WorldWideScience

Sample records for functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic

  1. Rayleigh wave behavior in functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzin, Hamdi; Mkaoir, Mohamed; Amor, Morched Ben

    2017-12-01

    Piezoelectric-piezomagnetic functionally graded materials, with a gradual change of the mechanical and electromagnetic properties have greatly applying promises. Based on the ordinary differential equation and stiffness matrix methods, a dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of the wave on a semi-infinite piezomagnetic substrate covered with a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer. The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The phase and group velocity of the Rayleigh wave is numerically calculated for the magneto-electrically open and short cases, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on the phase velocity, group velocity, coupled magneto-electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the magnetic potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the hetero-structure PZT-5A/CoFe2O4; the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Rayleigh wave propagation behavior.

  2. Magneto-electro-elastic buckling analysis of nonlocal curved nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a size-dependent curved beam model is developed to take into account the effects of nonlocal stresses on the buckling behavior of curved magneto-electro-elastic FG nanobeams for the first time. The governing differential equations are derived based on the principle of virtual work and Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The power-law function is employed to describe the spatially graded magneto-electro-elastic properties. By extending the radius of the curved nanobeam to infinity, the results of straight nonlocal FG beams can be rendered. The effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, opening angle, nonlocal parameter, power-law index and slenderness ratio on buckling loads of curved MEE-FG nanobeams are studied.

  3. Dual number algebra method for Green's function derivatives in 3D magneto-electro-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziatkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    The Green functions are the basic elements of the boundary element method. To obtain the boundary integral formulation the Green function and its derivative should be known for the considered differential operator. Today the interesting group of materials are electronic composites. The special case of the electronic composite is the magnetoelectroelastic continuum. The mentioned continuum is a model of the piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composites. The anisotropy of their physical properties makes the problem of Green's function determination very difficult. For that reason Green's functions for the magnetoelectroelastic continuum are not known in the closed form and numerical methods should be applied to determine such Green's functions. These means that the problem of the accurate and simply determination of Green's function derivatives is even harder. Therefore in the present work the dual number algebra method is applied to calculate numerically the derivatives of 3D Green's functions for the magnetoelectroelastic materials. The introduced method is independent on the step size and it can be treated as a special case of the automatic differentiation method. Therefore, the dual number algebra method can be applied as a tool for checking the accuracy of the well-known finite difference schemes.

  4. The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H. [UniversitiTeknologi PETRONAS, Perak (Malaysia); Faris, Waleed [International Islamic University Malaysia, Perak (Malaysia)

    2016-01-15

    Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour.

  5. The transverse shear deformation behaviour of magneto-electro-elastic shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albarody, Thar M. Badri; Al-Kayiem, Hussain H.; Faris, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the large number of possible magneto-electro-elastic shell theories, very few exact solutions determining the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions are possible. While, solving the magneto-electro-elastic shell equations in terms of thermo-magneto-electro-elastic generalized field functions on arbitrary domains and for general conditions exactly are not always possible. In the present work, a linear version of magneto-electro-elastic shell with simply supported boundary conditions, solved exactly, provided that the lamination scheme is cross-ply or anti-symmetric angle-ply laminates. The exact solution that introduced herein can measure the in-plane stresses, electric displacements and magnetic inductions. It also allow for an accurate and usually elegant and conclusive investigation of the various sensations in a shell structure. However, it is important for micro-electro-mechanical shell applications to have an approach available that gives the transverse shear deformation Behaviour for cases that cannot examine experimentally. An investigated examples were accompanied and noteworthy conclusions were drawn which highlight the issues of the implementation of the exact solution, implication of the effects of the material properties, lay-ups of the constituent layers, and shell parameters on the static Behaviour

  6. Wave dispersion characteristics of axially loaded magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Dabbagh, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of wave propagation behavior of a magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanobeam is performed in the framework of classical beam theory. To capture small-scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is applied. Furthermore, the material properties of nanobeam are assumed to vary gradually through the thickness based on power-law form. Nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG nanobeam have been derived employing Hamilton's principle. The results of present research have been validated by comparing with those of previous investigations. An analytical solution of governing equations is utilized to obtain wave frequencies, phase velocities and escape frequencies. Effects of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocal parameter, gradient index, axial load, magnetic potential and electric voltage on wave dispersion characteristics of MEE-FG nanoscale beams are studied in detail.

  7. Wave propagation analysis of a size-dependent magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of the wave propagation behavior of a magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanoplate is carried out in the framework of a refined higher-order plate theory. In order to take into account the small-scale influence, the nonlocal elasticity theory of Eringen is employed. Furthermore, the material properties of the nanoplate are considered to be variable through the thickness based on the power-law form. Nonlocal governing equations of the MEE-FG nanoplate have been derived using Hamilton's principle. The results of the present study have been validated by comparing them with previous researches. An analytical solution of governing equations is performed to obtain wave frequencies, phase velocities and escape frequencies. The effect of different parameters, such as wave number, nonlocal parameter, gradient index, magnetic potential and electric voltage on the wave dispersion characteristics of MEE-FG nanoscale plates is studied in detail.

  8. Magneto-electro-elastic polariton coupling in a periodic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piliposyan, D G; Ghazaryan, K B; Piliposian, G T

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of electro-magneto-acoustic waves in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) periodic structure has been investigated with a three phase coupling between mechanical, electric and magnetic fields in each constituent layer. Due to this coupling electromagnetic waves couple with lattice vibrations resulting in both dielectric and magnetic phonon–polaritons which couple via the magneto-electric effect. Propagation properties of acoustic longitudinal and transverse vibrations in this superlattice have been investigated. For longitudinal acoustic vibrations perpendicular to the poling direction, the coupling of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic polaritons results in a propagating mode. For transverse lattice vibrations with the coupled MEE wave propagating parallel to the poling direction, there is a coupled piezoelectric–piezomagnetic phonon polariton gap. The MEE superlattice produces either negative permittivity or negative permeability functions but not double negativity to result in negative refraction crystal. (paper)

  9. Solitary waves in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, C X; Pan, E; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    A simple nonlinear model is proposed in this paper to study the solitary wave in a circular magneto-electro-elastic rod. Based on the constitutive relation for transversely isotropic piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials, combined with the differential equations of motion, we derive the longitudinal wave motion equation in a long circular rod. The nonlinearity considered is geometrically associated with the nonlinear normal strain in the longitudinal rod direction and the transverse Poisson's effect is included by introducing the effective Poisson's ratio. The nonlinear solitary wave equation is solved by the Jacobi elliptic function expansion method and numerical examples demonstrate not only the existence of such a wave but also some interesting characteristics of the solitary wave in the rod made of different multiphase coupled materials

  10. Response of multiphase magneto-electro-elastic sensors under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel beam with plane stress assumption is presented in this paper. The beam is subjected to harmonic excitation with a point load at tip and a uniformly distributed load along the bottom surface of the mild steel beam. Numerical ...

  11. Nonlocal strain gradient based wave dispersion behavior of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Main object of the present research is an exact investigation of wave propagation responses of smart rotating magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) graded nanoscale plates. In addition, effective material properties of functionally graded (FG) nanoplate are presumed to be calculated using the power-law formulations. Also, it has been tried to cover both softening and stiffness-hardening behaviors of nanostructures by the means of employing nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). Due to increasing the accuracy of the presented model in predicting shear deformation effects, a refined higher-order plate theory is introduced. In order to cover the most enormous circumstances, maximum amount of load generated by plate’s rotation is considered. Furthermore, utilizing a developed form of Hamilton’s principle, containing magneto-electric effects, the nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG rotating nanoplates are derived. An analytical solution is obtained to solve the governing equations and validity of the solution method is proven by comparing results from present method with those of former attempts. At last, outcomes are plotted in the framework of some figures to show the influences of various parameters such as wave number, nonlocality, length scale parameter, magnetic potential, electric voltage, gradient index and angular velocity on wave frequency, phase velocity and escape frequency of the examined nanoplate.

  12. Wave propagation in non-homogeneous magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiangong; Ma, Qiujuan; Su, Shan

    2008-12-01

    A dynamic solution is presented for the propagation of harmonic waves in imhomogeneous (functionally graded) magneto-electro-elastic hollow cylinders composed of piezoelectric BaTiO(3) and magnetostrictive CoFe(2)O(4). The materials properties are assumed to vary in the direction of the thickness according to a known variation law. The Legendre orthogonal polynomial series expansion approach is employed to determine the wave propagating characteristics in the hollow cylinders. The dispersion curves of the imhomogeneous piezoelectric-piezomagnetic hollow cylinder and the corresponding non-piezoelectric and non-piezomagnetic hollow cylinders are calculated to show the influence of the piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. Electric potential and magnetic potential distributions are obtained to illustrate the different influences of the piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism and the different influences of the piezoelectric effect and piezomagnetic effect on longitudinal modes and torsional modes. For the radial polarizing piezoelectric-piezomagnetic hollow cylinder, the piezoelectric effect and piezomagnetic effect take mostly on the longitudinal mode. Finally, a hollow cylinder at different ratio of radius to thickness is calculated to show the influence of the ratio on the piezoelectric effect and piezomagnetic effect.

  13. New pure shear elastic surface waves in magneto-electro-elastic half-space

    OpenAIRE

    Melkumyan, Arman

    2006-01-01

    Pure shear surface waves guided by the free surface of a magneto-electro-elastic material are investigated. Three surface waves are obtained for various magneto-electrical conditions on the free surface of the magneto-electro-elastic half-space. The velocities of propagation and the existence conditions for each of these waves are obtained in explicit exact form.

  14. Analytical solutions for the magnetoelectric effect of multilayered magneto-electro-elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianguo; Li Xuefeng

    2008-01-01

    The state vector equations of space axisymmetric problems for transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic media are established in terms of the governing equations of the problem. The method is based on the mixed formulation of the stresses, displacements, electric displacements and magnetic induction on the surface. Using the Hankel integral transform and the theory of ordinary differential equations, the state vector solutions for a single-layer magneto-electro-elastic media are presented in the Hankel transform space. Boussinesq's solution for the magneto-electro-elastic half-space problem is obtained in the Hankel integral form. A general analytical formulation for the transversely isotropic, multilayered magneto-electro-elastic axisymmetric problems is presented by using the transfer matrix method. Numerical results are given. We have observed that the stacking sequences have a clear influence on most physical quantities. These features should be of special interest in the design of magneto-electro-elastic composite structures

  15. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  16. Surface effects on anti-plane shear waves propagating in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Chunli; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2015-01-01

    Material surfaces may have a remarkable effect on the mechanical behavior of magneto-electro-elastic (or multiferroic) structures at nanoscale. In this paper, a surface magneto-electro-elasticity theory (or effective boundary condition formulation), which governs the motion of the material surface of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, is established by employing the state-space formalism. The properties of anti-plane shear (SH) waves propagating in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic plate with nanothickness are investigated by taking surface effects into account. The size-dependent dispersion relations of both antisymmetric and symmetric SH waves are presented. The thickness-shear frequencies and the asymptotic characteristics of the dispersion relations considering surface effects are determined analytically as well. Numerical results show that surface effects play a very pronounced role in elastic wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates, and the dispersion properties depend strongly on the chosen surface material parameters of magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates. As a consequence, it is possible to modulate the waves in magneto-electro-elastic nanoplates through surface engineering. (paper)

  17. New soliton solution to the longitudinal wave equation in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, Aly R.; Manafian, Jalil

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of an integration scheme which called the extended trial equation method (ETEM) in exactly solving a well-known nonlinear equation of partial differential equations (PDEs). In this respect, the longitudinal wave equation (LWE) that arises in mathematical physics with dispersion caused by the transverse Poisson's effect in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) circular rod, which a series of exact traveling wave solutions for the aforementioned equation is formally extracted. Explicit new exact solutions are derived in different form such as dark solitons, bright solitons, solitary wave, periodic solitary wave, rational function, and elliptic function solutions of the longitudinal wave equation. The movements of obtained solutions are shown graphically, which helps to understand the physical phenomena of this longitudinal wave equation. Many other such types of nonlinear equations arising in non-destructive evaluation of structures made of the advanced MEE material can also be solved by this method.

  18. The boundary element method applied to 3D magneto-electro-elastic dynamic problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igumnov, L. A.; Markov, I. P.; Kuznetsov, Iu A.

    2017-11-01

    Due to the coupling properties, the magneto-electro-elastic materials possess a wide number of applications. They exhibit general anisotropic behaviour. Three-dimensional transient analyses of magneto-electro-elastic solids can hardly be found in the literature. 3D direct boundary element formulation based on the weakly-singular boundary integral equations in Laplace domain is presented in this work for solving dynamic linear magneto-electro-elastic problems. Integral expressions of the three-dimensional fundamental solutions are employed. Spatial discretization is based on a collocation method with mixed boundary elements. Convolution quadrature method is used as a numerical inverse Laplace transform scheme to obtain time domain solutions. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the capability of the proposed approach to treat highly dynamic problems.

  19. New soliton solution to the longitudinal wave equation in a magneto-electro-elastic circular rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly R. Seadawy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effectiveness of an integration scheme which called the extended trial equation method (ETEM in exactly solving a well-known nonlinear equation of partial differential equations (PDEs. In this respect, the longitudinal wave equation (LWE that arises in mathematical physics with dispersion caused by the transverse Poisson’s effect in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE circular rod, which a series of exact traveling wave solutions for the aforementioned equation is formally extracted. Explicit new exact solutions are derived in different form such as dark solitons, bright solitons, solitary wave, periodic solitary wave, rational function, and elliptic function solutions of the longitudinal wave equation. The movements of obtained solutions are shown graphically, which helps to understand the physical phenomena of this longitudinal wave equation. Many other such types of nonlinear equations arising in non-destructive evaluation of structures made of the advanced MEE material can also be solved by this method. Keywords: Extended trial equation method, Longitudinal wave equation in a MEE circular rod, Dark solitons, Bright solitons, Solitary wave, Periodic solitary wave

  20. Wave propagation in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic solid bar immersed in an inviscid fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in a transversely isotropic magneto-electro-elastic solid bar immersed in an inviscid fluid is discussed within the frame work of linearized three dimensional theory of elasticity. Three displacement potential functions are introduced to uncouple the equations of motion, electric and magnetic induction. The frequency equations that include the interaction between the solid bar and fluid are obtained by the perfect slip boundary conditions using the Bessel functions. The numerical calculations are carried out for the non-dimensional frequency, phase velocity and attenuation coefficient by fixing wave number and are plotted as the dispersion curves. The results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other bar of different cross section by using proper geometric relation.

  1. Harmonic Response of Magneto-electro-elastic Sensors Bonded to Cylindrical Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Biju

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with semi analytical finite element formulation for coupled magneto-electro-elastic sensor bonded to a mild steel cylindrical shell. The cylinder is subjected to harmonically varying internal pressure with clamped free and clamped-clamped boundary condition. Numerical results are presented for the first three axial modes associated with the axisymmetric mode of the shell with different sensor locations. The sensor response is controlled mainly by its radial displacement in all the modes. The third mode response becomes significant when the sensor is placed at the free end of the mild steel cylinder for clamped free boundary condition.

  2. Existence of Shear Horizontal Surface Waves in a Magneto-Electro-Elastic Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Yi, Wei; Dai-Ning, Fang; Jin-Xi, Liu

    2009-01-01

    The existence of shear horizontal surface waves in a magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) half-space with hexagonal (6mm) symmetry is investigated. The surface of the MEE half-space is mechanically free, but subjected to four types of electromagnetic boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are electrically open/magnetically closed, electrically open/magnetically open, electrically closed/magnetically open and electrically closed/magnetically closed. It is shown that except for the electrically open/magnetically closed condition, the three other sets of electromagnetic boundary conditions allow the propagation of shear horizontal surface waves

  3. An analytical solution for the magneto-electro-elastic bimorph beam forced vibrations problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, A; Orlando, C; Alaimo, A

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Timoshenko beam theory and on the assumption that the electric and magnetic fields can be treated as steady, since elastic waves propagate very slowly with respect to electromagnetic ones, a general analytical solution for the transient analysis of a magneto-electro-elastic bimorph beam is obtained. General magneto-electric boundary conditions can be applied on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, allowing us to study the response of the bilayer structure to electromagnetic stimuli. The model reveals that the magneto-electric loads enter the solution as an equivalent external bending moment per unit length and as time-dependent mechanical boundary conditions through the definition of the bending moment. Moreover, the influences of the electro-mechanic, magneto-mechanic and electromagnetic coupling on the stiffness of the bimorph stem from the computation of the beam equivalent stiffness constants. Free and forced vibration analyses of both multiphase and laminated magneto-electro-elastic composite beams are carried out to check the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed analytic solution

  4. Eshelby's problem of polygonal inclusions with polynomial eigenstrains in an anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic full plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-G; Zou, W-N; Pan, E

    2015-07-08

    This paper presents a closed-form solution for the arbitrary polygonal inclusion problem with polynomial eigenstrains of arbitrary order in an anisotropic magneto-electro-elastic full plane. The additional displacements or eigendisplacements, instead of the eigenstrains, are assumed to be a polynomial with general terms of order M + N . By virtue of the extended Stroh formulism, the induced fields are expressed in terms of a group of basic functions which involve boundary integrals of the inclusion domain. For the special case of polygonal inclusions, the boundary integrals are carried out explicitly, and their averages over the inclusion are also obtained. The induced fields under quadratic eigenstrains are mostly analysed in terms of figures and tables, as well as those under the linear and cubic eigenstrains. The connection between the present solution and the solution via the Green's function method is established and numerically verified. The singularity at the vertices of the arbitrary polygon is further analysed via the basic functions. The general solution and the numerical results for the constant, linear, quadratic and cubic eigenstrains presented in this paper enable us to investigate the features of the inclusion and inhomogeneity problem concerning polynomial eigenstrains in semiconductors and advanced composites, while the results can further serve as benchmarks for future analyses of Eshelby's inclusion problem.

  5. Static analysis for magneto-electro-elastic plates based on the scaled boundary finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengchong; Liu, Jun; Lin, Gao

    2017-04-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) and the precise integration algorithm (PIA) are utilized to analyze the extended displacement field in clamped or simple-supported magneto-electro-elastic plates produced by external transverse loadings. There are no limitation on boundary conditions and types of external forces. Only the in-plane dimensions are divided into 2D elements. By introducing a set of scaled boundary local coordinates, 3D governing partial differential equations are converted into the second order ordinary differential matrix equation. By means of the internal nodal force, a first order ordinary differential equation is obtained and its general solution is a matrix exponential. The PIA is introduced to calculate the matrix exponential and any desired accuracy can be obtained. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to validate the versatility of the proposed technique.

  6. The size-dependent vibration of embedded magneto-electro-elastic cylindrical nanoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Yang, Jie; Kitipornchai, Sritawat

    2014-01-01

    Based on the nonlocal Love’s shell theory, this paper develops an embedded magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) cylindrical nanoshell model. This model incorporates effects of the small scale parameter and thermo-electro-magnetic loadings. The surrounding elastic medium is described as the Winkler model characterized by the spring. By using this model and the Hamilton principle, the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived for free vibration of the embedded MEE cylindrical nanoshells. The Navier’s method is first utilized to obtain the analytical solution for the simply supported MEE nanoshell. Then, numerical solutions for MEE nanoshells under various boundary conditions are obtained by using the differential quadrature (DQ) method. A detailed parametric study is conducted to highlight the influences of the nonlocal parameter, temperature rise, external electric potential, external magnetic potential, spring constant, radius-to-thickness ratio and length-to-radius ratio on natural frequencies of MEE nanoshells. (paper)

  7. Wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic nanobeams via two nonlocal beam models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Hong; Ke, Liao-Liang; Wang, Yi-Ze; Wang, Yue-Sheng

    2017-02-01

    This paper makes the first attempt to investigate the dispersion behavior of waves in magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) nanobeams. The Euler nanobeam model and Timoshenko nanobeam model are developed in the formulation based on the nonlocal theory. By using the Hamilton's principle, we derive the governing equations which are then solved analytically to obtain the dispersion relations of MEE nanobeams. Results are presented to highlight the influences of the thermo-electro-magnetic loadings and nonlocal parameter on the wave propagation characteristics of MEE nanobeams. It is found that the thermo-electro-magnetic loadings can lead to the occurrence of the cut-off wave number below which the wave can't propagate in MEE nanobeams.

  8. The effect of inhomogeneous initial stress on Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Shen, Y P; Du, J K

    2008-01-01

    The effect of inhomogeneous initial stress on Love wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic structures is investigated in this paper. The coupled magneto-electro-elastic field equations are solved by adopting the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) approximate approach. Then the phase velocity can be calculated by applying boundary and continuity conditions. A specific example of a structure consisting of a CoFe 2 O 4 layer and a BaTiO 3 substrate is used to illustrate the influence of inhomogeneous initial stress on the phase velocity, corresponding coupled magneto-electric factor and stress fields. The different influence between constant initial stress and inhomogeneous initial stress is discussed and the results are expected to be helpful for the preparation and application of Love wave sensors

  9. Finite element formulation using magnetic vector potential approach: effects of displacement current in magneto-electro-elastic cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biju, B; Ganesan, N; Shankar, K

    2010-01-01

    Displacement current is associated with the generation of magnetic fields due to time-varying electric fields. The harmonic response of a magneto-electro-elastic axisymmetric cylinder accounting for displacement current is carried out using the semi-analytical finite element method. The non-conservative electric field is represented using a magnetic vector potential. Studies are carried out for the first circumferential harmonics of the shell structure with the clamped–free boundary condition. The contribution made to the magnetic flux density by the electric displacement current is very small at lower frequencies but it becomes significant at higher frequencies

  10. An analytical solution for a multilayered magneto-electro-elastic circular plate under simply supported lateral boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R; Han, Q; Pan, E

    2010-01-01

    We derive, in this paper, the analytical solution for a three-dimensional transversely isotropic axisymmetric multilayered magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) circular plate under simply supported boundary conditions. The state space vector, the finite Hankel transform and propagating matrix methods are utilized together to obtain the full-field solutions for the MEE plate made of piezoelectric (PE) and piezomagnetic (PM) layers. Numerical examples for three-layered and five-layered PE/PM composites with different stacking sequences and under different loading conditions are presented and discussed. These results can serve as benchmark solutions for future numerical analyses of layered MEE plates

  11. Layout design optimization for magneto-electro-elastic laminate composites for maximized energy conversion under mechanical loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yoon Young

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) laminate composites with piezoelectric and piezomagnetic phases can be utilized as materials providing energy conversion among magnetic, electric and mechanical energies. This work is concerned with the development of a systematic design method of MEE composites with maximized conversion of mechanical energy to electric and/or magnetic energy. To predict the energy conversion phenomena, a fully coupled MEE theory is employed. A composite plate is assumed to be simply supported and is discretized into a number of laminates for analysis using a semi-analytic finite element method. Since the optimal stacking sequences for piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phases and the optimal thickness for each phase must be simultaneously determined, we propose formulating the design problem as a topology optimization problem. To implement the topology optimization, two interpolation models, the standard SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) model and the micromechanics model, are investigated. After solving benchmark test problems, design examples dealing with multifunctional composites are considered

  12. Obtaining the general forms of the effective coefficients of laminate magneto-electro - elastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabañas, J. H.; Otero, A.; Castillero, B.; Rodríguez, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work using the asymptotic homogenization method obtained general expressions for the calculation of the effective characteristics of magnetoelectro-elastic laminates with layers of any symmetry. You will reach an array of auxiliary functions for determining the effective coefficients for a serial connection and displays a result similar to the case of parallel connection.

  13. Free vibration analysis of a magneto-electro-elastic doubly-curved shell resting on a Pasternak-type elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Soheil; Shooshtari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Free vibration of a simply-supported magneto-electro-elastic doubly-curved thin shell resting on a Pasternak foundation is investigated based on Donnell theory. The rotary inertia effect is considered in the formulation. Maxwell equations for electrostatics and magnetostatics are used to model the electric and magnetic behavior. The partial differential equations of motion are reduced to a single ordinary differential equation and an analytical relation is obtained for the natural frequency. After validation of the present study, several numerical studies is done to investigate the effects of the electric and magnetic potentials, spring and shear coefficients of the Pasternak foundation, and the geometry of the shell on the vibration frequency. (paper)

  14. Size-dependent electro-magneto-elastic bending analyses of the shear-deformable axisymmetric functionally graded circular nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper develops nonlocal elasticity equations and magneto-electro-elastic relations to size-dependent electro-magneto-elastic bending analyses of the functionally graded axisymmetric circular nanoplates based on the first-order shear deformation theory. All material properties are graded along the thickness direction based on exponential varying. It is assumed that a circular nanoplate is made from piezo-magnetic materials. The energy method and Ritz approach is employed for the derivation of governing equations of electro-magneto-elastic bending and the solution of the problem, respectively. The nanoplate is subjected to applied electric and magnetic potentials at top and transverse loads while it is rested on Pasternak's foundation. Some important numerical results are presented in various figures to show the influence of applied electric and magnetic potentials, small scale parameter and inhomogeneous index of an exponentially graded nanoplate.

  15. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  16. Nano-scale mass sensor based on the vibration analysis of a magneto-electro-elastic nanoplate resting on a visco-Pasternak substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmirza, E.; Jamalpoor, A.; Kiani, A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a magneto-electro-elastic nanoplate resting on a visco-Pasternak medium with added concentrated nanoparticles is presented as a mass nanosensor according to the vibration analysis. The MEE nanoplate is supposed to be subject to external electric voltage and magnetic potential. In order to take into account the size effect on the sensitivity of the sensor, the nonlocal elasticity theory in conjunction with the Kirchhoff plate theory is applied. Partial differential equations are derived by implementing Hamilton's variational principle. Equilibrium equations were solved analytically to determine an explicit closed-form statement for both the damped frequency shift and the relative damped frequency shift using Navier's approach. A genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to achieve the optimal added nanoparticle location to gain the most sensitivity performance of the nanosensor. Numerical studies are performed to illustrate the variation of the sensitivity property corresponding to various values of the number of attached nanoparticles, the mass of each nanoparticle, the nonlocal parameter, external electric voltage and magnetic potential, the aspect ratio, and visco-Pasternak parameters. Some numerical outcomes of this paper show that the minimum value of the damped frequency shift occurs for a certain value of the length-to-thickness ratio. Also, it is shown that the external magnetic and external electric potentials have a different effect on the sensitivity property. It is anticipated that the results reported in this work can be considered as a benchmark in future micro-structures issues.

  17. Free vibration and biaxial buckling analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microplate resting on visco-Pasternak substrate via modified strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalpoor, A.; Ahmadi-Savadkoohi, A.; Hosseini-Hashemi, Sh

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of free vibration and biaxial buckling of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) microplate resting on Kelvin-Voigt visco-Pasternak foundation and subjected to initial external electric and magnetic potentials, using modified strain gradient theory (MSGT). Kirchhoff plate model and Hamilton’s principle are employed to extract the governing equations of motion. Governing equations were analytically solved to obtain clear closed-form expression for complex natural frequencies and buckling loads using Navier’s approach. Numerical results are presented to reveal variations of natural frequency and buckling load ratio of MEE microplate against different amounts of the length scale parameter, initial external electric and magnetic potentials, aspect ratio, damping and transverse and shear stiffness parameters of the visco-Pasternak foundation, length to thickness ratio, microplate thickness and higher modes. Numerical results of this study illustrate that by increasing thickness-to-material length scale parameter ratio, both natural frequency and buckling load ratio predicted by MSGT and modified couple stress theory are reduced because the non-dimensional length scale parameter tends to decrease the stiffness of structures and make them more flexible. In addition, results show that initial external electric and initial external magnetic potentials have no considerable influence on the buckling load ratio and frequency of MEE microplate as the microplate thickness increases.

  18. Postbuckling of magneto-electro-elastic CNT-MT composite nanotubes resting on a nonlinear elastic medium in a non-uniform thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, M.; Shamsi, M.; Saidi, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    As a first endeavor, the effect of nonlinear elastic foundation on the postbuckling behavior of smart magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) composite nanotubes is investigated. The composite nanotube is affected by a non-uniform thermal environment. A typical MEE composite nanotube consists of microtubules (MTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a MEE cylindrical nanoshell for smart control. It is assumed that the nanoscale layers of the system are coupled by a polymer matrix or filament network depending on the application. In addition to thermal loads, magneto-electro-mechanical loads are applied to the composite nanostructure. Length scale effects are taken into account using the nonlocal elasticity theory. The principle of virtual work and von Karman's relations are used to derive the nonlinear governing differential equations of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes. Using Galerkin's method, nonlinear critical buckling loads are determined. Various types of non-uniform temperature distribution in the radial direction are considered. Finally, the effects of various parameters such as the nonlinear constant of elastic medium, thermal loading factor and small scale coefficient on the postbuckling of MEE CNT-MT nanotubes are studied.

  19. Coupled magneto-electro-mechanical lumped parameter model for a novel vibration-based magneto-electro-elastic energy harvesting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirbani, Meisam Moory; Shishesaz, Mohammad; Hajnayeb, Ali; Sedighi, Hamid Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a coupled magneto-electro-mechanical (MEM) lumped parameter model for the response of the proposed magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) energy harvesting systems under base excitation. The proposed model can be used to create self-powering systems, which are not limited to a finite battery energy. As a novel approach, the MEE composites are used instead of the conventional piezoelectric materials in order to enhance the harvested electrical power. The considered structure consists of a MEE layer deposited on a layer of non-MEE material, in the framework of unimorph cantilever bars (longitudinal displacement) and beams (transverse displacement). To use the generated electrical potential, two electrodes are connected to the top and bottom surfaces of the MEE layer. Additionally, a stationary external coil is wrapped around the vibrating structure to induce a voltage in the coil by the magnetic field generated in the MEE layer. In order to simplify the design procedure of the proposed energy harvester and obtain closed form solutions, a lumped parameter model is prepared. As a first step in modeling process, the governing constitutive equations, Gauss's and Faraday's laws, are used to derive the coupled MEM differential equations. The derived equations are then solved analytically to obtain the dynamic behavior and the harvested voltages and powers of the proposed energy harvesting systems. Finally, the influences of the parameters that affect the performance of the MEE energy harvesters such as excitation frequency, external resistive loads and number of coil turns are discussed in detail. The results clearly show the benefit of the coil circuit implementation, whereby significant increases in the total useful harvested power as much as 38% and 36% are obtained for the beam and bar systems, respectively.

  20. Magnetic field effects on buckling behavior of smart size-dependent graded nanoscale beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this article, buckling behavior of nonlocal magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) beams is investigated based on a higher-order beam model. Material properties of smart nanobeam are supposed to change continuously throughout the thickness based on the power-law model. Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted to capture the small size effects. Nonlocal governing equations of MEE-FG nanobeam are obtained employing Hamilton's principle and they are solved using the Navier solution. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effects of magnetic potential, electric voltage, nonlocal parameter and material composition on buckling behavior of MEE-FG nanobeams. Therefore, the present study makes the first attempt in analyzing the buckling responses of higher-order shear deformable (HOSD) MEE-FG nanobeams.

  1. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  2. Green's function and boundary elements of multifield materials

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Qing-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Green's Function and Boundary Elements of Multifield Materials contains a comprehensive treatment of multifield materials under coupled thermal, magnetic, electric, and mechanical loads. Its easy-to-understand text clarifies some of the most advanced techniques for deriving Green's function and the related boundary element formulation of magnetoelectroelastic materials: Radon transform, potential function approach, Fourier transform. Our hope in preparing this book is to attract interested readers and researchers to a new field that continues to provide fascinating and technologically important challenges. You will benefit from the authors' thorough coverage of general principles for each topic, followed by detailed mathematical derivation and worked examples as well as tables and figures where appropriate. In-depth explanations of the concept of Green's function Coupled thermo-magneto-electro-elastic analysis Detailed mathematical derivation for Green's functions.

  3. Wave propagation in magneto-electro-elastic multilayered plates with nonlocal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangyi; Guo, Junhong; Pan, Ernian

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, analytical solutions for propagation of time-harmonic waves in three-dimensional, transversely isotropic, magnetoelectroelastic and multilayered plates with nonlocal effect are derived. We first convert the time-harmonic wave problem into a linear eigenvalue system, from which we obtain the general solutions of the extended displacements and stresses. The solutions are then employed to derive the propagator matrix which connects the field variables at the upper and lower interfaces of each layer. Making use of the continuity conditions of the physical quantities across the interface, the global propagator relation is assembled by propagating the solutions in each layer from the bottom to the top of the layered plate. From the global propagator matrix, the dispersion equation is obtained by imposing the traction-free boundary conditions on both the top and bottom surfaces of the layered plate. Dispersion curves and mode shapes in layered plates made of piezoelectric BaTiO3 and magnetostrictive CoFe2O4 materials are presented to show the influence of the nonlocal parameter, stacking sequence, as well as the orientation of incident wave on the time-harmonic field response.

  4. Free vibration analysis of magneto-electro-elastic microbeams subjected to magneto-electric loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, Mohamad; Shirbani, Meisam Moory; Hajnayeb, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Different types of actuating and sensing mechanisms are used in new micro and nanoscale devices. Therefore, a new challenge is modeling electromechanical systems that use these mechanisms. In this paper, free vibration of a magnetoelectroelastic (MEE) microbeam is investigated in order to obtain its natural frequencies and buckling loads. The beam is simply supported at both ends. External electric and magnetic potentials are applied to the beam. By using the Hamilton's principle, the governing equations and boundary conditions are derived based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The equations are solved, analytically to obtain the natural frequencies of the MEE microbeam. Furthermore, the effects of external electric and magnetic potentials on the buckling of the beam are analyzed and the critical values of the potentials are obtained. Finally, a numerical study is conducted. It is found that the natural frequency can be tuned directly by changing the magnetic and electric potentials. Additionally, a closed form solution for the normalized natural frequency is derived, and buckling loads are calculated in a numerical example.

  5. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  6. Functionally Graded Material: An overview

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available material is needed that will serve the purpose of the original bio-tissue. The ideal candidate for this application is functionally graded material. FGM has find wide range of application in dental [36] and orthopedic applications for teeth and bone... of Aluminium/Steel functionally graded material,? Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 2, (2011), pp. 1708-1718. [15] F. Watari, A. Yokoyama, H. Matsuno, R. Miyao, M. Uo, T. Kawasaki, M. Omori, and T. Hirai, ?Fabrication of functionally graded implant...

  7. Legendre and Laguerre polynomial approach for modeling of wave propagation in layered magneto-electro-elastic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Matar, Olivier; Gasmi, Noura; Zhou, Huan; Goueygou, Marc; Talbi, Abdelkrim

    2013-03-01

    A numerical method to compute propagation constants and mode shapes of elastic waves in layered piezoelectric-piezomagnetic composites, potentially deposited on a substrate, is described. The basic feature of the method is the expansion of particle displacement, stress fields, electric and magnetic potentials in each layer on different polynomial bases: Legendre for a layer of finite thickness and Laguerre for the semi-infinite substrate. The exponential convergence rate of the method for propagation of Love waves is numerically verified. The main advantage of the method is to directly determine complex wave numbers for a given frequency via a matricial eigenvalue problem, in a way that no transcendental equation has to be solved. Results are presented and the method is discussed.

  8. Exact Solution for an Anti-Plane Interface Crack between Two Dissimilar Magneto-Electro-Elastic Half-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Rogowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the fracture behaviour of a piezo-electro-magneto-elastic medium subjected to electro-magneto-mechanical loads. The bimaterial medium contains a crack which lies at interface and is parallel to their poling direction. Fourier transform technique is used to reduce the problem to three pairs of dual integral equations. These equations are solved exactly. The semipermeable crack-face magneto-electric boundary conditions are utilized. Field intensity factors of stress, electric displacement, magnetic induction, cracks displacement, electric and magnetic potentials, and the energy release rate are determined. The electric displacement and magnetic induction of crack interior are discussed. Obtained results indicate that the stress field and electric and magnetic fields near the crack tips exhibit square-root singularity.

  9. Thermomechanical Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hudnut, Steven

    2001-01-01

    This final report is to document a summary of Ph.D. Student, Mr. Steven Hudnut who was supported by this ASSERT Grant, working on design of Piezo Actuators with Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM). Mr...

  10. Numerical Evaluations of Functionally Graded RC Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mastali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, using fibrous materials is used widely in strengthening applications such as cross-section enlargement and using functionally graded reinforced concrete. Functionally graded reinforced concrete is used as multireinforced concrete layers that can be reinforced by different fiber types. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials by performing analytical simulations. In order to achieve this purpose, in the first stage of this study, three functionally graded reinforced concretes by steel and polypropylene (PP were experimentally tested under flexural loading. Inverse analysis was applied to obtain the used material properties of reinforced concrete by FEMIX software. After obtaining the material properties, to assess the performance of proposed slabs, some other cases were proposed and numerically evaluated under flexural and shear loading. The results showed that increasing steel fiber in reinforced entire cross section led to achieve better shear and flexural performance while the best performance of reinforced functionally graded slabs was achieved for slab at 1% fiber content. In the second stage, nineteen reinforced functionally graded RC slabs with steel bars were simulated and assessed and some other cases were considered which were not experimentally tested.

  11. Functionally graded materials produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2000-01-01

    AlSi40 functionally graded materials (FGMs) were produced by a one-step laser cladding process on cast Al-alloy substrate as a possible solution for interfacial problems often present in laser coatings. The microstructure of the FGMs consists of a large amount of silicon primary particles surrounded

  12. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  13. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Developing newer and utilitarian functionally graded systems using ashes is an interesting and challenging task. Though the concept of FG core in a sandwich and its implication on mechanical performance of sandwich struc- tures is available in early literature (Mouritz and Thomson. 1999; Evans et al 2001; Najafizadeh ...

  14. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  15. Vibration of Elastic Functionally Graded Thick Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Hui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration behaviors of functionally graded rings were investigated theoretically. The material graded in the thickness direction according to the power law rule and the rings were assumed to be in plane stress and plane strain states. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the kinetic relation of von Kárman type, the frequency equation for free vibration of functionally graded ring was derived. The derived results were verified by those in literatures which reveals that the present theory can be appropriate to predict the free vibration characteristics for quite thick rings with the radius-to-thickness ratio from 60 down to 2.09. Comparison between the plane stress case and the plane strain case indicates a slight difference. Meanwhile, the effects of the structural dimensional parameters and the material inhomogeneous parameter are examined. It is interesting that the value of the logarithmic form of vibration frequency is inversely proportional to the logarithmic form of the radius-to-thickness ratio or the mean radius.

  16. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  17. Optimum material gradient composition for the functionally graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Functionally graded piezoelectric actuators can produce not only large displacements but also reduce the internal stress concentrations and consequently improve significantly the lifetime of piezoelectric actuators. Now, the functionally graded piezoelectric materials, as intelligent materials, have been used extensively in.

  18. Modeling Bamboo as a Functionally Graded Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emílio Carlos Nelli; Walters, Matthew C.; Paulino, Glaucio H.

    2008-02-01

    Natural fibers are promising for engineering applications due to their low cost. They are abundantly available in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, and they can be employed as construction materials. Among natural fibers, bamboo has been widely used for housing construction around the world. Bamboo is an optimized composite material which exploits the concept of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). Biological structures, such as bamboo, are composite materials that have complicated shapes and material distribution inside their domain, and thus the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method and multiscale methods such as homogenization, can help to further understanding of the mechanical behavior of these materials. The objective of this work is to explore techniques such as the finite element method and homogenization to investigate the structural behavior of bamboo. The finite element formulation uses graded finite elements to capture the varying material distribution through the bamboo wall. To observe bamboo behavior under applied loads, simulations are conducted considering a spatially-varying Young's modulus, an averaged Young's modulus, and orthotropic constitutive properties obtained from homogenization theory. The homogenization procedure uses effective, axisymmetric properties estimated from the spatially-varying bamboo composite. Three-dimensional models of bamboo cells were built and simulated under tension, torsion, and bending load cases.

  19. Porosity-dependent vibration analysis of piezo-magnetically actuated heterogeneous nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2017-09-01

    In this article, the size-dependent and porosity-dependent vibrational behavior of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) nanoscale beams on two-parameter elastic substrate is presented via a third-order shear deformation beam model. Porosity-dependent material coefficients of the nanobeam are compositionally graded throughout the thickness according to a modified power-law model. Incorporation of small size effect is carried out based on Eringen's nonlocal elasticity theory. Through Hamilton's principle, derivation of nonlocal governing equations is performed. After analytically solving these equations, the influences of porosity, elastic foundation, magnetic potential, applied voltage, scale coefficient, material gradation and slenderness ratio on the frequencies of the porous MEE-FG nanobeams are examined.

  20. Interfacial adhesion of laser clad functionally graded materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ocelik, V.; Pei, Y.T.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Popoola, O; Dahotre, NB; Midea, SJ; Kopech, HM

    2003-01-01

    Two functionally graded coatings were prepared by different laser surface engineering techniques. Laser cladding of AlSi40 powder leads to the formation of functionally graded material (FGM) coating on AI-Si cast alloy substrate. Mapping of strain fields near the laser clad track using the digital

  1. Wave-function reconstruction in a graded semiconductor superlattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, V. G.; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Meinhold, D.

    2004-01-01

    We reconstruct a test wave function in a strongly coupled, graded well-width superlattice by resolving the spatial extension of the interband polarisation and deducing the wave function employing non-linear optical spectroscopy. The graded gap superlattice allows us to precisely control the dista...

  2. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material plates using higher order theory. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... The analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with material variation parameter (n), boundary conditions, aspect ratios and side to ...

  3. Functionally graded biomimetic energy absorption concept development for transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Mechanics of a functionally graded cylinder subject to static or dynamic axial loading is considered, including a potential application as energy absorber. The mass density and stiffness are power functions of the radial coordinate as may be the case...

  4. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  5. Fatigue Behavior of a Functionally-Graded Titanium Matrix Composite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Scott R

    2005-01-01

    Functionally-graded Titanium Matrix Composites are an attempt to utilize the high-strength properties of a titanium matrix composite with a monolithic alloy having the more practical machining qualities...

  6. Development of functionally graded materials by ultrasonic consolidation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) using Ultrasonic Consolidation (UC) needs the joining of different metallic foils together. The present work deals with the joining of stainless steel, Al and Cufoils. Optimum experimental...

  7. Thermal shock analysis of functionally graded materials by micromechanical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Sei

    2002-01-01

    The transient thermoelastic behavior of the functionally graded plate due to a thermal shock with temperature dependent properties is studied in this paper. The development of a micromechanical model for the functionally graded materials is presented and its application to thermoelastic analysis is discussed for the case of the W-Cu functionally graded material for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor divertor plate. The divertor plate is made of a graded layer bonded between a homogeneous substrate and a homogeneous coating, and it is subjected to a cycle of heating and cooling on the coating surface of the material. The thermal and elastic properties of the material are dependent on the temperature and the position. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the results for the transient temperature and thermal stress distributions are displayed graphically. (author)

  8. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  9. Axisymmetrical analysis of functionally graded circular piezoelectric plate by graded element using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, B. L.; Xu, R. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Circular piezoelectric bimorph has been successfully used in numerous types of microdevices, such as actuators for flowcontrol applications, transducers for acoustic applications, and in locomotion of robotic systems, energy harvesting and active structural health monitoring applications. Recently, the concept of the functionally graded material (FGM) is introduced to improve properties and increase lifetime by selectively grading the elastic, piezoelectric, and/or dielectric properties along the thickness of a piezoceramic. However, even for the simple case of homogeneous circular piezoelectric geometry, analytical treatments are severely limited. This study established an axisymmetric and isoparametric graded element to model the functionally graded circular piezoelectric plates. All the material properties including elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric parameters and mass density are graded in the element and interpolated using the shape functions, which is also used to render the displacements and electric potential distribution in the element. Both static and dynamic cases can be considered in this element. MATLAB is used to implement the whole FEM code and gives some numerical examples to demonstrate the presented method.

  10. Design, Manufacturing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Flextensional Piezoelectric Actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, R C R; Vatanabe, S L; Silva, E C N

    2013-01-01

    Previous works have been shown several advantages in using Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) for the performance of flextensional devices, such as reduction of stress concentrations and gains in reliability. In this work, the FGM concept is explored in the design of graded devices by using the Topology Optimization Method (TOM), in order to determine optimal topologies and gradations of the coupled structures of piezoactuators. The graded pieces are manufactured by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique and are bonded to piezoelectric ceramics. The graded actuators are then tested by using a modular vibrometer system for measuring output displacements, in order to validate the numerical simulations. The technological path developed here represents the initial step toward the manufacturing of an integral piezoelectric device, constituted by piezoelectric and non-piezoelectric materials without bonding layers.

  11. Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sahil Garg

    Abstract. In the present work, element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been extended and implemented to simulate thermal fracture in functionally graded materials. The thermo-elastic fracture problem is decoupled into two separate parts. Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the ...

  12. Numerical simulation of thermal fracture in functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present work, element-free Galerkin method (EFGM) has been extended and implemented to simulate thermal fracture in functionally graded materials. The thermo-elastic fracture problem is decoupled into two separate parts. Initially, the temperature distribution over the domain is obtained by solving the heat transfer ...

  13. Heat flow in functionally graded pipes with isothermal boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryden, John [University of Western Ontario, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, London, ON (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    The steady state two-dimensional temperature field within a functionally graded pipe having isothermal inner and outer surfaces is calculated. The analysis is based upon the theory of complex variables. An expression, which depends upon the spatial variation of the conductivity, is suggested for the equivalent homogeneous thermal conductivity. (orig.)

  14. Optimum material gradient composition for the functionally graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the relation between the material gradient properties and the optimum sensing/actuation design of the functionally graded piezoelectric beams. Three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis has been employed for the prediction of an optimum composition profile in these types of sensors and ...

  15. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    when compared to the other engineering materials (Akhavan and Hamed, 2010). However, FGM plates under mechanical loading may undergo elastic instability. Hence, the non-linear behavior of functionally graded plates has to be understood for their optimum design. Reddy (2000) proposed the theoretical formulation ...

  16. Functionally graded materials produced with high power lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, J. T. M.; Ocelik, V.; Chandra, T; Torralba, JM; Sakai, T

    2003-01-01

    In this keynote paper two examples will be present of functionally graded materials produced with high power Nd:YAG lasers. In particular the conditions for a successful Laser Melt Injection (LMI) of SiC and WC particles into the melt pool of A18Si and Ti6Al4V alloys are presented. The formation of

  17. Stress analysis in a functionally graded disc under mechanical loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stress analysis in a functionally graded disc under mechanical loads and a steady state temperature distribution. HASAN ÇALLIO ˘GLU. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pamukkale University, 20070,. Denizli, Turkey e-mail: hcallioglu@pau.edu.tr. MS received 25 November 2009; revised 12 August 2010; accepted.

  18. Thermal and mechanical stresses in a functionally graded thick sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslami, M.R.; Babaei, M.H.; Poultangari, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a general solution for the one-dimensional steady-state thermal and mechanical stresses in a hollow thick sphere made of functionally graded material is presented. The temperature distribution is assumed to be a function of radius, with general thermal and mechanical boundary conditions on the inside and outside surfaces of the sphere. The material properties, except Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary along the radius r according to a power law function. The analytical solution of the heat conduction equation and the Navier equation lead to the temperature profile, radial displacement, radial stress, and hoop stress as a function of radial direction

  19. Preparation and Fatigue Properties of Functionally Graded Cemented Carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Liu Fengxiao; Liaw, Peter K.; He Yuehui

    2008-01-01

    Cemented carbides with a functionally graded structure have significantly improved mechanical properties and lifetimes in cutting, drilling and molding. In this work, WC-6 wt.% Co cemented carbides with three-layer graded structure (surface layer rich in WC, mid layer rich in Co and the inner part of the average composition) were prepared by carburizing pre-sintered η-phase-containing cemented carbides. The three-point bending fatigue tests based on the total-life approach were conducted on both WC-6wt%Co functionally graded cemented carbides (FGCC) and conventional WC-6wt%Co cemented carbides. The functionally graded cemented carbide shows a slightly higher fatigue limit (∼100 MPa) than the conventional ones under the present testing conditions. However, the fatigue crack nucleation behavior of FGCC is different from that of the conventional ones. The crack nucleates preferentially along the Co-gradient and perpendicular to the tension surface in FGCC, while parallel to the tension surface in conventional cemented carbides

  20. Levy Solution for Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Meisam; Saidi, Ali Reza; Jomehzadeh, Emad

    2010-04-01

    In this article, an analytical method for buckling analysis of thin functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates is presented. It is assumed that the material properties of the plate vary through the thickness of the plate as a power function. Based on the classical plate theory (Kirchhoff theory), the governing equations are obtained for functionally graded rectangular plates using the principle of minimum total potential energy. The resulting equations are decoupled and solved for rectangular plate with different loading conditions. It is assumed that the plate is simply supported along two opposite edges and has arbitrary boundary conditions along the other edges. The critical buckling loads are presented for a rectangular plate with different boundary conditions, various powers of FGM and some aspect ratios.

  1. Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Dragan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.

  2. The Synthesis of Two- and Multilayer Functionally Graded Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshalomidze, G.; Oniashvili, G.; Aslamazashvili, Z.; Zakharov, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two- and multilayer functionally graded materials (FGM) are produced via high-temperature self-propagated synthesis (SHS). Their 1 and 2 layers are produced using high-temperature thermo-mechanical treatment (HTTMT). One layer of the FGMs produced by SHS-compacting and tested with an original device is composed of one or two refractory compounds (borides, diborides, carbides), while the other plastic layer is composed of steels, metals or intermetallics. (author)

  3. Fabrication and characteristics of alumina-iron functionally graded materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Ma, J.; Tan, G.E.B.

    2009-01-01

    In the present work, five-layered alumina–iron functionally graded materials (FGMs) were fabricated via a simple route of die pressing and pressureless sintering. The shrinkage differences among the layers in the FGM were minimized by particle size selection and processing control...... was achieved due to the toughening effect of iron and the crack deflection at the weak interfaces. This work provides a cost-effective manner to fabricate ceramic–metal gradient composites for armor applications....

