies, too. The observed ultrasonic waves were characterized and their respective speeds were measured by applying 2-D FFT. The C-scan method, combined with different digital signal processing techniques, was proved to be an very effective methodology to learn the behavior of chips under laser excitation. This general procedure can be

  13. Fundamentals and Applications of Semiconductor Nanocrystals : A study on the synthesis, optical properties, and interactions of quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koole, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on both the fundamental aspects as well as applications of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs). Due to the unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties of QDs, they hold great promise for a wide range of applications like solar cells, d

  14. Effectiveness of a Fundamental Motor Skill Intervention for 4-Year-Old Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Emily; Balogh, Robert; Lloyd, Meghann

    2015-01-01

    A wait-list control experimental design was employed to investigate the effectiveness of a fundamental motor skill intervention at improving the motor skills, adaptive behavior, and social skills of 4-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder (experimental n?=?5, control n?=?4); the impact of intervention intensity was also explored. The…

  15. The Fundamental Scale of Descriptions

    CERN Document Server

    Febres, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of a system description is a function of the entropy of its symbolic description. Prior to computing the entropy of the system description, an observation scale has to be assumed. In natural language texts, typical scales are binary, characters, and words. However, considering languages as structures built around certain preconceived set of symbols, like words or characters, is only a presumption. This study depicts the notion of the Description Fundamental Scale as a set of symbols which serves to analyze the essence a language structure. The concept of Fundamental Scale is tested using English and MIDI music texts by means of an algorithm developed to search for a set of symbols, which minimizes the system observed entropy, and therefore best expresses the fundamental scale of the language employed. Test results show that it is possible to find the Fundamental Scale of some languages. The concept of Fundamental Scale, and the method for its determination, emerges as an interesting tool to fac...

  16. Fundamental studies of acid gas treating by aqueous alkanolamines: Vapor-liquid equilibrium studies. Annual report, January-December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, H.J.; Huang, S.H.

    1993-02-01

    The project addresses the measurement of the solubilities of acid gases such as H2S and CO2 in alkanolamine solutions. Systems of acid gas mixtures and of amine mixtures are included in the study. The temperature range extended from 40 to 120 C and the partial pressure of the acid gases ranged from 0.005 kPa up to 3,000 kPa. The range is sufficient to cover most of the industrial operating conditions for amine-based sweeteners. The planned schedule of experimental work was maintained during 1992. The solubilities of H2S in seven amine systems have been measured and reported. The study will be continued in 1993. The measurements will be extended to systems containing CO2 as the acid gas.

  17. Fundamental Research and Developing Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Narison, Stéphan

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of this report, I discuss the sociological role of fundamental research in Developing Countries (DC) and how to realize this program. In the second part, I give a brief and elementary introduction to the field of high-energy physics (HEP), accessible to a large audience not necessary physicists. The aim of this report is to make politicians and financial backers aware on the long-term usefulness of fundamental research in DC and on the possible globalisation of HEP and, in general, of science.

  18. Exchange Rates and Fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Charles; West, Kenneth D.

    2005-01-01

    We show analytically that in a rational expectations present-value model, an asset price manifests near-random walk behavior if fundamentals are I (1) and the factor for discounting future fundamentals is near one. We argue that this result helps explain the well-known puzzle that fundamental variables such as relative money supplies, outputs,…

  19. Erratum: Sources of Image Degradation in Fundamental and Harmonic Ultrasound Imaging: A Nonlinear, Full-Wave, Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain. This numerical method is used to simulate propagation of a diagnostic ultrasound pulse through a measured representation of the human abdomen with heterogeneities in speed of sound, attenuation, density, and nonlinearity. Conventional delay-and-sum beamforming is used to generate point spread functions (PSFs) that display the effects of these heterogeneities. For the particular imaging configuration that is modeled, these PSFs reveal that the primary source of degradation in fundamental imaging is due to reverberation from near-field structures. Compared with fundamental imaging, reverberation clutter in harmonic imaging is 27.1 dB lower. Simulated tissue with uniform velocity but unchanged impedance characteristics indicates that for harmonic imaging, the primary source of degradation is phase aberration. PMID:21693410

  20. ANALISIS KESIAPAN PROGRAM STUDI DALAM PRODUCTION BASED EDUCATION: STUDI PADA PROGRAM STUDI D3 AKUNTANSI POLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Noor Ardiansah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been no clear studies to identify, verify and analyze readiness program resources in order to study the implementation of PBE resulted in initial position (existing point is not clear that the priority programs and activities that are carried out per year tend to be responsive and not directed priorities. These conditions resulted in analysis of resource readiness courses in the management of production-based learning pattern PBE draw conducted This study aims to identify and verify and analyze readiness resources management courses in the pattern of production based learning, particularly in the Accounting Studies Program. This research is expected to be used to increase the effectiveness of learning and vocational education to improve the quality and relevance of polytechnic graduates. Total score was 33 the existence of resources from the scale of 12-60. The average score is 2.75. The average score was shown the position of Prodi's resources have been used, but its role is unclear (repeatable tend to have clearly defined functions, communicated and documented (defined. Resources have been managed, monitored and evaluated well (managed are: curriculum resources, networking courses, lab facilities, ISO-based management. Resources have been used but not optimal role: resources module practice, the formulation of an internship, practice material / TA, the performance of IC-based lecturer

  1. Exploration on the Teaching Reform and Practice of C Fundamentals of Programming%《C语言程序设计》教学改革实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李龙淼

    2012-01-01

    《C语言程序设计》是目前各高校信息工程类专业普遍开设的一门课程,它具有内容多、理论与实践结合紧密的特点,是一门难教且难学的基础课程。通过教学现状和学情分析,从教学模式、教学方法、教学手段等方面进行了改革实践,在教学实施过程中收到了良好效果,为C语言教学改革提供了有益经验。%C Fundamentals of Programming is one of the basic courses of Information En- gineering Major for all colleges. The teaching requires a combination of theory study and computer operation. Our reform on its teaching modes, methods and techniques has resulted in good effect. This paper is a summarization of our reform practice which we hope that will be useful for reference.

  2. Fundamentals of technology project management

    CERN Document Server

    Garton, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Designed to provide software engineers, students, and IT professionals with an understanding of the fundamentals of project management in the technology/IT field, this book serves as a practical introduction to the subject. Updated with information on how Fundamentals of Project Management integrates with and complements Project Management Institute''s Project Management Body of Knowledge, this collection explains fundamental methodologies and techniques while also discussing new technology, tools, and virtual work environments. Examples and case studies are based on technology projects, and t

  3. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  4. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  5. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  6. Fundamental study of a refractory-based carbon fiber reinforced composite made by reactive melt infiltration for hypersonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Natalie Alice

    Ceramic matrix composites are excellent candidates for ultrahigh temperature applications due their good physical properties, which are a combination of a chemically stable matrix and tough fiber reinforcement. This work is a fundamental study of a carbon fiber reinforced zirconium carbide composite (Cf/ZrC). The background chapter reviews reactive melt infiltration, which is the processing method used to make the Cf/ZrC composite. The first chapter discusses the microstructural characterization and development of Cf/ZrC. A formation mechanism of the unique matrix microstructure is proposed based on the characterization results. In the second chapter the mechanical properties of Cf/ZrC were determined. The fracture toughness at room temperature is obtained with a standard four point bend test, while flexural strength of Cf/ZrC is obtained to the ultra high temperature regime. For high temperatures a testing rig was modified to operate in inert atmosphere and tests were conducted at 1100 °C, 1350 °C and 1650 °C. Correlation is made between the flexural strength and fiber coatings of two different composite types. In situ compression tests were performed a modified SEM. Digital image correlation was used to monitor strains during compression. The stress-strain information is correlated to surface deformation. The environmental durability and oxidation behavior of Cf/ZrC and ZrC is detailed in the third and fourth chapters. The oxidation and shock behavior of Cf/ZrC were observed under both slow and rapid heating rates to ultra high temperatures. For rapid heating rates a panel was subjected to heating at steady-state and non-steady state heat flux. For slow heating rates specimen coupons were heated at 2000 °C in a bottom-loading furnace. Specimens were characterized post-test by x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and optical microscopy. The oxidation kinetics of Cf/ZrC composites and ZrC powders (45 micron and 60 nanometer

  7. Fundamentals and Applications of Semiconductor Nanocrystals : A study on the synthesis, optical properties, and interactions of quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Koole, R.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on both the fundamental aspects as well as applications of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs). Due to the unique size-dependent optical and electronic properties of QDs, they hold great promise for a wide range of applications like solar cells, displays, lasers, or as contrast agent for bio-imaging. The work presented in this thesis can be divided in three sections. In the first part, the synthesis and self-assembly of PbSe nanocrystals of...

  8. Fundamentals of sustainable neighbourhoods

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avi

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces architects, engineers, builders, and urban planners to a range of design principles of sustainable communities and illustrates them with outstanding case studies. Drawing on the author’s experience as well as local and international case studies, Fundamentals of Sustainable Neighbourhoods presents planning concepts that minimize developments' carbon footprint through compact communities, adaptable and expandable dwellings, adaptable landscapes, and smaller-sized yet quality-designed housing. This book also: Examines in-depth global strategies for minimizing the residential carbon footprint, including district heating, passive solar gain, net-zero residences, as well as preserving the communities' natural assets Reconsiders conceptual approaches in building design and urban planning to promote a better connection between communities and nature Demonstrates practical applications of green architecture Focuses on innovative living spaces in urban environments

  9. KARAKTERISTIK KONSELOR BAGI MAHASISWA ( PROGRAM STUDI LANGKA PEMINAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Rosyid

    2014-01-01

    is to be educators their employment at the madrasah / school. In contrast to the scholars of Tafsir, the science of faith, or the science of da’wa that their employment is still considered biased. This assumption becomes the cause of the decline in student interest so need extra role played counselor figure lecturers and ranking officials for the students at the department  of rare registrants. The main role of the counselor to convince the students to remain optimistic completed the study to get a degree. Counselors play a role in the course and outside the lecture are required to carry out three fundamental things include introducing about optimism in the Department of Da’wa, the extent of the prospect of undergraduate alumni  of Da’wa, and the principle of excellent service counselors. Keywords:Basic Capital, Counselor Characteristics  and the study program rare registrants.

  10. Fundamental study of noise reduction by active noise control. Active soon seigyo ni yoru soon taisaku no kiso kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T.; Naganawa, A. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    Fundamental experiments were conducted on active noise control as sound insulation fence. This control method generates a sound source with the same amplitude and opposite phase as noise, and reduces noise through the interference of acoustic wave from the source. However, this method has too many problems with the three-dimensional sound field to be actually exploited in this environment. The following experiments were conducted to apply the active noise control to the sound insulation fence: one method of installing a geometric path along the inner side of the sound insulation fence used the acoustic delay process generated on the source side to attenuate the sound pressure level on top of the fence through interference of routing difference sound. The other method used an additional sound source attached to the bottom of the geometric path above to obtain a higher attenuation than using the simple sound insulation fence. At the second step, the active control duct model was used for the test. Then, the three-dimensional model test was conducted for active control of the sound insulation fence. The results of these fundamental experiments have indicated that each method can reduce the relative sound pressure level and the active noise control system using the acoustic phase difference can effectively reduce noise with dominant components in a low frequency band. There are still several problems with the three-dimensional mock-up model. 4 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Fundamentals of gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, V

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition isa comprehensively updated new edition and now includes a chapter on the gas dynamics of steam. It covers the fundamental concepts and governing equations of different flows, and includes end of chapter exercises based on the practical applications. A number of useful tables on the thermodynamic properties of steam are also included.Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics, Second Edition begins with an introduction to compressible and incompressible flows before covering the fundamentals of one dimensional flows and normal shock wav

  12. Crystal science fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, V.; Halfpenny, PJ; Roberts, KJ

    2017-01-01

    The fundamentals of crystal science notably crystallography, crystal chemistry, crystal defects, crystal morphology and the surface chemistry of crystals are introduced with particular emphasis on organic crystals.

  13. Computability, complexity, and languages fundamentals of theoretical computer science

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Martin D; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1983-01-01

    Computability, Complexity, and Languages: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science provides an introduction to the various aspects of theoretical computer science. Theoretical computer science is the mathematical study of models of computation. This text is composed of five parts encompassing 17 chapters, and begins with an introduction to the use of proofs in mathematics and the development of computability theory in the context of an extremely simple abstract programming language. The succeeding parts demonstrate the performance of abstract programming language using a macro expa

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM CASE STUDIES: DEMONSTRATING PROGRAM OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This bookle...

  15. Fundamentals and Techniques of Nonimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Gallagher, J. J.; Winston, R.

    2003-07-10

    other system parameter permits the construction of whole new classes of devices with greatly expanded capabilities compared to conventional approaches. These ''tailored edge-ray'' designs have dramatically broadened the range of geometries in which nonimaging optics can provide a significant performance improvement. Considerable progress continues to be made in furthering the incorporation of nonimaging secondaries into practical high concentration and ultra-high concentration solar collector systems. In parallel with the continuing development of nonimaging geometrical optics, our group has been working to develop an understanding of certain fundamental physical optics concepts in the same context. In particular, our study of the behavior of classical radiance in nonimaging systems, has revealed some fundamentally important new understandings that we have pursued both theoretically and experimentally. The field is still relatively new and is rapidly gaining widespread recognition because it fuels many industrial applications. Because of this, during the final years of the project, our group at Chicago has been working more closely with a team of industrial scientists from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) at first informally, and later more formally, beginning in 1998, under a formal program initiated by the Department of Energy and incrementally funded through this existing grant. This collaboration has been very fruitful and has led to new conceptual breakthroughs which have provided the foundation for further exciting growth. Many of these concepts are described in some detail in the report.

  16. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  17. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  18. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714, "Fundamental Studies of Metastable Liquids"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pablo G. Debenedetti

    2009-03-09

    Grant DE-FG02-87ER13714 supported fundamental work on the physical properties of metastable liquids from 6/1/87 to 4/30/08. Renewal proposals were submitted every three years (1990, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005), and included, in every case, a detailed Final Technical Report on the previous three years. Accordingly, the bulk of this report covers the final 2-year period 5/1/06 to 4/30/08 of this grant, which is not covered in any of the previous Final Technical Reports. This is preceded by a brief overview of the main research objectives and principal accomplishments during these very fruitful and productive 21 years of DOE-funded research.

  19. Fundamentals of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  20. Dependence and Fundamentality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Zylstra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available I argue that dependence is neither necessary nor sufficient for relative fundamentality. I then introduce the notion of 'likeness in nature' and provide an account of relative fundamentality in terms of it and the notion of dependence. Finally, I discuss some puzzles that arise in Aristotle's Categories, to which the theory developed is applied.

  1. The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations, and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrosion control is a concern for many drinking water utilities. The Lead and Copper Rule established a regulatory need to maintain a corrosion control program. Other corrosion-related issues such as “red” water resulting from excessive iron corrosion and copper pinhole leaks ...

  2. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  3. 34 CFR 668.39 - Study abroad programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Study abroad programs. 668.39 Section 668.39 Education..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS Student Eligibility § 668.39 Study abroad programs. A student enrolled in a program of study abroad is eligible to receive title IV, HEA program...

  4. The UVES Large Program for Testing Fundamental Physics II: Constraints on a Change in {\\mu} Towards Quasar HE 0027-1836

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmani, H; Srianand, R; Noterdaeme, P; Petitjean, P; Molaro, P; Whitmore, J B; Murphy, M T; Centurion, M; Fathivavsari, H; D'Odorico, S; Evans, T M; Levshakov, S A; Lopez, S; Martins, C J A P; Reimers, D; Vladilo, G

    2013-01-01

    We present an accurate analysis of the H2 absorption lines from the zabs ~ 2.4018 damped Ly{\\alpha} system towards HE 0027-1836 observed with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES) as a part of the European Southern Observatory Large Programme "The UVES large programme for testing fundamental physics" to constrain the variation of proton-to-electron mass ratio, {\\mu} = mp/me. We perform cross-correlation analysis between 19 individual exposures taken over three years and the combined spectrum to check the wavelength calibration stability. We notice the presence of a possible wavelength dependent velocity drift especially in the data taken in 2012. We use available asteroids spectra taken with UVES close to our observations to confirm and quantify this effect. We consider single and two component Voigt profiles to model the observed H2 absorption profiles. We use both linear regression analysis and Voigt profile fitting where {\\Delta}{\\mu}/{\\mu} is explicitly considered...

