WorldWideScience

Sample records for functionally equivalent trap

  1. Tubes, tables and traps: great apes solve two functionally equivalent trap tasks but show no evidence of transfer across tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    Previous studies on tool using have shown that presenting subjects with certain modifications in the experimental setup can substantially improve their performance. However, procedural modifications (e.g. trap table task) may not only remove task constraints but also simplify the problem conceptually. The goal of this study was to design a variation of the trap-table that was functionally equivalent to the trap-tube task. In this new task, the subjects had to decide where to insert the tool and in which direction the reward should be pushed. We also administered a trap-tube task that allowed animals to push or rake the reward with the tool to compare the subjects' performance on both tasks. We used a larger sample of subjects than in previous studies and from all the four species of great apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus, and Pongo pygmaeus). The results showed that apes performed better in the trap-platform task than in the trap-tube task. Subjects solved the tube task faster than in previous studies and they also preferred to rake in rather than to push the reward out. There was no correlation in the level of performance between both tasks, and no indication of interspecies differences. These data are consistent with the idea that apes may possess some specific causal knowledge of traps but may lack the ability to establish analogical relations between functional equivalent tasks.

  2. Analysis of affinely equivalent Boolean functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG QingShu; ZHANG HuanGuo; YANG Min; WANG ZhangYi

    2007-01-01

    By some basic transforms and invariant theory, we give two results: 1) an algorithm,which can be used to judge if two Boolean functions are affinely equivalent and to obtain the equivalence relationship if they are equivalent. This is useful in studying Boolean functions and in engineering. For example, we classify all 8-variable homogeneous bent functions of degree 3 into two classes; 2) Reed-Muller codes R(4,6)/R(1,6), R(3,7)/R(1,7) are classified efficiently.

  3. On Functional Equivalence of Idiom Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管琴

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the feasibility of functional equivalence in idiom translations in Chinese-English cultures,trying to find efficient ways to avoid both under-translation and over-translation.The more functions are reproduced,the better the version will be at achieving correspondence between meaning and function.

  4. Chameleonic equivalence postulate and wave function collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Zanzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A chameleonic solution to the cosmological constant problem and the non-equivalence of different conformal frames at the quantum level have been recently suggested [Phys. Rev. D82 (2010) 044006]. In this article we further discuss the theoretical grounds of that model and we are led to a chameleonic equivalence postulate (CEP). Whenever a theory satisfies our CEP (and some other additional conditions), a density-dependence of the mass of matter fields is naturally present. Let us summarize the main results of this paper. 1) The CEP can be considered the microscopic counterpart of the Einstein's Equivalence Principle and, hence, a chameleonic description of quantum gravity is obtained: in our model, (quantum) gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. 2) To illustrate one of the possible applications of the CEP, we point out a connection between chameleon fields and quantum-mechanical wave function collapse. The collapse is induced by the chameleonic nature of the theory. We discuss the collapse for a S...

  5. On Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence%On Eugene A.Nida's Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玲

    2016-01-01

    Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence is a very useful theory in translation. This theory considers that translation is transference of the source language into the meaning of the target language in the way the author intended the text. It has a deep influence on translation.

  6. On the Equivalence of Trapped Colloids, Pinned Vortices, and Spin Ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisoli, Cristiano [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-04-23

    We investigate the recently reported analogies between pinned vortices in nano-structured superconductors or colloids in optical traps, and spin ice materials. The frustration of the two models, one describing colloids and vortices, the other describing spin ice, differs essentially. However, their effective energetics is made identical by the contribution of an emergent field associated to a topological charge. This equivalence extends to the local low-energy dynamics of the ice manifold, yet breaks down in lattices of mixed coordination, because of topological charge transfer between sub-latices.

  7. Does The Principle Of Equivalence Prevent Trapped Surfaces From Being Formed In The General Relativistic Collapse Process?

    CERN Document Server

    Leiter, D; Robertson, S; Leiter, Darryl; Mitra, Abhas; Robertson, Stanley

    2001-01-01

    It has been recently shown (Mitra, 2000 - astro-ph/9910408) that the timelike spherical collapse of a radiating, physical fluid in General Relativity, as seen by an interior co-moving observer at rest in the physical fluid, does not permit formation of ``trapped surfaces''. This followed from the fact that the formation of a trapped surface in a physical fluid would cause the timelike world lines of the collapsing fluid to become null at the would be trapped surface, thus violating the Principle of Equivalence in General Theory of Relativity. In this paper we generalize and extend this result by studying the problem from the point of view of the exterior Vaidya metric of a collapsing radiating fluid as seen by an exterior stationary observer, and find that the "no trapped surface condition" becomes g00 > 0 consistent with that obtained for the interior co-moving metric. Since we have shown that the Principle of Equivalence prevents trapped surfaces from being formed in collapsing, radiating objects, then true...

  8. The transfer of avoidance evoking functions through stimulus equivalence classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustson, E M; Dougher, M J

    1997-09-01

    Recent research in the area of stimulus equivalence suggests that transfer of function via members of stimulus equivalence classes may have relevance to human emotional responding and the development and generalization of certain psychological disorders. This study investigated the transfer of avoidance evoking functions through equivalence classes. Eight subjects were trained in the necessary relations for two-four member stimulus equivalence classes to emerge. Next, using an on-baseline classical conditioning procedure, one member of one class was paired with shock while one member of the other class was presented without shock. Then, while subjects engaged a key-press task, a differential, signalled avoidance task was introduced wherein shock was avoided if a response occurred to the stimulus previously associated with shock. The remaining stimuli from both classes were then presented. The behavior of all eight subjects showed the differential transfer of the avoidance evoking function. The clinical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.

  9. Matching Derived Functionally-Same Stimulus Relations: Equivalence-Equivalence and Classical Analogies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpentier, Franck; Smeets, Paul M; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Stewart, Ian

    2004-01-01

    ... (equivalence-equivalence). Similar performances are required in classical analogies (a : b :: c : d). Therefore, some researchers have argued that equivalence-equivalence can serve as a behavior analytic model for analogical reasoning...

  10. Singularity theory of fitness functions under dimorphism equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Golubitsky, Martin

    2016-09-01

    We apply singularity theory to classify monomorphic singular points as they occur in adaptive dynamics. Our approach is based on a new equivalence relation called dimorphism equivalence, which is the largest equivalence relation on strategy functions that preserves ESS singularities, CvSS singularities, and dimorphisms. Specifically, we classify singularities up to topological codimension two and compute their normal forms and universal unfoldings. These calculations lead to the classification of local mutual invasibility plots that can be seen generically in systems with two parameters.

  11. On Functional Equivalence in the English version of Leiyu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞娟; 许焕荣

    2014-01-01

    In drama translation, both performability and the individual characteristics of the work should be given adequate con-sideration. This paper applies the Functional Equivalence Theory to analyzing Thunderstorm, the English version of Leiyu, a fa-mous Chinese play, converting some unique features of the Chinese original into their English equivalents on linguistic, cultural and stylistic levels without affecting the performability of the drama.

  12. A Derived Transfer of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Smeets, Paul M.; Luciano, Carmen

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the transfer of induced happy and sad mood functions through equivalence relations. Sixteen subjects participated in a combined equivalence and mood induction procedure. In Phase 1, all subjects were trained in 2 conditional discriminations using a matching-to-sample format (i.e., A1-B1, A2-B2, A1-C1, A2-C2). In…

  13. Depth dependence of absorbed dose, dose equivalent and linear energy transfer spectra of galactic and trapped particles in polyethylene and comparison with calculations of models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    A matched set of five tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs), embedded at the centers of 0 (bare), 3, 5, 8 and 12-inch-diameter polyethylene spheres, were flown on the Shuttle flight STS-81 (inclination 51.65 degrees, altitude approximately 400 km). The data obtained were separated into contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic radiation (GCR). From the measured linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, the absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates were calculated. The results were compared to calculations made with the radiation transport model HZETRN/NUCFRG2, using the GCR free-space spectra, orbit-averaged geomagnetic transmission function and Shuttle shielding distributions. The comparison shows that the model fits the dose rates to a root mean square (rms) error of 5%, and dose-equivalent rates to an rms error of 10%. Fairly good agreement between the LET spectra was found; however, differences are seen at both low and high LET. These differences can be understood as due to the combined effects of chord-length variation and detector response function. These results rule out a number of radiation transport/nuclear fragmentation models. Similar comparisons of trapped-proton dose rates were made between calculations made with the proton transport model BRYNTRN using the AP-8 MIN trapped-proton model and Shuttle shielding distributions. The predictions of absorbed dose and dose-equivalent rates are fairly good. However, the prediction of the LET spectra below approximately 30 keV/microm shows the need to improve the AP-8 model. These results have strong implications for shielding requirements for an interplanetary manned mission.

  14. A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces.  An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch.   The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as  the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...

  15. The Analysis of Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨雪; 任培红

    2014-01-01

    Eugene A. Nida is an influential translation theoretician with great research achievements. The functional equivalence theory which is the core of his translation theories lays a solid foundation for the modern translation. However, there also exist some limitations in it. It should be dialectically analyzed to find its contributions and limitations.

  16. Affine dual equivalence and k-Schur functions

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Sami

    2012-01-01

    The k-Schur functions were first introduced by Lapointe, Lascoux and Morse (2003) in the hopes of refining the expansion of Macdonald polynomials into Schur functions. Recently, an alternative definition for k-Schur functions was given by Lam, Lapointe, Morse, and Shimozono (2010) as the weighted generating function of starred strong tableaux which correspond with labeled saturated chains in the Bruhat order on the affine symmetric group modulo the symmetric group. This definition has been shown to correspond to the Schubert basis for the affine Grassmannian of type A by Lam (2008), and, at t = 1, it is equivalent to the k-tableaux characterization of Lapointe and Morse (2007). In this paper, we extend Haiman's (1992) dual equivalence relation on standard Young tableaux to all starred strong tableaux. The elementary equivalence relations can be interpreted as labeled edges in a graph which share many of the properties of Assaf's dual equivalence graphs. These graphs display much of the complexity of working w...

  17. On Poetic Advertisements Translating by Functional Equivalence in Skopostheory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖枫霄

    2016-01-01

    A hot issue was once the advertisement translation as a pragmatic one. But it is surprising how little attention has been paid to a new kind of advertisement-poetic advertisement, which has caught a great significance in the world of business. In this paper it attempts to do a poetic translation study by Nida’s theories that stand for the German functional translation school. Through the research for some translation cases, it is found that the theory functional equivalence is feasible for repres-enting the poetic beauty, the readers’acceptability and the functions of advertisements. What is shown thereby is that the theory functional equivalence can work as guiding principle in the translation of English poetic advertisement.

  18. Functional equivalence between radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J R; Sun, C T

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that, under some minor restrictions, the functional behavior of radial basis function networks (RBFNs) and that of fuzzy inference systems are actually equivalent. This functional equivalence makes it possible to apply what has been discovered (learning rule, representational power, etc.) for one of the models to the other, and vice versa. It is of interest to observe that two models stemming from different origins turn out to be functionally equivalent.

  19. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  20. Electron Cloud Trapping in Recycler Combined Function Dipole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey A. [Chicago U.; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    Electron cloud can lead to a fast instability in intense proton and positron beams in circular accelerators. In the Fermilab Recycler the electron cloud is confined within its combined function magnets. We show that the field of combined function magnets traps the electron cloud, present the results of analytical estimates of trapping, and compare them to numerical simulations of electron cloud formation. The electron cloud is located at the beam center and up to 1% of the particles can be trapped by the magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a Recycler combined function dipole this multiturn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The multi-turn build-up can be stopped by injection of a clearing bunch of 1010 p at any position in the ring.

  1. Comments on "Functional equivalence between radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H C; Lotfi, A; Westphal, L C; Jang, J R

    1998-01-01

    The above paper claims that under a set of minor restrictions radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems are functionally equivalent. The purpose of this letter is to show that this set of restrictions is incomplete and that, when it is completed, the said functional equivalence applies only to a small range of fuzzy inference systems. In addition, a modified set of restrictions is proposed which is applicable for a much wider range of fuzzy inference systems.

  2. The Analysis of Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory——From The Point of AD Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳佳

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, originally called dynamic equivalence raised by Eugene A. Nida is directed primarily towards equiva-lence of response rather than equivalence of form. From the application of proverbs and advertising translation, this article aims to discuss the translation strategy, in order to help readers flexibly use the "functional equivalence" theory, and then make this theory be able to work for us.

  3. Analysis of Chinese Cuisine Names Translation From the Perspective of Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    2016-01-01

    This paper is based on famous American translation theorist Eugene Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory, aiming to analyze the necessity of Functional Equivalence Theory in the Chinese cuisine names translation and propose some translation methods.

  4. Amphipol trapping of a functional CYP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Tomas; Naur, Peter; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    In plants, some enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are thought to organize into transient dynamic metabolons to optimize the biosynthesis of bioactive natural products. Metabolon formation may facilitate efficient turnover of labile and toxic intermediates and prevent undesired meta...... to be catalytically active. The use of APol surfactants in functional and structural studies of membrane proteins is discussed. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc....

  5. Generating functions for Wilf equivalence under generalized factor order

    CERN Document Server

    Langley, Thomas; Remmel, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Kitaev, Liese, Remmel, and Sagan recently defined generalized factor order on words comprised of letters from a partially ordered set $(P, \\leq_P)$ by setting $u \\leq_P w$ if there is a subword $v$ of $w$ of the same length as $u$ such that the $i$-th character of $v$ is greater than or equal to the $i$-th character of $u$ for all $i$. This subword $v$ is called an embedding of $u$ into $w$. For the case where $P$ is the positive integers with the usual ordering, they defined the weight of a word $w = w_1\\ldots w_n$ to be $\\text{wt}(w) = x^{\\sum_{i=1}^n w_i} t^{n}$, and the corresponding weight generating function $F(u;t,x) = \\sum_{w \\geq_P u} \\text{wt}(w)$. They then defined two words $u$ and $v$ to be Wilf equivalent, denoted $u \\backsim v$, if and only if $F(u;t,x) = F(v;t,x)$. They also defined the related generating function $S(u;t,x) = \\sum_{w \\in \\mathcal{S}(u)} \\text{wt}(w)$ where $\\mathcal{S}(u)$ is the set of all words $w$ such that the only embedding of $u$ into $w$ is a suffix of $w$, and showed t...

  6. Sympathetic Wigner-function tomography of a dark trapped ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A protocol is provided to reconstruct the Wigner function for the motional state of a trapped ion via fluorescence detection on another ion in the same trap. This “sympathetic tomography” of a dark ion without optical transitions suitable for state measurements is based on the mapping of its...... motional state onto one of the collective modes of the ion pair. The quantum state of this vibrational eigenmode is subsequently measured through sideband excitation of the bright ion. Physical processes to implement the desired state transfer are derived and the accomplishment of the scheme is evaluated...

  7. Functional significance of air trapping detected in moderate asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, F. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Latrabe, V. [Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Raherison, C. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Marthan, R. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France); Tunon-de-Lara, J.M. [Service des Maladies Respiratoires, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac (France); Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Respiratoire, INSERM E 9937, Univ. Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 (France)

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate bronchial and lung abnormalities in patients suffering from moderate asthma as defined by international guidelines, with special attention to air trapping on CT in comparison with that detected in smoking and non-smoking normal subjects. Twenty-two patients classified as moderate asthma and control subjects including healthy volunteers, smokers (n = 10) or non-smokers (n = 12) were prospectively explored by high-resolution CT (HRCT) performed at suspended full inspiration and expiration. The same expiratory protocol was performed 15 min after inhalation of 200 {mu}g of salbutamol. Patients underwent pulmonary function tests within the same week and bronchodilator response was assessed following inhalation of salbutamol. Abnormalities of bronchi and lung parenchyma on inspiratory CT and air trapping on expiratory CT, in dependent and non-dependent areas, were assessed and scored semi-quantitatively by two independent observers. Comparison of score mean values between the different groups was performed using Mann-Whitney test and Spearman correlation between CT findings and pulmonary function tests were calculated. Mosaic perfusion was observed in 23 % of asthmatics. Air-trapping scores were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in non-smoking control subjects (p = 0.003), but not than in smokers. This difference was ascribed to non-dependent zones of the lung for which air-trapping scores were also higher in asthmatic patients (p = 0.003) and in smoking subjects (p = 0.004) than in normal controls. In the asthmatic group, a significant positive correlation was found between airways resistance and bronchial dilatation score (p = 0.01), and between small airways obstruction index and mosaic perfusion score (p = 0.05). In addition, both FEV1 and reversibility of small airways obstruction values correlated with air-trapping score (p = 0.03 and p = 0.007, respectively). No change could be detected in air-trapping score

  8. Virial Coefficients from Unified Statistical Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension and Equivalence of Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahauddin, Shah Mohammad; Mehedi Faruk, Mir

    2016-09-01

    From the unified statistical thermodynamics of quantum gases, the virial coefficients of ideal Bose and Fermi gases, trapped under generic power law potential are derived systematically. From the general result of virial coefficients, one can produce the known results in d = 3 and d = 2. But more importantly we found that, the virial coefficients of Bose and Fermi gases become identical (except the second virial coefficient, where the sign is different) when the gases are trapped under harmonic potential in d = 1. This result suggests the equivalence between Bose and Fermi gases established in d = 1 (J. Stat. Phys. DOI 10.1007/s10955-015-1344-4). Also, it is found that the virial coefficients of two-dimensional free Bose (Fermi) gas are equal to the virial coefficients of one-dimensional harmonically trapped Bose (Fermi) gas.

  9. Extending the functional equivalence of radial basis function networks and fuzzy inference systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, K J; Haas, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-01-01

    We establish the functional equivalence of a generalized class of Gaussian radial basis function (RBFs) networks and the full Takagi-Sugeno model (1983) of fuzzy inference. This generalizes an existing result which applies to the standard Gaussian RBF network and a restricted form of the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system. The more general framework allows the removal of some of the restrictive conditions of the previous result.

  10. On E-C Film Subtitling Translation from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜

    2016-01-01

    With the process of globalization and the development of the internet, there are booming markets for the film and film translation.Eugene A. Nida's Functional Equivalence Theory, has been widely adopted by many translators since it was born. This thesis attempts to do some research on E-C film subtitling translation from the perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory. With two films of Inception and Kung Fu Panda as examples, equivalence should be realized at the morphological, the syntactical, and pragmatical level.

  11. A Note on the Equivalence between Observed and Expected Information Functions with Polytomous IRT Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to study the equivalence of observed and expected (Fisher) information functions with polytomous item response theory (IRT) models. It is established that observed and expected information functions are equivalent for the class of divide-by-total models (including partial credit, generalized partial credit, rating…

  12. Hyperbolic functions with configuration theorems and equivalent and equidecomposable figures

    CERN Document Server

    Shervatov, V G; Skornyakov, L A; Boltyanskii, V G

    2007-01-01

    This single-volume compilation of three books centers on Hyperbolic Functions, an introduction to the relationship between the hyperbolic sine, cosine, and tangent, and the geometric properties of the hyperbola. The development of the hyperbolic functions, in addition to those of the trigonometric (circular) functions, appears in parallel columns for comparison. A concluding chapter introduces natural logarithms and presents analytic expressions for the hyperbolic functions.The second book, Configuration Theorems, requires only the most elementary background in plane and solid geometry. It dis

  13. Over-invasion by functionally equivalent invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C; Sataruddin, Nurul S; Heard, Allison D

    2014-08-01

    Multiple invasive species have now established at most locations around the world, and the rate of new species invasions and records of new invasive species continue to grow. Multiple invasive species interact in complex and unpredictable ways, altering their invasion success and impacts on biodiversity. Incumbent invasive species can be replaced by functionally similar invading species through competitive processes; however the generalized circumstances leading to such competitive displacement have not been well investigated. The likelihood of competitive displacement is a function of the incumbent advantage of the resident invasive species and the propagule pressure of the colonizing invasive species. We modeled interactions between populations of two functionally similar invasive species and indicated the circumstances under which dominance can be through propagule pressure and incumbent advantage. Under certain circumstances, a normally subordinate species can be incumbent and reject a colonizing dominant species, or successfully colonize in competition with a dominant species during simultaneous invasion. Our theoretical results are supported by empirical studies of the invasion of islands by three invasive Rattus species. Competitive displacement is prominent in invasive rats and explains the replacement of R. exulans on islands subsequently invaded by European populations of R. rattus and R. norvegicus. These competition outcomes between invasive species can be found in a broad range of taxa and biomes, and are likely to become more common. Conservation management must consider that removing an incumbent invasive species may facilitate invasion by another invasive species. Under very restricted circumstances of dominant competitive ability but lesser impact, competitive displacement may provide a novel method of biological control.

  14. Singular gradient flow of the distance function and homotopy equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Albano, Paolo; Nguyen, Khai Tien; Sinestrari, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    It is a generally shared opinion that significant information about the topology of a bounded domain $\\Omega $ of a riemannian manifold $M$ is encoded into the properties of the distance, $d_{\\partial\\Omega}$, %, $d:\\Omega\\rightarrow [0,\\infty [$, from the boundary of $\\Omega$. To confirm such an idea we propose an approach based on the invariance of the singular set of the distance function with respect to the generalized gradient flow of of $d_{\\partial\\Omega}$. As an application, we deduce that such a singular set has the same homotopy type as $\\Omega$.

  15. Computing the partition function for kinetically trapped RNA secondary structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Lorenz

    Full Text Available An RNA secondary structure is locally optimal if there is no lower energy structure that can be obtained by the addition or removal of a single base pair, where energy is defined according to the widely accepted Turner nearest neighbor model. Locally optimal structures form kinetic traps, since any evolution away from a locally optimal structure must involve energetically unfavorable folding steps. Here, we present a novel, efficient algorithm to compute the partition function over all locally optimal secondary structures of a given RNA sequence. Our software, RNAlocopt runs in O(n3 time and O(n2 space. Additionally, RNAlocopt samples a user-specified number of structures from the Boltzmann subensemble of all locally optimal structures. We apply RNAlocopt to show that (1 the number of locally optimal structures is far fewer than the total number of structures--indeed, the number of locally optimal structures approximately equal to the square root of the number of all structures, (2 the structural diversity of this subensemble may be either similar to or quite different from the structural diversity of the entire Boltzmann ensemble, a situation that depends on the type of input RNA, (3 the (modified maximum expected accuracy structure, computed by taking into account base pairing frequencies of locally optimal structures, is a more accurate prediction of the native structure than other current thermodynamics-based methods. The software RNAlocopt constitutes a technical breakthrough in our study of the folding landscape for RNA secondary structures. For the first time, locally optimal structures (kinetic traps in the Turner energy model can be rapidly generated for long RNA sequences, previously impossible with methods that involved exhaustive enumeration. Use of locally optimal structure leads to state-of-the-art secondary structure prediction, as benchmarked against methods involving the computation of minimum free energy and of maximum expected

  16. On Translation of Business English from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵觅

    2016-01-01

    The translation of Business English thereby gets more and more important with the international business communica-tion getting increasingly frequent. This paper firstly analyzes the stylistic features of business English;secondly illustrates the guiding role of functional equivalence theory in business English translation and meanwhile explores the translation of business English guided by functional equivalence theory, trying to make this tentative study have the theoretical and practical meaning in business English translation.

  17. Affine Equivalence of Quartic Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions in Prime Power Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-27

    ANF. This representation of f (not unique, since one can choose any representative in Gn(x1xi2 . . . xil)) is called the short algebraic normal form ...Affine Equivalence of Quartic Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions in Prime Power Dimension Pantelimon Stănică Naval Postgraduate School...Boolean functions, circulant matrices, affine equivalence , permutations, prime powers. Mathematics Subject Classification [2010]: 94A60, 94C10, 06E30 1

  18. C-E Translation of Internet Neologisms from the Perspective of Function-al Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利梅

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and society,neologisms are involved in every field and continue to boom.However,Internet neologisms have an important influence on our mind and language form and update the way of information transmission and communication as well.It rapidly steps into people's life with different style and reflect social phenomenon and special cultural connotation with its unique charm.It is necessary to be aware of Internet neologisms translation when applying them into the language system.To those foreign readers who differ from Chinese mind and culture,inappropriate translation could result in misunderstanding and further cause communication failure.Hence,English translation for Internet neologisms should be placed considerable value.This paper will employ Eugene A.Nida's functional equivalence to probe into translation methods of In-ternet neologisms in order to find out appropriate translation.

  19. Effects of select and reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Tomanari, Gerson Y; Vaidya, Manish

    2015-09-01

    The present study used a single-subject design to evaluate the effects of select or reject control on equivalence class formation and transfer of function. Adults were exposed to a matching-to-sample task with observing requirements (MTS-OR) in order to bias the establishment of sample/S+ (select) or sample/S- (reject) relations. In Experiment 1, four sets of baseline conditional relations were taught-two under reject control (A1B2C1, A2B1C2) and two under select control (D1E1F1, D2E2F2). Participants were tested for transitivity, symmetry, equivalence and reflexivity. They also learned a simple discrimination involving one of the stimuli from the equivalence classes and were tested for the transfer of the discriminative function. In general, participants performed with high accuracy on all equivalence-related probes as well as the transfer of function probes under select control. Under reject control, participants had high scores only on the symmetry test; transfer of function was attributed to stimuli programmed as S-. In Experiment 2, the equivalence class under reject control was expanded to four members (A1B2C1D2; A2B1C2D1). Participants had high scores only on symmetry and on transitivity and equivalence tests involving two nodes. Transfer of function was extended to the programmed S- added to each class. Results from both experiments suggest that select and reject controls might differently affect the formation of equivalence classes and the transfer of stimulus functions. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. Functional Equivalence Acceptance Testing of FUN3D for Entry Descent and Landing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Wood, William A.; Kleb, William L.; Alter, Stephen J.; Glass, Christopher E.; Padilla, Jose F.; Hammond, Dana P.; White, Jeffery A.

    2013-01-01

    The functional equivalence of the unstructured grid code FUN3D to the the structured grid code LAURA (Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm) is documented for applications of interest to the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) community. Examples from an existing suite of regression tests are used to demonstrate the functional equivalence, encompassing various thermochemical models and vehicle configurations. Algorithm modifications required for the node-based unstructured grid code (FUN3D) to reproduce functionality of the cell-centered structured code (LAURA) are also documented. Challenges associated with computation on tetrahedral grids versus computation on structured-grid derived hexahedral systems are discussed.

  1. Functional Integral Approach to the Transition Temperature of Attractive Interacting Bose Gas in Traps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guang-Xi; DAI Xian-Xi

    2004-01-01

    The functional integral approach (FIA) is introduced to study the transition temperature of an imperfect Bose gas in traps.An interacting model in quantum statistical mechanics is presented.With the model we study a Bose gas with attractive interaction trapped in an external potential.We obtain the result that the transition temperature of a trapped Bose gas will slightly shift upwards owing to the attractive interacting force.Successful application of the FIA to Bose systems is demonstrated.

  2. A hybrid density functional study on the electron and hole trap states in anatase titanium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohno, Takahisa

    2012-01-14

    We present a theoretical study on electron and hole trap states in the bulk and (001) surface of anatase titanium dioxide using screened hybrid density functional calculations. In both the bulk and surface, calculations suggest that the neutral and ionized oxygen vacancies are possible electron traps. The doubly ionized oxygen vacancy is the most stable in the bulk, and is a candidate for a shallow donor in colorless anatase crystals. The hole trap states are localized at oxygen anions in both the bulk and surface. The self-trapped electron centered at a titanium cation cannot be produced in the bulk, but can be formed at the surface. The electron trap level at the surface oxygen vacancy is consistent with observations by photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical absorptions and luminescence in UV-irradiated anatase nanoparticles are found to come from the surface self-trapped hole and the surface oxygen vacancy.

  3. Functional equivalency inferred from "authoritative sources" in networks of homologous proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreedhar Natarajan

    Full Text Available A one-on-one mapping of protein functionality across different species is a critical component of comparative analysis. This paper presents a heuristic algorithm for discovering the Most Likely Functional Counterparts (MoLFunCs of a protein, based on simple concepts from network theory. A key feature of our algorithm is utilization of the user's knowledge to assign high confidence to selected functional identification. We show use of the algorithm to retrieve functional equivalents for 7 membrane proteins, from an exploration of almost 40 genomes form multiple online resources. We verify the functional equivalency of our dataset through a series of tests that include sequence, structure and function comparisons. Comparison is made to the OMA methodology, which also identifies one-on-one mapping between proteins from different species. Based on that comparison, we believe that incorporation of user's knowledge as a key aspect of the technique adds value to purely statistical formal methods.

  4. A Brief Talk of Functional Equivalence Used in Chinese Translation of English Lyrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晨

    2015-01-01

    With the development of cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries,a great number of English songs,serving as one important part of cultural exchanges,have been an important part of Chinese people’s daily life. However,barriers always could be encountered in translating those lyrics into Chinese. Thus,how to realize functional equivalence between Chinese translation version and English song lyrics has been a tough target which could not be neglected. By looking at Chinese translation of English song lyrics,a study of functional equivalence used on it will be made to solve such problems,it includes the principles for producing functional equivalence and adjustment. The key to realize functional equivalence in Chinese translation of English song lyrics is,namely,to balance rhythm and tones with the style of English songs,to minimize the loss of meaning in Chinese translation version,so that Chinese music lovers would understand the meaning of English song lyrics.

  5. A Study on the Chinese-English Translation of Tourist Materials Guided by Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Xue-fei

    2015-01-01

    A successful translation of Chinese tourist materials is of a vital importance to publicize and promote China. Based on Nida’s functional equivalence theory, the thesis discusses the characteristics of Chinese tourist materials and then gives three feasi⁃ble translation methods in order to improve the quality of C-E translation of tourist materials.

  6. Contingency Mapping: Use of a Novel Visual Support Strategy as an Adjunct to Functional Equivalence Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth E.; Mirenda, Pat

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of contingency mapping, a new visual support strategy designed to enhance clients' understanding of the contingencies associated with functional equivalence training (FET). The study was conducted in a general education classroom with an adolescent boy with autism who engaged in prompt dependent behavior. A…

  7. The Derived Transfer and Reversal of Mood Functions through Equivalence Relations: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Jane; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel; Luciano, Carmen; Smeets, Paul M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated the transfer of induced mood functions through equivalence relations by means of a musical mood-induction procedure. The research described in this article replicated and extended such work, primarily with the inclusion of a baseline and two types of reversal procedures. First, 16 adult participants were trained…

  8. Data Equivalency of an Interactive Voice Response System for Home Assessment of Back Pain and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Shaw

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interactive voice response (IVR systems that collect survey data using automated, push-button telephone responses may be useful to monitor patients’ pain and function at home; however, its equivalency to other data collection methods has not been studied.

  9. Stabilizing Parametric Region of Multiloop PID Controllers for Multivariable Systems Based on Equivalent Transfer Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Luan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the stabilizing PID parametric region for multivariable systems. Firstly, a general equivalent transfer function parameterization method is proposed to construct the multiloop equivalent process for multivariable systems. Then, based on the equivalent single loops, a model-based method is presented to derive the stabilizing PID parametric region by using the generalized Hermite-Biehler theorem. By sweeping over the entire ranges of feasible proportional gains and determining the stabilizing regions in the space of integral and derivative gains, the complete set of stabilizing PID controllers can be determined. The robustness of the design procedure against the approximation in getting the SISO plants is analyzed. Finally, simulation of a practical model is carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  10. From Equivalence to Skopos:A Theoretical“Dialogue”between Nida and the Functional School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辰

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Equivalence and Skopos Theory are two important translation theories in the fields of translation, which many scholars spare no efforts to research on. This short essay intends to compare and complement between Nida’s Dynamic Equivalence and Skopos theory after brielfy reviewing these two translation theories. It is aimed for helping readers improve their translation skills via stimulating them to consider translation issues from different angles, such as the nature of translation, the target of translation, translation market, cultural constrains, translation process, translation effects, and etc. And this essay focuses on Nida’s Dynamic Equivalence and Skopos theory, a part of functional theories via comparing and harmonizing these two translation theories.

  11. Red trap colour of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, G; Rice, S P; Millett, J

    2014-01-01

    The traps of many carnivorous plants are red in colour. This has been widely hypothesized to serve a prey attraction function; colour has also been hypothesized to function as camouflage, preventing prey avoidance. We tested these two hypotheses in situ for the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia. We conducted three separate studies: (i) prey attraction to artificial traps to isolate the influence of colour; (ii) prey attraction to artificial traps on artificial backgrounds to control the degree of contrast and (iii) observation of prey capture by D. rotundifolia to determine the effects of colour on prey capture. Prey were not attracted to green traps and were deterred from red traps. There was no evidence that camouflaged traps caught more prey. For D. rotundifolia, there was a relationship between trap colour and prey capture. However, trap colour may be confounded with other leaf traits. Thus, we conclude that for D. rotundifolia, red trap colour does not serve a prey attraction or camouflage function.

  12. Theory of solar cell light trapping through a nonequilibrium Green's function formulation of Maxwell's equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-07-01

    We develop a theory of solar cell light trapping based on directly solving Maxwell's equations through a nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. This theory rigorously connects the maximum power absorbed by the solar cell to the density of states of the cell. With this theory we are able to reproduce all standard results in solar cell light trapping previously derived using approximate formalisms. Therefore our development places solar cell light trapping theory on a much firmer theoretical foundation. Moreover, here the maximum power formula is derived without the assumption of reciprocity, unlike previous theories on solar cell light trapping. Therefore, we prove that the upper bound of light trapping enhancement cannot be overcome with the use of nonreciprocal structures. As a numerical test, we simulate an absorber structure that consists of a nonreciprocal material, and show that the absorption enhancement factor is largely independent of nonreciprocity, in consistency with the theory.

  13. Energy trapping of thickness-shear vibration modes of elastic plates with functionally graded materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Jiashi; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-03-01

    Energy trapping has important applications in the design of thickness-shear resonators. Considerable efforts have been made for the effective utilization and improvement of energy trapping with variations of plate configurations, such as adding electrodes and contouring. As a new approach in seeking improved energy trapping feature, we analyze thickness-shear vibrations in an elastic plate with functionally graded material (FGM) of in-plane variation of mechanical properties, such as elastic constants and density. A simple and general equation governing the thickness-shear modes is derived from a variational analysis. A plate with piecewise constant material properties is analyzed as an example. It is shown that such a plate can support thickness-shear vibration modes with obvious energy trapping. Bechmann's number for the existence of only one trapped mode also can be determined accordingly.

  14. Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique for identifying nonlinear structural elements from frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Zheng, G. T.

    2016-02-01

    A simple and general Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness Mapping technique is proposed for identifying the parameters or the mathematical model of a nonlinear structural element with steady-state primary harmonic frequency response functions (FRFs). The Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness is defined as the complex ratio between the internal force and the displacement response of unknown element. Obtained with the test data of responses' frequencies and amplitudes, the real and imaginary part of Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness are plotted as discrete points in a three dimensional space over the displacement amplitude and the frequency, which are called the real and the imaginary Equivalent Dynamic Stiffness map, respectively. These points will form a repeatable surface as the Equivalent Dynamic stiffness is only a function of the corresponding data as derived in the paper. The mathematical model of the unknown element can then be obtained by surface-fitting these points with special functions selected by priori knowledge of the nonlinear type or with ordinary polynomials if the type of nonlinearity is not pre-known. An important merit of this technique is its capability of dealing with strong nonlinearities owning complicated frequency response behaviors such as jumps and breaks in resonance curves. In addition, this technique could also greatly simplify the test procedure. Besides there is no need to pre-identify the underlying linear parameters, the method uses the measured data of excitation forces and responses without requiring a strict control of the excitation force during the test. The proposed technique is demonstrated and validated with four classical single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) numerical examples and one experimental example. An application of this technique for identification of nonlinearity from multiple-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems is also illustrated.