  4. Mechanical and Fatigue Properties of Functionally Graded Aluminium Silicon Alloys =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricel, Chirita Georgel

    Many structural components encounter service conditions and, hence, required materials performance, which vary with location within the component. It is well known that abrupt transitions in materials composition and properties within a component often result in sharp local concentrations of stress, whether the stress is internal or applied externally. It is also known that these stress concentrations are greatly reduced if the transition from one material to the other is made gradual. By definition, functionally graded materials are used to produce components featuring engineered gradual transitions in microstructure and/or composition, the presence of which is motivated by functional performance requirements that vary with location within a part. With functionally graded materials, these requirements are met in a manner that optimizes the overall performance of the component. The research on functionally graded materials (FGMs) is encouraged by the need for properties that are unavailable in any single material and the need for graded properties to offset adverse effects of discontinuities for layered materials. Centrifugal casting is a very common method for obtaining functionally graded materials, mainly composite materials or metallic materials which has high differences of density and low solubility on different phases or different materials of the same alloy. The present work is emphasizing the fact that the centrifugal process could be successfully used for obtaining functionally graded materials also for metallic materials (alloys) with moderate solubility and small differences of density of the different phases, as is the case of most aluminum alloys. The first approach of the problem was to isolate the effects of the centrifugal casting technique (the centrifugal pressure effect, the fluid dynamics and the inherent vibration effects) in order to identify the reason of mechanical properties improving. To have a reference for comparison, castings obtained

  5. Modeling of fingerlike functionally graded microstructure piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almajid, Abdulhakim; Hudnut, Steven W.; Taya, Minoru

    2000-06-01

    The mechanical behavior of a cylindrical, finger-like shaped, piezoelectric actuator with Functionally Graded Microstructure (FGM) was modeled by our analytical model and FEM. Different layers or lamina of different piezoelectric volume fraction in a polymer matrix were stacked to create FGM. Although the bimorph plate exhibit reasonably high out-of-plane displacement, induced stress field remains very high limiting its long life use. FGM piezoelectric plates have been developed to increase the out-of-plane displacement while reducing the stresses where the electro-elastic properties are graded through the plate thickness. Finger-like shape piezo actuators are developed where the properties are graded in the radial direction. FGM piezoelectric type actuator showed promising results in that the deflections to any direction can be obtained by manipulating the magnitude and direction of the applied electric field. Analytical modeling in computing the deflection of the finger-like actuator and stress field induced in each lamina was developed and compared to FEM modeling. The theory of cylindrical FGM is based on lamination theory in which the coordinate system is changed from the rectangular to cylindrical one and from infinite to finite plate.

  6. Free vibration of symmetric and sigmoid functionally graded nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, M. A.; Eltaher, M. A.; Sadoun, A. M.; Almitani, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper was the investigation of vibration characteristics of both nonlinear symmetric power and sigmoid functionally graded nonlocal nanobeams. The volume fractions of metal and ceramic are assumed to be distributed through a beam thickness by sigmoid law distribution and symmetric power function. Structures with symmetric distribution with mid-plane such as ceramic-metal-ceramic and metal-ceramic-metal are proposed. Nonlocal differential Eringen's elasticity is exploited to incorporate size dependency of nanobeam. The kinematic relations of Euler-Bernoulli beam are proposed, with the assumption of a small strain. A nonlocal equation of motion of nanobeam is derived by using principle of virtual work and then discretized by finite element method to obtain numerical solution. Numerical results show the effects of the function distribution, gradient index and nonlocal parameter on natural frequencies of macro- and nanobeam. This model is helpful in the mechanical design of nanoelectromechanical systems manufactured from FGM.

  7. Stochastic Investigation of Natural Frequency for Functionally Graded Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, P. K.; Mukhopadhyay, T.; Dey, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the stochastic natural frequency analysis of functionally graded plates by applying artificial neural network (ANN) approach. Latin hypercube sampling is utilised to train the ANN model. The proposed algorithm for stochastic natural frequency analysis of FGM plates is validated and verified with original finite element method and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The combined stochastic variation of input parameters such as, elastic modulus, shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and mass density are considered. Power law is applied to distribute the material properties across the thickness. The present ANN model reduces the sample size and computationally found efficient as compared to conventional Monte Carlo simulation.

  8. Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianke; Jin, Xiaoying; Wang, Ji; Xian, Kai

    2007-03-01

    An exact approach is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded to a semi-infinite homogeneous solid. The piezoelectric material is polarized in z-axis direction and the material properties change gradually with the thickness of the layer. We here assume that all material properties of the piezoelectric layer have the same exponential function distribution along the x-axis direction. The analytical solutions of dispersion relations are obtained for electrically open or short circuit conditions. The effects of the gradient variation of material constants on the phase velocity, the group velocity, and the coupled electromechanical factor are discussed in detail. The displacement, electric potential, and stress distributions along thickness of the graded layer are calculated and plotted. Numerical examples indicate that appropriate gradient distributing of the material properties make Love waves to propagate along the surface of the piezoelectric layer, or a bigger electromechanical coupling factor can be obtained, which is in favor of acquiring a better performance in surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

  9. Bending analysis of different material distributions of functionally graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldousari, S. M.

    2017-04-01

    Most analyses of functional graded materials (FGM) focusing on power law distribution, which presents stress concentration at the interface when material properties change rapidly. The objective of the current paper is to develop two symmetric and anti-symmetric functions and compare their effects on the static deflection and bending stresses with classical power-law distribution. The proposed distributions are a symmetric power-law and a sigmoid function which is anti-symmetric. To homogenized micromechanical properties of FGM, the effective material properties are derived on the basis of Voigt model. Kinematic relation of Euler-Bernoulli beam is assumed and virtual work is proposed to derive the equilibrium equations. A finite element model is proposed to form stiffness matrix and force vector and then solve the problem numerically. Proposed model has been validated. Numerical results presents the effect of power exponent, and elasticity ratios on a static deflection and stresses of FG beams. The most significant finding is that, the symmetric power function is more reliable and can considerably reduce the stress than the other two functions. However, the sigmoid function distribution represents the highest stress.

  10. Size-dependent thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded nanoshell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two-dimensional thermoelastic analysis of a functionally graded nanoshell is presented based on nonlocal elasticity theory. To formulate this problem, first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used for axial and radial deformations simultaneously. Material properties are assumed to be mixture of ceramic and metal based on a power law distribution. Principle of virtual work is used for derivation of the governing equations. The analytical approach is presented based on eigenvalue and eigenvector method to derive four unknown functions including radial and axial displacements and rotations along the longitudinal direction. In addition, the influence of nonlocal and in-homogeneous index parameter is studied on the responses of the system. Two-dimensional results are presented along the radial and longitudinal directions.

  11. Thermal performance of functionally graded parabolic annular fins having constant weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaba, Vivek Kumar; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Bhowmick, Shubhankar [National Institute of Technology Raipur, Raipur (India)

    2014-10-15

    The proposed work reports the performance of parabolic annular fins of constant weight made of functionally graded materials. The work involves computation of temperature gradient, efficiency and effectiveness of such fins and compares the performances for different functionally graded parabolic fin profiles obtained by varying grading parameters and profile parameters respectively keeping the weight of the fins constant. The functional grading of thermal conductivity is based on a power function of radial co-ordinate which consists of parameters, namely grading parameters, varying which different grading combinations are studied. A general second order ordinary differential equation has been derived for all the profiles and material grading. The efficiency and effectiveness of the annular fins of different profile and grading combinations have been calculated and plotted and the results reveal the dependence of fin performance on profile and grading parameter.

  12. Material Design of Functionally Graded Plates with the Function of Electromagnetic Noise Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Satoshi

    The development of materials to suppress electromagnetic noise is in demand. In this paper, we present a method for the material design of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with the function of electromagnetic noise suppression. The FGM plates are considered to be multilayered plates in which the material properties are homogeneous inside each layer. Therefore, the approximate analytical solutions of electromagnetic fields in the FGM plates subject to electromagnetic noise are derived. The expressions for electromagnetic noise suppression are then obtained based on the above analytical solutions. Numerical calculations are carried out for epoxy resin/titanium oxide FGM plates with graded composition distribution expressed in the form of a power function. The effects of graded composition and plate thickness on the electromagnetic noise suppression are quantitatively evaluated, and the material design suitable for the suppression of electromagnetic noise is discussed.

  13. Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampila, Lucina E

    2013-10-01

    Food-grade phosphates are used in the production of foods to function as buffers, sequestrants, acidulants, bases, flavors, cryoprotectants, gel accelerants, dispersants, nutrients, precipitants, and as free-flow (anticaking) or ion-exchange agents. The actions of phosphates affect the chemical leavening of cakes, cookies, pancakes, muffins, and doughnuts; the even melt of processed cheese; the structure of a frankfurter; the bind and hydration of delicatessen meats; the fluidity of evaporated milk; the distinctive flavor of cola beverages; the free flow of spice blends; the mineral content of isotonic beverages; and the light color of par-fried potato strips. In the United States, food-grade phosphates are generally recognized as safe, but use levels have been defined for some foods by the Code of Federal Regulations, specifically Titles 9 and 21 for foods regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), respectively. Standards for food purity are defined nationally and internationally in sources such as the Food Chemicals Codex and the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Experiments on deformation behaviour of functionally graded NiTi structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir S. Shariat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded NiTi structures benefit from the combination of the smart properties of NiTi and those of functionally graded structures. This article provides experimental data for thermomechanical deformation behaviour of microstructurally graded, compositionally graded and geometrically graded NiTi alloy components, related to the research article entitled “Functionally graded shape memory alloys: design, fabrication and experimental evaluation” (Shariat et al., 2017 [1]. Stress–strain variation of microstructurally graded NiTi wires is presented at different heat treatment conditions and testing temperatures. The complex 4-way shape memory behaviour of a compositionally graded NiTi strip during one complete thermal cycle is demonstrated. The effects of geometrical design on pseudoelastic behaviour of geometrically graded NiTi plates over tensile loading cycles are presented on the stress–strain diagrams.

  15. Experiments on deformation behaviour of functionally graded NiTi structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat, Bashir S; Meng, Qinglin; Mahmud, Abdus S; Wu, Zhigang; Bakhtiari, Reza; Zhang, Junsong; Motazedian, Fakhrodin; Yang, Hong; Rio, Gerard; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Liu, Yinong

    2017-08-01

    Functionally graded NiTi structures benefit from the combination of the smart properties of NiTi and those of functionally graded structures. This article provides experimental data for thermomechanical deformation behaviour of microstructurally graded, compositionally graded and geometrically graded NiTi alloy components, related to the research article entitled "Functionally graded shape memory alloys: design, fabrication and experimental evaluation" (Shariat et al., 2017) [1]. Stress-strain variation of microstructurally graded NiTi wires is presented at different heat treatment conditions and testing temperatures. The complex 4-way shape memory behaviour of a compositionally graded NiTi strip during one complete thermal cycle is demonstrated. The effects of geometrical design on pseudoelastic behaviour of geometrically graded NiTi plates over tensile loading cycles are presented on the stress-strain diagrams.

  16. Mode Shape Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper addresses free vibration of multiple cracked Timoshenko beams made of Functionally Graded Material (FGM. Cracks are modeled by rotational spring of stiffness calculated from the crack depth and material properties vary according to the power law throughout the beam thickness. Governing equations for free vibration of the beam are formulated with taking into account actual position of the neutral plane. The obtained frequency equation and mode shapes are used for analysis of the beam mode shapes in dependence on the material and crack parameters. Numerical results validate usefulness of the proposed herein theory and show that mode shapes are good indication for detecting multiple cracks in Timoshenko FGM beams.

  17. Differential quadrature method of nonlinear bending of functionally graded beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangnian, Xu; Liansheng, Ma; Wang, Youzhi; Quan, Yuan; Weijie, You

    2018-02-01

    Using the third-order shear deflection beam theory (TBT), nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) beams composed with various amounts of ceramic and metal is analyzed utilizing the differential quadrature method (DQM). The properties of beam material are supposed to accord with the power law index along to thickness. First, according to the principle of stationary potential energy, the partial differential control formulae of the FG beams subjected to a distributed lateral force are derived. To obtain numerical results of the nonlinear bending, non-dimensional boundary conditions and control formulae are dispersed by applying the DQM. To verify the present solution, several examples are analyzed for nonlinear bending of homogeneous beams with various edges. A minute parametric research is in progress about the effect of the law index, transverse shear deformation, distributed lateral force and boundary conditions.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of functionally graded laminates considering piezoelectric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behjat, Ba Shir [Mechanical Engineering Faculty Sahand Univ. of Technology, Sahand New Tawn (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshravan Mohamad Reza [Tabriz Univ., Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, static bending analysis of functionally graded plates with piezoelectric layers has been carried out considering geometrical nonlinearity in different sets of mechanical and electrical loadings. Only the geometrical nonlinearity has been taken into account. The governing equations are obtained using potential energy and Hamilton's principle. The finite element model is derived based on constitutive equation of piezoelectric material accounting for coupling between elasticity and electric effect by using higher order elements. The present finite element used displacement and electric potential as nodal degrees of freedom. Results are presented for two constituent FGM plate under different mechanical boundary conditions. Numerical results for FGM plate are given in dimensionless graphical forms. Effects of material composition and boundary conditions on nonlinear response of the plate are also studied.

  19. Stress concentration in a finite functionally graded material plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, QuanQuan; Gao, CunFa; Chen, WenTao

    2012-07-01

    This paper is to study the two-dimensional stress distribution of a finite functionally graded material (FGM) plate with a circular hole under arbitrary constant loads. Using the method of piece-wise homogeneous layers, the stress analysis of the finite FGM plate having radial arbitrary elastic properties is made based on the complex variable method combined with the least square boundary collocation technique. Numerical results of stress distribution around the hole are then presented for different loading conditions, different material properties and different plate sizes, respectively. It is shown that the stress concentration in the finite plate is generally enhanced compared with the case of an infinite plate, but it can be significantly reduced by choosing proper change ways of the radial elastic modulus.

  20. Free Vibration Analysis of Multiple Cracked Functionally Graded Timoshenko Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Lien

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, authors present the study of free vibration of bending multiple cracked functionally graded material (FGM beam. Vibration equations of multiple cracked FGM beam were established by using the rotational spring model of cracks, dynamic stiffness method (DSM and actual position of neutral plane. The frequency equation obtained was in a simple form, that provides an effective approach to study not only free vibration of the beams but also inverse problems like identification of material and crack parameters in structure. The obtained numerical results show good agreement with other previous published results. Thence, numerical computation has been carried out to investigate the effect of each crack, the number of cracks, material and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies of multiple cracked Timoshenko FGM beams.

  1. Analyses of functionally graded plates with a magnetoelectroelastic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladek, J.; Sladek, V.; Krahulec, S.; Pan, E.

    2013-03-01

    A meshless local Petrov-Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented for the analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with a sensor/actuator magnetoelectroelastic layer localized on the top surface of the plate. The Reissner-Mindlin shear deformation theory is applied to describe the plate bending problem. The expressions for the bending moment, shear force and normal force are obtained by integration through the FGM plate and magnetoelectric layer for the corresponding constitutive equations. Then, the original three-dimensional (3D) thick-plate problem is reduced to a two-dimensional (2D) problem. Nodal points are randomly distributed over the mean surface of the considered plate. Each node is the center of a circle surrounding the node. The weak-form on small subdomains with a Heaviside step function as the test function is applied to derive local integral equations. After performing the spatial MLS approximation, a system of ordinary differential equations of the second order for certain nodal unknowns is obtained. The derived ordinary differential equations are solved by the Houbolt finite-difference scheme. Pure mechanical loads or electromagnetic potentials are prescribed on the top of the layered plate. Both stationary and transient dynamic loads are analyzed.

  2. Analyses of functionally graded plates with a magnetoelectroelastic layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sladek, J; Sladek, V; Krahulec, S; Pan, E

    2013-01-01

    A meshless local Petrov–Galerkin (MLPG) method is presented for the analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with a sensor/actuator magnetoelectroelastic layer localized on the top surface of the plate. The Reissner–Mindlin shear deformation theory is applied to describe the plate bending problem. The expressions for the bending moment, shear force and normal force are obtained by integration through the FGM plate and magnetoelectric layer for the corresponding constitutive equations. Then, the original three-dimensional (3D) thick-plate problem is reduced to a two-dimensional (2D) problem. Nodal points are randomly distributed over the mean surface of the considered plate. Each node is the center of a circle surrounding the node. The weak-form on small subdomains with a Heaviside step function as the test function is applied to derive local integral equations. After performing the spatial MLS approximation, a system of ordinary differential equations of the second order for certain nodal unknowns is obtained. The derived ordinary differential equations are solved by the Houbolt finite-difference scheme. Pure mechanical loads or electromagnetic potentials are prescribed on the top of the layered plate. Both stationary and transient dynamic loads are analyzed. (paper)

  3. Development of W/Cu--functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintsuk, G.; Bruenings, S.E.; Doering, J.-E.; Linke, J.; Smid, I.; Xue, L.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma facing components (PFCs) consist of a plasma facing and a heat sink material. These have to fulfil different functions that require different material properties, for example the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of tungsten and copper. Joining of these materials (e.g. by brazing or HIPing) results in the formation of thermal-induced stresses at the interface. Functionally graded materials (FGMs), used as an interlayer, reduce these thermally induced stresses. Two different methods, laser sintering and plasma spraying, have been investigated as a means to produce W/Cu FGMs to be used in PFCs of next step confinement experiments. In addition to mixtures of tungsten and copper powders, 40 wt.% Cu-coated W powder was used to produce W/Cu composites with a content of either 25 or 60 vol.% Cu. The composite microstructure has been analyzed according to Cu content, particle distribution and layer structure. The difference in the behavior of powder mixtures and coated powder is outlined. A comparison of plasma sprayed to commercially produced Cu-infiltrated W samples is made and the results of thermomechanical and thermophysical testing are discussed with respect to different microstructures

  4. Fabrication, Characterization and Modeling of Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Po-Hua

    In the past few decades, a number of theoretical and experimental studies for design, fabrication and performance analysis of solar panel systems (photovoltaic/thermal systems) have been documented. The existing literature shows that the use of solar energy provides a promising solution to alleviate the shortage of natural resources and the environmental pollution associated with electricity generation. A hybrid solar panel has been invented to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells onto a substrate through a functionally graded material (FGM) with water tubes cast inside, through which water flow serves as both a heat sink and a solar heat collector. Due to the unique and graded material properties of FGMs, this novel design not only supplies efficient thermal harvest and electrical production, but also provides benefits such as structural integrity and material efficiency. In this work, a sedimentation method has been used to fabricate aluminum (Al) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) FGMs. The size effect of aluminum powder on the material gradation along the depth direction is investigated. Aluminum powder or the mixture of Al and HDPE powder is thoroughly mixed and uniformly dispersed in ethanol and then subjected to sedimentation. During the sedimentation process, the concentration of Al and HDPE particles temporally and spatially changes in the depth direction due to the non-uniform motion of particles; this change further affects the effective viscosity of the suspension and thus changes the drag force of particles. A Stokes' law based model is developed to simulate the sedimentation process, demonstrate the effect of manufacturing parameters on sedimentation, and predict the graded microstructure of deposition in the depth direction. In order to improve the modeling for sedimentation behavior of particles, the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method (EIM) is presented to determine the interaction between particles, which is not considered in a Stokes' law based

  5. Inter-hemispheric language functional reorganization in low-grade glioma patients after tumour surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristo, Gert; Raemaekers, Mathijs; Rutten, Geert-Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice; Ramsey, Nick F.

    Despite many claims of functional reorganization following tumour surgery, empirical studies that investigate changes in functional activation patterns are rare. This study investigates whether functional recovery following surgical treatment in patients with a low-grade glioma in the left

  6. Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite Coatings Doped with Antibacterial Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xiao [ORNL; More, Karren Leslie [ORNL; Rouleau, Christopher M [ORNL; Rabiei, Afsaneh [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A series of functionally graded hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coatings incorporated with various percentages of silver were deposited on titanium substrates using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The analysis of the coating s cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), has shown a decreased crystallinity as well as a distribution of nano scale (10 ~ 50nm) silver particles from the coating/substrate interface to top surface. Both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite within the coatings. The amount of Ag (wt. %) on the outer surface of the FGHA, as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ranged from 1.09 ~ 6.59, which was about half of the average Ag wt. % incorporated in the entire coating. Average adhesion strengths evaluated by pull-off tests were in the range of 83 6 - 88 3 MPa, which is comparable to 85 MPa for FGHA without silver. Further optical observations of failed areas illustrated that the dominant failure mechanism was epoxy failure and FGHA coating delamination was not observed.

  7. Nonlinear oscillations, bifurcations and chaos of functionally graded materials plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. X.; Chen, L. H.; Zhang, W.; Lei, J. G.

    2008-05-01

    An analysis on the nonlinear dynamics of a simply supported functionally graded materials (FGMs) rectangular plate subjected to the transversal and in-plane excitations is presented in a thermal environment for the first time. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent. Based on Reddy's third-order plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of motion for the FGM plates are derived using Hamilton's principle. Galerkin's method is utilized to discretize the governing partial equations to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system including the quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms under combined parametric and external excitations. The resonant case considered here is 1:1 internal resonance and principal parametric resonance. The asymptotic perturbation method is utilized to obtain four-dimensional nonlinear averaged equation. The numerical method is used to find the nonlinear dynamic responses of the FGM rectangular plate. It was found that periodic, quasi-periodic solutions and chaotic motions exist for the FGM rectangular plates under certain conditions. It is believed that the forcing excitations f1 and f2 can change the form of motions for the FGM rectangular plate.

  8. Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of Classical Functionally Graded Coated Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toudehdehghan Abdolreza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The governing equation of a classical rectangular coated beam made of two layers subjected to thermal and uniformly distributed mechanical loads are derived by using the principle of virtual displacements and based on Euler-Bernoulli deformation beam theory (EBT. The aim of this paper was to analyze the static behavior of clamped-clamped thin coated beam under thermo-mechanical load using MATLAB. Two models were considered for composite coated. The first model was consisting of ceramic layer as a coated and substrate which was metal (HC model. The second model was consisting of Functionally Graded Material (FGM as a coated layer and metal substrate (FGC model. From the result it was apparent that the superiority of the FGC composite against conventional coated composite has been demonstrated. From the analysis, the stress level throughout the thickness at the interface of the coated beam for the FGC was reduced. Yet, the deflection in return was observed to increase. Therefore, this could cater to various new engineering applications where warrant the utilization of material that has properties that are well-beyond the capabilities of the conventional or yesteryears materials.

  9. Functionally graded hydroxyapatite coatings doped with antibacterial components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao; More, Karren; Rouleau, Christopher M; Rabiei, Afsaneh

    2010-06-01

    A series of functionally graded hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coatings incorporated with various percentages of silver were deposited on titanium substrates using ion beam-assisted deposition. The analysis of the coating's cross-section using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has shown a decreased crystallinity as well as a distribution of nanoscale (10-50nm) silver particles from the coating/substrate interface to top surface. Both X-ray diffraction and fast Fourier transforms on high-resolution TEM images revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite within the coatings. The amount of Ag (wt.%) on the outer surface of the FGHA, as determined from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ranged from 1.09 to 6.59, which was about half of the average Ag wt.% incorporated in the entire coating. Average adhesion strengths evaluated by pull-off tests were in the range of 83+/-6 to 88+/-3MPa, which is comparable to 85MPa for FGHA without silver. Further optical observations of failed areas illustrated that the dominant failure mechanism was epoxy failure, and FGHA coating delamination was not observed. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preserved splenic function after angioembolisation of high grade injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skattum, Jorunn; Titze, Thomas Larsen; Dormagen, Johann Baptist; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Bechensteen, Anne Grete; Gaarder, Per Ivar; Gaarder, Christine; Heier, Hans Erik; Næss, Pål Aksel

    2012-01-01

    After introducing splenic artery embolisation (SAE) in the institutional treatment protocol for splenic injury, we wanted to evaluate the effects of SAE on splenic function and assess the need for immunisation in SAE treated patients. 15 SAE patients and 14 splenectomised (SPL) patients were included and 29 healthy blood donors volunteered as controls. Clinical examination, medical history, general blood counts, immunoglobulin quantifications and flowcytometric analysis of lymphocyte phenotypes were performed. Peripheral blood smears from all patients and controls were examined for Howell-Jolly (H-J) bodies. Abdominal doppler, gray scale and contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) were performed on all the SAE patients. Leukocyte and platelet counts were elevated in both SAE and SPL individuals compared to controls. The proportion of memory B-lymphocytes did not differ significantly from controls in either group. In the SAE group total IgA, IgM and IgG levels as well as pneumococcal serotype specific IgG and IgM antibody levels did not differ from the control group. In the SPL group total IgA and IgG Pneumovax(®) (PPV23) antibody levels were significantly increased, and 5 of 12 pneumococcal serotype specific IgGs and IgMs were significantly elevated. H-J bodies were only detected in the SPL group. CEUS confirmed normal sized and well perfused spleens in all SAE patients. In our study non-operative management (NOM) of high grade splenic injuries including SAE, was followed by an increase in total leukocyte and platelet counts. Normal levels of immunoglobulins and memory B cells, absence of H-J bodies and preserved splenic size and intraparenchymal blood flow suggest that SAE has only minor impact on splenic function and that immunisation probably is unnecessary. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Osteoblast functions in functionally graded Ti-6Al-4 V mesh structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nune, K C; Kumar, A; Misra, R D K; Li, S J; Hao, Y L; Yang, R

    2016-03-01

    We describe here the combined efforts of engineering and biological sciences as a systemic approach to fundamentally elucidate osteoblast functions in functionally graded Ti-6Al-4 V mesh structures in relation to uniform/monolithic mesh arrays. First, the interconnecting porous architecture of functionally graded mesh arrays was conducive to cellular functions including attachment, proliferation, and mineralization. The underlying reason is that the graded fabricated structure with cells seeded from the large pore size side provided a channel for efficient transfer of nutrients to other end of the structure (small pore size), leading to the generation of mineralized extracellular matrix by differentiating pre-osteoblasts. Second, a comparative and parametric study indicated that gradient mesh structure had a pronounced effect on cell adhesion and mineralization, and strongly influenced the proliferation phase. High intensity and near-uniform distribution of proteins (actin and vinculin) on struts of the gradient mesh structure (cells seeded from large pore side) implied signal transduction during cell adhesion and was responsible for superior cellular activity, in comparison to the uniform mesh structure and non-porous titanium alloy. Cells adhered to the mesh struts by forming a sheet, bridging the pores through numerous cytoplasmic extensions, in the case of porous mesh structures. Intercellular interaction in porous structures provided a pathway for cells to communicate and mature to a differentiated phenotype. Furthermore, the capability of cells to migrate through the interconnecting porous architecture on mesh structures led to colonization of the entire structure. Cells were embedded layer-by-layer in the extracellular matrix as the matrix mineralized. The outcomes of the study are expected to address challenges associated with the treatment of segmental bone defects and bone-remodeling through favorable modulation of cellular response. Moreover, the study

  12. The contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijbooms, E.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were

  13. The Contribution of Executive Functions to Narrative Writing in Fourth Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of executive functions to narrative writing in fourth grade children, and evaluated to what extent executive functions contribute differentially to different levels of narrative composition. The written skills of 102 Dutch children in fourth grade were assessed using a narrative picture-elicitation…

  14. Stress analysis in a functionally graded disc under mechanical loads ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some relative results for the stress and displacement components along the radius are presented due to internal pressure, external pressure, centrifugal force and steady state temperature. From the results, it is found that the grading indexes play an important role in determining the thermomechanical responses of FG disc ...

  15. Application of ANFIS for analytical modeling of tensile strength of functionally graded steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nazari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the tensile strength of ferritic and austenitic functionally graded steels produced by electroslag remelting has been modeled. To produce functionally graded steels, two slices of plain carbon steel and austenitic stainless steels were spot welded and used as electroslag remelting electrode. Functionally graded steel containing graded layers of ferrite and austenite may be fabricated via diffusion of alloying elements during remelting stage. Vickers microhardness profile of the specimen has been obtained experimentally and modeled with adaptive network-based fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS. To build the model for graded ferritic and austenitic steels, training, testing and validation using respectively 174 and 120 experimental data were conducted. According to the input parameters, in the ANFIS model, the Vickers microhardness of each layer was predicted. A good fit equation which correlates the Vickers microhardness of each layer to its corresponding chemical composition was achieved by the optimized network for both ferritic and austenitic graded steels. Afterwards; the Vickers microhardness of each layer in functionally graded steels was related to the yield stress of the corresponding layer and by assuming Holloman relation for stress-strain curve of each layer, they were acquired. Finally, by applying the rule of mixtures, tensile strength of functionally graded steels configuration was found through a numerical method. The obtained results from the proposed model are in good agreement with those acquired from the experiments.

  16. A new grading for easy and concise description of functional status after spinal cord lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluvshtein, V; Front, L; Itzkovich, M; Benjamini, Y; Galili, T; Gelernter, I; Aidinoff, E; Hart, J; Tesio, L; Biering-Sorensen, F; Weeks, C; Laramee, M T; Craven, C; Hitzig, S L; Glaser, E; Zeilig, G; Aito, S; Scivoletto, G; Mecci, M; Chadwick, R J; El Masry, W S; Osman, A; Glass, C A; Silva, P; Soni, B M; Gardner, B P; Savic, G; Bergström, E M; Catz, A

    2012-01-01

    Disability scales do not enable the transmission of concise, meaningful and daily function description for clinical purposes. Cross-sectional statistical analysis of 328 patients' Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM) III item scores (SIS). To develop a concise and clinically interpretable data-based characterization of daily task accomplishment for patients with spinal cord lesions (SCLs). Multi-center study at 13 spinal units in 6 countries. Patients were grouped into clusters characterized by smaller differences between the patients' SIS within the clusters than between their centers, using the k-medoides algorithm. The number of clusters (k) was chosen according to the percent of SIS variation they explained and the clinical distinction between them. Analysis showed that k=8 SIS clusters offer a good description of the patient population. The eight functional clusters were designated as A-H, each cluster (grade) representing a combination of task accomplishments. Higher grades were usually (but not always) associated with patients implementing more difficult tasks. Throughout rehabilitation, the patients' functional grade improved and the distribution of patients with similar functional grades within the total SCIM III score deciles remained stable. A new classification based on SIS clusters enables a concise description of overall functioning and task accomplishment distribution in patients with SCL. A software tool is used to identify the patients' functional grade. Findings support the stability and utility of the grades for characterizing the patients' functional status.

  17. Finite deformations of functionally graded shell under outer pressure with steady state temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Panchal, Rekha; Sahni, Manoj; Sharma, Richa

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, finite elastic and plastic stresses have been determined for functionally graded shell using the concepts of transition theory and generalized measure of strain i.e. nonlinear terms in the displacements are also considered while in classical theory only infinitesimal strain theory concept has been applied. In this problem of spherical shell, temperature has been applied at the internal surface while pressure is considered to be applied at the external surface. From the detailed analysis, it has been noticed that temperature and pressure have significant effects on functionally graded shell. In this paper, it is found that external pressure required for the fully plastic state from initial yielding is on the higher side for the shell made up of highly functionally graded material as compared to the shell made up of less functionally graded material.

  18. Functionally Graded Polyimide Nanocomposite Foams for Ablative and Inflatable/Flexible/Deplorable Structures, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the proposed research is to develop functionally graded polyimide foams as light-weight, high performance thermal protection systems (TPS) for...

  19. Advanced Functionally Graded Plate-Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    at the outer surfaces of the plate and tending toward full metal at the mid-surface UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 3. Types of FGM ...Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading Terry Hause, Ph.D. Research Mechanical Engineer U.S. Army RDECOM-TARDEC...AND SUBTITLE Advanced Functionally Graded Plate -Type Structures Impacted By Blast Loading 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  20. The Dynamic Response of Multidirectional Functionally Graded Plates Impacted by Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-11

    Mechanical Engineering Science, 255 Part C (2010) 526-536. [4] X.Q. He, T.Y. Ng, S. Sivashanker, K.M. Liew, Active control of FGM plates with...release The Dynamic Response of Multidirectional Functionally Graded Plates Impacted by Blast Loading Terry Hausea, Ph.D. aResearch...functionally graded thin plates under an in-air blast loading from a Friedlander type pressure loading is presented. The theory is presented in the context

  1. Modelling of functionally graded materials by numerical homogenization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmauder, S.; Weber, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt

    2001-03-01

    In this contribution, the mechanical behaviour of different ZrO{sub 2}/NiCr 80 20 compositions is analysed and compared with experimental findings. The microwave-sintered material is found to possess a slightly dominant ceramic matrix for intermediate volume fractions. Its thermal expansion coefficient deviates from the rule of mixture. The modulus and the stress strain behaviour can be simulated by a numerical homogenization procedure, and the influence of residual stresses is found to be negligible. A newly introduced parameter (matricity) describes the mutual circumvention of the phases and is found to strongly control the stress level of the composite, globally as well as locally. Finally, a graded component and a metal/ceramic bi-material are compared for thermal as well as mechanical loading. (orig.)

  2. Functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 by Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulugurtha, Syamala R.

    The objective of the current work was to fabricate a crack-free functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 thin wall structure by Laser Metal Deposition (LMD). One potential application for the current material system is the ability to fabricate a functionally graded alloy that can be used in a space heat exchanger. The two alloys, Inconel 625 and Ti6Al4V are currently used for aerospace applications. They were chosen as candidates for grading because functionally grading those combines the properties of high strength/weight ratio of Ti6Al4V and high temperature oxidation resistance of Inconel 625 into one multifunctional material for the end application. However, there were challenges associated with the presence of Ni-Ti intermetallic phases (IMPs). The study focused on several critical areas such as (1) understanding microstructural evolution, (2) reducing macroscopic cracking, and (3) reducing mixing between graded layers. Finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to understand the effect of process conditions on multilayer claddings for simplified material systems such as SS316L and Inconel 625 where complex microstructures did not form. The thermo-mechanical models were developed using Abaqus(TM) (and some of them experimentally verified) to predict temperature-gradients; remelt layer depths and residual stresses. Microstructure evolution along the functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 was studied under different processing and grading conditions. Thermodynamic modeling using Factsage (v 6.1) was used to construct phase diagrams and predict the possible equilibrium major/minor phases (verified experimentally by XRD) that may be present along the functionally graded Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 thin wall structures.

  3. An investigation on thermal residual stresses in a cylindrical functionally graded WC-Co component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahvilian, L. [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fang, Z. Zak, E-mail: zak.fang@utah.edu [Metallurgical Engineering, University of Utah, 135 South 1460 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The thermal residual stress distribution in a functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG WC-Co) hollow cylinder was examined with an emphasis on the effects of key variables, such as gradient profile and gradient thickness on the magnitude and distribution of the stress field. An analytical direct solution based on solving the governing equations of a cylinder composed of a uniform inner core and a functionally graded outer shell was developed, considering the cylindrical compound as two separate elements: a homogeneous cylinder and a functionally graded shell. Through the graded shell, material properties such as the modulus of elasticity and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), except Poisson's ratio, were considered to vary as a power function of the radius, and proper mechanical boundary conditions were imposed at the interface of the two cylinders. Practical values for the two variables, gradient profile and gradient thickness, were evaluated in the mathematical solution for the FG WC-Co compound, and their effects on the stress distribution were studied. An examination of different gradient profiles showed that with excess Co content in the graded region, compressive radial stresses were created, while with decreasing Co content through the graded region tensile stresses were generated at the interface. The effect of gradient thickness was shown to have a greater effect on radial stress, compared to hoop stress, and increasing the gradient thickness significantly increased the radial stress magnitude.

  4. Dynamic response of fly ash reinforced functionally graded rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic analysis of jute-epoxy sandwiches with fly ash reinforced functionally gradient (FG) flexible, compliant rubber core is presented. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified by weight method. An attempt is made to study the influence of fly ash weight ...

  5. Chaotic dynamics of size dependent Timoshenko beams with functionally graded properties along their thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awrejcewicz, J.; Krysko, A. V.; Pavlov, S. P.; Zhigalov, M. V.; Krysko, V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Chaotic dynamics of microbeams made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) is investigated in this paper based on the modified couple stress theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. We assume that the beam properties are graded along the thickness direction. The influence of size-dependent and functionally graded coefficients on the vibration characteristics, scenarios of transition from regular to chaotic vibrations as well as a series of static problems with an emphasis put on the load-deflection behavior are studied. Our theoretical/numerical analysis is supported by methods of nonlinear dynamics and the qualitative theory of differential equations supplemented by Fourier and wavelet spectra, phase portraits, and Lyapunov exponents spectra estimated by different algorithms, including Wolf's, Rosenstein's, Kantz's, and neural networks. We have also detected and numerically validated a general scenario governing transition into chaotic vibrations, which follows the classical Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario for the considered values of the size-dependent and grading parameters.

  6. Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YongMan Choi; Meilin Liu

    2006-09-30

    This DOE SECA project focused on both experimental and theoretical understanding of oxygen reduction processes in a porous mixed-conducting cathode in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Elucidation of the detailed oxygen reduction mechanism, especially the rate-limiting step(s), is critical to the development of low-temperature SOFCs (400 C to 700 C) and to cost reduction since much less expensive materials may be used for cell components. However, cell performance at low temperatures is limited primarily by the interfacial polarization resistances, specifically by those associated with oxygen reduction at the cathode, including transport of oxygen gas through the porous cathode, the adsorption of oxygen onto the cathode surface, the reduction and dissociation of the oxygen molecule (O{sub 2}) into the oxygen ion (O{sup 2-}), and the incorporation of the oxygen ion into the electrolyte. In order to most effectively enhance the performance of the cathode at low temperatures, we must understand the mechanism and kinetics of the elementary processes at the interfaces. Under the support of this DOE SECA project, our accomplishments included: (1) Experimental determination of the rate-limiting step in the oxygen reduction mechanism at the cathode using in situ FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, including surface- and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS and TERS). (2) Fabrication and testing of micro-patterned cathodes to compare the relative activity of the TPB to the rest of the cathode surface. (3) Construction of a mathematical model to predict cathode performance based on different geometries and microstructures and analyze the kinetics of oxygen-reduction reactions occurring at charged mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIECs) using two-dimensional finite volume models with ab initio calculations. (4) Fabrication of cathodes that are graded in composition and microstructure to generate large amounts of active surface area near the cathode/electrolyte interface using a

  7. Investigating physical field effects on the size-dependent dynamic behavior of inhomogeneous nanoscale plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Reza Barati, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    This article investigates the thermo-mechanical vibration frequencies of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded (METE-FG) nanoplates in the framework of refined four-unknown shear deformation plate theory. The present nanoplate is subjected to various kinds of thermal loads with uniform, linear and nonlinear distributions. The nonlinear distribution is considered as heat conduction and sinusoidal temperature rise. The present refined theory captures the influences of shear deformations without the need for shear correction factors. Thermo-magneto-electro-elastic coefficients of the FG nanoplate vary gradually along the thickness according to the power-law form. The scale coefficient is taken into consideration implementing the nonlocal elasticity of Eringen. The governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and are solved analytically. The frequency response is compared with those of previously published data. The obtained results are presented for the thermo-mechanical vibrations of the FG nanobeams to investigate the effects of material graduation, nonlocal parameter, mode number, slenderness ratio and thermal loading in detail. The present study is associated to aerospace, mechanical and nuclear engineering structures which are under thermal loads.

  8. Functionally graded Nylon-11/silica nanocomposites produced by selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Haseung; Das, Suman

    2008-01-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS), a layered manufacturing-based freeform fabrication approach was explored for constructing three-dimensional structures in functionally graded polymer nanocomposites. Here, we report on the processing and properties of functionally graded polymer nanocomposites of Nylon-11 filled with 0-10% by volume of 15 nm fumed silica nanoparticles. SLS processing parameters for the different compositions were developed by design of experiments (DOE). The densities and micro/nanostructures of the nanocomposites were examined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The tensile and compressive properties for each composition were then tested. These properties exhibit a nonlinear variation as a function of filler volume fraction. Finally, two component designs exhibiting a one-dimensional polymer nanocomposite material gradient were fabricated. The results indicate that particulate-filled functionally graded polymer nanocomposites exhibiting a one-dimensional composition gradient can be successfully processed by SLS to produce three-dimensional components with spatially varying mechanical properties

  9. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  10. Deflection control of functionally graded material beams with bonded piezoelectric sensors and actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, Ahmad; Salehi, Manouchehr; Fazeli, Saeed

    2008-01-01

    An analytical solution is developed for analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) beams containing two layers of piezoelectric material, used as sensor and actuator. The properties of FGM layer are functionally graded in the thickness direction according to the volume fraction power law distribution. The equations of motion are derived by using Hamilton's principle, based on the first-order shear deformation theory. By using a displacement potential function, and assumption of harmonic vibration, the equations of motion have been solved analytically. Finally, the effects of FGM constituent volume fraction in the peak responses for various volume fraction indexes have been graphically illustrated

  11. Teaching Mathematical Functions Using Geometric Functions Approach and Its Effect on Ninth Grade Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçakin, Veysel

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of using geometric functions approach on 9th grade students' motivation levels toward mathematics in functions unit. Participants of this study were 87 students who were ongoing in the first year of high school in Turkey. In this research, pretest and posttest control group quasiexperimental…

  12. Stress concentration analysis in functionally graded plates with elliptic holes under biaxial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawakol A. Enab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Stress concentration factors (SCFs at the root of an elliptic hole in unidirectional functionally graded material (UDFGM plates under uniaxial and biaxial loads are predicted. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL was used to build the finite element models for the plates and to run the analysis. A parametric study is performed for several geometric and material parameters such as the elliptic hole major axis to plate width ratio, the elliptical shape factor, the gradation direction of UDFGM. It is shown that, SCF in the finite plate can be significantly reduced by choosing the proper distribution of the functionally graded materials. The present study may provide designers an efficient way to estimate the hole effect on plate structures made of functionally graded materials.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic response and active vibration control for piezoelectric functionally graded plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiqi, Mao; Yiming, Fu

    2010-05-01

    The nonlinear dynamic response and active vibration control of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are analyzed in this paper. Based on higher-order shear plate theory and elastic piezoelectric theory, the nonlinear geometric and constitutive relations of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are established, and then the nonlinear motion equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded plate are obtained through Hamilton's variational principle. The nonlinear active vibration control of the structure is carried out with adoption of the negative velocity feedback control algorithm. By applying finite difference method, the whole problem is solved by using iterative method synthetically. In numerical examples, the effects of mechanical load, electric load, the volume fraction and the geometric parameters on the dynamic response and vibration control of the piezoelectric FGM plate are investigated.

  14. Delamination Analysis of a Multilayered Two-Dimensional Functionally Graded Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, V.

    2017-11-01

    Delamination fracture behaviour of a multilayered two-dimensional functionally graded cantilever beam is analyzed in terms of the strain energy release rate. The beam is made of an arbitrary number of layers. Perfect adhesion is assumed between layers. Each layer has individual thickness and material properties. Besides, the material is two-dimensional functionally graded in the cross-section of each layer. There is a delamination crack located arbitrary between layers. The beam is loaded by a bending moment applied at the free end of the lower crack arm. The upper crack arm is free of stresses. The solution to strain energy release rate derived is applied to investigate the influence of the crack location and the material gradient on the delamination fracture. The results obtained can be used to optimize the multilayered two-dimensional functionally graded beam structure with respect to the delamination fracture behaviour.

  15. Shock Wave Propagation in Functionally Graded Mineralized Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Matthew; Hodo, Wayne; Livi, Ken; Browning, Alyssa; Crawford, Bryan; Rajendran, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    In this investigation, the effects of shock wave propagation in bone-like biomineralized tissue was investigated. The Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) exoskeleton is comprised of many disparate scales that provide a biological analog for potential design of flexible protective material systems. The gar scale is identified as a two-phase, (1) hydroxyapatite mineral and (2) collagen protein, biological composite with two distinct layers where a stiff, ceramic-like ganoine overlays a soft, highly ductile ganoid bone. Previous experimentations has shown significant softening under compressive loading and an asymmetrical stress-strain response for analogous mineralized tissues. The structural features, porosity, and elastic modulus were determined from high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, 3D micro-tomography, and dynamic nanoindentation experiments to develop an idealized computational model for FE simulations. The numerical analysis employed Gurson's yield criterion to determine the influence of porosity and pressure on material strength. Functional gradation of elastic moduli and certain structural features, such as the sawtooth interface, are explicitly modeled to study the plate impact shock profile for a full 3-D analysis using ABAQUS finite element software.

  16. Interface Behavior in Functionally Graded Ceramics for the Magnetic Refrigeration: Numerical Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    material is needed. Tape casting is a common process in producing functional ceramics, and it has recently been established for producing side-by-side (SBS) functionally graded ceramics (FGCs). The main goal of the present work is to study the multiple material flows in SBS tape casting and analyze......The active magnetic regenerator refrigerator is currently the most common magnetic refrigeration device for near room temperature applications, and it is driven by the magnetocaloric effect in the regenerator material. In order to make this efficient, a graded configuration of the magnetocaloric...

  17. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part II: Functionally graded foam liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, L.; Forero Rueda, M.A.; Gilchrist, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    The energy absorbing liner of safety helmets was optimised using finite element modelling. In this present paper, a functionally graded foam (FGF) liner was modelled, while keeping the average liner density the same as in a corresponding reference single uniform density liner model. Use of a functionally graded foam liner would eliminate issues regarding delamination and crack propagation between interfaces of different density layers which could arise in liners with discrete density variations. As in our companion Part I paper [Forero Rueda MA, Cui L, Gilchrist MD. Optimisation of energy absorbing liner for equestrian helmets. Part I: Layered foam liner. Mater Des [submitted for publication

  18. On guided wave propagation in fully clamped porous functionally graded nanoplates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Behrouz; Janghorban, Maziar; Li, Li

    2018-02-01

    The study on bulk waves in nanoplates has been done for several times in recent years, but guided waves have not been investigated yet. This paper is focused on the size-dependent guided wave propagation in mounted nanoplates made of porous functionally graded materials. To capture the size-dependent and shear effects, the first-order shear deformation theory and nonlocal elasticity theory are used to model the nanoplate. Porosity-dependent material properties of functionally graded nanoplate are defined via a modified power-law function. Governing equations were derived by using Hamilton's principle and are solved analytically to obtain wave frequencies and phase velocities. It is the first time that the presented model is used for studying guided wave propagation in fully clamped functionally graded nanoplates with porosities. In this research, wave frequencies as well as phase velocities of a fully clamped porous functionally graded nanoplate incorporating the effects of length-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, porosities, material gradation, nonlocal parameter, elastic foundation parameters and wave number are studied in detail.

  19. Transient Stress Intensity Factors of Functionally Graded Hollow Cylinders with Internal Circumferential Cracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Eshraghi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with complete internal circumferential cracks are obtained using the weight function method. The finite difference method is used to calculate the time dependent temperature distribution and thermal stresses along the cylinder thickness. Furthermore, finite element analysis is performed to determine the weight function coefficients and to investigate the accuracy of the predicted stress intensity factors from the weight functions. Variation of the stress intensity factors with time and effects of the material gradation on the results are investigated, as well. It is shown that the proposed technique can be used to accurately predict transient thermomechanical stress intensity factors for functionally graded cylinders with arbitrary material gradation.

  20. Prediction of the adhesive behavior of bio-inspired functionally graded materials against rough surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Peijian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Roughness effect and adhesion properties are important characteristics to be accessed in the development of functionally graded materials for biological and biomimetic applications, particularly for the hierarchical composition in biomimetic gecko robot. A multi-asperities adhesion model to predict the adhesive forces is presented in this work. The effect of surface roughness and graded material properties, which significantly alter the adhesive strength between contact bodies, can be simultaneously considered in the generalized model. It is found that proper interfacial strength can be controlled by adjusting surface roughness σ / R, graded exponent k and material parameter E*R / Δγ. The results should be helpful in the design of new biomimetic materials and useful in application of micro functional instruments.

  1. Continuous functionally graded porous titanium scaffolds manufactured by selective laser melting for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Changjun; Li, Yan; Wang, Qian; Wen, Shifeng; Wei, Qingsong; Yan, Chunze; Hao, Liang; Liu, Jie; Shi, Yusheng

    2018-04-01

    A significant requirement for a bone implant is to replicate the functional gradient across the bone to mimic the localization change in stiffness. In this work, continuous functionally graded porous scaffolds (FGPSs) based on the Schwartz diamond unit cell with a wide range of graded volume fraction were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM). The micro-topology, strut dimension characterization and effect of graded volume fraction on the mechanical properties of SLM-processed FGPSs were systematically investigated. The micro-topology observations indicate that diamond FGPSs with a wide range of graded volume fraction from 7.97% to 19.99% were fabricated without any defects, showing a good geometric reproduction of the original designs. The dimensional characterization demonstrates the capability of SLM in manufacturing titanium diamond FGPSs with the strut size of 483-905µm. The elastic modulus and yield strength of the titanium diamond FGPSs can be tailored in the range of 0.28-0.59GPa and 3.79-17.75MPa respectively by adjusting the graded volume fraction, which are comparable to those of the cancellous bone. The mathematical relationship between the graded porosity and compression properties of a FGPS was revealed. Furthermore, two equations based on the Gibson and Ashby model have been established to predict the modulus and yield strength of SLM-processed diamond FGPSs. Compared to homogeneous diamond porous scaffolds, FGPSs provide a wide range of mutative pore size and porosity, which are potential to be tailored to optimize the pore space for bone tissue growth. The findings provide a basis of new methodologies to design and manufacture superior graded scaffolds for bone implant applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mothers' Depressive Symptoms and Children's Cognitive and Social Agency: Predicting First-Grade Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ni; Dix, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364), the present study supports an agentic perspective; it demonstrates that mothers' depressive symptoms in infancy predict children's poor first-grade cognitive functioning because depressive symptoms…

  3. How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijbooms, E.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of transcription skills, oral language skills, and executive functions to growth in narrative writing between fourth and sixth grade. While text length and story content of narratives did not increase with age, syntactic complexity of narratives

  4. Functionally Graded Thermoelectric Material though One Step Band Gap and Dopant Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ellen Marie; Borup, Kasper Andersen; Cederkrantz, Daniel

    gradients. It has previously been shown that a large functionally graded thermoelectric single crystal can be synthesized by the Czochralski method (1). Utilizing element gradients inherent to the Czochralski process we have synthesized a Ge1-xSix:B crystal with a continuously varying x, band gap...