  5. Comparison study of harmonic imaging (HI) and fundamental imaging (FI) in fetal echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博文; 汤富刚; 寿金朵; 徐海珊; 吕江红; 范妙英; 范晓明; 潘美

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To directly compare the quality of harmonic imaging (HI) and fundamental imaging (FI) in fetal echocardiography and to determine any differences in image quality between the two m0dalities. Methods : Fetal echocardiograms were performed with the use of FI and HI in 58 fetuses, image quality and vi-sualization of left and right atria, left and right ventricles, mitral and tricuspid valves, aortic and pulmonary valves, left and right ventricular outflow tracts were evaluated and compared between FI and HI. Results :Mean HI scores were higher than mean FI scores (2.73±0.43 vs 2.16±0.69, P <0.001)for all the card-iovascular structures evaluated. Compared with FI, HI improved the image quality and visualization of fetal cardiac structures in subjects with both good (2.73±0.43 vs 2.88±0.32, P < 0.001) and suboptimal (1.65±0.41 vs 2.58±0.47, P < 0.001) echocardiographic windows. The interobserver correlation coefficient for the grading scores was 0.74 ( P < 0. 001 ) . Conclusions: harmonic imaging enhances and improves the im-age quality of fetal echocardiography ; and has important potential role in cardiac imaging in the fetus.

  6. Fundamental Studies of Adhesion of Dust to PV Module Surfaces: Chemical and Physical Relationships at the Microscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.; Diniz, Antonia Sonia A. C.; Maia, Cristiana Brasil; Viana, Marcelo Machado; Costa, Suellen C.; Brito, Pedro P.; Campos, Claudio Dias; Neto, Lauro V. Macheto; de Morais Hanriot, Sergio; de Oliveira Cruz, Leila R.

    2016-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) module soiling is a growing area of concern for performance and reliability. This paper provides evaluations of the fundamental interactions of dust/soiling particles with several PV module surfaces. The purpose is to investigate the basic mechanisms involving the chemistry, morphology, and resulting particle adhesion to the first photon-incident surface. The evaluation and mapping of the chemistry and composition of single dust particles collected from operating PV module surfaces are presented. The first correlated direct measurements of the adhesive force of individual grains from field-operating collectors on identical PV module glass are reported, including correlations with specific compositions. Special microscale atomic force microscopy techniques are adapted to determine the force between the particle and the module glass surface. Results are presented for samples under dry and moisture-exposed conditions, confirming the effects of cementation for surfaces having soluble mineral and/or organic concentrations. Additionally, the effects of hydrocarbon fuels on the enhanced bonding of soiling particles to surfaces are determined for samples from urban and highly trafficked regions. Comparisons between glass and dust-mitigating superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic coatings are presented. Potential limitations of this proximal probe technique are discussed in terms of results and initial proof-of-concept experiments.

  7. Experimental study of impact-cratering damage on brittle cylindrical column model as a fundamental component of space architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Akira; Onose, Naomi; Setoh, Masato; Nakamura, Akiko M.; Hiraoka, Kensuke; Hasegawa, Sunao; Okudaira, Kyoko

    2014-10-01

    The cylindrical column of brittle material processed from soil and rock is a fundamental component of architectures on the surface of solid bodies in the solar system. One of the most hazardous events for the structure is damaging by hypervelocity impacts by meteoroids and debris. In such a background, cylindrical columns made of plaster of Paris and glass-bead-sintered ceramic were impacted by spherical projectiles of nylon, glass, and steel at velocity of about 1-4.5 km/s. Measured crater radii, depth, and excavated mass expressed by a function of the cylinder radius are similar irrespective of the target material, if those parameters are normalized by appropriate parameters of the crater produced on the flat-surface target. The empirical scaling relations of the normalized crater radii and depth are provided. Using them, crater dimensions and excavated mass of crater on cylindrical surface of any radius can be predicted from the existing knowledge of those for flat surface. Recommendation for the minimum diameter of a cylinder so as to resist against a given impact is provided.

  8. The Oriente Study: program and policy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Marie T

    2010-02-01

    This journal supplement summarizes the many contributions of the Oriente Study to scientific knowledge. This article asks whether this knowledge has actually translated into program and/or policy changes. It describes 2 key areas where this is the case: 1) in defining the "window of opportunity" for nutrition interventions and changing policy regarding the targeting of nutrition interventions; and 2) in building the economic argument for investing in early childhood nutrition. It concludes that the study contributed most of the research evidence supporting the change in policy adopted by the U.S. government in 2009, which encourages the targeting of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs to pregnant mothers and children under 2 y of age. The paper reviews the process and the complementary evidence that led to this policy change. The Oriente Study also provides the first direct, and the strongest, evidence supporting the economic argument in favor of investing in early child nutrition. The results show a direct link between improved nutrition in early childhood and persistent benefits in adult physical status, schooling, cognitive skills, and economic productivity. It is hoped that, given the multiple shocks currently affecting the poor, these powerful results will help stimulate greater investments in maternal and child nutrition in the short term.

  9. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  10. Fundamentals of crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Crystallography is a basic tool for scientists in many diverse disciplines. This text offers a clear description of fundamentals and of modern applications. It supports curricula in crystallography at undergraduate level.

  11. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    . Although reversible flowcharts are superficially similar to classical flowcharts, there are crucial differences: atomic steps are limited to locally invertible operations, and join points require an explicit orthogonalizing conditional expression. Despite these constraints, we show that reversible......Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...

  12. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  13. Masses of Fundamental Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2011-01-01

    Not only the masses of fundamental particles including the weak bosons, Higgs scalar, quarks, and leptons, but also the mixing angles of quarks and those of neutrinos are all explained and/or predicted in the unified composite model of quarks and leptons successfully. In addition, both of the two anomalies recently found by the CDF Collaboration are suggested to be taken as evidences for the substructure of the fundamental particles.

  14. A fundamental study of the impact of pressure on the adsorption mechanism in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2016-07-29

    A fundamental investigation of the pressure effect on individual adsorption sites was undertaken based on adsorption energy distribution and adsorption isotherm measurements. For this purpose, we measured adsorption equilibrium data at pressures ranging from 100 to 1000bar at constant flow and over a wide concentration range for three low-molecular-weight solutes, antipyrine, sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate, and benzyltriethylammonium chloride, on an Eternity C18 stationary phase. The adsorption energy distribution was bimodal for all solutes, remaining clearly so at all pressures. The bi-Langmuir model best described the adsorption in these systems and two types of adsorption sites were identified, one with a low and another with a high energy of interaction. Evidence exists that the low-energy interactions occur at the interface between the mobile and stationary phases and that the high-energy interactions occur nearer the silica surface, deeper in the C18 layer. The contribution of each type of adsorption site to the retention factor was calculated and the change in solute molar volume from the mobile to stationary phase during the adsorption process was estimated for each type of site. The change in solute molar volume was 2-4 times larger at the high-energy site, likely because of the greater loss of solute solvation layer when penetrating deeper into the C18 layer. The association equilibrium constant increased with increasing pressure while the saturation capacity of the low-energy site remained almost unchanged. The observed increase in saturation capacity for the high-energy site did not affect the column loading capacity, which was almost identical at 50- and 950-bar pressure drops over the column.

  15. Studying the implementation of public programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes and critically assesses approaches that have been employed to study the implementation of public programs. Implementation is defined as the process by which new policies and/or practices are installed in organizations. The report was produced because of the increased interest among researchers and policy makers alike in the linkages between policy and outcome. The study of implementation has barely begun, and it was recognized that methodological issues of a particularly complex nature arise because of certain unique characteristics of the implementation processes: (1) they involve a series of decisions that occur over a long period of time, with no clear beginning or end points; (2) their outcomes have direct or indirect implications that are too complex for single-factor theories; (3) they involve a large number of participants; and (4) they involve situations that are rather unique in terms of agency context, historical moment in time, and other key elements. The approach employed in the report was to examine the methods that have been used in a number of exemplary studies of implementation. These studies are commonly cited in publications and informally in research circles. Descriptive material from each study was used to address three questions: (1) How is evidence collected in studies of implementation; (2) How is evidence analyzed; (3) What are the reasons for believing the conclusions from such studies. The report concludes with recomendations for the conduct of future studies of implementation.

  16. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Hongsen

    1995-02-10

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T{sub e}) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n{sub e}) is in the range 10{sup 8}--10{sup 10} {sup {minus}cm }at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10{sup 6}--10{sup 8} cm{sup {minus}3} downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10{sup 4}--10{sup 5} downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z{sup 2} intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z{sup 2} fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument.

  17. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  18. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  19. Variation of Fundamental Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, V. V.

    2006-11-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. The spatial variation can explain a fine tuning of the fundamental constants which allows humans (and any life) to appear. We appeared in the area of the Universe where the values of the fundamental constants are consistent with our existence. We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant α, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra. Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feshbach resonance.

  20. Energy informatics: Fundamentals and standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biyao Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on international standardization and power utility practices, this paper presents a preliminary and systematic study on the field of energy informatics and analyzes boundary expansion of information and energy system, and the convergence of energy system and ICT. A comprehensive introduction of the fundamentals and standardization of energy informatics is provided, and several key open issues are identified.

  1. Fundamental Studies of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties in the Heat Affected Zone of 10 wt% Nickel Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrick, Erin J.

    United States naval applications require the use of steels with high strength and resistance to fracture at low temperatures to provide good ballistic properties. In recent years, 10 wt% Ni steel has been developed with strength and toughness values exceeding those of steels currently used, and is now being considered as a candidate material to replace existing high-strength, low alloy steels. This steel has excellent toughness from the mechanically induced transformation of interlath austenite films to martensite. These austenite films are formed via a carefully developed quenching, lamellarizing, and tempering heat treatment. However, before 10 wt% Ni steel can be implemented for full-scale applications, the effects of the rapid heating and cooling rates associated with welding thermal cycles on phase transformations and mechanical properties must be understood. In this research, a fundamental understanding of phase transformations and mechanical properties in the heat-affected zone of fusion welds in 10 wt% Ni steel was developed through heating and cooling rate dilatometry experiments, gas tungsten arc welding, and simulation of gas metal arc welding. First, an investigation into the effects of heating and cooling rate on the phase transformations in 10 wt% Ni steel was performed. The Ac1 and Ac3 temperatures during heating were determined as a function of heating rate, and sluggish transformation during fast heating rates manifested itself as a high Ac3 temperature of 1050°C as opposed to a temperature of 850°C at slow heating rates. A continuous cooling transformation diagram produced for 10 wt% Ni steel reveals that martensite will form over a very wide range of cooling rates, which reflects a very high hardenability of this alloy. This is significant because the range of cooling rates for which the diagram was constructed over easily covers the range associated with fusion welding, so there would not be the need for precise control over the weld

  2. Fundamentals of algebraic topology

    CERN Document Server

    Weintraub, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    This rapid and concise presentation of the essential ideas and results of algebraic topology follows the axiomatic foundations pioneered by Eilenberg and Steenrod. The approach of the book is pragmatic: while most proofs are given, those that are particularly long or technical are omitted, and results are stated in a form that emphasizes practical use over maximal generality. Moreover, to better reveal the logical structure of the subject, the separate roles of algebra and topology are illuminated. Assuming a background in point-set topology, Fundamentals of Algebraic Topology covers the canon of a first-year graduate course in algebraic topology: the fundamental group and covering spaces, homology and cohomology, CW complexes and manifolds, and a short introduction to homotopy theory. Readers wishing to deepen their knowledge of algebraic topology beyond the fundamentals are guided by a short but carefully annotated bibliography.

  3. Fundamentals of turbomachines

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the working principles of all kinds of turbomachines. The same theoretical framework is used to analyse the different machine types. Fundamentals are first presented and theoretical concepts are then elaborated for particular machine types, starting with the simplest ones.For each machine type, the author strikes a balance between building basic understanding and exploring knowledge of practical aspects. Readers are invited through challenging exercises to consider how the theory applies to particular cases and how it can be generalised.   The book is primarily meant as a course book. It teaches fundamentals and explores applications. It will appeal to senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical engineering and to professional engineers seeking to understand the operation of turbomachines. Readers will gain a fundamental understanding of turbomachines. They will also be able to make a reasoned choice of turbomachine for a particular application and to understand its operation...

  4. Monte Carlo fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, F.B.; Sutton, T.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report is composed of the lecture notes from the first half of a 32-hour graduate-level course on Monte Carlo methods offered at KAPL. These notes, prepared by two of the principle developers of KAPL`s RACER Monte Carlo code, cover the fundamental theory, concepts, and practices for Monte Carlo analysis. In particular, a thorough grounding in the basic fundamentals of Monte Carlo methods is presented, including random number generation, random sampling, the Monte Carlo approach to solving transport problems, computational geometry, collision physics, tallies, and eigenvalue calculations. Furthermore, modern computational algorithms for vector and parallel approaches to Monte Carlo calculations are covered in detail, including fundamental parallel and vector concepts, the event-based algorithm, master/slave schemes, parallel scaling laws, and portability issues.

  5. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  6. 基本权利释义学体系初探——基本权利研究之方法论批判%Research on Interpretation of Fundamental Rights --Methodological Critique on Fundamental Rights Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑贤君

    2012-01-01

    The main nature of fundamental rights research has blurred the scope and the limitation be- tween disciplines, thus resulting in the deviation from legal methodology. Interpretation of fundamental rights is focused on norm finding which follows the general theories to determine the meaning of fundamental rights by referring to some doctrines and depending on domestic constitutional concepts. Fundamental rights interpreta- tion is somewhat neutral and to some extent escapes from political reality. A wall between politic and academic action has been established which contains double risks in ensuring the safety for both politic and academic ac- tion, and borrowing much more from general theories and overseas thoughts are likely to affect the localization degree of fundamental rights, thus making it a closed system far from political reality. In order to overcome such risks, it is necessary to promote fundamental rights to be localized by remedying the shortage within sys- tem research based on using other social science methods and entrenching the "rights are consistent with obli- gation mutually" as the basic principle of interoretation.%早期基本权利研究的突出特点是模糊学科之间的范围与界限,导致相对于法学的方法偏离。基本权利释义学是一个致力于规范含义发现的解释事业,是在遵循基本权利普遍原理的前提下,参考特定学说,依据本国概念,服从宪法解释方法确定基本权利含义。基本权利释义学具有相对的中立性,一定程度上规避了政治现实。这一规避在政治与学术之间树起了一道墙,在确保政治与学术安全的同时蕴涵着双重风险,即过多借用普遍性原理或者域外理论有可能影响基本权利的本地化程度及僵化基本权利,使其成为远离政治现实的封闭体系。为克服这些风险,应促使基本权利概念的本地化,通过外弛弥补体系化的内证之不足,确立权利义务相一致为基本的解释原则。

  7. Different Variants of Fundamental Portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarczyński Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the fundamental portfolio of securities. This portfolio is an alternative for the classic Markowitz model, which combines fundamental analysis with portfolio analysis. The method’s main idea is based on the use of the TMAI1 synthetic measure and, in limiting conditions, the use of risk and the portfolio’s rate of return in the objective function. Different variants of fundamental portfolio have been considered under an empirical study. The effectiveness of the proposed solutions has been related to the classic portfolio constructed with the help of the Markowitz model and the WIG20 market index’s rate of return. All portfolios were constructed with data on rates of return for 2005. Their effectiveness in 2006- 2013 was then evaluated. The studied period comprises the end of the bull market, the 2007-2009 crisis, the 2010 bull market and the 2011 crisis. This allows for the evaluation of the solutions’ flexibility in various extreme situations. For the construction of the fundamental portfolio’s objective function and the TMAI, the study made use of financial and economic data on selected indicators retrieved from Notoria Serwis for 2005.

  8. Fundamentals of fluid lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrock, Bernard J.

    1991-01-01

    The aim is to coordinate the topics of design, engineering dynamics, and fluid dynamics in order to aid researchers in the area of fluid film lubrication. The lubrication principles that are covered can serve as a basis for the engineering design of machine elements. The fundamentals of fluid film lubrication are presented clearly so that students that use the book will have confidence in their ability to apply these principles to a wide range of lubrication situations. Some guidance on applying these fundamentals to the solution of engineering problems is also provided.

  9. Infosec management fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Infosec Management Fundamentals is a concise overview of the Information Security management concepts and techniques, providing a foundational template for both experienced professionals and those new to the industry. This brief volume will also appeal to business executives and managers outside of infosec who want to understand the fundamental concepts of Information Security and how it impacts their business decisions and daily activities. Teaches ISO/IEC 27000 best practices on information security management Discusses risks and controls within the context of an overall information securi

  10. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  11. Homeschooling and religious fundamentalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert KUNZMAN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to contemporary culture; suspicion of institutional authority and professional expertise; parental control and centrality of the family; and interweaving of faith and academics. It is important to recognize, however, that fundamentalism exists on a continuum; conservative religious homeschoolers resist liberal democratic values to varying degrees, and efforts to foster dialogue and accommodation with religious homeschoolers can ultimately helpstrengthen the broader civic fabric.