  15. New element for optimizing the functioning of sediment traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Sebastian; Franca, Mário; Schleiss, Anton

    2017-04-01

    Sediment traps protect urban areas against excessive sediment transport during hazardous floods and consist typically of a retention basin with an open sediment check dam at the downstream end. The design, as well as the morphological processes within the retention basin, were analyzed by several authors. With regard to open sediment check dams two types of triggering mechanisms for the initiation of sediment retention can be distinguished: (1) mechanical and (2) hydraulic clogging of the structure. Recent studies have shown that outlet structures combining both clogging principles may be considered to avoid undesired self-flushing. Further elements of check dams are conceivable, e.g. for retaining or conveying driftwood. This study analyses experimentally working principles and design criteria of standard elements of sediment traps. Furthermore, it introduces a new structural element to the sediment trap design with a guiding channel in the retention reservoir. Taking into account the natural shape of mountain rivers, the guiding channel has a trapezoidal cross-section shape and a rough but fixed bed. The effect of the guiding channel on sediment deposition pattern and re-mobilization are studied by means of physical model experiments with a standardized hydrograph and variable sediment supply. The results are evaluated by means of zenithal pictures and bedload transport rate, measured at the downstream end of the model. Major advantages of the combined use of both clogging principles include an improved control of the initiation of sediment deposition in order to allow for sediment transfer for small floods and a reduction of hazards related to self-flushing.

  16. Circulant Matrices and Affine Equivalence of Monomial Rotation Symmetric Boolean Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Received in revised form 15 October 2014 Accepted 17 May 2015 Keywords: Boolean functions Circulant matrices Affine equivalence Permutations a b s t... representation of f is called the algebraic normal form (ANF) of f . The number of variables in the highest order product term with nonzero... representation of f (not unique, since one can choose any representative in Gn(x1xi2 . . . xil)) is called the short algebraic normal form (SANF) of f

  17. RFID Equivalent Model for Prediction of Functional and EMC Performances in Complex Aeronautic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piche, Alexandre; Perraud, Richard; Peres, Gilles; Nguyen, Francois; Herlem, Yannick

    2016-05-01

    Wireless networks are widely used in urban or office environments and are increasingly considered as an attractive solution for various aeronautic applications. Current investigations focus in particular on RFID technologies because of their widespread use, low cost and ease of installation. The objective of this publication is to propose a concept of RFID equivalent model to predict functional and EMC performances in complex aeronautic areas.

  18. Mining Functional Dependency from Relational Databases Using Equivalent Classes and Minimal Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Atoum

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data Mining (DM represents the process of extracting interesting and previously unknown knowledge from data. This study proposes a new algorithm called FD_Discover for discovering Functional Dependencies (FDs from databases. This algorithm employs some concepts from relational databases design theory specifically the concepts of equivalences and the minimal cover. It has resulted in large improvement in performance in comparison with a recent and similar algorithm called FD_MINE.

  19. A Case Study of Subtitle Translation In Friends from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹

    2012-01-01

    As the acceleration of economy development and the deepening of openness, China and other countries in the world have more and more cultural exchanges, most of the parts are about movies and TV plays. This study is a target oriented research. The analysis of Friends has been focused on. According to the functional equivalence approach put forward by Eugene Nida, the various factors influencing audiovisual translation and applicable translation strategies are attempted to find out.

  20. AUXILIARY AND OTHER FUNCTIONS OF VERBS BE AND HAVE AND THEIR EQUIVALENTS IN SLOVENE

    OpenAIRE

    Poslek, Karla

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Auxiliary and other functions of verbs be and have and their equivalents in Slovene represents the theory of a verb in general and the verbs be and have in different functions and tenses. The theory of aspect and also the theory of the following tenses or aspects were precisely analyzed: the present progressive, the past progressive, the present perfective, the past perfective. The empirical part was based on the two mentioned verbs. We used Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci Code ...

  1. Weak Equivalence Principle and Propagation of the Wave Function in Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Clovis Jacinto

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of the wave function of a particle is characterised by a group and a phase velocity. The group velocity is associated with the particle's classical velocity, which is always smaller than the speed of light, and the phase velocity is associated with the propagation speed of the wave function phase and is treated as being unphysical, since its value is always greater than the speed of light. Here we show, using Sciama's Machian formulation of rest mass energy, that this physical interpretation, for the group and the phase velocity of the wave function, is only valid if the weak equivalence principle strictly holds for the propagating particle, except for the photon. In case this constraint is released the phase velocity of the wave function could acquire a physical meaning in quantum condensates.

  2. The generalized equivalent uniform dose function as a basis for intensity-modulated treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi Beong; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)]. E-mail: deasy@castor.wustl.edu

    2002-10-21

    The efficiency of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning depends critically on the presence or absence of multiple local minima in the feasible search space. We analyse the convexity of the generalized equivalent uniform dose equation (Niemierko A 1999 Med. Phys. 26 1100) when used either in the objective function or in the constraints. The practical importance of this analysis is that convex objective functions minimized over convex feasibility spaces do not have multiple local minima; likewise for concave objective functions maximized over convex feasibility spaces. Both of these situations are referred to as 'convex problems' and computationally efficient local search methods can be used for their solution. We also show that the Poisson-based tumour control probability objective function is strictly concave (if one neglects inter-patient heterogeneity), and hence it implies a single local minimum if maximized over a convex feasibility space. Even when including inter-patient heterogeneity, multiple local minima, although theoretically possible, are expected to be of minimal concern. The generalized equivalent uniform dose function (EUD{sub a}) is proved to be convex or concave depending on its only parameter a: when a is equal to or greater than 1, minimizing EUD{sub a} on a convex feasibility space leads to a single minimum; when a is less than 1, maximizing EUD{sub a} on a convex feasibility space leads to a single minimum. We also study a recently proposed practical, yet difficult, IMRT treatment planning formulation: unconstrained optimization of the objective function proposed by Wu et al (2002 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 52 224-35), which is expressed in terms of the EUD{sub a} for the target and normal tissues. This formulation may theoretically lead to multiple local minima. We propose a procedure for improving resulting solutions based on the convexity properties of the underlying objective function terms

  3. The generalized equivalent uniform dose function as a basis for intensity-modulated treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Beong; Deasy, Joseph O.

    2002-10-01

    The efficiency of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning depends critically on the presence or absence of multiple local minima in the feasible search space. We analyse the convexity of the generalized equivalent uniform dose equation (Niemierko A 1999 Med. Phys. 26 1100) when used either in the objective function or in the constraints. The practical importance of this analysis is that convex objective functions minimized over convex feasibility spaces do not have multiple local minima; likewise for concave objective functions maximized over convex feasibility spaces. Both of these situations are referred to as 'convex problems' and computationally efficient local search methods can be used for their solution. We also show that the Poisson-based tumour control probability objective function is strictly concave (if one neglects inter-patient heterogeneity), and hence it implies a single local minimum if maximized over a convex feasibility space. Even when including inter-patient heterogeneity, multiple local minima, although theoretically possible, are expected to be of minimal concern. The generalized equivalent uniform dose function (EUDa) is proved to be convex or concave depending on its only parameter a: when a is equal to or greater than 1, minimizing EUDa on a convex feasibility space leads to a single minimum; when a is less than 1, maximizing EUDa on a convex feasibility space leads to a single minimum. We also study a recently proposed practical, yet difficult, IMRT treatment planning formulation: unconstrained optimization of the objective function proposed by Wu et al (2002 Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 52 224-35), which is expressed in terms of the EUDa for the target and normal tissues. This formulation may theoretically lead to multiple local minima. We propose a procedure for improving resulting solutions based on the convexity properties of the underlying objective function terms.

  4. On the Translation of Idioms in Terms of Functional Equivalence-The Scholars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周君

    2009-01-01

    Idioms translation is of special importance both in English and Chinese languages. It is necessary to understand its implied meaning. This paper has made a summary of idioms translation techniques employed by the Yangs in The scholars, laying emphasis on the relationship between Functional Equivalence and idioms translation. Introducing six ways of idioms translation in The Scholars, the author explores the common ground between Yang Xianyi and Nida's translating ideas--the translation should consider both the readers and translators, be faithful to the original point of view and so on.

  5. The Application of the Functional Equivalence in the Translation of Chi-nese Tourist Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of Chinese tourism, more and more foreigners come to China to travel. The translation of Chinese tourist guide has become an effective way to publicize China and promote the development of Chinese tourism.The thesis mainly analyzes the application of the functional equivalence in the translation of Chinese tourist guide from the reader’s reception and response, and suggests some different translation techniques such as conversion, recasting, analogy and creative translation to make the translation of Chinese tourist guide better accepted by the target language readers.

  6. An Analysis of Problematic C-E Translations of Signs in Light of Nida ’s Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Fang

    2015-01-01

    Based on Nida’s Functional Equivalence theory, this article makes an analysis of the problems in C-E translations of signs in China. The author will discuss respectively the problematic C-E translations from two respects: 1) not being equivalent to source-language message, and 2) not being natural for target language. If translators work hard with the help of Nida’s functional equivalence theory, the defects and imperfections will be discovered, and standard signs in English will be read more and more in public places.

  7. In Situ Raman Spectroscopy of COOH-Functionalized SWCNTs Trapped with Optoelectronic Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Pauzauskie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optoelectronic tweezers (OETs were used to trap and deposit aqueous dispersions of carboxylic-acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. Dark-field video microscopy was used to visualize the dynamics of the bundles both with and without virtual electrodes, showing rapid accumulation of carbon nanotubes when optical virtual electrodes are actuated. Raman microscopy was used to probe SWCNT materials following deposition onto metallic fiducial markers as well as during trapping. The local carbon nanotube concentration was observed to increase rapidly during trapping by more than an order of magnitude in less than one second due to localized optical dielectrophoresis forces. This combination of enrichment and spectroscopy with a single laser spot suggests a broad range of applications in physical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  8. Calibration of trapping force and response function of optical tweezers in viscoelastic media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Mario; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2007-01-01

    , 594) is not possible as the viscoelastic properties of the bio-active medium are a priori unknown. Here, we present an approach that neither requires explicit assumptions about the size of the trapped particle nor about the viscoelastic properties of the medium. Instead, the interaction between...... the medium and the trapped particle is described in a general manner, through velocity and acceleration memory. Our method is applicable to general, at least locally homogeneous, viscoelastic media. The procedure combines active and passive approaches by the application of Onsager's regression hypothesis....... It allows extraction of the trapping stiffness kappa of the optical tweezers and of the response function chi(omega), which is the frequency-dependent effective inverse spring constant of the system. Finally, information about the viscoelastic properties of the medium may also be found. To test the method...

  9. (G'/G)-Expansion Method Equivalent to Extended Tanh Function Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-Ping

    2009-01-01

    In a recent article [Physics Letters A 372 (2008) 417], Wang et al. proposed a method, which is called the (G'/G)-expansion method, to look for travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations. The travelling wave solutions involving parameters of the KdV equation, the mKdV equation, the variant Boussinesq equations, and the Hirota-Satsuma equations are obtained by using this method. They think the (G'/G)-expansion method is a new method and more travelling wave solutions of many nonlinear evolution equations can be obtained. In this paper, we will show that the (G'/G)-expansion method is equivalent to the extended tanh function method.

  10. A Simple Analysis of English Proverb Translation under Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    English proverbs are fixed oral sayings widespread in English-speaking countries,expressing profound meanings in simple words.The content of English proverbs involves every aspect of social life of English-speaking countries,and the form presents the unique linguistic characteristics of English language. This paper explores the translation of English proverbs in the view of functional equivalence theory.%英语谚语是流传于英语国家的口头固定用语,用简单通俗的话来反映深刻的道理,内容涉及社会生活的各方面,富有独特的英语语言特点。本文将从功能对等理论视角浅析英语谚语的翻译。

  11. Arbitrary conditional discriminative functions of meaningful stimuli and enhanced equivalence class formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Roxana I; Fields, Lanny; Arntzen, Erik

    2015-03-01

    Equivalence class formation by college students was influenced through the prior acquisition of conditional discriminative functions by one of the abstract stimuli (C) in the to-be-formed classes. Participants in the GR-0, GR-1, and GR-5 groups attempted to form classes under the simultaneous protocol, after mastering 0, 1, or 5 conditional relations between C and other abstract stimuli (V, W, X, Y, Z) that were not included in the to-be-formed classes (ABCDE). Participants in the GR-many group attempted to form classes that contained four abstract stimuli and one meaningful picture as the C stimulus. In the GR-0, GR-1, GR-5, and GR-many groups, classes were formed by 17, 25, 58, and 67% of participants, respectively. Thus, likelihood of class formation was enhanced by the prior formation of five C-based conditional relations (the GR-5 vs. GR-0 condition), or the inclusion of a meaningful stimulus as a class member (the GR-many vs. GR-0 condition). The GR-5 and GR-many conditions produced very similar yields, indicating that class formation was enhanced to a similar degree by including a meaningful stimulus or an abstract stimulus that had become a member of five conditional relations prior to equivalence class formation. Finally, the low and high yields produced by the GR-1 and GR-5 conditions showed that the class enhancement effect of the GR-5 condition was due to the number of conditional relations established during preliminary training and not to the sheer amount of reinforcement provided while learning these conditional relations. Class enhancement produced by meaningful stimuli, then, can be attributed to their acquired conditional discriminative functions as well as their discriminative, connotative, and denotative properties.

  12. Effect of Trapping Agent and Polystyrene Chain End Functionality on Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Carnicom

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Coupling reactions were performed to gauge the effect of the inclusion of a radical trap on the success of coupling reactions of monohalogenated polystyrene (PSX chains in atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC type reactions. The effect of both the specific radical trap chosen and the structure of the polymer chain end were evaluated by the extent of dimerization observed in a series of analogous coupling reactions. The commonly used radical trap 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP showed the highest amounts of dimerization for PSX (X = Br, Cl compared to coupling reactions performed in its absence or with a different radical trap. A dinitroxide coupling agent was also studied with the extent of coupling nearly matching the effectiveness of MNP in RTA (Radical trap-assisted-ATRC reactions, while N-nitroso and electron rich nitroso coupling agents were the least effective. (2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl-piperin-l-yloxyl-capped PS (PS-TEMPO, prepared by NMP, was subjected to a coupling sequence conceptually similar to RTA-ATRC, but dimerization was not observed regardless of the choice of radical trap. Kinetic experiments were performed to observe rate changes on the coupling reaction of PSBr as a result of the inclusion of MNP, with substantial rate enhancements found in the RTA-ATRC coupling sequence compared to traditional ATRC.

  13. In vivo protein trapping produces a functional expression codex of the vertebrate proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karl J; Balciunas, Darius; Pogoda, Hans-Martin; Ding, Yonghe; Westcot, Stephanie E; Bedell, Victoria M; Greenwood, Tammy M; Urban, Mark D; Skuster, Kimberly J; Petzold, Andrew M; Ni, Jun; Nielsen, Aubrey L; Patowary, Ashok; Scaria, Vinod; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Xu, Xiaolei; Hammerschmidt, Matthias; Ekker, Stephen C

    2011-06-01

    We describe a conditional in vivo protein-trap mutagenesis system that reveals spatiotemporal protein expression dynamics and can be used to assess gene function in the vertebrate Danio rerio. Integration of pGBT-RP2.1 (RP2), a gene-breaking transposon containing a protein trap, efficiently disrupts gene expression with >97% knockdown of normal transcript amounts and simultaneously reports protein expression for each locus. The mutant alleles are revertible in somatic tissues via Cre recombinase or splice-site-blocking morpholinos and are thus to our knowledge the first systematic conditional mutant alleles outside the mouse model. We report a collection of 350 zebrafish lines that include diverse molecular loci. RP2 integrations reveal the complexity of genomic architecture and gene function in a living organism and can provide information on protein subcellular localization. The RP2 mutagenesis system is a step toward a unified 'codex' of protein expression and direct functional annotation of the vertebrate genome.

  14. Design of a functionally equivalent nonglycosylated analog of the glycopeptide antibiotic formaecin I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kanwal J; Pandey, Shashank; Salunke, Dinakar M

    2007-02-01

    Various nonglycosylated analogs were designed in order to explore the role of glycosylation in formaecin I, an antibacterial glycopeptide of insect origin. The functional behavior of a designed nonglycosylated analog (P(7),endo P(8a),DeltaT(11))formaecin I was found to be similar to that of native glycosylated peptide. Both the peptides showed similar antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains. The designed nonglycosylated analog (P(7),endo P(8a),DeltaT(11))formaecin I has low binding affinity to LPS identical to that of native glycopeptide, formaecin I. Both the peptides have similar killing kinetics and are nontoxic to erythrocytes. Formaecin I and designed nonglycosylated (P(7),endo P(8a),DeltaT(11))formaecin I have no definite conformational features associated with them. The glycosylated residue of threonine in formaecin I and proline residues in designed peptide [(P(7),endo P(8a),DeltaT(11))formaecin I], possibly help in stabilizing the correct conformation that facilitates presentation of the peptide to its receptor. It is evident that a functionally equivalent nonglycosylated analog of native glycosylated antibacterial peptide can be designed by strategically modifying the sequence.

  15. Functional Equivalence of Retroviral MA Domains in Facilitating Psi RNA Binding Specificity by Gag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffiny Rye-McCurdy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Retroviruses specifically package full-length, dimeric genomic RNA (gRNA even in the presence of a vast excess of cellular RNA. The “psi” (Ψ element within the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR of gRNA is critical for packaging through interaction with the nucleocapsid (NC domain of Gag. However, in vitro Gag binding affinity for Ψ versus non-Ψ RNAs is not significantly different. Previous salt-titration binding assays revealed that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 Gag bound to Ψ RNA with high specificity and relatively few charge interactions, whereas binding to non-Ψ RNA was less specific and involved more electrostatic interactions. The NC domain was critical for specific Ψ binding, but surprisingly, a Gag mutant lacking the matrix (MA domain was less effective at discriminating Ψ from non-Ψ RNA. We now find that Rous sarcoma virus (RSV Gag also effectively discriminates RSV Ψ from non-Ψ RNA in a MA-dependent manner. Interestingly, Gag chimeras, wherein the HIV-1 and RSV MA domains were swapped, maintained high binding specificity to cognate Ψ RNAs. Using Ψ RNA mutant constructs, determinants responsible for promoting high Gag binding specificity were identified in both systems. Taken together, these studies reveal the functional equivalence of HIV-1 and RSV MA domains in facilitating Ψ RNA selectivity by Gag, as well as Ψ elements that promote this selectivity.

  16. Applying Functional Equivalence Theory in Translating the Introduction to Scenic Spots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Liang

    2016-01-01

    Since we have entered in the 21st century, the economy of the whole world has experienced a process of transforma-tion and upgrading, the outstanding performance is the proportion of the third industry in the national economy, and the third in-dustry's contribution to the national economy is growing. Since our government has taken the reform and opening up policy, they attach great importance to the development of the third industry in our country. After more than 30 years of reform and opening-up,the development of tourism industry, also be called the“Smokeless Industry”, has been given priority within the booming third industry. There is no doubt that tourism has a bright development prospect. With the rapid development of econo-my and the deepening of the opening degree, there will be more and more foreigners coming to China for sightseeing. Under this big background, the high quality English introduction of tourist attractions is in great demand. This article is aimed at exploring the practical value of functional equivalence applying to the translation of scenic spots introduction, and provides some feasible solution for tourism translation.

  17. Synchronised national publics as functional equivalent of an integrated European public. The case of biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Seifert

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of the nineties, a number of EU Member States went through intense public controversies over agro-food biotechnology. These controversies occurred almost synchronously, brought about parallel issue-framings and actor-constellations, led national governments to adopt biotechnology aversive policies, and prompted a considerable tightening of the EU’s agro-food biotechnology regulation. This article analyses these events against the background of the current discussion on the lack of a European public. It tries to demonstrate that, as far as the democratic functions information and control are concerned, synchronized national controversies brought about effects equivalent to those theoretically expected from an integrated European public. The analysis also explores the reasons for the synchronous and, in important respects, analogous mobilizations of national publics, and highlights the major policy mechanisms accounting for the observed supranational responsiveness to mobilized national publics. The article concludes with a reflection as to whether other policy fields might provoke similar cases of supranational responsiveness to mobilisations of national publics.

  18. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  19. Explicit Proof of Equivalence of Two-Point Functions in the Two Formalisms of Thermal Field Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bang-Rong

    2002-01-01

    We give an explicit proof of equivalence of the two-point function to one-loop order in the two formalisms of thermal λ3 theory based on the expressions in the real-time formalism and indicate that the key point of completing the proof is to separate carefully the imaginary part of the zero-temperature loop integralfrom relevant expressions and this fact will certainly be very useful for examination of the equivalent problem of two formalisms of thermal field theory in other theories, including the one of the propagators for scalar bound states in an NJL model.

  20. The E-C Translation of Business Contracts in the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岗林

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been devoted to the B-C translation of business contracts,but there is still too much to be desired owing to the lack of a guiding theory.In this article.the author has a try to employ Nida'sfunctional equivalence theory to direct this kind of translation.

  1. Integration of ammonia-plasma-functionalized graphene nanodiscs as charge trapping centers for nonvolatile memory applications

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jer-Chyi

    2016-11-23

    Graphene nanodiscs (GNDs), functionalized using NH3 plasma, as charge trapping sites (CTSs) for non-volatile memory applications have been investigated in this study. The fabrication process relies on the patterning of Au nanoparticles (Au-NPs), whose thicknesses are tuned to adjust the GND density and size upon etching. A GND density as high as 8 × 1011 cm−2 and a diameter of approximately 20 nm are achieved. The functionalization of GNDs by NH3 plasma creates Nsingle bondH+ functional groups that act as CTSs, as observed by Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This inherently enhances the density of CTSs in the GNDs, as a result, the memory window becomes more than 2.4 V and remains stable after 104 operating cycles. The charge loss is less than 10% for a 10-year data retention testing, making this low-temperature process suitable for low-cost non-volatile memory applications on flexible substrates.

  2. Trapped antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kemp, S. L.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif el Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ˜1 T (˜0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be `born' inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released—the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state.

  3. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: fparra@mit.edu, E-mail: catto@psfc.mit.edu

    2009-06-15

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  4. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Felix I.; Catto, Peter J.

    2009-06-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  5. The Functions Of Context In Finding The Equivalent Words In Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪芳

    2008-01-01

    "Context" covers from pure linguistics to the situation in which a linguistic expression takes place, and to the social and cultural background of communication. Translation is a kind of inter-lingual and eross-euhural communication in which context plays an important role to achieve information equivalence in all levels. This thesis strives to investigate how context interplays with wording in translation, exemplified with an English-Chinese translation to illustrate how differ-ent interpretations of the source language contexts lead to different wordings in translation. It concludes that translators must be context-sensitive to comprehend to meanings of a word in SL. And that's the basis to select an equivalent word of the closest meanings in all level in the TL.

  6. The antisymmetry bending theory of generalized equivalent of functionally gradient materials structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永; 宋健; 张志民

    2002-01-01

    FGM structure is defined as a kind of generalized equivalent structure according to the structure and properties of materials. This paper uses the mature plate theory and the composite material laminate theory in the analysis of FGM structure and thus puts forward a kind of new concept and a new idea. A brand-new theory, the generalized equivalent antisymmetry bending theory, which can be used to analyze the structure and properties of FGM, is formed. In addition, the correctness, reliability and foresightedness of the theory are testified through concrete analysis and calculation of the applicable FGM structure by utilizing the generalized double Fourier series solution on one hand; on the other hand, it is compared with the existing theories and experiments.

  7. The Application of Functional Equivalence Theory in the Informative Text Translation-Take the Example of Working with Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰

    2015-01-01

    The translating aim of informative text is to convey the accurate meaning to the target language readers. Based on this feature, the translator selected Eugene Nida’s Functional Equivalence Theory as the translating guidance. With the book Working with Words:A Guide to Teaching and Learning Vocabulary, this paper analyzes the informative text translation by combing certain translation techniques, such as conversion, omission, division and shifting with examples, offering references to the translation of the same kind of material.

  8. Radon-Nikodym property of conjugate Banach spaces and w*-equivalence theorems of w*-u-measurable functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭铁信

    1996-01-01

    A deep representation theorem of random conjugate spaces and its several important applications are given. As an application of the representation theorem, the following basic theorem is also proved: let B* be the conjugate space of a Banach space B, be a given probability space. Then every B*-valued w*-u-measurable function defined on is w*-equivalent to a B*-valued u-measurable function defined on if and only if B* has the Radon-Nikodym property with respect to

  9. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  10. To Split or to Unify?—A Comparative Study on Functional Equivalence Translation Theory and Relevance Translation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 孔燕

    2012-01-01

      Functional equivalence, a focus in the translation studies, has been bombarded with numerous criticisms. Mean⁃while, relevance translation theory, proposed by Ernst-August Gutt, offers a united theoretical framework for translation stud⁃ies. The development of the translation theories does not rely on the appearance of a brand-new theory, but on the successful connection among various theories. To split or to unify, it is a question and it will direct the further development of transla⁃tion studies. Analyzing the similarities and differences between these two theories, the author are striving for a unity of them and striking a better way to approach translation studies.

  11. Analysis of the half-projected Hartree--Fock function: density matrix, natural orbitals, and configuration interaction equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smeyers, Y.G.; Delgado-Barrio, G.

    1976-05-01

    The half-projected Hartree--Fock function for singlet states (HPHF) is analyzed in terms of natural electronic configurations. For this purpose the HPHF spinless density matrix and its natural orbitals are first deduced. It is found that the HPHF function does not contain any contribution from odd-times excited configurations. It is seen in addition, in the case of the singlet ground states, this function is approximately equivalent to two closed-shell configurations, although the nature of the excited one depends on the nuclear geometry. An example is given in the case of the LiH ground state. Finally, the application of this model for studying systems of more than two atoms is criticized.

  12. An improved strategy to recover large fragments of functional human neutrophil extracellular traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eBarrientos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Netosis is a recently described neutrophil function that leads to the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs in response to various stimuli. NETs are filaments of decondensed chromatin associated with granular proteins. In addition to their role against microorganisms, NETs have been implicated in autoimmunity, thrombosis and tissue injury. Access to a standardized source of isolated NETs is needed to better analyze the roles of NETs. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure yielding soluble, well-characterized NET preparations from fresh human neutrophils. The calcium ionophore A23187 was chosen to induce netosis, and the restriction enzyme Alu I was used to prepare large NET fragments. DNA and proteins were detected by electrophoresis and specific labeling. Some NET proteins (histone 3, lactoferrin were quantified by western blotting, and dsDNA was quantified by immunofluorescence. Co-existence of dsDNA and neutrophil proteins confirmed the quality of the NET preparations. Their biological activity was checked by measuring elastase activity and bacterial killing against various strains. Interindividual differences in histone 3, lactoferrin, elastase and dsDNA relative contents were observed in isolated NETs. However, the reproducibility of NET preparation and characterization was validated, suggesting that this interindividual variability was rather related to donor variation than to technical bias. This standardized protocol is suitable for producing, isolating and quantifying functional NETs that could serve as a tool for studying NET effects on immune cells and tissues.

  13. An improved strategy to recover large fragments of functional human neutrophil extracellular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Lorena; Marin-Esteban, Viviana; de Chaisemartin, Luc; Le-Moal, Vanessa Lievin; Sandré, Catherine; Bianchini, Elsa; Nicolas, Valerie; Pallardy, Marc; Chollet-Martin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Netosis is a recently described neutrophil function that leads to the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to various stimuli. NETs are filaments of decondensed chromatin associated with granular proteins. In addition to their role against microorganisms, NETs have been implicated in autoimmunity, thrombosis, and tissue injury. Access to a standardized source of isolated NETs is needed to better analyze the roles of NETs. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure yielding soluble, well-characterized NET preparations from fresh human neutrophils. The calcium ionophore A23187 was chosen to induce netosis, and the restriction enzyme AluI was used to prepare large NET fragments. DNA and proteins were detected by electrophoresis and specific labeling. Some NET proteins [histone 3, lactoferrin (LF)] were quantified by western blotting, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) was quantified by immunofluorescence. Co-existence of dsDNA and neutrophil proteins confirmed the quality of the NET preparations. Their biological activity was checked by measuring elastase (ELA) activity and bacterial killing against various strains. Interindividual differences in histone 3, LF, ELA, and dsDNA relative contents were observed in isolated NETs. However, the reproducibility of NET preparation and characterization was validated, suggesting that this interindividual variability was rather related to donor variation than to technical bias. This standardized protocol is suitable for producing, isolating, and quantifying functional NETs that could serve as a tool for studying NET effects on immune cells and tissues.

  14. Equivalence of Green's function and the Fourier series representation of composites with periodic microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1990-01-01

    A computer program which is being developed to analyze the heterogeneous stress and strain history variation at the 'damage critical' locations of a composite structure operating at elevated temperatures is described. The theoretical foundations behind this program are described. The relationship between Fourier series and Green's function approaches is elucidated.

  15. Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

  16. Trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, E; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jonsell, S; Jørgensen, L V; Kemp, S L; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif el Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki,Y

    2012-01-01

    Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-art magnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ∼1 T (∼0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energy per particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 104 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been ...

  17. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid–protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin–protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  18. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  19. Gold-catalyzed synthesis of functionalized pyridines by using 2H-azirines as synthetic equivalents of alkenyl nitrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechter, Agnes; Henrion, Guilhem; Faudot dit Bel, Pierre; Gagosz, Fabien

    2014-05-05

    2H-Azirines are easily synthesized from the corresponding ketones and, despite possessing a CN bond embedded in a strained three-membered cycle, they are sufficiently stable to be isolated, stored, and manipulated. 2H-Azirines can be regarded as valuable synthetic equivalents of alkenyl nitrenes, however, reactions capitalizing on the cyclic strain of the heterocyclic motif and involving the cleavage of the CN single bond remain surprisingly limited. A gold-catalyzed reaction that allows the formation of polysubstituted functionalized pyridines from easily accessible 2-propargyl 2H-azirine derivatives was developed. This transformation, which corresponds to an unprecedented intramolecular transfer of an alkenyl nitrene to an alkyne, proceeds with low catalyst loading, is efficient, and exhibits a high functional-group tolerance and a wide substrate scope. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Metalloid tolerance based on phytochelatins is not functionally equivalent to the arsenite transporter Acr3p.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Robert; Clemens, Stephan; Augustyniak, Daria; Golik, Pawel; Maciaszczyk, Ewa; Tamás, Markus J; Dziadkowiec, Dorota

    2003-05-01

    Active transport of metalloids by Acr3p and Ycf1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and chelation by phytochelatins in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, nematodes, and plants represent distinct strategies of metalloid detoxification. In this report, we present results of functional comparison of both resistance mechanisms. The S. pombe and wheat phytochelatin synthase (PCS) genes, when expressed in S. cerevisiae, mediate only modest resistance to arsenite and thus cannot functionally compensate for Acr3p. On the other hand, we show for the first time that phytochelatins also contribute to antimony tolerance as PCS fully complement antimonite sensitivity of ycf1Delta mutant. Remarkably, heterologous expression of PCS sensitizes S. cerevisiae to arsenate, while ACR3 confers much higher arsenic resistance in pcsDelta than in wild-type S. pombe. The analysis of PCS and ACR3 homologues distribution in various organisms and our experimental data suggest that separation of ACR3 and PCS genes may lead to the optimal tolerance status of the cell.

  1. Equivalence between Step Selection Functions and Biased Correlated Random Walks for Statistical Inference on Animal Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Thierry; Fortin, Daniel; Rivest, Louis-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Animal movement has a fundamental impact on population and community structure and dynamics. Biased correlated random walks (BCRW) and step selection functions (SSF) are commonly used to study movements. Because no studies have contrasted the parameters and the statistical properties of their estimators for models constructed under these two Lagrangian approaches, it remains unclear whether or not they allow for similar inference. First, we used the Weak Law of Large Numbers to demonstrate that the log-likelihood function for estimating the parameters of BCRW models can be approximated by the log-likelihood of SSFs. Second, we illustrated the link between the two approaches by fitting BCRW with maximum likelihood and with SSF to simulated movement data in virtual environments and to the trajectory of bison (Bison bison L.) trails in natural landscapes. Using simulated and empirical data, we found that the parameters of a BCRW estimated directly from maximum likelihood and by fitting an SSF were remarkably similar. Movement analysis is increasingly used as a tool for understanding the influence of landscape properties on animal distribution. In the rapidly developing field of movement ecology, management and conservation biologists must decide which method they should implement to accurately assess the determinants of animal movement. We showed that BCRW and SSF can provide similar insights into the environmental features influencing animal movements. Both techniques have advantages. BCRW has already been extended to allow for multi-state modeling. Unlike BCRW, however, SSF can be estimated using most statistical packages, it can simultaneously evaluate habitat selection and movement biases, and can easily integrate a large number of movement taxes at multiple scales. SSF thus offers a simple, yet effective, statistical technique to identify movement taxis.

  2. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation..., it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testing/calculation campaigns, the only information available for them being the manufacturer datasheet. The solution to this problem is the development of new and simple methods to define equivalent circuits able to reproduce the behavior of the panel for any working condition, from a very small amount of information. In the present work a direct and completely explicit method to extract solar cell parameters from the manufacturer datasheet is presented and tested. This method is based on analytical formulation which includes the use of the Lambert W-function to turn the series resistor equation explicit. The presented method is used to analyze commercial solar panel performance (i.e., the current-voltage–I-V–curve at different levels of irradiation and temperature. The analysis performed is based only on the information included in the manufacturer’s datasheet.

  3. Effect of trapped ions and nonequilibrium electron-energy distribution function on dust-particle charging in gas discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhinin, G I; Fedoseev, A V; Antipov, S N; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E

    2009-03-01

    Dust-particles charging in a low-pressure glow discharge was investigated theoretically. The dust-particle charge was found on the basis of a developed self-consistent model taking into account the nonequilibrium character of electron distribution function and the formation of an ionic coat composed of bound or trapped ions around the dust particle. The dust-particle charge, the radial distributions of electron density, free and trapped ions densities, and the distribution of electrostatic potential were found. It was shown that the non-Maxwellian electron distribution function and collisional flux of trapped ions both reduce the dust-particle charge in comparison with that received with the help of the conventional orbital motion limited (OML) model. However, in rare collisional regimes in plasma when the collisional flux is negligible, the formation of ionic coat around a particle leads to a shielding of the proper charge of a dust particle. In low-pressure experiments, it is only possible to detect the effective charge of a dust particle that is equal to the difference between the proper charge of the particle and the charge of trapped ions. The calculated effective dust particle charge is in fairly good agreement with the experimental measurements of dust-particle charge dependence on gas pressure.

  4. Functional Equivalence of Imagined vs. Real Performance of an Inhibitory Task: An EEG/ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Bonilla, Fidel M.; González-Villar, Alberto J.; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T.

    2016-01-01

    Early neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggested that motor imagery recruited a different network than motor execution. However, several studies have provided evidence for the involvement of the same circuits in motor imagery tasks, in the absence of overt responses. The present study aimed to test whether imagined performance of a stop-signal task produces a similar pattern of motor-related EEG activity than that observed during real performance. To this end, mu and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD) and the Lateralized Readiness Potential (LRP) were analyzed. The study also aimed to clarify the functional significance of the Stop-N2 and Stop-P3 event-related potential (ERPs) components, which were also obtained during both real and imagined performance. The results showed a common pattern of brain electrical activity, and with a similar time course, during covert performance and overt execution of the stop-signal task: presence of LRP and Stop-P3 in the imagined condition and identical LRP onset, and similar mu and beta ERD temporal windows for both conditions. These findings suggest that a similar inhibitory network may be activated during both overt and covert execution of the task. Therefore, motor imagery may be useful to improve inhibitory skills and to develop new communicating systems for Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) devices based on inhibitory signals. PMID:27695410

  5. Functional equivalence of imagined vs. real performance of an inhibitory task: an EEG/ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Galdo-Alvarez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Early neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggested motor imagery recruited a different network than motor execution. However, several studies have provided evidence for the involvement of the same circuits in motor imagery tasks, in the absence of overt responses. The present study aimed to test whether imagined performance of a stop-signal task produces a similar pattern of motor-related EEG activity than that observed during real performance. To this end, mu and beta event-related desynchronization (ERD and the Lateralized Readiness Potential (LRP were analyzed. The study also aimed to clarify the functional significance of the Stop-N2 and Stop-P3 ERP components, which were also obtained during both real and imagined performance. The results showed a common pattern of brain electrical activity, and with a similar time course, during covert performance and overt execution of the stop-signal task: presence of LRP and Stop-P3 in the imagined condition and identical LRP onset, and similar mu and beta ERD temporal windows for both conditions. These findings suggest that a similar inhibitory network may be activated during both overt and covert execution of the task. Therefore, motor imagery may be useful to improve inhibitory skills and to develop new communicating systems for Brain Computer Interface (BCI devices based on inhibitory signals.