  5. Eighth Grade In-Service Teachers' Knowledge of Proportional Reasoning and Functions: A Secondary Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was conducted using a large dataset from a study related to online professional development for eighth grade teachers of mathematics. Using this data, the paper provides a snapshot of the current state of teachers' knowledge related to proportional reasoning and functions. The paper also considers how teachers' knowledge…

  6. Bio-inspired composites with functionally graded platelets exhibit enhanced stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapse, Sanjay; S, Anup

    2017-11-09

    Unidirectional composites inspired from biological materials such as nacre, are composed of stiff platelets arranged in a staggered manner within a soft matrix. Elaborate analyses have been conducted on the aforementioned composites and they are found to have excellent mechanical properties like stiffness, strength and fracture toughness. The superior properties exhibited by these composites have been proved to be the result of its unique structure. An emerging development in the field of composite structures is Functionally Graded Composites(FGC), whose properties vary spatially and possess enhanced thermo-mechanical properties. In this paper, the platelets are functionally graded with its Young's Modulus varying parabolically along the length. Two different models - namely, Tension Shear Chain Model and Minimisation of Complementary Energy Model have been employed to obtain the stiffness of the overall composite analytically. The effect of various parameters that define the composite model such as overlapping length between any two neighbouring platelets, different gradation parameters and platelet aspect ratio on the overall mechanical properties have been studied. Composites with functionally graded platelets are found to possess enhanced stiffness (upto 14% higher) for certain values of these parameters. The obtained solutions have been validated using Finite Element Analysis. Bio-inspired composites with functionally graded platelets can be engineered for structural applications, such as in automobile, aerospace and aircraft industry, where stiffness plays a crucial role. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. A simple, fast and reproducible echocardiographic approach to grade left ventricular diastolic function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. van Dalen (Bas); M. Strachinaru (Mihai); J. van der Swaluw (Julio); M.L. Geleijnse (Marcel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Echocardiography (ASE/EAE) have published an algorithm for the grading of diastolic function. However, the ability to use this algorithm effectively in daily clinical practice has not been investigated. We hypothesized

  8. Dynamic properties of symmetric and asymmetric Beams made of Functionally Graded materials in bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diveyev, B.; Butyter, I.; Pelekh, Ya.

    2018-03-01

    A theory of dynamic bending of beams made of functionally graded materials is presented. The refined theoretical model takes into account the shear and normal strains and stresses. The distribution of stresses in the beams in cylindrical bending at different vibration frequencies is considered. Their damping properties in the frequency range are estimated.

  9. An evaluation of the stress intensity factor in functionally graded materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel; Náhlík, Luboš; Knésl, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2009), s. 401-410 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD106/09/H035; GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : functionally graded material * power -law material change Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  10. Analysis of Sigmoid Functionally Graded Material (S-FGM) Nanoscale Plates Using the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Woo-Young; Han, Sung-Cheon

    2013-01-01

    Based on a nonlocal elasticity theory, a model for sigmoid functionally graded material (S-FGM) nanoscale plate with first-order shear deformation is studied. The material properties of S-FGM nanoscale plate are assumed to vary according to sigmoid function (two power law distribution) of the volume fraction of the constituents. Elastic theory of the sigmoid FGM (S-FGM) nanoscale plate is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and first-order shear defo...

  11. Analysis of elastic field in functionally graded material beams with square cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Manish; Ahsan, Mohammad Al; Afsar Ali, Md.

    2017-12-01

    A square and simply supported functionally graded beam of medium thickness, subjected to a point load, has been investigated. Young's modulus of elasticity is assumed to vary following linear, exponential and power function along the thickness direction. Numerical Results show the variation of flexural stress and position of neutral axis with the change of the ratio of Young's modulus of elasticity of the top and bottom surfaces.

  12. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    2015-01-01

    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small...... variations of solvent and binder system concentrations have a substantial effect on slurry viscosity. Varying these parameters showed that side-by-side tape casting with a well-defined interface area is possible for slurries with viscosities above 3500 mPa s at a casting shear rate of 3.3 s -1...

  13. Variational principle and vibration properties of functionally graded circular plate with temperature changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tao; Zou, Guangping

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, the variational principle of functionally graded circular plate is presented by the variational integral method taking temperature change into account. The vibration governing equation is illustrated, which will be benefit for the numerical simulation with finite element method in further investigations. The numerical results show that the natural frequency increases as the graded coefficient increases in the chosen domain. It can be observed that the vibration characteristics are influenced by the temperature changes obviously. Moreover, the natural frequency is larger for thicker FGM circular plates, while it is lower for thinner ones. Furthermore, the first four vibration mode shapes with different thickness of FGM circular plate are illustrated.

  14. Emerging role of functional brain MRI in low-grade glioma surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friismose, Ancuta; Traise, Peter; Markovic, Ljubo

    Learning objectives 1. To describe the use of functional MRI (fMRI) in cranial surgery planning for patients with low-grade gliomas (LGG). 2. To show the increasing importance of fMRI in the clinical setting. Background LGG include brain tumors classified by the World Health Organization as grade I....... Language comprehension and visual tasks can be added to visualize Wernicke’s area or the visual cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is used to map nerve tract course relative to the tumour. Conclusion FMRI has proven its clinical utility in locating eloquent brain areas with relation to tumor site...

  15. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Thermomechanical Problems in Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite/Titanium Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. S. Jamaludin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of hydroxyapatite (HA as the ceramic phase and titanium (Ti as the metallic phase in HA/Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs shows an excellent combination of high biocompatibility and high mechanical properties in a structure. Because the gradation of these properties is one of the factors that affects the response of the functionally graded (FG plates, this paper is presented to show the domination of the grading parameter on the displacement and stress distribution of the plates. A three-dimensional (3D thermomechanical model of a 20-node brick quadratic element is used in the simulation of the thermoelastic behaviors of HA/Ti FG plates subjected to constant and functional thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical loadings. The convergence properties of the present results are examined thoroughly in order to assess the accuracy of the theory applied and to compare them with the established research results. Instead of the grading parameter, this study reveals that the loading field distribution can be another factor that reflects the thermoelastic properties of the HA/Ti FG plates. The FG structure is found to be able to withstand the thermal stresses while preserving the high toughness properties and thus shows its ability to operate at high temperature.

  16. Performance Analysis of Functionally Graded Coatings in Contact with Cylindrical Rollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Jahedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents finite element analysis (FEA and results for rolling contact of a cylindrical roller on an elastic substrate coated by functionally graded material (FGM. The rolling process and the graded coating material property and layers arrangement are modeled using finite element codes which lead to a new methodology. This novel methodology provides a trend in determining surface contact stresses, deformations, contact zones, and energy dissipation through the contact area. Effects of stiffness ratio, friction, and exponentially variation of material property on the contact stresses and deformations are studied. Some of the results are verified with analytical solutions. The study results may be beneficial in graded coated cylindrical components analysis against rolling contact failure and wear.

  17. Research on Free Vibration Frequency Characteristics of Rotating Functionally Graded Material Truncated Conical Shells with Eccentric Functionally Graded Material Stringer and Ring Stiffeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao Van Dung

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research work, an exact analytical solution for frequency characteristics of the free vibration of rotating functionally graded material (FGM truncated conical shells reinforced by eccentric FGM stringers and rings has been investigated by the displacement function method. Material properties of shell and stiffeners are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution. The change of spacing between stringers is considered. Using the Donnell shell theory, Leckhnisky smeared stiffeners technique and taking into account the influences of centrifugal force and Coriolis acceleration the governing equations are derived. For stiffened FGM conical shells, it is difficult that free vibration equations are a couple set of three variable coefficient partial differential equations. By suitable transformations and applying Galerkin method, this difficulty is overcome in the paper. The sixth order polynomial equation for w is obtained and it is used to analyze the frequency characteristics of rotating ES-FGM conical shells. Effects of stiffener, geometrics parameters, cone angle, vibration modes and rotating speed on frequency characteristics of the shell forward and backward wave are discussed in detail. The present approach proves to be reliable and accurate by comparing with published results available in the literature.

  18. A three-dimensional elasticity solution of functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedighi, M R; Shakeri, M

    2009-01-01

    This research presents an exact solution of finitely long, simply supported, orthotropic, functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP), cylindrical shell panels under pressure and electrostatic excitation. The FGP cylindrical panel is first divided into linearly inhomogeneous elements (LIEs). The general solution of governing partial differential equations of the LIEs is obtained by separation of variables. The highly coupled partial differential equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients by means of appropriate trigonometric expansion of displacements and electric potential in circumferential and axial directions. The resulting governing ordinary differential equations are solved by the Galerkin finite element method. In this procedure the quadratic shape function is used in each element. The present method is applied to several benchmark problems. The coupled electromechanical effect on the structural behavior of functionally graded piezoelectric cylindrical shell panels is evaluated. The influence of the material property gradient index on the variables of electric and mechanical fields is studied. Finally some results are compared with published results

  19. Free-edge stress analysis of functionally graded material layered biocomposite laminates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Kim, Heung Soo

    2014-10-01

    A stress function based theory is proposed to obtain free-edge stress distributions for three-dimensional, orthotropic, linearly elastic rectangular biocomposite laminates with surface-bonded functionally graded materials (FGM). The assumed stress fields automatically satisfy the pointwise equilibrium equation, as well as traction-free and free edge boundary conditions. The complementary virtual work principle, followed by the general eigenvalue solution procedure, is used to obtain 3-D free edge stress states. A typical stacking sequence of composite laminate is used as numerical investigation with surface bonded FGMs. It is shown that with proper exponential factor of FGMs, the interlaminar stresses at the FGM layer interface can be reduced significantly, in return to prevent debonding of FGM layers. This approach can be useful in the design of functionally graded material layered biocomposite structures.

  20. Free Vibration and Stability of Axially Functionally Graded Tapered Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahba

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural analysis of axially functionally graded tapered Euler-Bernoulli beams is studied using finite element method. A beam element is proposed which takes advantage of the shape functions of homogeneous uniform beam elements. The effects of varying cross-sectional dimensions and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are included in the evaluation of structural matrices. This method could be used for beam elements with any distributions of mass density and modulus of elasticity with arbitrarily varying cross-sectional area. Assuming polynomial distributions of modulus of elasticity and mass density, the competency of the element is examined in stability analysis, free longitudinal vibration and free transverse vibration of double tapered beams with different boundary conditions and the convergence rate of the element is then investigated.

  1. Free Vibration Of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Composite Annular Sector Plate With General Boundary Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Fuzhen; Li, Haichao; Du, Yuan; Shan, Yanhe; Ji, Fang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an efficient and unified approach for free vibration analysis of the moderately thick functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite annular sector plate with general boundary supports is presented by using the Ritz method and the first-order shear deformation theory. For the distribution of the carbon nanotubes in thickness direction, it may be uniform or functionally graded. Properties of the composite media are based on a refined rule of the mixture approach which contains the efficiency parameters. A modified Fourier series is chosen as the basic function of the admissible function to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. To establish the general boundary supports of the annular sector plate, the artificial spring boundary technique is implemented at all edges. The desired solutions are obtained through the Ritz-variational energy method. Some numerical examples are considered to check the accuracy, convergence and reliability of the present method. In addition, the parameter studies of the functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite annular sector plate are carried out as well.

  2. Propagation of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczyński, P; Szalewski, M; Balcerzak, A; Wieja, K

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behavior of ultrasonic Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in the mechanics of solids. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved by using two methods: i.e., (1) Finite Difference Method, and (2) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The effect of elastic non-homogeneities on the dispersion curves of Love waves is discussed. Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: (1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and (2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. Obtained in this work, the phase and group velocity dispersion curves of Love waves propagating in the considered nonhomogeneous elastic waveguides have not previously been reported in the scientific literature. The results of this paper may give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials, and can provide theoretical guidance for the design and optimization of Love wave based devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation of Functionally Graded Plates under Thermomechanical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alshorbagy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order shear deformation plate model, accounting for the exact neutral plane position, is exploited to investigate the uncoupled thermomechanical behavior of functionally graded (FG plates. Functionally graded materials are mainly constructed to operate in high temperature environments. Also, FG plates are used in many applications (such as mechanical, electrical, and magnetic, where an amount of heat may be generated into the FG plate whenever other forms of energy (electrical, magnetic, etc. are converted into thermal energy. Several simulations are performed to study the behavior of FG plates, subjected to thermomechanical loadings, and focus the attention on the effect of the heat source intensity. Most of the previous studies have considered the midplane neutral one, while the actual position of neutral plane for functionally graded plates is shifted and should be firstly determined. A comparative study is performed to illustrate the effect of considering the neutral plane position. The volume fraction of the two constituent materials of the FG plate is varied smoothly and continuously, as a continuous power function of the material position, along the thickness of the plate.

  4. Fundamentals of liquid phase for modern cermets and functionally graded cemented carbonitrides (FGCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Lengauer, W.; Ettmayer, P.; Dreyer, K.; Daub, H.W.; Kassel, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metallurgical reactions and microstructure developments during sintering of modern cermets and functionally graded cemented carbonitrides (FGCC) were investigated by modern thermal and analytical methods such as mass spectrometer (MS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), dilatometer (DIL), microscopy and analytical electronic microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The complex phase reactions and phase equilibrium in the multi-component system Ti/Mo/W/Ta/Nb/C,N-Co/Ni were studied. The melting behaviors in the systems of TiC-WC/MoC-Ni/Co, TiC-TiN-WC-Co and TiCN-TaC-WC-Co have been established. By better understanding of the mechanisms that govern the sintering processing and metallurgical reactions, new cermets and different types of functionally graded cemented carbonitrides (FGCC) with desired microstructures and properties were developed and fabricated. (author)

  5. Optimal shape control of functionally graded smart plates using genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, K. M.; He, X. Q.; Meguid, S. A.

    This paper deals with optimal shape control of functionally graded smart plate containing patches of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The genetic algorithm (GA) is designed to search for optimal actuator voltage and displacement control gains for the shape control of the functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The work extends the earlier finite element formulations of the two leading authors, so that it can be readily treated using genetic algorithms. Numerical results have been obtained to study the effect of the shape control of the FGM plates under a temperature gradient by optimising (i) the voltage distribution for the open loop control, and (ii) the displacement control gain values for the closed loop feedback control. The effect of the constituent volume fractions of zirconia, through varying the volume fraction exponent n, on the optimal voltages and gain values has also been examined.

  6. How executive functions predict development in syntactic complexity of narrative writing in the upper elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijbooms, Elise; Groen, Margriet A; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of transcription skills, oral language skills, and executive functions to growth in narrative writing between fourth and sixth grade. While text length and story content of narratives did not increase with age, syntactic complexity of narratives showed a clear developmental progression. Results from path analyses revealed that later syntactic complexity of narrative writing was, in addition to initial syntactic complexity, predicted by oral grammar, inhibition, and planning. These results are discussed in light of the changes that characterize writing development in the upper elementary grades. More specifically, this study emphasizes the relevance of syntactic complexity as a developmental marker as well as the importance of executive functions for later writing development.

  7. Current-driven domain wall ratchet in a nanomagnet with functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yershov, Kostiantyn V.; Sheka, Denis D.; Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri; Saxena, Avadh

    We develop a concept of functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which provides novel ways of efficient control of the magnetization dynamics. Using this approach we realize the ratchet motion of the domain wall in a magnetic nanowire driven by spin polarized current with potential applications in magnetic devices such as race-track memory and magnetic logical devices. By engineering the spatial profile of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya parameters we provide a unidirectional motion of the domain wall along the wire. We base our study on phenomenological Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations using a collective variable approach. In effective equations of motion the functionally graded Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction appears as a driving force, which can either suppress the action of the pumping by the current or can reinforce it. All analytical predictions are well confirmed by numerical simulations.

  8. Nonlinear free and forced vibration analysis of thin circular functionally graded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdizadeh, A.; Naei, M. H.; Nikkhah Bahrami, M.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, a semi-analytical approach for nonlinear free and forced axisymmetric vibration of a thin circular functionally graded plate is developed. The plate thickness is constant. Functionally graded material (FGM) properties vary through the thickness of the plate. For harmonic vibrations, by using assumed-time-mode method and Kantorovich time averaging technique, the governing equations are solved. Steady-state free and forced vibration analysis is investigated in detail and corresponding results at uniform ambient temperature are illustrated. Some of these results in special cases are verified by comparing with those in the literature. The results show that the free vibration frequencies are dependent on vibration amplitudes, and that the volume fraction index has a significant influence on the nonlinear response characteristics of the plate.

  9. Longitudinal Fracture Analysis of a Two-Dimensional Functionally Graded Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizov, V.

    2017-11-01

    Longitudinal fracture in a two-dimensional functionally graded beam is analyzed. The modulus of elasticity varies continuously in the beam cross-section. The beam is clamped in its right-hand end. The external loading consists of one longitudinal force applied at the free end of the lower crack arm. The longitudinal crack is located in the beam mid-plane. The fracture is studied in terms of the strain energy release rate. The solution derived is used to elucidate the effects of material gradients along the height as well as along the width of the beam cross-section on the fracture behaviour. The results obtained indicate that the fracture in two-dimensional functionally graded beams can be regulated efficiently by employing appropriate material gradients.

  10. Optimization of a functionally graded circular plate with inner rigid thin obstacles. II. Approximate problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Ivan; Lovíšek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 12 (2011), s. 957-966 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : control of elliptic variational inequalities * functionally graded plates * optimal design of plates * finite element approximations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.863, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201000238/abstract

  11. Method and apparatus for determination of mechanical properties of functionally-graded materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Antonios E.; Suresh, Subra

    1999-01-01

    Techniques for the determination of mechanical properties of homogenous or functionally-graded materials from indentation testing are presented. The technique is applicable to indentation on the nano-scale through the macro-scale including the geological scale. The technique involves creating a predictive load/depth relationship for a sample, providing an experimental load/depth relationship, comparing the experimental data to the predictive data, and determining a physical characteristic from the comparison.

  12. Optimization of a functionally graded circular plate with inner rigid thin obstacles. I. Continuous problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Ivan; Lovíšek, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2011), s. 711-723 ISSN 0044-2267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : functionally graded plate * optimal design Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.863, year: 2011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/zamm.201000119/abstract

  13. Analysis of longitudinal cracked two-dimensional functionally graded beams exhibiting material non-linearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rizov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study of longitudinal fracture in two-dimensional functionally graded cantilever beam configurations is carried-out with taking into account the non-linear behavior of material. A longitudinal crack is located arbitrary along the beam cross-section height. The material is functionally graded along the width as well as along the height of beam. The external loading consists of a bending moment applied at the free end of lower crack arm. Fracture is studied in terms of the strain energy release rate by considering the beam complementary strain energy. The solution derived is verified by analyzing the longitudinal crack with the help of the J-integral. The distribution of J-integral value along the crack front is studied. The effects of crack location, material gradients and non-linear behavior of material on the fracture are elucidated. The analysis reveals that the material non-linearity has to be taken into account in fracture mechanics based safety design of structural members and components made of two-dimensional functionally graded materials.

  14. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  15. High maneuverability guidewire with functionally graded properties using new superelastic alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Y; Yamauchi, K; Suzuki, M; Furukawa, A; Omori, T; Takagi, T; Kainuma, R; Nishida, M; Ishida, K

    2006-01-01

    Nitinol shape memory alloys (SMAs) are attracting considerable attention as core materials for medical guidewires because of their excellent flexibility and shape retention. However, since Nitinol guidewires possess low rigidity, the pushability and torquability of the guidewires are insufficient. On the other hand, although guidewires made of stainless steel have high pushability, plastic deformation occurs easily. We have developed a new class of superelastic guidewires with functionally graded properties from the tip to the end by using new SMA core materials such as Cu-Al-Mn-based or Ni-free Ti-Mo-Sn SMAs. The tip portion of the guidewire shows excellent superelasticity (SE), while the body portion possesses high rigidity. These functionally graded characteristics can be realized by microstructural control. These guidewires with functionally graded properties show excellent pushability and torquability and are considerably easier to handle than conventional guidewires with Nitinol or stainless steel cores. Moreover, a metallic catheter using a Ni-free Ti-based SMA with high biocompatibility is introduced.

  16. Investigating the Force Production of Functionally-Graded Flexible Wings in Flapping Wing Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudbhari, Durlav; Erdogan, Malcolm; He, Kai; Bateman, Daniel; Lipkis, Rory; Moored, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Birds, insects and bats oscillate their wings to propel themselves over long distances and to maneuver with unprecedented agility. A key element to achieve their impressive aerodynamic performance is the flexibility of their wings. Numerous studies have shown that homogeneously flexible wings can enhance force production, propulsive efficiency and lift efficiency. Yet, animal wings are not homogenously flexible, but instead have varying material properties. The aim of this study is to characterize the force production and energetics of functionally-graded flexible wings. A partially-flexible wing composed of a rigid section and a flexible section is used as a first-order model of functionally-graded materials. The flexion occurs in the spanwise direction and it is affected by the spanwise flexion ratio, that is, the ratio of the length of the rigid section compared to the total span length. By varying the flexion ratio as well as the material properties of the flexible section, the study aims to examine the force production and energetics of flapping flight with functionally-graded flexible wings. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara, MURI grant number N00014-14-1-0533.

  17. Mechanical and biological properties of the micro-/nano-grain functionally graded hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changchun; Deng, Congying; Chen, Xuening; Zhao, Xiufen; Chen, Ying; Fan, Yujiang; Zhang, Xingdong

    2015-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) open the promising approach for bone tissue repair. In this study, a novel functionally graded hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic with micrograin and nanograin structure was fabricated. Its mechanical properties were tailored by composition of micrograin and nanograin. The dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the graded HA ceramics had similar mechanical property compared to natural bones. Their cytocompatibility was evaluated via fluorescent microscopy and MTT colorimetric assay. The viability and proliferation of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on ceramics indicated that this functionally graded HA ceramic had better cytocompatibility than conventional HA ceramic. This study demonstrated that functionally graded HA ceramics create suitable structures to satisfy both the mechanical and biological requirements of bone tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination and modeling of residual stress in functionally graded WC-Co

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilian, Leila

    Gradual variations in composition and/or structure through the volume of functionally graded materials (FGMs) generally result in corresponding continuous spatial variations in mechanical/physical properties, and often in significant residual stresses that develop during processing. Due to inhomogeneous properties in these materials, residual stress measurement in FGMs can be a very challenging problem. In this study, residual stresses in functionally graded cemented tungsten carbide (FG-WC-Co) were investigated by numerical, analytical and experimental approaches by means of a layer removal technique. The numerical method consisted of finite element analysis (FEA) modeling for the FGM plate, in order to calculate residual stress distribution over the volume and to develop a method for predicting residual stress levels in closely related materials. The analytical procedure embodied a mathematical approach to determine residual stress distributions, and analytically determined values are compared with those obtained from FEA modeling and experimental results. The experimental approach consisted of fabricating and heat treating FG-WC-Co flat samples, then measuring strain changes by strain gauge after each sequential layer removal from the opposite side of the specimen from the graded region. Good agreement was found between analytical, numerical and experimental results. Furthermore, thermal residual stress distribution in FG-WC-Co hollow cylinder was examined with an emphasis on the effects of key variables, the gradient profile and the gradient thickness, on the magnitude and distribution of the stress field. An analytical direct solution based on solving the governing equations of a cylinder composed of a uniform inner core and a functionally graded outer shell was developed. The cylindrical compound was considered as two separate elements: homogeneous cylinder and functionally graded shell. Material properties, such as the elastic modulus and the coefficient of

  19. Cut-off frequencies of Lamb waves in various functionally graded thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng

    2011-09-01

    An analytical study is carried out on the cut-off frequencies of Lamb waves in freestanding thin films made of various functionally graded elastic, piezoelectric, or piezoelectric-piezomagnetic materials. Results show that the set of cut-off frequencies is a union of two series of approximate arithmetic progression, in which the differences are inversely proportional to the definite integral of a function of the material parameters along thickness. Given the simple and universal relationship between cut-off frequencies and material parameters, this study provides theoretical guidance not only for nondestructive evaluation in engineering applications but for designing high-performance sensors based on Lamb waves.

  20. Determination of the Local Thermal Conductivity of Functionally Graded Materials by a Laser Flash Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    Determination of thermal conductivity of construction materials is essential to estimate their insulation capabilities. In most cases, homogenous materials are used and well developed methods exist for measurements of their thermal conductivity. The task becomes more challenging when dealing...... by scanning them point by point and determining the thermal conductivity as a function of the spatial dimensions. The method proves to be repeatable and of reasonable accuracy and can be used to determine the local thermal properties on a scale of millimeters. In this study, the method was successfully...... applied to create a map of thermal conductivity of a functionally graded material sample....

  1. Vibration and dynamic response of functionally graded plates with piezoelectric actuators in thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Hui-Shen

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration and dynamic response of a functionally graded material (FGM) plate with surface-bonded piezoelectric layers in thermal environments. Heat conduction and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The temperature field considered is assumed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface and varied in the thickness direction of the plate, and the electric field is assumed to be the transverse component Ez only. Material properties of the substrate FGM layer are assumed to be temperature-dependent, and graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents, whereas the material properties of piezoelectric layers are assumed to be independent of the temperature and the electric field. The nonlinear formulations are based on the higher-order shear deformation plate theory and general von Kármán-type equation, which includes thermo-piezoelectric effects. The numerical illustrations concern nonlinear vibration characteristics of functional graded plates with fully covered piezoelectric actuators under different sets of thermal and electric loading conditions. The effects of temperature change, control voltage and volume fraction distribution on the nonlinear vibration and dynamic response are examined in detail.

  2. Thermal Stress Analysis of W/Cu Functionally Graded Materials by Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenxiao; Liu, Min; Deng, Chunming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Deng, Changguang

    2013-03-01

    Copper alloys with tungsten coating shows an excellent plasma irradiation resistance, however, the difference of coefficient thermal expansion between W and Cu makes it really a difficult job to prepare over 1 mm W coating with high adhesive strength. Functionally graded material (FGM) seems to be an effective method to improve the adhesive strength of thick W coating. This paper focused on the finite element simulation on thermal stress for W/Cu FGM with different graded layers, composition and thicknesses. In addition, the variance of stresses for functionally graded coatings with the steady state heat flux were simulated by finite element analysis (ANSYS Workbench). The results showed that the W/Cu FGM was effectively beneficial for the stress relief of W coating. Meanwhile, the maximum von mises stress decreased approximately by 52.8 % compared to monolithic W plasma facing material. And the four-layer FGM with a compositional exponent of 2 was optimum for 1.5 mm W coating.

  3. Influence of neutral surface position on the nonlinear stability behavior of functionally graded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, T.; Singha, M. K.; Ganapathi, M.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear behavior of functionally graded material (FGM) skew plates under in-plane load is investigated here using a shear deformable finite element method. The material is graded in the thickness direction and a simple power law based on the rule of mixture is used to estimate the effective material properties. The neutral surface position for such FGM plates is determined and the first order shear deformation theory based on exact neutral surface position is employed here. The present model is compared with the conventional mid-surface based formulation, which uses extension-bending coupling matrix to include the noncoincidence of neutral surface with the geometric mid-surface for unsymmetric plates. The nonlinear governing equations are solved through Newton Raphson technique. The nonlinear behavior of FGM skew plates under compressive and tensile in-plane load are examined considering different system parameters such as constituent gradient index, boundary condition, thickness-to-span ratio and skew angle.

  4. Approximation of functionally graded plates with non-conforming finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinosi, Claudia; Della Croce, Lucia

    2007-12-01

    In this paper rectangular plates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) are studied. A two-constituent material distribution through the thickness is considered, varying with a simple power rule of mixture. The equations governing the FGM plates are determined using a variational formulation arising from the Reissner-Mindlin theory. To approximate the problem a simple locking-free Discontinuous Galerkin finite element of non-conforming type is used, choosing a piecewise linear non-conforming approximation for both rotations and transversal displacement. Several numerical simulations are carried out in order to show the capability of the proposed element to capture the properties of plates of various gradings, subjected to thermo-mechanical loads.

  5. FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINA/MULLITE COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMIC COMPONENTS FROM CORROSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Stratis V. Sotirchos

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this research project was the formulation of processes that can be used to prepare compositionally graded alumina/mullite coatings for protection from corrosion of silicon carbide components (monolithic or composite) used or proposed to be used in coal utilization systems (e.g., combustion chamber liners, heat exchanger tubes, particulate removal filters, and turbine components) and other energy-related applications. Since alumina has excellent resistance to corrosion but coefficient than silicon carbide, the key idea of this project has been to develop graded coatings with composition varying smoothly along their thickness between an inner (base) layer of mullite in contact with the silicon carbide component and an outer layer of pure alumina, which would function as the actual protective coating of the component. (Mullite presents very good adhesion towards silicon carbide and has thermal expansion coefficient very close to that of the latter.)

  6. COMPARISON OF THERMOELASTIC RESULTS IN TWO TYPES OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED BRAKE DISCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.N. Ismarrubie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A thermoelastic simulation of functionally graded (FG brake discs is performed using finite element (FE ANSYS. The material properties of two types of FG brake discs are assumed to vary in both radial and thickness directions according to a power law distribution. The brake discs are in contact with one hollow pure pad disc. Dry contact friction is considered as the heat source. The proper thicknesses of pad discs are found to have full-contact status. The behaviour of the thermoelastic results for thickness and radial FG brake discs are compared. The results show that the behaviour of temperature and vertical displacement in these two types of FG brake discs are the same. However, the variations of radial displacement for different grading indices are not the same. The behaviour of other results are quite similar. Thus, it can be concluded that the variation direction of material properties in FG brake discs can affect the results.

  7. Propagation of elastic waves in an anisotropic functionally graded hollow cylinder in vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Cécile

    2011-02-01

    As a non-destructive, non-invasive and non-ionizing evaluation technique for heterogeneous media, the ultrasonic method is of major interest in industrial applications but especially in biomedical fields. Among the unidirectionally heterogeneous media, the continuously varying media are a particular but widespread case in natural materials. The first studies on laterally varying media were carried out by geophysicists on the Ocean, the atmosphere or the Earth, but the teeth, the bone, the shells and the insects wings are also functionally graded media. Some of them can be modeled as planar structures but a lot of them are curved media and need to be modeled as cylinders instead of plates. The present paper investigates the influence of the tubular geometry of a waveguide on the propagation of elastic waves. In this paper, the studied structure is an anisotropic hollow cylinder with elastic properties (stiffness coefficients c(ij) and mass density ρ) functionally varying in the radial direction. An original method is proposed to find the eigenmodes of this waveguide without using a multilayered model for the cylinder. This method is based on the sextic Stroh's formalism and an analytical solution, the matricant, explicitly expressed under the Peano series expansion form. This approach has already been validated for the study of an anisotropic laterally-graded plate (Baron et al., 2007; Baron and Naili, 2010) [6,5]. The dispersion curves obtained for the radially-graded cylinder are compared to the dispersion curves of a corresponding laterally-graded plate to evaluate the influence of the curvature. Preliminary results are presented for a tube of bone in vacuum modelling the in vitro conditions of bone strength evaluation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cut-off frequencies of circumferential horizontal shear waves in various functionally graded cylinder shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Ren, Dawei; Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, cut-off frequencies of the circumferential SH waves in functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM) cylinder shells with traction free, electrical and magnetic open boundary conditions are investigated analytically. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases. For comparison, Bessel functions and Kummer functions are used for solving cut-off frequency problems in homogenous and ideal FGPPM cylinder shells. It is shown that the WKB solution for the cut-off frequencies has good precise. The set of cut-off frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions, for which the difference is a function of the density and the effective elastic parameter. The relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described. These results provide theoretical guidance for the non-destructive evaluation of curved shells based on the cut-off frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving some cognitive functions, specifically executive functions in grade R learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stef Esterhuizen

    2014-07-01

    and output phases of the designed learning process, as well as the characteristics of their inhibitory control functions. A striking finding was the improvement noted in the children’s application of the following executive functions, namely working memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control.

  10. Functionally strain-graded nanoscoops for high power Li-ion battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Rahul; Lu, Toh-Ming; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-02-09

    Lithium-ion batteries show poor performance for high power applications involving ultrafast charging/discharging rates. Here we report a functionally strain-graded carbon-aluminum-silicon anode architecture that overcomes this drawback. It consists of an array of nanostructures each comprising an amorphous carbon nanorod with an intermediate layer of aluminum that is finally capped by a silicon nanoscoop on the very top. The gradation in strain arises from graded levels of volumetric expansion in these three materials on alloying with lithium. The introduction of aluminum as an intermediate layer enables the gradual transition of strain from carbon to silicon, thereby minimizing the mismatch at interfaces between differentially strained materials and enabling stable operation of the electrode under high-rate charge/discharge conditions. At an accelerated current density of ∼51.2 A/g (i.e., charge/discharge rate of ∼40C), the strain-graded carbon-aluminum-silicon nanoscoop anode provides average capacities of ∼412 mAh/g with a power output of ∼100 kW/kg(electrode) continuously over 100 charge/discharge cycles.

  11. Geometry Design Optimization of Functionally Graded Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: A Mechanobiological Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boccaccio

    Full Text Available Functionally Graded Scaffolds (FGSs are porous biomaterials where porosity changes in space with a specific gradient. In spite of their wide use in bone tissue engineering, possible models that relate the scaffold gradient to the mechanical and biological requirements for the regeneration of the bony tissue are currently missing. In this study we attempt to bridge the gap by developing a mechanobiology-based optimization algorithm aimed to determine the optimal graded porosity distribution in FGSs. The algorithm combines the parametric finite element model of a FGS, a computational mechano-regulation model and a numerical optimization routine. For assigned boundary and loading conditions, the algorithm builds iteratively different scaffold geometry configurations with different porosity distributions until the best microstructure geometry is reached, i.e. the geometry that allows the amount of bone formation to be maximized. We tested different porosity distribution laws, loading conditions and scaffold Young's modulus values. For each combination of these variables, the explicit equation of the porosity distribution law-i.e the law that describes the pore dimensions in function of the spatial coordinates-was determined that allows the highest amounts of bone to be generated. The results show that the loading conditions affect significantly the optimal porosity distribution. For a pure compression loading, it was found that the pore dimensions are almost constant throughout the entire scaffold and using a FGS allows the formation of amounts of bone slightly larger than those obtainable with a homogeneous porosity scaffold. For a pure shear loading, instead, FGSs allow to significantly increase the bone formation compared to a homogeneous porosity scaffolds. Although experimental data is still necessary to properly relate the mechanical/biological environment to the scaffold microstructure, this model represents an important step towards

  12. Green’s Function Approach to Solution of Transient Temperature for Thermal Stresses of Functionally Graded Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kui-Seob; Noda, Naotake

    The transient temperature solution for a functionally graded material (FGM) is formulated by Green’s function based on the Galerkin method. An approximate solution that satisfies the homogeneous boundary condition is substituted into the governing equation to yield an eigenvalue problem. To solve the eigenvalue problem, the eigenfunctions are approximated by a series of polynomials satisfying the homogeneous boundary condition. The Galerkin method is used to determine the coefficients of eigenfunctions. The transient temperature solution for a general heat conduction equation with a source and nonhomogeneous boundary conditions is obtained by using Green’s function, which is expressed by eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions. Transient thermal stresses in a FGM plate and a FGM hollow circular cylinder are discussed.

  13. Mother-child planning, child emotional functioning, and children's transition to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Susan M; Gauvain, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Mother-child planning was examined in relation to child emotional functioning and first-grade school performance. Ninety dyads were randomly assigned to the explicit-goal condition (emphasized accuracy and preparation for a child-only posttest) or the no-explicit-goal condition (dyads just asked to work together). In the no-explicit-goal condition only, children higher in negative emotionality and lower in regulation skills were less engaged in the task and planned less effectively. Both mother-child planning and adaptive child emotional functioning were positively associated with school performance. Results suggest that child emotional functioning mediated associations between planning and school performance. Implications of these findings for the development of planning and children's transition to school are discussed.

  14. Static Response of Functionally Graded Material Plate under Transverse Load for Varying Aspect Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient materials (FGM are one of the most widely used materials in various applications because of their adaptability to different situations by changing the material constituents as per the requirement. Nowadays it is very easy to tailor the properties to serve specific purposes in functionally gradient material. Most structural components used in the field of engineering can be classified as beams, plates, or shells for analysis purposes. In the present study the power law, sigmoid law and exponential distribution, is considered for the volume fraction distributions of the functionally graded plates. The work includes parametric studies performed by varying volume fraction distributions and aspect ratio. The FGM plate is subjected to transverse UDL (uniformly distributed load and point load and the response is analysed.

  15. Characterization of functionally graded elastic materials using a thickness-shear mode quartz resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangyang; Wang, Ji; Du, Jianke; Yang, Jiashi

    2013-06-01

    We propose the use of a quartz crystal plate thickness-shear (TSh) mode resonator to measure material property variations in a functionally graded material (FGM). A theoretical analysis is performed on TSh vibrations of an AT-cut quartz plate carrying a layer of an FGM whose density and stiffness vary along its thickness. The effect of the material property gradient on the resonant frequencies of the two-layer plate as a compound resonator is examined. It is shown that this effect may be used to measure the material property gradient of the FGM.

  16. Semi-analytical Vibration Characteristics of Rotating Timoshenko Beams Made of Functionally Graded Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Ebrahimia

    Full Text Available AbstractFree vibration analysis of rotating functionally graded (FG thick Timoshenko beams is presented. The material properties of FG beam vary along the thickness direction of the constituents according to power law model. Governing equations are derived through Hamilton's principle and they are solved applying differential transform method. The good agreement between the results of this article and those available in literature validated the presented approach. The emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of several beam parameters such as constituent volume fractions, slenderness ratios, rotational speed and hub radius on natural frequencies and mode shapes of the rotating thick FG beam.

  17. A complete set of equations for piezo-magnetoelastic analysis of a functionally graded thick shell of revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Arefi

    Full Text Available Tensor analysis and an orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system have been used to derive a complete set of equations for piezo-magneto-elastic analysis of a functionally graded (FG thick shell of revolution with variable thickness and curvature. The mentioned structure can be subjected to mechanical, electrical and magnetic fields. It was assumed that all material properties (mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties change functionally throughout the three axis of employed coordinate system. Kinetic and potential energies of the system have been evaluated in order to constitute the functional of the system. Final partial differential equations of the system can be derived by using minimization of the energy functional with respect to five employed functions of the system. For validation, the obtained differential equations have been reduced to two previously studied problems i.e. functionally graded piezoelectric materials and functionally graded piezomagnetic cylinders. Furthermore, numerical results are evaluated for a case study.

  18. Study of high temperature oxidation of duplex and functionally graded materials of thermal barrier coating (FGM TBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeedi, B.; Sabour, A. R.; Khodami, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Although the number and the severity of thermal barrier coatings applications on hot section components have dramatically increased in the past decade, premature spallation failure of thermal barrier coatings , due to mismatch of thermal expansion at the metal/ceramic interface of the two coating layers, during service is still an overriding concern. Therefore, functionally graded materials with a gradual compositional variation have been introduced. In this study, comparison of properties of two different types of thermal barrier coatings was made to improve the surface characteristics on high temperature components. These thermal barrier coatings consisted of a duplex thermal barrier coatings and a five layered functionally graded thermal barrier coatings . In both coatings, Yttria partially stabilized Zirconia topcoat was deposited by air plasma spraying and Ni Cr Al Y bond coat was deposited by high velocity oxy fuel spraying. In functionally graded materials coating, functionally graded layer was sprayed by air plasma process by varying the feeding ratio of YSZ/Ni Cr Al Y powders using two separate powder feeders. Then, isothermal oxidation was carried out at 950 d eg C in atmosphere to obtain the plot of mass change vs. time to study oxidation kinetic. Microstructural and compositional changes of coating, oxides formed during service were examined by optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy with EDS. functionally graded materials coating failed after 2100 h and duplex coating failed after 1700 h. Finally, it was found that functionally graded materials coating is more qualified than duplex thermal barrier coatings and stands for a longer time

  19. Studies on Mechanical Behaviour of Aluminium/Nickel Coated Silicon Carbide Reinforced Functionally Graded Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohandas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to fabricate functionally graded aluminium (Al-Si6Cu/ nickel coated SiC metal matrix composite using centrifugal casting route. SiC particles (53-80 µm were coated with nickel using electroless coating technique to enhance the wettability with aluminium matrix. Several attempts were made to coat nickel on SiC by varying the process temperature (65 °C, 75 °C, and 85 °C to obtain a uniform coating. Silicon particles coated with nickel were characterised using EDS enabled Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope and it was found that the maximum nickel coating on SiC occurred at a process temperature of 75°C. This nickel coated SiC particles were used as the reinforcement for the manufacture of functionally graded metal matrix composite and a cast specimen of dimensions 150×90×15 mm was obtained. To ensure the graded properties in the fabricated composites, microstructure (at a distance of 1, 7 and 14 mm and hardness (at a distance of 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 mm from outer periphery taken in the radial direction was analysed using Zeiss Axiovert metallurgical microscope and Vickers micro hardness tester respectively. The microstructure reveals presence of more SiC particles at the outer periphery compared to inner periphery and the hardness test shows that the hardness also decreased from outer periphery (90 HV to inner periphery (78 HV.Tensile strength of specimen from outer zone (1-7mm and inner zone (8-14 mm of casting was also tested and found out a value of 153.3 Mpa and 123.3 Mpa for the outer zone and inner zone respectively. An important observation made was that the outer periphery of casting was particle rich and the inner periphery was particle deficient because of centrifugal force and variation in density between aluminium matrix and reinforcement. Functionally graded Al/SiC metal matrix composite could be extensively used in automotive industry especially in the manufacture of liners and brake drums.

  20. Functional and quality of life outcomes following obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI): does the grade of injury affect outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramage, Lisa; Yen, Clarence; Qiu, Shengyang; Simillis, Constantinos; Kontovounisios, Christos; Tekkis, Paris; Tan, Emile

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare functional and quality of life data in patients with increasing grades of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) presenting to a tertiary colorectal pelvic floor clinic within 24 months of delivery. Prospective data were collected from the patients for the period 2009-2016 and included data on functional outcomes and motor anorectal manometry parameters. The instruments used for the evaluation of functional outcomes were the Birmingham Bowel and Urinary Symptoms Questionnaire, the Wexner Incontinence Score, Short Form 36, and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. OASI grade of injury was based on the postdelivery endoanal ultrasound scan. Data from patients with a grade 3a, 3b, 3c or 4 OASI were compared using one-way ANOVA for parametric data and the Kruskal-Wallis test for nonparametric data overall and for separate time periods (3-6 months, 6-12 months, 12-24 months). Functional patient data were available in 177 patients: 29 with grade 3a, 55 with grade 3b, 77 with grade 3c and 16 with grade 4 OASI. There was no discernible trend in worsening function with increasing severity of OASI overall, nor for the specified time periods of 3-6 months 58 patients), 6-12 months (85 patients) or 12-24 months (18 patients). Our series demonstrated no significant differences in functional outcomes or quality of life in patients with different OASI grades. Longer-term follow-up is required to ascertain any later functional differences which may become apparent with time.

  1. Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Higher Order Shear Deformation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sidda Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The prime aim of the present study is to present analytical formulations and solutions for the buckling analysis of simply supported functionally graded plates (FGPs using higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT without enforcing zero transverse shear stresses on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. It does not require shear correction factors and transverse shear stresses vary parabolically across the thickness. Material properties of the plate are assumed to vary in the thickness direction according to a power law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. The equations of motion and boundary conditions are derived using the principle of virtual work. Solutions are obtained for FGPs in closed-form using Navier’s technique. Comparison studies are performed to verify the validity of the present results from which it can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and efficient in predicting the buckling behavior of functionally graded plates. The effect of side-to-thickness ratio, aspect ratio, modulus ratio, the volume fraction exponent, and the loading conditions on the critical buckling load of FGPs is also investigated and discussed.

  2. Bifurcation and chaos of thin circular functionally graded plate in thermal environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Yuda, E-mail: huyuda03@163.com [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang Zhiqiang, E-mail: zhangzqvib@126.com [School of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > We study bifurcations and chaotic dynamics of a FGM circular plate. > We consider the effect of temperature-dependent material properties. > Increasing volume fraction index will increase chaotic regions. > Increasing temperature will reduce chaotic regions. > The FGM plate exists chaotic motions, multiple periodic and periodic motions. - Abstract: A ceramic/metal functionally graded circular plate under one-term and two-term transversal excitations in the thermal environment is investigated, respectively. The effects of geometric nonlinearity and temperature-dependent material properties are both taken into account. The material properties of the functionally graded plate are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Using the principle of virtual work, the nonlinear partial differential equations of FGM plate subjected to transverse harmonic forcing excitation and thermal load are derived. For the circular plate with clamped immovable edge, the Duffing nonlinear forced vibration equation is deduced using Galerkin method. The criteria for existence of chaos under one-term and two-term periodic perturbations are given with Melnikov method. Numerical simulations are carried out to plot the bifurcation curves for the homolinic orbits. Effects of the material volume fraction index and temperature on the criterions are discussed and the existences of chaos are validated by plotting phase portraits, Poincare maps. Also, the bifurcation diagrams and corresponding maximum Lyapunov exponents are plotted. It was found that periodic, multiple periodic solutions and chaotic motions exist for the FGM plate under certain conditions.

  3. Buckling and Vibration of Functionally Graded Non-uniform Circular Plates Resting on Winkler Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Lal

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation on the effect of uniform tensile in-plane force on the radially symmetric vibratory characteristics of functionally graded circular plates of linearly varying thickness along radial direction and resting on a Winkler foundation has been carried out on the basis of classical plate theory. The non-homogeneous mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to be graded through the thickness and described by a power function of the thickness coordinate. The governing differential equation for such a plate model has been obtained using Hamilton's principle. The differential transform method has been employed to obtain the frequency equations for simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The effect of various parameters like volume fraction index, taper parameter, foundation parameter and the in-plane force parameter has been analysed on the first three natural frequencies of vibration. By allowing the frequency to approach zero, the critical buckling loads for both the plates have been computed. Three-dimensional mode shapes for specified plates have been plotted. Comparison with existing results has been made.

  4. Theoretical study on functionally graded cylindrical magnetoelectric composites using d15 shear-mode response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a novel functionally graded cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME) composite based on d15 shear-mode response is analyzed theoretical by using the elastic mechanics model and equivalent circuit model. The composite is mounted around AC current-carrying power lines to scavenge AC magnetic field energy. For different sensing configurations, the generated magnetic fields are calculated, respectively. Then, based on the theoretical models, the dependences of the ME performances, i.e., the ME voltage and power, upon the type of the material gradation, the material constants, and geometrical parameters of the cylindrical ME composite are numerically evaluated. The results show that the ME coupling effect in the functionally graded cylindrical ME composite with special gradation is stronger than that in the homogeneous structure. The ME performance can be improved by geometrical parameters as well. The presented two models can be synthesized under the open-circuit condition, which provide a theoretical basis to understand and improve the ME property of the d15 shear-mode cylindrical ME composites operating at resonant frequency and off-resonance frequency.

  5. Enriched Element-Free Galerkin Method for Fracture Analysis of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Wei Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method using the enriched element-free Galerkin method (EEFGM to model functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPMs with cracks was presented. To improve the solution accuracy, extended terms were introduced into the approximation function of the conventional element-free Galerkin method (EFGM to describe the displacement and electric fields near the crack. Compared with the conventional EFGM, the new approach requires smaller domain to describe the crack-tip singular field. Additionally, the domain of the nodes was not affected by the crack. Therefore, the visibility method and the diffraction method were no longer needed. The mechanical response of FGPM was discussed, when its material parameters changed exponentially in a certain direction. The modified J-integrals for FGPM were deduced, whose results were compared with the results of the conventional EFGM and the analytical solution. Numerical example results illustrated that this method is feasible and precise.

  6. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates in thermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Iu, V. P.; Kou, K. P.

    2009-07-01

    Free vibration of functionally graded material rectangular plates with simply supported and clamped edges in the thermal environment is studied based on the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity. Simply supported and clamped FGM plates with temperature-dependent material properties subjected to uniform temperature rise, linear temperature rise and nonlinear temperature rise are considered. The three displacements of the plates are expanded by a series of Chebyshev polynomials multiplied by appropriate functions to satisfy the essential boundary conditions. The natural frequencies are obtained by Ritz method. The numerical results of the present approach are compared with the results of other researchers for the validation. Parametric study is performed for supported conditions, temperature fields, volume fraction indices of FGM plates.

  7. Stochastic thermoelastic problem of a functionally graded plate under random temperature load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, R. [Miyagi National College of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Natori (Japan); Sugano, Y. [Iwate University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Morioka (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    This study attempts to derive the statistics of temperature and thermal stress in functionally graded material (FGM) plates exposed to random external temperatures. The thermomechanical properties of the FGM plates are assumed to vary arbitrarily only in the plate thickness direction. The external temperatures are expressed as random functions with respect to time. The transient temperature field in the FGM plate is determined by solving a nonhomogeneous heat conduction problem for a multilayered plate with linear nonhomogeneous thermal conductivity and different homogeneous heat capacity in each layer. The autocorrelations and power spectrum densities (PSDs) of temperature and thermal stress are derived analytically. These statistics for FGM plates composed of partially stabilised zirconia (PSZ) and austenitic stainless steel (SUS304) are computed under the condition that the fluctuation in the external temperature can be considered as white noise or a stationary Markov process. (orig.)