  12. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  13. Antennas fundamentals, design, measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive revision (3rd Edition) is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level textbook on antenna fundamentals, design, performance analysis, and measurements. In addition to its use as a formal course textbook, the book's pragmatic style and emphasis on the fundamentals make it especially useful to engineering professionals who need to grasp the essence of the subject quickly but without being mired in unnecessary detail. This new edition was prepared for a first year graduate course at Southern Polytechnic State University in Georgia. It provides broad coverage of antenna

  14. Study on the Grey Polynomial Geometric Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUODang

    2005-01-01

    In the model of geometric programming, values of parameters cannot be gotten owing to data fluctuation and incompletion. But reasonable bounds of these parameters can be attained. This is to say, parameters of this model can be regarded as interval grey numbers. When the model contains grey numbers, it is hard for common programming method to solve them. By combining the common programming model with the grey system theory,and using some analysis strategies, a model of grey polynomial geometric programming, a model of 8 positioned geometric programming and their quasi-optimum solution or optimum solution are put forward. At the same time, we also developed an algorithm for the problem.This approach brings a new way for the application research of geometric programming. An example at the end of this paper shows the rationality and feasibility of the algorithm.

  15. Programa de educação nutricional em escola de ensino fundamental de zona rural Nutrition education program in a rural elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Faber Boog

    2010-12-01

    -mediated man-environment interaction. METHODS: The approach was guided by the concepts of health promotion, community nutrition and problem-solving education. The program, called "Teaching to love the land and what the land produces" was developed together with 155 students from preschool to seventh grade from a rural elementary school in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. The nutrition education program consisted of: presentation of the diagnosis to the teachers and students' families; development of a story based on diagnostic elements; construction of a scale model of the area; tasting of fruits cultivated locally; and exhibition of the scale-model to the families. RESULTS: The methods and technologies used awakened interest in the activities because they reflected their daily routines and valued their work, history and cultural identity, strengthening the families' self-esteem. Fruits received a new meaning, being a right of the producer. There were also conflicts of interest between the city hall and the researchers. CONCLUSION: It was possible to create a food and nutrition program based on the work-mediated man/environment relationship, where the theme diet was not based on nutrition science, but on a diagnosis of the consumption practices, values and representations that promote the development of interventional technologies. The above mentioned conflicts of interest must be borne in mind when public policies on food and nutrition security are planned.

  16. 24 CFR 570.415 - Community Development Work Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community Development Work Study... Grants § 570.415 Community Development Work Study Program. (a) Applicability and objectives. HUD makes... students who participate in a work study program while enrolled in full-time graduate programs in...

  17. ANALISIS VARIABEL-VARIABEL FUNDAMENTAL YANG BERPENGARUH TERHADAP PRICE EARNING RATIO SEBAGAI DASAR PENILAIAN SAHAM (Studi Pada Saham-Saham indeks LQ 45 di Bursa Efek Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulianti - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   The existence of the Indonesian Capital Market is very important for Indonesian economic activity, due to the fact that capital market development is one indicated of the betterment of national economy. In terms of investment, capital market development is determined by the economic fundamentals, public company performance, and investor’s tendency to invest. Stock, being the main investment object, offers several preferences to choose by the investor, one of which is LQ 45 stock indices. The Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX focus is put on the trade of LQ 45 stock indices. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the LQ 45 stock indices by taking into account the four main variables as suggested by the Gordon model. In line with the above, this study concerns stock evaluation based on the fundamental analysis by the price earning ratio approach. Explanatory variable is dividend payout ratio, return on equity, earning growth and financial leverage, dependent variable is price earning ratio. Purposive random sampling and multiple regression using 16 emittent of LQ 45 stock indices samples were used]. The aims of this research is to know the influence of the fundamental variables on the price earning ratio, and the naturalness of LQ 45 stock indices value. The samples used are the big, established and stable companies included in  calculation of LQ 45 indices, and thus would not apply to non LQ 45 indices at the JSX from 1999 through 2000. The results of the study indicate that (1 out of the four explanatory variables used: dividend payout ratio, return on equity, earning growth and financial leverage whereas simultaneously, all the variables showed significant influence; (2 dividend payout ratio was the most significant explanatory variable influencing the price earning ratio; (3 based on the price earning ratio analysis, no natural value was evidence of LQ 45 stock indices at the JSX.   Keywords: Price Earning Ratio as Bases in Stock

  18. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  19. Homeschooling and Religious Fundamentalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between homeschooling and religious fundamentalism by focusing on their intersection in the philosophies and practices of conservative Christian homeschoolers in the United States. Homeschooling provides an ideal educational setting to support several core fundamentalist principles: resistance to…

  20. Fundamental partial compositeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Strumia, Alessandro; Tesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Unde...

  1. Fundamentals of Business Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powerpoint presentations of the 9 theoretical units of the subject: Fundamentals of Business Economics. Business Administration Degree. Faculty of Economics. University of Alicante En el marco de ayudas a preparación de materiales docentes en lengua inglesa, por parte del Servei de Política Llingüística de la Universidad de Alicante

  2. Fundamental Physics Microgravity Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    1998-01-01

    An introduction followed by a brief discussion about the sensitivity to microgravity environment disturbances for some recent and planned experiments in microgravity fundamental physics will be presented. In particular, correlation between gravity disturbances and the quality of science data sets measured by the Confined Helium Experiment (CHEX) during ground testing and during the November 1997 USMP-4 flight will be described.

  3. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...

  4. Fundamentals of convolutional coding

    CERN Document Server

    Johannesson, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Convolutional Coding, Second Edition, regarded as a bible of convolutional coding brings you a clear and comprehensive discussion of the basic principles of this field * Two new chapters on low-density parity-check (LDPC) convolutional codes and iterative coding * Viterbi, BCJR, BEAST, list, and sequential decoding of convolutional codes * Distance properties of convolutional codes * Includes a downloadable solutions manual

  5. Fundamentals and Optimal Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Rossi, Martín

    2016-01-01

    of regulatory institutions such as revenue sharing, salary caps or luxury taxes. We show, theoretically and empirically, that these large differences in adopted institutions can be rationalized as optimal responses to differences in the fundamental characteristics of the sports being played. This provides...

  6. Fundamentals of astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with the motion of the center of mass of a spacecraft; this discipline is generally called astrodynamics. The book focuses on an analytical treatment of the motion of spacecraft and provides insight into the fundamentals of spacecraft orbit dynamics. A large number of topics are trea

  7. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  8. Simulation Methods for High-Cycle Fatigue-Driven Delamination using Cohesive Zone Models - Fundamental Behavior and Benchmark Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Brian Lau Verndal; Lindgaard, Esben; Turon, A.;

    2015-01-01

    A novel computational method for simulating fatigue-driven delamination cracks in composite laminated structures under cyclic loading based on a cohesive zone model [2] and new benchmark studies with four other comparable methods [3-6] are presented. The benchmark studies describe and compare...... the traction-separation response in the cohesive zone and the transition phase from quasistatic to fatigue loading for each method. Furthermore, the accuracy of the predicted crack growth rate is studied and compared for each method. It is shown that the method described in [2] is significantly more accurate...... than the other methods [3-6]. Finally, studies are presented of the dependency and sensitivity to the change in different quasi-static material parameters and model specific fitting parameters. It is shown that all the methods except [2] rely on different parameters which are not possible to determine...

  9. Towards system-level understanding of baculovirus host cell interactions: from molecular fundamental studies to large-scale proteomics approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca eMonteiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are insect viruses extensively exploited as eukaryotic protein expression vectors. Molecular biology studies have provided exciting discoveries on virus-host interactions, but the application of omic high throughput techniques on the baculovirus-insect cell system has been hampered by the lack of host genome sequencing. While a broader, systems level analysis of biological responses to infection is urgently needed, recent advances on proteomic studies have yielded new insights on the impact of infection on the host cell. These works are reviewed and critically assessed in the light of current biological knowledge of the molecular biology of baculoviruses and insect cells.

  10. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  11. Competency to Study and Learn in Stressful Contests: Fundamentals of the "e-Coping with Academic Stress"™ Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesús; López, Mireia; Zapata, Lucía; Martínez-Vicente, Jose Manuel; Vera, Manuel Mariano; Solinas, Giulliana; Fadda, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing research interest in achievement emotions in university teaching-learning processes in recent years. While their importance has been firmly established, there continues to be a need for assessment and intervention models. The objective of this report is to present the "Competency Model for Studying, Learning and…

  12. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Capio

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  13. A Study on the preparation of environmental act system in Korea II - concentrated on the preparation of environmental policy fundamental act, protection of water supply source, and greenbelt area act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sang Hwan [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    This study is to propose to reform environmental policy fundamental act and land related act into future-oriented direction. First of all, the environmental policy fundamental act presented the direction of reforming water supply, national parks, and greenbelt related acts in environmental preservation perspective. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  14. Evaluating the Application of Program Outcomes to Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia Joanne; Mrozek, Lawrence J.

    2016-01-01

    A search through the 2015 annual conference program of the National Collegiate Honors Council (NCHC) turned up a dozen sessions focusing on the topic of study abroad, demonstrating that a growing number of honors programs and colleges are encouraging or requiring study abroad. Many programs now offer and support honors semesters abroad or…

  15. A FUNDAMENTAL STUDY ON OBSERVATION DENSITY OF RAIN-GAUGE NETWORK OVER JAPAN USING MULTIPLE EVALUATION INDEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Tebakari, Taichi; Yamasaki, Koreyoshi

    Rain-gauge stations have been operated by many agencies, thus temporal and spatial characteristics of rain-gauge network have not been studied. We studied the observation density of rain-gauge network over Japan using available data observed by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the River Bureau under Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (RB-MLIT) and local governments (L-Gov). As a result of analysis of elevation, rain-gauge stations have been installed at a constant rate by each elevation class of the topography, and Japan has no rain-gauge stations over altitude 2500m. As a result of observation density by mesh analysis, approximately 70% of rain-gauge stations could observe rainfall data. In addition, we analyzed between DID and flood/drought disaster in recent years and observation density over Japan.

  16. Fundamental Studies on Confinement Effects in Ionic Conduction and Inversion Layers in 2-D Single Crystal Free Standing Oxide Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-14

    Scientific Progress Please see below Technology Transfer Number of graduating undergraduates who achieved a 3.5 GPA to 4.0 (4.0 max scale): Number of...2-dimensional free standing membrane with correlated oxides may also lead to new insights into mesoscopic electronic phenomena. Vanadium oxide ( VO2 ...well as for potential applications in switching devices. While studies have been conducted on thin films, hybrid layers of VO2 supported on other

  17. Fundamental and exploratory studies of catalytic steam gasification of carbonaceous materials. Final report, fiscal years 1985--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, H.; Somorjai, G.A. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Center for Advanced Materials

    1994-03-01

    The major purpose of this project was to find catalysts which will permit steam gasification of carbonaceous material at reasonable rates and at lower temperatures than currently practiced. Rapid catalyst deactivation must be avoided. An understanding of the catalytic mechanism is necessary to provide leads towards this aim. This report describes the gasification of graphite studies and the gasification of coals, chars, and petroleum cokes.

  18. Studying human immunodeficiencies in humans: advances in fundamental concepts and therapeutic interventions [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Su

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunodeficiencies reveal the crucial role of the immune system in defending the body against microbial pathogens. Given advances in genomics and other technologies, this is currently best studied in humans who have inherited monogenic diseases. Such investigations have provided insights into how gene products normally function in the natural environment and have opened the door to new, exciting treatments for these diseases.

  19. Fundamental Study on Applicability of Powder-Based 3D Printer for Physical Modeling in Rock Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshtenejad, Sayedalireza; Song, Jae-Joon

    2016-06-01

    Applications of 3D printing technology become more widespread in many research fields because of its rapid development and valuable capabilities. In rock mechanics and mining engineering, this technology has the potential to become a useful tool that might help implement a number of research studies previously considered impractical. Most commercial 3D printers cannot print prototypes with mechanical properties that match precisely those of natural rock samples. Therefore, some additional enhancements are required for 3D printers to be effectively utilized for rock mechanics applications. In this study, we printed and studied specimens using a powder-based commercial ZPrinter® 450 with ZP® 150 powder and Zb® 63 binder used as raw materials. The specimens printed by this 3D printer exhibited relatively low strength and ductile behavior, implying that it needs further improvements. Hence, we focused on several ways to determine the best combination of printing options and post-processing including the effects of the printing direction, printing layer thickness, binder saturation level, and heating process on the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and stress-strain behavior of the printed samples. The suggested procedures have demonstrated their effectiveness by obtaining the printed samples that behave similarly to the natural rocks with low UCS. Although our optimization methods were particularly successful, further improvements are required to expand 3D printer application in the area of rock mechanics.

  20. New study program: Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercigonja-Szekeres, Mira; Simić, Diana; Božikov, Jadranka; Vondra, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents an overview of the EU funded Project of Curriculum Development for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Specialist Study in Medical Informatics named MEDINFO to be introduced in Croatia. The target group for the program is formed by professionals in any of the areas of medicine, IT professionals working on applications of IT for health and researchers and teachers in medical informatics. In addition to Croatian students, the program will also provide opportunity for enrolling students from a wider region of Southeast Europe. Project partners are two faculties of the University of Zagreb - Faculty of Organization and Informatics from Varaždin and School of Medicine, Andrija Štampar School of Public Health from Zagreb with the Croatian Society for Medical Informatics, Croatian Chamber of Economy, and Ericsson Nikola Tesla Company as associates.

  1. [Fundamental studies in oxidation-reduction in relation to water photolysis]. Final report, February 15, 1990--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, J.K.

    1994-07-01

    Broad objectives are to improve the conceptual view of ways in which membranes and interfaces can be used to control chemical reactivity. Focus was on three elementary processes central to developing membrane-based integrated chemical systems for water photolysis or related photoconversion/photostorage processes. It was sought to identify the influence of interfaces on charge separation/recombination reactions, pathways for transmembrane charge separation across hydrocarbon bilayer membranes, and mechanisms of water oxidation catalyzed by transition metal coordination complexes. The supramolecular assemblies studied comprise primarily small unilamellar vesicles doped with amphiphilic viologens (N,N`dialkyl-4,4`-bipyridinium ions) which can function as transmembrane charge relays.

  2. Cliff collapses in the Alps, some fundamentals and a case study. Mineralogical aspects of the 1991 Randa Rockfall (Wallis, Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, P.; Girod, F. [Lausanne Univ., Lausanne (Switzerland). Institut de Mineralogie et de Geochimie

    2000-07-01

    The study of risks related to geochemical contamination of soil, water and atmosphere caused by the human activity seems to have become the priority as far as the environment is concerned. However among many other challenges which Earth Sciences must take up at the end of the 20. century, research into natural risks needs to be made a priority. Among the latter, in addition to the volcanic and seismic risks, the instability of hills lopes, potentially leading to landslides and cliff collapses, is to be considered with the greatest attention, in particular in the context of climatic reheating and excessive deforestation.

  3. Experimental study of fundamental mechanisms in inductive heating of ferromagnetic nanoparticles suspension (Fe3O4 Iron Oxide Ferrofluid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Calvin H.; Hodgins, Paul; Peterson, G. P.

    2011-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the initial heating rate of 50 nm ferromagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) suspended in water and incorporated in an agar gel was conducted to study the thermal heating effects resulting from Brownian motion and hysteresis losses. Particles were placed in an alternating current magnetic field with intensities of 28.6, 35.8, 38.9, and 43.0 kA m-1, at frequencies ranging from 161 to 284 kHz. The specific absorption rate based on the heating rate was calculated and the contributions from the Brownian motion and hysteresis losses are compared and analyzed.

  4. Fundamental studies of H{sub 2} interaction with MAl{sub 3} clusters [M = Li, Sc, Ti, Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samolia, Madhu; Dhilip Kumar, T.J., E-mail: dhilip@iitrpr.ac.in

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • A first-principles calculation on H{sub 2} interaction and saturation on stable MAl{sub 3} clusters [M = Li, Sc, Ti, Zr] is performed. • Transition metals have negative electron charge density while Al atom has positive in MAl{sub 3} from NBO charge analysis. • H{sub 2} undergoes dissociative chemisorption on the M atop site resulting in M–H–Al bridge bond. • H{sub 2} saturation on M atop site results initially chemisorption and then physisorption with 3-centered Kubas interaction. • External electric field applied on TiAl{sub 3}H{sub 4} leads to more polarization, H{sub 2} bond elongation and increased adsorption energy. -- Abstract: Complex metal hydride is a promising hydrogen storage material for automobile applications due to its reversible storage capacity. The presence of transition metal halide is found to improve significantly the kinetics of H{sub 2} adsorption and desorption processes. Experimental studies have indicated the formation of distorted MAl{sub 3} phase where M = Sc, Ti, Zr. In this study, a first-principles density functional study has been performed to investigate the hydrogen interaction and saturation on stable tetrahedral MAl{sub 3} clusters [M = Li, Sc, Ti, and Zr] by employing spin-polarized hybrid and non-local density functionals. On saturation, the first H{sub 2} molecule undergoes chemisorption in the transition metals while further loading results in physisorption with the Kubas-type H{sub 2} interaction. Activation energy barrier for the H{sub 2} dissociation over the cluster is calculated to be ∼0.2 eV for the transition metals. Effect of external electric field on the MAl{sub 3}H{sub 4} cluster with molecular H{sub 2} is studied which leads to polarization of physisorbed H{sub 2} and the cluster. The results offer an explanation for catalysts role in improving the kinetics of H{sub 2} sorption process in complex metal hydrides.