  6. Reduction of empathy for pain by placebo analgesia suggests functional equivalence of empathy and first-hand emotion experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rütgen, Markus; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Riečanský, Igor; Lamm, Claus

    2015-06-10

    Previous research in social neuroscience has consistently shown that empathy for pain recruits brain areas that are also activated during the first-hand experience of pain. This has been interpreted as evidence that empathy relies upon neural processes similar to those underpinning the first-hand experience of emotions. However, whether such overlapping neural activations imply that equivalent neural functions are engaged by empathy and direct emotion experiences remains to be demonstrated. We induced placebo analgesia, a phenomenon specifically modulating the first-hand experience of pain, to test whether this also reduces empathy for pain. Subjective and neural measures of pain and empathy for pain were collected using self-report and event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants underwent painful electrical stimulation or witnessed that another person was undergoing such stimulation. Self-report showed decreased empathy during placebo analgesia, and this was mirrored by reduced amplitudes of the pain-related P2, an ERP component indexing neural computations related to the affective-motivational component of pain. Moreover, these effects were specific for pain, as self-report and ERP measures of control conditions unrelated to pain were not affected by placebo analgesia. Together, the present results suggest that empathy seems to rely on neural processes that are (partially) functionally equivalent to those engaged by first-hand emotion experiences. Moreover, they imply that analgesics may have the unwanted side effect of reducing empathic resonance and concern for others. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358938-10$15.00/0.

  7. Incorporation of functional imaging data in the evaluation of dose distributions using the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miften, Moyed M; Das, Shiva K; Su, Min; Marks, Lawrence B [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2004-05-07

    Advances in the fields of IMRT and functional imaging have greatly increased the prospect of escalating the dose to highly active or hypoxic tumour sub-volumes and steering the dose away from highly functional critical structure regions. However, current clinical treatment planning and evaluation tools assume homogeneous activity/function status in the tumour/critical structures. A method was developed to incorporate tumour/critical structure heterogeneous functionality in the generalized concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD). The tumour and critical structures functional EUD (FEUD) values were calculated from the dose-function histogram (DFH), which relates dose to the fraction of total function value at that dose. The DFH incorporates flouro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) functional data for tumour, which describes the distribution of metabolically active tumour clonogens, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion data for critical structures. To demonstrate the utility of the method, the lung dose distributions of two non-small cell lung caner patients, who received 3D conformal external beam radiotherapy treatment with curative intent, were evaluated. Differences between the calculated lungs EUD and FEUD values of up to 50% were observed in the 3D conformal plans. In addition, a non-small cell lung cancer patient was inversely planned with a target dose prescription of 76 Gy. Two IMRT plans (plan-A and plan-B) were generated for the patient based on the CT, FDG-PET and SPECT treatment planning images using dose-volume objective functions. The IMRT plans were generated with the goal of achieving more critical structures sparing in plan-B than plan-A. Results show the target volume EUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 5% with a value of 73.31 Gy, and the FEUD in plan-B is lower than plan-A by 2.6% with a value of 75.77 Gy. The FEUD plan-B values for heart and lungs were lower than plan-A by 22% and 18%, respectively

  8. The differential item functioning and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test for five language groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Schaap

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a number of years, eliminating a language component in testing by using nonverbal cognitive tests has been proposed as a possible solution to the effect of groups’ languages (mother tongues or first languages on test performance. This is particularly relevant in South Africa with its 11 official languages.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the differential item functioning (DIF and structural equivalence of a nonverbal cognitive ability test (the PiB/SpEEx Observance test [401] for five South African language groups.Motivation for study: Cultural and language group sensitive tests can lead to unfair discrimination and is a contentious workplace issue in South Africa today. Misconceptions about psychometric testing in industry can cause tests to lose credibility if industries do not use a scientifically sound test-by-test evaluation approach.Research design, approach and method: The researcher used a quasi-experimental design and factor analytic and logistic regression techniques to meet the research aims. The study used a convenience sample drawn from industry and an educational institution.Main findings: The main findings of the study show structural equivalence of the test at a holistic level and nonsignificant DIF effect sizes for most of the comparisons that the researcher made.Practical/managerial implications: This research shows that the PIB/SpEEx Observance Test (401 is not completely language insensitive. One should see it rather as a language-reduced test when people from different language groups need testing.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide supporting evidence that nonverbal cognitive tests are plausible alternatives to verbal tests when one compares people from different language groups.

  9. A phyletic perspective on the allometry of plant biomass-partitioning patterns and functionally equivalent organ-categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Biomass-partitioning patterns influence the functioning of aquatic and terrestrial vegetation at all levels, ranging from individual growth and reproduction to the flow of mass and energy through entire communities. For this reason, leaf, stem and root dry biomass-partitioning patterns across taxonomically and ecologically diverse seed plants (spermatophytes) have been intensively investigated, both empirically and theoretically. By contrast, phyletically disparate plants (e.g. green and brown algal macrophytes, mosses and pteridophytes) have not been examined to determine whether the partitioning of their body parts into 'leaf', 'stem' and 'root' analogs accords with that of spermatophytes. In this review, the biomass-partitioning patterns of siphonous and brown algal macrophytes, mosses and pteridophytes were compared allometrically with those of spermatophytes and were shown to be largely in statistical accordance (thus lending support to the hypothesis that a single scaling relationship exists across eukaryotic photoautotrophs). This concordance is argued to support the hypothesis of functional equivalence across analogous, but developmentally different, body parts, a feature that permits the use of simpler biological model systems with which to derive analytical explanations for the biomass-partitioning patterns reported for more complex seed plants.

  10. 非言语交际与功能对等翻译%Non-verbal Communication and functional equivalence translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友军

    2011-01-01

    翻译是一种跨文化交际活动,非言语符号作为非言语交流方式,在人类交际中起着极其重要的作用。因而,如何积极有效地处理非言语符号英汉互译的跨文化因素以及其功能对等问题是一个值得重视的研究课题。本论文将从功能对等角度全面地探讨解决翻译过程中遇到的非言语翻译问题,探讨译者如何合理地处理原文中的非言语符号信息,如何在译文中用言语描述出在原文文化中非言语符号所拥有的信息功能和所负载的文化涵义。%Translation is a cross-cultural communication activity,non-verbal symbols as non-verbal communication plays an important role in human communication.Thus,It is a worthy research topic on how to actively and effectively deal with cross-cultural factors and their functions of non-verbal symbol translation.This paper will be fully try to encounter and solve the problem of the non-verbal translation from the perspective of the functional equivalence,explore how to rationally use the original information in the non-verbal symbols,using acurate words to describe the the original culture meaning of non-verbal symbols and its information function.

  11. Parameterization of the Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Source Function with Chemical Production by an Equivalent Two-Level Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun ZHU

    2003-01-01

    The classic two-level or equivalent two-level model that includes only the statistical equilibriumof radiative and thermal processes of excitation and quenching between two vibrational energy levelsis extended by adding chemical production to the rate equations. The modifications to the non-localthermodynamic equilibrium source function and cooling rate are parameterized by φc, which characterizesthe ratio of chemical production to collisional quenching. For applications of broadband emission of O3 at9.6 μm, the non-LTE effect of chemical production on the cooling rate and limb emission is proportionalto the ratio of O to O3. For a typical [O]/[O3], the maximum enhancements of limb radiance and coolingrate are about 15%-30% and 0.03-0.05 K day-1, respectively, both occurring near the mesopause regions.This suggests that the broadband limb radiance above ~80 km is sensitive to O3 density but not sensitiveto the direct cooling rate along the line-of-sight, which makes O3 retrieval feasible but the direct coolingrate retrieval difficult by using the O3 9.6 μm band limb emission.

  12. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  13. Solar Modulation of Inner Trapped Belt Radiation Flux as a Function of Atmospheric Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, M. A. K.

    2005-01-01

    No simple algorithm seems to exist for calculating proton fluxes and lifetimes in the Earth's inner, trapped radiation belt throughout the solar cycle. Most models of the inner trapped belt in use depend upon AP8 which only describes the radiation environment at solar maximum and solar minimum in Cycle 20. One exception is NOAAPRO which incorporates flight data from the TIROS/NOAA polar orbiting spacecraft. The present study discloses yet another, simple formulation for approximating proton fluxes at any time in a given solar cycle, in particular between solar maximum and solar minimum. It is derived from AP8 using a regression algorithm technique from nuclear physics. From flux and its time integral fluence, one can then approximate dose rate and its time integral dose.

  14. Coral mucus functions as an energy carrier and particle trap in the reef ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wild, C.; Huettel, M.; Klueter, A.

    2004-01-01

    Zooxanthellae, endosymbiotic algae of reef-building corals, substantially contribute to the high gross primary production of coral reefs(1), but corals exude up to half of the carbon assimilated by their zooxanthellae as mucus(2,3). Here we show that released coral mucus efficiently traps organic...... matter from the water column and rapidly carries energy and nutrients to the reef lagoon sediment, which acts as a biocatalytic mineralizing filter. In the Great Barrier Reef, the dominant genus of hard corals, Acropora, exudes up to 4.8 litres of mucus per square metre of reef area per day. Between 56......% and 80% of this mucus dissolves in the reef water, which is filtered through the lagoon sands. Here, coral mucus is degraded at a turnover rate of at least 7% per hour. Detached undissolved mucus traps suspended particles, increasing its initial organic carbon and nitrogen content by three orders...

  15. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  16. Identification from diverse mammalian poxviruses of host-range regulatory genes functioning equivalently to vaccinia virus C7L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Chao, Jie; Xiang, Yan

    2008-03-15

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) C7L is a host-range gene that regulates cellular tropism of VACV. Distantly related C7L homologues are encoded by nearly all mammalian poxviruses, but whether they are host-range genes functioning similar to VACV C7L has not been determined. Here, we used VACV as a model system to analyze five different C7L homologues from diverse mammalian poxviruses for their abilities to regulate poxvirus cellular tropism. Three C7L homologues (myxoma virus M63R, M64R and cowpox virus 020), when expressed with an epitope tag and from a VACV mutant lacking the host-range genes K1L and C7L (vK1L-C7L-), failed to support productive viral replication in human and murine cells. In nonpermissive cells, these viruses did not synthesize viral late proteins, expressed a reduced level of the early protein E3L, and were defective at suppressing cellular PKR activation. In contrast, two other C7L homologues, myxoma virus (MYXV) M62R and yaba-like disease virus (YLDV) 67R, when expressed with an epitope tag and from vK1L(-)C7L(-), supported normal viral replication in human and murine cells and restored the ability of the virus to suppress PKR activation. Furthermore, M62R rescued the defect of vK1L(-)C7L(-) at replicating and disseminating in mice following intranasal inoculation. These results show that MYXV M62R and YLDV 67R function equivalently to C7L at supporting VACV replication in mammalian hosts and suggest that a C7L-like host-range gene is essential for the replication of many mammalian poxviruses in mammalian hosts.

  17. Theoretical study of the spin trapping of hydroxyl radical by cyclic nitrones: a density functional theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamena, Frederick A; Hadad, Christopher M; Zweier, Jay L

    2004-02-18

    The hydroxyl radical (*OH) is an important mediator of biological oxidative stress, and this has stimulated interest in its detection. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) and its alkoxycarbonyl and alkoxyphosphoryl analogues have been employed as spin traps for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic radical detection. Energies of optimized geometries of nitrones and their corresponding *OH adducts were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G//B3LYP/6-31G level. Calculations predict that the trans adduct formation is favored in alkoxycarbonyl nitrones, while cis adducts with intramolecular H-bonding is favored for alkoxyphosphoryl nitrones. Addition of *OH to a phosphoryl-substituted nitrone is more exoergic than the carbonylated nitrones. Charge and spin densities on the nitrone spin traps were correlated with their rates of addition with *OH, and results show that the charge density on the nitronyl C, the site of *OH addition, is more positive in phosphorylated nitrones compared to DMPO and the alkoxycarbonyl nitrones. The dihedral angle between the beta-H and nitroxyl O bonds is smaller in phosphorylated nitrones, and that aspect appears to account for the longer half-lives of the spin adducts compared to those in DMPO and alkoxycarbonyl nitrones. Structures of nitrones with trifluoromethyl-, trifluoromethylcarbonyl-, methylsulfonyl-, trifluoromethylsulfonyl-, amido-, spiropentyl-, and spiroester substituents were optimized and their energies compared. Amido and spiroester nitrones were predicted to be the most suitable nitrones for spin trapping of *OH due to the similarity of their thermodynamic and electronic properties to those of alkoxyphosphoryl nitrones. Moreover, dimethoxyphosphoryl substitution at C-5 was found to be the most efficient substitution site for spin trapping of *OH, and their spin adducts are predicted to be the most stable of all of the isomeric forms.

  18. On Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s Translation of Lu Xun’s My Old Home from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常珏

    2015-01-01

    Lu Xun has many classic works which are translated into English.Because of special traditional culture,the work contains a bright feature of the times and nationality characteristics.These cultural factors become the most difficult part in translation.Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s translation of Lu xun’s work is the most famous one among so many translations.This paper will study Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s translation of Lu Xun’s My Old Home from the perspective of Functional Equivalence.According to Functional Equivalence,it will appreciate the work from the title,cultureloaded word and dialect.

  19. On Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s Translation of Lu Xun’s My Old Home from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常珏

    2015-01-01

    Lu Xun has many classic works which are translated into English.Because of special traditional culture,the work contains a bright feature of the times and nationality characteristics.These cultural factors become the most difficult part in translation.Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s translation of Lu xun’s work is the most famous one among so many translations.This paper will study Yang Xianyi and Gladys Yang’s translation of Lu Xun’s My Old Home from the perspective of Functional Equivalence.According to Functional Equivalence,it will appreciate the work from the title,culture-loaded word and dialect.

  20. Measurement of the Wigner Characteristic Function for the Center-of-Mass Motion of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Li-Hua; WANG Ling-Zhi; JIANG Yun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a scheme for the reconstruction of the quantum states for the center-of-mass vibrationalmode of two trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are multichromatically excited by three lasers. Then measurementof the difference between probabilities of the ions being both in electronic ground and excited states directly yields theWigner characteristic function for the center-of-mass vibrational state. The scheme can also be used to prepare entangledcoherent states for the center-of-mass and relative vibrational modes.

  1. Measurement of the Wigner Characteristic Function for the Center-of-Mass Motion of Two Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINLi-Hua; WANGLing-Zhi; JIANGYun-Kun

    2003-01-01

    We proposed a scheme for the reconstruction of the quantum states for the center-of-mass vibrational mode of two trapped ions. In the scheme the ions are multichromatically excited by three lasers. Then measurement of the difference between probabilities of the ions being both in electronic ground and excited states directly yields the Wigner characteristic function for the center-of-mass vibrational state. The scheme can also be used to prepare entangled coherent states for the center-of-mass and relative vibrational modes.

  2. Trapping of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by amphiphilic cyclodextrin functionalized polypropylene nonwovens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholdt, Ludmilla; Nielsen, Ronnie Bo Højstrup; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    Recently, there has been an augmented focus on the increasing amount of pesticides, drug residues and endocrine disruptors present in waste and drinking water1. These pollutants represent a challenge in water purification since they may be hazardous to human health even in low doses2. Cyclodextrins...... of the textile fibers. In this study we present the ability of amphiphilic CD coated polypropylene nonwovens to trap 8 different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/endocrine disruptors from aqueous solutions thus demonstrating the potential of using the amphiphilic cyclodextrins for water purification....

  3. ZFIRE: using Hα equivalent widths to investigate the in situ initial mass function at z ˜ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Themiya; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Yuan, Tiantian; Fisher, David; Tran, Kim-Vy; Kewley, Lisa J.; Spitler, Lee; Alcorn, Leo; Cowley, Michael; Labbe, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline; Tomczak, Adam

    2017-07-01

    We use the ZFIRE (http://zfire.swinburne.edu.au) survey to investigate the high-mass slope of the initial mass function (IMF) for a mass-complete (log_{10({M}_*/M_{⊙})˜ 9.3}) sample of 102 star-forming galaxies at z ˜ 2 using their Hα equivalent widths (Hα EWs) and rest-frame optical colours. We compare dust-corrected Hα EW distributions with predictions of star formation histories (SFHs) from pegase.2 and starburst synthetic stellar population models. We find an excess of high Hα EW galaxies that are up to 0.3-0.5 dex above the model-predicted Salpeter IMF locus and the Hα EW distribution is much broader (10-500 Å) than can easily be explained by a simple monotonic SFH with a standard Salpeter-slope IMF. Though this discrepancy is somewhat alleviated when it is assumed that there is no relative attenuation difference between stars and nebular lines, the result is robust against observational biases, and no single IMF (i.e. non-Salpeter slope) can reproduce the data. We show using both spectral stacking and Monte Carlo simulations that starbursts cannot explain the EW distribution. We investigate other physical mechanisms including models with variations in stellar rotation, binary star evolution, metallicity and the IMF upper-mass cut-off. IMF variations and/or highly rotating extreme metal-poor stars (Z ˜ 0.1 Z⊙) with binary interactions are the most plausible explanations for our data. If the IMF varies, then the highest Hα EWs would require very shallow slopes (Γ > -1.0) with no one slope able to reproduce the data. Thus, the IMF would have to vary stochastically. We conclude that the stellar populations at z ≳ 2 show distinct differences from local populations and there is no simple physical model to explain the large variation in Hα EWs at z ˜ 2.

  4. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-04-18

    Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  5. Increasing the durability of Li-ion batteries by means of manganese ion trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Anjan; Ziv, Baruch; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron; Halalay, Ion C.

    2017-02-01

    Manganese dissolution from positive electrodes seriously reduces the useful life of Li-ion batteries, especially with positive electrode materials having spinel phases. We show herein that Mn ion trapping separators containing inexpensive mass-produced materials may dramatically increase the life of Li-ion batteries. LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing these materials and a LiPF6 based electrolyte solution display excellent capacity retention during cycling at both room and elevated temperatures, over baseline cells with plain separators. After 30 days of cycling at 55 °C and C/5 rate, LiMn2O4-graphite cells containing three different Mn-trapping materials with nitrogen functionalities retain between 75% and 125% more of the initial capacity than the baseline cells. Mn amounts in graphite negative electrodes from cells with the functional separators are 13-21 times lower than in baseline cells. LiMn2O4 lattice shrinkage in cells with functionalized separators is negligible compared to baseline cells, indicating major reductions in the loss of electrochemically active Li+ ions and increased stability of the LiMn2O4 crystal lattice.

  6. 在仿射等价类中找具有好的密码学性质的布尔函数%Find Better Boolean Functions in the Affine Equivalence Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫红; 李娜

    2005-01-01

    The Boolean functions in an affine equivalence class are of the same algebraicdegree and nonlinearity, but may satisfy different order of correlation immunity and propa-gation criterion. A method is presented in this paper to find Boolean functions with higherorder correlation immunity or satisfying higher order propagation criterion in an affine equiv-alence class. 8 AES s-box functions are not better Boolean functions in their affine equiva-lence class.

  7. Functional imaging equivalence and proof of concept for image-guided adaptive radiotherapy with fixed gantry and rotating couch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feain, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We have demonstrated imaging equivalence in cone beam CT reconstructions between rigid phantom images acquired with a conventional rotating gantry and with a fixed-gantry and rotating phantom. We have presented a method for image reconstruction under a fixed-beam imaging geometry using a deformable phantom.

  8. Time domain simulation of tandem silicon solar cells with optimal textured light trapping enabled by the quadratic complex rational function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H; Jung, K-Y; Tee, X T; Bermel, P

    2014-05-05

    Amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon (a-Si/c-Si) micromorph tandem cells, with best confirmed efficiency of 12.3%, have yet to fully approach their theoretical performance limits. In this work, we consider a strategy for improving the light trapping and charge collection of a-Si/c-Si micromorph tandem cells using random texturing with adjustable short-range correlations and long-range periodicity. In order to consider the full-spectrum absorption of a-Si and c-Si, a novel dispersion model known as a quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) is applied to photovoltaic materials (e.g., a-Si, c-Si and silver). It has the advantage of accurately modeling experimental semiconductor dielectric values over the entire relevant solar bandwidth from 300-1000 nm in a single simulation. This wide-band dispersion model is then used to model a silicon tandem cell stack (ITO/a-Si:H/c-Si:H/silver), as two parameters are varied: maximum texturing height h and correlation parameter f. Even without any other light trapping methods, our front texturing method demonstrates 12.37% stabilized cell efficiency and 12.79 mA/cm² in a 2 μm-thick active layer.

  9. Hydrogen trapping in MAX phase Ti3SiC2: Insight from chemical bonding by density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. F.; Ren, X. L.; Zhang, J. Y.; Huang, J.; Xu, C. H.; Du, A. J.; Wang, Y. X.

    2017-05-01

    Understanding hydrogen (H) isotope trapping in materials is essential to optimize the material performance in a nuclear environment for the fabrication of nuclear devices. By using the density functional theory (DFT), herein we have systematically investigated the behaviour of hydrogen in the MAX phase Ti3SiC2 in the presence and absence of a vacancy (V). When a vacancy is generated in a favorable plane for hydrogen accumulating (Si plane), two distinct behavours of hydrogen in the Si plane have been identified by chemical bond analysis, i.e., the Ti-H and Si-H bonding, which synergistically results in VH2 complexes prevailing in the host matrix. Different from metals and other ceramics, the trapping mechanism of H in Ti3SiC2 essentially originates from the spatially inhomogeneous distribution of free-charge density and large discrepancy of electronegativity between the host atoms. Our theoretical results offer great insights into the rational design of new high-performance nuclear materials.

  10. On Equalities Involving Integrals of the Logarithm of the Riemann ς-Function with Exponential Weight Which Are Equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey K. Sekatskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral equalities involving integrals of the logarithm of the Riemann ς-function with exponential weight functions are introduced, and it is shown that an infinite number of them are equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis. Some of these equalities are tested numerically. The possible contribution of the Riemann function zeroes nonlying on the critical line is rigorously estimated and shown to be extremely small, in particular, smaller than nine milliards of decimals for the maximal possible weight function exp(−2πt. We also show how certain Fourier transforms of the logarithm of the Riemann zeta-function taken along the real (demiaxis are expressible via elementary functions plus logarithm of the gamma-function and definite integrals thereof, as well as certain sums over trivial and nontrivial Riemann function zeroes.

  11. Explicit Expressions for Solar Panel Equivalent Circuit Parameters Based on Analytical Formulation and the Lambert W-Function

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Cubas; Santiago Pindado; Carlos de Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Due to the high dependence of photovoltaic energy efficiency on environmental conditions (temperature, irradiation...), it is quite important to perform some analysis focusing on the characteristics of photovoltaic devices in order to optimize energy production, even for small-scale users. The use of equivalent circuits is the preferred option to analyze solar cells/panels performance. However, the aforementioned small-scale users rarely have the equipment or expertise to perform large testin...

  12. Equivalence of Differential System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-xin Zhou

    2004-01-01

    Using refiecting function of Mironenko we construct some differential systems which are equivalent to the given differential system.This gives us an opportunity to find out the monodromic matrix of these periodi csystems which are not integrable in finite terms.

  13. Hole trapping at Al impurities in silica: A challenge for density functional theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Stokbro, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The atomic geometry and electronic structure around a neutral substitutional Al impurity in silica is investigated using either the unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) approximation, or Beckes three-parameter hybrid functional (B3LYP). It is found that the B3LYP functional fails to describe the struc...

  14. Equivalence between different classical treatments of the O(N) nonlinear sigma model and their functional Schrodinger equations

    OpenAIRE

    Deriglazov, A. A.; Oliveira, W.; Oliveira-Neto,G.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we derive the Hamiltonian formalism of the O(N) non-linear sigma model in its original version as a second-class constrained field theory and then as a first-class constrained field theory. We treat the model as a second-class constrained field theory by two different methods: the unconstrained and the Dirac second-class formalisms. We show that the Hamiltonians for all these versions of the model are equivalent. Then, for a particular factor-ordering choice, we write the functio...

  15. Function of Cohesion in Textual Equivalence%论篇章对等中词语连贯的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿庆; 苏鹏

    2016-01-01

    Cohesion plays a very strong role in textual equivalence. Different languages have different methods in textual equivalence. In many western languages, pronouns are cohesion expression patterns;but some oriental languages are not like this. In the process of translation, information structure changes the way of cohesion. This is because the ways of cohesion expression in different languages are different.%篇章对等中词语连贯有着十分强大的作用。不同的语言有着不同的篇章对等方式。在很多西方语言中,代词形式是词语连贯的表达方式;而有些东方语言则不然。在翻译过程中,信息结构使连贯手法产生变化,是由于东西方语言词语连贯的表达方式不同造成的。

  16. Identifying the distinct features of geometric structures for hole trapping to generate radicals on rutile TiO₂(110) in photooxidation using density functional theory calculations with hybrid functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Haifeng; Hu, P

    2015-01-21

    Using density functional theory calculations with HSE 06 functional, we obtained the structures of spin-polarized radicals on rutile TiO2(110), which is crucial to understand the photooxidation at the atomic level, and further calculate the thermodynamic stabilities of these radicals. By analyzing the results, we identify the structural features for hole trapping in the system, and reveal the mutual effects among the geometric structures, the energy levels of trapped hole states and their hole trapping capacities. Furthermore, the results from HSE 06 functional are compared to those from DFT + U and the stability trend of radicals against the number of slabs is tested. The effect of trapped holes on two important steps of the oxygen evolution reaction, i.e. water dissociation and the oxygen removal, is investigated and discussed.

  17. Context dependent function of APPb enhancer identified using enhancer trap-containing BACs as transgenes in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakes, Leighcraft A; Malcolm, Tennison L; Allen, Kevin L; De, Supriyo; Harewood, Ken R; Chatterjee, Pradeep K

    2008-11-01

    An enhancer within intron 1 of the amyloid precursor protein gene (APPb) of zebrafish is identified functionally using a novel approach. Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) were retrofitted with enhancer traps, and expressed as transgenes in zebrafish. Expression from both transient assays and stable lines were used for analysis. Although the enhancer was active in specific nonneural cells of the notochord when placed with APPb gene promoter proximal elements its function was restricted to, and absolutely required for, specific expression in neurons when juxtaposed with additional far-upstream promoter elements of the gene. We demonstrate that expression of green fluorescent protein fluorescence resembling the tissue distribution of APPb mRNA requires both the intron 1 enhancer and approximately 28 kb of DNA upstream of the gene. The results indicate that tissue-specificity of an isolated enhancer may be quite different from that in the context of its own gene. Using this enhancer and upstream sequence, polymorphic variants of APPb can now more closely recapitulate the endogenous pattern and regulation of APPb expression in animal models for Alzheimer's disease. The methodology should help functionally map multiple noncontiguous regulatory elements in BACs with or without gene-coding sequences.

  18. The Study of Semantic Functional Equivalence of Predicates in Xi Youji and Its English Version Journey to the West-From the Perspective of Transitivity Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    问露

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence in translation was first put forward by Firth.It has been the nuclear topic of translation studies in western countries."Functional equivalence",Eugene Nida's key notion of translation theories,advocated the receptor-oriented translation standard.Through the contrastive study between Xi Youji and its English version Journey to the West,the content focuses on the translation of the verbal predicates and aims at studying the application of transitivity theory into Chinese-English translation and finding out the improved translations of Chinese and English examples of different processes.Due to limited article,this paper only discusses three of six processes in the concrete context and provides new translations for the questioned ones.Finally,the last part summarizes that the functional equivalence can be achieved when verbs referring to process of action share the same semantic attribute with the Chinese originals,so the English version of Xi Youji should be further perfected according to transitivity theory.

  19. Thiol-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Effective Trap of Mercury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The chance of exposure to heavy metal for human being rises severely today due to the increasing water contamination and air pollution. Here, we prepared a series of thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica as oral formulation for the prevention and treatment of heavy metal poisoning. The successful incorporation of thiol was verified by the FTIR spectra. SBA15-SH-10 was used for the study as it is of uniform mesopores and fine water dispersibility. In simulated gastrointestinal fluid, the thiol-functionalized mesoporous silica can selectively capture heavy metal, showing a very high affinity for inorganic mercury (II. The blood and urine mercury levels of rats fed with a diet containing Hg (II and material were significantly lower than those of rats fed with the metal-rich diet only. On the contrary, the mercury content in fecal excretion of the treatment group increased more than twice as much as that of the control group. This result indicated that SBA15-SH-10 could effectively remove mercury (II in vivo and the mercury loaded on SBA15-SH-10 would be excreted out. Hence, SBA15-SH-10 has potential application in preventing and treating heavy metal poisoning via digestive system.

  20. Density-functional theory of strongly correlated Fermi gases in elongated harmonic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianlong, Gao; Polini, Marco; Asgari, Reza; Tosi, M. P.

    2006-03-01

    Two-component Fermi gases with tunable repulsive or attractive interactions inside quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) harmonic wells may soon become the cleanest laboratory realizations of strongly correlated Luttiger and Luther-Emery liquids under confinement. We present a microscopic Kohn-Sham density-functional theory of these systems, with specific attention to a gas on the approach to a confinement-induced Feshbach resonance. The theory employs the one-dimensional Gaudin-Yang model as the reference system and transfers the appropriate Q1D ground-state correlations to the confined inhomogeneous gas via a suitable local-density approximation to the exchange and correlation energy functional. Quantitative understanding of the role of the interactions in the bulk shell structure of the axial density profile is thereby achieved. While repulsive intercomponent interactions depress the amplitude of the shell structure of the noninteracting gas, attractive interactions stabilize atomic-density waves through spin pairing. These should be clearly observable in atomic clouds containing of the order of up to 100 atoms.

  1. Trapping of organophosphorus chemical nerve agents in water with amino acid functionalized baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yian; Dalkiliç, Erdin; Peterson, Paul W; Pandit, Aroh; Dastan, Arif; Brown, Jason D; Polen, Shane M; Hadad, Christopher M; Badjić, Jovica D

    2014-04-07

    We prepared eleven amino-acid functionalized baskets and used (1) H NMR spectroscopy to quantify their affinity for entrapping dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP, 118 Å(3) ) in aqueous phosphate buffer at pH=7.0±0.1; note that DMMP guest is akin in size to chemical nerve agent sarin (132 Å(3) ). The binding interaction (Ka ) was found to vary with the size of substituent groups at the basket's rim. In particular, the degree of branching at the first carbon of each substituent had the greatest effect on the host-guest interaction, as described with the Verloop's B1 steric parameter. The branching at the remote carbons, however, did not perturb the encapsulation, which is important for guiding the design of more effective hosts and catalysts in future.

  2. On Equivalence And Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙贝

    2013-01-01

      Equivalence, a central and controversial issue in translation, has been studied, discussed and disputed by many scholars. For this reason, they employed various approaches and have yielded fruitful and remarkable theories. Three representative equivalence theories are selected in the thesis to elaborate equivalence:Nida’s reader-response based dynamic equivalence, Catford’s textual equivalence, Qiu Maoru’s empirical formula on equivalence. Equivalence is an applicable tool to analyze and evaluate translation.

  3. A GFP trap study uncovers the functions of Gilgamesh protein kinase in Drosophila melanogaster spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerusheva, O O; Dorogova, N V; Gubanova, N V; Yudina, O S; Omelyanchuk, L V

    2009-05-01

    The function of the gene gilgamesh (89B9-12) encoding a casein kinase in Drosophila spermatogenesis was studied. The chimeric Gilgamesh-GFP protein in spermatocytes is cortically located. In the polar and apolar spermatocytes, it concentrates at the terminal ends of the fusome, the organelle that passes through the system of ring canals of the spermatocyte cyst. At the stage of spermatid elongation, the protein associates with the nucleus. A spot of the highest Gilgamesh-GFP concentration in the nucleus co-localizes with gamma-tubulin in the basal body. At later stages, Gilgamesh is localized to the individualization complex (IC), leaving the nuclei somewhat before the IC investment cones, as detected by actin binding. The sterile mutation due to the gilgamesh gene leads to the phenotype of scattered nuclei and altered structure of actin cones in the individualizing spermatid cyst. Ultrastructural evidence confirmed defective spermatid individualization due to the mutation. The phylogenetic origin of the protein, and the connection between vesicular trafficking and spermatid individualization, are discussed.

  4. 功能对等理论指导下的商务英语翻译%Business English Translation under the Guidance of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳庆

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of economic globalization in today's world, countries trade exchanges become more fre-quent, and the importance of business English translation will be born has also been more widespread attention and recogni-tion. Its complexity and multi-directional translation demand theory principles of functional equivalence plays a fundamental and decisive role. How authentic English translation for business, how semantic information, cultural backgrounds, text sty-les, such as a relative, an important factor in the application of functional equivalence theory. This article on functional equiv-alence theory analyzed in detail, and the characteristics of business English translation with the combination of correct and effective guidance specific to functional equivalence theory and business English translation in the translation process to ana-lyze applications.%在经济全球化趋势急速发展的当今世界,各国往来贸易愈发频繁,而随之诞生的商务英语翻译的重要性也得到了更广泛的关注和认可。其复杂性和多向性对翻译过程中功能对等理论原则的需求起到了基础性、决定性的作用。如何地道地进行商务英语的翻译,如何将语义信息、文化背景、文字风格相对等,成为功能对等理论应用的重要因素。文章对功能对等理论进行了具体分析,并把商务英语翻译的特点与之相结合,具体对功能对等理论对商务英语翻译的正确有效指导以及在翻译过程中的应用进行分析。

  5. Effectiveness of Winkler Litter Extraction and Pitfall Traps in Sampling Ant Communities and Functional Groups in a Temperate Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Michael B; Campbell, Kaitlin U; Crist, Thomas O

    2017-06-01

    Selection of proper sampling methods for measuring a community of interest is essential whether the study goals are to conduct a species inventory, environmental monitoring, or a manipulative experiment. Insect diversity studies often employ multiple collection methods at the expense of researcher time and funding. Ants (Formicidae) are widely used in environmental monitoring owing to their sensitivity to ecosystem changes. When sampling ant communities, two passive techniques are recommended in combination: pitfall traps and Winkler litter extraction. These recommendations are often based on studies from highly diverse tropical regions or when a species inventory is the goal. Studies in temperate regions often focus on measuring consistent community response along gradients of disturbance or among management regimes; therefore, multiple sampling methods may be unnecessary. We compared the effectiveness of pitfalls and Winkler litter extraction in an eastern temperate forest for measuring ant species richness, composition, and occurrence of ant functional groups in response to experimental manipulations of two key forest ecosystem drivers, white-tailed deer and an invasive shrub (Amur honeysuckle). We found no significant effect of sampling method on the outcome of the ecological experiment; however, we found differences between the two sampling methods in the resulting ant species richness and functional group occurrence. Litter samples approximated the overall combined species richness and composition, but pitfalls were better at sampling large-bodied (Camponotus) species. We conclude that employing both methods is essential only for species inventories or monitoring ants in the Cold-climate Specialists functional group. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Structure of Hydrated Electron. Part 1. Magnetic Resonance of Internally Trapping Water Anions: A Density Functional Theory Study

    CERN Document Server

    Shkrob, I A

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to rationalize magnetic parameters of hydrated electron trapped in alkaline glasses as observed using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopies. To this end, model water cluster anions (n=4-8 and n=20,24) that localize the electron internally are examined. It is shown that EPR parameters of such water anions (such as hyperfine coupling tensors of H/D nuclei in the water molecules) are defined mainly by the cavity size and the coordination number of the electron; the water molecules in the second solvation shell play a relatively minor role. An idealized model of hydrated electron (that is usually attributed to L. Kevan) in which six hydroxyl groups arranged in an octahedral pattern point towards the common center is shown to provide the closest match to the experimental parameters, such as isotropic and anisotropic hyperfine coupling constants for the protons (estimated from ESEEM), the second moment of the E...

  7. On grouping individual wire segments into equivalent wires or chains, and introduction of multiple domain basis functions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available condition number of the impedance matrix, and also to less accurate results. Background – Basic Steps of MoM The method of moments (MoM) approximates a set of integral equations with a system of linear algebraic equations. One of the most popular... series of known functions (referred to as basis functions) with yet unknown constant coefficients Ij. A vector of these unknown coefficients, I, is the unknown in the system of linear algebraic equations. This paper uses one of the most popular basis...