  8. Buckling of rectangular functionally graded material plates subjected to nonlinearly distributed in-plane edge loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X. L.; Liew, K. M.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, the buckling behavior of functionally graded material (FGM) rectangular plates subjected to pin loads, partial uniform loads and parabolic loads is studied using the mesh-free method based on the radial basis function. The proposed mesh-free method approximates displacements based on scattered nodes, thus it can avoid the disadvantages that arise in the finite element method (FEM) from the use of elements. Variational forms of the system equations for the calculation of non-uniform prebuckling stress distribution and buckling loads of the plate are established. Two-step solution procedures are implemented. First the non-uniform prebuckling stresses are obtained based on a two-dimensional (2D) elastic plane stress problem. Then buckling loads of plates with the predetermined non-uniform prebuckling stresses are calculated based on Mindlin's plate assumption. Selected numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed mesh-free method.

  9. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of functionally graded material sandwich plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Iu, V. P.; Kou, K. P.

    2008-03-01

    Free vibration of functionally graded material sandwich rectangular plates with simply supported and clamped edges is studied based on the three-dimensional linear theory of elasticity. Two common types of FGM sandwich plates, namely, the sandwich with FGM facesheet and homogeneous core and the sandwich with homogeneous facesheet and FGM core, are considered. The three displacements of the plates are expanded by a series of Chebyshev polynomials multiplied by appropriate functions to satisfy the essential boundary conditions. The natural frequencies are obtained by Ritz method. Rapid convergence is observed in this study. The natural frequencies of simply supported power-law FGM sandwich plates are compared with results from different two-dimensional plate theories. Parametric study is performed for varying volume fraction, layer thickness ratios, thickness-length ratios and aspect ratios of the sandwich plates.

  10. Thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic: Effects of finite cooling rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihe Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a semi-analytical model to explore the effects of cooling rate on the thermal shock resistance behavior of a functionally graded ceramic (FGC plate with a periodic array of edge cracks. The FGC is assumed to be a thermally heterogeneous material with constant elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. The cooling rate applied at the FGC surface is modeled using a linear ramp function. An integral equation method and a closed form asymptotic temperature solution are employed to compute the thermal stress intensity factor (TSIF. The thermal shock residual strength and critical thermal shock of the FGC plate are obtained using the SIF criterion. Thermal shock simulations for an Al2O3/Si3N4 FGC indicate that a finite cooling rate leads to a significantly higher critical thermal shock than that under the sudden cooling condition. The residual strength, however, is relatively insensitive to the cooling rate.

  11. Influences of Dynamic Moving Forces on the Functionally Graded Porous-Nonuniform Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Dinh Kien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of functionally graded (FG porous-nonuniform beams subjected to moving forces is investigated. The beam cross-section is assumed to vary longitudinally in the width direction by a linear or quadratic function. A modified rule of mixture, taking the effect of porosities into account, is adopted in evaluating the effective material properties. Based on Timoshenko beam theory, governing equations of motion are derived from Hamilton's principle, and they are solved by a finite element model. The dynamic response of a simply supported FG porous beam is computed with the aid of the Newmark method. The validation of the derived formulation is confirmed by comparing the obtained numerical results with the data available in the literature. A parametric study is conducted to highlight the effect of the material inhomogeneity, porosity volume fraction, section profile and loading parameters on the dynamic behavior of the beams.

  12. Analysis of Dynamic Fracture Parameters in Functionally Graded Material Plates with Cracks by Graded Finite Element Method and Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the finite element software ABAQUS and graded element method, we developed a dummy node fracture element, wrote the user subroutines UMAT and UEL, and solved the energy release rate component of functionally graded material (FGM plates with cracks. An interface element tailored for the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT was applied. Fixed cracks and moving cracks under dynamic loads were simulated. The results were compared to other VCCT-based analyses. With the implementation of a crack speed function within the element, it can be easily expanded to the cases of varying crack velocities, without convergence difficulty for all cases. Neither singular element nor collapsed element was required. Therefore, due to its simplicity, the VCCT interface element is a potential tool for engineers to conduct dynamic fracture analysis in conjunction with commercial finite element analysis codes.

  13. Transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded materials using a symplectic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Liu, Yan-Zhuang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate the transverse vibration of FGM pipe conveying fluid. • The FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. • The variations between the frequency and the power law exponent are obtained. • “Case 1” is relatively more reasonable than “case 2”. - Abstract: Problems related to the transverse vibration of pipe conveying fluid made of functionally graded material (FGM) are addressed. Based on inside and outside surface material compositions of the pipe, FGM pipe conveying fluid can be classified into two cases. It is hypothesized that the physical parameters of the material along the direction of the pipe wall thickness change in the simple power law. A differential equation of motion expressed in non-dimensional quantities is derived by using Hamilton's principle for systems of changing mass. Using the assuming modal method, the pipe deflection function is expanded into a series, in which each term is expressed to admissible function multiplied by generalized coordinate. Then, the differential equation of motion is discretized into the two order differential equations expressed in the generalized coordinates. Based on symplectic elastic theory and the introduction of dual system and dual variable, Hamilton's dual equations are derived, and the original problem is reduced to eigenvalue and eigenvector problem in the symplectic space. Finally, a symplectic method is employed to analyze the vibration and stability of FGM pipe conveying fluid. For a clamped–clamped FGM pipe conveying fluid in “case 1” and “case 2”, the dimensionless critical flow velocity for first-mode divergence and the critical coupled-mode flutter flow velocity are obtained, and the variations between the real part and imaginary part of dimensionless complex frequency and fluid velocity, mass ratio and the power law exponent (or graded index, volume fraction) for FGM pipe conveying fluid are analyzed.

  14. Low-grade systemic inflammation: a partial mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannelli, Jonathan; Trouiller, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Chérot-Kornobis, Natalie; Ciuchete, Alina; Edmé, Jean-Louis; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-01-01

    An association has been consistently found between diabetes mellitus and decreased lung function. We evaluated to what extent low-grade inflammation (as measured by the level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) could explain this relationship. A sample of 1878 middle-aged adults from the cross-sectional Enquête Littoral Souffle Air Biologie Environnement survey without self-reported pulmonary and atherosclerosis disease was included. A mediation analysis was performed to assess and quantify the hs-CRP level as a mediator of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Diabetes was associated with higher hs-CRP level (+22.9%, 95% confidence interval = [5.1, 43.6]). The hs-CRP (>4 vs. ≤1 mg/L) was associated with lower percentage predicted values for the forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) (-4% [-6.1, -1.9]) and forced vital capacity (FVC) (-4.4% [-6.5, -2.3]). Diabetes was associated with FEV1 (-3.5% [-5.8, -1.3]) and FVC (-3.6% [-5.9, -1.3]). The proportion of the effect that is mediated by hs-CRP was 12% [2.4, 37] and 13% [3.7, 39.4] for FEV1 and FVC, respectively. Our results suggest that low-grade systemic inflammation could only explain a small part of the relationship between diabetes and lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M., E-mail: zenkour@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh 33516 (Egypt); Abbas, Ibrahim A. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Arts-Khulais, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag (Egypt)

    2015-12-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green–Naghdi's (G–N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. - Highlights: • The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of a FG cylinder is studied. • A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. • The results are investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. • It provides interesting information for all researchers working on this subject.

  16. Electro-magneto-thermo-elastic response of infinite functionally graded cylinders without energy dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenkour, Ashraf M.; Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2015-01-01

    The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of an infinite functionally graded (FG) hollow cylinder is studied in the context of Green–Naghdi's (G–N) generalized thermoelasticity theory (without energy dissipation). Material properties are assumed to be graded in the radial direction according to a novel power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. The inner surface of the FG cylinder is pure metal whereas the outer surface is pure ceramic. The equations of motion and the heat-conduction equation are used to derive the governing second-order differential equations. A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. The system of differential equations is solved numerically and some plots for displacement, radial and electromagnetic stresses, and temperature are presented. The radial displacement, mechanical stresses and temperature as well as the electromagnetic stress are all investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. - Highlights: • The electro-magneto-thermo-elastic analysis problem of a FG cylinder is studied. • A finite element scheme is presented for the numerical purpose. • The results are investigated along the radial direction of the infinite cylinder. • It provides interesting information for all researchers working on this subject

  17. Thermal spraying of functionally graded calcium phosphate coatings for biomedical implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Khor, K. A.; Cheang, P.

    1998-03-01

    Biomedical requirements in a prosthesis are often complex and diverse in nature. Biomaterials for implants have to display a wide range of adaptability to suit the various stages of the bio-integration process of any foreign material into the human body. Often, a combination of materials is needed. The preparation of a functionally graded bioceramic coating composed of essentially calcium phosphate compounds is explored. The coating is graded in accordance to adhesive strength, bioactivity, and bioresorbability. The bond coat on the Ti-6Al-4V stub is deposited with a particle range of the hydroxyapatite (HA) that will provide a high adhesive strength and bioactivity but have poor bioresorption properties. The top coat, however, is composed of predominantly α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) that is highly bioresorbable. This arrangement has the propensity of allowing accelerated bio-integration of the coating by the body tissues as the top layer is rapidly resorbed, leaving the more bioactive intermediate layer to facilitate the much needed bioactive properties for proper osteoconduction. The processing steps and problems are highlighted, as well as the results of post-spray heat treatment.

  18. Functionally graded poly(dimethylsiloxane)/silver nanocomposites with tailored broadband optical absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaou, P.; Mina, C.; Constantinou, M.; Koutsokeras, L.E.; Constantinides, G. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Lidorikis, E.; Avgeropoulos, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Kelires, P.C. [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 50329, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus); Patsalas, P., E-mail: ppats@physics.auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2015-04-30

    In this work, we produce functionally graded nanocomposites consisting of silver (Ag) plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs) supported in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix. PDMS was selected due to its high optical transparency, nontoxicity and ease of use. The Ag PNPs were formed by annealing sputtered Ag ultra-thin films and were subsequently capped by a spin-coated PDMS layer. We investigate the factors that affect their plasmonic behavior, such as the PNP size, the annealing conditions and the surrounding environment. In order to achieve broadband absorption, we developed PDMS/Ag(PNPs) multilayers with graded PNP size. Thus, we demonstrate the significance of the stacking sequence of various plasmonic layers sandwiched between PDMS layers and its potential for tailoring the plasmonic response of multilayer structure. As a demonstration of this approach, we deposited a specially designed multilayer structure, whose optical extinction resembles the solar emission spectrum. - Highlights: • Elastomers are combined with plasmonic nanoparticles. • The plasmonic effects in stratified media are identified. • Broadband absorption similar to solar emission is achieved.

  19. An exact solution of mechanical buckling for functionally graded material bimorph circular plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Eskandari Jam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Presented herein is the exact solution of mechanical buckling response of FGM (Functionally Graded Material bimorph circular plates, performed under uniform radial compression, by means of the classic theory and the non-linear Von-Karman assumptions, for both simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. Material properties are assumed to be symmetric with respect to the middle surface and are graded in the thickness direction according to a simple power law, in a way that the middle surface is pure metal and the two sides are pure ceramic. Using the energy method the non-linear equilibrium equations are derived and the stability equations have been used, so as to determine the critical buckling pressure, considering the adjacent equilibrium criterion, and finally a closed-form solution has been achieved for it. The effect of different factors, including thickness to radius variation rate of the plate, volumetric percentage of material index, and Poisson's ratio on the critical buckling compression have been investigated for two simply supported and clamped boundary conditions, and the results

  20. Microstructure and Properties of Thermally Sprayed Functionally Graded Coatings for Polymeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Palmese, G. R.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    The use of polymer matrix composites (PMCs) in the gas flow path of advanced turbine engines offers significant benefits for aircraft engine performance but their useful lifetime is limited by their poor erosion resistance. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed polymer/cermet functionally graded (FGM) coatings are being investigated as a method to address this technology gap by providing erosion and oxidation protection to polymer matrix composites. The FGM coating structures are based on a polyimide matrix filled with varying volume fractions of WC-Co. The graded coating architecture was produced using a combination of internal and external feedstock injection, via two computer-controlled powder feeders and controlled substrate preheating. Porosity, coating thickness and volume fraction of the WC-Co filler retained in the coatings were determined using standard metallographic techniques and computer image analysis. The pull-off strength (often referred to as the adhesive strength) of the coatings was evaluated according to the ASTM D 4541 standard test method, which measured the greatest normal tensile force that the coating could withstand. Adhesive/cohesive strengths were determined for three different types of coating structures and compared based on the maximum indicated load and the surface area loaded. The nature and locus of the fractures were characterized according to the percent of adhesive and/or cohesive failure, and the tested interfaces and layers involved were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy.

  1. The Effect Of Ceramic In Combination Of Two Sigmoid Functionally Graded Rotating Disks With Variable Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayat, M.; Sahari, B. B.; Saleem, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the elastic solutions of a disk composed of FGM – Functionaly Graded Material, is presented.......In this paper the elastic solutions of a disk composed of FGM – Functionaly Graded Material, is presented....

  2. Laser Rapid Manufacturing of Stainless Steel 316L/Inconel718 Functionally Graded Materials: Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Wu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patterns of functionally graded materials (FGMs were successfully fabricated whose compositions gradually varied from 100% stainless steel 316L to 100% Inconel718 superalloy using laser engineered net shaping process. The microstructure characterization, composition analysis, and microhardness along the graded direction were investigated. The comparison revealed the distinctions in solidification behavior, microstructure evolution of two patterns. In the end, the abrasive wear resistance of the material was investigated.

  3. Optimization of Natural Frequencies and Sound Power of Beams Using Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel T. Alshabatat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method to optimize the material distribution of functionally graded beams with respect to some vibration and acoustic properties. The change of the material distribution through the beam length alters the stiffness and the mass of the beam. This can be used to alter a specific beam natural frequency. It can also be used to reduce the sound power radiated from the vibrating beam. Two novel volume fraction laws are used to describe the material volume distributions through the length of the FGM beam. The proposed method couples the finite element method (for the modal and harmonic analysis, Lumped Parameter Model (for calculating the power of sound radiation, and an optimization technique based on Genetic Algorithm. As a demonstration of this technique, the optimization procedure is applied to maximize the fundamental frequency of FGM cantilever and clamped beams and to minimize the sound radiation from vibrating clamped FGM beam at a specific frequency.

  4. Analysis of macro and micro residual stresses in functionally graded materials by diffraction methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dantz, D; Reimers, W

    1999-01-01

    The residual stress state in microwave sintered metal-ceramic functionally graded materials (FGM) consisting of 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//Ni and 8Y-ZrO/sub 2//NiCr8020, respectively, was analysed by non- destructive diffraction methods. In $9 order to get knowledge of the complete residual stress state in the near surface region as well as in the interior of the material, complementary methods were applied. Whereas the surface was characterised by X-ray techniques using $9 conventional sources, the stresses within the bulk of the material were investigated by means of high energy synchrotron radiation. The stress state was found to obey the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion $9 (micro-stresses) on the one hand and the inhomogeneous cooling conditions (macrostresses) on the other hand. (7 refs).

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates under Different Internal Resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Hao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamic response of functionally graded rectangular plates under combined transverse and in-plane excitations is investigated under the conditions of 1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 internal resonance. The material properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and vary along the thickness direction. The thermal effect due to one-dimensional temperature gradient is included in the analysis. The governing equations of motion for FGM rectangular plates are derived by using Reddy's third-order plate theory and Hamilton's principle. Galerkin's approach is utilized to reduce the governing differential equations to a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system including quadratic and cubic nonlinear terms, which are then solved numerically by using 4th-order Runge-Kutta algorithm. The effects of in-plane excitations on the internal resonance relationship and nonlinear dynamic response of FGM plates are studied.

  6. Energy trapping of thickness-shear vibration modes of elastic plates with functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-03-01

    Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.

  7. Transient temperature fields in functionally graded materials with different shapes under convective boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Ai, X.; Li, Y. Z.

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents analyses of the transient temperature fields in an infinite plate, an infinite solid cylinder and a solid sphere made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) under convective boundary conditions. The composition and the thermo-physical properties of the infinite FGM plate, the infinite FGM solid cylinder and the FGM solid sphere are of planar symmetric, axially symmetric and spherically symmetric distributions, respectively. The analytical formulae of the one-dimensional transient temperature fields for the three FGM solids are obtained respectively by using the separation-of-variables method and the variable substitution method. Numerical results reveal that the transient temperature fields of the FGM components exhibit similar shape effect to that of homogeneous components. The present work provides valuable basis for the investigation of the thermal shock resistance of FGMs with various shapes.

  8. Pull-in behavior analysis of vibrating functionally graded micro-cantilevers under suddenly DC voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Zare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research attempts to explain dynamic pull-in instability of functionally graded micro-cantilevers actuated by step DC voltage while the fringing-field effect is taken into account in the vibrational equation of motion. By employing modern asymptotic approach namely Homotopy Perturbation Method with an auxiliary term, high-order frequency-amplitude relation is obtained, then the influences of material properties and actuation voltage on dynamic pull-in behavior are investigated. It is demonstrated that the auxiliary term in the homotopy perturbation method is extremely effective for higher order approximation and two terms in series expansions are sufficient to produce an acceptable solution. The strength of this analytical procedure is verified through comparison with numerical results.

  9. Volume Fraction Optimization of Functionally Graded Composite Plates for Stress Reduction and Thermo-Mechanical Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Su; Kim, Ji-Hwan

    2008-02-01

    The volume fraction optimization of Functionally Graded Material (FGM) composite plate is investigated for stress reduction and thermo-mechanical buckling. Material properties are assumed to be temperature dependent and varied continuously in the thickness direction. The 3-D finite element is adopted using an 18-node solid element to analyze the plate model more accurately for the variation of material properties and temperature field in the thickness direction. Tensile and compressive stress ratios of the structure under mechanical load are evaluated for stress analysis. Temperature at each node is obtained by solving the steady-state heat transfer problem in the thermo-mechanical buckling analysis, and Newton-Raphson method is used for nonlinear analysis. Tensile stress ratios, compressive stress ratios and critical temperatures are analyzed for various thickness ratios and volume fraction distributions in the numerical study. Finally, the optimal design of FGM composite plate is investigated by considering the stress and the critical temperature.

  10. Three-dimensional stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded plates with circular holes by the use of the graded finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, K.; Ashrafi, H.; Shariyat, M.

    2016-07-01

    Static and free vibration analyses of plates with circular holes are performed based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The plates are made of a functionally graded material (FGM), and the volume fractions of the constituent materials vary continuously across the plate. The effective properties of the FGM plate are estimated by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. A graded finite element method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz energy formulation is used to solve the problem. Effects of different volume fractions of the materials and hole sizes on the behavior of FGM plates under uniaxial tension are investigated. Natural frequencies of a fully clamped FGM plate with a circular cutout are derived. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data.

  11. Parametric instability of a functionally graded Timoshenko beam on Winkler's elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S.C.; Dash, R.R.; Rout, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Winkler's elastic foundation enhances the stability of both FGO and FGSW beams with material properties distribution along the thickness as per power law and exponential law. → FGO beam with steel-rich bottom is more stable than a beam with aluminium-rich bottom for both the types of property distribution. → FGSW beam with the properties in FGM core varying as per power law becomes less stable with increase in core thickness. → Exponential variation of core properties enhances its stability with the increase in core thickness. - Abstract: This article presents an investigation of the dynamic stability of functionally graded ordinary (FGO) beam and functionally graded sandwich (FGSW) beam on Winkler's elastic foundation using finite element method. The material properties are assumed to follow both exponential and power law. It is found that the foundation enhances stability of the FGO beam for first three modes. The effect of distributions of material properties of the FGO beam on its parametric instability is investigated. It is found that the FGO beam with steel-rich bottom is more stable as compared to that with Al-rich bottom for all the three modes and for both the types of property distributions. The effect of property distribution on stability of FGSW beam with steel as bottom skin and alumina as top skin is also investigated. It is observed that the beam having properties in core according to exponential law is the most stable beam while the beam having properties in core as per power law with index 2.5 is the least stable beam. For an FGSW beam it is found that the increase in the thickness of FGM core makes the beam less stable when the properties in FGM vary as per power law whereas the stability of beam enhances with the increase of thickness of FGM core when the properties vary according to exponential law.

  12. Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2011-04-01

    A numerical matrix method relative to the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in functionally graded piezoelectric heterostructure is given in order to make a comparative study with the respective performances of analytical methods proposed in literature. The preliminary obtained results show a good agreement, however numerical approach has the advantage of conceptual simplicity and flexibility brought about by the stiffness matrix method. The propagation behaviour of Love waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) is investigated in this article. It involves a thin FGPM layer bonded perfectly to an elastic substrate. The inhomogeneous FGPM heterostructure has been stratified along the depth direction, hence each state can be considered as homogeneous and the ordinary differential equation method is applied. The obtained solutions are used to study the effect of an exponential gradient applied to physical properties. Such numerical approach allows applying different gradient variation for mechanical and electrical properties. For this case, the obtained results reveal opposite effects. The dispersive curves and phase velocities of the Love wave propagation in the layered piezoelectric film are obtained for electrical open and short cases on the free surface, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on coupled electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the electrical potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the well known heterostructure PZT-5H/SiO(2), the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Love wave propagation behaviour. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement in cognitive function after surgery for low-grade glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilai, Ori; Ben Moshe, Shlomit; Sitt, Razi; Sela, Gal; Shofty, Ben; Ram, Zvi

    2018-03-23

    OBJECTIVE Cognition is a key component in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and is currently incorporated as a major parameter of outcome assessment in patients treated for brain tumors. The effect of surgery on cognition and HRQoL remains debatable. The authors investigated the impact of resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) on cognition and the correlation with various histopathological markers. METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients with LGG who underwent craniotomy for tumor resection at a single institution between 2010 and 2014 was conducted. Of 192 who underwent resective surgery for LGG during this period, 49 had complete pre- and postoperative neurocognitive evaluations and were included in the analysis. These patients completed a full battery of neurocognitive tests (memory, language, attention and working memory, visuomotor organization, and executive functions) pre- and postoperatively. Tumor and surgical characteristics were analyzed, including volumetric measurements and histopathological markers (IDH, p53, GFAP). RESULTS Postoperatively, significant improvement was found in memory and executive functions. A subgroup analysis of patients with dominant-side tumors, most of whom underwent intraoperative awake mapping, revealed significant improvement in the same domains. Patients whose tumors were on the nondominant side displayed significant improvement only in memory functions. Positive staining for p53 testing was associated with improved language function and greater extent of resection in dominant-side tumors. GFAP positivity was associated with improved memory in patients whose tumors were on the nondominant side. No correlation was found between cognitive outcome and preoperative tumor volume, residual volume, extent of resection, or IDH1 status. CONCLUSIONS Resection of LGG significantly improves memory and executive function and thus is likely to improve functional outcome in addition to providing oncological benefit. GFAP and pP53

  14. An Analysis of Grade 11 Learners' Levels of Understanding of Functions in Terms of APOS Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimhande, Tinoda; Naidoo, Ana; Stols, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a study of six Grade 11 learners' levels of understanding of concepts related to the function definition and representation. Task-based clinical interviews were used to elicit the learners' interpretations and reasoning when working with these function-related concepts. Indicators for Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS)…

  15. Functional Grammar and Teaching of Reading--A Pedagogy Based on Graded Teaching of College English in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tuo; Zhang, Beili

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of functional grammar and demonstrates its application to the teaching of reading among graded college students. Functional grammar holds that a discourse is composed of two levels: the interior level and the exterior level. Therefore, reading activities involve both linguistic elements and contexts.…

  16. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netson, Kelli L. [Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Kansas University School of Medicine—Wichita, Kansas (United States); Conklin, Heather M. [Department of Psychology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping [Department of Biostatistics, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Merchant, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, St Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  17. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  18. Functionally graded ceramic materials for high temperature applications for space planes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, T.; Auweter-Kurtz, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Space Syst.; Killinger, A.; Gadow, R.; Wilhelmi, H.

    1999-10-01

    Whether it is possible to develop a fully reusable space vehicle essentially depends, according to the current point of view, on the success of developing appropriate thermal protection materials. Functionally graded materials are being developed for this purpose. This paper presents first results of the manufacturing of graded coatings and their investigation under high enthalpy flow conditions. The materials were manufactured by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) at the Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites (IFKB). The TPS is made up of principally three layers: a substrate, an intermediate layer and the appropriate thermal protection layer. The substrate is the high melting alloy Inconel 625. In addition to the improvement of the adhesive power between the top layer and the substrate the intermediate layer acts as an oxygen barrier. Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-NiCr, NiCrAlY and Mo-MoSi{sub 2} are investigated as intermediate layer materials. ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} are used for the TPS surface. First investigations of the selection of surface and intermediate layers were carried out. The investigation of the erosion behaviour was performed within a plasma wind tunnel at the Institute for Space Systems (IRS). The circular samples are loaded by a high enthalpy flow produced by a magnetoplasmadynamic generator (MPG). The test conditions were determined by measurements of the heat flux and the Pitot pressure. The surface temperature of the test sample is measured by pyrometers. The effects of thermal and chemical loads on the sample are presented. (orig.) 15 refs.

  19. PREFACE: 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhangjian; Li, Jingfeng; Zhang, Lianmeng; Ge, Changchun

    2013-03-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Multiscale, Multifunctional and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM-2012) was held in Beijing, China, from 22-36 October 2012. This was part of a series of conferences organized every two years endorsed by International Advisory Committee for FGM's, which serves as a forum for scientists, educators, engineers and young students interested in the development of functionally graded materials (FGM). The series continues from the previous international symposium on FGM held in Sendai, Japan (1990), San Francisco, USA (1992), Lausanne, Switzerland (1994), Tsukuba, Japan (1996), Dresden, Germany (1998), Estes Park, USA (2000), Beijing, China (2002), Leuven, Belgium (2004), Hawaii, USA (2006), Sendai, Japan (2008) and Guimaraes, Portugal (2010). Functionally graded materials are non-uniform materials which are designed with embodied continuous spatial variations in composition and microstructure for the specific purpose of adjusting their thermal, structural, mechanical, biological or functional response to specific application conditions. Such multi-phase materials cover a range of space and time scales, and are best understood by means of a comprehensive multiscale, multiphysics approach. These kinds of materials are presently in the forefront of materials research, receiving worldwide attention. They have a broad range of applications including for example, biomedical, biomechanical, automotive, aerospace, mechanical, civil, nuclear, and naval engineering. New applications are continuously being discovered and developed. The objective of the FGM-2012 intends to provide opportunities for exchanging ideas and discussing state-of-the-art theories, techniques and applications in the fields of multiscale, multifunctional and FGM, through invited lectures, oral and poster presentations. FGM-2012 was organized and hosted by University of Science and Technology Beijing, China, together with Tsing-hua University and Wuhan University of

  20. Analysis of Sigmoid Functionally Graded Material (S-FGM Nanoscale Plates Using the Nonlocal Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a nonlocal elasticity theory, a model for sigmoid functionally graded material (S-FGM nanoscale plate with first-order shear deformation is studied. The material properties of S-FGM nanoscale plate are assumed to vary according to sigmoid function (two power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. Elastic theory of the sigmoid FGM (S-FGM nanoscale plate is reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen and first-order shear deformation theory. The equations of motion of the nonlocal theories are derived using Hamilton’s principle. The nonlocal elasticity of Eringen has the ability to capture the small scale effect. The solutions of S-FGM nanoscale plate are presented to illustrate the effect of nonlocal theory on bending and vibration response of the S-FGM nanoscale plates. The effects of nonlocal parameters, power law index, aspect ratio, elastic modulus ratio, side-to-thickness ratio, and loading type on bending and vibration response are investigated. Results of the present theory show a good agreement with the reference solutions. These results can be used for evaluating the reliability of size-dependent S-FGM nanoscale plate models developed in the future.

  1. Numerical modeling of wave propagation in functionally graded materials using time-domain spectral Chebyshev elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatrasa, Saeid; Bui, Tinh Quoc; Zhang, Chuanzeng; Lim, Chee Wah

    2014-02-01

    Numerical modeling of the Lamb wave propagation in functionally graded materials (FGMs) by a two-dimensional time-domain spectral finite element method (SpFEM) is presented. The high-order Chebyshev polynomials as approximation functions are used in the present formulation, which provides the capability to take into account the through thickness variation of the material properties. The efficiency and accuracy of the present model with one and two layers of 5th order spectral elements in modeling wave propagation in FGM plates are analyzed. Different excitation frequencies in a wide range of 28-350 kHz are investigated, and the dispersion properties obtained by the present model are verified by reference results. The through thickness wave structure of two principal Lamb modes are extracted and analyzed by the symmetry and relative amplitude of the vertical and horizontal oscillations. The differences with respect to Lamb modes generated in homogeneous plates are explained. Zero-crossing and wavelet signal processing-spectrum decomposition procedures are implemented to obtain phase and group velocities and their dispersion properties. So it is attested how this approach can be practically employed for simulation, calibration and optimization of Lamb wave based nondestructive evaluation techniques for the FGMs. The capability of modeling stress wave propagation through the thickness of an FGM specimen subjected to impact load is also investigated, which shows that the present method is highly accurate as compared with other existing reference data.

  2. Fracture Behavior and Properties of Functionally Graded Fiber-Reinforced Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesler, Jeffery; Bordelon, Amanda; Gaedicke, Cristian; Park, Kyoungsoo; Paulino, Glaucio

    2008-01-01

    In concrete pavements, a single concrete mixture design is selected to resist mechanical loading without attempting to adversely affect the concrete pavement shrinkage, ride quality, or noise attenuation. An alternative approach is to design distinct layers within the concrete pavement surface which have specific functions thus achieving higher performance at a lower cost. The objective of this research was to address the structural benefits of functionally graded concrete materials (FGCM) for rigid pavements by testing and modeling the fracture behavior of different combinations of layered plain and synthetic fiber-reinforced concrete materials. Fracture parameters and the post-peak softening behavior were obtained for each FGCM beam configuration by the three point bending beam test. The peak loads and initial fracture energy between the plain, fiber-reinforced, and FGCM signified similar crack initiation. The total fracture energy indicated improvements in fracture behavior of FGCM relative to full-depth plain concrete. The fracture behavior of FGCM depended on the position of the fiber-reinforced layer relative to the starter notch. The fracture parameters of both fiber-reinforced and plain concrete were embedded into a finite element-based cohesive zone model. The model successfully captured the experimental behavior of the FGCMs and predicted the fracture behavior of proposed FGCM configurations and structures. This integrated approach (testing and modeling) demonstrates the viability of FGCM for designing layered concrete pavements system

  3. Size-dependent vibrations of post-buckled functionally graded Mindlin rectangular microplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    Full Text Available In this paper, the free vibration behavior of post-buckled functionally graded (FG Mindlin rectangular microplates are described based on the modified couple stress theory (MCST. This theory enables the consideration of the size-effect through introducing material length scale parameters. The FG microplates made of a mixture of metal and ceramic are considered whose volume fraction of components is expressed by a power law function. By means of Hamilton's principle, the nonlinear governing equations and associated boundary conditions are derived for FG micro-plates in the postbuckling domain. The governing equations and boundary conditions are then discretized by using the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ method before solving numerically by the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. In the solution procedure, the postbuckling problem of microplates is investigated first. Afterwards, the free vibration of microplates around the buckled configuration is discussed. The effects of dimensionless length scale parameter, material gradient index and aspect ratio on the on the postbuckling path and frequency of FG microplates subject to arbitrary edge supports are thoroughly discussed.

  4. Preservation of Motor Function After Resection of Lower-Grade Glioma at the Precentral Gyrus and Prediction by Presurgical Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izutsu, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Nakanishi, Katsuhiko; Sakai, Mio; Kishima, Haruhiko

    2017-11-01

    Intra-axial brain tumors located at anatomically eloquent areas are challenging conditions. On one hand, it is often difficult to pursue maximum extent of resection of tumor in these locations. On the other hand, neuroplasticity occurs in some patients with low-grade glioma, and the primary neural functions are known to sometimes shift from conventional "eloquent cortices." In a patient with a lower-grade glioma located at the precentral gyrus, shift of primary motor function from the precentral gyrus to the postcentral gyrus was detected on magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Aggressive removal of the pathologic precentral gyrus was accomplished via awake craniotomy without causing obvious motor function deficit. This case highlights the importance of preoperative multimodal neurophysiologic imaging in patients with low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Membranes for periodontal regeneration: From commercially available to spatially designed and functionally graded materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco Cicero

    The aging of the global population will lead to a considerable increase in the number of surgical and restorative procedures related to oral rehabilitation or periodontal regeneration. Periodontitis is one of the most aggressive pathologies that concern the integrity of the periodontal system that can lead to the destruction of the periodontium. Guided tissue and guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) have been used for the repair and regeneration of periodontal tissues by utilizing an occlusive membrane. The goal of this dissertation is to advance the knowledge in the area of periodontal regeneration by investigating the properties of a commercially available freeze-dried collagen-based graft (AlloDermRTM) and by designing/fabricating a functionally graded membrane (FGM) via multilayer electrospinning. The effects of different rehydration times and of a simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking procedure on the biomechanical properties and matrix stability of the commercially available membrane were investigated. The results revealed that there are significant changes on the biomechanical properties of the graft as rehydration time increases. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the simultaneous rehydration/crosslinking protocol has a synergistic effect in terms of enhancing biomechanical properties. A FGM consisting of a core-layer (CL) and two functional surface-layers (SL) was fabricated via sequential electrospinning. Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAp) were incorporated to enhance bone formation (SL facing bone defect), and metronidazole benzoate (MET) was added to prevent bacterial colonization (SL facing the epithelial tissue). Degradation studies performed on both the CL and the FGM confirmed that the design holds promise in terms of providing the required mechanical stability to avoid membrane collapse and, therefore, enhance bone regeneration. Finally, it was demonstrated that MET incorporation into the SL that would face epithelial tissue is effective in

  6. Performance grading and motivational functioning and fear in physical education: A self-determination theory perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, C.A.; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; van Tartwijk, J.W.F.; Maes, Jolien; Borghouts, Lars; Cardon, Greet; Mainhard, M.T.; Haerens, Leen

    2017-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study examines the explanatory role of students' perceived need satisfaction and need frustration in the relationship between performance grading (versus non-grading) and students' motivation and fear in a real-life educational physical education

  7. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  8. Free vibration of functionally graded beams and frameworks using the dynamic stiffness method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J. R.; Ananthapuvirajah, A.

    2018-05-01

    The free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams (FGBs) and frameworks containing FGBs is carried out by applying the dynamic stiffness method and deriving the elements of the dynamic stiffness matrix in explicit algebraic form. The usually adopted rule that the material properties of the FGB vary continuously through the thickness according to a power law forms the fundamental basis of the governing differential equations of motion in free vibration. The differential equations are solved in closed analytical form when the free vibratory motion is harmonic. The dynamic stiffness matrix is then formulated by relating the amplitudes of forces to those of the displacements at the two ends of the beam. Next, the explicit algebraic expressions for the dynamic stiffness elements are derived with the help of symbolic computation. Finally the Wittrick-Williams algorithm is applied as solution technique to solve the free vibration problems of FGBs with uniform cross-section, stepped FGBs and frameworks consisting of FGBs. Some numerical results are validated against published results, but in the absence of published results for frameworks containing FGBs, consistency checks on the reliability of results are performed. The paper closes with discussion of results and conclusions.

  9. Thin films with chemically graded functionality based on fluorine polymers and stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, A P; Nunes, J; Vieira, M T

    2008-07-01

    Thin films of stainless steel and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) were co-deposited, by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering, in an inert atmosphere in order to produce a functionally graded material as a coating on a traditional biomaterial, where non-ferromagnetic characteristics and improved wettability must be ensured. These thin films are intended to modify the surface of SS316L used in stents, where the bulk/thin film couple should be regarded as a single material. This requires excellent adhesion of the coating to the substrate. All coatings were deposited with an average thickness of 500 nm. The chemical and phase characterization of the surface revealed that, with the increase in F content, the thin film evolves from a ferritic phase (alpha) to an amorphous phase with dispersion of a new crystalline ceramic phase (FeF(2)). For intermediate F content values, an austenitic (111) phase (gamma) was present. Bearing in mind the envisaged application, the best results were attained for thin films with a fluorine content between 10 and 20 at.%.

  10. Wsbnd Cu functionally graded material: Low temperature fabrication and mechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusefi, Ali; Parvin, Nader; Mohammadi, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we fabricated and characterized a Wsbnd Cu functionally graded material (FGM) with 11 layers, including a pure copper layer. Samples were prepared by mixing a mechanically alloyed Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu powder with W and Cu powders, stacking the powders, pressing the stacked layers, and finally sintering at 1000 °C. The utilization of a Nisbnd Mnsbnd Cu system may reduce the cost but without losing the good sintering behavior and physical and mechanical properties. The composition of the material was analyzed based on scanning electron microscopy images and by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping, which indicated that in the presence of Ni and Mn, the Cu atoms could diffuse into the W particles. All of the layers had a very high relative density, thereby indicating their densification and excellent sintering behavior. We also found that the porosity values in the Cu phase remained unchanged at approximately 2.39% across the FGM. Mechanical measurements showed that the hardness (72%), modulus of elasticity (61%), and ultimate tensile strength (58%) increased with the W content across the Wsbnd Cu FGM, whereas the fracture toughness (KIC) varied in the opposite manner (minimum of 4.52 MPa/m0.5).

  11. Fabrication of Functionally Graded Ti and γ-TiAl by Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joseph W.; Liou, Frank

    2017-12-01

    TiAl alloys have become a popular choice in the aerospace and automotive industries, owing to their high specific yield strength, specific modulus, and oxidation resistance over titanium alloys and Ni-based super alloys at elevated temperatures. Although laser metal deposition (LMD) techniques have been available for manufacturing metal alloys for a decade, limited research has been focused on joining intermetallic materials with dissimilar materials using LMD. Here, LMD was used to join titanium aluminide Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and commercially pure titanium with an innovative transition path. The theorized transition was implemented by fabricating functionally graded material (FGM). Porosity- and crack-free deposits were successfully fabricated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed the final composition was very close to the design composition. X-ray diffraction showed the expected phases were formed. The Vickers hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion were evaluated to characterize the FGM's mechanical and physical properties. The properties of the material were comparable to those of as-cast material as reported in the literature.

  12. A novel method for characterizing the impact response of functionally graded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Reid A.

    Functionally graded material (FGM) plates are advanced composites with properties that vary continuously through the thickness of the plate. Metal-ceramic FGM plates have been proposed for use in thermal protection systems where a metal-rich interior surface of the plate gradually transitions to a ceramic-rich exterior surface of the plate. The ability of FGMs to resist impact loads must be demonstrated before using them in high-temperature environments in service. This dissertation presents a novel technique by which the impact response of FGM plates is characterized for low-velocity, low- to medium-energy impact loads. An experiment was designed where strain histories in FGM plates were collected during impact events. These strain histories were used to validate a finite element simulation of the test. A parameter estimation technique was developed to estimate local material properties in the anisotropic, non-homogenous FGM plates to optimize the finite element simulations. The optimized simulations captured the physics of the impact events. The method allows research & design engineers to make informed decisions necessary to implement FGM plates in aerospace platforms.

  13. A meshfree radial point interpolation method for analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, K. Y.; Liu, G. R.; Lim, K. M.; Han, X.; Du, S. Y.

    A meshfree model is presented for the static and dynamic analyses of functionally graded material (FGM) plates based on the radial point interpolation method (PIM). In the present method, the mid-plane of an FGM plate is represented by a set of distributed nodes while the material properties in its thickness direction are computed analytically to take into account their continuous variations from one surface to another. Several examples are successfully analyzed for static deflections, natural frequencies and dynamic responses of FGM plates with different volume fraction exponents and boundary conditions. The convergence rate and accuracy are studied and compared with the finite element method (FEM). The effects of the constituent fraction exponent on static deflection as well as natural frequency are also investigated in detail using different FGM models. Based on the current material gradient, it is found that as the volume fraction exponent increases, the mechanical characteristics of the FGM plate approach those of the pure metal plate blended in the FGM.

  14. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates resting on an elastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, M. H.; Soleimani, M.; Rastgoo, A.

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes a method for three-dimensional free vibration analysis of rectangular FGM plates resting on an elastic foundation using Chebyshev polynomials and Ritz's method. The thickness can vary from thin to very thick. The elastic foundation is considered as a Winkler model. The analysis is based on a linear, small-strain, three-dimensional elasticity theory. The proposed technique yields very accurate natural frequencies and mode shapes of rectangular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. A simple and general programme has been used for this purpose. For a plate with geometric symmetry, the vibration modes can be classified into symmetric and antisymmetric ones in that direction. In such a case, the computational cost can be greatly reduced while maintaining the same level of accuracy. Convergence studies and a comparison have been carried out using isotropic and FGM square plates with four simply-supported and clamped edges as examples. The results show that the present method enables rapid convergence, stable numerical operation and very high computational accuracy. Parametric investigations are presented for two-constituent metal-ceramic functionally graded clamped square plates on an elastic foundation with respect to different thickness-side ratios, gradient indexes and foundation stiffnesses.

  15. Thermal stresses in functionally graded materials caused by a laser thermal shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elperin, T.; Rudin, G.

    Mathematical simulation of a thermal shock method for reliability testing of functionally graded material (FGM) is performed with the end to determine operating parameters of the testing device (power of a laser, laser beam radius, duration of heating) and to investigate the effect of the composition of FGM on a magnitude of thermal stresses in a coating. An analytical method for solution of the thermal elasticity problem is developed whereby the approach of a multilayer plate is used for determining temperature and thermal stresses distributions in a coating. We considered the limiting case of the obtained solution when the thickness of a layer is infinitesimally small and the number of layers tends to infinity. This procedure allowed us to obtain the thermal stresses distribution in a FGM coating. The results for the FGM coating composed of WC (tungsten carbide) ceramics and HS-steel are presented. It is showed that variation of the volume content of ceramics strongly affects thermal stresses in a coating and they decrease significantly in the case of the uniform spatial distribution of ceramics.

  16. Free vibration of functionally graded carbon-nanotube-reinforced composite plates with cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mirzaei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past five years, it has been shown that carbon nanotubes act as an exceptional reinforcement for composites. For this reason, a large number of investigations have been devoted to analysis of fundamental, structural behavior of solid structures made of carbon-nanotube-reinforced composites (CNTRC. The present research, as an extension of the available works on the vibration analysis of CNTRC structures, examines the free vibration characteristics of plates containing a cutout that are reinforced with uniform or nonuniform distribution of carbon nanotubes. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to estimate the kinematics of the plate. The solution method is based on the Ritz method with Chebyshev basis polynomials. Such a solution method is suitable for arbitrary in-plane and out-of-plane boundary conditions of the plate. It is shown that through a functionally graded distribution of carbon nanotubes across the thickness of the plate, the fundamental frequency of a rectangular plate with or without a cutout may be enhanced. Furthermore, the frequencies are highly dependent on the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes and may be increased upon using more carbon nanotubes as reinforcement.

  17. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  18. Deformation and Plateau Region of Functionally Graded Aluminum Foam by Amount Combinations of Added Blowing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Hangai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, to further improve the performance of aluminum foam, functionally graded (FG aluminum foams, whose pore structure varies with their position, have been developed. In this study, three types of FG aluminum foam of aluminum alloy die casting ADC12 with combinations of two different amounts of added blowing agent titanium(II hydride (TiH2 powder were fabricated by a friction stir welding (FSW route precursor foaming method. The combinations of 1.0–0 mass %, 0.4–0 mass %, and 0.2–0 mass % TiH2 were selected as the amounts of TiH2 relative to the mass of the volume stirred by FSW. The static compression tests of the fabricated FG aluminum foams were carried out. The deformation and fracture of FG aluminum foams fundamentally started in the high-porosity (with TiH2 addition layer and shifted to the low-porosity (without TiH2 addition layer. The first and second plateau regions in the relationship between compressive stress and strain independently appeared with the occurrence of deformations and fractures in the high- and low-porosity layers. It was shown that FG aluminum foams, whose plateau region varies in steps by the combination of amounts of added TiH2 (i.e., the combination of pore structures, can be fabricated.

  19. Deformation and Plateau Region of Functionally Graded Aluminum Foam by Amount Combinations of Added Blowing Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangai, Yoshihiko; Utsunomiya, Takao; Kuwazuru, Osamu; Kitahara, Soichiro; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiro

    2015-10-21

    Recently, to further improve the performance of aluminum foam, functionally graded (FG) aluminum foams, whose pore structure varies with their position, have been developed. In this study, three types of FG aluminum foam of aluminum alloy die casting ADC12 with combinations of two different amounts of added blowing agent titanium(II) hydride (TiH₂) powder were fabricated by a friction stir welding (FSW) route precursor foaming method. The combinations of 1.0-0 mass %, 0.4-0 mass %, and 0.2-0 mass % TiH₂ were selected as the amounts of TiH₂ relative to the mass of the volume stirred by FSW. The static compression tests of the fabricated FG aluminum foams were carried out. The deformation and fracture of FG aluminum foams fundamentally started in the high-porosity (with TiH₂ addition) layer and shifted to the low-porosity (without TiH₂ addition) layer. The first and second plateau regions in the relationship between compressive stress and strain independently appeared with the occurrence of deformations and fractures in the high- and low-porosity layers. It was shown that FG aluminum foams, whose plateau region varies in steps by the combination of amounts of added TiH₂ ( i.e. , the combination of pore structures), can be fabricated.

  20. Comparison of Various Functionally Graded Femoral Prostheses by Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Shirazi, Seyed Farid; Bayat, Mehdi; Yau, Yat Huang; Tarlochan, Faris; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2014-01-01

    This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM) comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent. PMID:25302331

  1. Dynamic stability of functionally graded nanobeam based on nonlocal Timoshenko theory considering surface effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Shahab; Hashemian, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Based on nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, dynamic stability of functionally graded (FG) nanobeam under axial and thermal loading was investigated. Surface stress effects were implemented according to Gurtin-Murdoch continuum theory. Using power law distribution for FGM and von Karman geometric nonlinearity, governing equations were derived based on Hamilton's principle. The developed nonlocal models have the capability of interpreting small scale effects. Pasternak elastic medium was employed to represent the interaction of the FG nanobeam and the surrounding elastic medium. A parametric study was conducted to focus influences of the static load factor, temperature change, gradient index, nonlocal parameter, slenderness ratio, surface effect and springs constants of the elastic medium on the dynamic instability region (DIR) of the FG beam with simply-supported boundary conditions. It was found that differences between DIRs predicted by local and nonlocal beam theories are significant for beams with lower aspect ratio. Moreover, it was observed that in contrast to high temperature environments, at low temperatures, increasing the temperature change moves the origin of the DIR to higher excitation frequency zone and leads to further stability. Considering surface stress effects shifts the DIR of FG beam to higher frequency zone, also increasing the gradient index enhances the frequency of DIR.

  2. Optimum gradient material for a functionally graded dental implant using metaheuristic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadollah, Ali; Bahreininejad, Ardeshir

    2011-10-01

    Despite dental implantation being a great success, one of the key issues facing it is a mismatch of mechanical properties between engineered and native biomaterials, which makes osseointegration and bone remodeling problematical. Functionally graded material (FGM) has been proposed as a potential upgrade to some conventional implant materials such as titanium for selection in prosthetic dentistry. The idea of an FGM dental implant is that the property would vary in a certain pattern to match the biomechanical characteristics required at different regions in the hosting bone. However, matching the properties does not necessarily guarantee the best osseointegration and bone remodeling. Little existing research has been reported on developing an optimal design of an FGM dental implant for promoting long-term success. Based upon remodeling results, metaheuristic algorithms such as the genetic algorithms (GAs) and simulated annealing (SA) have been adopted to develop a multi-objective optimal design for FGM implantation design. The results are compared with those in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric smart material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing Wang, Yan; Zu, Jean W.

    2017-10-01

    This work investigates the porosity-dependent nonlinear forced vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates by using both analytical and numerical methods. The FGPM plates contain porosities owing to the technical issues during the preparation of FGPMs. Two types of porosity distribution, namely, even and uneven distribution, are considered. A modified power law model is adopted to describe the material properties of the porous FGPM plates. Using D’Alembert’s principle, the out-of-plane equation of motion is derived by taking into account the Kármán nonlinear geometrical relations. After that, the Galerkin method is used to discretize the equation of motion, resulting in a set of ordinary differential equations with respect to time. These ordinary differential equations are solved analytically by employing the harmonic balance method. The approximate analytical results are verified by using the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. By means of the perturbation technique, the stability of approximate analytical solutions is examined. An interesting nonlinear broadband vibration phenomenon is detected in the FGPM plates with porosities. Nonlinear frequency-response characteristics of the present smart structures are investigated for various system parameters including the porosity type, the porosity volume fraction, the electric potential, the external excitation, the damping and the constituent volume fraction. It is found that these parameters have significant effects on the nonlinear vibration characteristics of porous FGPM plates.

  4. Effect of a functionally graded soft middle layer on Love waves propagating in layered piezoelectric systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2015-08-01

    Numerical examples for wave propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The impact related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a functionally graded piezoelectric layered system using Love waves. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Various Functionally Graded Femoral Prostheses by Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azim Ataollahi Oshkour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on finite element analysis of a model comprising femur into which a femoral component of a total hip replacement was implanted. The considered prosthesis is fabricated from a functionally graded material (FGM comprising a layer of a titanium alloy bonded to a layer of hydroxyapatite. The elastic modulus of the FGM was adjusted in the radial, longitudinal, and longitudinal-radial directions by altering the volume fraction gradient exponent. Four cases were studied, involving two different methods of anchoring the prosthesis to the spongy bone and two cases of applied loading. The results revealed that the FG prostheses provoked more SED to the bone. The FG prostheses carried less stress, while more stress was induced to the bone and cement. Meanwhile, less shear interface stress was stimulated to the prosthesis-bone interface in the noncemented FG prostheses. The cement-bone interface carried more stress compared to the prosthesis-cement interface. Stair climbing induced more harmful effects to the implanted femur components compared to the normal walking by causing more stress. Therefore, stress shielding, developed stresses, and interface stresses in the THR components could be adjusted through the controlling stiffness of the FG prosthesis by managing volume fraction gradient exponent.