  5. Radioactivity Confinement Studies Within the SEAL Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collén, Jan; Matsugu, Ron; Natalizio, Antonio; Shen, Kecheng

    1997-09-01

    In the framework of the European SEAL program, investigations have been performed with the aim of optimizing the second confinement function and plant layout with respect to normal operation as well as abnormal operation, including accident conditions. This has been done for two conceptual fusion reactor designs: one using water as the coolant and the other using helium. The starting point of these investigations was the SEAFP project design. For the water-cooled reactor design the studies were focused on design options such as pressure suppression spray system, pressure suppression pool with closed containment or with venting to gravel bed filter and stack, and separate expansion volume optionally operated with a vacuum and equipped with spray system. Similar analyses were performed for the helium-cooled reactor design. The analyses were focused on design options comprising a single, large confinement volume or a vent duct connected to an expansion volume operated at vacuum in comparison with the SEAFP Model 1. The thermal-hydraulic analyses performed with the MELCOR code provide an integrated assessment of the cooling loop and confinement system dynamics.

  6. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W. Horstmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  7. Fundamental Study on the Impact of Gluten-Free Starches on the Quality of Gluten-Free Model Breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Stefan W; Belz, Markus C E; Heitmann, Mareile; Zannini, Emanuele; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-21

    Starch is widely used as an ingredient and significantly contributes to texture, appearance, and overall acceptability of cereal based foods, playing an important role due to its ability to form a matrix, entrapping air bubbles. A detailed characterisation of five gluten-free starches (corn, wheat, rice, tapioca, potato) was performed in this study. In addition, the influence of these starches, with different compositional and morphological properties, was evaluated on a simple gluten-free model bread system. The morphological characterisation, evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, revealed some similarities among the starches, which could be linked to the baking performance of the breads. Moreover, the lipid content, though representing one of the minor components in starch, was found to have an influence on pasting, bread making, and staling. Quality differences in cereal root and tuber starch based breads were observed. However, under the baking conditions used, gluten-free rendered wheat starch performed best, followed by potato starch, in terms of loaf volume and cell structure. Tapioca starch and rice starch based breads were not further analysed, due to an inferior baking performance. This is the first study to evaluate gluten-free starch on a simple model bread system.

  8. Fundamental Studies of Low Velocity Impact Resistance of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to relate the impact resistance of graphite fiber reinforced composites with matrix properties through gaining an understanding of the basic mechanics involved in the deformation and fracture process, and the effect of the polymer matrix structure on these mechanisms. It was found that the resin matrix structure influences the composite impact resistance in at least two ways. The integration of flexibilizers into the polymer chain structure tends to reduce the T sub g and the mechanical properties of the polymer. The reduction in the mechanical properties of the matrix does not enhance the composite impact resistance because it allows matrix controlled failure to initiate impact damage. It was found that when the instrumented dropweight impact tester is used as a means for assessing resin toughness, the resin toughness is enhanced by the ability of the clamped specimen to deflect enough to produce sufficient membrane action to support a significant amount of the load. The results of this study indicate that crossplied composite impact resistance is very much dependent on the matrix mechanical properties.

  9. Fundamental investigations of catalyst nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Christian Fink

    fundamental understanding of catalytic processes and our ability to make use of that understanding. This thesis presents fundamental studies of catalyst nanoparticles with particular focus on dynamic processes. Such studies often require atomic-scale characterization, because the catalytic conversion takes...... place on the molecular and atomic level. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has the ability to image nanostructures with atomic resolution and reveal the atomic configuration of the important nanoparticle surfaces. In the present work, TEM has been used to study nanoparticles in situ at elevated...... different topics, each related to different aspects of nanoparticle dynamics and catalysis. The first topic is the reduction of a homogeneous solid state precursor to form the catalytically active phase which is metal nanoparticles on an inert support. Here, we have reduced Cu phyllosilicate to Cu on silica...

  10. Molecular modeling of directed self-assembly of block copolymers: Fundamental studies of processing conditions and evolutionary pattern design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaira, Gurdaman Singh

    Rapid progress in the semi-conductor industry has pushed for smaller feature sizes on integrated electronic circuits. Current photo-lithographic techniques for nanofabrication have reached their technical limit and are problematic when printing features small enough to meet future industrial requirements. "Bottom-up'' techniques, such as the directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCP), are the primary contenders to compliment current "top-down'' photo-lithography ones. For industrial requirements, the defect density from DSA needs to be less than 1 defect per 10 cm by 10 cm. Knowledge of both material synthesis and the thermodynamics of the self-assembly process are required before optimal operating conditions can be found to produce results adequate for industry. The work present in this thesis is divided into three chapters, each discussing various aspects of DSA as studied via a molecular model that contains the essential physics of BCP self-assembly. Though there are various types of guiding fields that can be used to direct BCPs over large wafer areas with minimum defects, this study focuses only on chemically patterned substrates. The first chapter addresses optimal pattern design by describing a framework where molecular simulations of various complexities are coupled with an advanced optimization technique to find a pattern that directs a target morphology. It demonstrates the first ever study where BCP self-assembly on a patterned substrate is optimized using a three-dimensional description of the block-copolymers. For problems pertaining to DSA, the methodology is shown to converge much faster than the traditional random search approach. The second chapter discusses the metrology of BCP thin films using TEM tomography and X-ray scattering techniques, such as CDSAXS and GISAXS. X-ray scattering has the advantage of being able to quickly probe the average structure of BCP morphologies over large wafer areas; however, deducing the BCP morphology

  11. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benck, Jesse D; Pinaud, Blaise A; Gorlin, Yelena; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide) and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide). We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  12. Detrimental impact of hyperlipidemia on the peripheral nervous system A novel target of medical epidemiological and fundamental research study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Wu; Xu Cao; Rongzhen He; Kun Xiong

    2012-01-01

    Recently, epidemiological studies on the etiology of peripheral neuropathies have revealed that hyperlipidemia is a novel risk factor. Plasma lipid levels were confirmed to be associated with the incidence of many peripheral neuropathies including axonal distal polyneuropathy, vision and hearing loss, motor nerve system lesions and sympathetic nerve system dysfunction. Moreover, different lipid components such as cholesterol, triacylglycerols and lipoprotein are involved in the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. This review aimed to discuss the effect of hyperlipidemia on the peripheral nervous system and its association with peripheral neuropathies. Furthermore, a detailed discussion focusing on the explicit mechanisms related to hyperlipidemia-induced peripheral neuropathies is presented here. These mechanisms, including intracellular oxidative stress, inflammatory lesions, ischemia and dysregulation of local lipid metabolism, share pathways and interact mutually. In addition, we examined current information on clinical trials to prevent and treat peripheral neuropathies caused by hyperlipidemia, with a predictive discussion regarding the orientation of future investigations.

  13. Towards a Capacitive Enzyme Sensor for Direct Determination of Organophosphorus Pesticides: Fundamental Studies and Aspects of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Mulchandani

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The realisation of a miniaturised potentiometric enzyme biosensor is presented. The biosensor chip utilises the enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH for the direct determination of pesticides. The transducer structure of the sensors chip consists of a pH-sensitive capacitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS structure that reacts towards pH changes caused by the OPH-catalised hydrolysis of the organophosphate compounds. The biosensor is operated versus a conventional Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V and the constant capacitance (ConCap mode for the two different pesticides paraoxon and parathion. For the development of this new type of biosensor, different immobilisation strategies, influence of buffer composition and concentration, transducer material, detection limit, long-term stability and selectivity have been studied.

  14. Substrate selection for fundamental studies of electrocatalysts and photoelectrodes: inert potential windows in acidic, neutral, and basic electrolyte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse D Benck

    Full Text Available The selection of an appropriate substrate is an important initial step for many studies of electrochemically active materials. In order to help researchers with the substrate selection process, we employ a consistent experimental methodology to evaluate the electrochemical reactivity and stability of seven potential substrate materials for electrocatalyst and photoelectrode evaluation. Using cyclic voltammetry with a progressively increased scan range, we characterize three transparent conducting oxides (indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, and aluminum-doped zinc oxide and four opaque conductors (gold, stainless steel 304, glassy carbon, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite in three different electrolytes (sulfuric acid, sodium acetate, and sodium hydroxide. We determine the inert potential window for each substrate/electrolyte combination and make recommendations about which materials may be most suitable for application under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the testing methodology provides a framework for other researchers to evaluate and report the baseline activity of other substrates of interest to the broader community.

  15. Ratings of Sovereign Risk and the Macroeconomics Fundamentals of the countries: a Study Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Cândido da Silva Filho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To minimize the consequences of asymmetric information, the sovereign risk ratings are instruments that constitute a key piece in the determination of credit market conditions, essential to the growth of developing countries like Brazil. In the present work we studied based on macroeconomics foundations, a classification to sovereign risk ratings realized by the ratings agencies finding the classification using Artificial Neural Networks. We observed homogeneity degree between the attributions of agencies and macroeconomics foundations in the countries of sample which four of foundations seem to be more directly connected with these attributions. After, in a comparative static exercise, we use the model to make simulations of scenarios of the credit external conditions for the Brazilian economy, changing the macroeconomics foundations which we noted that agencies expected for more per capita income increasing and decrease of public debt. (Full article in Portuguese only

  16. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E.; MacDonald, Ewen; Falk, Tiago H.;

    2016-01-01

    concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise...... while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. Design: This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes...... in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Study sample: Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Results: Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded...

  17. The prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries: a fundamental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Congyan; Yu, Ming; Anderson, George; Ravinath Dharmasena, Ruchira; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2017-02-01

    To completely understand lithium adsorption, diffusion, and capacity on the surface of phosphorene and, therefore, the prospects of phosphorene as an anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we carried out density-functional-theory calculations and studied the lithium adsorption energy landscape, the lithium diffusion mobility, the lithium intercalation, and the lithium capacity of phosphorene. We also carried out, for the very first time, experimental measurement of the lithium capacity of phosphorene. Our calculations show that the lithium diffusion mobility along the zigzag direction in the valley of phosphorene was about 7 to 11 orders of magnitude faster than that along the other directions, indicating its ultrafast and anisotropic diffusivity. The lithium intercalation in phosphorene was studied by considering various Li n P16 configurations (n = 1-16) including single-side and double-side adsorptions. We found that phosphorene could accommodate up to a ratio of one Li per P atom (i.e. Li16P16). In particular, we found that, even at a high Li concentration (e.g. x = 1 in Li x P), there was no lithium clustering, and the structure of phosphorene (when fractured) is reversible during lithium intercalation. The theoretical value of the lithium capacity for a monolayer phosphorene is predicted to be above 433 mAh g-1, depending on whether Li atoms are adsorbed on the single side or the double side of phosphorene. Our experimental measurement of the lithium capacity for few-layer phosphorene networks shows a reversible stable value of ˜453 mAh g-1 even after 50 cycles. Our results clearly show that phosphorene, compared to graphene and other two-dimensional materials, has great promise as a novel anode material for high-performance LIBs.

  18. National Estuary Program Study Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 28 National Estuary Programs (NEPs) in the U.S.that implement habitat protection and restoration projects with their partners. This work takes place within...

  19. Wetland Program Development Grants (WPDGs) Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Wetland Grant Database (WGD) houses grant data for Wetland Program Development Grants (created by EPA in 1990 under the Clean Water Act Section 104(b)(3)...

  20. Study on the ocean drilling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Ho; Han, Hyun Chul; Chin, Jae Wha; Lee, Sung Rok; Park, Kwan Soon; Lee, Young Joo; Park, Young Soo [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Geoscience research trend of the world nations is focusing on the study of climate changes and preventing people from the natural hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic activities. For this study, it is necessary for scientists to interpret ancient climate changes preserved in ocean sediments, and to observe plate motions. Thus, geological and geophysical studies should be proceeded for the core samples recovered from the deep sea sediments and basement. It is essential to join the ODP(Ocean Drilling Program) that drills ocean basins and crusts using the drilling vessel with the ability of deploying almost 9 km of drilling string. The first year (1995) was focused on the analyzing the appropriateness Korea to join the ODP. The second year (1996) has been stressed on being an ODP member country based on results of the first year study, and planning the future activities as a member. The scope of study is joining the ODP as a Canada-Australia Consortium member and to set up the Korean ODP organization and future activities. The results and suggestions are as follows. 1) Necessities of Korea joining the ODP: If Korea becomes a member of the ODP, the benefits could be obtained based on the activities of other ODP members through academic, social and economic sectors. 2) Korean membership of ODP: Korea becomes a member of the Australia-Canada Consortium for ODP. AGSO (Austrian Geological Survey Organization), GSC (Geological Survey of Canada), and KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Materials) on behalf of their own countries will each pay a share of the full member financial contribution to the ODP. AGSO and GSC will pay one third of the full member financial contribution, and KIGAM will pay one twelfth. 3) Korean ODP structure and future activities: To enhance the efficiency of initial activities after joining the ODP, it has been decided to have a relatively simple organization. The primary governing arm of the Korean ODP organizations is the Korean ODP

  1. Fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    I present a discussion of fundamental stellar parameters and their observational determination in the context of interferometric measurements with current and future optical/infrared interferometric facilities. Stellar parameters and the importance of their determination for stellar physics are discussed. One of the primary uses of interferometry in the field of stellar physics is the measurement of the intensity profile across the stellar disk, both as a function of position angle and of wavelength. High-precision fundamental stellar parameters are also derived by characterizations of binary and multiple system using interferometric observations. This topic is discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. Comparison of observed spectrally dispersed center-to-limb intensity variations with models of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution may result in an improved understanding of key phenomena in stellar astrophysics such as the precise evolutionary effects on the main sequence, the evolution of meta...

  2. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  3. Fundamentals of Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The analytical and numerical basis for describing scattering properties of media composed of small discrete particles is formed by the classical electromagnetic theory. Although there are several excellent textbooks outlining the fundamentals of this theory, it is convenient for our purposes to begin with a summary of those concepts and equations that are central to the subject of this book and will be used extensively in the following chapters. We start by formulating Maxwell's equations and constitutive relations for time- harmonic macroscopic electromagnetic fields and derive the simplest plane-wave solution that underlies the basic optical idea of a monochromatic parallel beam of light. This solution naturally leads to the introduction of such fundamental quantities as the refractive index and the Stokes parameters. Finally, we define the concept of a quasi-monochromatic beam of light and discuss its implications.

  4. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  5. Variation of fundamental constants

    CERN Document Server

    Flambaum, V V

    2006-01-01

    We present a review of recent works devoted to the variation of the fine structure constant alpha, strong interaction and fundamental masses. There are some hints for the variation in quasar absorption spectra, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and Oklo natural nuclear reactor data. A very promising method to search for the variation of the fundamental constants consists in comparison of different atomic clocks. Huge enhancement of the variation effects happens in transition between accidentally degenerate atomic and molecular energy levels. A new idea is to build a ``nuclear'' clock based on the ultraviolet transition between very low excited state and ground state in Thorium nucleus. This may allow to improve sensitivity to the variation up to 10 orders of magnitude! Huge enhancement of the variation effects is also possible in cold atomic and molecular collisions near Feschbach resonance.

  6. Fundamental composite electroweak dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Cai, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Using the recent joint results from the ATLAS and CMS collaborations on the Higgs boson, we determine the current status of composite electroweak dynamics models based on the expected scalar sector. Our analysis can be used as a minimal template for a wider class of models between the two limiting...... cases of composite Goldstone Higgs and Technicolor-like ones. This is possible due to the existence of a unified description, both at the effective and fundamental Lagrangian levels, of models of composite Higgs dynamics where the Higgs boson itself can emerge, depending on the way the electroweak...... space at the effective Lagrangian level. We show that a wide class of models of fundamental composite electroweak dynamics are still compatible with the present constraints. The results are relevant for the ongoing and future searches at the Large Hadron Collider....