  8. Exploring Equivalent Elastic Constants of Functional Prismatic Sandwich Panel%功能型多孔夹层板的等效弹性常数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟俊苗; 邓子辰; 张凯; 周加喜

    2014-01-01

    Under the condition that the strain energy of the periodic representative volume element ( RVE ) is e-quivalent to the elastic solid RVE, we improve the method for calculating the equivalent elastic constants by consid-ering the in-plane shear effect of a functional prismatic sandwich panel. The prismatic core is equalized to the aniso-tropic and homogenous material with the macroscopically equivalent elastic constants that are derived from the rela-tionship between strain and macro-strain of the Timoshenko beam theory. The effectiveness of the method is verified by comparing the structural response and the first five natural frequencies of a square prismatic sandwich panel with those of an equivalent sandwich panel;the verification results, given in Figs. 4, 5 and Table 1, and their analysis show preliminarily that our method that considers the in-plane shear effect can caculate more accurately.%基于应变能等效原理,将功能型多孔夹层板的夹芯层等效为均匀的各向异性材料,并通过考虑夹芯层的面内剪切作用,即将构成代表体单元的基元杆件考虑为Timoshenko梁,建立Timoshenko梁单元的应变和宏观应变之间的关系,得到等效固体代表体单元的应变能密度与宏观应变的关系,从而,给出相应的宏观等效弹性常数。最后,通过有限元方法计算实际正方形蜂窝夹层板和等效夹层板的结构响应和低阶振动频率,验证该方法的有效性,对比分析得知该方法较原方法具有更高的精度,说明考虑面内剪切作用的必要性。

  9. Derived equivalence of algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜先能

    1997-01-01

    The derived equivalence and stable equivalence of algebras RmA and RmB are studied It is proved, using the tilting complex, that RmA and RmB are derived-equivalent whenever algebras A and B are derived-equivalent

  10. Natural antigenic differences in the functionally equivalent extracellular DNABII proteins of bacterial biofilms provide a means for targeted biofilm therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, C J; Davey, M E; Bakaletz, L O; Goodman, S D

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria that persist in the oral cavity exist within complex biofilm communities. A hallmark of biofilms is the presence of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which consists of polysaccharides, extracellular DNA (eDNA), and proteins, including the DNABII family of proteins. The removal of DNABII proteins from a biofilm results in the loss of structural integrity of the eDNA and the collapse of the biofilm structure. We examined the role of DNABII proteins in the biofilm structure of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the oral commensal Streptococcus gordonii. Co-aggregation with oral streptococci is thought to facilitate the establishment of P. gingivalis within the biofilm community. We demonstrate that DNABII proteins are present in the EPS of both S. gordonii and P. gingivalis biofilms, and that these biofilms can be disrupted through the addition of antisera derived against their respective DNABII proteins. We provide evidence that both eDNA and DNABII proteins are limiting in S. gordonii but not in P. gingivalis biofilms. In addition, these proteins are capable of complementing one another functionally. We also found that whereas antisera derived against most DNABII proteins are capable of binding a wide variety of DNABII proteins, the P. gingivalis DNABII proteins are antigenically distinct. The presence of DNABII proteins in the EPS of these biofilms and the antigenic uniqueness of the P. gingivalis proteins provide an opportunity to develop therapies that are targeted to remove P. gingivalis and biofilms that contain P. gingivalis from the oral cavity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Comments on TNT Equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, P.W.

    1994-07-01

    The term ``TNT Equivalence`` is used throughout the explosives and related industries to compare the effects of the output of a given explosive to that of TNT. This is done for technical design reasons in scaling calculation such as for the prediction of blast waves, craters, and structural response, and is also used as a basis for government regulations controlling the shipping, handling and storage of explosive materials, as well as for the siting and design of explosive facilities. TNT equivalence is determined experimentally by several different types of tests, the most common of which include: plate dent, ballistic mortar, trauzl, sand crush, and air blast. All of these tests do not necessarily measure the same output property of the sample explosive. As examples of this, some tests depend simply upon the CJ pressure, some depend upon the PV work in the CJ zone and in the Taylor wave behind the CJ plane, some are functions of the total work which includes that from secondary combustion in the air mixing region of the fireball and are acutely effected by the shape of the pressure-time profile of the wave. Some of the tests incorporate systematic errors which are not readily apparent, and which have a profound effect upon skewing the resultant data. Further, some of the tests produce different TNT Equivalents for the same explosive which are a function of the conditions at which the test is run. This paper describes the various tests used, discusses the results of each test and makes detailed commentary on what the test is actually measuring, how the results may be interpreted, and if and how these results can be predicted by first principals based calculations. Extensive data bases are referred to throughout the paper and used in examples for each point in the commentaries.

  12. The Use of Functional Equivalence Theory in Trademark Translation%功能对等理论在商标翻译中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡放

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly describes the trademark definition clarifies the important role of trademark translation busi ness. Followed by the introduction of functional equivalence theory to guide the trademark translation, complete the conver sion of trademarks in different languages, to realize the function of the trademark. The trademark translation often below de tails, such as transliteration, literal translation, free translation, transliteration paraphrase the binding assay, acronyms method and so on. The final stress again that the purpose of trademark translation is to realize the function of the trademark.%本文先简要地介绍了商标的定义,阐明了商标翻译在商业中的重要作用。继而引入功能对等理论来指导商标的翻译,完成不同语言中商标的转换。实现商标的功能。接着详细介绍了商标翻译中经常采用的一些方法,如音译法、直译法、意译法、音译意译结合法、首字母缩写法等等。最后再次强调商标翻译的目的是实现商标的功能。

  13. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  14. Tissue Engineered Human Skin Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery and/or the body (transdermal delivery. In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

  15. Assessing risks of invasion through gamete performance: farm Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs show equivalence in function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness to wild Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Sarah E; Einum, Sigurd; Fleming, Ian A; Holt, William V; Gage, Matthew Jg

    2014-04-01

    Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males. Here, we assess reproductive performance at the gamete level through detailed in vitro comparisons of the form, function, fertility, compatibility and competitiveness of farm versus wild Atlantic salmon sperm and eggs, in conditions mimicking the natural gametic microenvironment, using fish raised under similar environmental conditions. Despite selective domestication and reduced genetic diversity, we find functional equivalence in all farm fish gamete traits compared with their wild ancestral strain. Our results identify a clear threat of farm salmon reproduction with wild fish and therefore encourage further consideration of using triploid farm strains with optimized traits for aquaculture and fish welfare, as triploid fish remain reproductively sterile following escape.

  16. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  17. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  18. Clinical dose effect and functional consequences of R92Q in two families presenting with a TRAPS/PFAPA-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandemange, Sylvie; Cabasson, Sébastien; Sarrabay, Guillaume; Pène, Jérôme; Rittore, Cécile; Sanchez, Elodie; Chastang, Marie-Caroline; Guyon, Gaël; Pillet, Pascal; Touitou, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    TNF receptor-associated syndrome (TRAPS) is a dominantly inherited autoinflammatory condition caused by mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene. The mechanism underlying the variable expressivity of the common variant R92Q (rs4149584; c.362G>A; p.Arg121Gln) is unclear and is of critical importance for patient care and genetic counseling. This study evaluated the impact of the number of R92Q mutations in two unique unrelated families. Two patients with undefined but clear autoinflammatory symptoms were referred for genetic diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from the available family members to screen autoinflammatory genes and assess key steps of the TNFR1-mediated signaling pathway using flow cytometry and ex vivo culture. R92Q homozygosity was demonstrated for the two probands. In family 1, the segregation analysis revealed TRAPS-like symptoms in all carriers, with a more severe presentation in the proband, whereas in family 2, the heterozygous parents were totally asymptomatic, suggesting recessive transmission. Functional studies revealed a nonclassical pathogenesis of TRAPS in the two probands and suggested a compensatory mechanism without clear dose effect. We observed for the first time a possible clinical dose effect of R92Q. This work highlights the importance of familial studies to reconcile the contradictory reports published on the pathogenicity of this variant.

  19. Strategies for development of functionally equivalent promoters with minimum sequence homology for transgene expression in plants: cis-elements in a novel DNA context versus domain swapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Simran; Chakravarthy, Suma; Advani, Sonia; Datta, Sudipta; Pental, Deepak; Burma, Pradeep Kumar

    2003-06-01

    The cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (35S) promoter has been extensively used for the constitutive expression of transgenes in dicotyledonous plants. The repetitive use of the same promoter is known to induce transgene inactivation due to promoter homology. As a way to circumvent this problem, we tested two different strategies for the development of synthetic promoters that are functionally equivalent but have a minimum sequence homology. Such promoters can be generated by (a) introducing known cis-elements in a novel or synthetic stretch of DNA or (b) "domain swapping," wherein domains of one promoter can be replaced with functionally equivalent domains from other heterologous promoters. We evaluated the two strategies for promoter modifications using domain A (consisting of minimal promoter and subdomain A1) of the 35S promoter as a model. A set of modified 35S promoters were developed whose strength was compared with the 35S promoter per se using beta-glucuronidase as the reporter gene. Analysis of the expression of the reporter gene in transient assay system showed that domain swapping led to a significant fall in promoter activity. In contrast, promoters developed by placing cis-elements in a novel DNA context showed levels of expression comparable with that of the 35S. Two promoter constructs Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were then designed by placing the core sequences of minimal promoter and subdomain A1 in divergent DNA sequences. Transgenics developed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) with the two constructs and with 35S as control were used to assess the promoter activity in different tissues of primary transformants. Mod2A1T and Mod3A1T were found to be active in all of the tissues tested, at levels comparable with that of 35S. Further, the expression of the Mod2A1T promoter in the seedlings of the T1 generation was also similar to that of the 35S promoter. The present strategy opens up the possibility of creating a set of synthetic promoters with minimum sequence

  20. An Equivalent Gauge and the Equivalence Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Wulzer, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    I describe a novel covariant formulation of massive gauge theories in which the longitudinal polarization vectors do not grow with the energy. Therefore in the present formalism, differently from the ordinary one, the energy and coupling power-counting is completely transparent at the level of individual Feynman diagrams, with obvious advantages both at the conceptual and practical level. Since power-counting is transparent, the high-energy limit of the amplitudes involving longitudinal particles is immediately taken, and the Equivalence Theorem is easily demonstrated at all orders in perturbation theory. Since the formalism makes the Equivalence Theorem self-evident, and because it is based on a suitable choice of the gauge, we can call it an "Equivalent Gauge".

  1. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  2. 试探功能对等理论在广告翻译的应用%On the Application of Functional Equivalence Theory into the Advertisement Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董月

    2012-01-01

    As a special form of language, advertising has its unique features. And it is necessary to take its features into consideration when we translate advertisement. In this paper, the author points out that the functional equivalence theory advanced by Eugene A. Nida, which puts much emphasis on the two elements-"receptor's response" and "content over form", is an appropriate theory for advertising translation and endeavors to illustrate it with several advertisement examples.%广告作为一种特殊语言,有其自身的特征,翻译广告必须要充分考虑广告语言的特征。尤金·奈达提出的功能对等理论,特别强调了“译文接受者的反应”和“内容重于形式”两个因素,为广告翻译提供了理论依据,并通过数个广告翻译实例对此加以论证。

  3. 从功能对等翻译理论看《园会》两个中译本%Analysis of Two Translation Versions of The Garden Party from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗敕

    2015-01-01

    In the 20th century ,the theories of translation in the West have witnessed profound changes and there e‐merged various schools of thought .Eugene A .Nida is one of the most renowned theorists in the field of linguistics‐based research of translation .Influenced by Reception Theory ,Nida put forward the concept of formal equivalence and dynamic equivalence ,which he developed into functional equivalence later .Functional equivalence means that the reader of transla‐tion and the reader of the original work should have the same kind of feeling after reading .This paper aims to analyze two translation versions of The Garden Party with the theory of functional equivalence and put out that though it’s almost impossible to achieve absolute equivalence in translation ,we can and we should achieve functional equivalence .%20世纪西方翻译理论经历了重大的发展,衍生出众多流派。在语言学范式理论研究中,奈达是最著名的一位翻译理论家。受接受美学的影响,奈达提出了形式对等和动态对等,后又发展为功能对等,即译文的读者应该和原文读者有相同的感受。论文以奈达的功能对等理论为基础,从语音、文体、语义三个层面对曼斯菲尔德《园会》的两个译本进行对比分析,来说明虽然绝对对等无法实现,但是在翻译中可以而且应该做到功能对等。

  4. VACUUM TRAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H.S.

    1959-09-15

    An improved adsorption vacuum trap for use in vacuum systems was designed. The distinguishing feature is the placement of a plurality of torsionally deformed metallic fins within a vacuum jacket extending from the walls to the central axis so that substantially all gas molecules pass through the jacket will impinge upon the fin surfaces. T fins are heated by direct metallic conduction, thereby ol taining a uniform temperature at the adeorbing surfaces so that essentially all of the condensible impurities from the evacuating gas are removed from the vacuum system.

  5. Trapped phonons

    CERN Document Server

    Mannarelli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the effect of restricted geometries on the contribution of Nambu-Goldstone bosons (phonons) to the shear viscosity, $\\eta$, of a superfluid. For illustrative purpose we examine a simplified system consisting of a circular boundary of radius $R$, confining a two-dimensional rarefied gas of phonons. Considering the Maxwell-type conditions, we show that phonons that are not in equilibrium with the boundary and that are not specularly reflected exert a shear stress on the boundary. In this case it is possible to define an effective (ballistic) shear viscosity coefficient $\\eta \\propto \\rho_{\\rm ph} \\chi R$, where $\\rho_{\\rm ph}$ is the density of phonons and $\\chi$ is a parameter which characterizes the type of scattering at the boundary. For an optically trapped superfluid our results corroborate the findings of Refs. \\cite{Mannarelli:2012su, Mannarelli:2012eg}, which imply that at very low temperature the shear viscosity correlates with the size of the optical trap and decreases with decreasing tempe...

  6. Technical advance: Generation of human pDC equivalents from primary monocytes using Flt3-L and their functional validation under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Divya; Brüne, Bernhard; Weigert, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The division of labor between DC subsets is evolutionarily well-defined. mDC are efficient in antigen presentation, whereas pDC act as rheostats of the immune system. They activate NK cells, cause bystander activation of mDC, and interact with T cells to induce tolerance. This ambiguity positions pDC at the center of inflammatory diseases, such as cancer, arthritis, and autoimmune diseases. The ability to generate human mDC ex vivo made it possible to engineer them to suit therapy needs. Unfortunately, a similar, easily accessible system to generate human pDC is not available. We describe a method to generate human pDC equivalents ex vivo, termed mo-pDC from peripheral blood monocytes using Flt3-L. mo-pDC showed a characteristic pDC profile, such as high CD123 and BDCA4, but low CD86 and TLR4 surface expression and a low capacity to induce autologous lymphocyte proliferation and to phagocytose apoptotic debris in comparison with mDC. Interestingly, mo-pDC up-regulated the pDC lineage-determining transcription factor E2-2 as well as expression of BDCA2, which is under the transcriptional control of E2-2 but not its inhibitor ID2, during differentiation. mo-pDC produced high levels of IFN-alpha when pretreated overnight with TNF-alpha. Under hypoxia, E2-2 was down-regulated, and ID2 was induced in mo-pDC, whereas surface expression of MHCI, CD86, and BDCA2 was decreased. Furthermore, mo-pDC produced high levels of inflammatory cytokines when differentiated under hypoxia compared with normoxia. Hence, mo-pDC can be used to study differentiation and functions of human pDC under microenvironmental stimuli.

  7. On translation equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石雏凤

    2009-01-01

    Nida's translation theories, especially for his "Dynamic equivalence theory", are highly praised and adopted in Chinese translation circle. Howev-er, there are a lot of criticism and misunderstanding at the same time. This paper explores the issue on translation equivalence so as to benefit our translation studies on both theory and practice level.

  8. Equivalence principles exotica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.S. UNNIKRISHNAN; George T. GILLIES

    2008-01-01

    This is a short review of the different prin-ciples of equivalence stated and used in the context of the gravitational interaction. We emphasize the need for precision in stating and differentiating these different equivalence principles, especially in the context of preva-lent confusion regarding the applicability of the weak equivalence principle in quantum mechanics. We discuss several empirical results pertaining to the validity of the equivalence principle in exotic physical sitautions not di-rectly amenable to experimental tests. We conclude with a section on the physical basis of the universal validity of the equivalence principle, as manifest in the universality of free fall, and discuss its link to cosmic gravity.

  9. 植物床-沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能%Algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 陈庆华; 张荣斌; 王为东; 魏宏斌; 尹澄清

    2012-01-01

    This case study corroborated the algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch system through in si- tu field testing. Results showed that the system could effectively intercept and trap algae from source water. Un- der the driving of hydraulic gradients, about 35% source water flowed into the higher small ditch, and exuded through the root channel structure inside plant bed into the lower small ditch. The ehlorophyll-a (Chl-a) con- centration in the lower small ditch was significantly lower (P = 0. 0239) than that in the opposite higher small ditch. The decline percentage of Chl-a concentration amounted to 11.1% between both sides of plant bed. The Chl-a concentration dropped down by 27.0 % at the outlet of examined root channel purification zone with plant- bed/ditch system as structure form. According to rough estimation, this patch of root channel purification zone could trap algae fresh biomass of about 122 kg/d. Shijiuyang constructed wetland contains altogether 11 patches of root channel purification zones and provides 250 000 t/d purified raw water for the drinking water plant. The total trapped algae fresh biomass reached up to about 1 100 kg/d.%采用原位实验验证植物床.沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能。结果表明:该系统能够有效拦截和捕获源水藻类。在水力梯度驱动下,约35%源水进入高位小沟流经植物床内部根孔结构而汇至低位小沟。低位小沟内叶绿素a(Chl-a)浓度显著低于高位小沟(P=0.0239),其降低比例为11.1%。以植物床.沟壕系统为结构形式的根孔净化区其出水Chl-a浓度较源水整体下降了27.0%。估算该片根孔净化区捕获藻类鲜生物量约122kg/d。石臼漾湿地共含根孔净化区11片,按供水25万t/d计,估算捕获藻类鲜生物量约1100kg/d。

  10. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  11. 功能对等视角下的«离骚»两个英译本比较%A Comparison of Two Different Translated Versions of Li Sao from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭家海; 陈丽

    2014-01-01

    运用奈达的功能对等理论,从语义对等、风格对等和读者反映三方面通过举例来逐一对许渊冲的«离骚»英译本和霍克斯的«离骚»英译本进行比较研究。通过比较研究可以发现各个译本的得失,领略两位译者不同的汉英翻译技巧,许译本更加注重形式对等,而霍译本更加注重语意对等和读者反映。对于«离骚»这样的典籍,两位译者的翻译都有不完美之处,只有肯定功能对等对汉英翻译实践的指导作用,同时在注重功能对等的同时更加注重形式对等,才能使译本得到更多读者的认同。%Li Sao written by Qu Yuan has many translated versions.With Eugene Nida′s function-al equivalence theory,this paper intends to compare Xu Yuanchong′s translated version of Li Sao and that of David Hawkes from the aspects of meaning equivalence,style equivalence and target readers′responses by virtue of citing examples.In this way,we could find individual advantages and disadvantages of the two translated versions and appreciate different translating techniques of the two translators.Xu Yuchong put much emphasis on formal equivalence,yet Hawkes set score on meaning equivalence and readers′responses.To make the translations of classical work Li Sao to be perfect and appeal to more readers,we advocate that functional equivalence theory should and must apply to Chinese to English translation;furthermore,formal equivalence should be val-ued as well as functional equivalence.

  12. Annual Trapping Proposal 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1984-1985 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  13. Collisional blockade in microscopic optical dipole traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, N; Reymond, G; Grangier, P

    2002-07-08

    We analyze the operating regimes of a very small optical dipole trap, loaded from a magneto-optical trap, as a function of the atom loading rate, i.e., the number of atoms per second entering the dipole trap. We show that, when the dipole trap volume is small enough, a "collisional blockade" mechanism locks the average number of trapped atoms on the value 0.5 over a large range of loading rates. We also discuss the "weak loading" and "strong loading" regimes outside the blockade range, and we demonstrate experimentally the existence of these three regimes.

  14. Fair Balance? An Analysis of the Functional Equivalence of Risk and Benefit Information in Prescription Drug Direct-to-Consumer Television Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird-Harris, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Prescription drug direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has been a subject of controversy in recent years. Though government regulations require equivalent prominence of risks and benefits, there is concern about the ability of consumers with limited health literacy to fully comprehend the risks and benefits associated with drug use. Evaluating…

  15. Teacher Ratings of Children's Behavior Problems and Functional Impairment Across Gender and Ethnicity : Construct Equivalence of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwirs, Barbara; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom; Vermulst, A. A.; HiraSing, R. A.; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined construct equivalence of the teacher Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and compared mean scores in an ethnically diverse sample of children living in the Netherlands. Elementary schoolteachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for 2,185 children

  16. Topics in orbit equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  17. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilov, Momčilo

    2016-01-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without "touching" them. Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: They can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop--absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid--we are free to ...

  18. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap-ni...

  19. The comment on two English versions of "Peanuts" from the perspective of functional equivalence%功能对等视角下《落花生》两种译本评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余红桃

    2016-01-01

    当代翻译理论家尤金·奈达提出功能对等理论强调译文要忠实于原文,本文旨在通过功能对等视角对《落花生》两个译本从两个角度来评析:词汇内涵意义以及语言风格上对比,旨在说明功能对等理论在散文翻译过程中产生的影响和作用。%Contemporary translation theorist Eugene Nida proposed functional equivalence theory which emphasizes translation to be faithful to the original text. This paper aims at analyzing perspective of functional equivalence on two versions of “Peanuts” from two angles, such as: comparison of lexical connotations and comparison of language style so as to state the function and influence that have on essay translation from the perspective of functional equivalence.

  20. Application of Micropore Filter Technology: Exploring the Blood Flow Path in Arterial-Line Filters and Its Effect on Bubble Trapping Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Daniel P

    2017-03-01

    Conventional arterial-line filters commonly use a large volume circular shaped housing, a wetted micropore screen, and a purge port to trap, separate, and remove gas bubbles from extracorporeal blood flow. Focusing on the bubble trapping function, this work attempts to explore how the filter housing shape and its resulting blood flow path affect the clinical application of arterial-line filters in terms of gross air handling. A video camera was used in a wet-lab setting to record observations made during gross air-bolus injections in three different radially designed filters using a 30-70% glycerol-saline mixture flowing at 4.5 L/min. Two of the filters both had inlet ports attached near the filter-housing top with bottom oriented outlet ports at the bottom, whereas the third filter had its inlet and outlet ports both located at the bottom of the filter housing. The two filters with top-in bottom-out fluid paths were shown to direct the incoming flow downward as it passed through the filter, placing the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag in opposition to each other. This contrasted with the third filter's bottom-in bottom-out fluid path, which was shown to direct the incoming flow upward so that the forces of buoyancy and viscous drag work together. The direction of the blood flow path through a filter may be important to the application of arterial-line filter technology as it helps determine how the forces of buoyancy and flow are aligned with one another.

  1. Current Conveyor Equivalent Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An equivalence between a class of (current conveyor CC II+ and CC II- circuits is established. CC IIequivalent circuit uses one extra element. However, under certain condition, the extra element can be eliminated. As an illustration of the application of this equivalence, minimal first and second order all-pass filters are derived. Incertain cases, it is possible to compensate the effect of the input resistor of CC at port X. At the end, an open problem of realizing an Nth order (N > 2 minimal all-pass filter is stated.

  2. Equivalent Conditions for E-Convex Functions and E-Quasi Convex Functions%E-凸函数和E-拟凸函数的等价条件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丽兰; 黄雪燕

    2011-01-01

    在更弱的连续假设下研究集合Ax,y={λ∈[0,1]|f(λE(x)+(1-λ)E(y))≤λf(E(x))+(1-λ)f(E(y))}和集合Ax,y={λ∈[0,1]{f(λE(x)+(1-λ)E(y))≤max{f(E(x)),f(E(y))}}的稠密性、闭性、(弱)近似凸性,得到E-凸函数和E-拟凸函数的等价条件.%In this paper, the density,closeness and (weak) nearly convexity of the sets Ax,y = {λ ∈ [0,1] | f(λE(x) + (1 - λ)E(y)) ≤ λf(E(x)) + (1 - λ)f(E(y))} and A'x,y = {λ ∈ [0,1] | f(λE(x) + (1 - λ)E(y)) ≤ max{f(E(x), f(E(y)}} are investigated, some equivalent conditions for E-convex functions and E-quasi convex functions are derived under the weaker continuity assumptions.

  3. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  4. 从功能对等角度论杜甫《月夜》英译%Analysis on the English Translations of "The Moon Night" from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周楚

    2014-01-01

    Eugene A.Nida, a famous American linguist and trans-lator, proposed a translation theory, which is called Functional E-quivalence. This paper focuses on the three English versions of"The Moon Night"and analyzes the representations of functional equivalence from rhymes, words and stanzas to reflect the guiding significance of Functional Equivalence Theory in the translation of poetry.%尤金·A·奈达是美国著名的语言学家、翻译家,提出了功能对等翻译理论。本文以《月夜》三个英译本作为研究对象,从诗歌的韵律、词汇、句子层面分析三个译文的功能对等,体现功能对等翻译理论在诗歌翻译中的指导意义。

  5. 功能对等理论在比喻翻译中的体现--以《围城》为例%Impact of Functional Equivalence Theory in the Translation of Metaphors---Take Fortress Besieged as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师瑞芳

    2014-01-01

    功能对等理论是尤金·奈达翻译理论的核心,上个世纪中期在翻译界产生了极大的影响,也是早先传到中国的翻译理论之一。赏析珍妮·凯利和茅国权对钱钟书《围城》的英文译本,分析功能对等理论在该作品汉英比喻翻译中的体现,进而发现运用功能对等理论指导比喻翻译能有效地弥补文化差异,使译文更符合原文的意思。%Functional Equivalence Theory,important part of Eugene Nida's theories and one of the first translation theories in-troduced in China,had great impact on translation in the 1960s and 1970s. Metaphor,a kind of rhetoric figure,is widely used in literary works. This paper appreciates Qian Zhongshu's ,translated by Jeanne Kelly and Nathan K. Mao,analyses the impact of Functional Equivalence Theory in the work,and has found that the application of Functional Equivalence Theory can effectively make up for cultural differences and express original meaning.

  6. Mass Equivalent Dyads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.; Bai, Shaoping; Ceccarelli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 2-DoF dyad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of balanced mechanisms, for instance to increase or reduce the number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its balance. Also it can be used as

  7. Mass equivalent triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijk, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper it is shown how a general 3-DoF triad can be designed mass equivalent to a general (1-DoF) link element. This is useful in the synthesis of shaking force balanced and statically balanced mechanisms, for instance to add or remove a number of DoFs of a balanced mechanism maintaining its

  8. Use of Two-Body Correlated Basis Functions with van der Waals Interaction to Study the Shape-Independent Approximation for a Large Number of Trapped Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Das, T. K.; Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Adam, R. M.; Haldar, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    We study the ground-state and the low-lying excitations of a trapped Bose gas in an isotropic harmonic potential for very small (˜ 3) to very large (˜ 10^7 ) particle numbers. We use the two-body correlated basis functions and the shape-dependent van der Waals interaction in our many-body calculations. We present an exhaustive study of the effect of inter-atomic correlations and the accuracy of the mean-field equations considering a wide range of particle numbers. We calculate the ground-state energy and the one-body density for different values of the van der Waals parameter C6 . We compare our results with those of the modified Gross-Pitaevskii results, the correlated Hartree hypernetted-chain equations (which also utilize the two-body correlated basis functions), as well as of the diffusion Monte Carlo for hard sphere interactions. We observe the effect of the attractive tail of the van der Waals potential in the calculations of the one-body density over the truly repulsive zero-range potential as used in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and discuss the finite-size effects. We also present the low-lying collective excitations which are well described by a hydrodynamic model in the large particle limit.

  9. Bioinspired anchoring AgNPs onto micro-nanoporous TiO2 orthopedic coatings: Trap-killing of bacteria, surface-regulated osteoblast functions and host responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhaojun; Xiu, Peng; Li, Ming; Xu, Xuchen; Shi, Yuying; Cheng, Yan; Wei, Shicheng; Zheng, Yufeng; Xi, Tingfei; Cai, Hong; Liu, Zhongjun

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against biomedical device-associated infections (BAI), by local delivery, are encountered with risks of detachment, instability and nanotoxicity in physiological milieus. To firmly anchor AgNPs onto modified biomaterial surfaces through tight physicochemical interactions would potentially relieve these concerns. Herein, we present a strategy for hierarchical TiO2/Ag coating, in an attempt to endow medical titanium (Ti) with anticorrosion and antibacterial properties whilst maintaining normal biological functions. In brief, by harnessing the adhesion and reactivity of bioinspired polydopamine, silver nanoparticles were easily immobilized onto peripheral surface and incorporated into interior cavity of a micro/nanoporous TiO2 ceramic coating in situ grown from template Ti. The resulting coating protected the substrate well from corrosion and gave a sustained release of Ag(+) up to 28 d. An interesting germicidal effect, termed "trap-killing", was observed against Staphylococcus aureus strain. The multiple osteoblast responses, i.e. adherence, spreading, proliferation, and differentiation, were retained normal or promoted, via a putative surface-initiated self-regulation mechanism. After subcutaneous implantation for a month, the coated specimens elicited minimal, comparable inflammatory responses relative to the control. Moreover, this simple and safe functionalization strategy manifested a good degree of flexibility towards three-dimensional sophisticated objects. Expectedly, it can become a prospective bench to bedside solution to current challenges facing orthopedics.

  10. Measuring social function in diverse cancer populations: Evaluation of measurement equivalence of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System® (PROMIS® Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities Short Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Hahn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual and psychometric measurement equivalence of self-report questionnaires are basic requirements for valid cross-cultural and demographic subgroup comparisons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric measurement equivalence of a 10-item PROMIS® Social Function short form in a diverse population-based sample of cancer patients obtained through the Measuring Your Health (MY-Health study (n = 5,301. Participants were cancer survivors within six to 13 months of a diagnosis of one of seven cancer types, and spoke English, Spanish, or Mandarin Chinese. They completed a survey on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, and health status. Psychometric measurement equivalence was evaluated with an item response theory approach to differential item functioning (DIF detection and impact. Although an expert panel proposed that many of the 10 items might exhibit measurement bias, or DIF, based on gender, age, race/ethnicity, and/or education, no DIF was detected using the study’s standard DIF criterion, and only one item in one sample comparison was flagged for DIF using a sensitivity DIF criterion. This item’s flagged DIF had only a trivial impact on estimation of scores. Social function measures are especially important in cancer because the disease and its treatment can affect the quality of marital relationships, parental responsibilities, work abilities, and social activities. Having culturally relevant, linguistically equivalent and psychometrically sound patient-reported measures in multiple languages helps to overcome some common barriers to including underrepresented groups in research and to conducting cross-cultural research.

  11. A Discrete Equivalent of the Logistic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulou EugeniaN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete equivalent and not analogue of the well-known logistic differential equation is proposed. This discrete equivalent logistic equation is of the Volterra convolution type, is obtained by use of a functional-analytic method, and is explicitly solved using the -transform method. The connection of the solution of the discrete equivalent logistic equation with the solution of the logistic differential equation is discussed. Also, some differences of the discrete equivalent logistic equation and the well-known discrete analogue of the logistic equation are mentioned. It is hoped that this discrete equivalent of the logistic equation could be a better choice for the modelling of various problems, where different versions of known discrete logistic equations are used until nowadays.

  12. Micromotion in trapped atom-ion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Barrett, Murray; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2012-01-01

    We examine the validity of the harmonic approximation, where the radio-frequency ion trap is treated as a harmonic trap, in the problem regarding the controlled collision of a trapped atom and a single trapped ion. This is equivalent to studying the effect of the micromotion since this motion must be neglected for the trapped ion to be considered as a harmonic oscillator. By applying the transformation of Cook and Shankland we find that the micromotion can be represented by two periodically oscillating operators. In order to investigate the effect of the micromotion on the dynamics of a trapped atom-ion system, we calculate (i) the coupling strengths of the micromotion operators by numerical integration and (ii) the quasienergies of the system by applying the Floquet formalism --- a useful framework for studying periodic systems. It turns out that the micromotion is not negligible when the distance between the atom and the ion traps is shorter than a characteristic distance. Within this range the energy diagr...

  13. The social and community opportunities profile social inclusion measure: Structural equivalence and differential item functioning in community mental health residents in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Peter John; Chan, Kara; Chiu, Marcus; Ma, Yanni; Gaze, Sarah; Evans, Sherrill

    2016-03-01

    China's future major health problem will be the management of chronic diseases - of which mental health is a major one. An instrument is needed to measure mental health inclusion outcomes for mental health services in Hong Kong and mainland China as they strive to promote a more inclusive society for their citizens and particular disadvantaged groups. To report on the analysis of structural equivalence and item differentiation in two mentally unhealthy and one healthy sample in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong. The mental health sample in Hong Kong was made up of non-governmental organisation (NGO) referrals meeting the selection/exclusion criteria (being well enough to be interviewed, having a formal psychiatric diagnosis and living in the community). A similar sample in the United Kingdom meeting the same selection criteria was obtained from a community mental health organisation, equivalent to the NGOs in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis and logistic regression were conducted. The single-variable, self-rated 'overall social inclusion' differs significantly between all of the samples, in the way we would expect from previous research, with the healthy population feeling more included than the serious mental illness (SMI) groups. In the exploratory factor analysis, the first two factors explain between a third and half of the variance, and the single variable which enters into all the analyses in the first factor is having friends to visit the home. All the regression models were significant; however, in Hong Kong sample, only one-fifth of the total variance is explained. The structural findings imply that the social and community opportunities profile-Chinese version (SCOPE-C) gives similar results when applied to another culture. As only one-fifth of the variance of 'overall inclusion' was explained in the Hong Kong sample, it may be that the instrument needs to be refined using different or additional items within the structural domains of inclusion.

  14. From equivalence to adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Borowczyk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.

  15. On Chinese-English Translation of Local Dish Names in Guangxi from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory%功能对等理论下广西地方菜名英译的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋招凤; 朱鲜琦

    2015-01-01

    功能对等理论是由美国翻译理论家尤金�奈达提出的,其追求译作和原文要在内容上实现最大程度的对等,从而使目标语读者和原语读者能有相同的感受。本文在这一理论的指导下,英译了一些具有代表性的广西地方菜菜名,并根据菜名的类型,提出了五种具体的翻译方法:直译法、地名+直译、巧用介词法、去虚显实法以及拼音+释义法。研究广西特色菜菜名的英译不但可以为中餐菜名英译领域尽一份绵薄之力,而且还传播了广西的饮食文化。%Functional Equivalence,provided by American translator Eugene Nida,intends to reach a maximized equivalence between original work and its translation.Such equivalence enables the readers from both original and target language to have the same feeling during their reading.Under the instruction of Functional Equivalence Theory,the authors of this paper have translated some dish names in Guangxi.Moreover,they have concluded five ways of dealing this kind of translation,which are literal translation,place + literal translation,proper use of prepositions,explanation of the main ideas by neglecting its redundant words,use of pinyin + note.The study not only improves the Eng-lish version of particular dishes’names,but also spread the food culture of Guangxi province.

  16. Equivalence Relations of -Algebra Extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changguo Wei

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  17. Dual functions of the nucleus-encoded factor TDA1 in trapping and translation activation of atpA transcripts in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Stephan; Loiselay, Christelle; Drapier, Dominique; Bujaldon, Sandrine; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Kuras, Richard; Choquet, Yves; Wollman, Francis-André

    2011-09-01

    After endosymbiosis, organelles lost most of their initial genome. Moreover, expression of the few remaining genes became tightly controlled by the nucleus through trans-acting protein factors that are required for post-transcriptional expression (maturation/stability or translation) of a single (or a few) specific organelle target mRNA(s). Here, we characterize the nucleus-encoded TDA1 factor, which is specifically required for translation of the chloroplast atpA transcript that encodes subunit α of ATP synthase in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The sequence of TDA1 contains eight copies of a degenerate 38-residue motif, that we named octotrico peptide repeat (OPR), which has been previously described in a few other trans-acting factors targeted to the C. reinhardtii chloroplast. Interestingly, a proportion of the untranslated atpA transcripts are sequestered into high-density, non-polysomic, ribonucleoprotein complexes. Our results suggest that TDA1 has a dual function: (i) trapping a subset of untranslated atpA transcripts into non-polysomic complexes, and (ii) translational activation of these transcripts. We discuss these results in light of our previous observation that only a proportion of atpA transcripts are translated at any given time in the chloroplast of C. reinhardtii.