  6. Three-dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates resting on an elastic foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, M H; Soleimani, M; Rastgoo, A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a method for three-dimensional free vibration analysis of rectangular FGM plates resting on an elastic foundation using Chebyshev polynomials and Ritz's method. The thickness can vary from thin to very thick. The elastic foundation is considered as a Winkler model. The analysis is based on a linear, small-strain, three-dimensional elasticity theory. The proposed technique yields very accurate natural frequencies and mode shapes of rectangular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions. A simple and general programme has been used for this purpose. For a plate with geometric symmetry, the vibration modes can be classified into symmetric and antisymmetric ones in that direction. In such a case, the computational cost can be greatly reduced while maintaining the same level of accuracy. Convergence studies and a comparison have been carried out using isotropic and FGM square plates with four simply-supported and clamped edges as examples. The results show that the present method enables rapid convergence, stable numerical operation and very high computational accuracy. Parametric investigations are presented for two-constituent metal–ceramic functionally graded clamped square plates on an elastic foundation with respect to different thickness–side ratios, gradient indexes and foundation stiffnesses

  7. Geometrically Nonlinear Static Analysis of Edge Cracked Timoshenko Beams Composed of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometrically nonlinear static analysis of edge cracked cantilever Timoshenko beams composed of functionally graded material (FGM subjected to a nonfollower transversal point load at the free end of the beam is studied with large displacements and large rotations. Material properties of the beam change in the height direction according to exponential distributions. The cracked beam is modeled as an assembly of two subbeams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. In the study, the finite element of the beam is constructed by using the total Lagrangian Timoshenko beam element approximation. The nonlinear problem is solved by using incremental displacement-based finite element method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson iteration method. The convergence study is performed for various numbers of finite elements. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, and various material distributions on the nonlinear static response of the FGM beam are investigated in detail. Also, the difference between the geometrically linear and nonlinear analysis of edge cracked FGM beam is investigated in detail.

  8. Achieving Functionally Graded Material Composition Through Bicontinuous Mesostructural Geometry in Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Brant; Bartolai, Joseph; Kaweesa, Dorcas V.; Meisel, Nicholas A.; Simpson, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) gradually change composition throughout their volume, allowing for areas of a part to be optimized for specific performance requirements. While additive manufacturing (AM) process types such as material jetting and directed energy deposition are capable of creating FGMs, design guidelines for varying the material composition in an FGM do not exist. This article presents a novel design solution for FGMs: creating the material gradient by varying the mesostructural size and thickness of bicontinuous, multi-material geometries. By using a bicontinuous structure, such as Schoen's gyroid surface or Schwarz's P and D surfaces, each component material exists as a continuous discrete structure, which allows FGMs to be fabricated by a wider range of AM processes. The gradient is created by varying the volume fraction occupied by the surface structure inside the part volume. This article explores the use of this technique to create FGMs with material extrusion AM. Properties of these bicontinuous structures are experimentally characterized and shown to outperform typical material extrusion FGMs.

  9. Awake surgery for hemispheric low-grade gliomas: oncological, functional and methodological differences between pediatric and adult populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisi, Gianluca; Roujeau, Thomas; Duffau, Hugues

    2016-10-01

    Brain mapping through a direct cortical and subcortical electrical stimulation during an awake craniotomy has gained an increasing popularity as a powerful tool to prevent neurological deficit while increasing extent of resection of hemispheric diffuse low-grade gliomas in adults. However, few case reports or very limited series of awake surgery in children are currently available in the literature. In this paper, we review the oncological and functional differences between pediatric and adult populations, and the methodological specificities that may limit the use of awake mapping in pediatric low-grade glioma surgery. This could be explained by the fact that pediatric low-grade gliomas have a different epidemiology and biologic behavior in comparison to adults, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I glioma) as the most frequent histotype, and with WHO grade II gliomas less prone to anaplastic transformation than their adult counterparts. In addition, aside from the issue of poor collaboration of younger children under 10 years of age, some anatomical and functional peculiarities of children developing brain (cortical and subcortical myelination, maturation of neural networks and of specialized cortical areas) can influence direct electrical stimulation methodology and sensitivity, limiting its use in children. Therefore, even though awake procedure with cortical and axonal stimulation mapping can be adapted in a specific subgroup of children with a diffuse glioma from the age of 10 years, only few pediatric patients are nonetheless candidates for awake brain surgery.

  10. Investigation of trapped thickness-twist waves induced by functionally graded piezoelectric material in an inhomogeneous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of functional graded piezoelectric materials on the propagation of thickness-twist waves is investigated through equations of the linear theory of piezoelectricity. The elastic and piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric permittivity, and mass density are assumed to change in a linear form but with different graded parameters along the wave propagation direction. We employ the power-series technique to solve the governing differential equations with variable coefficients attributed to the different graded parameters and prove the correction and convergence of this method. As a special case, the functional graded middle layer resulting from piezoelectric damage and material bonding is investigated. Piezoelectric damaged material can facilitate energy trapping, which is impossible in perfect materials. The increase in the damaged length and the reduction in the piezoelectric coefficient decrease the resonance frequency but increase the number of modes. Higher modes of thickness-twist waves appear periodically along the damaged length. Moreover, the displacement of the center of the damaged portion is neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric, unlike the non-graded plate. The conclusions are theoretically and practically significant for wave devices. (paper)

  11. Loss of Consciousness at Onset of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated with Functional Outcomes in Good-Grade Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Justin; Alotaibi, Naif M.; Akbar, Muhammad Ali; Ayling, Oliver G S; Ibrahim, George M.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Noble, Adam; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Lo, Benjamin; Jaja, Blessing N R; Johnston, Clay; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Wong, George K C; Lantigua, Hector; Fukuda, Hitoshi; Torner, James; Singh, Jeff; Spears, Julian; Schaller, Karl; Stienen, Martin N.; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/320630544; Cusimano, Michael D.; Todd, Michael; Tseng, Ming; Le Roux, Peter; Macdonald, R. Loch; Yamagata, Sen; Mayer, Stephan; Schenk, Thomas; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Transient loss of consciousness (LOC) is one of the most common presentations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may be an indicator of early brain injury. In this study, we examined the association of LOC and functional outcomes in patients with good-grade SAH. Methods We

  12. Effects of acute hypoxia on renal and endocrine function at rest and during graded exercise in hydrated subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Kanstrup, I L; Richalet, J P

    1992-01-01

    Renal effects of altitude hypoxia are unclear. Renal and hormonal function was investigated in eight males at rest and during graded exercise at sea level (SL) and 48 h after rapid ascent to 4,350 m (HA). HA did not change resting values of effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), glomerular filtratio...

  13. Asymmetric flexural behavior from bamboo's functionally graded hierarchical structure: underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Meisam K; Samaei, Arash T; Gheshlaghi, Behnam; Lu, Jian; Lu, Yang

    2015-04-01

    As one of the most renewable resources on Earth, bamboo has recently attracted increasing interest for its promising applications in sustainable structural purposes. Its superior mechanical properties arising from the unique functionally-graded (FG) hierarchical structure also make bamboo an excellent candidate for bio-mimicking purposes in advanced material design. However, despite its well-documented, impressive mechanical characteristics, the intriguing asymmetry in flexural behavior of bamboo, alongside its underlying mechanisms, has not yet been fully understood. Here, we used multi-scale mechanical characterizations assisted with advanced environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to investigate the asymmetric flexural responses of natural bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) strips under different loading configurations, during "elastic bending" and "fracture failure" stages, with their respective deformation mechanisms at microstructural level. Results showed that the gradient distribution of the vascular bundles along the thickness direction is mainly responsible for the exhibited asymmetry, whereas the hierarchical fiber/parenchyma cellular structure plays a critical role in alternating the dominant factors for determining the distinctly different failure mechanisms. A numerical model has been likewise adopted to validate the effective flexural moduli of bamboo strips as a function of their FG parameters, while additional experiments on uniaxial loading of bamboo specimens were performed to assess the tension-compression asymmetry, for further understanding of the microstructure evolution of bamboo's outer and innermost layers under different bending states. This work could provide insights to help the processing of novel bamboo-based composites and enable the bio-inspired design of advanced structural materials with desired flexural behavior. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 2-D differential quadrature solution for vibration analysis of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shell and annular plate structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Francesco; Viola, Erasmo; Inman, Daniel J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic behavior of functionally graded conical, cylindrical shells and annular plates. The last two structures are obtained as special cases of the conical shell formulation. The first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) is used to analyze the above moderately thick structural elements. The treatment is developed within the theory of linear elasticity, when materials are assumed to be isotropic and inhomogeneous through the thickness direction. The two-constituent functionally graded shell consists of ceramic and metal that are graded through the thickness, from one surface of the shell to the other. Two different power-law distributions are considered for the ceramic volume fraction. The homogeneous isotropic material is inferred as a special case of functionally graded materials (FGM). The governing equations of motion, expressed as functions of five kinematic parameters, are discretized by means of the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The discretization of the system leads to a standard linear eigenvalue problem, where two independent variables are involved without using the Fourier modal expansion methodology. For the homogeneous isotropic special case, numerical solutions are compared with the ones obtained using commercial programs such as Abaqus, Ansys, Nastran, Straus, Pro/Mechanica. Very good agreement is observed. Furthermore, the convergence rate of natural frequencies is shown to be very fast and the stability of the numerical methodology is very good. Different typologies of non-uniform grid point distributions are considered. Finally, for the functionally graded material case numerical results illustrate the influence of the power-law exponent and of the power-law distribution choice on the mechanical behavior of shell structures.

  15. Canonical functions, differential graded symplectic pairs in supergeometry, and Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky sigma models with boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Noriaki; Xu, Xiaomeng

    2014-11-01

    Consistent boundary conditions for Alexandrov-Kontsevich-Schwartz-Zaboronsky (AKSZ) sigma models and the corresponding boundary theories are analyzed. As their mathematical structures, we introduce a generalization of differential graded symplectic manifolds, called twisted QP manifolds, in terms of graded symplectic geometry, canonical functions, and QP pairs. We generalize the AKSZ construction of topological sigma models to sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms and show that all the twisted Poisson-like structures known in the literature can actually be naturally realized as boundary conditions for AKSZ sigma models.

  16. Graded changes in balancing behavior as a function of visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Casabianca, L; Bottaro, A; Schieppati, M

    2008-06-02

    In a dynamic postural task, visual information plays a fundamental role in the selection of the balancing strategy. While standing on a platform oscillating in the antero-posterior direction, subjects almost fix their head in space when vision is allowed and oscillate with the platform with eyes closed. We investigated two competing hypotheses regarding the relationship between visual acuity and balance control strategy. One hypothesis refers to the existence of a threshold value of visual acuity as a turning point between the eyes-open and eyes-closed strategy. The other assumes that the change from eyes-open to eyes-closed behavior is continuous and parallels the progressive worsening of visual acuity. Ten subjects balanced on the mobile platform wearing an examination frame and a facemask occluding peripheral vision. Seven different test lenses were used in different trials to modify visual acuity, from a visus value of 10/10 to severely blurred vision. Head stabilization in space progressively worsened with the decrease in visual acuity and turned toward the eyes-closed behavior when vision was blurred. The increase in head oscillation as a function of visual acuity was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In five of the subjects, additional trials were performed without facemask, to add peripheral vision to each visual acuity level, and with black lenses to allow peripheral vision alone. Addition of peripheral vision gave a significant contribution to head stabilization. With peripheral vision alone, head stabilization was intermediate between the eyes-closed and 10/10 visus value condition. We conclude that, in order to stabilize the head in space, visual information of the environment must be definite and worsening of central vision leads to a graded modification of the 'head fixed in space' behavior. Thus, the more conservative hypothesis of two different fundamental balancing strategies is not supported. Instead, the body exhibits a continuous mode of

  17. An analysis of surface acoustic wave propagation in a plate of functionally graded materials with a layered model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liming; Ji, Wang; Zheng, Zhong; Jianke, Du

    2008-02-01

    In a homogeneous plate, Rayleigh waves will have a symmetric and anti-symmetric mode regarding to the mid-plane with different phase velocities. If plate properties vary along the thickness, or the plate is of functionally graded material (FGM), the symmetry of modes and frequency behavior will be modified, thus producing different features for engineering applications such as amplifying or reducing the velocity and deformation. This kind of effect can also be easily realized by utilizing a layered structure with desired material properties that can produce these effects in terms of velocity and displacements, since Rayleigh waves in a solid with general material property grading schemes are difficult to analyze with known methods. Solutions from layered structures with exponential and polynomial property grading schemes are obtained from the layered model and comparisons with known analytical results are made to validate the method and examine possible applications of such structures in engineering.

  18. Crack propagation in functionally graded materials and structures; Risswachstum in funktional gradierten Materialien und Strukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Britta

    2014-07-01

    Components with graded fracture-mechanical properties show a fundamentally different crack propagation behaviour than do homogeneous, isotropic structures. This becomes especially evident in investigations on the influence of fracture-mechanical material grading on the stage of steady fatigue crack propagation and on crack propagation speed da/dN. Theoretical findings based on the so-called TSSR concept, which was developed as part of this dissertation, indicate that it can have either positive or negative effects on crack propagation behaviour, depending on various material characteristics and grading constellations. The dissertation reports on experiments for validating theoretical statements on the influence of different structural conditions on crack propagation behaviour. These statements were largely found to be correct. The study thus contributes to the prediction of crack propagation in fracture-mechanically graded components and structures subject to static or cyclical stress.

  19. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  20. How preschool executive functioning predicts several aspects of math achievement in Grades 1 and 3: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbori, Paola; Usai, M Carmen; Traverso, Laura; De Franchis, Valentina

    2015-12-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes whether selected components of executive function (EF) measured during the preschool period predict several indices of math achievement in primary school. Six EF measures were assessed in a sample of 5-year-old children (N = 175). The math achievement of the same children was then tested in Grades 1 and 3 using both a composite math score and three single indices of written calculation, arithmetical facts, and problem solving. Using previous results obtained from the same sample of children, a confirmatory factor analysis examining the latent EF structure in kindergarten indicated that a two-factor model provided the best fit for the data. In this model, inhibition and working memory (WM)-flexibility were separate dimensions. A full structural equation model was then used to test the hypothesis that math achievement (the composite math score and single math scores) in Grades 1 and 3 could be explained by the two EF components comprising the kindergarten model. The results indicate that the WM-flexibility component measured during the preschool period substantially predicts mathematical achievement, especially in Grade 3. The math composite scores were predicted by the WM-flexibility factor at both grade levels. In Grade 3, both problem solving and arithmetical facts were predicted by the WM-flexibility component. The results empirically support interventions that target EF as an important component of early childhood mathematics education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF FUNCTIONALLY GRADED ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE AND INVESTIGATION ON ITS ABRASION WEAR BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RADHIKA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded aluminium (Al-Si5Cu3 metal matrix composite reinforced with 10 wt-percent of boron carbide particles having average size of 33 µm was synthesized through horizontal centrifugal casting method. The specimen of length 150 mm and outer diameter of 154 mm with the thickness of 20 mm was produced under the centrifuging speed of 1000 rpm. Composite specimens were prepared as per ASTM standards from the casting and subjected to microstructural evaluation, hardness testing and three body abrasion wear test. The microstructural observation was done on the surfaces at the distance of 1, 2.5, 10 and 15 mm from the outer periphery of the casting and the result shows that larger amount of particles observed at distance of 2.5 mm and very less particles observed at the distance of 15 mm. The hardness test was conducted on the different surfaces in the radial direction from the outer periphery and found decrease in hardness from 2.5 to 15 mm. The abrasion wear test was conducted using dry abrasion tester for various loads of 28, 40 and 52 N at different distances from the outer periphery of the casting and the results revealed that wear rate gradually increases when moving towards the inner periphery and also with the increasing load. Therefore higher wear resistance was observed at the outer periphery and the lower wear resistance was obtained at the inner periphery. This property makes them suitable for using in wear applications such as in cylinder liners.

  2. Stochastic Finite element analysis of the free vibration of functionally graded material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Afeefa; Abdelrahman, Wael; Tawfik, Mohammad; Sadek, Edward

    2008-02-01

    The superior properties of functionally graded materials (FGM) are usually accompanied by randomness in their properties due to difficulties in tailoring the gradients during manufacturing processes. Using the stochastic finite element method (SFEM) proved to be a powerful tool in studying the sensitivity of the static response of FGM plates to uncertainties in their material properties. This tool is yet to be used in studying free vibration of FGM plates. The aim of this work is to use both a First Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the Second Order Reliability Method (SORM), combined with a nine-noded isoparametric Lagrangian element based on the third order shear deformation theory to investigate sensitivity of the fundamental frequency of FGM plates to material uncertainties. These include the effect of uncertainties on both the metal and ceramic constituents. The basic random variables include ceramic and metal Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, their densities and ceramic volume fraction. The developed code utilizes MATLAB capabilities to derive the derivatives of the stiffness and mass matrices symbolically with a considerable reduction in calculation time. Calculating the eigenvectors at the mean values of the variables proves to be a reasonable simplification which significantly increases solution speed. The stochastic finite element code is validated using available data in the literature, in addition to comparisons with results of the well-established Monte Carlo simulation technique with importance sampling. Results show that SORM is an excellent rapid tool in the stochastic analysis of free vibration of FGM plates, when compared to the slower Monte Carlo simulation techniques.

  3. Vibro-acoustic response and sound transmission loss analysis of functionally graded plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, N.; Raja, S.; Nagendra Gopal, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents analytical studies on the vibro-acoustic and sound transmission loss characteristics of functionally graded material (FGM) plates using a simple first-order shear deformation theory. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary according to power law distribution of the constituent materials in terms of volume fraction. The sound radiation due to sinusoidally varying point load, uniformly distributed load and obliquely incident sound wave is computed by solving the Rayleigh integral with a primitive numerical scheme. Displacement, velocity, acceleration, radiated sound power level, radiated sound pressure level and radiation efficiency of FGM plate for varying power law index are examined. The sound transmission loss of the FGM plate for several incidence angles and varying power law index is studied in detail. It has been found that, for the plate being considered, the sound power level increases monotonically with increase in power law index at lower frequency range (0-500 Hz) and a non-monotonic trend is appeared towards higher frequencies for both point and distributed force excitations. Increased vibration and acoustic response is observed for ceramic-rich FGM plate at higher frequency band; whereas a similar trend is seen for metal-rich FGM plate at lower frequency band. The dBA values are found to be decreasing with increase in power law index. The radiation efficiency of ceramic-rich FGM plate is noticed to be higher than that of metal and metal-rich FGM plates. The transmission loss below the first resonance frequency is high for ceramic-rich FGM plate and low for metal-rich FGM plate and further depends on the specific material property. The study has found that increased transmission loss can be achieved at higher frequencies with metal-rich FGM plates.

  4. Combined Macroscopic and Microscopic Thermo-Elasto-Plastic Stresses of Functionally Graded Palte Considering Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Yasser Mohamed; Noda, Naotake; Tohgo, Keiichiro

    Functionally Graded Material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material that consists of a gradient compositional variation of the constituent materials from one surface of the material to the other. These continuous changes result in gradient material properties. Since ceramic has good heat resistance and metal has high strength, FGM made by ceramic and metal can work at super high temperatures or under a high-temperature-difference field. It is a primary to reduce thermal stress by selection of different effective material properties for the intermediate composition of the EGM and to prevent destruction by thermal stress. FGM is manufactured at a high temperature and then residual thermal stresses are produced during cooling to room temperature. In this paper, the elastic-plastic thermal stresses induced in a ceramic-metal FGM plate (FGP) taking the fabrication process into consideration are discussed. The region near the heat resistant surface is produced by metal particle reinforced ceramic while the region near the cooling surface is vice versa. As the metal and the ceramic near the middle region of the FGM are perfectly mixed, it is impossible to consider the particle-reinforced material. In this study, the FGP is divided into three regions. First, the region near the cooling surface is metal rich and then the metal is considered as a matrix while the ceramic is considered as particles. Second, the region near the heat resistant surface is ceramic rich so that the ceramic is considered as a matrix while the metal is considered as particles. Third, in the middle part between the previous two regions the metal and ceramic are perfectly mixed. In the third region macroscopic analysis is considered because the difference between the volume fractions of the ceramic and the metal is small and it is difficult to consider one of them as a matrix or particles. The effects of the distribution parameter of the composition and the fabrication temperature on the thermal

  5. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  6. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Finite Element Modelling for Static and Free Vibration Response of Functionally Graded Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeb Ahmad Khan

    Full Text Available Abstract A 1D Finite Element model for static response and free vibration analysis of functionally graded material (FGM beam is presented in this work. The FE model is based on efficient zig-zag theory (ZIGT with two noded beam element having four degrees of freedom at each node. Linear interpolation is used for the axial displacement and cubic hermite interpolation is used for the deflection. Out of a large variety of FGM systems available, Al/SiC and Ni/Al2O3 metal/ceramic FGM system has been chosen. Modified rule of mixture (MROM is used to calculate the young's modulus and rule of mixture (ROM is used to calculate density and poisson's ratio of FGM beam at any point. The MATLAB code based on 1D FE zigzag theory for FGM elastic beams is developed. A 2D FE model for the same elastic FGM beam has been developed using ABAQUS software. An 8-node biquadratic plane stress quadrilateral type element is used for modeling in ABAQUS. Three different end conditions namely simply-supported, cantilever and clamped- clamped are considered. The deflection, normal stress and shear stress has been reported for various models used. Eigen Value problem using subspace iteration method is solved to obtain un-damped natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes. The results predicted by the 1D FE model have been compared with the 2D FE results and the results present in open literature. This proves the correctness of the model. Finally, mode shapes have also been plotted for various FGM systems.

  8. S1-ZGV Modes of a Linear and Nonlinear Profile for Functionally Graded Material Using Power Series Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zagrouba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with functionally graded materials (FGM isotropic plates in the neighborhood of the first-order symmetric zero group velocity (S1-ZGV point. The mechanical properties of functionally graded material (FGM are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate and obey a power law of the volume fraction of the constituents. Governing equations for the problem are derived, and the power series technique (PST is employed to solve the recursive equations. The impact of the FGM basic materials properties on S1-ZGV frequency of FGM plate is investigated. Numerical results show that S1-ZGV frequency is comparatively more sensitive to the shear modulus. The gradient coefficient p does not affect the linear dependence of ZGV frequency fo as function of cut-off frequency fc; only the slope is slightly varied.

  9. The Development and Production of a Functionally Graded Composite for Pb-Bi Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Ronald G

    2011-08-01

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700°C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required performance criteria of high strength and corrosion resistance. A Functionally Graded Composite (FGC) was developed with layers engineered to perform these functions. F91 was chosen as the structural layer of the composite for its strength and radiation resistance. Fe-12Cr-2Si, an alloy developed from previous work in the Fe-Cr-Si system, was chosen as the corrosion-resistant cladding layer because of its chemical similarity to F91 and its superior corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Fe-12Cr-2Si experienced minimal corrosion due to its self-passivation in oxidizing and reducing environments. Extrapolated corrosion rates are below one micron per year at 700ï°C. Corrosion of F91 was faster, but predictable and manageable. Diffusion studies showed that 17 microns of the cladding layer will be diffusionally diluted during the three year life of fuel cladding. 33 microns must be accounted for during the sixty year life of coolant piping. 5 cm coolant piping and 6.35 mm fuel cladding preforms were produced on a commercial scale by weld-overlaying Fe-12Cr-2Si onto F91 billets and co-extruding them. An ASME certified weld was performed followed by the prescribed quench-and-tempering heat treatment for F91. A minimal heat affected zone was observed, demonstrating field weldability. Finally, corrosion tests were performed on the fabricated FGC at 700ï°C after completely breaching the cladding in a small area to induce galvanic corrosion at the interface. None was observed. This FGC has significant impacts on LBE reactor design. The increases in outlet temperature and coolant velocity allow a large increase in power density, leading to either a smaller core for the same power rating or more power output for the same size

  10. Sliding Wear and Fretting Wear of DLC-Based, Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Pohlchuck, B.; Street, Kenneth W.; Zabinski, J. S.; Sanders, J. H.; Voevodin, A. a.; Wu, R. L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Improving the tribological functionality of diamondlike carbon (DLC) films--developing, good wear resistance, low friction, and high load-carrying capacity-was the aim of this investigation. Nanocomposite coatings consisting of an amorphous DLC (a-DLC) top layer and a functionally graded titanium-titanium carbon-diamondlike carbon (Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC) underlayer were produced on AISI 440C stainless steel substrates by the hybrid technique of magnetron sputtering and pulsed-laser deposition. The resultant DLC films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and surface profilometry. Two types of wear experiment were conducted in this investioation: sliding friction experiments and fretting wear experiments. Unidirectional ball-on-disk sliding friction experiments were conducted to examine the wear behavior of an a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC-coated AISI 440C stainless steel disk in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter AISI 440C stainless steel ball in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air. Although the wear rates for both the coating and ball were low in all three environments, the humid air and dry nitrogen caused mild wear with burnishing, in the a-DLC top layer, and the ultrahigh vacuum caused relatively severe wear with brittle fracture in both the a-DLC top layer and the Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC underlayer. For reference, amorphous hydrogenated carbon (H-DLC) films produced on a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coatings by using an ion beam were also examined in the same manner. The H-DLC films markedly reduced friction even in ultrahigh vacuum without sacrificing wear resistance. The H-DLC films behaved much like the a-DLC/Ti-Ti(sub x) C(sub y)-DLC nanocomposite coating in dry nitrogen and humid air, presenting low friction and low wear. Fretting wear experiments were conducted in humid air (approximately 50% relative humidity) at a frequency of 80 Hz and an amplitude of 75 micron on an a

  11. Methodology for Selection of Optimum Light Stringers in Functionally Graded Panels Designed for Prescribed Fundamental Frequency or Buckling Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Victor; Byrd, Larry W.

    2008-02-01

    The interest to functionally graded materials (FGM) and structures has been generated by their potential advantages, including enhanced thermal properties, reduced or eliminated delamination concerns, a potential for an improved stress distribution, etc. Various aspects of the processing, design, micromechanics and analysis of FGM have been outlined in a number of reviews, mentioned here are [1-3]. In particular, functionally graded panels may be advantageous compared to their conventional counterparts in numerous applications. However, a typical FGM panel is asymmetric about its middle plane resulting in lower buckling loads and fundamental frequencies as well as higher stresses and deformations than the counterpart with a symmetric distribution of the same constituents. The reduced stiffness of FGM panels can be compensated by reinforcing them with stringers. For example, metallic stringers at the metal-rich surface of a FGM ceramic-metal panel may provide an efficient solution enabling a designer to increase both buckling loads as well as natural frequencies. The list of studies on optimization of FGM is extensive as could be anticipated for such tailored structural elements. For example, recent papers by Batra and his collaborators present optimization of the natural frequencies of a FGM plate through material grading [4] and through the graded fiber orientation [5]. The present paper is concerned with an optimum design of the system of stringers for a specified FGM panel. The task is to design the lightest system of stringers enabling the panel to achieve prescribed buckling loads or fundamental frequency.

  12. Mechanical and thermal stresses in a functionally graded rotating disk with variable thickness due to radially symmetry loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayat, Mehdi; Saleem, M.; Sahari, B.B.; Hamouda, A.M.S.; Mahdi, E.

    2009-01-01

    Rotating disks have many applications in the aerospace industry such as gas turbines and gears. These disks normally work under thermo mechanical loads. Minimizing the weight of such components can help reduce the overall payload in aerospace industry. For this purpose, a rotating functionally graded (FG) disk with variable thickness under a steady temperature field is considered in this paper. Thermo elastic solutions and the weight of the disk are related to the material grading index and the geometry of the disk. It is found that a disk with parabolic or hyperbolic convergent thickness profile has smaller stresses and displacements compared to a uniform thickness disk. Maximum radial stress due to centrifugal load in the solid disk with parabolic thickness profile may not be at the center unlike uniform thickness disk. Functionally graded disk with variable thickness has smaller stresses due to thermal load compared to those with uniform thickness. It is seen that for a given value of grading index, the FG disk having concave thickness profile is the lightest in weight whereas the FG disk with uniform thickness profile is the heaviest. Also for any given thickness profile, the weight of the FG disk lies in between the weights of the all-metal and the all-ceramic disks.

  13. Clinical significance of a proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joan Young; Hwang, Ji Hye; Kim, Dong Ik; Cho, Young Seok; Lee, Su Jin; Choi, Yong; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    We proposed a new lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade (LGr) system in extremity lymphedema, and investigated the association between the LGr and a long-term response to physical therapy in patients with extremity lymphedema of stage I. The subjects were 20 patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I, who underwent pre-treatment extremity lymphoscintigraphy using Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid, and were treated by complex decongestive physical therapy (CDPT). A proposed lymphoscintigrpahic functional grade system consisted of LGr 0 to LGr 4 according to the ilioinguinal nodal uptake, amount of dermal backflow, and uptake pattern of main and collateral lymphatics : LGr 0 = normal, LGr 1 = decreased lymphatic function without dermal backflow, LGr 2 = decreased lymphatic function with dermal backflow, LGr 3 = non - visualization of main lymphatics with dermal backflow, and LGr 4 = no significant lymphatic transport from injection site. LGr 2 was divided into 2A and 2B based on the amount of dermal backflow. A physician who is a lymphedema specialist determined the long-term outcome to CDPT with normalized response (NR), good response (GR) and poor response (PR) based on the change of edema volume reduction, skin status and occurrence of dermatolymphangioadenitis after the clinical follow-up for more than 1 year. Therapeutic responses were NR in 2 patients. GR in 9 patients and PR in 9 patients. Baseline LGrs were 1 in 7 patients, 2A in 4 patients, 2B in 5 patients, 3 in 2 patients, and 4 in 2 patients. There was a significant relationship between therapeutic response and LGr (p=0.003). In other words, 10 of 11 patients (91%) with LGr 1 or 2A showed NR. or GR. On the contrary, 8 of 9 patients (89%) with LGr 2B, 3 or 4 showed PR. Patients with unilateral extremity lymphedema of stage I had different lymphoscintigrpahic functional grades. This grade system may be useful to predict the response to physical therapy in such patients.

  14. Longitudinal Associations Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Development of Executive Functioning Across the Transition to First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Loren; Seghers, Jan; Verschueren, Karine; Wijtzes, Anne I; Baeyens, Dieter

    2016-08-01

    The current study investigates how children's amount of daily physical activity relates to subcomponents of executive functions, the cognitive processes needed for goal-directed behavior. Previous studies rarely determined this association at the subcomponent level and did not explicitly examine the period when children make the transition to first grade, despite its importance for the development of executive functions. In a sample of 54 children, working memory, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility were thoroughly measured at the subcomponent level at the end of kindergarten and first grade. In the middle of first grade, children wore a pedometer for 7 consecutive days. Regression analyses showed that performance on a measure of the visuospatial sketchpad, the central executive, and fluency was predicted by children's amount of daily physical activity after controlling for initial task performance. The development of the visuospatial sketchpad (working memory), the central executive (working memory), and fluency (cognitive flexibility) might be improved by increasing the amount of time being physically active. However, as other subcomponents of executive functioning were not affected, the role of other aspects of physical activity, such as intensity and content, in the development of executive functions should be further investigated.

  15. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  16. Nanoindentation of Functionally Graded Polymer Nanocomposites: Assessment of the Strengthening Parameters through Experiments and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso eNardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available NNanoindentation tests were carried out on the surface of polymer nanocomposites exhibiting either graded or homogeneous distributions of Fe3O4@silica core-shell nanoparticles in a photocurable polymeric matrix. The results reveal a complex interplay between graded morphology, indentation depth and calculated modulus and hardness values, which was elucidated through numerical simulations. First, it was experimentally shown how for small (1 µm indentations, large increases in modulus (up to +40% and hardness (up to +93% were obtained for graded composites with respect to their homogeneous counterparts, whereas at a larger indentation depth (20 µm the modulus and hardness of the graded and homogeneous composites did not substantially differ from each other and from those of the pure polymer. Then, through a Material Point Method approach, experimental nanoindentation tests were successfully simulated, confirming the importance of the indentation depth and of the associated plastic zone as key factors for a more accurate design of graded polymer nanocomposites whose mechanical properties are able to fulfill the requirements encountered during operational life.

  17. Characterization and selection of suitable grades of lactose as functional fillers for capsule filling: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolchandani, Vikas; Augsburger, Larry L; Gupta, Abhay; Khan, Mansoor; Langridge, John; Hoag, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize thermal, physical and mechanical properties of different grades of lactose and better understand the relationships between these properties and capsule filling performance. Eight grades of commercially available lactose were evaluated: Pharmatose 110 M, 125 M, 150 M, 200 M, 350 M (α-lactose monohydrate), AL (anhydrous lactose containing ∼80% β-AL), DCL11 (spray dried α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼15% amorphous lactose) and DCL15 (granulated α-lactose monohydrate containing ∼12% β-AL). In this study, different lactose grades were characterized by thermal, solid state, physical and mechanical properties and later evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) to assess the inter-relationships among some of these properties. The lactose grades were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), moisture sorption/desorption isotherms, particle size distribution; the flow was characterized by Carr Index (CI), critical orifice diameter (COD) and angle of friction. Plug mechanical strength was estimated from its diametric crushing strength. The first and second principal components (PC) captured 47.6% and 27.4% of variation in the physical and mechanical property data, respectively. The PCA plot grouped together 110 M, AL, DCL11 and DCL15 on the one side of plot which possessed superior properties for capsule formulation and these grades were selected for future formulation development studies (part II of this work).

  18. Microstructure and kinetics of a functionally graded NiTi-TiC x composite produced by combustion synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkes, Douglas E.; Moore, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Production of a NiTi-TiC x functionally graded material (FGM) composite is possible through use of a combustion synthesis (CS) reaction employing the propagating mode (SHS). The NiTi-TiC x FGM combines the well-known and understood superelastic and shape memory capabilities of NiTi with the high hardness, wear and corrosion resistance of TiC x . The material layers were observed as functionally graded both in composition and porosity with distinct interfaces, while still maintaining good material interaction and bonding. XRD of the FGM composite revealed the presence of TiC x with equi-atomic NiTi and minor NiTi 2 and NiTi 3 phases. The TiC x particle size decreased with increasing NiTi content. Microindentation performed across the length of the FGM revealed a decrease in hardness as the NiTi content increased

  19. "A New Class od Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Mohit Jain; Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Gordon E. Khose; Mrs. Judith Maro, Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, MIT

    2008-05-01

    Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 oC. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

  20. A New Class of Functionally Graded Cearamic-Metal Composites for Next Generation Very High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Mohit; Skandan, Ganesh; Khose, Gordon E.; Maro, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Generation IV Very High Temperature power generating nuclear reactors will operate at temperatures greater than 900 C. At these temperatures, the components operating in these reactors need to be fabricated from materials with excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Conventional pure or composite materials have fallen short in delivering the desired performance. New materials, or conventional materials with new microstructures, and associated processing technologies are needed to meet these materials challenges. Using the concept of functionally graded materials, we have fabricated a composite material which has taken advantages of the mechanical and thermal properties of ceramic and metals. Functionally-graded composite samples with various microstructures were fabricated. It was demonstrated that the composition and spatial variation in the composition of the composite can be controlled. Some of the samples were tested for irradiation resistance to neutrons. The samples did not degrade during initial neutron irradiation testing.

  1. Transglutaminase 2 expression is increased as a function of malignancy grade and negatively regulates cell growth in meningioma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Cheng Huang

    Full Text Available Most meningiomas are benign, but some clinical-aggressive tumors exhibit brain invasion and cannot be resected without significant complications. To identify molecular markers for these clinically-aggressive meningiomas, we performed microarray analyses on 24 primary cultures from 21 meningiomas and 3 arachnoid membranes. Using this approach, increased transglutaminase 2 (TGM2 expression was observed, which was subsequently validated in an independent set of 82 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, the TGM2 expression level was associated with increasing WHO malignancy grade as well as meningioma recurrence. Inhibition of TGM2 function by siRNA or cystamine induced meningioma cell death, which was associated with reduced AKT phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGM2 expression increases as a function of malignancy grade and tumor recurrence and that inhibition of TGM2 reduces meningioma cell growth.

  2. Development of medical guide wire of Cu-Al-Mn-base superelastic alloy with functionally graded characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Yuji; Omori, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Akihisa; Takahashi, Yukinori; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Shuzo; Ishida, Kiyohito

    2004-04-15

    A new type of medical guide wire with functionally graded hardness from the tip to the end was developed with the use of Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys. The superelasticity (SE) of the Cu-Al-Mn-based alloys in the tip is drastically improved by controlling the grain size, whereas the end of the wire is hardened using bainitic transformation by aging at around 200-400 degrees C. Therefore, the tip of the guide wire shows a superelasticity and its end has high stiffness. This guide wire with functionally graded characteristics shows excellent pushability and torquability, superior to that of the Ni-Ti guide wire. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Food-Grade Approach for Functional Analysis and Modification of Native Plasmids in Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2003-01-01

    While plasmids from lactic acid bacteria possess many traits that are of industrial value, their exploitation is often frustrated by an inability to conduct food-grade engineering of native plasmids or to readily screen for their transfer. Here we describe a system that uses a RepA+ temperature-sensitive helper plasmid and a RepA− cloning vector to overcome these problems while maintaining the food-grade status of the native plasmid. This strategy was used to precisely delete ltnA1 alone, or ...

  4. Impact of interfacial imperfection on transverse wave in a functionally graded piezoelectric material structure with corrugated boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Santan; Kumari, Richa

    2018-03-01

    The propagation behavior of Love-type wave in a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layered structure has been taken into account. Concretely, the layered structure incorporates a corrugated functionally graded piezoelectric material layer imperfectly bonded to a functionally graded piezoelectric material half-space. An analytical treatment has been employed to determine the dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open condition and electrically short condition. The phase velocity of the Love-type wave has been computed numerically and its dependence on the wave number has been depicted graphically for a specific type of corrugated boundary surfaces for both said conditions. The crux of the study lies in the fact that the imperfect bonding of the interface, the corrugated boundaries present in the layer, and the material properties of the layer and the half-space strongly influence the phase velocity of the Love-type wave. It can be remarkably noted that the imperfect bonding of the interface reduces the phase velocity of the Love-type wave significantly. As a special case of the problem, it is noticed that the procured dispersion relation for both cases of electrically open and electrically short conditions is in accordance with the classical Love wave equation.

  5. A new model for the artificial aorta blood vessels using double-sided radial functionally graded biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi Bani, M; Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H; Ayatollahi, M R; Asnafi, Alireza

    2017-05-01

    Based on radial functionally graded biomaterials and inspired by the geometry of a real aorta blood vessel, a new model was proposed to fabricate the artificial blood vessels. A finite element analyzer is employed to reach the optimal and proper material properties while earlier, it was validated by two famous theories, i.e., the first shear deformation and the plane elasticity. First, the geometry of a real ascending aorta part was simulated and then solved under the axially varying blood pressure and other real and actual conditions. Since the construction of artificial blood vessels just similar to the natural one is impossible, it was tried to find the best substitutes for other materials. Due to the significant properties of functionally graded biomaterials in the reduction in sudden changes of stress and deformation, these types of materials were selected and studied. Two types of conventional single-sided and an efficient double-sided radial functionally graded vessel were proposed and simulated. The elastic behaviors of proposed vessels were obtained and compared to ones previously attained from the real vessel. The results show that all the desired behaviors cannot be achieved by using a conventional single-sided radial FG vessel. Instead and as a conjecture, a smart double-sided radial FG biomaterial is suggested. Fortunately, the proposed material can meet all the desired goals and satisfy all of the indices simultaneously.

  6. Analysis of Tribological Behaviour of Functionally Graded LM13 Aluminium/TiS2 Composite Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radhika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded LM13 aluminium/10wt% TiS2 composite was fabricated by centrifugal casting method and hollow cylindrical part has the dimension of 150x150x20 mm was obtained. The microstructural evaluation and vicker’s micro-hardness test was carried out on the surfaces at the distance of 1, 6, 12 and 18 mm from the outer surface of functionally graded composites. The microstructural investigation reveals that the TiS2 reinforcement particles concentrated more on the outer periphery and less at the inner periphery of the composite. The hardness of the composite surface increases at the particle rich region of outer periphery and decreases towards inner region. The dry sliding wear experiments were conducted on the composite specimens as per plan of Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array design. The parameters considered were load, sliding velocity, sliding distance and distance from outer periphery of the composite, varied for four levels. Signal- to- Noise ratio and Analysis of Variance were carried out and the significance test revealed that distance from outer periphery had major impact (43.11 % followed by sliding distance (31.19 %, load (16.59 %, and sliding velocity (7.33 %. Adequacy of model was predicted through regression equation and the error was found to be less than 8 %. The scanning electron microscope analysis carried out for the worn-out surfaces showed maximum wear resistance of the functionally graded composite at outer periphery.

  7. Modeling of the interface behavior in tape casting of functionally graded ceramics for magnetic refrigeration parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2013-01-01

    of a graded configuration of the magnetocaloric materials. The Newtonian flow behavior with relatively high viscosity is assumed for each fluid and used in the simulation with a commercial CFD code (ANSYS FLUENT). The results show that the density difference does not affect the interface between the adjacent...

  8. Loss of Consciousness at Onset of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage is Associated with Functional Outcomes in Good-Grade Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Justin; Alotaibi, Naif M; Akbar, Muhammad Ali; Ayling, Oliver G S; Ibrahim, George M; Macdonald, R Loch

    2017-02-01

    Transient loss of consciousness (LOC) is one of the most common presentations of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may be an indicator of early brain injury. In this study, we examined the association of LOC and functional outcomes in patients with good-grade SAH. We searched the Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists Repository for patients who presented with LOC at ictus of SAH. A propensity score analysis was performed on good-grade patients (defined as World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade 1-3) to balance selected covariates between those with and without LOC. The primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) at 3 months (with poor outcome defined as a GOS of 1-3). Secondary outcomes were delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), rebleed, length of hospital stay, and time to death. A propensity score-matching algorithm identified 336 patients (168 with and 168 without LOC at ictus). The proportion of patients with poor functional outcome at 3 months was significantly higher in the cohort with LOC at ictus compared with the matched cohort without LOC at ictus (30% vs. 19%; P = 0.02). There was a nonsignificant trend toward greater mortality in the patients with LOC at ictus (19% vs. 13%; P = 0.14). There were no significant differences in the secondary outcomes between the 2 cohorts. LOC at ictus of SAH is associated with a higher rate of unfavorable functional outcomes but not of mortality, DCI, or rebleed in patients with good-grade SAH. Future studies should further investigate the putative mechanisms through which LOC mediates early brain injury in SAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach for vibrational behavior of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced plate resting on elastic foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamarian, S.; Pourasghar, A. [Islamic Azad University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yas, M. H. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In this study, based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity, free vibration characteristics of functionally graded (FG) nanocomposite plates reinforced by randomly-oriented straight single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) resting on an elastic foundation are considered. Material properties are graded in the thickness direction of the plate according to the volume fraction power law distribution. An embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) in a polymer matrix and its surrounding inter-phase which is perfectly bonded to surrounding resin is replaced with an equivalent fiber to predict the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube/polymer composite. The Mori-Tanaka approach is employed to calculate the effective elastic moduli of the plate. The natural frequencies of the plate are obtained by means of the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. Detailed parametric studies have been carried out to investigate the influences of the CNT volume fraction, Winkler foundation modulus, shear elastic foundation modulus and various geometrical parameters on the vibration behavior of the functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced (FG-CNTR) plates.

  10. Electrodeposition of Ni–W–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite coating with functionally graded microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahyarzadeh, M.H.; Aliofkhazraei, M., E-mail: maliofkh@gmail.com; Rouhaghdam, A.R. Sabour; Torabinejad, V.

    2016-05-05

    Electrodeposition of functionally graded (FG) Ni–W–Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite coatings is investigated in current research. These types of coatings were applied in a way that alumina content was increased from the substrate towards the surface of the coating; hence, Ni–W would possess improved wear and corrosion resistance properties. FG-coatings were developed by the variation of duty cycle and frequency. The microstructure and elemental analysis of the coating as a function of thickness was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the FG-coatings was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and the wear behavior was also studied using pin-on-disk wear tests. In order to investigate hardness properties of the coating, microhardness measurements were carried out on cross-section of coatings. Results revealed that the alumina content and the microhardness increased towards the surface. Results also showed the corrosion and wear resistance of FG-coatings were significantly improved by addition of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles. Profilometery and AFM results also revealed that surface roughness was influenced by pulse plating parameters. - Highlights: • Functionally graded structures have been synthesized using adjusting pulse parameters. • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and W contents increases gradually as a function of coating thickness. • Alumina increased the corrosion resistance by moderating i{sub corr} and E{sub corr}. • Wear behavior has been enhanced in functionally graded structure.

  11. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Hydroxyapatite Coatings for Biomedical Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiao

    Hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH) 2, HA] has been widely applied as a coating on various biomedical bone/dental implants to improve biocompatibility and bioactivity. It has been observed that primary reasons leading to implantation failure of commercial HA coated implants processed by plasma spraying are the poor mechanical properties of coatings and infections accompanied by implantation. It has been also reported an ideal coating should be able to stimulate new bone growth at the initial stage of implantation and stay stable both mechanically and chemically thereafter. This research has investigated a functionally graded hydroxyapatite (FGHA) coating that is capable of improving the stability of implants, facilitating recovery, and preventing infections after implantation. A series of FGHA coatings with incorporated Ag 0 ˜ 13.53 wt. % has been deposited onto Ti substrate using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) with in-situ heat treatment. The compositional, microstructural, mechanical, and biological properties of coatings have been analyzed via various tests. The relationship among processing parameters, coating properties and biological behaviors has been established and the processing parameters for processing FGHA coatings with/without incorporated Ag have been optimized. Microstructure observations of coating cross section via transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) for set temperature coatings deposited at 450°C ˜ 750°C reveals that in-situ substrate temperature is the primary factor controlling the crystallinity of the coatings. The microstructure observation of cross section via TEM/STEM for both FGHA coatings with/without incorporated Ag has shown that coatings are dense and have a gradually decreased crystallinity from substrate/coating interface to top surface. In particular, the interface has an atomically intermixed structure; the region near the interface has a columnar grain structure whereas

  12. Investigation of static and dynamic behavior of functionally graded piezoelectric actuated Poly-Si micro cantilever probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Vibhuti Bhushan; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail: skparashar@rtu.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-04-13

    In the present paper a novel functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuated Poly-Si micro cantilever probe is proposed for atomic force microscope. The shear piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 15} has much higher value than coupling coefficients d{sub 31} and d{sub 33}, hence in the present work the micro cantilever beam actuated by d{sub 15} effect is utilized. The material properties are graded in the thickness direction of actuator by a simple power law. A three dimensional finite element analysis has been performed using COMSOL Multiphysics® (version 4.2) software. Tip deflection and free vibration analysis for the micro cantilever probe has been done. The results presented in the paper shall be useful in the design of micro cantilever probe and their subsequent utilization in atomic force microscopes.

  13. Convective–radiative radial fins with convective base heating and convective–radiative tip cooling: Homogeneous and functionally graded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Torabi, Mohsen; Zhang, Kaili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Convective–radiative radial fins with base convective heating were analyzed. • Homogeneous material and functionally graded material fins were investigated. • Fin efficiency and the effects of dimensionless parameters in fins were analyzed. - Abstract: This paper studies a radial fin of uniform thickness with convective heating at the base and convective–radiative cooling at the tip. The fin is assumed to experience uniform internal heat generation. The exposed surfaces of the fin lose heat by simultaneous convection and radiation to the surroundings. Two types of fin materials are investigated: homogeneous material and functionally graded material (FGM). For the homogeneous material, the thermal conductivity is assumed to be a linear function of temperature, while for the FGM fin the thermal conductivity is modeled as a linear function of the dimensionless radial coordinate. The analysis is conducted using the differential transformation method (DTM). The accuracy of DTM is verified by comparing the results for the simplified versions of the present model with an exact analytical solution derived here. Once the accuracy of DTM is authenticated, the method is used to generate results for the general problem formulated here. These results illustrate the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the thermal performance of homogeneous material fins and FGM fins

  14. Functionally graded scaffolds for the engineering of interface tissues using hybrid twin screw extrusion/electrospinning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat

    Tissue engineering is the application of the principles of engineering and life sciences for the development of biological alternatives for improvement or regeneration of native tissues. Native tissues are complex structures with functions and properties changing spatially and temporally, and engineering of such structures requires functionally graded scaffolds with composition and properties changing systematically along various directions. Utilization of a new hybrid technology integrating the controlled feeding, compounding, dispersion, deaeration, and pressurization capabilities of extrusion process with electrospinning allows incorporation of liquids and solid particles/nanoparticles into polymeric fibers/nanofibers for fabrication of functionally graded non-woven meshes to be used as scaffolds in engineering of tissues. The capabilities of the hybrid technology were demonstrated with a series of scaffold fabrication and cell culturing studies along with characterization of biomechanical properties. In the first study, the hybrid technology was employed to generate concentration gradations of beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) nanoparticles in a polycaprolactone (PCL) binder, between two surfaces of nanofibrous scaffolds. These scaffolds were seeded with pre-osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) to attempt to engineer cartilage-bone interface, and after four weeks, the tissue constructs revealed formation of continuous gradations in extracellular matrix akin to cartilage-bone interface in terms of distributions of mineral concentrations and biomechanical properties. In a second demonstration of the hybrid technology, graded differentiation of stem cells was attempted by using insulin, a known stimulator of chondrogenic differentiation, and beta-glycerol phosphate (beta-GP), for mineralization. Concentrations of insulin and beta-GP in PCL were controlled to monotonically increase and decrease, respectively, along the length of scaffolds, which were then seeded

  15. Cognitive self-regulation and social functioning among French children: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès

    2017-03-01

    This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Closed-form Solution for Freely Vibrating Functionally Graded Thick Doubly Curved Panel-A New Generic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fadaee

    Full Text Available Abstract Today, double curvature shell panels are the main parts of each design because their geometrical characteristics provide high strength to weight ratio, aerodynamic form and beauty for the structures such as boats, submarines, automobiles and buildings. Also, functionally graded materials which present multiple properties such as high mechanical and heat resistant, simultaneously, have attracted designers. So, as the first step of any dynamic analysis, this paper concentrates on presenting a high precision and reliable method for free vibration analysis of functionally graded doubly curved shell panels. To this end, panel is modeled based on third order shear deformation theory and both of the Donnell and Sanders strain-displacement relations. A new set of potential functions and auxiliary variables are proposed to present an exact Levy-type close-form solution for vibrating FG panel. The validity and accuracy of present method are confirmed by comparing results with literature and finite element method. Also, effect of various parameters on natural frequencies are studied which are helpful for designers.