  7. Fundamental steps in experimental design for animal studies Passos fundamentais em desenhos experimentais de estudos envolvendo animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal studies continue to have a vital role in science development. The aim of this review is to provide to new investigators an overview of the important steps involved in experimental designs and also to suggest some practical information that is commonly associated with this process. Investigators should adhere to the ethical procedure and follow strictly the scientific method. Both the aims and well-formulated hypothesis are essential and practical. In this regard a profound literature search and the aid of an experienced statistician is encouraged. The need of randomization, blinding, and attempting to minimize variation is discussed and recommended. The choosing of good control groups and the employment of pilot studies are useful. Finally, the formulation of new questions to be further responded is expected.Estudos em animais continuam a ser vital para o desenvolvimento da ciência. O objetivo dessa revisão é o de apresentar a novos pesquisadores, uma visão geral dos passos importantes envolvidos no desenho experimental e, ao mesmo tempo, sugerir algumas informações de ordem prática que geralmente estão incluídas no processo da pesquisa. Os pesquisadores devem atentar sempre aos princípios éticos e seguir estritamente o método científico. Hipóteses bem formuladas e objetivas claros são essenciais e práticos. Nesse contexto, uma pesquisa bibliográfica profunda deve ser executada previamente e o pesquisador deve contar, se possível, com o auxilio de um estatístico experiente. A necessidade de randomização, de planejar um estudo cego e de se minimizar a variação são discutidas e enfatizadas. A escolha de bons grupos controles e o emprego de um estudo piloto são recomendados. Finalmente, a formulação de novas questões para serem respondidas por novas pesquisas é esperada.

  8. Injury patterns of the acromioclavicular ligament complex in acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations: a cross-sectional, fundamental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Dirk; Jaeger, Martin; Reising, Kilian; Feucht, Matthias J; Südkamp, Norbert P; Izadpanah, Kaywan

    2016-09-06

    Horizontal instability impairs clinical outcome following acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction and may be caused by insufficient healing of the superior acromioclavicular ligament complex (ACLC). However, characteristics of acute ACLC injuries are poorly understood so far. Purposes of this study were to identify different ACLC tear types, assess type-specific prevalence and determine influencing cofactors. This prospective, cross-sectional study comprised 65 patients with acute-traumatic Rockwood-5 (n = 57) and Rockwood-4 (n = 8) injuries treated operatively by means of mini-open ACJ reduction and hook plate stabilization. Mean age at surgery was 38.2 years (range, 19-57 years). Standardized pre- and intraoperative evaluation included assessment of ACLC tear patterns and cofactors related to the articular disc, the deltoid-trapezoidal (DT) fascia and bony ACJ morphology. Articular disc size was quantified as 0 = absent, 1 = remnant, 2 = meniscoid and 3 = complete. All patients showed complete ruptures of the superior ACLC, which could be assigned to four different tear patterns. Clavicular-sided (AC-1) tears were observed in 46/65 (70.8 %), oblique (AC-2) tears in 12/65 (18.5 %), midportion (AC-3) tears in 3/65 (4.6 %) and acromial-sided (AC-4) tears in 4/65 (6.1 %) of cases. Articular disc size manifestation was significantly (P < .001) more pronounced in patients with AC-1 tears (1.89 ± 0.57) compared to patients with AC-2 tears (0.67 ± 0.89). Other cofactors did not influence ACLC tear patterns. ACLC dislocation with incarceration caused mechanical impediment to anatomical ACJ reduction in 14/65 (21.5 %) of cases including all Rockwood-4 dislocations. Avulsion "in continuity" was a consistent mode of failure of the DT fascia. Type-specific operative strategies enabled anatomical ACLC repair of all observed tear types. Acute ACLC injuries follow distinct tear patterns. There exist clavicular-sided (AC-1

  9. Fundamental Study on the Development of Structural Lightweight Concrete by Using Normal Coarse Aggregate and Foaming Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Seung Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Structural lightweight concrete (SLWC has superior properties that allow the optimization of super tall structure systems for the process of design. Because of the limited supply of lightweight aggregates in Korea, the development of structural lightweight concrete without lightweight aggregates is needed. The physical and mechanical properties of specimens that were cast using normal coarse aggregates and different mixing ratios of foaming agent to evaluate the possibility of creating structural lightweight concrete were investigated. The results show that the density of SLWC decreases as the dosage of foaming agent increases up to a dosage of 0.6%, as observed by SEM. It was also observed that the foaming agent induced well separated pores, and that the size of the pores ranged from 50 to 100 μm. Based on the porosity of concrete specimens with foaming agent, compressive strength values of structural lightweight foam concrete (SLWFC were obtained. It was also found that the estimated values from proposed equations for compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of SLWFC, and values obtained by actual measurements were in good agreement. Thus, this study confirms that new structural lightweight concrete using normal coarse aggregates and foaming agent can be developed successfully.

  10. Commercial probiotic bacteria and prebiotic carbohydrates: a fundamental study on prebiotics uptake, antimicrobials production and inhibition of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Guerrero, Alma; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Rodríguez-Serrano, Gabriela; Gómez-Ruiz, Lorena; García-Garibay, Mariano; Figueroa-González, Ivonne

    2014-08-01

    Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most important functional food ingredients worldwide. The proven benefits of such ingredients to human health have encouraged the development of functional foods containing both probiotics and prebiotics. In this work, the production of antimicrobial compounds coupled to the uptake of commercial prebiotics by probiotic bacteria was investigated. The probiotic bacteria studied were able to take up commercial prebiotic carbohydrates to the same or higher extent than that observed for lactose (control carbohydrate). The growth of probiotic bacteria was coupled to the production of antimicrobials such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), H2 O2 and bacteriocins. A higher production of antimicrobial compounds was recorded with Oligomate 55® compared with Regulact® and Frutafit® (3-5 and 10-115 times higher SCFA and H2 O2 production, respectively). The probiotic bacteria grown with Oligomate 55® also produced bacteriocins and other non-identified antimicrobial compounds. The antimicrobials produced by the probiotic bacteria inhibited up to 50% the growth of model pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Micrococcus luteus compared with control cultures. The results here obtained are useful for the adequate selection of probiotic/prebiotics pairs and therefore in the development of efficient functional foods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Fundamental studies of synthesis-gas production based on fluidised-bed gasification of biomass-UCGFunda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinikainen, M.; Moilanen, A.; Simell, P.; Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)), e-mail: matti.reinikainen@vtt.fi; Suominen, T. P. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland), Teknisk Kemi och Reaktionsteknik), e-mail: timo.suominen@abo.fi; Linnekoski, J. (Aalto Univ., School of Science and Technology, Espoo (Finland), Lab. of Industrial Chemistry)

    2011-11-15

    The research was directed towards methods of producing transportation bio-fuels via the synthesis-gas route, with emphasis on the synthesis-gas production and gas cleaning steps. The subtopics of the research project were (1) fuel characterisation and ash behaviour in the gasification step, (2) reaction mechanisms related to gas cleaning, (3) evaluations of alternative process configurations and applications and (4) international cooperation. VTT itself financed also two additional subtopics: (5) new analysis techniques and (6) hydrogen from biomass via gasification. The project comprised experimental work, modelling, techno-economic evaluations as well as studies based on literature. The project was steered by a wide industrial consortium and the research work was carried out by VTT, Aalto University and Aabo Akademi. International development in syngas technology was closely monitored in all subtopics as well as by participating in relevant IEA-tasks. More information on the project can be found on project webpage http://www.vtt.fi/proj/ucgfunda/ (orig.)

  12. Fundamentals of queueing theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Donald; Thompson, James M; Harris, Carl M

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ""This is one of the best books available. Its excellent organizational structure allows quick reference to specific models and its clear presentation . . . solidifies the understanding of the concepts being presented.""-IIE Transactions on Operations Engineering Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the latest developments in the field, Fundamentals of Queueing Theory, Fourth Edition continues to present the basic statistical principles that are necessary to analyze the probabilistic nature of queues. Rather than pre

  13. Fundamentals of Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollaber, Allan Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-16

    This is a powerpoint presentation which serves as lecture material for the Parallel Computing summer school. It goes over the fundamentals of the Monte Carlo calculation method. The material is presented according to the following outline: Introduction (background, a simple example: estimating π), Why does this even work? (The Law of Large Numbers, The Central Limit Theorem), How to sample (inverse transform sampling, rejection), and An example from particle transport.

  14. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  15. Biomedical engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bronzino, Joseph D

    2014-01-01

    Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering.Biomedical Engineering Fundamentals, the first volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in physiological systems, biomechanics, biomaterials, bioelectric phenomena, and neuroengineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including cardia

  16. Fundamentals of neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Hall, D

    2011-01-01

    Session 1 of the 2010 STP/IFSTP Joint Symposium on Toxicologic Neuropathology, titled "Fundamentals of Neurobiology," was organized to provide a foundation for subsequent sessions by presenting essential elements of neuroanatomy and nervous system function. A brief introduction to the session titled "Introduction to Correlative Neurobiology" was provided by Dr. Greg Hall (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN). Correlative neurobiology refers to considerations of the relationships between the highly organized and compartmentalized structure of nervous tissues and the functioning within this system.

  17. Fundamentals of Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Duane Knudson

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follow...

  18. Fundamentals of linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Dash, Rajani Ballav

    2008-01-01

    FUNDAMENTALS OF LINEAR ALGEBRA is a comprehensive Text Book, which can be used by students and teachers of All Indian Universities. The Text has easy, understandable form and covers all topics of UGC Curriculum. There are lots of worked out examples which helps the students in solving the problems without anybody's help. The Problem sets have been designed keeping in view of the questions asked in different examinations.

  19. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the Netherlands
    Fundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  20. Equality, Legal Certainty and Tax Legislation in the NetherlandsFundamental Legal Principles as Checks on Legislative Power: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gribnau

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental legal principles may function as a check on legislative power protecting citizens against arbitrary interferences with their liberty. This contribution deals with the principle of equality and the principle of certainty. First, the testing of legislation against the principle of equality is presented as a case study of constitutional review. In the Netherlands, the constitutional dialogue between the legislator and the Dutch Supreme Court revolving around the principle of equality demonstrates a fair amount of subtle details. As a result, constitutional review can hardly be called an all or nothing affair.Secondly, retroactive tax legislation is dealt with. The legislator does seem to take the principle of legal certainty, another fundamental legal principle, quite seriously, although no testing of statutory legislation is possible by the courts. With regard to retroactive tax legislation the Government has committed itself in a memorandum, requested by Parliament, to adhere to rules of conduct with regard to different situations where it deems retroactive tax legislation to be justified. Thus, a soft law instrument facilitates a dialogue between different partners in the business of law-making.

  1. Fundamentals of Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles

    2005-03-01

    A total of more than 240 human space flights have been completed to date, involving about 450 astronauts from various countries, for a combined total presence in space of more than 70 years. The seventh long-duration expedition crew is currently in residence aboard the International Space Station, continuing a permanent presence in space that began in October 2000. During that time, investigations have been conducted on both humans and animal models to study the bone demineralization and muscle deconditioning, space motion sickness, the causes and possible treatment of postflight orthostatic intolerance, the changes in immune function, crew and crew-ground interactions, and the medical issues of living in a space environment, such as the effects of radiation or the risk of developing kidney stones. Some results of these investigations have led to fundamental discoveries about the adaptation of the human body to the space environment. Gilles Clément has been active in this research. This readable text presents the findings from the life science experiments conducted during and after space missions. Topics discussed in this book include: adaptation of sensory-motor, cardio-vascular, bone, and muscle systems to the microgravity of spaceflight; psychological and sociological issues of living in a confined, isolated, and stressful environment; operational space medicine, such as crew selection, training and in-flight health monitoring, countermeasures and support; results of space biology experiments on individual cells, plants, and animal models; and the impact of long-duration missions such as the human mission to Mars. The author also provides a detailed description of how to fly a space experiment, based on his own experience with research projects conducted onboard Salyut-7, Mir, Spacelab, and the Space Shuttle. Now is the time to look at the future of human spaceflight and what comes next. The future human exploration of Mars captures the imagination of both the

  2. Fundamental and practical studies on high-performance liquid affinity chromatography of biopolymers with novel stationary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacolod, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Rigid microparticulate stationary phases having surface-bound metal chelating functions were developed and evaluated in high performance metal chelate affinity chromatography of proteins. Silica- and polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based metal chelate sorbents were produced in wide pore and in non-porous type of column packings. A major effort has been placed on development of non-porous highly crosslinked polystyrene-divinylbenzene (PSDVB). These PSDVB microparticles were produced by a two-step swelling polymerization, and exhibited excellent mechanical strength over a wide range of flow-rates and composition used in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Simple and reproducible hydrophilic coatings were developed for the surface modification of hydrophobic PSDVB supports. A tetradentate metal chelating ligand, ethylenediamine-N, N[prime]-diacetic acid (EDDA), was covalently bound to the surface of the various supports. Sorbents having iminodiacetic acid (IDA) metal chelating functions were also evaluated. The hydrophilic character and surface coverage of various stationary phases were assessed chromatographically. Studies concerning the effects of eluent pH as well as the nature and concentration of salts on retention and selectivity with different metal chelate stationary phases having various immobilized metal ions were carried out. Elution schemes were developed for rapid separation of proteins in metal chelate affinity chromatography. EDDA stationary phases in metal forms can be viewed as complementary to IDA stationary phases since they afforded different selectivity and retentivity toward proteins. Hydrophilic PSDVB could be functionalized with IDA or EDDA metal chelating ligands or lectins. The non-porous metal chelate stationary phases afforded rapid separation of proteins by the development of multiple gradient systems, which permitted higher column peak capacity, enabling the separation of a greater number of proteins in a single chromatographic run.

  3. Fundamental study on photodynamic therapy for atrial fibrillation: effect of photosensitization reaction parameters on myocardial necrosis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Ito, Arisa; Arai, Tsunenori

    2012-03-01

    We studied necrotic cell death effect on myocardial cells with photosensitizer existed outside the cells varying photosensitization reaction parameters widely in vitro. We have developed non-thermal ablator with the application of photosensitization reaction for atrial fibrillation. Since laser irradiation is applied shortly after photosensitizer injection, the photosensitization reaction is induced outside the cells. The interaction for the myocardial cells by the photosensitization reaction is not well understood yet on various photosensitization reaction parameters. Rat myocardial cells were cultured in 96 well plates for 7 days. The photosensitization reaction was applied with talaporfin sodium (NPe6) and the semiconductor laser of 663nm wavelength. The average drug light interval was set 8 mins. The photosensitizer concentration and radiant exposure were varied from 5 to 40 μg/ml and 1.2 to 60 J/cm2, respectively. The well bottom was irradiated by the red laser with irradiance of 293 mW/cm2. The photosensitizer fluorescence was monitored during the photosensitization reaction. Alive cell rate was measured by WST assay after 2 hours from the irradiation. In the case of the photosensitizer concentration of 10 μg/ml, the myocardial cells were almost alive even thought 60 J/cm2 in the radiant exposure was applied. In the 15 μg/ml case, the alive cell rate was almost linear relation to the photosensitizer concentration and radiant exposure. We obtained that the threshold for myocardial cell necrosis on the photosensitizer concentration was around 15 μg/ml with 20 J/cm2 in the radiant exposure. This threshold on the photosensitizer concentration was similar to the reported threshold for cancer therapy.

  4. Neutrons and Fundamental Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Bradley [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-11

    The research supported by this project addressed fundamental open physics questions via experiments with subatomic particles. In particular, neutrons constitute an especially ideal “laboratory” for fundamental physics tests, as their sensitivities to the four known forces of nature permit a broad range of tests of the so-called “Standard Model”, our current best physics model for the interactions of subatomic particles. Although the Standard Model has been a triumphant success for physics, it does not provide satisfactory answers to some of the most fundamental open questions in physics, such as: are there additional forces of nature beyond the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces?, or why does our universe consist of more matter than anti-matter? This project also contributed significantly to the training of the next generation of scientists, of considerable value to the public. Young scientists, ranging from undergraduate students to graduate students to post-doctoral researchers, made significant contributions to the work carried out under this project.

  5. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  6. Fundamental study of nanoDot OSL dosimeters for entrance skin dose measurement in diagnostic x-ray examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Tohru; Kobayashi, Ikuo [Nagase Landauer, Ltd., Tsukuba (Japan); Hayashi, Hiroaki; Takegami, Kazuki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi [Tokushima University, Tokushima (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    In order to manage the patient exposure dose in X-ray diagnosis, it is preferred to evaluate the entrance skin dose; although there are some evaluations about entrance skin dose, a small number of report has been published for direct measurement of patient. We think that a small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter, named nanoDot, can achieve a direct measurement. For evaluations, the corrections of angular and energy dependences play an important role. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the angular and the energy dependences of nanoDot. Materials and Methods We used commercially available X-ray diagnostic equipment. For angular dependence measurement, a relative response of every 15 degrees of nanoDot was measured in 40-140 kV X-ray. And for energy dependence measurement, mono-energetic characteristic X-rays were generated using several materials by irradiating the diagnostic X-rays, and the nanoDot was irradiated by the characteristic X-rays. We evaluated the measured response in an energy range of 8.1-75.5 keV. In addition, we performed Monte-Carlo simulation to compare experimental results. The experimental results were in good agreement with those of Monte-Carlo simulation. The angular dependence of nanoDot was almost steady with the response of 0 degrees except for 90 and 270 degrees. Furthermore, we found that difference of the response of nanoDot, where the nanoDot was irradiated from the randomly set directions, was estimated to be at most 5%. On the other hand, the response of nanoDot varies with the energy of incident X-rays; slightly increased to 20 keV and gradually decreased to 80 keV. These results are valuable to perform the precise evaluation of entrance skin dose with nanoDot in X-ray diagnosis. Conclusion The influence of angular dependence and energy dependence in X-ray diagnosis is not so large, and the nanoDot OSL dosimeter is considered to be suitable dosimeter for direct measurement of entrance surface dose of patient.