  18. A BOSE-EINSTEIN CONDENSATE WITH PT-SYMMETRIC DOUBLE-DELTA FUNCTION LOSS AND GAIN IN A HARMONIC TRAP: A TEST OF RIGOROUS ESTIMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Haag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the linear and nonlinear Schrödinger equation for a Bose-Einstein condensate in a harmonic trap with PT-symmetric double-delta function loss and gain terms. We verify that the conditions for the applicability of a recent proposition by Mityagin and Siegl on singular perturbations of harmonic oscillator type self-adjoint operators are fulfilled. In both the linear and nonlinear case we calculate numerically the shifts of the unperturbed levels with quantum numbers n of up to 89 in dependence on the strength of the non-Hermiticity and compare with rigorous estimates derived by those authors. We confirm that the predicted 1/n1/2 estimate provides a valid upper bound on the shrink rate of the numerical eigenvalues. Moreover, we find that a more recent estimate of log(n/n3/2 is in excellent agreement with the numerical results. With nonlinearity the shrink rates are found to be smaller than without nonlinearity, and the rigorous estimates, derived only for the linear case, are no longer applicable.

  19. Small Mammal Trapping 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Small mammal traps were placed in the Baring division and in the Edmunds division of Moosehom National Wildlife Refuge. There were a total of 98 traps set for up to...

  20. St. Croix trap study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains detailed information about the catch from 600 trap stations around St. Croix. Data fields include species caught, size data, trap location...

  1. Global Liquidity Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Ippei; NAKAJIMA Tomoyuki; Sudo, Nao; Teranishi, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-country New Open Economy Macroeconomics model, and analyze the optimal monetary policy when countries cooperate in the face of a "global liquidity trap" -- i.e., a situation where the two countries are simultaneously caught in liquidity traps. The notable features of the optimal policy in the face of a global liquidity trap are history dependence and international dependence. The optimality of history dependent policy is confirmed as in local liquidity trap. A ...

  2. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  3. Trapping of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin in the membrane-bound monomeric state blocks membrane insertion and functional pore formation by the toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2014-06-13

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a potent membrane-damaging cytolytic toxin that belongs to the family of β barrel pore-forming protein toxins. VCC induces lysis of its target eukaryotic cells by forming transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pores. The mechanism of membrane pore formation by VCC follows the overall scheme of the archetypical β barrel pore-forming protein toxin mode of action, in which the water-soluble monomeric form of the toxin first binds to the target cell membrane, then assembles into a prepore oligomeric intermediate, and finally converts into the functional transmembrane oligomeric β barrel pore. However, there exists a vast knowledge gap in our understanding regarding the intricate details of the membrane pore formation process employed by VCC. In particular, the membrane oligomerization and membrane insertion steps of the process have only been described to a limited extent. In this study, we determined the key residues in VCC that are critical to trigger membrane oligomerization of the toxin. Alteration of such key residues traps the toxin in its membrane-bound monomeric state and abrogates subsequent oligomerization, membrane insertion, and functional transmembrane pore-formation events. The results obtained from our study also suggest that the membrane insertion of VCC depends critically on the oligomerization process and that it cannot be initiated in the membrane-bound monomeric form of the toxin. In sum, our study, for the first time, dissects membrane binding from the subsequent oligomerization and membrane insertion steps and, thus, defines the exact sequence of events in the membrane pore formation process by VCC.

  4. The Translation of Cultural Images in Movies from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence%功能对等视角下影视作品中文化意象的翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张殿海

    2014-01-01

    The translation of cultural images in movies is a challenging task. The theory of functional equivalence provides a new perspective for it. The theory emphasizes the equivalence of the readers’ responses in the source language and the target language. According to this theory, the readers’ response to a cultural image in the target language should be equivalent to that in the source language.%文化意象增加了影视作品翻译的难度,对于译者具有一定的挑战性。功能对等理论强调以读者为中心,强调读者反应的对等,认为译文接受者对于译文的反应要基本等同于原语接受者对于原文的反应。功能对等理论为影视作品中文化意象的翻译提供了一个新的视角,具有一定的指导作用。

  5. Promoter trapping in Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-hong; LU Jian-ping; WANG Jiao-yu; MIN Hang; LIN Fu-cheng

    2006-01-01

    Application of promoter trapping based on transformation in Magnaporthe grisea is reported in this paper. Two promoter-trapping vectors, designated as pCBGFP and pEGFPHPH, were constructed and transformed into protoplasts of M.grisea. A library of 1077 transformants resistant to hygromycin B was generated. Of which, 448 transformants were found to express eGFP gene in different structures ofM. grisea. Three transformants grew slowly, 5 transformants decreased in conidiafion and 7 transformants reduced in pathogenicity greatly among these 448 transformants. Eleven transformants were checked by genomic southern blot randomly, and 9 of which were single-copy insertions. The promoter trapping technique has been applied successfully in M. grisea and can be used as a tool for functional genomic analysis.

  6. Superconducting microfabricated ion traps

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shannon X; Labaziewicz, Jaroslaw; Dauler, Eric; Berggren, Karl; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    We fabricate superconducting ion traps with niobium and niobium nitride and trap single 88Sr ions at cryogenic temperatures. The superconducting transition is verified and characterized by measuring the resistance and critical current using a 4-wire measurement on the trap structure, and observing change in the rf reflection. The lowest observed heating rate is 2.1(3) quanta/sec at 800 kHz at 6 K and shows no significant change across the superconducting transition, suggesting that anomalous heating is primarily caused by noise sources on the surface. This demonstration of superconducting ion traps opens up possibilities for integrating trapped ions and molecular ions with superconducting devices.

  7. Equivalent Circuits For AC-Impedance Analysis Of Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents investigation of equivalent circuits for ac-impedance analysis of corrosion. Impedance between specimen and electrolyte measured as function of frequency. Data used to characterize corrosion electrochemical system in terms of equivalent circuit. Eleven resistor/capacitor equivalent-circuit models were analyzed.

  8. Conformal dynamical equivalence and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, N. K.

    2011-02-01

    The "Conformal Dynamical Equivalence" (CDE) approach is briefly reviewed, and some of its applications, at various astrophysical levels (Sun, Solar System, Stars, Galaxies, Clusters of Galaxies, Universe as a whole), are presented. According to the CDE approach, in both the Newtonian and general-relativistic theories of gravity, the isentropic hydrodynamic flows in the interior of a bounded gravitating perfect-fluid source are dynamically equivalent to geodesic motions in a virtual, fully defined fluid source. Equivalently, the equations of hydrodynamic motion in the former source are functionally similar to those of the geodesic motions in the latter, physically, fully defined source. The CDE approach is followed for the dynamical description of the motions in the fluid source. After an observational introduction, taking into account all the internal physical characteristics of the corresponding perfect-fluid source, and based on the property of the isentropic hydrodynamic flows (quite reasonable for an isolated physical system), we examine a number of issues, namely, (i) the classical Newtonian explanation of the celebrated Pioneer-Anomaly effect in the Solar System, (ii) the possibility of both the attractive gravity and the repulsive gravity in a non-quantum Newtonian framework, (iii) the evaluation of the masses - theoretical, dynamical, and missing - and of the linear dimensions of non-magnetized and magnetized large-scale cosmological structures, (iv) the explanation of the flat-rotation curves of disc galaxies, (v) possible formation mechanisms of winds and jets, and (vi) a brief presentation of a conventional approach - toy model to the dynamics of the Universe, characterized by the dominant collisional dark matter (with its subdominant luminous baryonic "contamination"), correctly interpreting the cosmological observational data without the need of the notions dark energy, cosmological constant, and universal accelerating expansion.

  9. Francium sources and traps for fundamental interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancari, G.; Atutov, S. N.; Calabrese, R.; Corradi, L.; Dainelli, A.; de Mauro, C.; Khanbekyan, A.; Mariotti, E.; Minguzzi, P.; Moi, L.; Sanguinetti, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Veronesi, S.

    2007-11-01

    Francium is one of the best candidates for atomic parity nonconservation (APNC) and for the search of permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs). APNC measurements test the weak force between electrons and nucleons at very low momentum transfers. They also represent a unique way to detect weak nucleon-nucleon interactions. EDMs are instead related to the time-reversal symmetry. Preliminary to these fundamental measurements are precision studies in atomic spectroscopy and the development of magneto-optical traps (MOT), which partially compensate for the lack of stable Fr isotopes. At LNL Legnaro, francium is produced by fusion of 100-MeV 18O with 197Au in a thick target, followed by evaporation of neutrons from the compound nucleus. Francium diffuses inside the hot target (1200 K) and is surface ionized for injection at 3 keV in an electrostatic beamline. Typically, we produce 1×106 (210Fr ions)/s for a primary flux of 1.5×1012 particles/s. We have studied Fr yields as a function of primary beam energy, intensity, and target temperature. Information on the efficiency of bulk diffusion, surface desorption and ionization is deduced. The beam then enters a Dryfilm-coated cell, where it is neutralized on a heated yttrium plate. The escape time of neutral Fr (diffusion + desorption) is approximately 20 s at 950 K, as measured with a dedicated setup. In the MOT, we use 6 orthogonal Ti:sapphire laser beams for the main pumping transition and 6 beams from a stabilized diode repumper. Fluorescence from trapped atoms is observed with a cooled CCD camera, in order to reach noise levels from stray light equivalent to approximately 50 atoms. Systematic tests are being done to improve the trapping efficiency. We plan to further develop Fr traps at LNL; in parallel, we will study APNC and EDM techniques and systematics with stable alkalis at Pisa, Siena, and Ferrara.

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  11. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is of primary importance in business English translation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions of the original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This article focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice are put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,conciseness and gracefulness.If the three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  12. Lexical Equivalence in Business English Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淼

    2009-01-01

    Business English is English used in business contexts.It is a combination of knowledge in both business and language.Being faithful is ofprimary importance in business English Iranslation,but a translation only faithful to the original is far from adequate if it is not appropriate to the original in style.Therefore,in doing business translation,the translators should always keep in mind the specific purposes and functions ofthe original texts and make attempts to render the closet natural equivalent in the target language.This atticle focuses on equivalence at lexical level in this chapter.Several major tendencies toward word choice arc put forward and stylistic equivalence in each case is analyzed at some length.Three criteria are proposed here for choosing suitable words:preciseness,concise-ness and gracefulness.1fthe three criteria are satisfied,stylistic equivalence will also be established.

  13. The effective theory of Borel equivalence relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fokina, E.B.; Friedman, S.-D.; Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2010-01-01

    The study of Borel equivalence relations under Borel reducibility has developed into an important area of descriptive set theory. The dichotomies of Silver [20] and Harrington, Kechris and Louveau [6] show that with respect to Borel reducibility, any Borel equivalence relation strictly above...... under effectively Borel reducibility. The resulting structure is complex, even for equivalence relations with finitely many equivalence classes. However use of Kleene's O as a parameter is sufficient to restore the picture from the noneffective setting. A key lemma is that of the existence of two...... effectively Borel sets of reals, neither of which contains the range of the other under any effectively Borel function; the proof of this result applies Barwise compactness to a deep theorem of Harrington (see [5,16]) establishing for any recursive ordinal α the existence of Π singletons whose α...

  14. Evaluation of mode equivalence of the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument, LASA Quality of Life, and Subjective Significance Questionnaire items administered by Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Keenoy, Kathleen; Shouery, Marwan; Basch, Ethan; Temple, Larissa K

    2016-05-01

    To assess the equivalence of patient-reported outcome (PRO) survey responses across Web, interactive voice response system (IVRS), and paper modes of administration. Postoperative colorectal cancer patients with home Web/e-mail and phone were randomly assigned to one of the eight study groups: Groups 1-6 completed the survey via Web, IVRS, and paper, in one of the six possible orders; Groups 7-8 completed the survey twice, either by Web or by IVRS. The 20-item survey, including the MSKCC Bowel Function Instrument (BFI), the LASA Quality of Life (QOL) scale, and the Subjective Significance Questionnaire (SSQ) adapted to bowel function, was completed from home on consecutive days. Mode equivalence was assessed by comparison of mean scores across modes and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and was compared to the test-retest reliability of Web and IVRS. Of 170 patients, 157 completed at least one survey and were included in analysis. Patients had mean age 56 (SD = 11), 53% were male, 81% white, 53% colon, and 47% rectal cancer; 78% completed all assigned surveys. Mean scores for BFI total score, BFI subscale scores, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ varied by mode by less than one-third of a score point. ICCs across mode were: BFI total score (Web-paper = 0.96, Web-IVRS = 0.97, paper-IVRS = 0.97); BFI subscales (range = 0.88-0.98); LASA QOL (Web-paper = 0.98, Web-IVRS = 0.78, paper-IVRS = 0.80); and SSQ (Web-paper = 0.92, Web-IVRS = 0.86, paper-IVRS = 0.79). Mode equivalence was demonstrated for the BFI total score, BFI subscales, LASA QOL, and adapted SSQ, supporting the use of multiple modes of PRO data capture in clinical trials.

  15. The fragile X-related proteins FXR1P and FXR2P contain a functional nucleolar-targeting signal equivalent to the HIV-1 regulatory proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tamanini (Filippo); L.L. Kirkpatrick (Laura); J. Schonkeren; L. van Unen (Leontine); C.E. Bakker (Cathy); D.L. Nelson (David); H. Galjaard (Hans); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.T. Hoogeveen (Andre); C.J.M. Bontekoe (Carola)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractFragile X syndrome is caused by the absence of the fragile X mental-retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP and the fragile X-related proteins 1 and 2 (FXR1P and FXR2P) form a gene family with functional similarities, such as RNA binding, polyribosomal association

  16. Functional and motor outcome 5 years after stroke is equivalent to outcome at 2 months: follow-up of the collaborative evaluation of rehabilitation in stroke across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Verheyden, Geert; Brinkmann, Nadine; Dejaeger, Eddy; De Weerdt, Willy; Feys, Hilde; Gantenbein, Andreas R; Jenni, Walter; Laenen, Annouschka; Lincoln, Nadina; Putman, Koen; Schuback, Birgit; Schupp, Wilfried; Thijs, Vincent; De Wit, Liesbet

    2015-06-01

    Recovery of patients within the first 6 months after stroke is well documented, but there has been little research on long-term recovery. The aim of this study was to analyze functional and motor recovery between admission to rehabilitation centres and 5 years after stroke. This follow-up of the Collaborative Evaluation of Rehabilitation in Stroke Across Europe study, included patients from 4 European rehabilitation centres. Patients were assessed on admission, at 2 and 6 months, and 5 years after stroke, using the Barthel Index, Rivermead Motor Assessment Gross Function, Leg and Trunk function, and Arm function. Linear mixed models were used, corrected for baseline characteristics. To account for the drop-out during follow-up, the analysis is likelihood-based (assumption of missingness at random). A total of 532 patients were included in this study, of which 238 were followed up at 5 years post stroke. Mean age at stroke onset was 69 (±10 SD) years, 53% were men, 84% had ischemic strokes, and 53% had left-sided motor impairment. Linear mixed model analysis revealed a significant deterioration for all 4 outcomes between 6 months and 5 years (Pstroke. Higher age (Pstroke severity on admission (Pstroke severity negatively affected recovery up to 5 years after stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Stuttering Equivalence for Parity Games

    CERN Document Server

    Cranen, Sjoerd; Willemse, Tim A C

    2011-01-01

    We study the process theoretic notion of stuttering equivalence in the setting of parity games. We demonstrate that stuttering equivalent vertices have the same winner in the parity game. This means that solving a parity game can be accelerated by minimising the game graph with respect to stuttering equivalence. While, at the outset, it might not be clear that this strategy should pay off, our experiments using typical verification problems illustrate that stuttering equivalence speeds up solving parity games in many cases.

  18. Based on the Functional Equivalence Theory to explore the Business English Translation%基于功能对等理论探究商务英语翻译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静

    2016-01-01

    Multinational business activities and cultural exchanges are frequent increasingly under the economic globalization. There are some language barriers because of different language between countries, so the translation of business English arises in this environment. Functional equivalence theory to business English translation plays an important guiding role. The article studies the translation of business English based on functional equivalence theory, and analysis the requirement and the strategy in detail.%经济全球化下,跨国之间的商务活动与文化交流日渐频繁,因国与国之间的语言不通,会出现一些语言障碍,因此商务英语的翻译在这一大环境下应运而生。功能对等理论对商务英语的翻译具有重要的指导作用,文章就基于功能对等理论对商务英语的翻译进行研究,并对其要求和策略进行详细的分析。

  19. Trap style influences wild pig behavior and trapping success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.L.; Holtfreter, R.W.; Ditchkoff, S.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the efforts of many natural resource professionals, wild pig (Sus scrofa) populations are expanding in many areas of the world. Although many creative techniques for controlling pig populations are being explored, trapping has been and still is themost commonly usedmethod of population control formany public and private land managers. We conducted an observational study to examine the efficiency of 2 frequently used trap styles: a small, portable box-style trap and a larger, semi-permanent, corral-style trap.We used game cameras to examine patterns of trap entry by wild pigs around each style of trap, and we conducted a trapping session to compare trapping success between trap styles. Adult female and juvenile wild pigs entered both styles of trap more readily than did adult males, and adult males seemed particularly averse to entering box traps. Less than 10% of adult male visits to box traps resulted in entries, easily the least percentage of any class at any style of trap. Adult females entered corral traps approximately 2.2 times more often per visit than box traps and re-entered corral traps >2 times more frequently. Juveniles entered and reentered both box and corral traps at similar rates. Overall (all-class) entry-per-visit rates at corral traps (0.71) were nearly double that of box traps (0.37). Subsequent trapping data supported these preliminary entry data; the capture rate for corral traps was >4 times that of box traps. Our data suggest that corral traps are temporally and economically superior to box traps with respect to efficiency; that is, corral traps effectively trap more pigs per trap night at a lower cost per pig than do box traps. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  20. Non-equivalent roles of two periplasmic subunits in the function and assembly of triclosan pump TriABC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jon W; Nickels, Logan M; Ntreh, Abigail T; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2015-10-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug efflux transporters function in complexes with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) that enable antibiotic efflux across the outer membrane. In this study, we analyzed the function, composition and assembly of the triclosan efflux transporter TriABC-OpmH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report that this transporter possesses a surprising substrate specificity that encompasses not only triclosan but the detergent SDS, which are often used together in antibacterial soaps. These two compounds interact antagonistically in a TriABC-dependent manner and negate antibacterial properties of each other. Unlike other efflux pumps that rely on a single MFP for their activities, two different MFPs, TriA and TriB, are required for triclosan/SDS resistance mediated by TriABC-OpmH. We found that analogous mutations in the α-helical hairpin and membrane proximal domains of TriA and TriB differentially affect triclosan efflux and assembly of the complex. Furthermore, our results show that TriA and TriB function as a dimer, in which TriA is primarily responsible for stabilizing interactions with the outer membrane channel, whereas TriB is important for the stimulation of the transporter. We conclude that MFPs are engaged into complexes as asymmetric dimers, in which each protomer plays a specific role.

  1. Microfabricated ion trap array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.; Fleming, James G.

    2006-12-26

    A microfabricated ion trap array, comprising a plurality of ion traps having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale ion traps to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microfabricated ion trap array with on-chip circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of the microfabricated ion trap array can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  2. Neutral atom traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  3. Feedback traps for virtual potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Bechhoefer, John

    2017-03-01

    Feedback traps are tools for trapping and manipulating single charged objects, such as molecules in solution. An alternative to optical tweezers and other single-molecule techniques, they use feedback to counteract the Brownian motion of a molecule of interest. The trap first acquires information about a molecule's position and then applies an electric feedback force to move the molecule. Since electric forces are stronger than optical forces at small scales, feedback traps are the best way to trap single molecules without `touching' them (e.g. by putting them in a small box or attaching them to a tether). Feedback traps can do more than trap molecules: they can also subject a target object to forces that are calculated to be the gradient of a desired potential function U(x). If the feedback loop is fast enough, it creates a virtual potential whose dynamics will be very close to those of a particle in an actual potential U(x). But because the dynamics are entirely a result of the feedback loop-absent the feedback, there is only an object diffusing in a fluid-we are free to specify and then manipulate in time an arbitrary potential U(x,t). Here, we review recent applications of feedback traps to studies on the fundamental connections between information and thermodynamics, a topic where feedback plays an even more fundamental role. We discuss how recursive maximum-likelihood techniques allow continuous calibration, to compensate for drifts in experiments that last for days. We consider ways to estimate work and heat, using them to measure fluctuating energies to a precision of ±0.03 kT over these long experiments. Finally, we compare work and heat measurements of the costs of information erasure, the Landauer limit of kT ln 2 per bit of information erased. We argue that, when you want to know the average heat transferred to a bath in a long protocol, you should measure instead the average work and then infer the heat using the first law of thermodynamics. This

  4. Biased trapping issue on weighted hierarchical networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meifeng Dai; Jie Liu; Feng Zhu

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present trapping issues of weight-dependent walks on weighted hierarchical networks which are based on the classic scale-free hierarchical networks. Assuming that edge’s weight is used as local information by a random walker, we introduce a biased walk. The biased walk is that a walker, at each step, chooses one of its neighbours with a probability proportional to the weight of the edge. We focus on a particular case with the immobile trap positioned at the hub node which has the largest degree in the weighted hierarchical networks. Using a method based on generating functions, we determine explicitly the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for the trapping issue. Let parameter (0 < < 1) be the weight factor. We show that the efficiency of the trapping process depends on the parameter a; the smaller the value of a, the more efficient is the trapping process.

  5. Computer model for analyzing sodium cold traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPheeters, C C; Raue, D J

    1983-05-01

    A computer model was developed to simulate the processes that occur in sodium cold traps. The Model for Analyzing Sodium Cold Traps (MASCOT) simulates any desired configuration of mesh arrangements and dimensions and calculates pressure drops and flow distributions, temperature profiles, impurity concentration profiles, and impurity mass distributions. The calculated pressure drop as a function of impurity mass content determines the capacity of the cold trap. The accuracy of the model was checked by comparing calculated mass distributions with experimentally determined mass distributions from literature publications and with results from our own cold trap experiments. The comparisons were excellent in all cases. A parametric study was performed to determine which design variables are most important in maximizing cold trap capacity.

  6. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, L. V.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2008-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  7. Towards trapped antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, L V; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the last few years in the nascent field of antihydrogen physics. The next big step forward is expected to be the trapping of the formed antihydrogen atoms using a magnetic multipole trap. ALPHA is a new international project that started to take data in 2006 at CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms to facilitate measurements of its properties. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  8. Equivalence between free quantum particles and those in harmonic potentials and its application to instantaneous changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuernagel, Ole

    2014-06-01

    In quantum physics the free particle and the harmonically trapped particle are arguably the most important systems a physicist needs to know about. It is little known that, mathematically, they are one and the same. This knowledge helps us to understand either from the viewpoint of the other. Here we show that all general time-dependent solutions of the free-particle Schrödinger equation can be mapped to solutions of the Schrödinger equation for harmonic potentials, both the trapping oscillator and the inverted "oscillator". This map is fully invertible and therefore induces an isomorphism between both types of system, they are equivalent. A composition of the map and its inverse allows us to map from one harmonic oscillator to another with a different spring constant and different center position. The map is independent of the state of the system, consisting only of a coordinate transformation and multiplication by a form factor, and can be chosen such that the state is identical in both systems at one point in time. This transition point in time can be chosen freely, the wave function of the particle evolving in time in one system before the transition point can therefore be linked up smoothly with the wave function for the other system and its future evolution after the transition point. Such a cut-and-paste procedure allows us to describe the instantaneous changes of the environment a particle finds itself in. Transitions from free to trapped systems, between harmonic traps of different spring constants or center positions, or, from harmonic binding to repulsive harmonic potentials are straightforwardly modelled. This includes some time-dependent harmonic potentials. The mappings introduced here are computationally more efficient than either state-projection or harmonic oscillator propagator techniques conventionally employed when describing instantaneous (non-adiabatic) changes of a quantum particle's environment.

  9. Contribution of CT Quantified Emphysema, Air Trapping and Airway Wall Thickness on Pulmonary Function in Male Smokers With and Without COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoesein, Firdaus A. A. Mohamed; de Jong, Pim A.; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Mets, Onno M.; Schmidt, Michael; de Koning, Harry J.; van der Aalst, Carlijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; van Ginneken, Bram; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Zanen, Pieter

    Emphysema, airway wall thickening and air trapping are associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All three can be quantified by computed tomography (CT) of the chest. The goal of the current study is to determine the relative contribution of CT derived parameters on spirometry,

  10. 简析翻译中功能对等理论的运用%A Discriminating Analysis on Functional Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚嘉

    2012-01-01

      “功能对等”理论是奈达翻译理论的核心,该理论在中国的传播也几经曲折、褒贬不一。该理论主要是将译文读者与原文读者在阅读过程中反应是否一致作为衡量翻译的最高标准,所以也成为“读者同等反应论”。然而在翻译过程中,由于文化的客观差异、异质同构的表达方式及不同的译者风格等原因,该理论也有一定的局限性。该文旨在以构建“功能对等“理论的理论基础为视角,借助实例分析并指出对该理论的完全接受与排斥都不是正确的学习态度,以期广大英语学习者及爱好者能对其有更正确的认识及评价,并从实际运用中得到收获。%  Eugene A. Nida is one of the greatest translation theorists in the world.“Functional equivalence”is the core of his translation theory system. The theory considers the same reaction achieved by reading the original work and translation work as the ultimate criterion to judge the quality of the rendering practice. Due to cultural differences, varied expressions and individual style of the translators, the theory has certain limitations. In another word, it’s perfectly true that complete acceptance or com⁃plete rejection to the theory should not be the right attitude. The article will take the theoretical bases of“functional equiva⁃lence”as the perspective, through some examples, hoping to reach a correct understanding and evaluation of“functional equiva⁃lence”in translation studies.

  11. 功能对等理论在商业广告翻译中的应用价值%The Applications and Value of Functional Equivalence Theory in the Translation of Advertisement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操林英

    2012-01-01

    Based on the translation theory of functional equivalence and the combination of language feature of English and Chinese advertisement, this paper analyses the application of translation theory in the translation of English and Chinese advertisement, and suggests that translation of advertisement should serve the readers of target language with semantic, pragmatic and cultural equivalence, so as to better promote the business sales.%本文着眼于功能对等理论和中英广告的语言特色,分析了对等理论在中英广告翻译中的运用价值,提出商业广告的翻译应该从译文读者的角度出发,用符合译文表达习惯的方法处理原文,恰当传递原文的文化内涵,并注重情感的传递,从而使译文能更好地被读者理解和接受,达到推销商品的目的.

  12. Non-equivalence of Key Positively Charged Residues of the Free Fatty Acid 2 Receptor in the Recognition and Function of Agonist Versus Antagonist Ligands*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Eugenia; Hansen, Anders Højgaard; Pandey, Sunil K.; MacKenzie, Amanda E.; Hudson, Brian D.; Ulven, Trond; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of poorly digested carbohydrates. A key mediator of their actions is the G protein-coupled free fatty acid 2 (FFA2) receptor, and this has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of both metabolic and inflammatory diseases. However, a lack of understanding of the molecular determinants dictating how ligands bind to this receptor has hindered development. We have developed a novel radiolabeled FFA2 antagonist to probe ligand binding to FFA2, and in combination with mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies, we define how agonist and antagonist ligands interact with the receptor. Although both agonist and antagonist ligands contain negatively charged carboxylates that interact with two key positively charged arginine residues in transmembrane domains V and VII of FFA2, there are clear differences in how these interactions occur. Specifically, although agonists require interaction with both arginine residues to bind the receptor, antagonists require an interaction with only one of the two. Moreover, different chemical series of antagonist interact preferentially with different arginine residues. A homology model capable of rationalizing these observations was developed and provides a tool that will be invaluable for identifying improved FFA2 agonists and antagonists to further define function and therapeutic opportunities of this receptor. PMID:26518871

  13. Why scalar-tensor equivalent theories are not physically equivalent?

    CERN Document Server

    Sk., Nayem

    2016-01-01

    Whether Jordan's and Einstein's frame descriptions of F(R) theory of gravity are physically equivalent, is a long standing debate. However, none questioned on true mathematical equivalence, since classical field equations may be translated from one frame to the other following a transformation relation. Nevertheless, true mathematical equivalence is only established, if all the mathematical results derived from one frame may be translated to the other. Here we show that, neither Noether equations, nor quantum equations may be translated from one frame to the other. The reason being the momenta can't be translated. This appears to be the cause for dynamical in-equivalence.

  14. Researching measurement equivalence in cross-cultural studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Kankaraš

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In cross-cultural comparative studies it is essential to establish equivalent measurement of relevant constructs across cultures. If this equivalence is not confirmed it is difficult if not impossible to make meaningful comparison of results across countries. This work presents concept of measurement equivalence, its relationship with other related concepts, different equivalence levels and causes of inequivalence in cross-cultural research. It also reviews three main approaches to the analysis of measurement equivalence – multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, differential item functioning, and multigroup latent class analysis – with special emphasis on their similarities and differences, as well as comparative advantages.

  15. Search for trapped antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Alpha Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ∼30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10 7 antiprotons with 1.3×10 positrons to produce 6×10 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consistent with the release of trapped antihydrogen. The cosmic ray background, estimated to contribute 0.14 counts, is incompatible with this observation at a significance of 5.6 sigma. Extensive simulations predict that an alternative source of annihilations, the escape of mirror-trapped antiprotons, is highly unlikely, though this possibility has not yet been ruled out experimentally.

  16. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  17. Equivalence of Conformal Superalgebras to Hamiltonian Superoperators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Xu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a formal variational calculus of super functions in one real variable and find the conditions for a "matrix differential operator'' to be a Hamiltonian superoperator. Moreover, we prove that conformal superalgebras are equivalent to certain Hamiltonian superoperators.

  18. THE EQUIVALENCE THEORY OF NATIVE SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Tian Luh

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some equivalence definitions are given for native spaces which were introduced by Madych and Nelson and have become influential in the theory of radial basis functions. The abstract elements in na tive spaces are interpreted. Moreaver, Weinrich and Iske's theonies are unified.

  19. Evaluation of common methods for sampling invertebrate pollinator assemblages: net sampling out-perform pan traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Tony J; Davila, Yvonne C; Wardle, Glenda M

    2013-01-01

    Methods for sampling ecological assemblages strive to be efficient, repeatable, and representative. Unknowingly, common methods may be limited in terms of revealing species function and so of less value for comparative studies. The global decline in pollination services has stimulated surveys of flower-visiting invertebrates, using pan traps and net sampling. We explore the relative merits of these two methods in terms of species discovery, quantifying abundance, function, and composition, and responses of species to changing floral resources. Using a spatially-nested design we sampled across a 5000 km(2) area of arid grasslands, including 432 hours of net sampling and 1296 pan trap-days, between June 2010 and July 2011. Net sampling yielded 22% more species and 30% higher abundance than pan traps, and better reflected the spatio-temporal variation of floral resources. Species composition differed significantly between methods; from 436 total species, 25% were sampled by both methods, 50% only by nets, and the remaining 25% only by pans. Apart from being less comprehensive, if pan traps do not sample flower-visitors, the link to pollination is questionable. By contrast, net sampling functionally linked species to pollination through behavioural observations of flower-visitation interaction frequency. Netted specimens are also necessary for evidence of pollen transport. Benefits of net-based sampling outweighed minor differences in overall sampling effort. As pan traps and net sampling methods are not equivalent for sampling invertebrate-flower interactions, we recommend net sampling of invertebrate pollinator assemblages, especially if datasets are intended to document declines in pollination and guide measures to retain this important ecosystem service.

  20. 从奈达的“功能对等”理论浅析商业广告的翻译策略%Analyze Commercial Advertising Translation Strategies from the Perspective of Nida's Theory of"Functional Equivalence"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴华

    2016-01-01

    Eugene Nida's translation theory has a profound influence on cross cultural translation. In the thesis, the author take his"functional equivalence"theory as the foundation, from the choice of words and target object language and cultural differ-ences level of brief analysis of commercial advertising translation strategies.%尤金·奈达的翻译理论对跨文化翻译产生了深远的影响。本文作者以他的“功能对等”论为基础,从选词、目标语对象及文化差异层面简要分析商业广告的翻译策略。

  1. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  2. Density of Trap States and Auger-mediated Electron Trapping in CdTe Quantum-Dot Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Simon C; Azpiroz, Jon Mikel; Aulin, Yaroslav V; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Siebbeles, Laurens D A; Infante, Ivan; Houtepen, Arjan J

    2015-05-13

    Charge trapping is an ubiquitous process in colloidal quantum-dot solids and a major limitation to the efficiency of quantum dot based devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and thermoelectrics. Although empirical approaches led to a reduction of trapping and thereby efficiency enhancements, the exact chemical nature of the trapping mechanism remains largely unidentified. In this study, we determine the density of trap states in CdTe quantum-dot solids both experimentally, using a combination of electrochemical control of the Fermi level with ultrafast transient absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, and theoretically, via density functional theory calculations. We find a high density of very efficient electron traps centered ∼0.42 eV above the valence band. Electrochemical filling of these traps increases the electron lifetime and the photoluminescence quantum yield by more than an order of magnitude. The trapping rate constant for holes is an order of magnitude lower that for electrons. These observations can be explained by Auger-mediated electron trapping. From density functional theory calculations we infer that the traps are formed by dicoordinated Te atoms at the quantum dot surface. The combination of our unique experimental determination of the density of trap states with the theoretical modeling of the quantum dot surface allows us to identify the trapping mechanism and chemical reaction at play during charge trapping in these quantum dots.

  3. Performance enhancement of pc-Si solar cells through combination of anti-reflection and light-trapping: Functions of AAO nano-grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Zhang, Haiming; Qin, Feifei; Bai, Xiaogang; Ji, Ziye; Huang, Dan

    2017-02-01

    Anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) nanogratings are experimentally applied to polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells at front surface to improve the light coupling. On the basis of the Fresnel Reflection Principle, the primary reflection loss can be reduced by multi-layer dielectric film with varing refactive index. And this multi-layer film is regarded as anti-reflection coating. An efficient light-trapping structure is significant in absorption enhancement of long wavelength band (around 900-1100 nm) for silicon solar cells. In this paper, we put AAO nanogratings on the front side of pc-Si solar cells to serve as anti-reflecting coating and light-trapping structure. The operation leads to light absorption enhancement eventually. Thanks to AAO nano-grating's structure parameters, the anti-reflecting and light-trapping effects are changeable. This is discussed in three aspects: AAO lattice period, AAO thickness and its pore diameter. Optical interaction between AAO nanograting and Ag electrodes is also discussed. We find an increase of short-circuit current density (1.32 mA/cm2) with SiNx:H/AAO complex coating. The relative power conversion efficiency obtains a growth about 2.2% points. Additionally, AAO nanogratings may facilitate carrier separation. This improves the performance of pc-Si solar cells in electrical aspect.

  4. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) snap traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Kampowski, Tim; Metzger, Amélie; Speck, Olga; Speck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional-morphological and biomimetic context.

  5. 1985-86 Trapping Proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1985-1986 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver and muskrat on the...

  6. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  7. Characterising the energy deposition events produced by trapped protons in low earth orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackenbush, L W; Braby, L A; Anderson, G A

    1989-01-01

    Men and equipment in space vehicles in low earth orbit are exposed to a wide variety of radiations, but the majority of the dose is due to trapped protons, which have energies of the order of 100 MeV and are low LET particles. These high energy particles produce nuclear fragmentation with high LET secondaries that may be responsible for a significant fraction of dose equivalent. In order to understand better the biological effectiveness of this radiation environment, a portable tissue equivalent proportional counter spectrometer has been developed that automatically records the distribution of energy in a small tissue-like site as a function of time. This instrument weighs about 700 g and will be flown on a number of future space shuttle flights.