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Perfusion MRI of High Grade Brain Gliomas Obtained with Arterial or Venous Waveform Input Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Silvano; Crisi, Girolamo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion estimates of high-grade brain gliomas (HGG) due to the use of an input function (IF) obtained respectively from arterial (AIF) and venous (VIF) approaches by two different commercially available software applications. This prospective study includes 20 patients with pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-grade gliomas. The data source was processed by using two DCE dedicated commercial packages, both based on the extended Toft model, but the first customized to obtain input function from arterial measurement and the second from sagittal sinus sampling. The quantitative parametric perfusion maps estimated from the two software packages were compared by means of a region of interest (ROI) analysis. The resulting input functions from venous and arterial data were also compared. No significant difference has been found between the perfusion parameters obtained with the two different software packages (P-value < .05). The comparison of the VIFs and AIFs obtained by the two packages showed no statistical differences. Direct comparison of DCE-MRI measurements with IF generated by means of arterial or venous waveform led to no statistical difference in quantitative metrics for evaluating HGG. However, additional research involving DCE-MRI acquisition protocols and post-processing would be beneficial to further substantiate the effectiveness of venous approach as the IF method compared with arterial-based IF measurement. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Elasto-plastic damage analysis of functionally graded material disks subjected to thermal shock and thermal cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Myung; Toi, Yutaka [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science

    2001-03-01

    The elasto-plastic damage behaviors of functionally graded materials (FGM) subjected to thermal loading are analyzed by the finite element method using continuum damage mechanics. The Lemaitre's damage model is employed to analyze the damage behavior of a FGM disk subjected to thermal shock and a FGM coating subjected to thermal cycle. The effect of FGM on the thermal damage is discussed through some numerical examples for industrial materials. Numerical results show the validity of the present method for the evaluation and the development of new FGM. (author)

  19. Exposure of W-TiC/Cu Functionally Graded Materials in the Edge Plasma of HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Zhu Dahuan; Chen Junling; Yan Rong; Zhou Zhangjian

    2012-01-01

    Six-layered W-TiC/Cu functionally graded materials were fabricated by resistance sintering under ultra-high pressure and exposed in the edge plasma of HT-7 tokamak. Microstructure morphologies show that the TiC particles distribute homogeneously in the W matrix, strengthening the grain boundary, while gradient layers provide a good compositional transition from W-TiC to Cu. After about 360 shots in the HT-7 tokamak, clear surface modification can be observed after plasma exposure, and the addition of nano TiC particles is beneficial to the improvement of plasma loads resistance of W.

  20. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarki, R.; Baccam, N.; Dayal, Kaushik; Sharma, P.

    2014-01-01

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible

  1. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbarki, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Baccam, N. [Department of Mathematics, Southwestern University, Georgetown, Texas 78626 (United States); Dayal, Kaushik [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Sharma, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

  2. Piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature? Combining flexoelectricity and functional grading to enable high-temperature electromechanical coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbarki, R.; Baccam, N.; Dayal, Kaushik; Sharma, P.

    2014-03-01

    Most technologically relevant ferroelectrics typically lose piezoelectricity above the Curie temperature. This limits their use to relatively low temperatures. In this Letter, exploiting a combination of flexoelectricity and simple functional grading, we propose a strategy for high-temperature electromechanical coupling in a standard thin film configuration. We use continuum modeling to quantitatively demonstrate the possibility of achieving apparent piezoelectric materials with large and temperature-stable electromechanical coupling across a wide temperature range that extends significantly above the Curie temperature. With Barium and Strontium Titanate, as example materials, a significant electromechanical coupling that is potentially temperature-stable up to 900 °C is possible.

  3. Developing Essential Understanding of Functions for Teaching Mathematics in Grades 9-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Gwendolyn; Beckmann, Sybilla; Zbiek, Rose Mary; Cooney, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Are sequences functions? What can't the popular "vertical line test" be applied in some cases to determine if a relation is a function? How does the idea of rate of change connect with simpler ideas about proportionality as well as more advanced topics in calculus? Helping high school students develop a robust understanding of functions requires…

  4. Defining the real-world reproducibility of visual grading of left ventricular function and visual estimation of left ventricular ejection fraction: impact of image quality, experience and accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Graham D; Dhutia, Niti M; Shun-Shin, Matthew J; Willson, Keith; Harrison, James; Raphael, Claire E; Zolgharni, Massoud; Mayet, Jamil; Francis, Darrel P

    2015-10-01

    Left ventricular function can be evaluated by qualitative grading and by eyeball estimation of ejection fraction (EF). We sought to define the reproducibility of these techniques, and how they are affected by image quality, experience and accreditation. Twenty apical four-chamber echocardiographic cine loops (Online Resource 1-20) of varying image quality and left ventricular function were anonymized and presented to 35 operators. Operators were asked to provide (1) a one-phrase grading of global systolic function (2) an "eyeball" EF estimate and (3) an image quality rating on a 0-100 visual analogue scale. Each observer viewed every loop twice unknowingly, a total of 1400 viewings. When grading LV function into five categories, an operator's chance of agreement with another operator was 50% and with themself on blinded re-presentation was 68%. Blinded eyeball LVEF re-estimates by the same operator had standard deviation (SD) of difference of 7.6 EF units, with the SD across operators averaging 8.3 EF units. Image quality, defined as the average of all operators' assessments, correlated with EF estimate variability (r = -0.616, p visual grading agreement (r = 0.58, p visual grading of LV function and LVEF estimation is dependent on image quality, but individuals cannot themselves identify when poor image quality is disrupting their LV function estimate. Clinicians should not assume that patients changing in grade or in visually estimated EF have had a genuine clinical change.

  5. Processing and Characterization of Functionally Graded Aluminum (A319)—SiCp Metallic Composites by Centrifugal Casting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, E.; Jacob, Jibin C.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Joseph, M. A.; Pai, B. C.

    2016-08-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) are successfully adopted for the design and fabrication of engineering components with location-specific properties. The present study describes the processing and characterization of A319 Aluminum functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC) with 10 and 15 wt pct SiCp reinforcements. The liquid stir casting method is used for composite melt preparation followed by FGMMC formation by vertical centrifugal casting method. The process parameters used are the mold preheating temperature of 523 K (250 °C), melt pouring temperature of 1013 K (740 °C), and mold rotation speed of 1300 rpm. The study analyzes the distribution and concentration of reinforcement particles in the radial direction of the FGMMC disk along with the effects of gradation on density, hardness, mechanical strength, the variation in coefficient of thermal expansion and the wear resistance properties at different zones. Microstructures of FGMMC reveal an outward radial gradient distribution of reinforcements forming different zones. Namely, matrix-rich inner, transition, particles-rich outer, and chill zone of a few millimeters thick at the outer most periphery of the casting are formed. From 10-FGM, a radial shift in the position of SiCp maxima is observed in 15-FGM casting. The mechanical characterization depicts enhanced properties for the particle-rich zone. The hardness shows a graded nature in correlation with particle concentration and a maximum of 94.4 HRB has been obtained at the particle-rich region of 15-FGM. In the particle-rich zone, the lowest CTE value of 20.1 µm/mK is also observed with a compressive strength of 650 MPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 279 MPa. The wear resistance is higher at the particle-rich zone of the FGMMC.

  6. On Development and Wear Behavior of Microwave-Processed Functionally Graded Ni-SiC Clads on SS-304 Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Sarbjeet; Gupta, Dheeraj; Bhowmick, Hiralal

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the functionally graded Ni-SiC claddings with gradual change in SiC contents were deposited on SS-304 substrate using microwave hybrid heating technique. Experimental trials were carried out inside a multimode domestic microwave device at 2.45 GHz and 900 W. The optimal exposure time of 900 W microwave power was varied with compositional gradient, and it was from 300 to 360 s. The developed functionally graded clad (FGC) was characterized by SEM/EDS, XRD and Vicker's micro-hardness. Microstructural analysis results revealed that the FGC of approximately 2 mm thickness was developed and was free from any type of interfacial cracks and visible porosity. The maximum micro-hardness was at the top FGC layer, and its value was 1025 ± 30 HV. Three types of single-layer claddings were also developed to compare the tribological behavior of FGC. FGC exhibited 32 and 1.2 times more wear resistance than SS-304 substrate and Ni + 30% SiC layer, respectively. In the case of FGC, wear mainly occurs due to debonding of carbide particles from the matrix, while plastic deformation and strong abrasion are responsible for material loss in the case of the SS-304 substrate.

  7. Cognitive function after radiotherapy for supratentorial low-grade glioma: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laack, Nadia N.; Brown, Paul D.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Furth, Alfred F. M.S.; Ballman, Karla V.; Hammack, Julie E.; Arusell, Robert M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of cranial radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive function in patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma. Methods and Materials: Twenty adult patients with supratentorial low-grade glioma were treated with 50.4 Gy (10 patients) or 64.8 Gy (10 patients) localized RT. The patients then were evaluated with an extensive battery of psychometric tests at baseline (before RT) and at approximately 18-month intervals for as long as 5 years after completing RT. To allow patients to serve as their own controls, cognitive performance was evaluated as change in scores over time. All patients underwent at least two evaluations. Results: Baseline test scores were below average compared with age-specific norms. At the second evaluation, the groups' mean test scores were higher than their initial performances on all psychometric measures, although the improvement was not statistically significant. No changes in cognitive performance were seen during the evaluation period when test scores were analyzed by age, treatment, tumor location, tumor type, or extent of resection. Conclusions: Cognitive function was stable after RT in these patients evaluated prospectively during 3 years of follow-up. Slight improvements in some cognitive areas are consistent with practice effects attributable to increased familiarity with test procedures and content

  8. An evaluation of a coupled microstructural approach for the analysis of functionally graded composites via the finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Dunn, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    A comparison is presented between the predictions of the finite-element analysis and a recently developed higher-order theory for functionally graded materials subjected to a thorough-thickness temperature gradient. In contrast to existing micromechanical theories that utilize classical (i.e., uncoupled) homogenization schemes to calculate micro-level and macro-level stress and displacement fields in materials with uniform or nonuniform fiber spacing (i.e., functionally graded materials), the new theory explicitly couples the microstructural details with the macrostructure of the composite. Previous thermo-elastic analysis has demonstrated that such coupling is necessary when: the temperature gradient is large with respect to the dimension of the reinforcement; the characteristic dimension of the reinforcement is large relative to the global dimensions of the composite and the number of reinforcing fibers or inclusions is small. In these circumstances, the standard micromechanical analyses based on the concept of the representative volume element used to determine average composite properties produce questionable results. The comparison between the predictions of the finite-element method and the higher-order theory presented herein establish the theory's accuracy in predicting thermal and stress fields within composites with a finite number of fibers in the thickness direction subjected to a thorough-thickness thermal gradient.

  9. Vibration and buckling characteristics of functionally graded nanoplates subjected to thermal loading based on surface elasticity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Ashrafi, M. A.; Pourashraf, T.; Sahmani, S.

    2015-04-01

    The buckling and vibration responses of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to thermal loading are studied in prebuckling domain with considering the effect of surface stress. To accomplish this purpose, Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is incorporated into the classical plate theory to develop a non-classical plate model including the surface effects. The material properties of FGM nanoplate are considered to be graded in the thickness direction on the basis of the power law function. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive size-dependent governing differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the importance of surface stress effect. It is revealed that in the presence of surface stress effect, the influence of material property gradient index on the critical thermal buckling load is more prominent for FGM nanoplates with lower length-to-thickness ratios. Also, by increasing the natural frequency of FGM nanoplate, the role of surface stress effect in the value of critical thermal buckling load is more prominent.

  10. The potential application of a Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum femoral stem with functionally graded orthotropic structures manufactured using Laser Melting technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, K B; Wang, C J; Stanford, M

    2013-12-01

    The cementless fixation of porous coated femoral stems is a common technique employed for Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). With the rate of revision surgery appearing to rise and younger more active patients requiring primary surgery it can be thought that alternative methods for increasing implant longevity need to be considered. The stress shielding of periprosthetic bone still remains a contributing factor to implant loosening, caused through a mismatch in stiffness between the implant and the bone. However, the ability to achieve stiffness matching characteristics is being realised through the use of Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) technologies and Functionally Graded Materials (FGM). This paper proposes an alternative design methodology for a monoblock Cobalt Chrome Molybdenum (CoCrMo) femoral stem. It hypothesises that a femoral stem suitable for cementless fixation can be manufactured using Laser Melting (LM) technology offering orthotropic functionally graded porous structures with similar mechanical properties to human bone. The structure and mechanical properties of the natural femur have been used as a basis for the design criteria which hypothesises that through a combination of numerical analysis and physical testing, an optimal design can be proposed to provide a lightweight, customised femoral stem that can reduce the risk of implant loosening through stress shielding whilst maintaining bone-implant interface stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of the Reverberation-Ray Matrix to the Non-Fourier Heat Conduction in Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng-xi

    2016-02-01

    The method of the reverberation-ray matrix has been developed and successfully applied to analyse the wave propagation in a multibranched framed structure or in a layered medium. However, the method is confined to the case of mechanical loads applied at the medium until now. This paper aims to extend the formulation of the reverberation-ray matrix to cases of thermal propagation and diffusion. The thermal response in functionally graded materials (FGM) with the non-Fourier heat conduction model is analysed. In the present work, it is assumed that the material properties of an FG plate vary only in the thickness direction by following the power law function. The effect of non-Fourier and material inhomogeneity in the plate subjected to a periodic thermal disturbance is investigated. The present approach is validated by comparing it with the solutions obtained by other methods.

  12. Refractive error and visual functions in children with special needs compared with the first grade school students in oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Urmi; Khandekar, Rajiv; Natrajan, Sarvanan; Al-Hadrami, Khalfan

    2010-10-01

    We evaluated the refractive status and visual function of children with special needs (other handicap) in 2010 and compared them with healthy 1(st) grade school students in Oman. This was a cohort study. Optometrists recorded vision using a logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) chart. Preferential looking method was used for testing 31 children. Cycloplegic refraction was performed on all children. Contrast sensitivity was tested using 2.5%, 10%, and 100% contrast charts. Ocular movement, alignment, and anterior segment were also assessed. A pediatrician reviewed the health records of all the children at the time of their enrollment in this study to determine if the child had been diagnosed with a systemic condition or syndromes. The visual functions were assessed by study investigators. We estimated the rates and the risk of different visual function defects in children with special needs. The prevalence of refractive error in 70 children (4.7 ± 0.8 years) with special needs (group 1) and 175 normal healthy first grade students (group 2) were 58.5% and 2.9%, respectively. The risk of refractive error was significantly higher in children with special needs [relative risk, 48.1 (95% confidence interval, 17.54-131.8)]. Hyperopia (>1.00 D), myopia (≥ 1.00D) and astigmatism (≥ ±1.00 D) were found in 18.6%, 24.3%, and 27.1%, respectively, in group 1. Six children in this group had defective near vision. Sixteen (80%) children with Down syndrome had refractive error. Seven (50%) children with developmental disorder showed decreased contrast sensitivity. Prevalence of uncorrected refractive error was much higher in children with special needs. Prevalence of strabismus, nystagmus, and reduced contrast sensitivity was also higher in children with special needs. Early vision screening, visual function assessment, correction of refractive error, and frequent follow-up are recommended.

  13. Accuracy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Grading of Subglottic Stenosis in Patients with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Correlation with Pulmonary Function Tests and Laryngoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henes, Frank O; Laudien, Martin; Linsenhoff, Laura; Bremer, Jan P; Oqueka, Tim; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-08-03

    To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based and laryngoscopy-based subglottic stenosis (SGS) grading with pulmonary function tests (PFT) in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). In this retrospective study we included 118 examinations of 44 patients with GPA and suspected SGS. All patients underwent MRI, laryngoscopy, and PFT. Stenosis was graded on a 4-point scale by endoscopy and MRI using the Meyer-Cotton (MC)-Score (score1: ≤50%; 2: 51-70%; 3: 71-99%; 4: 100%) and as percentage by MRI. Results were compared with peak expiratory flow (PEF) and maximum inspiratory flow (MIF) from PFT, serving as objective functional reference. In MRI, 112/118 examinations (95%) were rated positive for SGS (n=82: grade1; n=26: grade2; n=4: grade3) whereas in laryngoscopy 105/118 examinations (89%) were rated positive for SGS (n=73: grade1; n=24: grade2; n=8: grade3). MRI and laryngoscopy agreed in 75 of 118 examinations (64%). MRI determined higher scores in 20 (17%) and lower scores in 23 (19%) examinations compared to laryngoscopy. MC-scores as determined by both MRI and laryngoscopy showed comparable correlations with PEF (r=-0.363, p=0.016 and r=-0.376, p=0.012, respectively) and MIF (r=-0.340, p=0.024 and r=-0.320, p=0.034, respectively). Highest correlation was found between MRI-based stenosis grading in percentage with PEF (r=-0.441, p=0.003) and MIF (r=-0.413, p=0.005). MRI and laryngoscopy provide comparable results for grading of SGS in GPA and correlate well with PFT. MRI is an attractive non-invasive and radiation free alternative for monitoring the severity of SGS in patients with GPA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Neonates with reduced neonatal lung function have systemic low-grade inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo L.K.; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    , TNF-α, and CXCL8, confirmed a uniform upregulated inflammatory profile in children with reduced forced expiratory volume at 0.5 seconds (P = .02). Adjusting for body mass index at birth, maternal smoking, older children in the home, neonatal bacterial airway colonization, infections 14 days before...... of the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort who had completed neonatal lung function testing at age 4 weeks. Associations between neonatal lung function indices and inflammatory biomarkers were investigated by conventional statistics and unsupervised principal component analysis...

  15. Suitability of Different Food Grade Materials for the Encapsulation of Some Functional Foods Well Reported for Their Advantages and Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Shah, Adil Gani; Wani, Sajad Mohd; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Nissar, Nazia; Shagoo, Mudasir Ahmad

    2016-11-17

    Functional foods find a very important place in the modern era, where different types of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, etc. are on a high. Irrespective of the abundance of bioactive components in different fruits and vegetables, their low solubility in aqueous solution, vulnerability to destruction in different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and a low intestinal absorption becomes a concern. Because it is quite difficult to commercialize non food materials for the food encapsulation purposes due to their safety concerns in the human body, scientists in the recent times have come up with the idea of encapsulating the different bioactive components in different food grade materials that are able to safeguard these bioactive components against the different environmental and gastrointestinal conditions and ensure their safe and targeted delivery at their absorption sites. Different food grade encapsulation materials including various oligosaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, cyclodextrins, alginates, chitosan, gum arabic, and carboxymethyl cellulose) and proteins and their suitability for encapsulating various bioactive components like flavonoids (catechins, rutin, curcumin, hesperetin, and vanillin), nonflavonoids (resveratrol), carotenoids (β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein), and fatty acids (fish oil, flaxseed oil, and olive oil) of high medical and nutritional value are reviewed here.

  16. Potential of direct metal deposition technology for manufacturing thick functionally graded coatings and parts for reactors components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Laget, B.; Smurov, I.

    2009-03-01

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D deposition process arising from laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection to refine or refurbish parts. Recently DMD has been extended to manufacture large-size near-net-shape components. When applied for manufacturing new parts (or their refinement), DMD can provide tailored thermal properties, high corrosion resistance, tailored tribology, multifunctional performance and cost savings due to smart material combinations. In repair (refurbishment) operations, DMD can be applied for parts with a wide variety of geometries and sizes. In contrast to the current tool repair techniques such as tungsten inert gas (TIG), metal inert gas (MIG) and plasma welding, laser cladding technology by DMD offers a well-controlled heat-treated zone due to the high energy density of the laser beam. In addition, this technology may be used for preventative maintenance and design changes/up-grading. One of the advantages of DMD is the possibility to build functionally graded coatings (from 1 mm thickness and higher) and 3D multi-material objects (for example, 100 mm-sized monolithic rectangular) in a single-step manufacturing cycle by using up to 4-channel powder feeder. Approved materials are: Fe (including stainless steel), Ni and Co alloys, (Cu,Ni 10%), WC compounds, TiC compounds. The developed coatings/parts are characterized by low porosity (mechanical support structures, hermetic joints, tubes with complex geometry, and tailored inside and outside surface properties, etc.

  17. Analysis of Functionally Graded Material Plates Using Triangular Elements with Cell-Based Smoothed Discrete Shear Gap Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cell-based smoothed finite element method with discrete shear gap technique is employed to study the static bending, free vibration, and mechanical and thermal buckling behaviour of functionally graded material (FGM plates. The plate kinematics is based on the first-order shear deformation theory and the shear locking is suppressed by the discrete shear gap method. The shear correction factors are evaluated by employing the energy equivalence principle. The material property is assumed to be temperature dependent and graded only in the thickness direction. The effective properties are computed by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. The accuracy of the present formulation is validated against available solutions. A systematic parametric study is carried out to examine the influence of the gradient index, the plate aspect ratio, skewness of the plate, and the boundary conditions on the global response of the FGM plates. The effect of a centrally located circular cutout on the global response is also studied.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic response of a simply supported rectangular functionally graded material plate under the time-dependent thermal mechanical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y. X. [Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China); Zhang, W. [Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Yang, J. [RMIT University, Bundoora (Australia); Li, S. Y. [Ttianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin (China)

    2011-07-15

    An analysis on nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a simply supported functionally graded materials (FGMs) rectangular plate subjected to the transversal and in-plane excitations is presented in the time dependent thermal environment. Here we look the FGM Plates as isotropic materials which is assumed to be temperature dependent and graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. The geometrical nonlinearity using Von Karman's assumption is introduced. The formulation also includes in-plane and rotary inertia effects. In the framework of Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory, the governing equations of motion for the FGM plate are derived by the Hamilton's principle. Then the equations of motion with two degree- of-freedom under combined the time-dependent thermomechanical loads can be obtained by using Galerkin's method. Using numerical method, the control equations are analyzed to obtain the response curves. Under certain conditions the periodic and chaotic motions of the FGM plate are found. It is found that because of the existence of the temperature which relate to the time the motions of the FGM plate show the great difference. A period motion can be changed into the chaotic motions which are affected by the time dependent temperature.

  19. The association between sleep disordered breathing, academic grades, and cognitive and behavioral functioning among overweight subjects during middle to late childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Dean W; Ris, M Douglas; Kramer, Megan E; Long, Elizabeth; Amin, Raouf

    2010-11-01

    (1) to determine the associations of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with behavioral functioning, cognitive test scores, and school grades during middle- to late-childhood, an under-researched developmental period in the SDB literature, and (2) to clarify whether associations between SDB and school grades are mediated by deficits in cognitive or behavioral functioning. cross-sectional correlative study. Office/hospital, plus reported functioning at home and at school. 163 overweight subjects aged 10-16.9 years were divided into 4 groups based upon their obstructive apnea+hypopnea index (AHI) during overnight polysomnography and parent report of snoring: Moderate-Severe OSA (AHI > 5, n = 42), Mild OSA (AHI = 1-5, n = 58), Snorers (AHI grades and sleep, parent- and teacher-report of daytime behaviors, and office-based neuropsychological testing. The 4 groups significantly differed in academic grades and parent- and teacher-reported behaviors, particularly inattention and learning problems. These findings remained significant after adjusting for subject sex, race, socioeconomic status, and school night sleep duration. Associations with SDB were confined to reports of behavioral difficulties in real-world situations, and did not extend to office-based neuropsychological tests. Findings from secondary analyses were consistent with, but could not definitively confirm, a causal model in which SDB affects school grades via its impact on behavioral functioning. SDB during middle- to late-childhood is related to important aspects of behavioral functioning, especially inattention and learning difficulties, that may result in significant functional impairment at school.

  20. Executive Function and Academic Achievement in Primary-Grade Students with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, E.; Fidler, D. J.; Daunhauer, L.; Gerlach-McDonald, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Executive function (EF) plays a critical role in academic outcomes in typically developing children, but the contribution of EF to academic performance in Down syndrome (DS) is less well understood. This study evaluated differences in early academic foundations between primary school aged children with DS and non-verbal mental-age…

  1. A Novel Method for Characterizing the Impact Response of Functionally Graded Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    refractory or adhesively bond thermal-resistant composites (i.e., tiles) to its exterior. Under harsh environments, the thermal barrier and/or...members as a function of height in the beam and depth in the plate. Finite element models were developed in ABAQUS to predict the accumulated plastic strain...configurations were studied in an axisymmetric model using the commercial finite element analysis code ABAQUS . The elastic properties of the FGM were

  2. A Novel Fabrication Method for Functionally Graded Materials under Centrifugal Force: The Centrifugal Mixed-Powder Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Miura-Fujiwara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fabrication methods for functionally graded materials (FGMs is a centrifugal solid-particle method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique. However, it is the difficult to fabricate FGMs containing nano-particles by the centrifugal solid-particle method. Recently, we proposed a novel fabrication method, which we have named the centrifugal mixed-powder method, by which we can obtain FGMs containing nano-particles. Using this processing method, Cu-based FGMs containing SiC particles and Al-based FGMs containing TiO2 nano-particles on their surfaces have been fabricated. In this article, the microstructure and mechanical property of Cu/SiC and Al/TiO2 FGMs, fabricated by the centrifugal mixed-powder method are reviewed.

  3. Free vibration analysis of a rotary smart two directional functionally graded piezoelectric material in axial symmetry circular nanoplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinzare, Mohammad; Ranjbarpur, Hosein; Ghadiri, Majid

    2018-02-01

    In this article, free vibration of a rotating circular nanoplate made of two directional functionally graded piezo materials (two directional FGPM) is modeled based on the first shear deformation theory (FSDT). Based on the power-law model, electro-elastic properties of two directional FGP rotating circular nanoplates are supposed to change continuously along the thickness and radius. Employing the modified couple stress theory, the small size effect of the equations of the plate is considered. The governing equations of the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the studied plate are obtained based on Hamilton's principle; these equations are solved using differential quadrature method (DQM). It is shown that the vibration behavior of the plate is significantly affected by angular velocity, external electric voltage, size dependency and power-law index (thickness and radial directions).

  4. Vibration control of a functionally graded material plate patched with piezoelectric actuators and sensors under a constant electric charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarnovin, M. H.; Najafizadeh, M. M.; Viliani, N. S.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper active vibration control of functionally graded material (FGM) plates using piezoelectric sensor/actuator patches is studied. A simply supported FGM rectangular plate which is bonded with a piezoelectric rectangular patch (patches) on the top and/or bottom surface(s) as actuators/sensors is considered. When a constant electric charge is imposed, the governing differential equations of the motion are derived using classical laminated plate theory (CLPT). The solution for the motion equation is obtained using a Fourier series method and the effect of feedback gain and FGM volume fraction on the plate frequency and displacement (w) are studied. It is noticed that increasing the feedback gain leads to the reduction of frequency and displacement and therefore a better control of the plate's vibration. Moreover, by increasing the value of the FGM volume fraction the resonant frequency decreases.

  5. The modelling and design of smart structures using functionally graded materials and piezoelectrical sensor/actuator patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, K. M.; Sivashanker, S.; He, X. Q.; Y Ng, T.

    2003-08-01

    Finite element formulations are derived for static and dynamic analysis and the control of functionally graded material (FGM) plates under environments subjected to a temperature gradient, using linear piezoelectricity theory and first-order shear deformation theory. The multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system with four collocated sensors and actuators is applied to provide active feedback control of the integrated FGM plate in a closed loop system. The distributed piezoelectrical sensors monitor the structural deformation due to the direct piezoelectrical effect and the distributed actuators control the deformation via the converse piezoelectrical effect. Numerical results for the static and dynamic control have been presented for the FGM plate, which consists of zirconia and aluminum. The purpose of the examples, which consist of a FGM plate with four collocated sensors and actuators used as MIMO system, is to determine the optimum configurations of the sensor/actuator pairs under various thermal and mechanical load fields.

  6. Effect of initial stress on Love waves in a piezoelectric structure carrying a functionally graded material layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zheng-Hua; Jin, Feng; Lu, Tianjian; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Hirose, Sohichi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of initial stress on the propagation behavior of Love waves in a piezoelectric half-space of polarized ceramics carrying a functionally graded material (FGM) layer is analytically investigated in this paper from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity. The analytical solutions are obtained for the dispersion relations of Love wave propagating in this kind of structure with initial stress for both electrical open case and electrical short case, respectively. One numerical example is given to graphically illustrate the effect of initial stress on dispersive curve, phase velocity and electromechanical coupling factor of the Love wave propagation. The results reported here are meaningful for the design of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with high performance.

  7. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  8. Radiographic and functional outcome of posterolateral lumbosacral fusion for low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirikos, A I; Sud, A; McGurk, S M

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed 34 consecutive patients (18 female-16 male) with isthmic spondylolysis and grade I to II lumbosacral spondylolisthesis who underwent in situ posterolateral arthodesis between the L5 transverse processes and the sacral ala with the use of iliac crest autograft. Ten patients had an associated scoliosis which required surgical correction at a later stage only in two patients with idiopathic curves unrelated to the spondylolisthesis. No patient underwent spinal decompression or instrumentation placement. Mean surgical time was 1.5 hours (1 to 1.8) and intra-operative blood loss 200 ml (150 to 340). There was one wound infection treated with antibiotics but no other complication. Radiological assessment included standing posteroanterior and lateral, Ferguson and lateral flexion/extension views, as well as CT scans. A solid posterolateral fusion was confirmed in all patients at mean latest follow-up of 4.7 years (3.4 to 9.8) beyond skeletal maturity into early adult life. Fusion of the isthmic lesion was documented in nine patients bilaterally and eight patients unilaterally. The poor fusion rate across the spondylolysis has not affected the excellent functional results of the procedure, which in our series depended on achieving a stable lumbosacral junction. Quality of life assessment demonstrated significant improvement in all functional scores and high patient satisfaction with 28 patients returning to previous sports activities at an elite competitive level. Posterolateral arthrodesis in situ with autologous iliac crest bone without instrumentation has achieved a solid fusion between the L5 transverse processes and the sacral ala in patients with grade I to II isthmic lumbosacral spondylolisthesis and this has produced excellent clinical outcomes and high patient satisfaction. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of a functionally graded sandwich panel under mechanical loading in the presence of stress constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashjari, Mohammad; Khoshravan, Mohammad Reza

    2017-12-01

    A method was presented for multi-objective optimization of material distribution of simply supported functionally graded (FG) sandwich panel, and sensitivity analyses of optimal designs were also conducted based on design variables and objective functions. The material composition was assumed to vary only in the thickness direction. Piecewise cubic interpolation of volume fractions was used to calculate volume fractions of constituent material phases at a point; these fractions were defined at a limited number of evenly spaced control points. The effective material properties of the panel were obtained by applying the linear rule of mixtures. The behavior of FG sandwich panel was predicted by Reddy's assumptions of third-order shear deformation theory. Exact solutions for deflections and stresses of simply supported sandwich panel were presented using the Navier-type solution technique. The volume fractions at control points, material, and thickness of the faces which were selected as decision variables were optimized by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm known as the fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). The mass and deflection of the model were considered the objective functions to be minimized with stress constraints. This model was optimized to verify the capability and efficiency of the proposed model under mechanical loading. The framework proposed for designing FG sandwich panel under pure mechanical conditions was furnished by the results.

  10. In diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy impaired microvascular function is related to long lasting metabolic control and low grade inflammatory process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Soska, Jacek; Borucka, Katarzyna; Olszewska, Marta; Niedzwiecki, Pawel; Wierusz-Wysocka, Bogna; Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess microvascular function associated with the occurrence of Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) in patients with diabetes. We evaluated 70 diabetic patients (54 men) with Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN-DM), median age 59 (IQR: 51-62), mean disease duration 16±8years. The control group were 70 subjects with diabetes and without Charcot neuroarthropathy (DM), 54 men, median age 60 (54-62), mean diabetes duration 15±7years. We assessed metabolic control of diabetes, serum C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). We used AGE-Reader to measure skin autofluorescence (AF) associated with accumulation of advanced glycation end products that reflects long lasting metabolic control. Microvascular function was examined by laser Doppler flowmetry (PERIFLUX 5000) with thermal hyperemia (TH) and postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH). CN-DM patients as compared to DM subjects had lower HbA1c level [7.6 (6.6-8.4) vs 8.4 (7.3-9.7)%, plevel (Rs=0.42, plevel (Rs=-0.23, p=0.04). Deterioration of microvascular function and autonomic system dysfunction are present in Charcot neuroarthropathy. Impaired microvascular reactivity is associated with worse long lasting metabolic control of diabetes and low grade inflammatory process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intravenous Injection of Clinical Grade Human MSCs After Experimental Stroke: Functional Benefit and Microvascular Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisan, Anack; Favre, Isabelle; Rome, Claire; De Fraipont, Florence; Grillon, Emmanuelle; Coquery, Nicolas; Mathieu, Herv; Mayan, Virginie; Naegele, Bernadette; Hommel, Marc; Richard, Marie-Jeanne; Barbier, Emmanuel Luc; Remy, Chantal; Detante, Olivier

    2016-12-13

    Stroke is the leading cause of disability in adults. Many current clinical trials use intravenous (IV) administration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). This autologous graft requires a delay for ex vivo expansion of cells. We followed microvascular effects and mechanisms of action involved after an IV injection of human BM-MSCs (hBM-MSCs) at a subacute phase of stroke. Rats underwent a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) or a surgery without occlusion (sham) at day 0 (D0). At D8, rats received an IV injection of 3 million hBM-MSCs or PBS-glutamine. In a longitudinal behavioral follow-up, we showed delayed somatosensory and cognitive benefits 4 to 7 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. In a separate longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we observed an enhanced vascular density in the ischemic area 2 and 3 weeks after hBM-MSC injection. Histology and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed an overexpression of angiogenic factors such as Ang1 and transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) at D16 in hBM-MSC-treated MCAo rats compared to PBS-treated MCAo rats. Altogether, delayed IV injection of hBM-MSCs provides functional benefits and increases cerebral angiogenesis in the stroke lesion via a release of endogenous angiogenic factors enhancing the stabilization of newborn vessels. Enhanced angiogenesis could therefore be a means of improving functional recovery after stroke.

  12. Size-dependent vibration and bending analyses of the piezomagnetic three-layer nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammed; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-03-01

    Vibration and electro-magneto-elastic bending analysis of a three-layer nanobeam with a nanocore and two piezomagnetic face sheets are studied in this paper. Timoshenko model of beam as well as nonlocal magneto-electro-elastic relations are used for analysis of this problem. The nanoface sheets are subjected to applied electric and magnetic potentials. The nanobeam rests on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Electric and magnetic potentials are assumed as combination of linear function along the thickness direction that reflects applied electric and magnetic potentials and a cosine function that satisfies boundary conditions. Numerical results of this problem investigate the effect of some important parameters of nanobeam, such as nonlocal parameter, applied electric and magnetic potentials, and parameters of foundation on the vibration and magneto-electro-mechanical bending behaviors of the problem.

  13. Survival, complications and functional outcomes of cemented megaprostheses for high-grade osteosarcoma around the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlin; Hu, Jianping; Zhu, Kunpeng; Cai, Tao; Ma, Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    We initiated a retrospective study on the long-term survival of cemented endoprostheses for bone tumours around the knee to answer the following questions: (1) What was the survival of these patients? (2) What was the overall survival of cemented prostheses around the knee? (3) What types of failures were observed in these reconstructions? (4) Did the survival and complications vary according to the site of the implant? (5) What was the functional result after cemented prosthesis replacement around the knee? From January 2006 to December 2013, 108 consecutive patients with an average age of 25 years, who had mature bone development as evidenced by imaging examinations, underwent 108 cemented endoprosthetic knee replacements for osteosarcoma resection. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy using a multi-drug protocol consisting of high dose methotrexate (HDMTX), doxorubicin (ADM), cisplatin (DDP) and high dose ifosfamide (HDIFO). When extensor mechanism reconstruction was required, we ran nonabsorbable sutures through designated holes in the tibial component to fix detached hamstrings and the remaining ligaments in an imbricated fashion as well as reinforced the reconstruction with a medial gastrocnemius flap. Seventy-two (72/108, 66.7%) lesions were located in the distal femur and 36 (36/108, 33.3%) lesions at the proximal tibias. Nineteen patients were staged as IIA and 89 as IIB according to the Enneking staging system. The average follow-up was 53.3 months (range 12-125 months), with a minimum oncological follow-up of one year. Survival, prosthetic failure, complications and functional outcomes were recorded and reassessed at every visit after the primary operation. At the final follow-up, the oncologic results showed that 33 patients died from metastases, and local recurrence occurred in ten patients. The estimated overall five-year and eight-year survival rates were 71% (95% CI: 62.4-79.65%) and 67.2% (95% CI: 58-76.4%), respectively. In this

  14. Long-Term Cognitive Functioning and Psychological Well-Being in Surgically Treated Patients with Low-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Fabio; Palese, Alvisa; Del Missier, Fabio; Moreale, Renzo; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of low-grade gliomas (LGG) and their surgery on patients' cognitive and emotional functioning and well-being, carried out via a comprehensive and multiple-measure psychological and neuropsychological assessment. Fifty surgically treated patients with LGG were evaluated 40 months after surgery on their functioning over 6 different cognitive domains, 3 core affective/emotional aspects, and 3 different psychological well-being measures to obtain a clearer picture of the long-term impact of illness and surgery on their psychological and relational world. Close relatives were also involved to obtain an independent measure of the psychological dimensions investigated. Cognitive status was satisfactory, with only mild short-term memory difficulties. The affective and well-being profile was characterized by mild signs of depression, good satisfaction with life and psychological well-being, and good personality development, with patients perceiving themselves as stronger and better persons after illness. However, patients showed higher emotional reactivity, and psychological well-being measures were negatively affected by epileptic burden. Well-being was related to positive affective/emotional functioning and unrelated to cognitive functioning. Good agreement between patients and relatives was found. In the long-term, patients operated on for LGG showed good cognitive functioning, with no significant long-term cognitive sequelae for the extensive surgical approach. Psychologically, patients appear to experience a deep psychological change and maturation, closely resembling that of so-called posttraumatic growth, which, to our knowledge, is for the first time described and quantified in patients with LGG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Micro-scratch and corrosion behavior of functionally graded HA-TiO2 nanostructured composite coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoush, Hamidreza; Aghazadeh Mohandesi, Jamshid; Çimenoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, functionally graded coatings of HA/TiO2 nanoparticles and HA-TiO2 nanocomposite coatings with 0, 10 and 20 wt% of TiO2 were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition on Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The functionally graded structure of HA/TiO2 coatings was formed by gradual addition of HA suspension into the deposition cell containing TiO2 nanoparticles. Micro-scratch test results showed the highest critical distances of crack initiation and delamination, normal load before failure and critical contact pressures for functionally graded coating. It was observed that the improvement of adhesion strength and fracture toughness of functionally graded coatings would be due to the reduction of thermal expansion coefficient mismatch between Ti-6Al-4V substrate and HA. The results of potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that the graded structure of the coating could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of substrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating the thermal environment effects on geometrically nonlinear vibration of smart functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Rastgoo, Abbas; Bahrami, Mansoor Nikkhah [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    An analytical solution for a sandwich circular FGM plate coupled with piezoelectric layers under one-dimensional heat conduction is presented. All materials of the device may be of any functional gradients in the direction of thickness. The solution exactly satisfies all the equilibrium conditions and continuity conditions for the stress, displacement and electric displacement as well as electric potential on the interfaces between adjacency layers. A nonlinear static problem is solved first to determine the initial stress state and pre-vibration deformations of the FG plate that is subjected to in-plane forces and applied actuator voltage in thermal environment in the case of simply supported boundary conditions. By adding an incremental dynamic state to the pre-vibration state, the differential equations that govern the nonlinear vibration behavior of pre-stressed piezoelectric coupled FGM plates are derived. The role of thermal environment as well as control effects on nonlinear static deflections and natural frequencies imposed by the piezoelectric actuators using high input voltages are investigated. Numerical examples are provided and simulation results are discussed. Numerical results for FGM plates with a mixture of metal and ceramic are presented in dimensionless forms. The good agreement between the results of this paper and those of the finite element (FE) analyses validated the presented approach. In a parametric study the emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the applied actuator voltage and thermal environment as well as gradient index of FG plate on the dynamics and control characteristics of the structure

  17. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  18. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ≤−1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ) assuming an α/β ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose–response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD 2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD 2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in

  19. Perceived Demands of Schooling, Stress and Mental Health: Changes from Grade 6 to Grade 9 as a Function of Gender and Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giota, Joanna; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2017-08-01

    The link between perceived demands of school, stress and mental health in relation to gender is complex. The study examined, with two waves of longitudinal data at age 13 and age 16, how changes in perceived academic demands relate to changes in perceived stress, taking into account gender and cognitive ability, and to investigate how these factors affect the level of psychosomatic and depressive symptoms at the age of 16. A nationally representative sample including about 9000 individuals from the Swedish longitudinal Evaluation Through Follow up database born in 1998 was included. A growth modelling approach was applied to examine relations over time. The results show girls to have a considerably higher self-reported level of mental health problems at the end of compulsory school than boys. This gender difference is entirely accounted for by perceived school demands and stress in grades 6 and 9. Students who were stronger in inductive than vocabulary ability reported lower levels of perceived academic demands and less stress in grade 6. There is a need to develop interventions for minimizing the consequences of stress among adolescents and modify those particular aspects of academic demands which cause stress and poor mental health, especially among girls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Temperature/Stress Distributions in a Stress-Relief-Type Plate of Functionally Graded Materials under Thermal Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaji, Hideo; Takenaka, Hiromitsu; Honda, Sawao; Nishikawa, Tadahiro

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing one-dimensional transient temperature and stress distributions in a stress-relief-type plate of functionally graded ceramic-metal based materials (FGMs), in relation to both the temperature-dependent thermal properties and continuous and gradual variation of the thermo-mechanical properties of the FGM. The FGM plate is assumed to be initially in steady state of temperature gradient, suffering high temperature at the ceramic side and low temperature at the metallic side associated with its in-service performance. The FGM plate is then rapidly cooled at the ceramic side of the plate by a cold medium. The transient temperature and related thermal stresses in the FGM plate are analyzed numerically for a model alumina-nickel FGM system. The proposed analytical technique for determining the temperature distribution is quite simple and widely applicable for various boundary conditions of FGMs, compared with methods recently proposed by other researchers. The optimum composition of FGMs is also discussed to reduce the thermal stresses in the FGM plate, relating to the function of the volume fraction of the metal across the thickness.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Functionally Graded Subsurface Damage on Cylinders in Nuclear Installations Based on Circumferential SH Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Qu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface damage could affect the service life of structures. In nuclear engineering, nondestructive evaluation and detection of the evaluation of the subsurface damage region are of great importance to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. In this paper, we propose the use of circumferential horizontal shear (SH waves to detect mechanical properties of subsurface regions of damage on cylindrical structures. The regions of surface damage are considered to be functionally graded material (FGM and the cylinder is considered to be a layered structure. The Bessel functions and the power series technique are employed to solve the governing equations. By analyzing the SH waves in the 12Cr-ODS ferritic steel cylinder, which is frequently applied in the nuclear installations, we discuss the relationship between the phase velocities of SH waves in the cylinder with subsurface layers of damage and the mechanical properties of the subsurface damaged regions. The results show that the subsurface damage could lead to decrease of the SH waves’ phase velocity. The gradient parameters, which represent the degree of subsurface damage, can be evaluated by the variation of the SH waves’ phase velocity. Research results of this study can provide theoretical guidance in nondestructive evaluation for use in the analysis of the reliability and durability of nuclear installations.

  2. Semi-analytical solution for electro-magneto-thermoelastic creep response of functionally graded piezoelectric rotating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loghman, A.; Abdollahian, M.; Jafarzadeh Jazi, A.; Ghorbanpour Arani, A.

    2013-01-01

    Time-dependent electro-magneto-thermoelastic creep response of rotating disk made of functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPM) is studied. The disk is placed in a uniform magnetic and a distributed temperature field and is subjected to an induced electric potential and a centrifugal body force. The material thermal, mechanical, magnetic and electric properties are represented by power-law distributions in radial direction. The creep constitutive model is Norton's law in which the creep parameters are also power functions of radius. Using equations of equilibrium, strain-displacement and stress-strain relations in conjunction with the potential-displacement equation a non-homogeneous differential equation containing time-dependent creep strains for displacement is derived. A semi-analytical solution followed by a numerical procedure has been developed to obtain history of stresses, strains, electric potential and creep-strain rates by using Prandtl-Reuss relations. History of electric potential, Radial, circumferential and effective stresses and strains as well as the creep stress rates and effective creep strain rate histories are presented. It has been found that tensile radial stress distribution decreases during the life of the FGPM rotating disk which is associated with major electric potential redistributions which can be used as a sensor for condition monitoring of the FGPM rotating disk. (authors)

  3. Markers of T cell infiltration and function associate with favorable outcome in vascularized high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelin N Townsend

    Full Text Available When T cells infiltrate the tumor environment they encounter a myriad of metabolic stressors including hypoxia. Overcoming the limitations imposed by an inadequate tumor vasculature that contributes to these stressors may be a crucial step to immune cells mounting an effective anti-tumor response. We sought to determine whether the functional capacity of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL could be influenced by the tumor vasculature and correlated this with survival in patients with ovarian cancer.In 196 high-grade serous ovarian tumors, we confirmed that the tumor vascularity as measured by the marker CD31 was associated with improved patient disease-specific survival. We also found that tumors positive for markers of TIL (CD8, CD4 and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3 and T cell function (granzyme B and T-cell restricted intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1 correlated significantly with elevated vascularity. In vitro, hypoxic CD8 T cells showed reduced cytolytic activity, secreted less effector cytokines and upregulated autophagy. Survival analysis revealed that patients had a significant improvement in disease-specific survival when FoxP3 expressing cells were present in CD31-high tumors compared to patients with FoxP3 expressing cells in CD31-low tumors [HR: 2.314 (95% CI 1.049-5.106; p = 0.0377]. Patients with high vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expressing tumors containing granzyme B positive cells had improved survival compared to patients with granzyme B positive cells in VEGF-low tumors [HR: 2.522 (95% CI 1.097-5.799; p = 0.0294].Overall, this data provides a rationale for developing strategies aimed at improving the adaptability and function of TIL to hypoxic tumor conditions.

  4. A homogenization procedure for geometrically non-linear free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular plates with porosities, resting on elastic foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lhoucine Boutahar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Some Functionally Graded Materials contain pores due to the result of processing; this influences their elastic and mechanical properties. Therefore, it may be very useful to examine the vibration behavior of thin Functionally Graded Annular Plates Clamped at both edges including porosities. In the present study, the rule of mixture is modified to take into account the effect of porosity and to approximate the material properties assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the examined annular plate. A semi-analytical model based on Hamilton’s principle and spectral analysis is adopted using a homogenization procedure to reduce the problem under consideration to that of an equivalent isotropic homogeneous annular plate. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative method. The effects of porosity, material property, and elastic foundations characteristics on the CCFGAP axisymmetric large deflection response are presented and discussed in detail.

  5. SEM and EBSD characterization of bi-layered functionally graded hard metal composites; REM- und EBSD-Charakterisierung von zweischichtigen, funktionell abgestuften Metallverbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, Orlando; Sanhueza, Felipe [Univ. de Concepcion (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria de Materiales; Suarez, Sebastian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Functional Materials; Garcia, Jose [AB Sandvik Coromant R and D, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-11-15

    WC-Co bi-layer functionally graded composites were produced by powder metallurgy techniques. The influence of WC particle size and the grain growth inhibitor on the formation of the functionally graded composite was investigated. SEM images show that all sintered samples present a graded microstructure after sintering, with two side regions of extra-coarse and coarse WC-Co and a clear, dense interface without defects or other phases. EBSD results showed a change of WC particle size depending on the processing and the addition of Mo{sub 2}C. Cobalt binder distribution corresponds to WC particle size. Hardness values correlate to WC particle size and binder content. It is shown that tailored hardness/toughness can be produced by adjusting the WC particle size and binder content on both sides of the bi-layer composite.

  6. Effect of Heat Treatment on the Wear Behaviour of Functionally Graded LM13/B4C Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Priyanka Muddamsetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium alloy reinforced with boron carbide (10 wt.% was fabricated using stir casting method followed by centrifugal casting and the cylindrical specimen with dimension 150 x 150 x 15 mm was obtained. The composite specimens were heat treated at various aging temperatures and aging time for property improvement. Solution treatment was done at 525 ℃ for 5 hrs. Taguchi’s method was used for designing the plan of experiments and L27 orthogonal array was formulated for the analysis of data. The wear test was conducted on the outer periphery of centrifugally cast Functionally Graded composites using pin-on-disc tribometer. Optimization of parameters such as applied load (10 N, 20 N, 30 N, agingtemperature (150 ℃, 175 ℃, 200 ℃ and aging time (2 hrs, 6 hrs, 10 hrs was done using Signal-to-Noise ratio. “Smaller-the-better” criterion was used for analyzing the results. Results ended up with a conclusion that aging time (92.19 % had major influence on tribological behavior followed by aging temperature (5.36 % and applied load (1.95 %. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM analysis was performed to understand the wear mechanism in heat treated specimens.

  7. Boundary Conditions in 2D Numerical and 3D Exact Models for Cylindrical Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tornabene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cylindrical bending condition for structural models is very common in the literature because it allows an incisive and simple verification of the proposed plate and shell models. In the present paper, 2D numerical approaches (the Generalized Differential Quadrature (GDQ and the finite element (FE methods are compared with an exact 3D shell solution in the case of free vibrations of functionally graded material (FGM plates and shells. The first 18 vibration modes carried out through the 3D exact model are compared with the frequencies obtained via the 2D numerical models. All the 18 frequencies obtained via the 3D exact model are computed when the structures have simply supported boundary conditions for all the edges. If the same boundary conditions are used in the 2D numerical models, some modes are missed. Some of these missed modes can be obtained modifying the boundary conditions imposing free edges through the direction perpendicular to the direction of cylindrical bending. However, some modes cannot be calculated via the 2D numerical models even when the boundary conditions are modified because the cylindrical bending requirements cannot be imposed for numerical solutions in the curvilinear edges by definition. These features are investigated in the present paper for different geometries (plates, cylinders, and cylindrical shells, types of FGM law, lamination sequences, and thickness ratios.