  7. Fundamental studies of myocardial defect size quantification using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tatsuya [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-04-01

    In Flurine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) acquisition, a transmission scan is usually performed before the PET tracer injection (cold transmission method), followed by a subsequent emission scan. However, this procedure is time consuming. An alternative approach, in which the transmission scan is performed after the emission scan (hot transmission method), would significantly reduce the time required for data acquisition. Recently, three-dimensional PET acquisition (3D PET) has become available. The counting sensitivity is much higher in 3D PET than in conventional two-dimensional PET (2D PET), resulting in a shorter acquisition time and reduced radiation exposure for the patient. On the other hand, {sup 18}F-FDG imaging using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), a more widely available method than PET, has emerged as an alternative to PET. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of measurement of myocardial defect sizes by these new techniques, using a chest phantom. Acquisitions were performed using an elliptical cylinder chest phantom. Plastic inserts, ranging in size from 2-60% of the myocardium (n=12), were used as simulated models of transmural myocardial infarction. Fluorine-18 was given into each part of the phantom. PET imaging with cold and hot transmission methods, 3D PET, and SPECT imaging were performed with different acquisition times and different radioisotope concentrations. All PET and SPECT data were analyzed using a semiquantitative polar map approach. Defect sizes were quantified using various cutoff thresholds, and were expressed as a percentage of the left ventricular myocardium. The PET and SPECT measurements were compared with the true defect sizes. Among the various cutoff levels tested, the mean absolute difference between the measured and true defect sizes was minimal at 50% of peak activity for both PET and SPECT. The PET measurements with the hot transmission

  8. The Industry Coupled Case Study Program final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, J. [ed.

    1982-10-01

    The Industry Coupled Case Study Program was conceived as a short-term cooperative program between the Federal government and private industry. Federal funds were committed to stimulate geothermal exploration and development between 1977 and 1979, although some work under the program continues into 1982. Federal funding has been phased out and the remaining information developed during the program is being disseminated and reported. This report presents an overview of the program and documents the technical results and open-file data base resulting from the program.

  9. Healthier students are better learners: high-quality, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs must be a fundamental mission of schools to help close the achievement gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To discuss implications for educational policy and practice relevant to closing the achievement gap based on the literature review and synthesis presented in 7 articles of the October 2011 special issue of the Journal of School Health. Implications for closing the achievement gap are drawn from analyses of current literature. During the past several decades, school reform efforts to close the achievement gap have focused on various strategies, yielding very limited progress. Educationally relevant health disparities influence students' motivation and ability to learn, but reducing these disparities has been largely overlooked as an element of an overall strategy for closing the achievement gap. If these health problems are not addressed, the educational benefits of other school reform efforts will be jeopardized. Healthier students are better learners. School health programs and services that are evidence based, strategically planned to influence academic achievement, and effectively coordinated warrant validation as a cohesive school improvement initiative for closing the achievement gap. National, state, and local responsibilities for supporting school health are outlined, including shared strategies; leadership from the U.S. Department of Education; policy development; guidance, technical assistance, and professional development; accountability and data and software systems; and a research agenda. To date, the U.S. Department of Education has not provided leadership for integrating evidence-based, strategically planned, and effectively coordinated school health programs and services into the fundamental mission of schools. Now is an opportune time for change. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. Variation of fundamental constants: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flambaum, Victor

    2008-05-01

    Theories unifying gravity with other interactions suggest temporal and spatial variation of the fundamental ``constants'' in expanding Universe. There are some hints for the variation of different fundamental constants in quasar absorption spectra and Big Bang nucleosynthesis data. A large number of publications (including atomic clocks) report limits on the variations. We want to study the variation of the main dimensionless parameters of the Standard Model: 1. Fine structure constant alpha (combination of speed of light, electron charge and Plank constant). 2. Ratio of the strong interaction scale (LambdaQCD) to a fundamental mass like electron mass or quark mass which are proportional to Higgs vacuum expectation value. The proton mass is propotional to LambdaQCD, therefore, the proton-to-electron mass ratio comes into this second category. We performed necessary atomic, nuclear and QCD calculations needed to study variation of the fundamental constants using the Big Bang Nucleosynthsis, quasar spectra, Oklo natural nuclear reactor and atomic clock data. The relative effects of the variation may be enhanced in transitions between narrow close levels in atoms, molecules and nuclei. If one will study an enhanced effect, the relative value of systematic effects (which are not enhanced) may be much smaller. Note also that the absolute magnitude of the variation effects in nuclei (e.g. in very narrow 7 eV transition in 229Th) may be 5 orders of magnitude larger than in atoms. A different possibility of enhancement comes from the inversion transitions in molecules where splitting between the levels is due to the quantum tunneling amplitude which has strong, exponential dependence on the electron to proton mass ratio. Our study of NH3 quasar spectra has already given the best limit on the variation of electron to proton mass ratio.

  11. Intercultural competency development through a study abroad program

    OpenAIRE

    Tsu Chia Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Recently, more and more universities are focusing on short-term study abroad programs. However, the actual advantages of such programs have not yet been empirically tested. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate whether such study abroad programs can influence participants and improve an individual’s intercultural competence. Using both reflections found in journals and follow-up interviews, the study aims to reflect the key factors that contribute to the intercultural developmen...

  12. Programed Learning and Mathematical Education, A CEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Kenneth O.

    This study reports on the position of programed learning in the teaching of college mathematics. A historical survey is given describing the following programing styles: Skinner, Crowder, eclectic, hybrid, Pressey, and problem. Conclusions based on research are given to claims about the benefits of programing including those of: providing for…

  13. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. SHPPS 2006 was designed to answer the following questions: (1) What are the characteristics of each school health program component at the state,…

  14. Management Education Program Evaluation: An Empirical Study in Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sou, Gryphon; Zhou, Pinqiu

    2007-01-01

    Background: With the accession of the PRC to the WTO, Chinese education market is open to the educational service providers of the foreign countries. They are keen to offer MBA Degree programs to the Career Managers in the Mainland. Aims: This research studies program evaluation and so forth the quality assessment of a MBA degree program in the…

  15. Fundamental Physics Program and the NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The accomplishments of Physics, the increasing power of its instruments, and its expanding reach into other sciences have generated an unprecedented set of scientific opportunities. The committee has identified six such Grand Challenges listed below in no particular order: Developing quantum technologies. Creating new materials. Understanding complex systems. Unifying the forces of Nature. Exploring the universe Applying Physics to Biology.

  16. Fundamental Hyperelastic Material Study Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research is part of an innovative effort to use hyperelastic materials to produce flexible and seamless aircraft structures that reduce drag and...

  17. Fundamental Studies on Aluminum Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1944-12-01

    higher molecular weight com- pounds of suitable shape. Innumerable synthetic detergents illustrate this. The typical picture with polymeric...tendency to assoc- iate appears to ba the rule with higher molocular weight com- C t pounds of suitable shape. Innumerable synthetic ... detergents illustrate this. The typical picture with polymeric colloids such as polystyrene (Bartovics and Mark, J. am. Chj.n. toe. 65, 2319

  18. Fundamentals of C

    CERN Document Server

    Guruprasad, N

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a contemporary approach to programming. Complte C programs are presented as and when it is required. This Book is not a cookbook . To get the maximum benefit from this book, you should take as active a role as possible. Don`t just read the examples. Enter it into your system and try them out.

  19. 基于PBL+竞争机制的“程序设计基础”课程教学模式探究%Exploration on teaching mode of program design fundamental course based on PBL+ competitive mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭海云; 马占欣

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental courses for the current program design focus on the existence of grammatical knowledge but at the expense of programming, debugging abilities, passive learning, not mastery, lack of competition in learning process, the main problem is proposed based on PBL + competition program design curriculum mode. In teaching methods, exercises mode, assessment methods, etc. , several aspects of the teaching process are changed to foster self-learning, innovation, competition, collaboration awareness. Through student self-assessment, peer assessment, teacher evaluation, it is found that this mode has a role to promote the student's comprehensive ability.%针对目前“程序设计基础”课程存在的侧重于语法知识的传授而忽视了编写程序、调试程序能力的培养,学生被动学习、不会融会贯通,学习过程中缺乏竞争意识等主要问题,提出基于PBL+竞争机制的程序设计课程的教学模式.在教学方法、习题模式、考核方式几个方面进行变革,改善教学过程,培养学生自学、创新、竞争、协作意识,通过学生自评、互评、教师评价,发现这种模式对学生综合能力的提高有一定促进作用.

  20. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  1. Astrophysical Probes of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2006-01-01

    I review the theoretical motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain a number of fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inacessible to experiment. As a case study I will focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements can be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with important advantages over the standard methods. Assuming that the current observational evidence for varying $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ is correct, a several-sigma detection of dynamical dark energy is feasible within a few years, using currently operational ground-based facilities. With forthcoming instruments like CODEX, a high-accuracy reconstruction of the equation of state may be possible all the way up to redshift $z\\sim4$.

  2. Unified Theory of Fundamental Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ning

    2003-01-01

    Based on local gauge invariance, four different kinds of fundamental interactions in nature are unified in a theory which has SU(3)C( )SU SU(2)L( )U(1)( )s Gravitational Gauge Group gauge symmetry. In this approach,gravitational field, like electromagnetic field, intermediate gauge field, and gluon field, is represented by gauge potential.Four kinds of fundamental interactions are formulated in the similar manner, and therefore can be unified in a direct or semi-direct product group. The model discussed in this paper is a renormalizable quantum model and can be regarded as an extension of the standard model to gravitational interactions, so it can be used to study quantum effects of gravitational interactions.

  3. Evaluation Study of VTAE Wood Technics Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    A survey of former students of the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) wood technics programs and employers in woodworking industries was conducted during spring of 1985. General objectives were to determine job classifications, types of businesses, and relative importance of tasks or duties in various woodworking-related…

  4. El grupo fundamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Robles Corbalá

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda un problema clásico para poder detectar si dos espacios topológicos son homeomorfos o no. Para lo cual a cada espacio topológico se le asocia un grupo algebraico, de tal suerte que si los espacios son homeomorfos, entonces los grupos asociados serán isomorfos. Se presenta una construcción del grupo fundamental de un espacio topológico y se enfoca en demostrar que efectivamente es un grupo.

  5. Fundamentals of calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Carla C

    2015-01-01

    Fundamentals of Calculus encourages students to use power, quotient, and product rules for solutions as well as stresses the importance of modeling skills.  In addition to core integral and differential calculus coverage, the book features finite calculus, which lends itself to modeling and spreadsheets.  Specifically, finite calculus is applied to marginal economic analysis, finance, growth, and decay.  Includes: Linear Equations and FunctionsThe DerivativeUsing the Derivative Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Techniques of DifferentiationIntegral CalculusIntegration TechniquesFunctions

  6. Fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam; Yoon, Youngro; Jun, Sukhee; Jun, Hoin

    2004-08-15

    It indicates fundamentals of engineering electromagnetism. It mentions electromagnetic field model of introduction and International system of units and universal constant, Vector analysis with summary and orthogonal coordinate systems, electrostatic field on Coulomb's law and Gauss's law, electrostatic energy and strength, steady state current with Ohm's law and Joule's law and calculation of resistance, crystallite field with Vector's electrostatic potential, Biot-Savart law and application and Magnetic Dipole, time-Savart and Maxwell equation with potential function and Faraday law of electromagnetic induction, plane electromagnetic wave, transmission line, a wave guide and cavity resonator and antenna arrangement.

  7. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  8. Fundamentals of microwave photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Urick, V J; McKinney , Jason D

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive resource to designing andconstructing analog photonic links capable of high RFperformanceFundamentals of Microwave Photonics provides acomprehensive description of analog optical links from basicprinciples to applications.  The book is organized into fourparts. The first begins with a historical perspective of microwavephotonics, listing the advantages of fiber optic links anddelineating analog vs. digital links. The second section coversbasic principles associated with microwave photonics in both the RFand optical domains.  The third focuses on analog modulationformats-starti

  9. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  10. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  11. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  12. Fundamental of biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sawhney, GS

    2007-01-01

    About the Book: A well set out textbook explains the fundamentals of biomedical engineering in the areas of biomechanics, biofluid flow, biomaterials, bioinstrumentation and use of computing in biomedical engineering. All these subjects form a basic part of an engineer''s education. The text is admirably suited to meet the needs of the students of mechanical engineering, opting for the elective of Biomedical Engineering. Coverage of bioinstrumentation, biomaterials and computing for biomedical engineers can meet the needs of the students of Electronic & Communication, Electronic & Instrumenta

  13. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  14. Fundamentals of photonics

    CERN Document Server

    Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2007-01-01

    Now in a new full-color edition, Fundamentals of Photonics, Second Edition is a self-contained and up-to-date introductory-level textbook that thoroughly surveys this rapidly expanding area of engineering and applied physics. Featuring a logical blend of theory and applications, coverage includes detailed accounts of the primary theories of light, including ray optics, wave optics, electromagnetic optics, and photon optics, as well as the interaction of photons and atoms, and semiconductor optics. Presented at increasing levels of complexity, preliminary sections build toward more advan

  15. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  16. Electronic circuits fundamentals & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tooley, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Electronics explained in one volume, using both theoretical and practical applications.New chapter on Raspberry PiCompanion website contains free electronic tools to aid learning for students and a question bank for lecturersPractical investigations and questions within each chapter help reinforce learning Mike Tooley provides all the information required to get to grips with the fundamentals of electronics, detailing the underpinning knowledge necessary to appreciate the operation of a wide range of electronic circuits, including amplifiers, logic circuits, power supplies and oscillators. The

  17. The fundamental group of an algebraic curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Johan de; Oort, F.

    2001-01-01

    Seminar on Algebraic Geometry, MIT 2002 In this seminar we study geometric properties of algebraic curves, or of Riemann surfaces. with the help of an algebraic object attached: the fundamental group, either the algebraic fundamental group, as introduced by Grothendieck, or the topological fundamen

  18. Fundamental Perspectives on Supply Chain Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omta, S.W.F.; Hoenen, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present literature study is to find the fundamental perspectives/models in the realm of supply chain management and to investigate whether they can be extended based on recent literature findings. The fundamental perspectives were found using a two-tier snowball collection method, inc

  19. [Fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery in Colombia using telesimulation: an effective educational tool for distance learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henao, Óscar; Escallón, Jaime; Green, Jessica; Farcas, Mónica; Sierra, Juan Manuel; Sánchez, William; Okrainec, Allan

    2013-01-01

    The Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery program is an educational program developed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, which includes a handson skills training component, a cognitive component, and an assessment component for laparoscopic surgery. Its main objective is to provide surgical residents and practicing surgeons with the opportunity to learn fundamental skills and obtain the theoretical knowledge required to perform laparoscopic surgery, guaranteeing a better performance in the operating room, and thus, improving patient security. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of telesimulation for teaching the Fundamentals of Laparosopic Surgery program in Colombia. Twenty participants (ten general surgeons and ten general surgery residents) in two cities in Colombia participated in eight weekly telesimulation sessions. Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery scores were obtained for each participant before the telesimulation sessions (pre-test scores) and after telesimulation training was completed (post-test scores). Using scoring parameters developed by the Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons, we found a significant improvement between pre-test and post-test scores. All the participants passed the skills component of the course. This study evidences the effectiveness of telesimulation to improve the laparoscopic skills of the participants who had no previous knowledge of the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery program, which guaranteed obtaining the necessary score for approving the practical component of the program.

  20. The MOND Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F; Diaferio, A; Tortora, C; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has been shown to be able to fit spiral galaxy rotation curves as well as giving a theoretical foundation for empirically determined scaling relations, such as the Tully - Fisher law, without the need for a dark matter halo. As a complementary analysis, one should investigate whether MOND can also reproduce the dynamics of early - type galaxies (ETGs) without dark matter. As a first step, we here show that MOND can indeed fit the observed central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$ of a large sample of ETGs assuming a simple MOND interpolating functions and constant anisotropy. We also show that, under some assumptions on the luminosity dependence of the Sersic n parameter and the stellar M/L ratio, MOND predicts a fundamental plane for ETGs : a log - linear relation among the effective radius $R_{eff}$, $\\sigma_0$ and the mean effective intensity $\\langle I_e \\rangle$. However, we predict a tilt between the observed and the MOND fundamental planes.