  8. Trapped particle destabilization of the internal kink mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.B.; Chen, L.; Romanelli, F.; Hay, R.

    1984-06-01

    The internal kink mode is destabilized by trapped high energy particles, leading to a new branch of the internal kink dispersion relation with a real frequency near the average trapped particle precession frequency and a growth rate of the same magnitude. This trapped particle branch of the dispersion relation is investigated numerically for a variety of particle distributions. Mode growth rate and frequency are found as a function of plasma ..beta.., density, and trapped particle energy and distribution. The high energy trapped particle sources considered are neutral beam injection, ion cyclotron heating, and fusion alpha particles. Relevance for various plasma heating schemes is discussed.

  9. Macrostate equivalence of two general ensembles and specific relative entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    The two criteria of ensemble equivalence, i.e., macrostate equivalence and measure equivalence, are investigated for a general pair of states. Macrostate equivalence implies the two ensembles are indistinguishable by the measurement of macroscopic quantities obeying the large-deviation principle, and measure equivalence means that the specific relative entropy of these two states vanishes in the thermodynamic limit. It is shown that measure equivalence implies a macrostate equivalence for a general pair of states by deriving an inequality connecting the large-deviation rate functions to the specific relative Renyi entropies. The result is applicable to both quantum and classical systems. As applications, a sufficient condition for thermalization, the time scale of quantum dynamics of macrovariables, and the second law with strict irreversibility in a quantum quench are discussed.

  10. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  11. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  12. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu

    2017-09-01

    A nano - scale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon - atom interactions . A neutral - atom platf orm based on this microfabrication technology will be pre - aligned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano - waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  13. Search For Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Bray, Crystal C; Butler, Eoin; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayano, Ryugo S; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Jørgensen, Lars V; Kurchaninov, Lenoid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Nasr, Sarah Seif El; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experiment to search for trapped antihydrogen atoms with the ALPHA antihydrogen trap at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. Sensitive diagnostics of the temperatures, sizes, and densities of the trapped antiproton and positron plasmas have been developed, which in turn permitted development of techniques to precisely and reproducibly control the initial experimental parameters. The use of a position-sensitive annihilation vertex detector, together with the capability of controllably quenching the superconducting magnetic minimum trap, enabled us to carry out a high-sensitivity and low-background search for trapped synthesised antihydrogen atoms. We aim to identify the annihilations of antihydrogen atoms held for at least 130 ms in the trap before being released over ~30 ms. After a three-week experimental run in 2009 involving mixing of 10^7 antiprotons with 1.3 10^9 positrons to produce 6 10^5 antihydrogen atoms, we have identified six antiproton annihilation events that are consist...

  14. Microfabricated cylindrical ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Matthew G.

    2005-03-22

    A microscale cylindrical ion trap, having an inner radius of order one micron, can be fabricated using surface micromachining techniques and materials known to the integrated circuits manufacturing and microelectromechanical systems industries. Micromachining methods enable batch fabrication, reduced manufacturing costs, dimensional and positional precision, and monolithic integration of massive arrays of ion traps with microscale ion generation and detection devices. Massive arraying enables the microscale cylindrical ion trap to retain the resolution, sensitivity, and mass range advantages necessary for high chemical selectivity. The microscale CIT has a reduced ion mean free path, allowing operation at higher pressures with less expensive and less bulky vacuum pumping system, and with lower battery power than conventional- and miniature-sized ion traps. The reduced electrode voltage enables integration of the microscale cylindrical ion trap with on-chip integrated circuit-based rf operation and detection electronics (i.e., cell phone electronics). Therefore, the full performance advantages of microscale cylindrical ion traps can be realized in truly field portable, handheld microanalysis systems.

  15. Comparative kinematical analyses of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula snap traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula can be considered as one of the most extensively investigated carnivorous plants, knowledge is still scarce about diversity of the snap-trap motion, the functionality of snap traps under varying environmental conditions, and their opening motion. By conducting simple snap-trap closure experiments in air and under water, we present striking evidence that adult Dionaea snaps similarly fast in aerial and submersed states and, hence, is potentially able to gain nutrients from fast aquatic prey during seasonal inundation. We reveal three snapping modes of adult traps, all incorporating snap buckling, and show that millimeter-sized, much slower seedling traps do not yet incorporate such elastic instabilities. Moreover, opening kinematics of young and adult Dionaea snap traps reveal that reverse snap buckling is not performed, corroborating the assumption that growth takes place on certain trap lobe regions. Our findings are discussed in an evolutionary, biomechanical, functional–morphological and biomimetic context.

  16. Full Static Output Feedback Equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristotle G. Yannakoudakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a constructive solution to the problem of full output feedback equivalence, of linear, minimal, time-invariant systems. The equivalence relation on the set of systems is transformed to another on the set of invertible block Bezout/Hankel matrices using the isotropy subgroups of the full state feedback group and the full output injection group. The transformation achieving equivalence is calculated solving linear systems of equations. We give a polynomial version of the results proving that two systems are full output feedback equivalent, if and only if they have the same family of generalized Bezoutians. We present a new set of output feedback invariant polynomials that generalize the breakaway polynomial of scalar systems.

  17. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudeep Kumar Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    To calculate static response properties of a many-body system, local density approximation (LDA) can be safely applied. But, to obtain dynamical response functions, the applicability of LDA is limited bacause dynamics of the system needs to be considered as well. To examine this in the context of cold atoms, we consider a system of non-interacting spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ fermions confined by a harmonic trapping potential. We have calculated a very important response function, the spectral intensity distribution function (SIDF), both exactly and using LDA at zero temperature and compared with each other for different dimensions, trap frequencies and momenta. The behaviour of the SIDF at a particular momentum can be explained by noting the behaviour of the density of states (DoS) of the free system (without trap) in that particular dimension. The agreement between exact and LDA SIDFs becomes better with increase in dimensions and number of particles.

  18. On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Borup, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results on nonl...

  19. - Synonymy in the Translation Equivalent Paradigms of a Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    given is truly a functional translation equivalent for the lemma and make sure that the ... a whole, with the concept of partial synonymy as the point of focus. ..... order in which these equivalents are listed, is based on intuitive frequency and.

  20. On the equivalence of brushlet and wavelet bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, Morten

    We prove that the Meyer wavelet basis and a class of brushlet systems associated with exponential type partitions of the frequency axis form a family of equivalent (unconditional) bases for the Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin function spaces. This equivalence is then used to obtain new results...

  1. 浅谈严复的“信达雅”与奈达的“功能对等”%A Brief Discussion on Yan Fu's"Faithfulness, Expressive-ness and Elegance" and Nida's "Functional Equivalence"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      翻译的历史源远流长,在翻译界关于翻译标准的讨论从未停止。本文从翻译的定义入手过渡到翻译标准的讨论,从翻译标准和方法的角度分析比较了严复的“信达雅”和奈达的“功能对等”,得出其异曲同工之妙院译文要重视准确地表达原文的意义,保持原作风格,才能让译文读者领会原文的深刻意思从而产生共鸣。%Translation has a long history with unceasing discus-sions on its criteria in the circle of translation. Starting from the definition of translation, this paper discusses the criteria of trans-lation, and, from the angle of translation criteria and methods, compares Yan Fu's "faithfulness, expressiveness and elegance"with Nida's"functional equivalence". The writer then concludes that they are two different approaches to the same purpose, namely, only accurate expression of the original text and mainte-nance of the original style can make the translator and the reader understand the profound meaning of the original text and resonate with each other.

  2. 浅谈功能对等理论在影视作品翻译中的应用%Application of functional equivalence in translation of the film and television works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷燕

    2013-01-01

      随着国内外影视作品的不断交流,影视作品翻译成为文化交流的重要媒介。影视作品篇名、字幕翻译的质量在很大程度上决定了观众真正了解原著内涵的程度。优秀的翻译能够使目的语观众在最短的时间内了解原作品的真正意图,获得与源语观众相同的感受。而奈达的功能对等理论由于充分考虑到目的语读者的理解和要求而成为指导影视作品翻译的重要理论。%With the continuous exchange of domestic and foreign film and television works, audiovisual translation has become an important medium for cultural exchange. Film title, subtitle translation quality largely determines the audience really understand the connotation of the degree. Outstanding translation can make the target audience to understand the original work in the most short time the real intention, and get the same source language audience feelings. And Nida's functional equivalence theory due to full consideration of the target language readers understanding and demands and become an important theoretical guidance of audiovisual translation.

  3. Film Subtitle Translation from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory%功能对等理论视域中的电影字幕翻译--以《当幸福来敲门》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖萍; 刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Film subtitle translation aims to let the target audience get the same artistic enjoyment as the source language audience. Functional equivalence theory emphasizes that the readers of the target language have the same or similar understanding and response of the source text as the source language readers. Therefore, it can improve the quality of the subtitle translation and make people better appreciate the film by using the flexible translation methods.%电影字幕翻译追求的是让目的语观众观影后获得跟源语观众相同的艺术享受。功能对等理论强调的是译语读者对源文的理解、反应与源语读者的理解和反应相一致或类似,这正符合字幕翻译的目标。因此,以此理论指导电影字幕翻译,采用灵活的翻译方法,能有效地提升字幕翻译的质量,令人们更好地欣赏电影。

  4. Research on the Subtitle Translation of "The Big Bang Theory" from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory%功能对等视角下《生活大爆炸》字幕翻译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋婷婷; 高圣兵

    2014-01-01

    "The Big Bang Theory"is a popular sitcom welcomed by a large audience. The features and limitations of the subtitles are fully showed in this sitcom, so the research can be done to this sitcom. In order to find out whether the subtitle translation have met the need of equivalence with different translating skills and methods and how they meet it, this paper presents a case study of American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" within the framework of functionalism.%《生活大爆炸》是一个广受喜欢的情景喜剧。其字幕翻译中,包含了许多影视翻译的特征和制约因素,本文从语言和文体方面选取一些比较典型的对话片段,分析说明在翻译过程中是如何做到功能对等的,进而论证奈达的功能对等理论对字幕翻译具有实践性指导作用。

  5. Penning trap at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szerypo, J. E-mail: jerzy.szerypo@phys.jyu.fi; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V.S.; Nieminen, A.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-22

    The IGISOL facility at the Department of Physics of the University of Jyvaeskylae (JYFL) is delivering radioactive beams of short-lived exotic nuclei, in particular the neutron-rich isotopes from the fission reaction. These nuclei are studied with the nuclear spectroscopy methods. In order to substantially increase the quality and sensitivity of such studies, the beam should undergo beam handling: cooling, bunching and isobaric purification. The first two processes are performed with the use of an RFQ cooler/buncher. The isobaric purification will be made by a Penning trap placed after the RF-cooler element. This contribution describes the current status of the Penning trap project and its future prospects. The latter comprise the precise nuclear mass measurements, nuclear spectroscopy in the Penning trap interior as well as the laser spectroscopy on the extracted beams.

  6. Characterization of enhancer trap and gene trap harboring Ac/Ds transposon in transgenic rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金维正; 汪少敏; 徐敏; 段瑞君; 吴平

    2004-01-01

    Insertion mutagenesis has become one of the most popular methods for gene functions analysis.Here we report a two-element Ac/Ds transposon system containing enhancer trap and gene trap for gene tagging in rice.The excision of Ds element was examined by PCR amplification.The excision frequency of Ds element varied from 0% to 40% among 20 F2 populations derived from 11 different Ds parents.Southern blot analysis revealed that more than 70% of excised Ds elements reinserted into rice genome and above 70% of the reinserted Ds elements were located at different positions of the chromosome in rice.The result of histochemical GUS analysis indicated that 28% of enhancer trap and 22% of gene trap tagging plants displayed GUS activity in leaves, roots,flowers or seeds.The GUS positive lines will be useful for identifying gene function in rice.

  7. Phylogenic analysis of adhesion related genes Mad1 revealed a positive selection for the evolution of trapping devices of nematode-trapping fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Hongyan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-03-04

    Adhesions, the major components of the extracellular fibrillar polymers which accumulate on the outer surface of adhesive traps of nematode-trapping fungi, are thought to have played important roles during the evolution of trapping devices. Phylogenetic analyses based on the genes related to adhesive materials can be of great importance for understanding the evolution of trapping devices. Recently, AoMad1, one homologous gene of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae cell wall protein MAD1, has been functionally characterized as involved in the production of adhesions in the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora. In this study, we cloned Mad1 homologous genes from nematode-trapping fungi with various trapping devices. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that species which formed nonadhesive constricting ring (CR) traps more basally placed and species with adhesive traps evolved along two lineages. Likelihood ratio tests (LRT) revealed that significant positive selective pressure likely acted on the ancestral trapping devices including both adhesive and mechanical traps, indicating that the Mad1 genes likely played important roles during the evolution of nematode-trapping fungi. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of trapping devices of nematode-trapping fungi and also contributes to understanding the importance of adhesions during the evolution of nematode-trapping fungi.

  8. Comment on ‘‘Self-trapping on a dimer: Time-dependent solutions of a discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation’’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruzeiro-Hansson, L.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Elgin, J. N.

    1988-01-01

    The equivalence between the discrete self-trapping equation for two degrees of freedom, the pendulum equation, and the space-independent φ4 equation is demonstrated.......The equivalence between the discrete self-trapping equation for two degrees of freedom, the pendulum equation, and the space-independent φ4 equation is demonstrated....

  9. On Application of the Theory of Functional Equivalence to Literary Translation:A Case Study of Two Chinese Versions of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn%论功能对等理论在文学翻译中的应用--以《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》两种中译本为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏

    2014-01-01

    According to the nature of translation, Eugene A. Nida puts forward the famous theory of Dynamic Equivalence from the linguistic point of view, which later develops into Functional Equivalence Theory. Functional equivalence includes not only lexical equivalence, but also semantic, stylistic and cultural equivalence. A translation can be regarded as a good one only if it achieves functional equivalence in meaning and style. In light of Functional Equivalence Theory, the author makes a comparative study of two Chinese versions of The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Through analysis of corresponding excerpts from three per-spectives, namely, meaning, style and culture, the paper discusses how to achieve functional equivalence in process of literary translation and testifies that Functional Equivalence Theory is instructive and meaningful to literary translation.%尤金·奈达从语言学的角度出发,根据翻译的本质,提出了著名的“动态对等”理论,后发展为“功能对等”理论。功能对等不仅包括词汇意义上的对等,还包括语义、风格和文化的对等,只有当译文从语言形式到文化内涵都再现了源语言的风格和精神时,译作才能被称作是优秀的作品。运用功能对等理论,以《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》两种中译本为研究对象,从意义、风格、文化三个方面对其进行对比分析,探讨如何在文学翻译的过程中实现功能对等,从而论证功能对等理论对文学作品翻译的指导意义。

  10. Trapping molecules on chips

    CERN Document Server

    Santambrogio, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, it was demonstrated that neutral molecules can be loaded on a microchip directly from a supersonic beam. The molecules are confined in microscopic traps that can be moved smoothly over the surface of the chip. Once the molecules are trapped, they can be decelerated to a standstill, for instance, or pumped into selected quantum states by laser light or microwaves. Molecules are detected on the chip by time-resolved spatial imaging, which allows for the study of the distribution in the phase space of the molecular ensemble.

  11. The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, T.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP) aims to provide a common platform for rapidly deploying Astronomy Archives to the web. TRAP is currently under development for both the VAO Data Discovery Portal and the MAST Multi-Mission Portal (Figure 1). TRAP consists of 2 major software packages: the TRAP Client and the TRAP Server. The TRAP framework allows developers to deploy the Server, connect to data resources, then focus on building custom tools for the Client. TRAP is built upon proven industry technologies including the Ext/JS JavaScript Component Library, Mono.NET Web Services, and JSON message based APIs. The multi-layered architecture of TRAP decouples each layer: Client, Service and Data Access, enabling each to evolve independently over time. Although currently deployed to provide astronomy science data access, the TRAP architecture is flexible enough to thrive in any distributed data environment.

  12. Morita Equivalence for Factorisable Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qun CHEN; K. P. SHUM

    2001-01-01

    Recall that the semigroups S and R are said to be strongly Morita equivalent if there exists a unitary Morita context (S,R,S PR,RQs, <, []) with < and [] surjective. For a factorisable semigroup S, we denote s = {(s1, s2) ∈ S× S | ss1 =ss2,s ∈ S}, S' = S/s and US-FAct= {sM ∈S- Act|SM = M and SHoms(S, M) ≌ M}. We show that, for factorisable semigroups S and R, the categories US-FAct and UR-FAct are equivalent if and only if the semigroups S' and R' are strongly Morita equivalent. Some conditions for a factorisable semigroup to be strongly Morita equivalent to a sandwich semigroup, local units semigroup, monoid and group separately are also given. Moreover, we show that a semigroup S is completely simple if and only if S is strongly Morita equivalent to a group and for any index set I, S SHoms(S,Ⅱi∈ S)→Ⅱi∈S, s t·f→(st)f is an S-isomorphism.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure......In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  15. Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion due to these theories prove to exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work, inspired by the teleparallel formulation of General Relativity we present its extension to Lovelock Gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional spacetimes. First, we review Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity and Teleparallel Equivalent of Gauss-Bonnet Gravity, and then we construct Teleparallel Equivalent of Lovelock Gravity. In order to achieve this goal we use the vielbein and the connection, without imposing the Weitzenb\\"ock connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to be null.

  16. Mathematically Equivalent, Computationally Non-equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    and Software Comprehensibility Marvin J. Goldstein Surface Ship Sonar Department Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report...equivalent Formulas and Software Comprehensibility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Marvin Goldstein...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NUWC2015 14. ABSTRACT In the development of mathematical software , often the formula that defines the mathematical purpose

  17. TNT equivalency of M10 propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintyre, F. L.; Price, P.

    1978-01-01

    Peak, side-on blast overpressure and scaled, positive impulse have been measured for M10 single-perforated propellant, web size 0.018 inches, using configurations that simulate the handling of bulk material during processing and shipment. Quantities of 11.34, 22.7, 45.4, and 65.8 kg were tested in orthorhombic shipping containers and fiberboard boxes. High explosive equivalency values for each test series were obtained as a function of scaled distance by comparison to known pressure, arrival time and impulse characteristics for hemispherical TNT surface bursts. The equivalencies were found to depend significantly on scaled distance, with higher values of 150-100 percent (pressure) and 350-125 percent (positive impulse) for the extremes within the range from 1.19 to 3.57 m/cube root of kg. Equivalencies as low as 60-140 percent (pressure) and 30-75 percent (positive impulse) were obtained in the range of 7.14 to 15.8 m/cube root of kg. Within experimental error, both peak pressure and positive impulse scaled as a function of charge weight for all quantities tested in the orthorhombic configuration.

  18. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  19. Database for exchangeable gene trap clones: pathway and gene ontology analysis of exchangeable gene trap clone mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Masatake; Nakahara, Mai; Muta, Mayumi; Itou, Miharu; Yanai, Chika; Yamazoe, Fumika; Miyake, Mikiko; Morita, Ayaka; Araki, Miyuki; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nakagata, Naomi; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kimi

    2014-02-01

    Gene trapping in embryonic stem (ES) cells is a proven method for large-scale random insertional mutagenesis in the mouse genome. We have established an exchangeable gene trap system, in which a reporter gene can be exchanged for any other DNA of interest through Cre/mutant lox-mediated recombination. We isolated trap clones, analyzed trapped genes, and constructed the database for Exchangeable Gene Trap Clones (EGTC) [http://egtc.jp]. The number of registered ES cell lines was 1162 on 31 August 2013. We also established 454 mouse lines from trap ES clones and deposited them in the mouse embryo bank at the Center for Animal Resources and Development, Kumamoto University, Japan. The EGTC database is the most extensive academic resource for gene-trap mouse lines. Because we used a promoter-trap strategy, all trapped genes were expressed in ES cells. To understand the general characteristics of the trapped genes in the EGTC library, we used Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) for pathway analysis and found that the EGTC ES clones covered a broad range of pathways. We also used Gene Ontology (GO) classification data provided by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) to compare the functional distribution of genes in each GO term between trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and total genes annotated in MGI. We found the functional distributions for the trapped genes in the EGTC mouse lines and for the RefSeq genes for the whole mouse genome were similar, indicating that the EGTC mouse lines had trapped a wide range of mouse genes. © 2014 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2014 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  20. Redesigning octopus traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Gomes

    2014-06-01

    In order to minimise the identified problems in the actual traps, the present work proposes a new design with the aim of reducing the volume and weight during transport, and also during onshore storage. Alternative materials to avoid corrosion and formation of encrustations were also proposed.

  1. Correlation Measure Equivalence in Dynamic Causal Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gyongyosi, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    We prove an equivalence transformation between the correlation measure functions of the causally-unbiased quantum gravity space and the causally-biased standard space. The theory of quantum gravity fuses the dynamic (nonfixed) causal structure of general relativity and the quantum uncertainty of quantum mechanics. In a quantum gravity space, the events are causally nonseparable and all time bias vanishes, which makes it no possible to use the standard causally-biased entropy and the correlation measure functions. Since a corrected causally-unbiased entropy function leads to an undefined, obscure mathematical structure, in our approach the correction is made in the data representation of the causally-unbiased space. We prove that the standard causally-biased entropy function with a data correction can be used to identify correlations in dynamic causal structures. As a corollary, all mathematical properties of the causally-biased correlation measure functions are preserved in the causally-unbiased space. The eq...

  2. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Quenched Meson Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino; Rago, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of Orientifold Planar Equivalence is performed in SU(N) Yang-Mills theories for N=2,3,4,6. Quenched meson masses are extracted in the antisymmetric, symmetric and adjoint representations for the pseudoscalar and vector channels. An extrapolation of the vector mass as a function of the pseudoscalar mass to the large-N limit shows that the numerical results agree within errors for the three theories, as predicted by Orientifold Planar Equivalence. As a byproduct of the extrapolation, the size of the corrections up to O(1/N^3) are evaluated. A crucial prerequisite for the extrapolation is the determination of an analytical relationship between the corrections in the symmetric and in the antisymmetric representations, order by order in a 1/N expansion.

  3. The Functional Equivalence of "wh- indefintes" in Chinese and English:A Reconstructed Semantic Map Approach%汉英“wh-不定词”功能等值性的新构语义图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕公礼

    2012-01-01

    The study of the grammaticalization of the "wh-indefinites" in Chinese has provoked renewed interest in the "noninterrogative use" of interrogative words, a very controversial issue in the research tradition of Chinese grammar. The comparison of the classification and demarcation by Chinese linguists in the earlier part of the 20th Century and the functional-typological studies recently done by Haspelmath of indefinite pronouns in English are shown to exhibit maximal functional equivalence and crosslinguistic universality between "wh-indefinites" in the two genetically unrelated languages. In an attempt to resolve the inconsistence and inadequacy of Hapelmath' s semantic map in its explanations of "wh-indefinites" in the two languages, the paper proposes a reconstructed semantic map model, in which functions are defined in a broad sense of moods consisting of three dimensions: cognitive, realis, and attitudinal statuses. The reconstructed model is shown to be more adequate in incorporating ideas as fietive reference in the Chinese linguistic tradition, which is not covered in Haspelmath' s study of indefinite pronouns in languages of the world.%随着汉语语法化研究的发展,汉语特殊疑问句、特别是疑问代词的"非疑问用法"再度成为热点。汉语和英语"wh-不定词"形态差异显著,但却包含着最大功能等值性和跨语言共性。从"认知性"、"现实性"及"情态性"三维度对汉英语"wh-不定词"进行广义语气分析,使Haspelmath关于世界语言"不定代词"的功能蕴含等级解释力得到更为充分扩展,也有助于汉语"虚指"等描述性概念上升到认知和功能语言学理论层面。

  4. On the existence of certainty equivalents of various relevant types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. R. Alcantud

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We tackle the problem of associating certainty equivalents with preferences over stochastic situations, which arises in a number of different fields (e.g., the theory of risk attitudes or the analysis of stochastic cooperative games. We study the possibility of endowing such preferences with certainty equivalence functionals that satisfy relevant requirements (such as positive homogeneity, translation invariance, monotonicity with respect to first-order stochastic dominance, and subadditivity. Uniqueness of the functional is also addressed in fairly general conditions.

  5. Optical trapping of nanoparticles by full solid-angle focusing

    CERN Document Server

    Salakhutdinov, Vsevolod; Carbone, Luigi; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We propose and implement a dipole-trap for nanoparticles that is based on focusing from the full solid angle with a deep parabolic mirror. The key aspect is the generation of a linear-dipole mode. For such a mode, our calculations predict a trapping potential that is deeper and tighter than the potential obtainable with microscope objectives. We demonstrate the trapping of dot-in-rod nanoparticles. From the detected fluorescence photons we obtain intensity correlation functions of second order with $g^{(2)}(0)< 0.5$, suggesting the trapping of a single quantum emitter.

  6. Analysis of Humor Translation in Fortress Besieged from the Perspective of Functional Equivalence%功能对等视角下《围城》的幽默翻译策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻丽霞

    2016-01-01

    作品《围城》的一大亮点是其幽默的语言风格。在翻译的过程中,如何既能保留原文中的幽默效果又传达出作者的深意是译者最需关注的问题。 Fortress Besieged是由珍妮•凯利(Jeanne Kelly)和茅国权(Nathan K.Mao)完成的迄今为止唯一的《围城》英译本。译本中的幽默语言翻译,处处体现了直译、意译、换译以及直译加注等功能对等理论的翻译策略,力求使译文读者获得与原作读者相同或相似的语境效果。%Fortress Besieged has an important position in the history of Chinese literature and one of its highlights is the humorous language style. In the process of translation, what the translator needs to focus on is that the translated text should not only reserve the humorous effect of the original but also convey the author's meaning. Based on that, this paper makes the humor in Fortress Besieged as the research ob-ject, by means of case analysis, and uses functional equivalence theory to study the translation of humor in the English translation Fortress Besieged.

  7. Many-body fits of phase-equivalent effective interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Calvin W

    2010-01-01

    In many-body theory it is often useful to renormalize short-distance, high-momentum components of an interaction via unitary transformations. Such transformations preserve the on-shell physical observables of the two-body system (mostly phase-shifts, hence unitarily-connected effective interactions are often called phase-equivalent), while modifying off-shell T-matrix elements influential in many-body systems. In this paper I lay out a general and systematic approach for controlling the off-shell behavior of an effective interaction, which can be adjusted to many-body properties, and present an application to trapped fermions at the unitary

  8. Trap diversity and evolution in the family Droseraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Hartmeyer, Siegfried R H; Masselter, Tom; Hartmeyer, Irmgard; Speck, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    We review trapping mechanisms in the carnivorous flowering plant family Droseraceae (order Caryophyllales). Its members are generally known to attract, capture, retain and digest prey animals (mainly arthropods) with active snap-traps (Aldrovanda, Dionaea) or with active sticky flypaper traps (Drosera) and to absorb the resulting nutrients. Recent investigations revealed how the snap-traps of Aldrovanda vesiculosa (waterwheel plant) and Dionaea muscipula (Venus' flytrap) work mechanically and how these apparently similar devices differ as to their functional morphology and shutting mechanics. The Sundews (Drosera spp.) are generally known to possess leaves covered with glue-tentacles that both can bend toward and around stuck prey. Recently, it was shown that there exists in this genus a higher diversity of different tentacle types and trap configurations than previously known which presumably reflect adaptations to different prey spectra. Based on these recent findings, we finally comment on possible ways for intrafamiliar trap evolution.

  9. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  10. USEPA PATHOGEN EQUIVALENCY COMMITTEE RETREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pathogen Equivalency Committee held its retreat from September 20-21, 2005 at Hueston Woods State Park in College Corner, Ohio. This presentation will update the PEC’s membership on emerging pathogens, analytical methods, disinfection techniques, risk analysis, preparat...

  11. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  12. Field theory for trapped atomic gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this course we give a selfcontained introduction to the quantum field theory for trapped atomic gases, using functional methods throughout. We consider both equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena. In the equilibrium case, we first derive the appropriate Hartree—Fock theory for the properties of

  13. Field theory for trapped atomic gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.

    2001-01-01

    In this course we give a selfcontained introduction to the quantum field theory for trapped atomic gases, using functional methods throughout. We consider both equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena. In the equilibrium case, we first derive the appropriate Hartree-Fock theory for the properties of

  14. Thermal quenching and electron traps in LSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappers, L.A. E-mail: kappers@uconnvm.uconn.edu; Bartram, R.H.; Hamilton, D.S.; Lempicki, A.; Glodo, J

    2003-05-01

    It is demonstrated by comparison of thermoluminescence and scintillation light outputs of LSO as functions of radiation time that a previously suggested thermal quenching correction is inappropriate. Approximate solutions of rate equations are employed to infer absolute trap concentrations and to explore the effects of thermal quenching on the shapes of thermoluminescence glow curves.

  15. Self-trapped states in proteins?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austin, R. H.; Xie, A. H.; van der Meer, L.; Shinn, M.; Neil, G.

    2003-01-01

    We show here that the temperature dependence of the amide I band of myoglobin shows evidence for a low-lying S-elf-trapped state at 6.15 mum. We have conducted a careful set of picosecond pump-probe experiments providing results as a function of temperature. and wavelength and show that this low-lyi

  16. Functional characterization of TRAP1-like protein involved in modulating fibrotic processes mediated by TGF-β/Smad signaling in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Chu, J. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Shanghai Children’s Medical Center, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200127 (China); Wen, C.J.; Fu, S.B.; Qian, Y.L. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wo, Y. [Department of Anatomy, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, C., E-mail: wangchen2369@163.com [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China); Wang, D.R., E-mail: wangdanru@126.com [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)-mediated signaling pathway is believed to be closely associated with wound healing and scar formation, in which TRAP1-like protein (TLP) plays a role in regulating the balance of Smad2 vs. Smad3 signaling. Our previous study revealed the relation between TLP and collagen synthesis in normal human skin fibroblasts. Here, we present a detailed analysis of the effects of TLP on the process of hypertrophic scar formation and contraction. To explore and verify a contribution of TLP to the pathological mechanism of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFb), we constructed lentiviral vectors that either overexpressed TLP or encoded small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) targeting TLP, then we transfected them into HSFb. TLP knockdown in HSFb resulted in reduced levels of cell contraction, type I and type III collagen mRNA transcripts and protein expression, and higher levels of fibronectin (FN) compared to control groups. In addition, knockdown of TLP promoted the phosphorylation of Smad3 but repressed Smad2 and Erk-1/2 phosphorylation in human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts compared to control groups. The reduction of TLP did not interfere with HSF proliferative ability, but exogenous TLP cooperated with TGF-β1 to increase cell viability. Together, our findings demonstrate evidence for a contribution of TLP expression in hypertrophic scar formation and contraction. - Highlights: • TLP acted different roles in the activating of Smad2- and Smad3-dependent signaling. • TLP may induce TGF-β1-mediated collagens expression through Smad signalings and MAPK signaling. • TLP may enhance HSFb contraction by increasing the expression of α-SMA. • Exogenous TLP can cooperate with TGF-β1 to increase cell viability.

  17. Explicit continuous charge-based compact model for long channel heavily doped surrounding-gate MOSFETs incorporating interface traps and quantum effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Afiq; Hamid, Fatimah A.; Ismail, Razali

    2016-12-01

    An explicit solution for long-channel surrounding-gate (SRG) MOSFETs is presented from intrinsic to heavily doped body including the effects of interface traps and fixed oxide charges. The solution is based on the core SRGMOSFETs model of the Unified Charge Control Model (UCCM) for heavily doped conditions. The UCCM model of highly doped SRGMOSFETs is derived to obtain the exact equivalent expression as in the undoped case. Taking advantage of the undoped explicit charge-based expression, the asymptotic limits for below threshold and above threshold have been redefined to include the effect of trap states for heavily doped cases. After solving the asymptotic limits, an explicit mobile charge expression is obtained which includes the trap state effects. The explicit mobile charge model shows very good agreement with respect to numerical simulation over practical terminal voltages, doping concentration, geometry effects, and trap state effects due to the fixed oxide charges and interface traps. Then, the drain current is obtained using the Pao-Sah's dual integral, which is expressed as a function of inversion charge densities at the source/drain ends. The drain current agreed well with the implicit solution and numerical simulation for all regions of operation without employing any empirical parameters. A comparison with previous explicit models has been conducted to verify the competency of the proposed model with the doping concentration of 1× {10}19 {{cm}}-3, as the proposed model has better advantages in terms of its simplicity and accuracy at a higher doping concentration.

  18. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; GENG Tao; YAN Shubin; LI Gang; ZHANG Jing; WANG Junmin; PENG Kunchi; ZHANG Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  19. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  20. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2002-01-01

    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  1. Assessment Battery for Communication: development of two equivalent forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Francesca M; Angeleri, Romina; Zuffranieri, Marco; Bara, Bruno G; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop and test two equivalent forms of the Assessment Battery for Communication (ABaCo), a tool for evaluating pragmatic abilities in patients with neuropsychological and psychiatric disorders. The equivalent forms were created using the data from a sample of 390 children, then tested in a sample of 30 patients with traumatic brain injury. Equivalent forms of the same test are useful in clinical practice and intervention research, when performance needs to be tested on two separate occasions, for example before and after a rehabilitation program. The present results provide additional evidence on the psychometric functioning of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and their usability in a clinical context. The reader will be able to discuss the evidence of the psychometric propriety of the equivalent forms of the ABaCo and describe its potential usefulness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of Trapped Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Hydomako, Richard Allan

    The ALPHA experiment is an international effort to produce, trap, and perform precision spectroscopic measurements on antihydrogen (the bound state of a positron and an antiproton). Based at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility at CERN, the ALPHA experiment has recently magnetically confined antihydrogen atoms for the first time. A crucial element in the observation of trapped antihydrogen is ALPHA’s silicon vertexing detector. This detector contains sixty silicon modules arranged in three concentric layers, and is able to determine the three-dimensional location of the annihilation of an antihydrogen atom by reconstructing the trajectories of the produced annihilation products. This dissertation focuses mainly on the methods used to reconstruct the annihilation location. Specifically, the software algorithms used to identify and extrapolate charged particle tracks are presented along with the routines used to estimate the annihilation location from the convergence of the identified tracks. It is shown...

  3. Trapping ions with lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Cormick, Cecilia; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    This work theoretically addresses the trapping an ionized atom with a single valence electron by means of lasers, analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively the consequences of the net charge of the particle. In our model, the coupling between the ion and the electromagnetic field includes the charge monopole and the internal dipole, within a multipolar expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian. Specifically, we perform a Power-Zienau-Woolley transformation, taking into account the motion of the center of mass. The net charge produces a correction in the atomic dipole which is of order $m_e/M$ with $m_e$ the electron mass and $M$ the total mass of the ion. With respect to neutral atoms, there is also an extra coupling to the laser field which can be approximated by that of the monopole located at the position of the center of mass. These additional effects, however, are shown to be very small compared to the dominant dipolar trapping term.

  4. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  5. Electron Traps at the Ice Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockstedte, Michel; Auburger, Philipp; Michl, Anja

    Water, water clusters and ice possess the fascinating ability to solvate electrons. On the surface of water cluster1 and thin crystalline ice structures on a metal substrate2 long-living solvated electron states were observed that evolve from pre-existing surface traps. The identification of such traps provides important insight into the electronic structure of the water or ice surface, and the dissociative interaction of electrons with adsorbates. Models2,3 based on the bilayer terminated Ih-(0001) surface related such traps to orientational defects or vacancies. So far, the understanding of the electronic structure of the ice surface with the electron traps is incomplete. Here we address this issue including also water ad-structures4 within hybrid density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory (G0W0). We identify a hierachy of traps with increasing vertical electron affinity, ranging from hexagon adrows to clusters of orientational defects and vacancies with dangling OH-groups. Siefermann and Abel, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 5264 (2011). Bovensiepen et al., J. Chem. Phys. C 113, 979 (2013). Hermann et al., J. Phys.: cond. matter 20, 225003 (2008). Mehlhorn and Morgenstern, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 246101 (2007)

  6. Polaronic trapping in magnetic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raebiger, Hannes

    2012-02-01

    GaN doped with iron is an interesting candidate material for magnetic semiconductors, as p-d coupling between the localized Fe-d and extended N-p hole states is expected to facilitate long-range ferromagnetic alignment of the Fe spins [1]. This picture of extended states in GaN:Fe, however, falls apart due to a polaronic localization of the hole carriers nearby the Fe impurities. To elucidate the carrier localization in GaN:Fe and related iron doped III-V semiconductors, I present a systematic study using self-interaction corrected density-functional calculations [2]. These calculations predict three distinct scenarios. (i) Some systems do sustain extended host-like hole states, (ii) some exhibit polaronic trapping, (iii) and some exhibit carrier trapping at Fe-d orbitals. These behaviors are described in detail to give an insight as to how to distinguish them experimentally. I thank T. Fujita, C. Echeverria-Arrondo, and A. Ayuela for their collaboration.[4pt] [1] T. Dietl et al, Science, 287, 1019 (2000).[0pt] [2] S. Lany and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B, 80, 085202 (2009).