  8. Nonlinear thermal buckling and postbuckling analyses of imperfect variable thickness temperature-dependent bidirectional functionally graded cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariyat, M.; Asgari, D.

    2013-01-01

    Influences of the thickness variability and bidirectional material heterogeneity on the thermal buckling of the cylindrical shells have not been investigated so far. In the present paper, nonlinear thermal buckling and postbuckling analyses of imperfect, variable thickness cylindrical shells made of bidirectional functionally graded materials undergoing uniform temperature rises are accomplished for the first time, employing a third-order shear-deformation theory, von Karman-type kinematic nonlinearity, and a nonlinear finite element method. Material properties may vary in both radial and axial directions and can be temperature-dependent. Buckling temperature is detected by a modified Budiansky's criterion. The results reveal that temperature-dependency of the material properties reduces the buckling temperature. Moreover, effects of the volume fraction index on decreasing the buckling temperature are more remarkable for higher radius to thickness ratios. Furthermore, effects of reduction of the thickness in the axial direction may be compensated by an appropriate distribution of the material properties. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear thermal postbuckling of imperfect FGM cylindrical shells is investigated. • Material properties of the shell may vary in both radial and axial directions. • Geometric imperfections and thickness variability are also taken into account. • Material properties are considered to be temperature-dependent. • The nonlinear governing equations are solved by an updating finite element scheme

  9. Fabrication and characterization of functionally graded poly(vinylidine fluoride)-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers for sustainable water recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-12-01

    Poly(vinylidine fluoride) (PVDF) asymmetric hydrophobic hollow fibers were fabricated successfully using dryjet wet spinning. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles were synthesized and impregnated into the PVDF polymer matrix and functionally graded PVDF-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers are fabricated and tested in the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution (PSD) and Ultra Violet (UV) visible spectroscopy. Both the PVDF and PVDF-silver nanocomposite asymmetric hollow fibers were characterized for their morphology, water contact angle and mechanical strength. Addition of hydrophobic silver nanoparticles was found to enhance the hydrophobicity and ~ 2.5 fold increase the mechanical strength of the hollow fibers. A water vapor flux of 31.9kg m-2 h-1 was observed at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate temperature of 20 °C in the case of hollow fiber membrane modules fabricated using PVDF hollow fibers; the water vapor flux was found to be increased by about 8% and to reach 34.6kg m-2 h-1 for the hollow fiber membrane modules fabricated from the PVDF-silver nanocomposite hollow fibers at the same operating conditions with 99.99% salt rejection.

  10. Fracture of functionally graded materials: application to hydrided zircaloy; Fissuration des materiaux a gradient de proprietes: application au zircaloy hydrure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, F

    2005-12-15

    This thesis is devoted to the dynamic fracture of functionally graded materials. More particularly, it deals with the toughness of nuclear cladding at high burnup submitted to transient loading. The fracture is studied at local scale using cohesive zone model in a multi body approach. Cohesive zone models include frictional contact to take into account mixed mode fracture. Non smooth dynamics problems are treated within the Non-Smooth Contact Dynamics framework. A multi scale study is necessary because of the dimension of the clad. At microscopic scale, the effective properties of surface law, between each body, are obtained by periodic numerical homogenization. A two fields Finite Element formulation is so written. An extended formulation of the NSCD framework is obtained. The associated software allows to simulate, in finite deformation, from the crack initiation to post-fracture behavior in heterogeneous materials. At microscopic scale, random RVE calculations are made to determine effective properties. At macroscopic scale, calculations of part of clad are made to determine the role of the mean hydrogen concentration and gradient of hydrogen parameters in the toughness of the clad under dynamic loading. (author)

  11. Fabrication of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-W Functionally Graded Materials by Slipcasting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Tomoyuki; Sukenaga, Sohei; Saito, Noritaka; Nakashima, Kunihiko [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744, Motooka, Nishiku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kagata, Hajime, E-mail: saito@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Advanced Ceramic Section, TOTO Ltd., 2-1-1, Nakashima, Kokura, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-8601 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We have successfully fabricated a functionally graded material (FGM) from tungsten and alumina powders by a slip-casting method. This FGM has applications as a sealing and conducting component for high-intensity discharge lamps (HiDLs) that have a translucent alumina envelope. Two types of W powder, with different oxidizing properties, were used as the raw powders for the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-W FGM. 'Oxidized W' was prepared by heat-treatment at 200 deg. C for 180 min in air. Alumina and each of the W powders were mixed in ultrapure water by ultrasonic stirring. The slurry was then cast into a cylindrical acrylic mold, which had a base of porous alumina, under controlled pressure. The green compacts were subsequently dried, and then sintered using a vacuum furnace at 1600 deg. C for a fixed time. The microstructures of the FGMs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the polished section. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-W FGM with the 'oxidized W' powder resulted in a microscopic compositional gradient. However, the FGM with 'as-received W' showed no compositional gradient. This result was mainly attributed to the difference between the {zeta}-potentials of the W powders with the different oxidizing conditions; basically 'oxidized W' powder tends to disperse because of the larger {zeta}-potential of the oxide layer coated on the W powder core.

  12. Free vibration analysis of functionally graded CNT-reinforced nanocomposite beam using Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heshmati, M.; Yas, M. H. [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    This work deals with the effect of agglomeration and distribution of carbon nanotube on the free vibration characteristics of a functionally graded nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by employing an equivalent fiber based on the Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach. Different SWCNTs distributions in the thickness directions are introduced to improve fundamental natural frequency of polymer composite beam. The micromechanics models used in the study include a two parameter model of agglomeration. An embedded carbon nanotube in a polymer matrix and its surrounding inter-phase is replaced with an equivalent fiber for predicting the mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube/polymer composite. The system of equations of motion is derived by using the principle of virtual work under the assumptions of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The finite element method is employed to obtain a numerical approximation of the motion equation. Numerical results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms to figure out the effects of nanotube agglomeration, CNTs distribution and boundary conditions on the dynamic characteristics of the beam. The above mentioned effects play very important role on the dynamic behavior of the beam.

  13. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha; Seo, Ji-Heui; Tyrer, Jonathan; Spindler, Tassja J.; Lee, Janet; Chen, Yibu; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Aben, Katja K. H.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bowtell, David; Webb, Penelope M.; deFazio, Anna; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bruinsma, Fiona; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Chen, Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas T.; Edwards, Robert P.; Eilber, Ursula; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis Nazihah; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A. T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kruger Kjaer, Susanne; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph L.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F. A. G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; Nevanlinna, Heli; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Narod, Steven A.; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B.; Azmi, Mat Adenan Noor; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Schwaab, Ira; Sellers, Thomas A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Sucheston, Lara; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna H.; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Monteiro, Alvaro; Pharoah, Paul D.; Gayther, Simon A.; Freedman, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions associated with HGSOC risk (P≤10−5). For three cis-eQTL associations (P<1.4 × 10−3, FDR<0.05) at 1p36 (CDC42), 1p34 (CDCA8) and 2q31 (HOXD9), we evaluate the functional role of each candidate by perturbing expression of each gene in HGSOC precursor cells. Overexpression of HOXD9 increases anchorage-independent growth, shortens population-doubling time and reduces contact inhibition. Chromosome conformation capture identifies an interaction between rs2857532 and the HOXD9 promoter, suggesting this SNP is a leading causal variant. Transcriptomic profiling after HOXD9 overexpression reveals enrichment of HGSOC risk variants within HOXD9 target genes (P=6 × 10−10 for risk variants (P<10−4) within 10 kb of a HOXD9 target gene in ovarian cells), suggesting a broader role for this network in genetic susceptibility to HGSOC. PMID:26391404

  14. Vibration analysis of a rotating functionally graded tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory by DQEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadiri, Majid; Shafiei, Navvab; Alireza Mousavi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Due to having difficulty in solving governing nonlinear differential equations of a non-uniform microbeam, a few numbers of authors have studied such fields. In the present study, for the first time, the size-dependent vibration behavior of a rotating functionally graded (FG) tapered microbeam based on the modified couple stress theory is investigated using differential quadrature element method (DQEM). It is assumed that physical and mechanical properties of the FG microbeam are varying along the thickness that will be defined as a power law equation. The governing equations are determined using Hamilton's principle, and DQEM is presented to obtain the results for cantilever and propped cantilever boundary conditions. The accuracy and validity of the results are shown in several numerical examples. In order to display the influence of size on the first two natural frequencies and consequently changing of some important microbeam parameters such as material length scale, rate of cross section, angular velocity and gradient index of the FG material, several diagrams and tables are represented. The results of this article can be used in designing and optimizing elastic and rotary-type micro-electro-mechanical systems like micro-motors and micro-robots including rotating parts.

  15. Clinical relevance of gain-of-function mutations of p53 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Jeong; Chun, Sung-Min; Kim, Kyu-Rae; Sohn, Insuk; Sung, Chang Ohk

    2013-01-01

    Inactivation of TP53, which occurs predominantly by missense mutations in exons 4-9, is a major genetic alteration in a subset of human cancer. In spite of growing evidence that gain-of-function (GOF) mutations of p53 also have oncogenic activity, little is known about the clinical relevance of these mutations. The clinicopathological features of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa) patients with GOF p53 mutations were evaluated according to a comprehensive somatic mutation profile comprised of whole exome sequencing, mRNA expression, and protein expression profiles obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Patients with a mutant p53 protein (mutp53) with a GOF mutation showed higher p53 mRNA and protein expression levels than patients with p53 mutation with no evidence of GOF (NE-GOF). GOF mutations were more likely to occur within mutational hotspots, and at CpG sites, and resulted in mutp53 with higher functional severity (FS) scores. Clinically, patients with GOF mutations showed a higher frequency of platinum resistance (22/58, 37.9%) than patients with NE-GOF mutations (12/56, 21.4%) (p=0.054). Furthermore, patients with GOF mutations were more likely to develop distant metastasis (36/55, 65.5%) than local recurrence (19/55, 34.5%), whereas patients with NE-GOF mutations showed a higher frequency of locoregional recurrence (26/47, 55.3%) than distant metastasis (21/47, 44.7%) (p=0.035). There were no differences in overall or progression-free survival between patients with GOF or NE-GOF mutp53. This study demonstrates that patient with GOF mutp53 is characterized by a greater likelihood of platinum treatment resistance and distant metastatic properties in HGS-OvCa.

  16. Clinical relevance of gain-of-function mutations of p53 in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Jeong Kang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Inactivation of TP53, which occurs predominantly by missense mutations in exons 4-9, is a major genetic alteration in a subset of human cancer. In spite of growing evidence that gain-of-function (GOF mutations of p53 also have oncogenic activity, little is known about the clinical relevance of these mutations. METHODS: The clinicopathological features of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa patients with GOF p53 mutations were evaluated according to a comprehensive somatic mutation profile comprised of whole exome sequencing, mRNA expression, and protein expression profiles obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. RESULTS: Patients with a mutant p53 protein (mutp53 with a GOF mutation showed higher p53 mRNA and protein expression levels than patients with p53 mutation with no evidence of GOF (NE-GOF. GOF mutations were more likely to occur within mutational hotspots, and at CpG sites, and resulted in mutp53 with higher functional severity (FS scores. Clinically, patients with GOF mutations showed a higher frequency of platinum resistance (22/58, 37.9% than patients with NE-GOF mutations (12/56, 21.4% (p=0.054. Furthermore, patients with GOF mutations were more likely to develop distant metastasis (36/55, 65.5% than local recurrence (19/55, 34.5%, whereas patients with NE-GOF mutations showed a higher frequency of locoregional recurrence (26/47, 55.3% than distant metastasis (21/47, 44.7% (p=0.035. There were no differences in overall or progression-free survival between patients with GOF or NE-GOF mutp53. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that patient with GOF mutp53 is characterized by a greater likelihood of platinum treatment resistance and distant metastatic properties in HGS-OvCa.

  17. Evaluation of low-grade glioma structural changes after chemotherapy using DTI-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Antonella; Iadanza, Antonella; Falini, Andrea [San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Milano (Italy); Donativi, Marina [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); Ruda, Roberta; Bertero, Luca; Soffietti, Riccardo [University of Torino, Department of Neuro-oncology, Turin (Italy); De Nunzio, Giorgio [University of Salento, Department of Mathematics and Physics ' ' Ennio De Giorgi' ' and A.D.A.M. (Advanced Data Analysis in Medicine), Lecce (Italy); INFN (National Institute of Nuclear Physics), Lecce (Italy); Riva, Marco; Bello, Lorenzo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milan, and Humanitas Research Hospital, Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Rucco, Matteo [University of Camerino, School of Science and Technology, Computer Science Division, Camerino, MC (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    To explore the role of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis and functional diffusion maps (fDMs) in evaluating structural changes of low-grade gliomas (LGGs) receiving temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. Twenty-one LGG patients underwent 3T-MR examinations before and after three and six cycles of dose-dense TMZ, including 3D-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences and DTI (b = 1000 s/mm{sup 2}, 32 directions). Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and tensor-decomposition DTI maps (p and q) were obtained. Histogram and fDM analyses were performed on co-registered baseline and post-chemotherapy maps. DTI changes were compared with modifications of tumour area and volume [according to Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria], and seizure response. After three cycles of TMZ, 20/21 patients were stable according to RANO criteria, but DTI changes were observed in all patients (Wilcoxon test, P ≤ 0.03). After six cycles, DTI changes were more pronounced (P ≤ 0.005). Seventy-five percent of patients had early seizure response with significant improvement of DTI values, maintaining stability on FLAIR. Early changes of the 25th percentiles of p and MD predicted final volume change (R{sup 2} = 0.614 and 0.561, P < 0.0005, respectively). TMZ-related changes were located mainly at tumour borders on p and MD fDMs. DTI-based histogram and fDM analyses are useful techniques to evaluate the early effects of TMZ chemotherapy in LGG patients. (orig.)

  18. Numerical simulation of the fluid-solid interaction for CNT reinforced functionally graded cylindrical shells in thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    Spacecraft and satellite are susceptible to aerothermoelastic flutter instability, which may jeopardize the mission of the spacecraft and satellite. This kind of instability may result from the coupling of the thermal radiation from the sun and the elastic deformations of aeronautical components. As a first endeavor, the aerothermoelastic flutter and buckling instabilities of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FG-CNTRC) cylindrical shell under simultaneous actions of aerodynamic loading and elevated temperature conditions are investigated. The formulations are derived according to the first-order shear deformation theory, Donnell shell theory in conjunction with von Karman geometrical nonlinearity. Thermomechanical properties are assumed to be temperature-dependent and modified rule of mixture is used to determine the equivalent material properties of the FG-CNTRC cylindrical shell. The quasi-steady Krumhaar's modified piston theory by taking into account the effect of panel curvature, is used to determine the aerodynamic pressure. The nonlinear dynamic equations are discretized in the circumferential and longitudinal directions using the trigonometric expression and the harmonic differential quadrature method, respectively. Effects of various influential factors, including CNT volume fraction and distribution, boundary conditions, geometrical parameters, thermal environments, freestream static pressure and Mach number on the aerothermoelastic instabilities of the FG-CNTRC cylindrical shell are studied in details. It is found that temperature rise has a significant effect on the aerothermoelastic flutter characteristics of the FG-CNTRC cylindrical shell. It is revealed that cylindrical shells with intermediate CNT volume fraction have intermediate critical dynamic pressure, while do not have, necessarily, intermediate critical buckling temperature. It is concluded that the critical circumferential mode number (mCr) corresponding to the

  19. Direct laser metal deposition of WC/Co/Cr powder by means of the functionally graded materials strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelastro, A.; Campanelli, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    One of the many applications of direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) is the realization of multilayer thick coatings having particular mechanical characteristics, such as high hardness. The objective of this work was to obtain a thick, very hard and wear resistant coating, containing a high percentage of tungsten carbide (WC), on an AISI 304 stainless steel substrate. In order to achieve this result, a tungsten carbide-cobalt-chrome (WC/Co/Cr) powder was processed by the DLMD method. WC/Co/Cr is a composite widely used as a wear-resistant material for cutting tools, molds, coatings and other severe applications. Because of its high hardness, poor ductility and low thermal expansion coefficient, depositing this material directly on the stainless steel substrate is very difficult. In order to overcome this problem, the strategy of functionally graded materials (FGM) was used. Colmonoy 227-F nickel alloy was chosen for this purpose in order to generate a mixture with the WC/Co/Cr powder. Four different materials were deposited, layer by layer, by mixing Colmonoy 227-F with an increasing amount of WC/Co/Cr powders, until obtaining a thick surface coating with a maximum amount of WC of 77.4 wt%. For each powder mixture, a mathematical model was applied to calculate optimal values of translation speed and overlap percentages. A metallographic examination was performed in order to detect macro- and micro-structures of the different materials. Finally, Vickers micro-hardness was measured at various locations along the transverse section to appreciate the gradual increase of the FGM hardness, starting from the substrate and culminating at the top surface of the last deposited material.

  20. The Development and Production of a Functionally Graded Composite for Pb-Bi Service.Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    A material that resists lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) attack and retains its strength at 700 C would be an enabling technology for LBE-cooled reactors. No single alloy currently exists that can economically meet the required performance criteria of high strength and corrosion resistance. A Functionally Graded Composite (FGC) was developed with layers engineered to perform these functions. F91 was chosen as the structural layer of the composite for its strength and radiation resistance. Fe-12Cr-2Si, an alloy developed from previous work in the Fe-Cr-Si system, was chosen as the corrosion-resistant cladding layer because of its chemical similarity to F91 and its superior corrosion resistance in both oxidizing and reducing environments. Fe-12Cr-2Si experienced minimal corrosion due to its self-passivation in oxidizing and reducing environments. Extrapolated corrosion rates are below one micron per year at 700 C. Corrosion of F91 was faster, but predictable and manageable. Diffusion studies showed that 17 microns of the cladding layer will be diffusionally diluted during the three year life of fuel cladding. 33 microns must be accounted for during the sixty year life of coolant piping. 5 cm coolant piping and 6.35 mm fuel cladding preforms were produced on a commercial scale by weld-overlaying Fe-12Cr-2Si onto F91 billets and co-extruding them. An ASME certified weld was performed followed by the prescribed quench-and-tempering heat treatment for F91. A minimal heat affected zone was observed, demonstrating field weldability. Finally, corrosion tests were performed on the fabricated FGC at 700 C after completely breaching the cladding in a small area to induce galvanic corrosion at the interface. None was observed. This FGC has significant impacts on LBE reactor design. The increases in outlet temperature and coolant velocity allow a large increase in power density, leading to either a smaller core for the same power rating or more power output for the same size core

  1. The Hijdra scale has significant prognostic value for the functional outcome of Fisher grade 3 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Julia S; Von Dincklage, Falk; Woitzik, Johannes; Winkler, Maren K L; Major, Sebastian; Dreier, Jens P; Bohner, Georg; Scheel, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Despite its high prevalence among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and high risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the Fisher grade 3 category remains a poorly studied subgroup. The aim of this cohort study has been to investigate the prognostic value of the Hijdra sum scoring system for the functional outcome in patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH, in order to improve the risk stratification within this Fisher category. Initial CT scans of 72 prospectively enrolled patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH were analyzed, and cisternal, ventricular, and total amount of blood were graded according to the Hijdra scale. Additionally, space-occupying subarachnoid blood clots were assessed. Outcome was evaluated after 6 months. Within the subgroup of Fisher grade 3, aSAH patients with an unfavorable outcome showed a significantly larger cisternal Hijdra sum score (HSS: 21.1 ± 5.2) than patients with a favorable outcome (HSS: 17.6 ± 5.9; p = 0.009). However, both the amount of ventricular blood (p = 0.165) and space-occupying blood clots (p = 0.206) appeared to have no prognostic relevance. After adjusting for the patient's age, gender, tobacco use, clinical status at admission, and presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, the cisternal and total HSS remained the only independent parameters included in multivariate logistic regression models to predict functional outcome (p present study indicates that it has an additional predictive value for the functional outcome within the Fisher 3 category. We suggest that the Hijdra scale is a practically useful prognostic instrument for the risk evaluation after aSAH and should be applied more often in the clinical setting.

  2. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawrenson, K.; Li, Q.; Kar, S.; Seo, J.H.; Tyrer, J.; Spindler, T.J.; Lee, J. van der; Chen, Y; Karst, A.; Drapkin, R.; Aben, K.K.H.; Anton-Culver, H.; Antonenkova, N.; Baker, H.; Bandera, E.V.; Bean, Y.; Beckmann, M.W.; Berchuck, A.; Bisogna, M.; Bjorge, L.; Bogdanova, N.; Brinton, L.A.; Brooks-Wilson, A.; Bruinsma, F.; Butzow, R.; Campbell, I.G.; Carty, K.; Chang-Claude, J.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Chen, A; Chen, Z.; Cook, L.S.; Cramer, D.W; Cunningham, J.M.; Cybulski, C.; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, A.; Dennis, J.; Dicks, E.; Doherty, J.A.; Dork, T.; Bois, A. du; Durst, M.; Eccles, D.; Easton, D.T.; Edwards, R.P.; Eilber, U.; Ekici, A.B.; Fasching, P.A.; Fridley, B.L.; Gao, Y.T.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Giles, G.G.; Glasspool, R.; Goode, E.L.; Goodman, M.T.; Grownwald, J.; Harrington, P.; Harter, P.; Hasmad, H.N.; Hein, A.; Heitz, F.; Hildebrandt, M.A.; Hillemanns, P.; Hogdall, E.; Hogdall, C.; Hosono, S.; Iversen, E.S.; Jakubowska, A.; James, P.; Jensen, A.; Ji, B.T.; Karlan, B.Y.; Kjaer, S. Kruger; Kelemen, L.E.; Kellar, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Krakstad, C.; Kupryjanczyk, J.; Lambrechts, D.; Lambrechts, S.; Le, N.D.; Lee, A.W.; Lele, S.; Leminen, A.; Lester, J.; Levine, D.A.; Liang, D.; Lissowska, J.; Lu, K.; Lubinski, J.; Lundvall, L.; Massuger, L.F.; Matsuo, K.; McGuire, V.; McLaughlin, J.R.; Nevanlinna, H.; McNeish, I.; Menon, U.; Modugno, F.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions

  3. Multi-Grade Kindergarten Classrooms and Children's Academic Achievement, Executive Function, and Socio-Emotional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten Class of 2010-2011 (ECLS-K: 2011; n = 11,000), this study examined the developmental outcomes of 5-year-old children in multi-grade classrooms (combined pre-kindergarten and kindergarten classrooms serving 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds) compared with 5-year-olds attending…

  4. Vibration characteristics of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Wang, Qingshan; Tang, Jinyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Liang, Qian

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the first known vibration characteristics of moderately thick functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite rectangular plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions and internal line supports on the basis of the firstorder shear deformation theory. Different distributions of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) along the thickness are considered. Uniform and other three kinds of functionally graded distributions of carbon nanotubes along the thickness direction of plates are studied. The solutions carried out using an enhanced Ritz method mainly include the following three points: Firstly, create the Lagrange energy function by the energy principle; Secondly, as the main innovation point, the modified Fourier series are chosen as the basic functions of the admissible functions of the plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges; Lastly, solve the natural frequencies as well as the associated mode shapes by means of the Ritz-variational energy method. In this study, the influences of the volume fraction of CNTs, distribution type of CNTs, boundary restrain parameters, location of the internal line supports, foundation coefficients on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the FG-CNT reinforced composite rectangular plates are presented.

  5. Semi-analytical solution for three-dimensional transient response of functionally graded annular plate on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xu; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Lizhong; Liu, Guohua

    2014-06-01

    The three-dimensional transient analysis of functionally graded annular plates with arbitrary boundary conditions is carried out in this paper. The material properties of the FGM plate are assumed to vary smoothly in an exponential law along the thickness direction. The plate is assumed to rest on a two parameter viscoelastic foundation. A semi-analytical method, which integrates the state space method (SSM), Laplace transform and its inversion, as well as the one-dimensional differential quadrature method (DQM), is proposed to obtain the transient response of the plate. The state space method is used to obtain the analytical solution in the thickness direction. The differential quadrature method is employed to approximate the solution in the radial direction. The Laplace transform and the numerical inversion are used to obtain the solution in time domain. Numerical results show a good agreement between the response histories obtained by the present method and finite element method. The effects of the boundary conditions at the edges, the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient are studied. Numerical examples show that the peak response decreases as the material graded index, the Winkler and shearing layer elastic coefficients, and the damping coefficient increase. The results obtained in this paper can serve as benchmark data in further research.

  6. Does the Value of Dynamic Assessment in Predicting End-of-First-Grade Mathematics Performance Differ as a Function of English Language Proficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethaler, Pamela M; Fuchs, Lynn S; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the added value of dynamic assessment (DA) beyond more conventional static measures for predicting individual differences in year-end 1 st -grade calculation (CA) and word-problem (WP) performance, as a function of limited English proficiency (LEP) status. At the start of 1 st grade, students (129 LEP; 163 non-LEP) were assessed on a brief static mathematics test, an extended static mathematics test, static tests of domain-general abilities associated with CAs and WPs (vocabulary; reasoning), and DA. Near end of 1 st grade, they were assessed on CA and WP. Regression analyses indicated that the value of the predictor depends on the predicted outcome and LEP status. In predicting CAs, the extended mathematics test and DA uniquely explained variance for LEP children, with stronger predictive value for the extended mathematics test; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test was the only significant predictor. However, in predicting WPs, only DA and vocabulary were uniquely predictive for LEP children, with stronger value for DA; for non-LEP children, the extended mathematics test and DA were comparably uniquely predictive. Neither the brief static mathematics test nor reasoning was significant in predicting either outcome. The potential value of a gated screening process, using an extended mathematics assessment to predict CAs and using DA to predict WPs, is discussed.

  7. Effect of the addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy on cognitive function in patients with low-grade glioma: secondary analysis of RTOG 98-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Roshan S; Won, Minhee; Shaw, Edward G; Hu, Chen; Brachman, David G; Buckner, Jan C; Stelzer, Keith J; Barger, Geoffrey R; Brown, Paul D; Gilbert, Mark R; Mehta, Minesh P

    2014-02-20

    The addition of PCV (procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine) chemotherapy to radiotherapy (RT) for patients with WHO grade 2 glioma improves progression-free survival (PFS). The effect of therapy intensification on cognitive function (CF) remains a concern in this population with substantial long-term survival. A total of 251 patients with WHO grade 2 glioma age ≥ 40 years with any extent of resection or age point. Both study arms experienced a significant gain in average MMSE score longitudinally over time, with no difference between arms. The MMSE is a relatively insensitive tool, and subtle changes in CF may have been missed. However, the addition of PCV to RT did not result in significantly higher rates of MMSE score decline than RT alone through 5 years of follow-up. Patients in both randomly assigned arms experienced a statistically significant average MMSE score increase over time, with no difference between arms. The addition of PCV chemotherapy to RT improves PFS without excessive CF detriment over RT alone for patients with low-grade glioma.

  8. A Comuputerized DRBEM model for generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abdelsabour Fahmy

    Full Text Available A numerical computer model, based on the dual reciprocity boundary element method (DRBEM for studying the generalized magneto-thermo-visco-elastic stress waves in a rotating functionally graded anisotropic thin film/substrate structure under pulsed laser irradiation is established. An implicit-implicit staggered algorithm was proposed and implemented for use with the DRBEM to get the solution for the temperature, displacement components and thermal stress components through the structure thickness. A comparison of the results for different theories is presented in the presence and absence of rotation. Some numerical results that demonstrate the validity of the proposed method are also presented.

  9. Mechanical analyses of pipeline repair and reinforcement with use of composite functionally graded materials; Analise mecanica de reforco de dutos submarinos com materiais compositos com gradacao funcional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcos S.M. [Sondotecnica Engenharia de Solos S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roehl, Deane de Mesquita [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a methodology for design of stiffener sleeve constituted by functionally graded composite materials in offshore pipelines located in extreme-deep waters, where high mechanical resistance allied to an efficient system of thermal isolation is necessary, in view of the excellent thermomechanical behavior of composites. For the case of FGMs, due to continuous variation in its featuring, is necessary to employ an adapted model, based on a model typically adopted for conventional composites (Rule of Mixture), as the model idealized by Tamura, Tomato e Ozawa, the TTO model. In this report, the influence of geometric and materials parameters in mechanical behavior of pipelines under propagating collapse is analyzed. (author)

  10. Effect of gradient dielectric coefficient in a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate on the propagation behavior of love waves in an FGM-piezoelectric layered structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Shi, Junping; Jin, Feng

    2012-06-01

    The propagation behavior of Love waves in a layered structure that includes a functionally graded material (FGM) substrate carrying a piezoelectric thin film is investigated. Analytical solutions are obtained for both constant and gradient dielectric coefficients in the FGM substrate. Numerical results show that the gradient dielectric coefficient decreases phase velocity in any mode, and the electromechanical coupling factor significantly increases in the first- and secondorder modes. In some modes, the difference in Love waves' phase velocity between these two types of structure might be more than 1%, resulting in significant differences in frequency of the surface acoustic wave devices.

  11. Micromechanical modelling of functionally graded W-Cu materials for divertor plate components in a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasik, M.M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technol. (Finland); Ueda, S.

    1999-10-01

    Thermonuclear fusion process implementation has many materials problems and one of them is related to removal of impurities from plasma. In the International thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), a divertor concept has been incorporated for this purpose. In this work, the development of a micromechanical model for FGM is presented and its application to thermal-elasto-plastic analysis is discussed for the case of W-Cu FGM for ITER divertor plates. The model allows the prediction of basic properties of 3-D FGM, computations of thermal stresses, and, in some limits, it may be used for pre-design evaluation of dynamic strain/stress distribution and inelastic behaviour. The model is found to be very useful at the first stages of graded materials design and computation of properties in the nodal points for more detailed numerical analysis. (orig.) 10 refs.

  12. Tumor Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... may require immediate or more aggressive treatment. The importance of tumor grade in planning treatment and determining ...

  13. Aging and low-grade inflammation reduce renal function in middle-aged and older adults in Japan and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello-White, Reagan; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low-grade inflammation on age-related changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in middle-aged and older white Americans, African-Americans, and Japanese adults. Serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were determined for 1570 adult participants in two surveys of aging in the USA and Japan (N = 1188 and 382, respectively). Kidney function declined with age in both countries and was associated with IL-6 and CRP. IL-6 and CRP also influenced the extent of the arithmetic bias when calculating the GFR using the chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formula with just serum creatinine. Younger African-Americans initially had the highest GFR but showed a steep age-related decrement that was associated with elevated inflammation. Japanese adults had the lowest average GFR but evinced a large effect of increased inflammatory activity when over 70 years of age. Importantly, our results also indicate that low-grade inflammation is important to consider when evaluating kidney function solely from serum creatinine.

  14. Vibration and buckling of orthotropic functionally graded micro-plates on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Yang

    Full Text Available A microstructure-dependent model for the free vibration and buckling analysis of an orthotropic functionally graded micro-plate was proposed on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory. The macro- and microscopic anisotropy were simultaneously taken into account by introducing two material length scale parameters. The material attributes were assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction by a power law. The governing equations and corresponding boundary conditions were derived through Hamilton’s principle. The Navier method was used to calculate the natural frequencies and buckling loads of a simply supported micro-plate. The numerical results indicated that the present model predicts higher natural frequencies and critical buckling loads than the classical model, particular when the geometric size of the micro-plates is comparable to the material length scale parameters, i.e., the scale effect is well represented. The scale effect becomes more noticeable as the material length scale parameters increase, the anisotropy weaken or the power law index increases, and vice versa. Keywords: Free vibration, Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Modified couple stress theory, Scale effect

  15. On the thermal buckling of simply supported rectangular plates made of a sigmoid functionally graded Al/Al2O3 based material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmane, H. A.; Bedia, E. A. A.; Bouazza, M.; Tounsi, A.; Fekrar, A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the thermal buckling of a simply supported sigmoid functionally graded (SFGM) rectangular plate using first-order shear deformation theory. The S-FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Al) phases varying across the plate thickness according to a law described by two power-law functions. The effective properties of the composite are determined by the rule of mixtures, whose implementation is simpler than that of methods of micromechanics. The thermal heating is characterized by a uniform, linear, or sinusoidal temperature distribution across the plate thickness. The effects of the plate aspect ratio, the relative thickness, the gradient index, and the transverse shear on the buckling temperature difference are studied.

  16. Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Weingarten, Steven; Johne, Robert; Schwarzer, Eric; Abel, Johannes; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2017-11-28

    In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (material, or especially, multi-functional components.

  17. Early assessment of infarct size and prediction of functional recovery by quantitative myocardial blush grade in patients with acute coronary syndromes treated according to current guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedle, Nina; Dickhaus, Hartmut; Erbacher, Markus; Steen, Henning; Andrassy, Martin; Lossnitzer, Dirk; Hardt, Stefan; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Zugck, Christian; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A; Korosoglou, Grigorios

    2010-10-01

    To determine whether quantification of myocardial blush grade (MBG) during cardiac catheterization can aid the determination of follow-up left ventricular (LV)-function in patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI and NSTEMI). We prospectively examined patients with first STEMI (n = 46) and NSTEMI (n = 49). ECG-gated angiographic series were used to quantify MBG by analyzing the time course of contrast agent intensity rise. Hereby, the parameter G(max)/T(max) was calculated, derived from the plateau of grey-level intensity (G(max)), divided by the time-to-peak intensity (T(max)). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) deemed as the standard reference for the estimation of infarct size, transmurality and of the LV-function at 6 months of follow-up. Cut-off values of G(max)/T(max)=5.7/sec and 3.8/sec, respectively, yielded similar accuracy as infarct transmurality for the prediction of follow-up ejection fraction >55% (AUC = 0.86 for STEMI and AUC = 0.90 for NSTEMI, by G(max)/T(max) and AUC = 0.85 for STEMI and AUC = 0.89 for NSTEMI, by infarct transmurality, respectively, P = NS). Both clearly surpassed the predictive value of visual MBG (AUC = 0.69 for STEMI and AUC = 0.68 for NSTEMI, P < 0.05). G(max)/T(max) is an easy to acquire but highly valuable surrogate parameter for infarct size, which yields equally high accuracy with infarct transmurality and favorably compares with visually assessed blush grades for the prediction of follow-up LV-function in patients with acute ischemic syndromes. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Closed-form solutions in stress-driven two-phase integral elasticity for bending of functionally graded nano-beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretta, Raffaele; Fabbrocino, Francesco; Luciano, Raimondo; Sciarra, Francesco Marotti de

    2018-03-01

    Strain-driven and stress-driven integral elasticity models are formulated for the analysis of the structural behaviour of fuctionally graded nano-beams. An innovative stress-driven two-phases constitutive mixture defined by a convex combination of local and nonlocal phases is presented. The analysis reveals that the Eringen strain-driven fully nonlocal model cannot be used in Structural Mechanics since it is ill-posed and the local-nonlocal mixtures based on the Eringen integral model partially resolve the ill-posedeness of the model. In fact, a singular behaviour of continuous nano-structures appears if the local fraction tends to vanish so that the ill-posedness of the Eringen integral model is not eliminated. On the contrary, local-nonlocal mixtures based on the stress-driven theory are mathematically and mechanically appropriate for nanosystems. Exact solutions of inflected functionally graded nanobeams of technical interest are established by adopting the new local-nonlocal mixture stress-driven integral relation. Effectiveness of the new nonlocal approach is tested by comparing the contributed results with the ones corresponding to the mixture Eringen theory.

  19. Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Nonlocal Functionally Graded Nanocomposite Timoshenko Beam Model Rreinforced by SWBNNT Based on Modified Coupled Stress Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadimehr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the bending and free vibration analysis of functionally graded (FG nanocomposites Timoshenko beam model reinforced by single-walled boron nitride nanotube (SWBNNT using micro-mechanical approach embedded in an elastic medium is studied. The modified coupled stress (MCST and nonlocal elasticity theories are developed to take into account the size-dependent effect. The mechanical properties of FG boron nitride nanotube-reinforced composites are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the micro-mechanical approach. The governing equations of motion are obtained using Hamilton’s principle based on Timoshenko beam theory. The Navier's type solution is implemented to solve the equations that satisfy the simply supported boundary conditions. Furthermore, the influences of the slenderness ratio, length of nanocomposite beam, material length scale parameter, nonlocal parameter, power law index, axial wave number, and Winkler and Pasternak coefficients on the natural frequency of nanocomposite beam are investigated. Also, the effect of material length scale parameter on the dimensionless deflection of FG nanocomposite beam is studied.

  20. Assessment of functional treatment versus plaster of Paris in the treatment of grade 1 and 2 lateral ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Rahimnajjad, Muhammad Kazim; Rahimnajjad, Nasir Ali; Idrees, Zaki; Shah, Ghazanfar Ali; Abbas, Ghulam

    2015-03-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ankle sprains, no treatment is considered to be the gold standard for the management of such sprains. We assessed functional treatment versus plaster of Paris (POP) for the treatment of lateral ankle sprains, with pain and function employed as the outcome measures. 126 Patients were eligible for inclusion. They were assigned to either the functional treatment Tubigrip (TG) group or the POP group after applying block randomization. Characteristics such as age, dominant ankle, and gender were assessed at baseline. Pain and functional assessments were done using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the Karlsson score (KS) at baseline (at the start of the study) and during the 2nd and 6th weeks, respectively. Data on other subjective parameters, such as the number of painkillers used, the number of days taken off work, and the number of sleepless nights, were requested from the patients at the end of the study. SPSS version 16 was used for analysis, and p knee POP cast. Level I.

  1. A Study of a Collaborative Instructional Project Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistic Theory: Report Writing in Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisk, Maria Estela; Hodgson-Drysdale, Tracy; O'Connor, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the teaching of report writing in PreK-5 through the lens of systemic functional linguistics theory. Teachers were part of a university-public school collaboration that included professional development on teaching genres, text organization, and language features. Grounded in this knowledge, teachers explicitly taught report…

  2. [Dose-dependent effects of dexamethasone on functional activity of T-lymphocytes different grade of differentiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutsol, A A; Sokhonevich, N A; Iurova, K A; Haziakhmatova, O G; Shupletsova, V V; Litvinova, L S

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents which have pleiotropic effects on growth, differentiation and functional activity of T-lymphocytes. Under experimental conditions in vitro carried out a comprehensive assessment of the dexamethasone influence on the functional activity of T-cells with different differentiation degrees. It was established that the influence of dexamethasone on the functional activity of CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T-lymphocytes, in general, has depressing character. It was revealed that in the population of naive (CD45RA+) T-cells dexamethasone exerts a more pronounced inhibitory effect on early (IL-2-dependent, associated with the CD25 expression and IL-2 production) activation stages, whereas in the culture primed memory cells (CD45RO+)--for later (IL-2-independent, associated with the expression of proliferation molecule CD71). Multidirectional effects of dexamethasone on the expression level of telomerase catalytic unit (hTERT) mRNA are associated with the degree of T cells differentiation. It isproposed, that the role of glucocorticoid hormones in immunogenesis is primarily aimed at suppression of excessive T cells growth and on the maintainance of the clonal balance in lymphoid tissue.

  3. Optimization of a Functionally Graded Material Stem in the Femoral Component of a Cemented Hip Arthroplasty: Influence of Dimensionality of FGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Ait Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The longevity of hip prostheses is contingent on the stability of the implant within the cavity of the femur bone. The cemented fixation was mostly adopted owing to offering the immediate stability from cement-stem and cement-bone bonding interfaces after implant surgery. Yet cement damage and stress shielding of the bone were proven to adversely affect the lifelong stability of the implant, especially among younger subjects who tend to have an active lifestyle. The geometry and material distribution of the implant can be optimized more efficiently with a three-dimensional realistic design of a functionally graded material (FGM. We report an efficient numerical technique for achieving this objective, for maximum performance stress shielding and the rate of early accumulation of cement damage were concurrently minimized. Results indicated less stress shielding and similar cement damage rates with a 2D-FGM implant compared to 1D-FGM and Titanium alloy implants.

  4. The properties of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes in a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with a functionally graded material top layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Qian, Zhenghua; Li, Nian; Sarraf, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    We propose the use of thickness-twist (TT) wave modes of an AT-cut quartz crystal plate resonator for measurement of material parameters, such as stiffness, density and material gradient, of a functionally graded material (FGM) layer on its surface, whose material property varies exponentially in thickness direction. A theoretical analysis of dispersion relations for TT waves is presented using Mindlin's plate theory, with displacement mode shapes plotted, and the existence of face-shear (FS) wave modes discussed. Through numerical examples, the effects of material parameters (stiffness, density and material gradient) on dispersion curves, cutoff frequencies and mode shapes are thoroughly examined, which can act as a theoretical reference for measurements of unknown properties of FGM layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Prediction and stratification of upper limb function and self-care in acute cervical spinal cord injury with the graded redefined assessment of strength, sensibility, and prehension (GRASSP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velstra, Inge-Marie; Bolliger, Marc; Tanadini, Lorenzo Giuseppe; Baumberger, Michael; Abel, Rainer; Rietman, Johan S; Curt, Armin

    2014-09-01

    There is inherent heterogeneity within individuals suffering from cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), and early prediction of upper limb function and self-care is challenging. As a result, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the prediction of functional outcome following cervical SCI within 1 year of injury. To evaluate the value of Graded Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension (GRASSP) in predicting upper limb function and self-care outcomes in individuals with cervical SCI. A prospective longitudinal multicenter study was performed. Data from the GRASSP, the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM III), and the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) Impairment Scale were recorded at 1, 6, and 12 months after cervical SCI. For prediction of functional outcome at 6 and 12 months, a logistic regression model, receiver operating characteristics (ROC), and unbiased recursive partitioning conditional inference tree (URP-CTREE) were used with 8 different predictor variables. Logistic regression analysis, ROC analysis, and URP-CTREE all revealed that the strength subtest within GRASSP is the strongest predictor for upper limb function and self-care outcomes. URP-CTREE provides useful information on the distribution of different outcomes in acute cervical SCI and can be used to predict cohorts with homogeneous outcomes. The GRASSP at 1 month can accurately predict upper limb function and self-care outcomes even in a heterogeneous group of individuals across a wide spectrum of neurological recovery. The application of URP-CTREE can reveal the distribution of outcome categories and, based on this, inform trial protocols with respect to outcomes analysis and patient stratification. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Effects of WC Particle Size and Co Content on the Graded Structure in Functionally Gradient WC-Co Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yigao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Functionally gradient WC-Co composites having a Co depleted surface zone and not comprising the h phase can be manufactured via carburizing process. During carburizing, besides carburizing process parameters, the microstructural parameters of WC-Co materials, such as WC grain size and Co content, also have significant influences on the formation of Co gradient structure. In this study, the effects of WC particle size and Co content on the gradient structure within gradient hardmetals have been studied, based on a series of carburizing experiments of WC-Co materials with different WC particle sizes and cobalt contents. The results show that both the thickness and the amplitude of the gradients within gradient WC-Co materials increase with increasing initial WC particle size and Co content of WC-Co alloys. The reason for this finding is discussed.

  7. Real-world premorbid functioning in schizophrenia and affective disorders during the early teenage years: a population-based study of school grades and teacher ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Vardit Zerem; Levine, Stephen Z; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Population-based studies of cognitive and behavioral premorbid functioning in psychotic disorders generally focus on late adolescence in schizophrenia and most are based on IQ test scores. To examine differences in school grades at the ages of 13-14 between persons hospitalized during adulthood for schizophrenia or affective disorders and their peers. Ten years of school report data were ascertained on 8th grade children (n=21,448) in the city of Jerusalem (1978-1988). During adulthood cases with schizophrenia (n=194, 0.9%) or an affective disorder (n=41, 0.19%) were identified based on psychiatric hospitalizations in the National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry of the State of Israel. School assessments of academic performance, nonacademic topics, and teacher ratings of classroom behavior were compared between peers without illness and cases, and their association with illness was examined. Children subsequently hospitalized with schizophrenia had significantly lower nonacademic performance (ES=.20, p=.007) and teacher ratings on behavior (ES=.18, p=.02) than controls and numerically lower teacher behavior ratings than people subsequently hospitalized for an affective disorder (ES=.25, p=.19). Cox regression modeling showed that poorer nonacademic and lower behavioral ratings were significantly associated with earlier age of onset of schizophrenia. Premorbid behavior and nonacademic deficits are evident in early adolescence among persons subsequently hospitalized with schizophrenia and different from those hospitalized with affective disorders. This suggests that these ratings may have diagnostic specificity between schizophrenia and affective disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. EFFICACY OF KALTENBORN GRADE III MOBILIZATIONS, MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUES AND THEIR COMBINATION TO IMPROVE RANGE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN ADULTS WITH MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is an essentialtreatment in the management of Mechanical Neck ache, still there was lack of literature seen supporting the effectiveness of Physiotherapy interventions with their doses targeting specific group of population. The focus of study was to see the effectiveness of Kaltenborn Grade III mobilization, Muscle Energy Techniques and their combination to improve range and functional ability in patients with Mechanical Neck ache. Methods: 72 patients with Mechanical Neck achewere randomly categorized in 3 groups (Mobilization, METs and Combination group. NDI scale and goniometry was used as an assessment tool to measure the outcome before and after treatment (follow up 1 week. Results: According to the results there was significant improvement seen in Combination group (Mobilization and METs in terms of pain, which decreased from 7.70±0.69 to 1.25±1.93 (p=0.00, gain in ROM e.g. Cervical Flexion (27.29±2.38 to 37.54±3.14. Whereas, marked significance (p=0.00 was seen in the NDI score and percentage of Combination group. ANOVA tells us that difference was significant in all three groups in categories of pain (VAS, gain in cervical ranges and NDI score and percentage as p=0.00. Combination group had significant difference within the groups then METs and Mobilization group in all categories of VAS, Cervical ranges, NDI score and percentage. Conclusion: Combination of (Grade III Kaltenborn and METs was seen more effective in terms of improving Mechanical Neck Pain, in smaller treatment session (7 days only.

  9. TRANSFORAMINAL L U MBAR INTERBODY FUSION IN LOW GRADE COMBINED LYTIC AND DEGENERATIVE SPONDYLOLIDTHESIS : FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF 21 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spondylolisthesis is a heterogenous disorder characterised by subluxation of a vertebral body in sagittal plane occuring frequently at l4 - 5 and l5 - S1commonest being isthmic and degenerative variety. While majority are asymptomatic, a subset do produce pain with neurology. Complete decompression of roots is essential, as is the need for solid stabi lization. Several fusion techniques were reported in literature like PLF, TLIF, PLF, ALIF On theoretical grounds, TLIF has been suggested to be safe and result in an improved outcome compared to other techniques. Data to support this view, are lacking. M ETHODS: A total of 21 patients (age range, 27 - 62 years with adult isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis were operated. There were 8 males and 13 females with mean age of 46.8 pre - op and 2 - year follow - up, pain (VAS and functional disability were quan tified by Oswestry Disability Index (ODI.Radiological union assessed with xrays by Brantigen and Steffee criteria. The global outcome was excellent in 90%.and 92% fusion. 2 patients presented motor deficit which did not recover. RESULTS: The follow - up was for 2 years. The mean VAS score for low back pain improved from 7.0 preoperatively to 2.1, as did the mean VAS score for leg pain from 6.7 to 1.4 and the mean ODI from 59.5% to 11.3%. CONCLUSION: TLIF does affect the 2 - year outcome of surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis with decreased back pain and ODI’s, with advantages of minimal thecal retraction, restored segmental lordosis and preserved posterior tension band.

  10. Academic and Social Functioning Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Latent Class Analyses of Trajectories from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.

  11. Nonlinear dynamic stability of the orthotropic functionally graded cylindrical shell surrounded by Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kang; Gao, Wei; Wu, Di; Song, Chongmin

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic stability behaviors of the functionally graded (FG) orthotropic circular cylindrical shell surrounded by the two-parameter (Winkler-Pasternak) elastic foundation subjected to a linearly increasing load with the consideration of damping effect. The material properties are assumed to vary gradually in the thickness direction based on an exponential distribution function of the volume fraction of constituent materials. Equations of motion are derived from Hamilton's principle and the nonlinear compatibility equation is considered by the means of modified Donnell shell theory including large deflection. Then the nonlinear dynamic buckling equation is solved by a hybrid analytical-numerical method (combined Galerkin method and fourth-order Runge-Kutta method). The nonlinear dynamic stability of the FG orthotropic cylindrical shell is assessed based on Budiansky-Roth criterion. Additionally, effects of different parameters such as various inhomogeneous parameters, loading speeds, damping ratios and aspect ratios and thickness ratios of the structure on dynamic buckling are discussed in details. Finally, the proposed method is validated with published literature.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica Tests of Visual-Motor Integration as a Function of Grade Level for Regular Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Joanne; Breen, Michael J.

    1982-01-01

    Regular education students (N=125) in grades K-3 were administered the Bender-Gestalt and Beery/Buktenica tests of visual-motor integration. Found significant differences between the mean Bender and Beery age equivalent scores at each grade level. Discusses implications for their utilization in assessing fine motor readiness development.…

  13. To reduce the maximum stress and the stress shielding effect around a dental implant-bone interface using radial functionally graded biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H; Ayatollahi, M R; Asnafi, A

    2017-05-01

    In a dental implant system, the value of stress and its distribution plays a pivotal role on the strength, durability and life of the implant-bone system. A typical implant consists of a Titanium core and a thin layer of biocompatible material such as the hydroxyapatite. This coating has a wide range of clinical applications in orthopedics and dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics. Low bonding strength and sudden variation of mechanical properties between the coating and the metallic layers are the main disadvantages of such common implants. To overcome these problems, a radial distributed functionally graded biomaterial (FGBM) was proposed in this paper and the effect of material property on the stress distribution around the dental implant-bone interface was studied. A three-dimensional finite element simulation was used to illustrate how the use of radial FGBM dental implant can reduce the maximum von Mises stress and, also the stress shielding effect in both the cortical and cancellous bones. The results, of course, give anybody an idea about optimized behaviors that can be achieved using such materials. The finite element solver was validated by familiar methods and the results were compared to previous works in the literature.