  1. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  2. Quench Simulation Studies: Program documentation of SPQR

    CERN Document Server

    Sonnemann, F

    2001-01-01

    Quench experiments are being performed on prototypes of the superconducting magnets and busbars to determine the adequate design and protection. Many tests can only be understood correctly with the help of quench simulations that model the thermo-hydraulic and electrodynamic processes during a quench. In some cases simulations are the only method to scale the experimental results of prototype measurements to match the situation of quenching superconducting elements in the LHC. This note introduces the theoretical quench model and the use of the simulation program SPQR (Simulation Program for Quench Research), which has been developed to compute the quench process in superconducting magnets and busbars. The model approximates the heat balance equation with the finite difference method including the temperature dependence of the material parameters. SPQR allows the simulation of longitudinal quench propagation along a superconducting cable, the transverse propagation between adjacent conductors, heat transfer i...

  3. [Academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolland, F

    2007-12-01

    This article describes the situation of academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria. University formation in these areas is at the very beginning. Due to the lack of institutionalization of gerontology and geriatrics at the university level, the study programs were developed by non-university institutions. The studies are mostly at the post-gradual level and are practice-oriented.

  4. Labor Studies Programs: Objectives, Proposals, Policies, Outlines & Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, Detroit, MI.

    This document outlines a labor studies program which may lead to several levels of achievement: a certificate in labor studies, an associate degree, an associate of arts degree, or a transfer of credits leading to a baccalaureate degree. The program is intended for labor union members or for anyone else interested in labor studies. Objectives of…

  5. Factors Influencing Student Participation in College Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Soumava; Bandyopadhyay, Kakoli

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework to investigate the factors that influence student participation in college study abroad programs. The authors posit that students' general perceptions regarding the study abroad experience and their expectations of intercultural awareness from study abroad programs will impact their perceptions of…

  6. Study Abroad Programs: A Golden Opportunity for Academic Library Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Kayo

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programs in higher education increasingly play a major role in training students for global citizenship. This case study, conducted in a large research university in the United States, identifies the information needs of students and faculty in study abroad programs. Of particular interest is how awareness of library resources and…

  7. Do Study Abroad Programs Enhance the Employability of Graduates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Using data on a large sample of recent Italian graduates, this paper investigates the extent to which participation in study abroad programs during university studies impacts subsequent employment likelihood. To address the problem of endogeneity related to participation in study abroad programs, I use a combination of fixed effects and…

  8. Study Abroad Programs: A Golden Opportunity for Academic Library Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Kayo

    2013-01-01

    Study abroad programs in higher education increasingly play a major role in training students for global citizenship. This case study, conducted in a large research university in the United States, identifies the information needs of students and faculty in study abroad programs. Of particular interest is how awareness of library resources and…

  9. Amur tiger conservation education program: A pilot study on program effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhacheva, Anna S; Derugina, Vasilissa V; Maksimova, Galina D; Soutyrina, Svetlana V

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic impacts are the primary threats to Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) and their habitat. Villagers living in proximity to tigers tend to view them negatively and, often, as a source of revenue on black markets. We aim to reduce human-tiger conflict by working with young students of Ternei County in the heart of tiger habitat in Primorskii Krai (Province). To inform and influence Ternei County's future decision-makers, we developed "Safe Conduct", a year-long education program held in 6 villages, culminating in a multi-school conference. We tested the efficacy of Safe Conduct as a potential model for tiger conservation educational programs. We measured levels of student knowledge about tiger ecology, their attitude towards tigers, and their willingness to engage in tiger conservation activites prior to, immediately after and 6 months following the completion of our program. Results supported the fundamental premise of Safe Conduct that knowledge and attitude towards tigers are correlated. Knowledge of tiger ecology and attitude towards tigers increased by the project's completion; both remained high after 6 months. However, commitment to participation in conservation efforts rose temporarily post-program and then dropped. Results varied by village. We recommend that the reasons for the high performance measures of students in 2 villages be investigated, and that lessons learned be applied to villages that underperformed. Safe Conduct represents a potential model for environmental education programs in Ternei County and elsewhere to educate future generations, to eventually develop a strong commitment to Amur tiger conservation at the community level.

  10. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  11. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  12. Fundamental partial compositeness

    CERN Document Server

    Sannino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We construct renormalizable Standard Model extensions, valid up to the Planck scale, that give a composite Higgs from a new fundamental strong force acting on fermions and scalars. Yukawa interactions of these particles with Standard Model fermions realize the partial compositeness scenario. Successful models exist because gauge quantum numbers of Standard Model fermions admit a minimal enough 'square root'. Furthermore, right-handed SM fermions have an SU(2)$_R$-like structure, yielding a custodially-protected composite Higgs. Baryon and lepton numbers arise accidentally. Standard Model fermions acquire mass at tree level, while the Higgs potential and flavor violations are generated by quantum corrections. We further discuss accidental symmetries and other dynamical features stemming from the new strongly interacting scalars. If the same phenomenology can be obtained from models without our elementary scalars, they would reappear as composite states.

  13. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  14. Superconductivity fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Buckel, Werner

    2004-01-01

    This is the second English edition of what has become one of the definitive works on superconductivity in German -- currently in its sixth edition. Comprehensive and easy to understand, this introductory text is written especially with the non-specialist in mind. The authors, both long-term experts in this field, present the fundamental considerations without the need for extensive mathematics, describing the various phenomena connected with the superconducting state, with liberal insertion of experimental facts and examples for modern applications. While all fields of superconducting phenomena are dealt with in detail, this new edition pays particular attention to the groundbreaking discovery of magnesium diboride and the current developments in this field. In addition, a new chapter provides an overview of the elements, alloys and compounds where superconductivity has been observed in experiments, together with their major characteristics. The chapter on technical applications has been considerably expanded...

  15. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...

  16. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  17. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...

  18. Exploring the conceptualization of program theories in Dutch community programs: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; van Assema, Patricia

    2011-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether the limited effectiveness of most community programs intended to prevent disease and promote health should be attributed to the quality of the conceptualization of their program theories. In a retrospective multiple case study we assessed the program theories of 16 community programs (cases) in the Netherlands (1990-2004). Methods were a document analysis, supplemented with member checks (insider information from representatives). We developed a community approach reference framework to guide us in reconstructing and evaluating the program theories. On the whole, programs did not clearly spell out the process theories (enabling the implementation of effective interventions), the program components (interventions) and/or the impact theories (describing pathways from interventions to ultimate effects). Program theories usually turned out to be neither specific nor entirely plausible (complete and valid). The limited effectiveness of most community programs should most probably be attributed to the limited conceptualization of program theories to begin with. Such a failure generally also precludes a thorough examination of the effectiveness of the community approach as such.

  19. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, respon

  20. French Immersion Teacher Education: A Study of Two Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Elaine M.; Shapson, Stan M.

    1993-01-01

    A study of French immersion teacher education programs at Simon Fraser University and Faculte Saint-Jean (University of Alberta) in Canada is reported. The in-depth case studies examined program clientele, models, participant experiences and needs, and planning, especially in relation to current research on teacher education. (Author/MSE)

  1. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  2. Male College Student Perceptions of Intercultural and Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirolf, Kathryn Q.

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to understand why men participate in study abroad at much lower rates than women, this study examines how male college students at a large research university perceive a university-run global education program, especially in terms of the expected costs and benefits of participating in such programs, and the extent to which gender…

  3. Modeling the effects of study abroad programs on college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin H. Yu; Garry E. Chick; Duarte B. Morais; Chung-Hsien Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the possibility of modeling the effects of a study abroad program on students from a university in the northeastern United States. A program effect model was proposed after conducting an extensive literature review and empirically examining a sample of 265 participants in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA),...

  4. Strategies and Challenges for Creating an Inclusive Study Abroad Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Tanja C.

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, 14,304,467 U.S. students participated in a study abroad program related to their academic course work, marking an average increase of 5.2% to the previous year among the reporting institutions. Students with disabilities continue to be significantly underrepresented in such programs. Given the consistent popularity of studying abroad, its…

  5. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.C.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  6. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  7. Phase III Program Study Report. Evaluation of the Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynell; and Others

    Fourth in a series of Child and Family Resource Program (CFRP) evaluation reports, this document is devoted to the program study component, designed to illustrate CFRP operations across the country and to establish a descriptive context for statistical and analytic findings. Chapter 1 describes the process of building a network of linkages with…

  8. Variations in voice level and fundamental frequency with changing background noise level and talker-to-listener distance while wearing hearing protectors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouserhal, Rachel E; Macdonald, Ewen N; Falk, Tiago H; Voix, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    Speech production in noise with varying talker-to-listener distance has been well studied for the open ear condition. However, occluding the ear canal can affect the auditory feedback and cause deviations from the models presented for the open-ear condition. Communication is a main concern for people wearing hearing protection devices (HPD). Although practical, radio communication is cumbersome, as it does not distinguish designated receivers. A smarter radio communication protocol must be developed to alleviate this problem. Thus, it is necessary to model speech production in noise while wearing HPDs. Such a model opens the door to radio communication systems that distinguish receivers and offer more efficient communication between persons wearing HPDs. This paper presents the results of a pilot study aimed to investigate the effects of occluding the ear on changes in voice level and fundamental frequency in noise and with varying talker-to-listener distance. Twelve participants with a mean age of 28 participated in this study. Compared to existing data, results show a trend similar to the open ear condition with the exception of the occluded quiet condition. This implies that a model can be developed to better understand speech production for the occluded ear.

  9. CDIO Projects in Civil Engineering Study Program at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Simonsen, Claus; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    or a design build project on each of the first four semesters. In this paper the four projects in the civil engineering study program are described along with a brief description of the entire study program. The aim is to provide additional information and documentation to accompany an exposition where......In 2008 all Bachelor of engineering study programs at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have been adopted to the “Conceive – Design – Implement – Operate” approach. As part of the necessary changes it was decided that all seven study programs should have a cross disciplinary project...... students present their projects. Learning outcomes, training and assessment of personal, professional and social engineering skills are described from a project point of view. Progression of engineering skills is discussed from a study program perspective. The interrelation between the various elements...

  10. CDIO Projects in Civil Engineering Study Program at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Simonsen, Claus; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2011-01-01

    or a design build project on each of the first four semesters. In this paper the four projects in the civil engineering study program are described along with a brief description of the entire study program. The aim is to provide additional information and documentation to accompany an exposition where......In 2008 all Bachelor of engineering study programs at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) have been adopted to the “Conceive – Design – Implement – Operate” approach. As part of the necessary changes it was decided that all seven study programs should have a cross disciplinary project...... students present their projects. Learning outcomes, training and assessment of personal, professional and social engineering skills are described from a project point of view. Progression of engineering skills is discussed from a study program perspective. The interrelation between the various elements...

  11. Fundamental interactions involving neutrons and neutrinos: reactor-based studies led by Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute') [PNPI (NRC KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Neutrons of very low energy ( ˜ 10-7 eV), commonly known as ultracold, are unique in that they can be stored in material and magnetic traps, thus enhancing methodical opportunities to conduct precision experiments and to probe the fundamentals of physics. One of the central problems of physics, of direct relevance to the formation of the Universe, is the violation of time invariance. Experiments searching for the nonzero neutron electric dipole moment serve as a time invariance test, and the use of ultracold neutrons provides very high measurement precision. Precision neutron lifetime measurements using ultracold neutrons are extremely important for checking ideas on the early formation of the Universe. This paper discusses problems that arise in studies using ultracold neutrons. Also discussed are the currently highly topical problem of sterile neutrinos and the search for reactor antineutrino oscillations at distances of 6-12 meters from the reactor core. The field reviewed is being investigated at multiple facilities globally. The present paper mainly concentrates on the results of PNPI-led studies at WWR-M PNPI (Gatchina), ILL (Grenoble), and SM-3 (Dimitrovgrad) reactors, and also covers the results obtained during preparation for research at the PIK reactor which is under construction.

  12. Microbial corrosion and cracking in steel. Fundamental studies on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel exposed in sulphide and sulphate-reducing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rischel Hilbert, Lisbeth

    1998-08-01

    The aim of the report is to give a fundamental understanding of the response of different electrochemical techniques on carbon steel in a sulphide environment as well as in a biologically active sulphate-reducing environment (SRB). This will form the basis for further studies and for recommendations in regards to electrochemical monitoring of MIC. The work presented here and further studies are also planned to lead to a Ph.D. thesis on `MIC monitoring based on mechanisms on corrosion`. The results of laboratory experiments conducted in the period 1995 to 1997 are summarised. Conclusions will be based on results from the entire 3 year period, but only selected experimental data primarily from the latest experiments will be presented in detail here. Microbial corrosion of carbon steel under influence of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is characterised by the formation of both biofilm and corrosion products (ferrous sulphides) on the metal surface. Experiments have been conducted on carbon steel exposed in near neutral (pH 6 to 8.5) saline hydrogen sulphide environment (0 to 100 mg/l total dissolved sulphide) for a period of 14 days. Furthermore coupons have been exposed in a bioreactor for a period of up to 120 days in sulphide-producing environment controlled by biological activity of (SRB). (au)

  13. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  14. Fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton robots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a

  15. Fundamentals of klystron testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, J.W. Jr.

    1978-08-01

    Fundamentals of klystron testing is a text primarily intended for the indoctrination of new klystron group test stand operators. It should significantly reduce the familiarization time of a new operator, making him an asset to the group sooner than has been experienced in the past. The new employee must appreciate the mission of SLAC before he can rightfully be expected to make a meaningful contribution to the group's effort. Thus, the introductory section acquaints the reader with basic concepts of accelerators in general, then briefly describes major physical aspects of the Stanford Linear Accelerator. Only then is his attention directed to the klystron, with its auxiliary systems, and the rudiments of klystron tube performance checks. It is presumed that the reader is acquainted with basic principles of electronics and scientific notation. However, to preserve the integrity of an indoctrination guide, tedious technical discussions and mathematical analysis have been studiously avoided. It is hoped that the new operator will continue to use the text for reference long after his indoctrination period is completed. Even the more experienced operator should find that particular sections will refresh his understanding of basic principles of klystron testing.

  16. GRBs and Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Patrick; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense flashes at the cosmological distances, which are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. The high luminosities of GRBs make them detectable out to the edge of the visible universe. So, they are unique tools to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal evolution of the Universe. First, they can be used to constrain the history of cosmic acceleration and the evolution of dark energy in a redshift range hardly achievable by other cosmological probes. Second, long GRBs are believed to be formed by collapse of massive stars. So they can be used to derive the high-redshift star formation rate, which can not be probed by current observations. Moreover, the use of GRBs as cosmological tools could unveil the reionization history and metal evolution of the Universe, the intergalactic medium (IGM) properties and the nature of first stars in the early universe. But beyond that, the GRB high-energy photons can be applied to constrain Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) and to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle (EEP). In this paper, we review the progress on the GRB cosmology and fundamental physics probed by GRBs.

  17. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  18. Revisiting energy efficiency fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lombard, L.; Velazquez, D. [Grupo de Termotecnia, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, 41092 Seville (Spain); Ortiz, J. [Building Research Establishment (BRE), Garston, Watford, WD25 9XX (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-15

    Energy efficiency is a central target for energy policy and a keystone to mitigate climate change and to achieve a sustainable development. Although great efforts have been carried out during the last four decades to investigate the issue, focusing into measuring energy efficiency, understanding its trends and impacts on energy consumption and to design effective energy efficiency policies, many energy efficiency-related concepts, some methodological problems for the construction of energy efficiency indicators (EEI) and even some of the energy efficiency potential gains are often ignored or misunderstood, causing no little confusion and controversy not only for laymen but even for specialists. This paper aims to revisit, analyse and discuss some efficiency fundamental topics that could improve understanding and critical judgement of efficiency stakeholders and that could help in avoiding unfounded judgements and misleading statements. Firstly, we address the problem of measuring energy efficiency both in qualitative and quantitative terms. Secondly, main methodological problems standing in the way of the construction of EEI are discussed, and a sequence of actions is proposed to tackle them in an ordered fashion. Finally, two key topics are discussed in detail: the links between energy efficiency and energy savings, and the border between energy efficiency improvement and renewable sources promotion.

  19. Fundamentals of quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauder, J R [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Florida, Gainesville FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    The outline of a recent approach to quantum gravity is presented. Novel ingredients include: (1) Affine kinematical variables; (2) Affine coherent states; (3) Projection operator approach toward quantum constraints; (4) Continuous-time regularized functional integral representation without/with constraints; and (5) Hard core picture of nonrenormalizability. The 'diagonal representation' for operator representations, introduced by Sudarshan into quantum optics, arises naturally within this program.