  7. Ion Trap Quantum Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    an inspiring speech at the MIT Physics of Computation 1st Conference in 1981, Feynman proposed the development of a computer that would obey the...on ion trap based 36 quantum computing for physics and computer science students would include lecture notes, slides, lesson plans, a syllabus...reading lists, videos, demonstrations, and laboratories. 37 LIST OF REFERENCES [1] R. P. Feynman , “Simulating physics with computers,” Int. J

  8. Water-Trapped Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Although tidally-locked habitable planets orbiting nearby M-dwarf stars are among the best astronomical targets to search for extrasolar life, they may also be deficient in volatiles and water. Climate models for this class of planets show atmospheric transport of water from the dayside to the nightside, where it is precipitated as snow and trapped as ice. Since ice only slowly flows back to the dayside upon accumulation, the resulting hydrological cycle can trap a large amount of water in the form of nightside ice. Using ice sheet dynamical and thermodynamical constraints, I illustrate how planets with less than about a quarter the Earth's oceans could trap most of their surface water on the nightside. This would leave their dayside, where habitable conditions are met, potentially dry. The amount and distribution of residual liquid water on the dayside depend on a variety of geophysical factors, including the efficiency of rock weathering at regulating atmospheric CO2 as dayside ocean basins dry-up. Water-tr...

  9. Equivalence problem for Bishop surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The paper has two parts. We first briefly survey recent studies on the equivalence problem for real submanifolds in a complex space under the action of biholomorphic transformations. We will mainly focus on some of the recent studies of Bishop surfaces, which, in particular, includes the work of the authors. In the second part of the paper, we apply the general theory developed by the authors to explicitly classify an algebraic family of Bishop surfaces with a vanishing Bishop invariant. More precisely, we let M be a real submanifold of C 2 defined by an equation of the form w = zz + 2Re(z s + az s+1 ) with s≥ 3 and a a complex parameter. We will prove in the second part of the paper that for s≥ 4 two such surfaces are holomorphically equivalent if and only if the parameter differs by a certain rotation. When s = 3, we show that surfaces of this type with two different real parameters are not holomorphically equivalent.

  10. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-10-14

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  11. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  12. The truncated form of glycoprotein gp2 of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) vaccine strain KyA is not functionally equivalent to full-length gp2 encoded by EHV-1 wild-type strain RacL11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Einem, Jens; Wellington, Janet; Whalley, J Millar; Osterrieder, Kerstin; O'Callaghan, Dennis J; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2004-03-01

    Most equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) strains, including the naturally occurring virulent RacL11 isolate, encode a large glycoprotein, gp2 (250 kDa), which is expressed from gene 71. Besides other alterations in the viral genome, the avirulent strain KyA harbors an in-frame deletion of 1,242 nucleotides in gene 71. To examine the contributions of gp2 variation to virus growth and virulence, mutant RacL11 and KyA viruses expressing full-length or truncated gp2 were generated. Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of a 250-kDa gp2 in cells infected with RacL11 virus or a mutant KyA virus harboring full-length gene 71, whereas a 75- to 80-kDa gp2 was detected in cells infected with KyA or mutant RacL11 virus expressing KyA gp2. The RacL11 gp2 precursor of 250 kDa in size and its truncated KyA counterpart of 80 kDa, as well as the 42-kDa carboxy-terminal gp2 subunit, were incorporated into virus particles. Absence of gp2 in RacL11 resulted in a 6-fold reduction of extracellular virus titers and a 13% reduction of plaque diameters, whereas gp2-negative KyA exhibited a 55% reduction in plaque diameter and a 51-fold decrease in extracellular virus titers. The massive growth defects of gp2-negative KyA could be restored by reinsertion of the truncated but not the full-length gp2 gene. The virulence of the generated gp2 mutant viruses was compared to the virulence of KyA and RacL11 in a murine infection model. RacL11 lacking gp2 was apathogenic for BALB/c mice, and insertion of the truncated KyA gp2 gene into RacL11 was unable to restore virulence. Similarly, replacement in the KyA genome of the truncated with the full-length RacL11 gene 71 did not result in the generation of virulent virus. From the results we conclude that full-length and truncated EHV-1 gp2 are not functionally equivalent and cannot compensate for the action of their homologues in allogeneic virus backgrounds.

  13. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. The role of high work-function metallic nanodots on the performance of a-Si:H solar cells: offering ohmic contact to light trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeehwan; Abou-Kandil, Ahmed; Fogel, Keith; Hovel, Harold; Sadana, Devendra K

    2010-12-28

    Addition of carbon into p-type "window" layers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells enhances short circuit currents and open circuit voltages by a great deal. However, a-Si:H solar cells with high carbon-doped "window" layers exhibit poor fill factors due to a Schottky barrier-like impedance at the interface between a-SiC:H windows and transparent conducting oxides (TCO), although they show maximized short circuit currents and open circuit voltages. The impedance is caused by an increasing mismatch between the work function of TCO and that of p-type a-SiC:H. Applying ultrathin high-work-function metals at the interface between the two materials results in an effective lowering of the work function mismatch and a consequent ohmic behavior. If the metal layer is sufficiently thin, then it forms nanodots rather than a continuous layer which provides light-scattering effect. We demonstrate 31% efficiency enhancement by using high-work-function materials for engineering the work function at the key interfaces to raise fill factors as well as photocurrents. The use of metallic interface layers in this work is a clear contrast to previous work where attempts were made to enhance the photocurrent using plasmonic metal nanodots on the solar cell surface.

  15. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle, people have different opinions. The principle of equivalent translation may be is one of the most reason-able ones in today's translation world in my eyes. This paper focuses on the possibility and thec ondition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic, pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle. Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  16. On the Translation Equivalence of Literature Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娟

    2013-01-01

    As for translation principle,people have different opinions.The principle of equivalent translation maybe is one of the most reasonable ones in today’s translation world in my eyes.This paper focuses on the possibility and the condition to be achieved the biggest equivalence of the semantic,pragmatic and culture in order to get the conclusion that the translation equivalence is the proper principle.Besides,this paper has also discussed the pragmatic equivalence and cultural equivalence.

  17. On an equivalence of fuzzy subgroups III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Murali

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the third in a series of papers studying equivalence classes of fuzzy subgroups of a given group under a suitable equivalence relation. We introduce the notion of a pinned flag in order to study the operations sum, intersection and union, and their behavior with respect to the equivalence. Further, we investigate the extent to which a homomorphism preserves the equivalence. Whenever the equivalences are not preserved, we have provided suitable counterexamples.

  18. Atomic Coherent Trapping and Properties of Trapped Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Jian; XIA Li-Xin; XIE Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the theory of velocity-selective coherent population trapping, we investigate an atom-laser system where a pair of counterpropagating laser fields interact with a three-level atom. The influence of the parametric condition on the properties of the system such as velocity at which the atom is selected to be trapped, time needed for finishing the coherent trapping process, and possible electromagnetically induced transparency of an altrocold atomic medium,etc., is studied.

  19. Cryogenic resonator design for trapped ion experiments in Paul traps

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, Matthias F; Monz, Thomas; Blatt, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trapping ions in Paul traps requires high radio-frequency voltages, which are generated using resonators. When operating traps in a cryogenic environment, an in-vacuum resonator showing low loss is crucial to limit the thermal load to the cryostat. In this study, we present a guide for the design and production of compact, shielded cryogenic resonators. We produced and characterized three different types of resonators and furthermore demonstrate efficient impedance matching of these resonators at cryogenic temperatures.

  20. Nonresonance adiabatic photon trap

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, S S; Burdakov, A V; Ushkova, M Yu

    2016-01-01

    Concept of high efficiency photon storage based on adiabatic confinement between concave mirrors is presented and experimentally investigated. The approach is insensitive to typical for Fabri-Perot cells requirements on quality of accumulated radiation, tolerance of resonator elements and their stability. Experiments have been carried out with the trap, which consists from opposed concave cylindrical mirrors and conjugated with them spherical mirrors. In result, high efficiency for accumulation of radiation with large angular spread and spectrum width has been confirmed. As radiation source a commercial fiber laser has been used.

  1. Atom trap trace analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.-T.; Bailey, K.; Chen, C.-Y.; Du, X.; Li, Y.-M.; O' Connor, T. P.; Young, L.

    2000-05-25

    A new method of ultrasensitive trace-isotope analysis has been developed based upon the technique of laser manipulation of neutral atoms. It has been used to count individual {sup 85}Kr and {sup 81}Kr atoms present in a natural krypton sample with isotopic abundances in the range of 10{sup {minus}11} and 10{sup {minus}13}, respectively. The atom counts are free of contamination from other isotopes, elements,or molecules. The method is applicable to other trace-isotopes that can be efficiently captured with a magneto-optical trap, and has a broad range of potential applications.

  2. Equivalence principle in Chameleon models .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, L.; Landau, S.; Salgado, M.; Sudarsky, D.

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with Eötvös type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  3. Thermodynamic equivalence of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, J.M. (Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1975-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium properties of systems composed of classical spin /sup 1///sub 2/ particles (Ising spins) are studied. Given an interaction pattern between the Ising spins the main problem is to calculate the equilibrium state(s) of the system. The point put forward here is the existence of many thermodynamical equivalent spin coordinate systems. As a consequence of this phenomenon the interaction pattern of a system may be very intricate when described with respect to one spin coordinate system whereas it may become simple with respect to another one and vice versa. A systematic investigation of this phenomenon is made. (FR)

  4. Blast Wave Characteristics and Equivalency

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle; Schneider, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    ISBN 978-5-94588-079-5; The characteristics of blast waves generated by detonation of gas clouds are studies theoretically and validated by both small-scale and large-scale experiments with ethylene-air mixtures of different equivalence ratio. The mixtures were confined in hemispherical or spherical balloons made from thin polyethylene foils of 0.75 m³ and 15 m³ in volume. The detonation of gas mixtures was initiated by a solid explosive. The characteristics of the blast wave in terms of over...

  5. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and/or space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltmann proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on WEP. We present a contrasting view based on an approximate calculation of the two body problem for the chameleon field and show that the force depends on the test body composition. Furthermore, we compare the prediction of the force on a test body with E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the chameleon field effect cannot account for current bounds.

  6. On Vasyliunas's equivalent conductivity formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontius, D. H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The Vasyliunas's (1972) equivalent conductivity formalism (ECF) for representing the coupling of the ionosphere and the magnetosphere is discussed, and a new, simpler, derivation is presented of the ECF, in which certain of the underlying assumptions and their implications are made transparent. The derivation presented indicates that the only role of the ions in the ECF is to insure quasi-neutrality. It is shown that the ECF is not as robust as usually assumed and that caution must be used to insure that reasonable results are obtained.

  7. In-Trap Spectroscopy of Charge-Bred Radioactive Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennarz, A.; Grossheim, A.; Leach, K. G.; Alanssari, M.; Brunner, T.; Chaudhuri, A.; Chowdhury, U.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Gallant, A. T.; Holl, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lassen, J.; Macdonald, T. D.; Schultz, B. E.; Seeraji, S.; Simon, M. C.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Frekers, D.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of in-trap nuclear decay spectroscopy of highly charged radioactive ions and describe its successful application as a novel spectroscopic tool. This is demonstrated by a measurement of the decay properties of radioactive mass A=124 ions (here, In124 and Cs124) in the electron-beam ion trap of the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. By subjecting the trapped ions to an intense electron beam, the ions are charge bred to high charge states (i.e., equivalent to the removal of N-shell electrons), and an increase of storage times to the level of minutes without significant ion losses is achieved. The present technique opens the venue for precision spectroscopy of low branching ratios and is being developed in the context of measuring electron-capture branching ratios needed for determining the nuclear ground-state properties of the intermediate odd-odd nuclei in double-beta (ββ) decay.

  8. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Charles R. P.; Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Cochran, Sandy; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chambe...

  9. Nanofriction in cold ion traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, A; Vanossi, A; Tosatti, E

    2011-01-01

    Sliding friction between crystal lattices and the physics of cold ion traps are so far non-overlapping fields. Two sliding lattices may either stick and show static friction or slip with dynamic friction; cold ions are known to form static chains, helices or clusters, depending on the trapping conditions. Here we show, based on simulations, that much could be learnt about friction by sliding, through, for example, an electric field, the trapped ion chains over a corrugated potential. Unlike infinite chains, in which the theoretically predicted Aubry transition to free sliding may take place, trapped chains are always pinned. Yet, a properly defined static friction still vanishes Aubry-like at a symmetric-asymmetric structural transition, found for decreasing corrugation in both straight and zig-zag trapped chains. Dynamic friction is also accessible in ringdown oscillations of the ion trap. Long theorized static and dynamic one-dimensional friction phenomena could thus become accessible in future cold ion tribology.

  10. 试用读者反应检验奈达功能对等理论的可操作性%On Feasibility of Testing Nida's Functional Equivalence from the Aspect of Readers' Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱振雷

    2011-01-01

    读者反应的收集和检测是验证奈达功能对等理论的关键。运用奈达提出的抽词法对《傲慢与偏见》第一章的原文和不同版本中译文的读者进行问卷调查,并对比不同读者的反应,可以验证就文章的可懂性而言,原文本与译本之间的对等是可以部分实现的,从而证明从读者反应角度来检测奈达翻译理论中的对等是可行的。%Collecting and testing readers' responses isthe key point of Nida's equivalence theory. Based on Nida's Cloze Technique, with the original English version and two different Chinese versions of Pride and Prejudice, after questionnaires and comparison of all these readers' responses, the paper is to illustrate some degree of equivalence between the source text and the target text can be achieved as far as ease of comprehension is concerned, and it is feasible to test the equivalence in Nida's translation theory from the aspect of readers' responses.

  11. Microfabricated surface trap for scalable ion-photon interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Herskind, Peter F; Shi, Molu; Ge, Yufei; Cetina, Marko; Chuang, Isaac L

    2010-01-01

    The combination of high-finesse optical mirrors and ion traps is attractive for quantum light-matter interfaces, which represents an enabling resource for large scale quantum information processing. We report on a scalable approach to ion-photon interfaces based on a surface electrode ion trap that is microfabricated on top of a dielectric mirror, with additional losses due to fabrication as low as 80 ppm for light at 422 nm. Stable trapping of single 88 Sr+ ions is demonstrated and the functionality of the mirror is verified by light collection from, and imaging of, the ion $169 \\pm 4 \\mu$m above the mirror. Sensitivity to laser induced charging of the trap and substrate as well as anomalous heating of the ion at 15 K is evaluated and found comparable to similar traps fabricated on conventional substrates without dielectric mirror coatings.

  12. Optical trapping apparatus, methods and applications using photonic crystal resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David; Chen, Yih-Fan

    2015-06-16

    A plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses and a plurality optical trapping methods using the plurality of photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatuses include located and formed over a substrate a photonic waveguide that is coupled (i.e., either separately coupled or integrally coupled) with a photonic crystal resonator. In a particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a monocrystalline silicon (or other) photonic material absent any chemical functionalization. In another particular embodiment, the photonic waveguide and the photonic crystal resonator comprise a silicon nitride material which when actuating the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus with a 1064 nanometer resonant photonic radiation wavelength (or other resonant photonic radiation wavelength in a range from about 700 to about 1200 nanometers) provides no appreciable heating of an aqueous sample fluid that is analyzed by the photonic crystal resonator optical trapping apparatus.

  13. Light trapping structures in wing scales of butterfly Trogonoptera brookiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Niu, Shichao; Shang, Chunhui; Liu, Zhenning; Ren, Luquan

    2012-04-01

    The fine optical structures in wing scales of Trogonoptera brookiana, a tropical butterfly exhibiting efficient light trapping effect, were carefully examined and the reflectivity was measured using reflectance spectrometry. The optimized 3D configuration of the coupling structure was determined using SEM and TEM data, and the light trapping mechanism of butterfly scales was studied. It is found that the front and back sides of butterfly wings possess different light trapping structures, but both can significantly increase the optical path and thus result in almost total absorption of all incident light. An optical model was created to check the properties of this light trapping structure. The simulated reflectance spectra are in concordance with the experimental ones. The results reliably confirm that these structures induce efficient light trapping effect. This functional ``biomimetic structure'' would have a potential value in wide engineering and optical applications.

  14. Spin traps: in vitro toxicity and stability of radical adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nadeem; Wilmot, Carmen M; Rosen, Gerald M; Demidenko, Eugene; Sun, Jie; Joseph, Joy; O'Hara, Julia; Kalyanaraman, B; Swartz, Harold M

    2003-06-01

    We have evaluated the effects of DMPO, CMPO, EMPO, BMPO, and DEPMPO on functioning CHO cells and the stability of the radical adducts in the presence of cells. The potential toxic effects of the spin traps were measured by two estimates of cell viability (trypan blue exclusion and colony formation) and one of cell function (rate of oxygen consumption). We also studied the effects of the spin traps on colony formation in a second cell line, 9L tumor cells. Toxicity varied with the type of cell line and the parameter that was measured. In aqueous solutions the order of stability for all spin adducts was SO(3) > OH > CH(3), while in cell suspensions it was SO(3) > OH approximately CH(3). The radical adducts of the new spin traps have significantly increased stability as compared to DMPO. These results indicate that the new spin traps potentially offer increased stability of spin adducts in functioning cells. It also is clear that it is necessary to carry out appropriate studies of the stability and toxicity in the system that is to be studied for any particular use of these spin traps. It then should be feasible to select the spin trap(s) best suited for the proposed study.

  15. Barrier properties of human skin equivalents : rising to the surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thakoersing, Varsha Sakina

    2012-01-01

    Human skin equivalents (HSEs) are generated from isolated skin cells. As the primary function of the skin is to form a barrier, in this thesis the barrier properties of three HSEs were assessed and compared with native human skin. The results show that all HSEs have a decreased skin barrier function

  16. Improving detection tools for emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): comparison of multifunnel traps, prism traps, and lure types at varying population densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Damon J; Francese, Joseph A; Rietz, Michael L; Lance, David R; Hull-Sanders, Helen M; Mastro, Victor C; Silk, Peter J; Ryall, Krista L

    2014-08-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a serious invasive pest of North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) that has caused devastating mortality since it was first identified in North America in 2002. In 2012, we conducted field trapping assays that tested the efficacy of purple prism and fluon-coated green multifunnel (Lindgren funnel) traps. Traps were baited with combinations of several lures that were previously shown to be attractive to A. planipennis: manuka oil--a sesquiterpene-rich oil, (3Z)-hexenol--a green leaf volatile, or (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide [= (3Z)-lactone], a sex pheromone. Eighty-nine blocks (trap lines) were tested throughout nine states along the outer edges of the currently known A. planipennis infestation in North America. Trap catch was highest on fluon-coated green multifunnel traps, and trap detections at sites with low A. planipennis population density ranged from 72 to 76% for all trap and lure types tested. (3Z)-hexenol and (3Z)-lactone baited traps functioned as well as (3Z)-hexenol and manuka oil-baited traps. Independent of the lure used, detection rates on green fluon-coated multifunnel traps were comparable with glued purple prism traps in areas with low A. planipennis population densities.

  17. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  18. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  19. Numerical analysis of applied magnetic field dependence in Malmberg-Penning Trap for compact simulator of energy driver in heavy ion fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T.; Park, Y.; Soga, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob

    2016-05-01

    To simulate a pulse compression process of space charge dominated beams in heavy ion fusion, we have demonstrated a multi-particle numerical simulation as an equivalent beam using the Malmberg-Penning trap device. The results show that both transverse and longitudinal velocities as a function of external magnetic field strength are increasing during the longitudinal compression. The influence of space-charge effect, which is related to the external magnetic field, was observed as the increase of high velocity particles at the weak external magnetic field.

  20. Einstein's equivalence principle in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kopeikin, Sergei M

    2013-01-01

    We study physical consequences of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) for a Hubble observer in FLRW universe. We introduce the local inertial coordinates with the help of a special conformal transformation. The local inertial metric is Minkowski flat and materialized by a congruence of time-like geodesics of static observers. The static observers are equipped with the ideal clocks measuring the proper time that is synchronized with the clocks of the Hubble observer. The local inertial metric is used for physical measurements of spacetime intervals with the ideal clocks and rulers. The special conformal transformation preserves null geodesics but does not keep invariant time-like geodesics. Moreover, it makes the rate of the local time coordinate dependent on velocity of the particle which makes impossible to rich the uniform parameterization of the world lines of static observers and light geodesics with a single parameter - they differ by the conformal factor of FLRW metric. The most convenient way to s...

  1. ROMANIC EQUIVALENTS FOR LATIN IDIOMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stefan DUMITRU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we set forth to present several of the most important aspects regarding the contrastive analysis of a well-defined number of Latin idioms in parallel with their Romanic counterparts (in French, Italian, Spanish and Romanian. Our intent was not to discover, in the Romanic space, all the equivalents of the phrases that form the corpus we work with, for reasons pertaining to material restrictions, but to discuss, based on a certain number of units, the different types of issues they may point to. The most important is to establish the relation between the idiomatic expressions in Latin and their correspondents in the above mentioned languages, regarding their inner form, their meaning and their structure.

  2. Electroweak Vortices and Gauge Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Samuel W.; Törnkvist, Ola

    Vortex configurations in the electroweak gauge theory are investigated. Two gauge-inequivalent solutions of the field equations, the Z and W vortices, have previously been found. They correspond to embeddings of the Abelian Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution into a U(1) subgroup of SU(2)×U(1). It is shown here that any electroweak vortex solution can be mapped into a solution of the same energy with a vanishing upper component of the Higgs field. The correspondence is a gauge equivalence for all vortex solutions except those for which the winding numbers of the upper and lower Higgs components add to zero. This class of solutions, which includes the W vortex, corresponds to a singular solution in the one-component gauge. The results, combined with numerical investigations, provide an argument against the existence of other vortex solutions in the gauge-Higgs sector of the Standard Model.

  3. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  4. Calorimetric measurement and modelling of the equivalent series of capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, B.; Gosse, J. P.; Ferrieux, J. P.

    1999-12-01

    The equivalent series resistance of polypropylene capacitors has been determined under rated voltage, in the range 1 kHz 1 MHz, between 220 K and 370 K by a calorimetric technique. The original feature of this determination of capacitor losses lies in the use of the isothermal calorimetry and in the measurement of an electrical power and not of a temperature increase. The frequency dependence of the equivalent series resistance, at various temperatures, enables to separate the losses in the conducting material from those in the dielectric and to get their respective variations as a function of frequency and temperature. These variations of the equivalent series resistance with frequency at a given temperature have been reproduced by using an equivalent circuit composed of resistors, inductors and capacitors. This model has been verified for non-sinusoidal waveforms such as those met with in a filtering circuit and is used to evaluate by simulation the losses of the capacitor.

  5. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  6. Boson Josephson Junction with Trapped Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.

    We consider coherent atomic tunneling between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates at T=0 in a double-well trap. The condensate dynamics of the macroscopic amplitudes in the two wells is modeled by two Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE) coupled by a tunneling matrix element. Analytic elliptic function solutions are obtained for the time evolution of the inter-well fractional population imbalance z(t) (related to the condensate phase difference) of the Boson Josephson junction (BJJ). Surprisingly, the neutral-atom BJJ shows (non-sinusoidal generalizations of) effects seen in charged-electron superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ). The BJJ elliptic-function behavior has a singular dependence on a GPE parameter ratio Λ at a critical ratio Λ=Λc, beyond which a novel 'macroscopic quantum self-trapping' effect sets in with a non-zero time-averaged imbalance ≠0.

  7. The Honey Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    Michael F. Wagner: The Honey Trap –The democratization of leisure through automobilism The automobile has achieved a central position in modern everyday life as an essential artefact to mobility. This raises the question how automobiles have been mediated for mass consumption? The central thesis...... in the article is that the culture of Danish automobilism was constructed around and appropriated through leisure activities conducted primarily by the automobile consumer’s organisation Touring Club de Danemark (FDM). The general purpose for the consumer organisation has been to create a cultural identity...... and a material reality of democratic participation linking ‘Car and Leisure’, a term that has been a central motto for the organization during many decades. The keyword in this activity was ‘Free’ celebrating the manner in which the privately owned automobile secured a maximum of freedom to the owner. The paper...

  8. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  9. Classroom Activities for Introducing Equivalence Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Equivalence relations and partitions are two interconnected ideas that play important roles in advanced mathematics. While students encounter the informal notion of equivalence in many courses, the formal definition of an equivalence relation is typically introduced in a junior level transition-to-proof course. This paper reports the results of a…

  10. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristescu, Romane H; Banks, Peter B; Carrick, Frank N; Frère, Céline

    2013-01-01

    With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community should include criteria

  11. Potential 'ecological traps' of restored landscapes: koalas Phascolarctos cinereus re-occupy a rehabilitated mine site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romane H Cristescu

    Full Text Available With progressively increasing anthropogenic habitat disturbances, restoration of impacted landscapes is becoming a critical element of biodiversity conservation. Evaluation of success in restoration ecology rarely includes faunal components, usually only encompassing abiotic and floral components of the ecosystems. Even when fauna is explicitly included, it is usually only species presence/absence criteria that are considered. If restoration is to have a positive outcome, however, populations in restored habitats should exhibit comparable survival and reproductive rates to populations found in undisturbed surroundings. If a species recolonises restored areas but later experiences decreased fitness, restored areas could become ecological sinks or traps. We investigated this possibility in a case study of koalas Phascolarctos cinereus occupying rehabilitated mining areas on North Stradbroke Island, Australia. Our holistic approach compared rehabilitated and undisturbed areas on the basis of their vegetation characteristics, of koalas' body condition, roosting trees, diet, as well as predator index. Koalas using rehabilitated areas appeared to be able to access an adequate supply of roosting and fodder trees, were in good condition and had high reproductive output. We did not find any significant differences in predator density between rehabilitated areas and undisturbed surroundings. The results presented in this study showed there was no evidence that the post-mining rehabilitated areas constitute ecological sinks or traps. However, to reach a definitive conclusion as to whether areas rehabilitated post-mining provide at least equivalent habitat to undisturbed locations, additional research could be undertaken to assess foliar nutrient/water/toxin differences and predation risk in rehabilitated areas compared with undisturbed areas. More generally, the evaluation of whether restoration successfully produces a functional ecological community

  12. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazek El-Atab

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO2 layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD steps. A threshold voltage (Vt shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V Vt shift, the memory with CrO2 layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO2 layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  13. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Nayfeh, Ammar [Institute Center for Microsystems – iMicro, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Masdar Institute of Science and Technology Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Okyay, Ali K. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-11-15

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO{sub 2} layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (V{sub t}) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V V{sub t} shift, the memory with CrO{sub 2} layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO{sub 2} layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  14. Zinc-oxide charge trapping memory cell with ultra-thin chromium-oxide trapping layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Atab, Nazek; Rizk, Ayman; Okyay, Ali K.; Nayfeh, Ammar

    2013-11-01

    A functional zinc-oxide based SONOS memory cell with ultra-thin chromium oxide trapping layer was fabricated. A 5 nm CrO2 layer is deposited between Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) steps. A threshold voltage (Vt) shift of 2.6V was achieved with a 10V programming voltage. Also for a 2V Vt shift, the memory with CrO2 layer has a low programming voltage of 7.2V. Moreover, the deep trapping levels in CrO2 layer allows for additional scaling of the tunnel oxide due to an increase in the retention time. In addition, the structure was simulated using Physics Based TCAD. The results of the simulation fit very well with the experimental results providing an understanding of the charge trapping and tunneling physics.

  15. Dysfunctional equivalence: the new approach to defining "postal channels" under the Hague Service Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawkins, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    ... it recommends the adoption of functional equivalent approach for evaluating whether service via modern alternatives to post, such as private carrier, facsimile, or email, constitutes service via postal...

  16. Quantum computing with trapped ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The significance of quantum computation for cryptography is discussed. Following a brief survey of the requirements for quantum computational hardware, an overview of the ion trap quantum computation project at Los Alamos is presented. The physical limitations to quantum computation with trapped ions are analyzed and an assessment of the computational potential of the technology is made.

  17. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amole, C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Carpenter, P. T.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S.; Escallier, J.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hurt, J. L.; Hydomako, R.; Isaac, C. A.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jonsell, S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kerrigan, S. J.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Marone, A.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Parker, B.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seddon, D.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  18. Cryogenic silicon surface ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Niedermayr, Michael; Kumph, Muir; Partel, Stefan; Edlinger, Johannes; Brownnutt, Michael; Blatt, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Trapped ions are pre-eminent candidates for building quantum information processors and quantum simulators. They have been used to demonstrate quantum gates and algorithms, quantum error correction, and basic quantum simulations. However, to realise the full potential of such systems and make scalable trapped-ion quantum computing a reality, there exist a number of practical problems which must be solved. These include tackling the observed high ion-heating rates and creating scalable trap structures which can be simply and reliably produced. Here, we report on cryogenically operated silicon ion traps which can be rapidly and easily fabricated using standard semiconductor technologies. Single $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ions have been trapped and used to characterize the trap operation. Long ion lifetimes were observed with the traps exhibiting heating rates as low as $\\dot{\\bar{n}}=$ 0.33 phonons/s at an ion-electrode distance of 230 $\\mu$m. These results open many new avenues to arrays of micro-fabricated ion traps.

  19. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states

  20. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  1. A Simple Test of the Equivalence Principle(s) for Quantum Superpositions

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Patrick J; Modi, Kavan; Pollock, Felix A

    2015-01-01

    We propose a simple experimental test of the quantum equivalence principle introduced by Zych and Brukner [arXiv:1502.00971], which generalises the Einstein equivalence principle to superpositions of internal energy states. We consider a harmonically-trapped spin-$\\frac12$ atom in the presence of both gravity and an external magnetic field and show that when the external magnetic field is suddenly switched off, various violations of the equivalence principle would manifest as otherwise forbidden transitions. Performing such an experiment would put bounds on the various phenomenological violating parameters. We further demonstrate that the classical weak equivalence principle can be tested by suddenly putting the apparatus into free fall, effectively 'switching off' gravity.

  2. A test of the equivalence principle(s) for quantum superpositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick J.; Mann, Robert B.; Modi, Kavan; Pollock, Felix A.

    2016-10-01

    We propose an experimental test of the quantum equivalence principle introduced by Zych and Brukner (arXiv:1502.00971), which generalises the Einstein equivalence principle to superpositions of internal energy states. We consider a harmonically trapped {spin} - \\tfrac{1}{2} atom in the presence of both gravity and an external magnetic field and show that when the external magnetic field is suddenly switched off, various violations of the equivalence principle would manifest as otherwise forbidden transitions. Performing such an experiment would put bounds on the various phenomenological violating parameters. We further demonstrate that the classical weak equivalence principle can be tested by suddenly putting the apparatus into free fall, effectively ‘switching off’ gravity.

  3. Reversibility of trapped air on chest computed tomography in cystic fibrosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loeve, Martine; Rosenow, Tim; Gorbunova, Vladlena;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate changes in trapped air volume and distribution over time and compare computed tomography (CT) with pulmonary function tests for determining trapped air. METHODS: Thirty children contributed two CTs and pulmonary function tests over 2 years. Localized changes in trapped air...... measured by plethysmography and helium dilution, residual volume to total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity, and maximum mid-expiratory flow as pulmonary function test markers of trapped air. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Spearman...... air on CT correlated statistically significantly with all pulmonary function measures (p

  4. Optical two-beam trap in a polymer microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Catak, Darmin; Marie, Rodolphe

    2016-01-01

    , single beam optical traps, aka optical tweezers, by far outnumber the existing optical stretchers in research labs throughout the world. The ability to easily construct an optical stretcher setup in a low-cost material would possibly imply more frequent use of the optical stretching technique. Here, we......An optical two-beam trap, composed from two counter propagating laser beams, is an interesting setup due to the ability of the system to trap, hold, and stretch soft biological objects like vesicles or single cells. Because of this functionality, the system was also named "the optical stretcher...

  5. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  6. Single-atom trapping in holographic 2D arrays of microtraps with arbitrary geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Nogrette, Florence; Ravets, Sylvain; Barredo, Daniel; Béguin, Lucas; Vernier, Aline; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate single-atom trapping in two-dimensional arrays of microtraps with arbitrary geometries. We generate the arrays using a Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), with which we imprint an appropriate phase pattern on an optical dipole trap beam prior to focusing. We trap single $^{87}{\\rm Rb}$ atoms in the sites of arrays containing up to $\\sim100$ microtraps separated by distances as small as $3\\;\\mu$m, with complex structures such as triangular, honeycomb or kagome lattices. Using a closed-loop optimization of the uniformity of the trap depths ensures that all trapping sites are equivalent. This versatile system opens appealing applications in quantum information processing and quantum simulation, e.g. for simulating frustrated quantum magnetism using Rydberg atoms.

  7. Equivalence Principle in Chameleon Models

    CERN Document Server

    Kraiselburd, Lucila; Salgado, Marcelo; Sudarsky, Daniel; Vucetich, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Most theories that predict time and(or) space variation of fundamental constants also predict violations of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP). Khoury and Weltman proposed the chameleon model in 2004 and claimed that this model avoids experimental bounds on the WEP. In this paper we present a contrasting view based on the analysis of the force between two bodies induced by the chameleon field using a particular approach in which the field due to both the large and the small bodies is obtained by appropriate series expansions in the various regions of interest and the corresponding matching conditions. We found that resulting force depends on the test body\\'{}s composition even when the chameleon coupling constants $\\beta_{i}$ are universal. In particular, we compared the resulting differential acceleration of test bodies made of Be and Al with the corresponding bounds obtained from E\\"otv\\"os type experiments and find that the predictions of the chameleon model are, in general, various orders of magnitude a...

  8. Testing the weak equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Anna M.; Comandi, Gian Luca; Pegna, Raffaello; Bramanti, Donato; Doravari, Suresh; Maccarone, Francesco; Lucchesi, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of Dark Energy and the fact that only about 5% of the mass of the universe can be explained on the basis of the current laws of physics have led to a serious impasse. Based on past history, physics might indeed be on the verge of major discoveries; but the challenge is enormous. The way to tackle it is twofold. On one side, scientists try to perform large scale direct observations and measurements - mostly from space. On the other, they multiply their efforts to put to the most stringent tests ever the physical theories underlying the current view of the physical world, from the very small to the very large. On the extremely small scale very exciting results are expected from one of the most impressive experiments in the history of mankind: the Large Hadron Collider. On the very large scale, the universe is dominated by gravity and the present impasse undoubtedly calls for more powerful tests of General Relativity - the best theory of gravity to date. Experiments testing the Weak Equivalence Principle, on which General Relativity ultimately lies, have the strongest probing power of them all; a breakthrough in sensitivity is possible with the “Galileo Galilei” (GG) satellite experiment to fly in low Earth orbit.

  9. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Changchun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are performed for the test of the equivalent model of micro-grid. The simulation results show that the equivalent model of micro-grid is effective, and the dynamic of equivalent model is similar with the detailed model of micro-grid. The equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid network and distributed components is suitable for the study of micro-grid.  