  14. Size-Dependent Bending, Buckling and Free Vibration Analyses of Microscale Functionally Graded Mindlin Plates Based on the Strain Gradient Elasticity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ansari

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, a size-dependent microscale plate model is developed to describe the bending, buckling and free vibration behaviors of microplates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs. The size effects are captured based on the modified strain gradient theory (MSGT, and the formulation of the paper is on the basis of Mindlin plate theory. The presented model accommodates the models based upon the classical theory (CT and the modified couple stress theory (MCST if all or two scale parameters are set to zero, respectively. By using Hamilton's principle, the governing equations and related boundary conditions are derived. The bending, buckling and free vibration problems are considered and are solved through the generalized differential quadrature (GDQ method. A detailed parametric and comparative study is conducted to evaluate the effects of length scale parameter, material gradient index and aspect ratio predicted by the CT, MCST and MSGT on the deflection, critical buckling load and first natural frequency of the microplate. The numerical results indicate that the model developed herein is significantly size-dependent when the thickness of the microplate is on the order of the material scale parameters.

  15. Temperature control of functionally graded plates using a feedforward-feedback controller based on the inverse solution and proportional-derivative controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golbahar Haghighi, M.R.; Eghtesad, M.; Necsulescu, D.S.; Malekzadeh, P.

    2010-01-01

    As a first endeavor, an approach for the two- and three-dimensional temperature control of functionally graded (FG) plates by using the inverse solution and the proportional-differential (PD) controller is provided. For this purpose, firstly, having the desired temperatures at different locations and times, heat fluxes at the boundaries of the plates are estimated by inverse solution techniques offline. Then, the estimated heat fluxes as feedforward control inputs are combined with a PD controller to introduce a hybrid feedforward-feedback control input to the FG domain in the presence of disturbance and noise. In order to show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed (inverse + PD) controller in two- and three-dimensional domains, different distinct examples, which include different boundary conditions, material properties and disturbance sources are presented. It is shown that the presented approach can adjust heat fluxes for control of the temperature accurately; also, the PD controller gains do not need to be re-adjusted for different problems.

  16. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  17. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: A comparison of gender differences on eighth-grade science items in the United States and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Tasha

    Despite the attention that has been given to gender and science, boys continue to outperform girls in science achievement, particularly by the end of secondary school. Because it is unclear whether gender differences have narrowed over time (Leder, 1992; Willingham & Cole, 1997), it is important to continue a line of inquiry into the nature of gender differences, specifically at the international level. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in science achievement across two countries: United States and Spain. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate an alternative method for exploring gender differences based on the many-faceted Rasch model (1980). A secondary analysis of the data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to examine the relationship between gender DIF (differential item functioning) and item characteristics (item type, content, and performance expectation) across both countries. Nationally representative samples of eighth grade students in the United States and Spain who participated in TIMSS were analyzed to answer the research questions in this study. In both countries, girls showed an advantage over boys on life science items and most extended response items, whereas boys, by and large, had an advantage on earth science, physics, and chemistry items. However, even within areas that favored boys, such as physics, there were items that were differentially easier for girls. In general, patterns in gender differences were similar across both countries although there were a few differences between the countries on individual items. It was concluded that simply looking at mean differences does not provide an adequate understanding of the nature of gender differences in science achievement.

  18. Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas with the guidance of the preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging and craniometric points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Surgical resection of low-grade gliomas (LGGs in eloquent areas is one of the challenges in neurosurgery, using assistant tools to facilitate effective excision with minimal postoperative neurological deficits has been previously discussed (awake craniotomy and intraoperative cortical stimulation; however, these tools could have their own limitations thus implementation of a simple and effective technique that can guide to safe excision is needed in many situations. Materials and Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data of 76 consecutive surgical cases of LGGs of these 21 cases were situated in eloquent areas. Preoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, pre- and post-operative MRI with volumetric analysis of the tumor size was conducted, and intraoperative determination of the craniometric points related to the tumor (navigation guided in 10 cases were studied to evaluate the effectiveness of the aforementioned tools in safe excision of the aforementioned tumors. Results: Total-near total excision in 14 (66.67% subtotal in 6 (28.57%, and biopsy in 1 case (4.57%. In long-term follow–up, only one case experienced persistent dysphasia. Conclusion: In spite of its simplicity, the identification of the safe anatomical landmarks guided by the preoperative fMRI is a useful technique that serves in safe excision of LGGs in eloquent areas. Such technique can replace intraoperative evoked potentials or the awake craniotomy in most of the cases. However, navigation-guided excision might be crucial in deeply seated and large tumors to allow safe and radical excision.

  19. Comparison of functional outcomes following surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in single level low grade lumbar degenerative versus isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Hasankhani, Ebrahim Ghayem; Rahimi, Mohammad Dawood; Khanzadeh, Reza

    2014-06-01

    The two most common types of surgically treated lumbar spondylolisthesis in adults include the degenerative and isthmic types. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of surgical decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion in patients with lumbar degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical outcomes in surgically treated patients with single level, low grade lumbar degenerative, and isthmic spondylolisthesis (groups A and B, respectively) from August 2007 to April 2011. We tried to compare paired settings with similar initial conditions. Group A included 52 patients with a mean age of 49.2 ± 6.1 years, and group B included 52 patients with a mean age of 47.3 ± 7.4 years. Minimum follow-up was 24 months. The surgical procedure comprised neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion. Pain and disability were assessed by a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), respectively. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to compare indices. The most common sites for degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis were at the L4-L5 (88.5%) and L5-S1 (84.6%) levels, respectively. Surgery in both groups significantly improved VAS and ODI scores. The efficacy of surgery based on subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in the degenerative and isthmic groups. Notable complications were also comparable in both groups. Neural decompression and posterolateral instrumented fusion significantly improved pain and disability in patients with degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis. The efficacy of surgery for overall subjective satisfaction rate and pain and disability improvement was similar in both groups.

  20. Student Attitudes Toward Grades and Grading Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.; Leslie, Elwood K.

    The result of a study designed to assess student attitudes toward grading practices are discussed. Questionnaire responses of 3439 students in three institutions were tabulated. Responses were generally negative toward conventional grading systems. (MS)

  1. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

  2. Vasomotor function in rat arteries after ex vivo and intragastric exposure to food-grade titanium dioxide and vegetable carbon particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ditte Marie; Christophersen, Daniel Vest; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2018-01-01

    Background: Humans are continuously exposed to particles in the gastrointestinal tract. Exposure may occur directly through ingestion of particles via food or indirectly by removal of inhaled material from the airways by the mucociliary clearance system. We examined the effects of food-grade part...

  3. Cis-eQTL analysis and functional validation of candidate susceptibility genes for high-grade serous ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrenson, Kate; Li, Qiyuan; Kar, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have reported 11 regions conferring risk of high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer (HGSOC). Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses can identify candidate susceptibility genes at risk loci. Here we evaluate cis-eQTL associations at 47 regions assoc...

  4. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  5. Middle Temporal Gyrus Versus Inferior Temporal Gyrus Transcortical Approaches to High-Grade Astrocytomas in the Mediobasal Temporal Lobe: A Comparison of Outcomes, Functional Restoration, and Surgical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Raza, Shaan M; Ahmed, Ishrat; Rincon-Torroella, Jordina; Chaichana, Kaisorn; Olivi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    High-grade astrocytomas of the mesial temporal lobe may pose surgical challenges. Several approaches (trans-sylvian, subtemporal, and transcortical) have been designed to circumnavigate the critical neurovascular structures and white fiber tracts that surround this area. Considering the paucity of literature on the transcortical approach for these lesions, we describe our institutional experience with transcortical approaches to Grade III/IV astrocytomas in the mesial temporal lobe. Between 1999 and 2009, 23 patients underwent surgery at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions for Grade III/IV astrocytomas involving the mesial temporal lobe (without involvement of the temporal neocortex). Clinical notes, operative records, and imaging were reviewed. Thirteen patients had tumors in the dominant hemisphere. All patients underwent surgery via a transcortical approach (14 via the inferior temporal gyrus and 9 via the middle temporal gyrus). Gross total resection was obtained in 92 % of the cohort. Neurological outcomes were: clinically significant stroke (2 patients), new visual deficits (2 patients), new speech deficit (1 patient); seizure control (53 %). In comparison to reported results in the literature for the transylvian and subtemporal approaches, the transcortical approach may provide the access necessary for a gross total resection with minimal neurological consequences. In our series of patients, there was no statistically significant difference in outcomes between the middle temporal gyrus versus the inferior temporal gyrus trajectories.

  6. Scattering of shear waves by a two-phase multiferroic sensor embedded in a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Roohollah

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a robust methodology with several desirable features is developed for the determination of the magneto-electro-elastic fields of a shear (SH) wave scattered by a two-phase multiferroic fiber embedded in an infinite transversely isotropic piezoelectric or piezomagnetic medium. While the traditional wave-function expansion approach commonly used in the literature ceases to hold when the geometry of the obstacle is not symmetric, the present theory is capable of treating eccentric coating-fiber ensemble. To put its wide range of applicability in perspective, my analytical methodology is applied to several descriptive examples with various degrees of complexity. The calculated results reveals the profound influence of material properties of constituent phases, the thickness and eccentricity of coating layer, as well as the frequency of propagating SH-wave on the pertinent scattered fields induced by the multiferroic fiber. It is expected that the formulation and numerical results of this paper serve as a useful reference for the design and manufacture of multiferroic materials with a durable and yet reliable performance under dynamics loadings.

  7. Indentation theory on a half-space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium: sliding friction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    This article aims to present a systematic indentation theory on a half-space of multi-ferroic composite medium with transverse isotropy. The effect of sliding friction between the indenter and substrate is taken into account. The cylindrical flat-ended indenter is assumed to be electrically/magnetically conducting or insulating, which leads to four sets of mixed boundary-value problems. The indentation forces in the normal and tangential directions are related to the Coulomb friction law. For each case, the integral equations governing the contact behavior are developed by means of the generalized method of potential theory, and the corresponding coupling field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. The effect of sliding on the contact behavior is investigated. Finite element method (FEM) in the context of magneto-electro-elasticity is developed to discuss the validity of the analytical solutions. The obtained analytical solutions may serve as benchmarks to various simplified analyses and numerical codes and as a guide for future experimental studies.

  8. Gleason grading system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000920.htm Gleason grading system To use the sharing features on this page, ... score of between 5 and 7. Gleason Grading System Sometimes, it can be hard to predict how ...

  9. Exploring differential item functioning (DIF) with the Rasch model: a comparison of gender differences on eighth grade science items in the United States and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiar, Tasha Calvert

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, women and minorities have not been fully represented in science and engineering. Numerous studies have attributed these differences to gaps in science achievement as measured by various standardized tests. Rather than describe mean group differences in science achievement across multiple cultures, this study focused on an in-depth item-level analysis across two countries: Spain and the United States. This study investigated eighth-grade gender differences on science items across the two countries. A secondary purpose of the study was to explore the nature of gender differences using the many-faceted Rasch Model as a way to estimate gender DIF. A secondary analysis of data from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) was used to address three questions: 1) Does gender DIF in science achievement exist? 2) Is there a relationship between gender DIF and characteristics of the science items? 3) Do the relationships between item characteristics and gender DIF in science items replicate across countries. Participants included 7,087 eight grade students from the United States and 3,855 students from Spain who participated in TIMSS. The Facets program (Linacre and Wright, 1992) was used to estimate gender DIF. The results of the analysis indicate that the content of the item seemed to be related to gender DIF. The analysis also suggests that there is a relationship between gender DIF and item format. No pattern of gender DIF related to cognitive demand was found. The general pattern of gender DIF was similar across the two countries used in the analysis. The strength of item-level analysis as opposed to group mean difference analysis is that gender differences can be detected at the item level, even when no mean differences can be detected at the group level.

  10. New similarity search based glioma grading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haegler, Katrin; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Linn, Jennifer [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Boehm, Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Computer Science, Munich (Germany); Schnell, Oliver; Tonn, Joerg-Christian [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone. (orig.)

  11. New similarity search based glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegler, Katrin; Wiesmann, Martin; Böhm, Christian; Freiherr, Jessica; Schnell, Oliver; Brückmann, Hartmut; Tonn, Jörg-Christian; Linn, Jennifer

    2012-08-01

    MR-based differentiation between low- and high-grade gliomas is predominately based on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images (CE-T1w). However, functional MR sequences as perfusion- and diffusion-weighted sequences can provide additional information on tumor grade. Here, we tested the potential of a recently developed similarity search based method that integrates information of CE-T1w and perfusion maps for non-invasive MR-based glioma grading. We prospectively included 37 untreated glioma patients (23 grade I/II, 14 grade III gliomas), in whom 3T MRI with FLAIR, pre- and post-contrast T1-weighted, and perfusion sequences was performed. Cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time maps as well as CE-T1w images were used as input for the similarity search. Data sets were preprocessed and converted to four-dimensional Gaussian Mixture Models that considered correlations between the different MR sequences. For each patient, a so-called tumor feature vector (= probability-based classifier) was defined and used for grading. Biopsy was used as gold standard, and similarity based grading was compared to grading solely based on CE-T1w. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of pure CE-T1w based glioma grading were 64.9%, 78.6%, and 56.5%, respectively. Similarity search based tumor grading allowed differentiation between low-grade (I or II) and high-grade (III) gliomas with an accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of 83.8%, 78.6%, and 87.0%. Our findings indicate that integration of perfusion parameters and CE-T1w information in a semi-automatic similarity search based analysis improves the potential of MR-based glioma grading compared to CE-T1w data alone.

  12. Novel UV Initiator for Functionalization of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Applied on Two Different Grades of Nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Anders Egede; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Bøgelund, J.

    2010-01-01

    A novel nonoxidative method for preparation of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been developed based on a UV sensitive initiator for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The method has been investigated with respect to ligands and polymerization time for the prepara......A novel nonoxidative method for preparation of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been developed based on a UV sensitive initiator for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The method has been investigated with respect to ligands and polymerization time...

  13. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... was moderately reproduced (kappa = 0.59). Vascular grade was significantly associated with axillary node involvement, tumour size, malignancy grade, oestrogen receptor status and histological type. In univariate analyses vascular grade significantly predicted recurrence free survival and overall survival for all...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  14. The visuospatial functions in children after cerebellar low-grade astrocytoma surgery: A contribution to the pediatric neuropsychology of the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starowicz-Filip, Anna; Chrobak, Adrian Andrzej; Milczarek, Olga; Kwiatkowski, Stanisław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to specify whether cerebellar lesions cause visuospatial impairments in children. The study sample consisted of 40 children with low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma, who underwent surgical treatment and 40 healthy controls matched with regard to age and sex. Visuospatial abilities were tested using the spatial WISC-R subtests (Block Design and Object Assembly), Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test, PEBL Mental Rotation Task, and Benton Visual Retention Test. To exclude general diffuse intellectual dysfunction, the WISC-R Verbal Intelligence IQ, Performance IQ, and Full-Scale IQ scores were analysed. Post-surgical medical consequences were measured with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale. Compared to controls, the cerebellar group manifested problems with mental rotation of objects, visuospatial organization, planning, and spatial construction processes which could not be explained by medical complications or general intellectual retardation. The intensity of visuospatial syndrome highly depends on cerebellar lesion side. Patients with left-sided cerebellar lesions display more severe spatial problems than those with right-sided cerebellar lesions. In conclusion, focal cerebellar lesions in children affect their visuospatial ability. The impairments profile is characterized by deficits in complex spatial processes such as visuospatial organization and mental rotation, requiring reconstruction of visual stimuli using the imagination, while elementary sensory analysis and perception as well as spatial processes requiring direct manipulation of objects are relatively better preserved. This pattern is analogous to the one previously observed in adult population and appears to be typical for cerebellar pathology in general, regardless of age. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Graded tensor calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, M.

    1982-10-01

    We develop a graded tensor calculus corresponding to arbitrary Abelian groups of degrees and arbitrary commutation factors. The standard basic constructions and definitions like tensor products, spaces of multilinear mappings, contractions, symmetrization, symmetric algebra, as well as the transpose, adjoint, and trace of a linear mapping, are generalized to the graded case and a multitude of canonical isomorphisms is presented. Moreover, the graded versions of the classical Lie algebras are introduced and some of their basic properties are described. (orig.)

  16. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Dowd

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending research findings by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn (1991, this article presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Pressures on grading practices are modeled using higher education production functions.

  17. Collegiate Grading Practices and the Gender Pay Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theoretical analysis showing that relatively low grading quantitative fields and high grading verbal fields create a disincentive for college women to invest in quantitative study. Extends research by R. Sabot and J. Wakeman-Linn. Models pressures on grading practices using higher education production functions. (Author/SLD)

  18. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  19. The Impact of Using Technology on Student Achievement: Teaching Functions with the TI-Nspire to 9th Grade Algebra Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Barbara Renee

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TI-Nspire graphing calculator use on student achievement and on teacher behavior variables of planning, teaching, and assessing. This study investigated the teaching of functions by teachers using the TI-Nspire graphing calculator versus teachers using a non-graphing scientific calculator. …

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Family Functioning and Parenting Styles: The Perceptions of Mothers of Young Grade School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…

  1. Learning from Graded Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodinsky, Marilyn; Nation, Paul

    1988-01-01

    A word frequency study of two graded readers and an unsimplified text indicated that graded readers facilitated better foreign-language reading and vocabulary learning than did unsimplified texts. It was found that students needed to read several same-level texts to master vocabulary, and that vocabulary mastery was not necessary for successful…

  2. Estimating the lifetimes of titanium containers for nuclear fuel waste: A damage function for the crevice corrosion of grade-2 titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.; Ikeda, B.M.; Quinn, M.J.; Kolar, M.

    1995-06-01

    The assumptions upon which the lifetime failure model used in the postclosure assessment is based are reevaluated. In particular, the conservations involved in assuming that crevice initiation would occur, and that sufficient oxygen would be present to maintain crevice propagation to failure, are discussed. Unless the period required to saturate the environment around the container can be specified with some certainty, it remains necessary to assume corrosion would initiate rapidly on all containers. A modified version of the container lifetime model has been developed which avoids the need to use averaged temperature profiles. In this model, these profiles are converted to propagation rate profiles using an experimental activation energy and then numerically integrated to predict container failure times. A damage function is developed relating the maximum depth of penetration by crevice corrosion to either the time since emplacement in the vault or the total amount of oxygen consumed. This function is used to estimate the maximum penetration depth expected if all the oxygen available in a borehole is consumed in crevice corrosion and to determine the impact on container lifetimes of various repassivation criteria. The factors likely to cause repassivation are summarized, and a number of engineering approaches to extending container lifetimes suggested. (author). 22 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  3. A Comparison of Food-grade Folium mori Extract and 1-Deoxynojirimycin for Glycemic Control and Renal Function in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiang-Suo Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Folium mori (桑葉 Sāng Yè, leaf of Morus alba L.; FM is known to possess hypoglycemic effects, and 1-deoxynojirimycin (1-DNJ has been proposed as an important functional compound in FM. However, the hypoglycemic activity of purified 1-DNJ has been rarely studied. It is also not known how FM and 1-DNJ affect the development of DM nephropathy. This study compared the antidiabetic effect of a commercial FM product with that of purified 1-DNJ in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Seven days after induction, the diabetic rats were gavaged with FM (1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day, 1-DNJ (30 mg/kg/day, or vehicle (distilled deionized water; 2 ml/kg/day for 7 days. All doses of FM ameliorated fasting and post-prandial blood glucose concomitantly with an increase in peripheral and pancreatic levels of insulin and improved homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR in diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. Increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and nitrate/nitrite levels in the kidney, liver, and muscle of diabetic rats were reversed by all doses of FM. The renal function of the diabetic rats was normalized by all doses of FM, while blood pressure changes were reversed by FM at doses of 3 mg/kg and above. Moreover, most of the above-mentioned parameters were improved by FM at doses of 3 mg/kg and above to a similar extent as that of 1-DNJ. The results showed superior antidiabetic potential of the commercial FM product for glycemic control and protection against the development of diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Effects of Inhomogeneity and Thickness Parameters on the Elastic Response of a Pressurized Hyperbolic Annulus/Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vebil Yıldırım

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A broad parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of both the inhomogeneity parameter, and a profile index of Stodola’s hyperbolic function on the static response of such structures subjected to both the inner and outer pressures. The investigation is based on the analytical formulas lately published by the author. The effects of those parameters on the variation of the radial displacement, the radial and hoop stresses are all graphically illustrated for an annulus pressurized at its both surfaces. It is observed that, especially, the variation of the hoop stress in radial coordinate is closely sensible to variation of those parameters. For the chosen problems it was observed that one of two materials whose Young’s modulus is higher than the other is better to locate at the inner surface of the disc having divergent profile to get reasonable maximum hoop stresses. However much smaller radial displacements may be obtained by using positive inhomogeneity indexes for all discs whose surfaces host a material whose Young’s modulus is smaller than the other. To reach a final decision, analytical formulas such as those used in the present study together with a failure criteria such as Von Mises and Tresca become indispensable means in a design process.

  5. Effects of graded heat stress on global left ventricular function and twist mechanics at rest and during exercise in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Eric J; González-Alonso, José; Pearson, James; Low, David A; Ali, Leena; Barker, Horace; Shave, Rob

    2011-02-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting (LV twist mechanics) contribute to the maintenance of stroke volume during passive heat stress. However, it remains unknown whether changes in LV twist mechanics are related to the magnitude of heat stress and whether performing exercise during heat stress alters this response. We examined global LV function and LV twist mechanics in 10 healthy men at baseline and three progressive levels of heat stress, at rest and during knee-extensor exercise. At rest, heat stress increased cardiac output and reduced end-diastolic volume and end-systolic volume, whilst stroke volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were maintained. Left ventricular twist and untwisting velocity also increased from baseline to severe heat stress (from 10.6 ± 3.3 to 15.1 ± 5.2 deg and from -123 ± 55 to -210 ± 49 deg s(-1), respectively, both P mechanics and systemic responses. In conclusion, LV twist mechanics increase proportionally with the magnitude of heat stress at rest. However, there is no increase in LV twist and untwisting velocity from control exercise to severe heat stress during exercise despite a significant increase in body temperatures and cardiac output. We, therefore, suggest that the maintenance of stroke volume in the combined conditions of heat stress and small muscle mass exercise may be further facilitated by other peripheral factors, such as the continuous decline in MAP.

  6. Functionally Graded Metal-Metal Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods and devices are disclosed for creating a multiple alloy composite structure by forming a three-dimensional arrangement of a first alloy composition in which the three-dimensional arrangement has a substantially open and continuous porosity. The three-dimensional arrangement of the first alloy composition is infused with at least a second alloy composition, where the second alloy composition comprises a shape memory alloy. The three-dimensional arrangement is consolidated into a fully dense solid structure, and the original shape of the second alloy composition is set for reversible transformation. Strain is applied to the fully dense solid structure, which is treated with heat so that the shape memory alloy composition becomes memory activated to recover the original shape. An interwoven composite of the first alloy composition and the memory-activated second alloy composition is thereby formed in the multiple alloy composite structure.

  7. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    rediffmail.com) construction industry and is now used in civil engineering applications (Keller 2006). Recent applications have demon- strated that fiber composite sandwich construction can be effectively and economically used in the civil ...

  8. Processing of W-Cu functionally graded materials (FGM) through the powder metallurgy route: application as plasma facing components for ITER-like thermonuclear fusion reactor; Elaboration de materiaux W-Cu a gradient de proprietes fonctionnelles (FGM) par metallurgie des poudres: application en tant que composants face au plasma de machines de fusion thermonucleaire de type Iter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raharijaona, J.J.

    2009-11-15

    The aim of this study was to study and optimize the sintering of W-Cu graded composition materials, for first wall of ITER-like thermonuclear reactor application. The graded composition in the material generates graded functional properties (Functionally Graded Materials - FGM). Rough thermomechanical calculations have shown the interest of W-Cu FGM to improve the lifetime of Plasma Facing Components (PFC). To process W-Cu FGM, powder metallurgy route was analyzed and optimized from W-CuO powder mixtures. The influence of oxide reduction on the sintering of powder mixtures was highlighted. An optimal heating treatment under He/H{sub 2} atmosphere was determined. The sintering mechanisms were deduced from the analysis of the effect of the Cu-content. Sintering of W-Cu materials with a graded composition and grain size has revealed two liquid migration steps: i) capillary migration, after the Cu-melting and, ii) expulsion of liquid, at the end of sintering, from the dense part to the porous part, due to the continuation of W-skeleton sintering. These two steps were confirmed by a model based on capillary pressure calculation. In addition, thermal conductivity measurements were conducted on sintered parts and showed values which gradually increase with the Cu-content. Hardness tests on a polished cross-section in the bulk are consistent with the composition profiles obtained and the differential grain size. (author)

  9. Methods of graded rings

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasescu, Constantin

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this book, graded algebra, has developed in the past decade to a vast subject with new applications in noncommutative geometry and physics. Classical aspects relating to group actions and gradings have been complemented by new insights stemming from Hopf algebra theory. Old and new methods are presented in full detail and in a self-contained way. Graduate students as well as researchers in algebra, geometry, will find in this book a useful toolbox. Exercises, with hints for solution, provide a direct link to recent research publications. The book is suitable for courses on Master level or textbook for seminars.

  10. MOOC and mechanized grading

    OpenAIRE

    Queinnec, Christian

    2013-01-01

    4 pages; As many others, we too are developping a Massive Online Open Course or MOOC. This MOOC will teach recursive programming for beginnners and makes an heavy use of an already existing infrastructure for mechanical grading. This paper presents some ideas on how to combine these two components along with some (untested) incentives in order to increase students' involvement.

  11. Grades as Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior…

  12. Purpose-Driven Grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. Grading Classroom Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, John C.; Peterson, Dean

    1998-01-01

    Grading class participation can send positive signals to college students about the kind of learning and thinking an instructor values. Various structures for participation (whole-class discussion, cold-calling on students, collaborative learning, electronic mail, journals, student-faculty conferences) call for different approaches to assessment.…

  16. FY 1995 development of fluorinated hydriding alloys with multi functional and functionally-graded surface and their application to energy conversion devices; 1995 nendo keishagata fukugo kino wo hyomen ni motsu suiso kyuzo gokin no kaihatsu to energy henkan gijutsu eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The project is the extended researches of a fluorination technique invented by the project leader (Suda) for improving the surface properties and characteristics of conventional hydriding alloys from the following viewpoints; (1) To investigate the roles of fluorinated surface during hydrogen uptake both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions. (2) To elucidate the factors which increase the protective nature of the surface. (3) To develop a material design procedure for synthesizing thin layer of functionally graded surface which is composed of metallic Ni and the fluoride compound. (1) An advanced fluorination technique was developed to incorporate metallic Ni in the surface fluoride layer. (2) Metallic Ni was successfully distributed in a functionally graded manner in the Surface fluoride layer. (3) Through the technique developed, the following properties and characteristics were successfully donated in the fluorinated hydriding alloys such as AB{sub 5}, AB{sub 2}, and AB; (3-1)Surface oxides which act as the resistant layer to the hydrogen up take was completely eliminated to result in the enhancement of the initial activation characteristics. (3-2) Hydrogen selectivity and permeability was greatly improved. (3-3) Surface protective nature against the impurity gases and contaminants was significantly improved. (3-4) Initial activation characteristics both in the gas-solid and the electrochemical reactions were distinguishably improved. (3-5) Fluorinated surface was found to function as the catalyst for a methanation reaction between the CO{sub 2} gas adsorbed over the fluorinated surface and the monatomic hydrogen absorbed in the metal lattice of the crystalline structure of the hydriding alloys. (4) A technique was developed for increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the specific surface diameter of the fluorinated hydriding alloy articles. (NEDO)

  17. Graded associative conformal algebras of finite type

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnikov, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider graded associative conformal algebras. The class of these objects includes pseudo-algebras over non-cocommutative Hopf algebras of regular functions on some linear algebraic groups. In particular, an associative conformal algebra which is graded by a finite group $\\Gamma $ is a pseudo-algebra over the coordinate Hopf algebra of a linear algebraic group $G$ such that the identity component $G^0$ is the affine line and $G/G^0\\simeq \\Gamma $. A classification of simple...

  18. Relevance of standardization and grading in marketing of grains in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relevance of standardization and grading as a facilitating function in marketing of grains. The various measurement units, their acceptability and adoption by the consumers and traders along with the relationship of prices to different grades of grains was critically assessed. The study revealed that ...

  19. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  20. Let's End the Grading Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clifford H.; Edwards, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Argues that grades have negative effects on learning and self-concept. States that while grading has a long tradition of sorting children for college entrance, there is limited evidence that grades serve a valid purpose. Argues that this practice should be abolished and an evaluation system established that provides a more valid estimate of…

  1. The Implications of Grade Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Fleisher, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The authors review current and past practices of the grade inflation controversy and present ways to return to each institution’s established grading guidelines. Students are graded based on knowledge gathered. Certain faculty members use thorough evaluative methods, such as written and oral...

  2. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies). PMID:28377738

  3. Cognitive impairments in patients with low grade gliomas and high grade gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane C. Miotto

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between brain tumors and cognitive deficits is well established in the literature. However, studies investigating the cognitive status in low and high-grade gliomas patients are scarce, particularly in patients with average or lower educational level. This study aimed at investigating the cognitive functioning in a sample of patients with low and high-grade gliomas before surgical intervention. METHOD: The low-grade (G1, n=19 and high-grade glioma (G2, n=8 patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment of memory, executive functions, visuo-perceptive and visuo-spatial abilities, intellectual level and language. RESULTS: There was a significant impairment on verbal and visual episodic memory, executive functions including mental flexibility, nominal and categorical verbal fluency and speed of information processing in G2. G1 showed only specific deficits on verbal and visual memory recall, mental flexibility and processing speed. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrated different levels of impairments in the executive and memory domains in patients with low and high grade gliomas.

  4. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades, U.S. Nos...

  5. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain khan Z; Azarbakht Z

    2007-01-01

    Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patie...

  6. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures project: findings from grade 3 to grade 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ray DeV; Bradshaw, Alison J; Petrunka, Kelly; Nelson, Geoffrey; Herry, Yves; Craig, Wendy M; Arnold, Robert; Parker, Kevin C H; Khan, Shahriar R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Pancer, S Mark; Loomis, Colleen; Bélanger, Jean-Marc; Evers, Susan; Maltais, Claire; Thompson, Katherine; Rossiter, Melissa D

    2010-12-01

    Although comprehensive and ecological approaches to early childhood prevention are commonly advocated, there are few examples of long-term follow-up of such programs. In this monograph, we investigate the medium- and long-term effects of an ecological, community-based prevention project for primary school children and families living in three economically disadvantaged neighborhoods in Ontario, Canada. The Better Beginnings, Better Futures (BBBF) project is one of the most ambitious Canadian research projects on the long-term impacts of early childhood prevention programming to date. Bronfenbrenner's ecological model of human development informed program planning, implementation, and evaluation. Using a quasi-experimental design, the BBBF longitudinal research study involved 601 children and their families who participated in BBBF programs when children were between 4 and 8 years old and 358 children and their families from sociodemographically matched comparison communities. We collected extensive child, parent, family, and community outcome data when children were in Grade 3 (age 8–9), Grade 6 (age 11–12), and Grade 9 (age 14–15). The BBBF mandate was to develop programs that would positively impact all areas of child's development; our findings reflect this ecological approach. We found marked positive effects in social and school functioning domains in Grades 6 and 9 and evidence of fewer emotional and behavioral problems in school across the three grades. Parents from BBBF sites reported greater feelings of social support and more positive ratings of marital satisfaction and general family functioning, especially at the Grade 9 follow-up. Positive neighborhood-level effects were also evident. Economic analyses at Grade 9 showed BBBF participation was associated with government savings of $912 per child. These findings provide evidence that an affordable, ecological, community-based prevention program can promote long-term development of children living

  7. Functional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoua Gandia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effects of inhaled Mg alone and associated with F in the treatment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. 43 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups and exposed to inhaled NaCl 0.9%, MeCh, MgSO4 and MgF2. Pulmonary changes were assessed by means of functional tests and quantitative histological examination of lungs and trachea. Results revealed that delivery of inhaled Mg associated with F led to a significant decrease of total lung resistance better than inhaled Mg alone (p < 0.05. Histological examinations illustrated that inhaled Mg associated with F markedly suppressed muscular hypertrophy (p = 0.034 and bronchoconstriction (p = 0.006 in MeCh treated rats better than inhaled Mg alone. No histological changes were found in the trachea. This study showed that inhaled Mg associated with F attenuated the main principle of the central components of changes in MeCh provoked experimental asthma better than inhaled Mg alone, potentially providing a new therapeutic approach against asthma.

  8. Graded coatings for thermal, wear and corrosion barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, U.; Peters, M.; Bach, Fr.-W.; Tegeder, G.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the main results generated in a German National Science Foundation (DFG) program on projects concerned with functionally graded materials applied to optimize the thermal, wear and corrosion properties of metallic and ceramic materials. Thermal barrier coatings deposited onto Cu substrates by pulsed laser deposition showed improved spallation behavior by a graded lamella microstructure with improved interface fracture toughness. A particle-hardened graded surface structure improved the wear resistance of plasma sprayed thermal barriers. By means of evaporation techniques a graded bonding area was manufactured with a high potential of lifetime improvement. For non-oxide ceramics graded coatings based on Si 3 N 4 and mullite led to improved oxidation resistance of the substrate material. Graded TiC-TiN thin films allowed to improve the wear resistance of cutting tool alloys with good adhesion to the substrate material. On light metal alloys, the limits of grading with respect to corrosion protection as well as wear were determined. Graded layers of arc-sprayed titanium with in situ produced particles or welded alloy gradients led to improved wear characteristics. Stress profiles in graded layers were analyzed with the help of a modified X-ray diffraction analysis

  9. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  10. Zn graded differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerner, R.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of differential algebras generated by an operator d satisfying the property d N = 0 instead of d 2 = 0 as in the usual case were investigated. The commutation relations for the generalized differentials ensuring the desired property can be put into the cyclic form a 1 a 2 a 3 ... a N = q a N a 1 a 2 ... a N-1 , where q is a primitive N-th root of unity. Examples of realizations of such differential algebras are given, either in the space of Z N -graded N x N matrix algebras, or as generalized differential calculus on manifolds. A generalization of gauge theories based on such differential calculus is briefly discussed. (author). 10 refs

  11. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...... the causal effect of blind grading, exploiting two separate identification strategies. The first derives from a unique full cohort natural experiment with a grading reform, providing exogenous variation in blind grading. The other strategy derives from a field experiment where the exact same exam papers...

  12. Grade Retention and Unobserved Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Gary-Bobo; Marion Gousse; Jean-Marc Robin

    2014-01-01

    We study the treatment effect of grade retention using a panel of French junior high-school students, taking unobserved heterogeneity and the endogeneity of grade repetitions into account. We specify a multistage model of human-capital accumulation with a finite number of types representing unobserved individual characteristics. Class-size and latent student-performance indices are assumed to follow finite mixtures of normal distributions. Grade retention may increase or decrea...

  13. A revision of the Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic grading system with special consideration to grade II laryngoscopic view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain khan Z

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The major responsibility of an anesthesiologist is to provide adequate respiration for the patient. The most vital element in providing functional respiration is the airway. No anesthetic is safe unless diligent efforts are devoted to maintaining an intact functional airway. Difficult intubation had been classified into four grades, according to the view obtainable at laryngoscopy by Cormack and Lehane in 1984. This grading system has been in use to evaluate and manage those patients with difficult airway by anesthesiologists. In clinical state, grades III and IV are quite rare, so the need for a modified Cormack and Lehane grading system was felt. The use of a modified Cormack-Lehane scoring system of laryngoscopic views during direct laryngoscopy, was previously examined in the Western population. Koh and his co-workers had examined this modified Cormack and Lehane grading system in Asian population in a study in Singapore General Hospital. The aim of this study was to investigate this scoring system in Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross sectional study, a modified version of the Cormack and Lehane grading system was evaluated in 300 patients requiring tracheal intubation. In the modified system, grade II (only part of the glottis is visible was divided into IIa (part of the cords is visible and IIb (only the arytenoids or the very posterior origin of the cords are visible. Difficult intubation was defined as requiring more than one laryngoscopy or the use of special equipments.Results: Sixty eight patients (22.7% were scored as grade IIa and 32 (7.7% as grade IIb. The prevalence of difficult intubation in grade IIb was significantly higher than patients in group IIa (47.8% vs. 2.9% respectively, Fisher's exact test, p= 0.001Conclusion: The modified grading system provides more information than the original Cormack and Lehane system."n 

  14. Size-dependent analysis of a sandwich curved nanobeam integrated with piezomagnetic face-sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Zenkour

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop nonlocal transient magneto-electro-elastic formulation of a sandwich curved nanobeam including a nano-core and two piezo-magnetic face-sheets subjected to transverse mechanical loads and applied electric and magnetic potentials rest on Pasternak’s foundation. Nonlocal magneto-electro-elastic relations and Hamilton’s principle are used for derivation of the governing equations of motion. The analytical solution based on Fourier solution is presented for a simply-supported sandwich curved nanobeam. The numerical results are presented to investigate influence of significant parameters such as nonlocal parameter, radius of curvature, applied electric and magnetic potentials and two parameters of Pasternak's foundation on the dynamic responses of sandwich curved nanobeam. Keywords: Sandwich curved nanobeam, Dynamic responses, Piezo-magnetic face-sheets, Pasternak’s foundation, Radius of curvature, Nonlocal parameter

  15. Compositionally Graded Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun-Cheol; Zhou, Jie E; Maurya, Deepam; Yan, Yongke; Wang, Yu U; Priya, Shashank

    2017-09-27

    Multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCC) are widely used in consumer electronics. Here, we provide a transformative method for achieving high dielectric response and tunability over a wide temperature range through design of compositionally graded multilayer (CGML) architecture. Compositionally graded MLCCs were found to exhibit enhanced dielectric tunability (70%) along with small dielectric losses (design of miniature filters and power converters.

  16. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  17. Nonpunitive Grading Practices and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Paul A.; Brydon, Charles W.

    Information pertaining to the overall grading standards and practices within the five Peralta Colleges is compiled and analyzed here. The report is presented in three parts. The first part deals with the historical background of traditional and non-punitive grading, the national trends toward innovation and experimentation with various forms of…

  18. A vision of graded hemispheric specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, Marlene; Plaut, David C

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the process by which the cerebral hemispheres reach their mature functional organization remains challenging. We propose a theoretical account in which, in the domain of vision, faces and words come to be represented adjacent to retinotopic cortex by virtue of the need to discriminate among homogeneous exemplars. Orthographic representations are further constrained to be proximal to typically left-lateralized language-related information to minimize connectivity length between visual and language areas. As reading is acquired, orthography comes to rely more heavily (albeit not exclusively) on the left fusiform region to bridge vision and language. Consequently, due to competition from emerging word representations, face representations that were initially bilateral become lateralized to the right fusiform region (albeit, again, not exclusively). We review recent research that describes constraints that give rise to this graded hemispheric arrangement. We then summarize empirical evidence from a variety of studies (behavioral, evoked response potential, functional imaging) across different populations (children, adolescents, and adults; left handers and individuals with developmental dyslexia) that supports the claims that hemispheric lateralization is graded rather than binary and that this graded organization emerges dynamically over the course of development. Perturbations of this system either during development or in adulthood provide further insights into the principles governing hemispheric organization. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Graded Recombination Layers for Multijunction Photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Koleilat, Ghada I.

    2012-06-13

    Multijunction devices consist of a stack of semiconductor junctions having bandgaps tuned across a broad spectrum. In solar cells this concept is used to increase the efficiency of photovoltaic harvesting, while light emitters and detectors use it to achieve multicolor and spectrally tunable behavior. In series-connected current-matched multijunction devices, the recombination layers must allow the hole current from one cell to recombine, with high efficiency and low voltage loss, with the electron current from the next cell. We recently reported a tandem solar cell in which the recombination layer was implemented using a progression of n-type oxides whose doping densities and work functions serve to connect, with negligible resistive loss at solar current densities, the constituent cells. Here we present the generalized conditions for design of efficient graded recombination layer solar devices. We report the number of interlayers and the requirements on work function and doping of each interlayer, to bridge an work function difference as high as 1.6 eV. We also find solutions that minimize the doping required of the interlayers in order to minimize optical absorption due to free carriers in the graded recombination layer (GRL). We demonstrate a family of new GRL designs experimentally and highlight the benefits of the progression of dopings and work functions in the interlayers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. First Grade Math Skills Set Foundation for Later Math Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults do not have the eighth grade math skills needed to function in the workplace. “An early grasp of quantities and numbers appears ... have shown that these tests evaluate functional numeracy — skills that ... in the workplace. This might include the limited understanding of algebra ...

  1. Bounds for regularity and coregularity of graded modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the notations that follow, we introduce some bounding functions which were defined by Brodmann, Matteotti, and Minh in [6]. In case the local base ring (R0, m0) was Artinian, they obtained some bounds for regularity and coregularity of graded modules in terms of these functions. Notation 2.4. (A) To establish the bounds ...

  2. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  3. Progressive problems higher grade physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, William

    2001-01-01

    This book fully covers all three Units studied in Scotland's Higher Grade Physics course, providing a systematic array of problems (from the simplest to the most difficult) to lead variously abled pupils to examination success.

  4. Zn3-graded colored supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, B.

    1997-01-01

    Generalizations of the Grassmann algebras are built based on a few simple assumptions as follows: the algebras are graded, maximally symmetric, and contain an ordinary Grassmann algebra as a subalgebra. These algebras are graded by Z n 3 and display surprising properties that indicate their possible application to the modeling of quark fields. The generalized supersymmetry generators are built based on these algebras and their derivation operators. These generators are cubic roots of the usual supersymmetry generators. (author). 1 tab., 9 refs

  5. Comparison of medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade displays for diagnosis of subtle bone fissures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto Dos Santos, Daniel; Welter, Jonas; Emrich, Tilman; Jungmann, Florian; Dappa, Evelyn; Mildenberger, Peter; Kloeckner, Roman

    2017-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade digital displays for the detection of subtle bone fissures. Three experienced radiologists assessed 96 digital radiographs, 40 without and 56 with subtle bone fissures, for the presence or absence of fissures in various bones using one consumer-grade and two medical-grade displays calibrated according to the DICOM-Grayscale Standard Display Function. The reference standard was consensus reading. Subjective image quality was also assessed by the three readers. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic analysis and by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, and Youden's J for each combination of reader and display. Cohen's unweighted kappa was calculated to assess inter-rater agreement. Subjective image quality was compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. No significant differences were found for the assessment of subjective image quality. Diagnostic performance was similar across all readers and displays, with Youden's J ranging from 0.443 to 0.661. The differences were influenced more by the reader than by the display used for the assessment. No significant differences were found between medical-grade and calibrated consumer-grade displays with regard to their diagnostic performance in assessing subtle bone fissures. Calibrated consumer-grade displays may be sufficient for most radiological examinations. • Diagnostic performance of calibrated consumer-grade displays is comparable to medical-grade displays. • There is no significant difference with regard to subjective image quality. • Use of calibrated consumer-grade displays could cut display costs by 60-80%.

  6. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade requirements...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades U.S...

  8. Boundary values as Hamiltonian variables. II. Graded structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, Vladimir O.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the new formula for the field theory Poisson brackets arises naturally in the proposed extension of the formal variational calculus incorporating divergences. The linear spaces of local functionals, evolutionary vector fields, functional forms, multi-vectors and differential operators become graded with respect to divergences. The bilinear operations, such as the action of vector fields onto functionals, the commutator of vector fields, the interior product of forms and vectors and the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket are compatible with the grading. A definition of the adjoint graded operator is proposed and antisymmetric operators are constructed with the help of boundary terms. The fulfilment of the Jacobi identity for the new Poisson brackets is shown to be equivalent to vanishing of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket of the Poisson bivector with itself

  9. CONTROL AND GRADE COMPETENCE FUTURE TEACHERS OF MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical study of the problem of formation of control and grade competence of the students - future teachers of mathematics while studying special subjects. The essence of such notions as competence, professional competence, methodical competence, control and grade competence of the Mathematics teacher are differentiated. The following subjects are described: the goal orientation, the resource potential of the educational process and its objectives: to form the system of necessary methodological knowledge and skills, the system of pedagogical values that form the willingness for the control and grade activities at all stages of learning, which are derived from the objectives and available resources: content and training tools. Identified approaches (system, personal active, competent, technological, communicative active and the dominant principles necessary to form control and grade competence of the future Mathematics teachers (consistency, functionality of knowledge and skills, personal orientation, assessment of academic achievements of the student in accordance with the quality of Mathematics education. Contradictions are described and pedagogical conditions to provide this process are justified. The structure of the control and grade competence is characterized, including the motivation, professional skills, acquired knowledge and skills, activities of the subjects of the study; and its following components: motivational, cognitive, activity, reflective. The following stages of the formation of the control and grade competence are defined: motivational, informative, technological, assessment and effective. To form the control and grade competence of the students - future Mathematics teachers the technology of construction and solving of methodological situational tasks is suggested. The following criteria are identified: motivational, essential, activity; the following indicators are stated: motivation

  10. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  11. On the union of graded prime ideals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uregen Rabia Nagehan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate graded compactly packed rings, which is defined as; if any graded ideal I of R is contained in the union of a family of graded prime ideals of R, then I is actually contained in one of the graded prime ideals of the family. We give some characterizations of graded compactly packed rings. Further, we examine this property on h – Spec(R. We also define a generalization of graded compactly packed rings, the graded coprimely packed rings. We show that R is a graded compactly packed ring if and only if R is a graded coprimely packed ring whenever R be a graded integral domain and h – dim R = 1.

  12. Buckling of graded coatings: A continuum model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tz-Cheng

    2000-12-01

    Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that utilize ceramic coatings on metal substrates. An alternative concept to homogeneous ceramic coatings is the functionally graded materials (FGM) in which the composition of the coating is intentionally graded to improve the bonding strength and to reduce the magnitude of the residual and thermal stresses. A widely observed failure mode in such layered systems is known to be interface cracking that leads to spallation fracture. In most cases, the final stage of the failure process for a thin coating appears to be due to buckling instability under thermally or mechanically induced compressive stress. The objective of this study is to develop a solution to the buckling instability problem by using continuum elasticity rather than a structural mechanics approach. The emphasis in the solution will be on the investigation of the effect of material inhomogeneity in graded coatings on the instability load, the postbuckling behavior, and fracture mechanics parameters such as the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate. In this analysis, a nonlinear continuum theory is employed to examine the interface crack problem. The analytical solution of the instability problem permits the study of the effect of material inhomogeneity upon the inception of buckling and establishes benchmark results for the numerical solutions of related problems. To study the postbuckling behavior and to calculate the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate a geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure with enriched crack-tip element is developed. Both plane strain and axisymmetric interface crack problems in TBCs with either homogeneous or graded coating are then considered by using the finite element procedure. It is assumed that the

  13. Report on the results of the fiscal 1997 international research cooperation project. `Joint R and D industrial base technology` (development of functionally graded materials); 1997 nendo kokusai kyoryoku jigyo. `Sangyo kiban gijutsu kyodo kenkyu kaihatsu` keisha kinosei zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing functionally graded materials (FGM/LB) of thermal stress relaxation heat resistant large bulk state which are adoptable to high efficiency engine members, conducted in fiscal 1997 as intermediate target were the experiment for enlargement of the sintering process of FGM/LB with bore of up to 100mm, evaluation of physical properties, the basic development of the fabricating system facility for the commercialization. In the development of heat resistance use FGM/LB fabrication technology, to obtain ZrO2(3Y) stainless steel system FGM/LB, the following were fabricated in each bore size of 50-100mm by the research use large discharge plasma sintering machine: sintered bodies of ceramics/metal single substrate materials and mixed layer single substance materials, and FGM/LB sintered bodies without separation and crack which are composed of 9 intermediate graded layers. The survey was also made on the optimal composition and optimal sintering conditions toward the enlargement without unevenness. In the evaluation of physical properties, ZrO2(3Y)/stainless steel system was selected and test pieces were fabricated to obtain basic data on texture observation, distribution of hardness, fracture toughness, high temperature abrasion resistance, thermal expansion rates, etc. 27 refs., 108 figs., 43 tabs.

  14. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810... AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1804 Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade...

  16. Instructional and Grading Practices That Change Grading Fidelity: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, final course grades of sixth- through eighth-grade language arts, mathematics, and eighth grade science students at the primary research site, Site A (pseudonym), suggest a high degree of grade inflation or disassociation when grade point averages (GPA) were compared to actual student performance levels as measured by annual state…

  17. SCIENCE, KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno County Schools, CA.

    A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE IS PRESENTED. THE PURPOSE IS TO HELP TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING THE COURSE REQUIREMENTS IN SCIENCE. THE MAJOR GOAL IS TEACHING CHILDREN TO THINK IN A SCIENTIFIC WAY. SUGGESTED UNITS FOR KINDERGARTEN ARE ANIMALS AND PLANTS, WEATHER, DISCOVERY, AND THE FIVE SENSES. THE UNITS FOR GRADE…

  18. The Reliability of College Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Adam S.; Walmsley, Philip T.; Sackett, Paul R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.; Koch, Amanda J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the reliability of college grades relative to how prominently they are used in educational research, and the results to date tend to be based on small sample studies or are decades old. This study uses two large databases (N > 800,000) from over 200 educational institutions spanning 13 years and finds that both first-year…

  19. Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Arthur

    This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

  20. Science Equity in Third Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

    2010-01-01

    The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…