  20. A comparative study of European nuclear energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presas i Puig, Albert (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    The report includes the following contributions: Comparative study of European Nuclear Energy Programs. From international cooperation to the failure of a national program: the Austrian case. The ''go-and-stop'' of the Italian civil nuclear programs, among improvisations, ambitions and conspiracy. Nuclear energy in Spain - a research agenda for economic historians. The Portuguese nuclear program: a peripheral experience under dictatorship (1945-1973). The nuclear energy programs in Switzerland. The rise and decline of an independent nuclear power industry in Sweden, 1945-1970. The German fast breeder program, a historical review. Fast reactors as future visions - the case of Sweden. Transnational flows of nuclear knowledge between the U.S. and the U.K. and continental Europe in the 1950/60s. The Carter administration and its non-proliferation policies: the road to INFCE.

  1. Optimization Algorithms in School Scheduling Programs: Study, Analysis and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina PUPEIKIENE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available To create good and optimal school schedule is very important and practical task. Currently in Lithuania schools are using two programs for making the school schedule at the moment. But none of these programs is very effective. Optimization Department of Lithuanian Institute of Mathematics and Informatics (IMI has created ``School schedule optimization program''. It has three optimization algorithms for making best school schedule. A user can choose not only few optimization options and get few optimal schedules, but some subjective and objectives parameters. The making of initial data file is advanced in this program. XML format is used for creating initial data file and getting all optimal results files. The purpose of this study is to analyze used optimization algorithms used in ``School schedule optimization program'' and to compare results with two most popular commercial school scheduling programs in Lithuania.

  2. [Development of a software program for nutrition studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, María D; Perovic, Nilda R; Aguinaldo, Cristina A; Actis, Adriana B

    2009-04-01

    The Interfood v. 1.3 software program was developed to process nutrition information and generate data on dietary intakes--in terms of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances--valid for conducting studies on nutrition and epidemiology. The program has three basic components: the dietary intake frequency questionnaire CFCA); a database of common foods and their composition of 131 possible substances (macro- and micronutrients and phytochemicals); and a relational database that links the CFCA data with the food database. In this manner, the Interfood software program calculates the amount of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances consumed by an individual daily, weekly, and monthly. Interfood is an open-source program; as such, the database can be modified and updated according to study requirements. This program has already proven useful to various studies of nutrition and epidemiology.

  3. Fundamental study on nuclear medicine imaging of cholinergic innervation in the brain; Changes of neurotransmitter and receptor in animal model of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kinuya, Keiko; Sumiya, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Tsuji, Shiro; Terada, Hitoshi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hirofumi

    1990-10-01

    A fundamental study was performed on the nuclear medicine imaging of cholinergic innervation in the brain. In a cholinergic denervation model prepared by producing an unilateral basal forebrain lesion in the rat, which is reported to be one of animal models of Alzheimer' disease, quantitative determination of acetylcholine in parietal cortices revealed statistically significant 31% decrease on an average in the ipsilateral side relative to the contralateral side to the lesion. In vitro receptor autoradiography showed no significant differences in total, M{sub 1}, and M{sub 2} muscarinic acetylcholine receptors between the ipsilateral and contralateral cortices to the lesion. Simultaneous mapping of presynaptic cholinergic innervation using {sup 3}H-2-(4-phenylpiperidino) cyclohexanol (AH5183) demonstrated significant 14% decrease of AH5183 binding on an average in the ipsilateral relative to the contralateral fronto-parieto-temporal cortices to the lesion. These results suggest that AH5183 is a promising ligand for mapping cholinergic innervation in nuclear medicine imaging. (author).

  4. Study Abroad Programs and American Student Worldmindedness: An Empirical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ceasar; Jones-Rikkers, Catherine G.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed the worldmindedness (extent to which individuals value global perspectives on various issues) of students participating in study abroad programs designed to increase their exposure to different cultural contexts. Found that such programs do have a positive impact on development of worldmindedness, and that the level of difference between…

  5. Marketing Study Abroad Programs: A Student Recruitment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukosius, Vaidas; Festervand, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    The number of American students studying abroad increases every year. That might suggest that recruiting students to participate in such an educational opportunity would present little difficulty. On the contrary, as domestic student participation in such programs has risen, so has the number of competing programs. Thus, the viability of any study…

  6. Overview and Summary: School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Laura; Brener, Nancy D.; Wechsler, Howell

    2007-01-01

    Background: The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) 2006 is the largest, most comprehensive assessment of school health programs in the United States ever conducted. Methods: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts SHPPS every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail…

  7. [PROFAMILIA studies the effectiveness of contraceptive marketing programs in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A recent study by PROFAMILIA, the private Colombian family planning organization, indicates that community based distribution programs and social marketing programs are not totally interchangeable forms of contraceptive distribution. Comparison of the efficacy of different systems in making contraceptives more accessible to the low income population led the researchers to conclude that social marketing programs work as well as community based distribution programs in rural areas which already have high rates of contraceptive usage. Community based distribution programs appear more effective than social marketing programs in areas where contraceptive usage is not yet well established. PROFAMILIA researchers conducted operational studies in 3 different states, each of which had a community based distribution program. In the first state the community based distribution program was suspended and a vender who had previously supplied only urban outlets added rural pharmacies to his route. The vender handled 3 kinds of pills, 2 types of spermicidal suppositories, and condoms. In a neighboring state, 3 instructors belonging to the community based distribution program were offered commissions of about 10% of the value of the products if the distributors they supervised met monthly sales quotas. The community based distribution program was left unchanged in the third state but a 2-member mobile team was trained to travel through the region by jeep, talking to community groups about the advantage of contraception. At the end of 18 months, sales of contraceptives had declined in the state where the community based distribution program was replaced by the social marketing program. The decline was believed to be related to unforeseen price increases for pills and devaluation of the Colombian peso. The social marketing project was however much more cost effective than the other 2, which continued to require PROFAMILIA subsidies. Contraceptive usage increased in the other 2 areas

  8. Intercultural competency development through a study abroad program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu Chia Hsu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, more and more universities are focusing on short-term study abroad programs. However, the actual advantages of such programs have not yet been empirically tested. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate whether such study abroad programs can influence participants and improve an individual’s intercultural competence. Using both reflections found in journals and follow-up interviews, the study aims to reflect the key factors that contribute to the intercultural development of the study participants. This paper elicits and examines the students’ study abroad experiences, particularly in the minimal impacts on the levels of intercultural competence and results of the 2011 summer study abroad program. It is hoped that future study abroad programs will find that this new approach can not only help college students learn better but that it will also shed light on the importance of intercultural competence through dialogue. Further studies are recommended with respect to the duration of the study abroad programs and the quantity/quality of the various activities involved in the enhancement of the students’ intercultural competence.

  9. EVALUASI PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN PROGRAM STUDI DESAIN KOMUNIKASI VISUAL MSD YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Fatmawati

    2016-06-01

    THE EVALUATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL IMPLEMENTATION OF VISUAL COMMUNICATION DESIGN STUDY PROGRAM IN MSD YOGYAKARTA Abstract This research aims to determine the suitability of the instructional implementation in Visual Communication Design (VCD Study Program of MSD Yogyakarta Design and Art Academy with standard or criteria which have been formulated. This research was an evaluation research study that refers to the discrepancy evaluation model. The subjects consisted of the head of study program, lecturers and students of VCD study program MSD Yogyakarta. The research was conducted in five stages: design preparation, determination of the program’s completeness, data collection, purpose measurement or data analysis, and comparison. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and document searches, and were analyzed using an interactive analysis model proposed by Miles and Huberman. The questionnaire data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis in the scale 4. The result of the study shows that instructional implementation in Visual Communication Design Study Program of MSD Yogyakarta is not suitable to the Minister of Education and Culture Regulation No. 49, 2014. The result of student assessment indicates that the instructional implementation in VCD MSD Yogyakarta is categorized good with the value of 3.20. The instructional implementation in Visual Communication Design Study Program of MSD Yogyakarta needs to be adjusted with the National Standards for Higher Education the Minister of Education and Culture Regulation No. 49, 2014 for the instructional implementation can be presented. Keywords: instructional implementation, instructional planning

  10. A model to assess fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island ecosystem: A case study in the southern Miaodao Archipelago of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Honghua; SHEN Chengcheng; ZHENG Wei; LI Fen; WANG Xiaoli; CHI Yuan; GUO Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Research on carrying capacity, aiming at maintaining the limited ability of the Earth's life supporting system to sustain human development, requires a comprehensive and ecosystem-based approach to monitor and assess the localized sustainability of coupled social and ecological systems. A definition termed the ecosystem-based carrying capacity of island (EBCCI) was developed in this paper of which the indices of fundamental and realized carrying capacities of island (FCCI and RCCI) were highlighted to emphasize the inter-dependencies between social systems and ecological systems. In order to avoid the difficulties and uncertainties of direct assessment, the related assessment model was established on the basis of synthetic evaluation of inherent and external factors affecting the EBCCI. The southern Miaodao Archipelago (SMA) located in the intersection of the Bohai Sea and the Yellow Sea, China, was taken as a typical example to acquire integrated recognition of the island ecosystem and its carrying capacity so as to discuss its sustainable development. The index scores of FCCI and RCCI in the SMA were 0.818 5 and 0.712 9 out of 1.0, respectively, with acceptable uncertainties. The results showed a relatively well capacity to sustain progress and relatively well realization of the carrying capacity of island ecosystem, owing to a well capacity of ecologically regulating, general performance of both ecologically supporting and resource provisioning, and a relatively high level of social supporting system. The study implied that it was critical to optimize the inter-dependencies and to sustain the relative balance between social systems and ecological systems so as to improve the RCCI and further facilitate the sustainability of SMA. The approach proposed in this paper provides a powerful tool which is well applicative to the regional level of an oceanic island or archipelago to study the sustainable development and can be further popularized to the coastal zone.

  11. Voice training and changing weight--are they reflected in speaking fundamental frequency, voice range, and pitch breaks of 13-year-old girls? A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Elizabeth C; Kenny, Dianna T

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of the voice-change progress of 20 girls (12-13 years) over 1 year by observing changes in speaking fundamental frequency (SFo), voice range, and register pitch breaks in the context of weight, height, voice training, and self-perception. One-year longitudinal collective case study. Twenty girls were recorded at the beginning and end of a year; nine girls were recorded another three times. SFo, vocal range, and characteristics were analyzed and interactions between these data assessed against weight and height to indicate pubertal development, and to test the hypothesis that changes in weight, height, SFo, and pitch breaks were related. Effects of training and the girls' self-perception of their voice use were also assessed. Vocal characteristics changed as the girls passed through different weight ranges. During 47.5-52.4 kg (called band 2) and 52.4-57.5 kg (band 3), there was progressive contraction of vocal range and in some girls a slight rise in SFo between recording times 1 and 5. Both high- and low-pitch breaks were present in 45% of girls' voices. Girls in band 4 (confidence; all girls lost confidence in their voice use over the year. In this longitudinal study of twenty 13-year-old girls, voice changes in SFo, vocal range, and pitch-break frequency were synchronous with certain weight ranges. Girls with training registered higher maximum phonational frequency and were more confident in their voice use than girls without training. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A Fundamental Study of Convective Mixing of CO2 in Layered Heterogeneous Saline Aquifers with Low Permeability Zones using Surrogate Fluids and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, E.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.; Trevisan, L.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolution trapping is one of the primary mechanisms contributing to long-term and stable storage of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) in deep saline geologic formations. When entrapped scCO2 dissolves in formation brine, density-driven convective fingers are expected to be generated due to the higher density of the solution compared to brine. These fingers enhance mixing of dissolved scCO2 in brine (Ennis-King & Paterson, 2003). The goal of this study is to evaluate the contribution of convective mixing to dissolution trapping of CO2 in naturally layered heterogeneous formations with low permeability zones via experimental and numerical analyses. To understand the fundamental process of dissolution trapping in the laboratory under ambient pressure and temperature conditions, a group of surrogate fluids were selected according to their density and viscosity values before and after dissolution. Fluids were tested in a variety of porous media systems. After selection of the appropriate fluid mixture based on the closest behavior to scCO2 brine systems, a set of experiments in a small homogeneously packed test tank was performed to analyze the fingering behaviors. A second set of experiments was conducted in the same test tank with layered soil systems to study the effects of formation heterogeneity on convective mixing. A finite volume method based numerical code was developed to capture the dominant processes observed in the experiments. This model was then used to simulate more complex heterogeneous systems that were not represented in the limited set of experiments. Results of these analyses suggest that convective fingers developed in homogeneous formations may not be significantly contributing to mixing and hence dissolution trapping in heterogeneous formations depending on the permeability contrasts and thickness of the low permeability layers.

  13. Fundamentals of nanoscaled field effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors gives comprehensive coverage of the fundamental physical principles and theory behind nanoscale transistors. The specific issues that arise for nanoscale MOSFETs, such as quantum mechanical tunneling and inversion layer quantization, are fully explored. The solutions to these issues, such as high-κ technology, strained-Si technology, alternate devices structures and graphene technology are also given. Some case studies regarding the above issues and solution are also given in the book. In summary, this book: Covers the fundamental principles behind nanoelectronics/microelectronics Includes chapters devoted to solutions tackling the quantum mechanical effects occurring at nanoscale Provides some case studies to understand the issue mathematically Fundamentals of Nanoscaled Field Effect Transistors is an ideal book for researchers and undergraduate and graduate students in the field of microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and electronics.

  14. Forecast Master Program case studies: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engle, R.; Granger, C.; Ramanathan, R. (ed.)

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a number of case studies using the computer software package FORECAST MASTER (FM). The series studied and forecast are, aggregate monthly California Electricity Sales, system energy demand data from Ontario Hydro, peak demand data for the residential and commercial customers of Georgia Power Company, Massachusetts Electric commercial sales, Narragansett Electric commercial sales, average and peak demand using Georgia Power Company data. A variety of methods have been studied by each of the contributing authors; trend line fitting, exponential smoothing, Box-Jenkins univariate forecasting, vector autoregression, state space modeling, dynamic econometric models including time-varying parameters and general order serial correlation corrections. Thus both the data sets and the modeling/forecasting methodologies are varied. A number of conclusions emerge from these case studies: FM provides a powerful set of tools to aid a utility forecaster, a great deal of caution should be exercised in pre-processing the data; it can have unintended side effects, diagnostic tests are very useful in econometric models, the Akaike Information Criterion is a useful measure for selecting the best state space model, and state space and econometric approaches both need equal amounts of care in model analysis and presentation.

  15. Vietnamese Students' Transitions in Study Abroad Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, My Linh Thi

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam is at a pivotal point in positioning itself within the global economy. As organisations and government agendas are pushing for a more skilled workforce, it is evident that Vietnam has to deal with the implications for the changing educational landscape. This article presents a review of the literature related to study abroad, looking at…

  16. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  17. SISTEM PENDUKUNG KEPUTUSAN UNTUK MENGEVALUASI INTERNAL PROGRAM STUDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indhitya Rahman Padiku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of major and study program cannot be separated by some internal factors weather directly influenced number of new registration students or indirectly. It needs a method to both know and to analyze internal evaluation variables in major or study program. Naive Bayes Clasifier (NBC method is the simple form of Bayesian network that assume all features are independent each other. NBC shows us a great performance entirely in accuracy and error level classification. NBC is able to differentiate irrelevance attribute and also classified some attributes in prediction needs. This research hopefully can be useful for major internal evaluating and study program in order to increase the number of new registration students. The classification by influenced of variables to evaluate the condition of both major and study program for the new registration students.

  18. Approaches for building community participation: A qualitative case study of Canadian food security programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    There is increasing opportunity and support for occupational therapists to expand their scope of practice in community settings. However, evidence is needed to increase occupational therapists' knowledge, confidence, and capacity with building community participation and adopting community-centered practice roles. The purpose of this study is to improve occupational therapists' understanding of an approach to building community participation, through case study of a network of Canadian food security programs. Qualitative case study was utilized. Data were semistructured interviews, field observations, documents, and online social media. Thematic analysis was used to identify and describe four themes that relate to processes used to build community participation. The four themes were use of multiple methods, good leaders are fundamental, growing participation via social media, and leveraging outcomes. Occupational therapists can utilize an approach for building community participation that incorporates resource mobilization. Challenges of sustainability and social exclusion must be addressed.

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Security Studies Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    postdoctoral fellowships at the Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University and the Center for International Security and Cooperation...government and business have frequently invited him to speak on Middle Eastern affairs. JEANNE GUILLEMIN’s training in sociology and anthropology led to her...been the recipient of several scholarships and awards, including two NATO Fellowships and two Fulbright Scholarships. In 1995, he was named to the

  20. A prototype 'fifth pathway' program for Americans studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvihill, J E; Rosner, F

    1978-04-01

    A problem of American citizens studying medicine abroad is reviewed along with that of foreign medical graduates who are foreign nationals, and a prototype "fifth pathway" program is briefly described. The objective of the program is the return of qualified American students who study medicine abroad to the mainstream of contemporary American medical education and the preparation of these students for further graduate education and the fulfillment of responsible roles in the delivery of health care.