  10. The trapped human experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, R; Agapiou, A; Bocos-Bintintan, V; Brown, L J; Burns, C; Creaser, C S; Devenport, N A; Gao-Lau, B; Guallar-Hoyas, C; Hildebrand, L; Malkar, A; Martin, H J; Moll, V H; Patel, P; Ratiu, A; Reynolds, J C; Sielemann, S; Slodzynski, R; Statheropoulos, M; Turner, M A; Vautz, W; Wright, V E; Thomas, C L P

    2011-12-01

    This experiment observed the evolution of metabolite plumes from a human trapped in a simulation of a collapsed building. Ten participants took it in turns over five days to lie in a simulation of a collapsed building and eight of them completed the 6 h protocol while their breath, sweat and skin metabolites were passed through a simulation of a collapsed glass-clad reinforced-concrete building. Safety, welfare and environmental parameters were monitored continuously, and active adsorbent sampling for thermal desorption GC-MS, on-line and embedded CO, CO(2) and O(2) monitoring, aspirating ion mobility spectrometry with integrated semiconductor gas sensors, direct injection GC-ion mobility spectrometry, active sampling thermal desorption GC-differential mobility spectrometry and a prototype remote early detection system for survivor location were used to monitor the evolution of the metabolite plumes that were generated. Oxygen levels within the void simulator were allowed to fall no lower than 19.1% (v). Concurrent levels of carbon dioxide built up to an average level of 1.6% (v) in the breathing zone of the participants. Temperature, humidity, carbon dioxide levels and the physiological measurements were consistent with a reproducible methodology that enabled the metabolite plumes to be sampled and characterized from the different parts of the experiment. Welfare and safety data were satisfactory with pulse rates, blood pressures and oxygenation, all within levels consistent with healthy adults. Up to 12 in-test welfare assessments per participant and a six-week follow-up Stanford Acute Stress Response Questionnaire indicated that the researchers and participants did not experience any adverse effects from their involvement in the study. Preliminary observations confirmed that CO(2), NH(3) and acetone were effective markers for trapped humans, although interactions with water absorbed in building debris needed further study. An unexpected observation from the NH(3

  11. Two regimes in the decay behavior of ions from a linear r.f. Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwolek, Jonathan; Wells, James; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop

    2016-05-01

    A linear Paul trap (LPT) enables ions to be trapped for use in a variety of experiments. In many of these experiments, such as those measuring charge exchange or sympathetic cooling, the decay of ions from the trap is used to measure some quantity of interest. This decay is typically modeled as a single exponential. We have found that in cases where the trap is loaded to high numbers of ions, the ion decay is better described by a double exponential decay function. We have experimentally examined the decay of ions from an LPT loaded by photoionization from a magneto-optical trap as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap. The LPT is loaded to steady-state, then the loading is stopped and the number of trapped ions as a function of time is monitored to determine the decay. We present numerical simulations and experimental results that demonstrate two distinct regions in the decay. For high steady-state values, the trap exhibits a double-exponential behavior. However, if the trap is filled to a steady-state value below a threshold, the decay recovers the typical single-exponential behavior. This behavior should be universal to any Paul trap regardless of the geometry or species trapped. NSF Grant No. PHY-1307874.

  12. 1986-87 Annual Trapping Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Trapping Plan for the 1986-87 trapping season at Clarence Cannon NWR outlines rules and regulations for the trapping of beaver, muskrat, raccoon,...

  13. TrapML—A Metalanguage for Transformational Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金凌紫

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes a metalanguage TrapML for transformational programming,which is designed based on the analysis of its design principles,structures and functions.It has the facilities to describe the syntax of object languages,the set of transformation rules and strategies.The behaviour of transformation systems can be conveniently expressed.Both accurate and vague strategies can be written in TrapML.Metaprogram is of higher reliability.

  14. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, G. B.; Bertsche, W.; Bowe, P. D.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Fajans, J.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; El Nasr, S. Seif; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-08-01

    The ALPHA apparatus is designed to produce and trap antihydrogen atoms. The device comprises a multifunction Penning trap and a superconducting, neutral atom trap having a minimum-B configuration. The atom trap features an octupole magnet for transverse confinement and solenoidal mirror coils for longitudinal confinement. The magnetic trap employs a fast shutdown system to maximize the probability of detecting the annihilation of released antihydrogen. In this article we describe the first attempts to observe antihydrogen trapping.

  15. Equivalence of Quotient Hilbert Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ronald G Douglas; Gadadhar Misra

    2003-08-01

    Let $\\mathcal{M}$ be a Hilbert module of holomorphic functions over a natural function algebra $\\mathcal{A}()$, where $ \\subseteq \\mathbb{C}^m$ is a bounded domain. Let $\\mathcal{M}_0 \\subseteq \\mathcal{M}$ be the submodule of functions vanishing to order on a hypersurface $\\mathcal{Z} \\subseteq $. We describe a method, which in principle may be used, to construct a set of complete unitary invariants for quotient modules $\\mathcal{Q} = \\mathcal{M} \\ominus \\mathcal{M}_0$. The invariants are given explicitly in the particular case of = 2.

  16. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  17. Metabolic equivalents during scooter exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Akira; Arimoto, Morio; Muramatsu, Shigeru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the metabolic equivalents (METs) for scooter exercise (riding a scooter, scootering) and to examine the energy expenditure and the heart rate response, so that the results can be used in health promotion activities. Eighteen young adults (10 males and 8 females) participated in scootering on a treadmill at three different speeds for six minutes each. Before, during, and after the exercise, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen uptake (VO(2)), carbon dioxide product, respiratory exchange ratio (R), and heart rate (HR) were measured. These measurements kept steady states from the 3rd to 6th minute of each different speed session. The MET values acquired during scootering at 80 m.min(-1), 110 m.min(-1), and 140 m.min(-1) were 3.9, 4.3, and 5.0, respectively. Calculated using VO(2) (ml.kg(-1).min(-1))x[4.0+R], the energy consumption for scootering at each speed was 67.0+/-10.6, 73.3+/-10.2, and 84.8+/-7.9 cal.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively. The regression equation between scootering speed (X, m.min(-1)) and VO(2) (Y, ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) is Y=0.062X+8.655, and the regression equation between HR (X, beats.min(-1)) and VO(2)reserve (Y, %) is Y=0.458X-11.264. These equations can be applied to both females and males. Thus, scootering at 80 to 140 m.min(-1) might not be sufficient to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness of young male adults similar to the participants, but it may contribute many healthy benefits to most female adults and even male adults, and improve their health and fitness at the faster speeds.

  18. About Black Holes Without Trapping Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Cabo, Alejandro; Ayon, Eloy

    1999-01-01

    Physical arguments related with the existence of black hole solutions having a non trapping interior are discussed. Massive scalar fields interacting with gravity are considered. Interior asymptotic solutions showing a scalar field approaching a constant value at the horizon are given. It is argued that the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations can be satisfied in the sense of the generalized functions after removing a particular regularization designed for matching the interior solution with an external Scwartzschild spacetime. The scalar field appears as just avoiding the appearance of closed trapped surfaces while coming from the exterior region. It also follows that the usual space integral over the temporal- temporal components of energy-momnetum tensor in the internal region just gives the total proper mass associated to the external Schwartzschild solution, as it should be expected.

  19. Acoustic rainbow trapping by coiling up space

    KAUST Repository

    Ni, Xu

    2014-11-13

    We numerically realize the acoustic rainbow trapping effect by tapping an air waveguide with space-coiling metamaterials. Due to the high refractive-index of the space-coiling metamaterials, our device is more compact compared to the reported trapped-rainbow devices. A numerical model utilizing effective parameters is also calculated, whose results are consistent well with the direct numerical simulation of space-coiling structure. Moreover, such device with the capability of dropping different frequency components of a broadband incident temporal acoustic signal into different channels can function as an acoustic wavelength division de-multiplexer. These results may have potential applications in acoustic device design such as an acoustic filter and an artificial cochlea.

  20. A reservoir trap for antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, Christian; Franke, Kurt; Nagahama, Hiroki; Schneider, Georg; Higuchi, Takashi; Van Gorp, Simon; Blaum, Klaus; Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Quint, Wolfgang; Walz, Jochen; Yamazaki, Yasunori; Ulmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We have developed techniques to extract arbitrary fractions of antiprotons from an accumulated reservoir, and to inject them into a Penning-trap system for high-precision measurements. In our trap-system antiproton storage times > 1.08 years are estimated. The device is fail-safe against power-cuts of up to 10 hours. This makes our planned comparisons of the fundamental properties of protons and antiprotons independent from accelerator cycles, and will enable us to perform experiments during long accelerator shutdown periods when background magnetic noise is low. The demonstrated scheme has the potential to be applied in many other precision Penning trap experiments dealing with exotic particles.

  1. Pattern formation with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E

    2010-01-01

    We propose an experiment to study collective behavior in a nonlinear medium of trapped ions. Using laser cooling and heating and an anharmonic trap potential, one can turn an ion into a nonlinear van der Pol-Duffing oscillator. A chain of ions interacting electrostatically has stable plane waves for all parameters. The system also behaves like an excitable medium, since a sufficiently large perturbation generates a travelling pulse. Small chains exhibit multistability and limit cycles. We account for noise from spontaneous emission in the amplitude equation and find that the patterns are observable for realistic experimental parameters. The tunability of ion traps makes them an exciting setting to study nonequilibrium statistical physics.

  2. A New Atom Trap The Annular Shell Atom Trap (ASAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Pilloff, H S; Pilloff, Herschel S.; Horbatsch, Marko

    2002-01-01

    In the course of exploring some aspects of atom guiding in a hollow, optical fiber, a small negative potential energy well was found just in front of the repulsive or guiding barrier. This results from the optical dipole and the van der Waals potentials. The ground state for atoms bound in this negative potential well was determined by numerically solving the Schrodinger eq. and it was found that this negative well could serve as an atom trap. This trap is referred to as the Annular Shell Atom Trap or ASAT because of the geometry of the trapped atoms which are located in the locus of points defining a very thin annular shell just in front of the guiding barrier. A unique feature of the ASAT is the compression of the atoms from the entire volume to the volume of the annular shell resulting in a very high density of atoms in this trap. This trap may have applications to very low temperatures using evaporative cooling and possibly the formation of BEC. Finally, a scheme is discussed for taking advantage of the d...

  3. INVARIANTS UNDER STABLE EQUIVALENCES OF MORITA TYPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fang; Sun Longgang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study some invariants of associative algebras under stable equivalences of Morita type.First of all,we show that,if two finite-dimensional selfinjective k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,then their orbit algebras are isomorphic.Secondly,it is verified that the quasitilted property of an algebra is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type.As an application of this result,it is obtained that if an algebra is of finite representation type,then its tilted property is invariant under stable equivalences of Morita type; the other application to partial tilting modules is given in Section 4. Finally,we prove that when two finite-dimensional k-algebras are stably equivalent of Morita type,their repetitive algebras are also stably equivalent of Morita type under certain conditions.

  4. On quantum equivalence of dual $\\sigma$ models $SL(3)$ examples

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Z; Palla, L

    1996-01-01

    The equivalence of several $SL(3)$ sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in the two loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various $\\beta$ functions of the original and dual models. The role of the discrete global symmetries is emphasized.

  5. On quantum equivalence of dual sigma models: SL(3) examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karp, R.L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Palla, L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1997-04-14

    The equivalence of several SL(3) sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in two-loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various {beta}-functions of the original and dual models. The role of discrete global symmetries is emphasized. (orig.).

  6. EQUIVALENT THEOREMS ON SIMULTANEOUS APPROXIMATION BY COMBINATIONS OF BERNSTEIN OPERATORES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Cheng; Linsen Xie

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we give equivalent theorems on simultaneous approximation for the combinations of Bernstein operators by r-th Ditzian-Totik modulus of smoothness ωτψλ (f, t)(0 ≤λ≤ 1). We also investigate the relation between the derivatives of the combinations of Bernstein operators and the smoothness of derivatives of functions.

  7. Money for health : the equivalent variation of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Willem; Van Den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen; Plug, Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method to calculate the extent to which individuals are willing to trade money for improvements in their health status. An individual welfare function of income (WFI) is applied to calculate the equivalent income variation of health impairments. We believe that this appro

  8. Innovation: the classic traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    these traps.

  9. Trapping Triatominae in Silvatic Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noireau François

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale trials of a trapping system designed to collect silvatic Triatominae are reported. Live-baited adhesive traps were tested in various ecosystems and different triatomine habitats (arboreal and terrestrial. The trials were always successful, with a rate of positive habitats generally over 20% and reaching 48.4% for palm trees of the Amazon basin. Eleven species of Triatominae belonging to the three genera of public health importance (Triatoma, Rhodnius and Panstrongylus were captured. This trapping system provides an effective way to detect the presence of triatomines in terrestrial and arboreal silvatic habitats and represents a promising tool for ecological studies. Various lines of research are contemplated to improve the performance of this trapping system.

  10. Magneto optical trapping of Barium

    CERN Document Server

    De, S; Jungmann, K; Willmann, L

    2008-01-01

    First laser cooling and trapping of the heavy alkaline earth element barium has been achieved based on the strong 6s$^2$ $^1$S$_0$ - 6s6p $^1$P$_1$ transition for the main cooling. Due to the large branching into metastable D-states several additional laser driven transitions are required to provide a closed cooling cycle. A total efficiency of $0.4(1) \\cdot 10^{-2}$ for slowing a thermal atomic beam and capturing atoms into a magneto optical trap was obtained. Trapping lifetimes of more than 1.5 s were observed. This lifetime is shortened at high laser intensities by photo ionization losses. The developed techniques will allow to extend significantly the number of elements that can be optically cooled and trapped.

  11. Seismic fault zone trapped noise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hillers, G; Campillo, M; Ben‐Zion, Y; Roux, P

    2014-01-01

    Systematic velocity contrasts across and within fault zones can lead to head and trapped waves that provide direct information on structural units that are important for many aspects of earthquake and fault mechanics...

  12. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  13. Homogeneous Dielectric Equivalents of Composite Material Shields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tobola

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the methodology of replacing complicated parts of an airplane skin by simple homogeneous equivalents, which can exhibit similar shielding efficiency. On one hand, the airplane built from the virtual homogeneous equivalents can be analyzed with significantly reduced CPU-time demands and memory requirements. On the other hand, the equivalent model can estimate the internal fields satisfactory enough to evaluate the electromagnetic immunity of the airplane.

  14. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  15. equivalency/majorly/market share,etc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张福基

    1998-01-01

    equivalency n. a level of achievement equivalent to completion of an educational or trainingprogram。同等学历(相当于完成某一教育或训练计划的学业成绩水平):a highschool equivalency certificate中学同等学历证书。注意不能用equivalence。majorly[’meid??li]adv.[1956

  16. 21 CFR 26.6 - Equivalence assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.6 Equivalence...

  17. Approximate equivalence in von Neumann algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING; Huiru; Don; Hadwin

    2005-01-01

    One formulation of D. Voiculescu's theorem on approximate unitary equivalence is that two unital representations π and ρ of a separable C*-algebra are approximately unitarily equivalent if and only if rank o π = rank o ρ. We study the analog when the ranges of π and ρ are contained in a von Neumann algebra R, the unitaries inducing the approximate equivalence must come from R, and "rank" is replaced with "R-rank" (defined as the Murray-von Neumann equivalence of the range projection).

  18. Membrane-bound p35 Subunit of IL-12 on Tumor Cells is Functionally Equivalent to Membrane-bound Heterodimeric Single Chain IL-12 for Induction of Anti-tumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we compared two different tumor cell vaccines for their induction of anti-tumor immunity; one was a tumor cell clone expressing a membrane-bound form of IL-12 p35 subunit (mbIL-12 p35 tumor clone), and the other was a tumor clone expressing heterodimeric IL-12 as a single chain (mb-scIL-12 tumor clone). The stimulatory effect of mb-scIL-12 on the proliferation of ConA-activated splenocytes was higher than that of mbIL-12 p35 in vitro. However, the stimulatory effect of mbIL-12 p35 was equivalent to that of recombinant soluble IL-12 (3 ng/ml). Interestingly, both tumor clones (mbIL-12 p35 and mb-scIL-12) showed similar tumorigenicity and induction of systemic anti-tumor immunity in vivo, suggesting that tumor cell expression of the membrane-bound p35 subunit is sufficient to induce anti-tumor immunity in our tumor vaccine model.

  19. Equivalence Principle and the Baryon Acoustic Peak

    CERN Document Server

    Baldauf, Tobias; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-01-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation $\\delta(\\lambda_L)$ on short distance physics. In the non-relativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at $l_{\\rm BAO}$, this naive expectation breaks down for $\\lambda_Lfunction in this regime. The same effect is shown to underlie the spread of the acoustic peak, and is calculable to all orders in the long modes. This can be used to improve the result of perturbative calculations - a technique known as "infra-red resummation"- and is explicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of power spectrum. Finally, the success of BAO reconstruction schemes is argue...

  20. The exponential-logarithmic equivalence classes of surreal numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Salma

    2012-01-01

    In his monograph, H. Gonshor showed that Conway's real closed field of surreal numbers carries an exponential and logarithmic map. Subsequently, L. van den Dries and P. Ehrlich showed that it is a model of the elementary theory of the field of real numbers with the exponential function. In this paper, we give a complete description of the exponential equivalence classes in the spirit of the classical Archimedean and multiplicative equivalence classes. This description is made in terms of a recursive formula as well as a sign sequence formula for the family of representatives of minimal length of these exponential classes.

  1. Strip Waveguide Directional Coupling Modulator with Equivalent Refractive Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-tao; HE Dui-yan

    2004-01-01

    The equivalent refractive index(ERI) method is employed to analyze the function of the strip waveguide directional coupling modulator(SWM). Through deducing the diagnostic equation of the Exmn mode of the four-layer media film waveguide equivalent to the SWM,the transmission constant of the symmetrical mode of the positive phase and negative one and the coupling length of powerful transference are obtained. The veracity of ERI is validated with the example of Ex11 basal mode under the condition of comparing the three results of ERI,EIM and Marcatili.

  2. Optical two-beam trap in a polymer microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina; Catak, Darmin; Marie, Rodolphe;

    2016-01-01

    An optical two-beam trap, composed from two counter propagating laser beams, is an interesting setup due to the ability of the system to trap, hold, and stretch soft biological objects like vesicles or single cells. Because of this functionality, the system was also named "the optical stretcher......" by Jochen Guck, Josep Käs and co-workers some 15 years ago. In a favorable setup, the two opposing laser beams meet with equal intensities in the middle of a fluidic channel in which cells may flow past, be trapped, stretched, and allowed to move on, giving the promise of a high throughput device. Yet......, single beam optical traps, aka optical tweezers, by far outnumber the existing optical stretchers in research labs throughout the world. The ability to easily construct an optical stretcher setup in a low-cost material would possibly imply more frequent use of the optical stretching technique. Here, we...

  3. Bacteria can mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Guo-Hong; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Ji, Xing-Lai; Liu, Tong; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Liang, Lian-Ming; Xu, Jian-Ping; An, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Xi; Qin, Yue-Ke; Tian, Meng-Qing; Xu, You-Yao; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yu, Ze-Fen; Huang, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Shu-Qun; Niu, Xue-Mei; Yang, Jin-Kui; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2014-12-16

    In their natural habitat, bacteria are consumed by bacterivorous nematodes; however, they are not simply passive preys. Here we report a defensive mechanism used by certain bacteria to mobilize nematode-trapping fungi to kill nematodes. These bacteria release urea, which triggers a lifestyle switch in the fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora from saprophytic to nematode-predatory form; this predacious form is characterized by formation of specialized cellular structures or 'traps'. The bacteria significantly promote the elimination of nematodes by A. oligospora. Disruption of genes involved in urea transport and metabolism in A. oligospora abolishes the urea-induced trap formation. Furthermore, the urea metabolite ammonia functions as a signal molecule in the fungus to initiate the lifestyle switch to form trap structures. Our findings highlight the importance of multiple predator-prey interactions in prey defense mechanisms.

  4. Recent Operational Experience with the Internal Thermal Control System Dual-Membrane Gas Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    A dual-membrane gas trap is currently used to remove gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station. The gas trap consists of concentric tube membrane pairs, comprised of outer hydrophilic tubes and inner hydrophobic fibers. Liquid coolant passes through the outer hydrophilic membrane, which traps the gas bubbles. The inner hydrophobic fiber allows the trapped gas bubbles to pass through and vent to the ambient atmosphere in the cabin. The gas removal performance and operational lifetime of the gas trap have been affected by contamination in the ITCS coolant. However, the gas trap has performed flawlessly with regard to its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. This paper discusses on-orbit events over the course of the last year related to the performance and functioning of the gas trap.

  5. Resonance trapping and saturation of decay widths

    CERN Document Server

    Persson, E; Rotter, I

    1998-01-01

    Resonance trapping appears in open many-particle quantum systems at high level density when the coupling to the continuum of decay channels reaches a critical strength. Here a reorganization of the system takes place and a separation of different time scales appears. We investigate it under the influence of additional weakly coupled channels as well as by taking into account the real part of the coupling term between system and continuum. We observe a saturation of the mean width of the trapped states. Also the decay rates saturate as a function of the coupling strength. The mechanism of the saturation is studied in detail. In any case, the critical region of reorganization is enlarged. When the transmission coefficients for the different channels are different, the width distribution is broadened as compared to a chi_K^2 distribution where K is the number of channels. Resonance trapping takes place before the broad state overlaps regions beyond the extension of the spectrum of the closed system.

  6. Comparison of ghost fishing impacts on collapsible crab trap between conventional and escape vents trap in Si Racha Bay, Chon Buri province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiphong Putsa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of ghost fishing on collapsible crab traps targeting the blue swimming crab, Portunus pelagicus. The impacts were examined by a simulated lost-gear experiment to compare conventional and vented traps, with long-term diving monitoring from 6 January 2013 to 15 January 2014, at a depth of 4–6 m in Si Racha Bay, Gulf of Thailand. Twelve pairs of box-shaped traps 36 × 54 × 19 cm were compared using the conventional design and a vented trap with escape vents of 35 × 45 mm. Throughout the 374 d experiment, 520 individuals from 25 different species were entrapped in the conventional traps, with 19 were classified as target, and 501 individuals as by-catch species. In the vented traps, 222 individuals of 24 species were entrapped in total, of which 17 were classified as target and 205 as by-catch. The catch-per-unit-effort of all animals entrapped in conventional traps was significantly higher than in the vented traps at each time observation. Furthermore, the vented traps showed lower entrapment and mortality numbers than the conventional traps. These results demonstrate the positive functions of escape vents in reducing the negative impacts of ghost fishing, not only on the number of entrapped individuals but also on mortality rates.

  7. Dynamic equivalences in the hard-sphere dynamic universality class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Flores, Leticia; Ruíz-Estrada, Honorina; Chávez-Páez, Martín; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno

    2013-10-01

    We perform systematic simulation experiments on model systems with soft-sphere repulsive interactions to test the predicted dynamic equivalence between soft-sphere liquids with similar static structure. For this we compare the simulated dynamics (mean squared displacement, intermediate scattering function, α-relaxation time, etc.) of different soft-sphere systems, between them and with the hard-sphere liquid. We then show that the referred dynamic equivalence does not depend on the (Newtonian or Brownian) nature of the microscopic laws of motion of the constituent particles, and hence, applies independently to colloidal and to atomic simple liquids. Finally, we verify another more recently proposed dynamic equivalence, this time between the long-time dynamics of an atomic liquid and its corresponding Brownian fluid (i.e., the Brownian system with the same interaction potential).

  8. Equivalent realisation circuit for a class of non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saihu Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an equivalent realisation circuit with off-the-shelf components and devices is proposed, which can be used to equivalently implement a class of non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors. The mathematical models of the equivalent realisation circuit with three function arithmetic circuits are built and their fingerprints are analysed by the pinched hysteresis loops with bipolar periodic voltage stimuli. The numerical simulations are easily verified by experimental measurements, which indicate that when three function arithmetic circuits are linked, the equivalent realisation circuit can realise three non-ideal voltage-controlled memristors with different non-linearities.

  9. Microinstrument gradient-force optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S D; Baskin, R J; Howitt, D G

    1999-10-01

    A micromachined fiber-optic trap is presented. The trap consists of four single-mode, 1064-nm optical intersection. The beam fibers mounted in a micromachined silicon and glass housing. Micromachining provides the necessary precision to align the four optical fibers so that the outputs have a common intersection forms a strong three-dimensional gradient-force trap with trapping forces comparable with that of optical tweezers. Characterization of the multibeam fiber trap is illustrated for capture of polystyrene microspheres, computer simulations of the trap stiffness, and experimental determination of the trapping forces.

  10. Criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisło, J.; Wolf, M.

    2008-11-01

    We give a brief overview of a few criteria equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Next we concentrate on the Riesz and Báez-Duarte criteria. We prove that they are equivalent and we provide some computer data to support them.

  11. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank def

  12. Galeazzi-equivalent lesions in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamano, Masayuki; Honda, Yoshinobu

    2002-07-01

    Two cases of a Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence are described. Accurate diagnosis of the epiphyseal injury of the distal ulna, rigid fixation of the distal radius, and stabilization of the distal radioulnar joint are keys in obtaining a good result in the treatment of Galeazzi-equivalent lesion in adolescence.

  13. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  14. Flow equivalence and isotopy for subshifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Mike; Carlsen, Toke Meier; Eilers, Søren

    2017-01-01

    We study basic properties of flow equivalence on one-dimensional compact metric spaces with a particular emphasis on isotopy in the group of (self-) flow equivalences on such a space. In particular, we show that such an orbit-preserving map is not always an isotopy, but that this always is the ca...

  15. The therapeutic equivalence of complex drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Klinger, E.; Muehlebach, S.; Brin, J-F.; Storm, G.; Crommelin, D.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    When the patent of a small molecule drug expires generics may be introduced. They are considered therapeutically equivalent once pharmaceutical equivalence (i.e. identical active substances) and bioequivalence (i.e. comparable pharmacokinetics) have been established in a cross-over volunteer study.

  16. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518

  17. Live trapping of hawks and owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R.E.; Cope, J.B.; Robbins, C.S.

    1945-01-01

    1. Hawks of six species (80 individuals) and owls of five species (37 individuals) were trapped for banding from November 1, 1943, to. May 26,1944. 2. In general, pole traps proved better than hand-operated traps or automatic traps using live bait. 3. Verbail pole traps proved very efficient, and were much more humane than padded steel traps because they rarely injured a captured bird. 4: Unbaited Verbail traps took a variety of raptors, in rough proportion to their local abundance, although slightly more of beneficial species were caught than of harmful types. 5. Hawks and owls were retrapped more readily in Verbail traps than in other types tried. 6. The number of song birds caught in Verbail traps was negligible. 7. Crows and vultures were not taken in Verbail traps, but possibly could be caught with bait.

  18. Equivalence Between Forward and Backward Boltzmann Equations in Multi-Component Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹林

    2002-01-01

    The author generalized the propagator function theory introduced first by Sigmund, and gave a explicitly proof of a equivalence between forward and backward Boltzmann equations in a multi-component medium by using the generalized propagator function theory.

  19. Calabi-Yau completions and orbifold equivalences

    CERN Document Server

    Carqueville, Nils

    2015-01-01

    Calabi-Yau algebras are particularly symmetric differential graded algebras. There is a construction due to Keller called `Calabi-Yau completion' which produces a canonical Calabi-Yau algebra from any homologically smooth dg algebra. Homologically smooth dg algebras also form a 2-category to which the construction of `equivariant completion' can be applied. In this theory two objects are called `orbifold equivalent' if there is a 1-morphism with invertible quantum dimensions between them. Any such relation entails a whole family of equivalences between categories. We show that Calabi-Yau completion and equivariant completion are compatible. More precisely, we prove that any orbifold equivalence between two homologically smooth and proper dg algebras lifts to an orbifold equivalence between their Calabi-Yau completions. As a corollary we obtain orbifold equivalences between Ginzburg algebras of Dynkin quivers.

  20. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  1. A magnetic particle micro-trap for large trapping surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.

    2012-01-08

    Manipulation of micron-size magnetic particles of the superparamagnetic type contributes significantly in many applications like controlling the antibody/antigen binding process in immunoassays. Specifically, more target biomolecules can be attached/tagged and analyzed since the three dimensional structure of the magnetic particles increases the surface to volume ratio. Additionally, such biomolecular-tagged magnetic particles can be easily manipulated by an external magnetic field due to their superparamagnetic behavior. Therefore, magnetic particle- based immunoassays are extensively applied in micro-flow cytometry. The design of a square-loop micro-trap as a magnetic particle manipulator as well as numerical and experimental analysis is presented. Experimental results showed that the micro-trap could successfully trap and concentrate magnetic particles from a large to a small area with a high spatial range.

  2. Probing the interaction between two microspheres in a single Gaussian beam optical trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, Praveen; Iyengar, Shruthi Subhash; Lakkegowda, Yogesha; Bhattacharya, Sarbari; Ananthamurthy, Sharath

    2016-09-01

    Interactions between trapped microspheres have been studied in two geometries so far: (i) using line optical tweezers and (ii) in traps using two counter propagating laser beams. In both trap geometries, the stable inter bead separations have been attributed to optical binding. One could also trap two such beads in a single beam Gaussian laser trap. While there are reports that address this configuration through theoretical or simulation based treatments, there has so far been no detailed experimental work that measures the interactions. In this work, we have recorded simultaneously the fluctuation spectra of two beads trapped along the laser propagation direction in a single Gaussian beam trap by measuring the back scattered signal from the trapping and a tracking laser beam that are counter propagating . The backscattering from the trapping laser monitors the bead encountered earlier in the propagation path. The counter propagating tracking laser, on the other hand, is used to monitor the fluctuations of the second bead. Detection is by using quadrant photo detectors placed at either end. The autocorrelation functions of both beads reveal marked departures from that obtained when there is only one bead in the trap. Moreover, the fall-off profiles of the autocorrelation indicates the presence of more than one relaxation time. This indicates a method of detecting the presence of a second bead in a trap without directly carrying out measurements on it. Further, a careful analysis of the relaxation times could also reveal the nature of interactions between the beads.

  3. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent... methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Environmental... in the ambient air. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert Vanderpool, Human Exposure...

  4. SOCIAL EQUIVALENT OF FREE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Stepanic

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterisation of unbounded resources of a social system within the sociological interpretation has resulted in a large number of different notions, which are relevant in different situations. From the view point of statistical mechanics, these notions resemble free energy. In this paper the concept of social free energy is introduced and first steps toward its development presented. The social free energy is a function equal to physical free energy appropriately determined for the social system, with intrinsically sociological interpretation as a measure of social action obtainable in a given social system without changes in its structure. Its construction is a consequence of response of a social system to recognised parts of environment dynamics. It is argued that development of a social system response resembles exciting the normal modes of a general, physical system.

  5. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  6. 四元数半空间中的次调和函数及其等价性质%The equivalent properties of subharmonic functions in quaternion half space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳慧; 邓冠铁; 杨康莉

    2015-01-01

    研究四元数半空间中的次调和函数,借助于复分析和调和分析给出了四元数次调和函数的性质及其等价条件;从而改进了四元数半空间中四元数次调和函数的某些经典结果。%Subharmonic function of quaternionic variables is examined,together with its applications. Fundamental complex analytic and harmonic analytic notions are used to present the properties and equalisation conditions of quaternionic subharmonic functions This will provide generalizations of analogous complex analytic applications and harmonic analytic applications and improve the classical result on quaternionic subharmonic function in quaternionic half place.

  7. Full-search-equivalent pattern matching with incremental dissimilarity approximations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombari, Federico; Mattoccia, Stefano; Di Stefano, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for fast pattern matching based on dissimilarity functions derived from the Lp norm, such as the Sum of Squared Differences (SSD) and the Sum of Absolute Differences (SAD). The proposed method is full-search equivalent, i.e. it yields the same results as the Full Search (FS) algorithm. In order to pursue computational savings the method deploys a succession of increasingly tighter lower bounds of the adopted Lp norm-based dissimilarity function. Such bounding functions allow for establishing a hierarchy of pruning conditions aimed at skipping rapidly those candidates that cannot satisfy the matching criterion. The paper includes an experimental comparison between the proposed method and other full-search equivalent approaches known in literature, which proves the remarkable computational efficiency of our proposal.

  8. Population redistribution in optically trapped polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Deiglmayr, J; Dulieu, O; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the rovibrational population redistribution of polar molecules in the electronic ground state induced by spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation. As a model system we use optically trapped LiCs molecules formed by photoassociation in an ultracold two-species gas. The population dynamics of vibrational and rotational states is modeled using an ab-initio electric dipole moment function and experimental potential energy curves. Comparison with the evolution of the v"=3 electronic ground state yields good qualitative agreement. The analysis provides important input to assess applications of ultracold LiCs molecules in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry.

  9. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Ejtemaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of $^{171}$Yb$^+$ ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order-of-magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  10. 3D Sisyphus Cooling of Trapped Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejtemaee, S.; Haljan, P. C.

    2017-07-01

    Using a laser polarization gradient, we realize 3D Sisyphus cooling of Yb+ 171 ions confined in and near the Lamb-Dicke regime in a linear Paul trap. The cooling rate and final mean motional energy of a single ion are characterized as a function of laser intensity and compared to semiclassical and quantum simulations. Sisyphus cooling is also applied to a linear string of four ions to obtain a mean energy of 1-3 quanta for all vibrational modes, an approximately order of magnitude reduction below Doppler cooled energies. This is used to enable subsequent, efficient sideband laser cooling.

  11. Mathematical Equivalence of Evolution and Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "Every one who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that a spirit is manifest in the laws of the Universe." This Einsteinian statement remains outside of science. Our current understanding of the mind mechanisms have come close to explaining spirituality from the scientific point of view. In this paper a theory is presented which is a mathematical breakthrough, overcoming decades of limitations in AI, pattern recognition, neural networks, and other attempts to model the brain-mind. Solutions to engineering problems are presented that have overcome previous difficulties in terms of computational complexity. These solutions result in orders of magnitude improvement in detection, prediction, tracking, fusion, and learning situations. The theory is also extended to higher cognitive functions. It models the knowledge instinct operating in the hierarchy of the human brain-mind. At the top are concepts unifying our entire knowledge; we perceive them as concepts of the meaning and purpose of our existence. This theory is formulated mathematically as dynamic and equivalently as teleological. Experimental results supporting the theory are discussed. The theory overcomes various difficulties, including reductionism, which, in the past, interfered with the acceptance of scientific explanations of the spiritual.

  12. 《匆匆》英译本中修辞风格的再现--基于功能对等理论的视角%On the Representation of Rheot ric Style in the En glish Version of Rush---Based on the Perspective of Functional Equivalence Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟子惠; 刘凌玲

    2015-01-01

    The English versions of Rush draws many scholars’ attention since diversified figures of speech are used to dis-play the article’s theme.After analyzing the present domestic study on the English versions of Rush, this paper states Nida’s functional equivalence theory that aims at the closest natural equivalent to the source-language message and its three forms of rhetoric translation.Based on the perspective of functional equivalence theory and rhetoric translation of preserving the original style, this paper goes on explaining the representation of parallelism, metaphor, rhetorical question and rhetorical style in the English version of Zhu Chunshen’ s Rush.%《匆匆》英译本的赏析备受学者的关注,《匆匆》一文善于运用修辞手法来增强语言的表达效果。尤金·奈达的“功能对等”原则指的是在翻译中用最切近和最自然的对等语再现源语的信息,他认为有三种方式处理修辞手法的运用。基于功能对等理论的研究视角,以“保留原作的修辞格”的处理方式为依据,可阐释朱纯深《匆匆》的英译本中排比、比喻、反问等修辞风格的再现。

  13. Trap induction and trapping in eight nematode-trapping fungi (Orbiliaceae) as affected by juvenile stage of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongyan; Aminuzzaman, F M; Xu, Lingling; Lai, Yiling; Li, Feng; Liu, Xingzhong

    2010-06-01

    This study measured trap induction and trapping on agar disks as affected by juvenile stages (J1, J2, J3, and J4) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and by species of nematode-trapping fungi. Eight species of nematode-trapping fungi belonging to the family Orbiliaceae and producing four kinds of traps were studied: adhesive network-forming Arthrobotrys oligospora, A. vermicola, and A. eudermata, constricting ring-forming Drechslerella brochopaga, and Dr. stenobrocha, adhesive column-forming Dactylellina cionopaga, and adhesive knob-forming Da. ellipsospora, and Da. drechsleri. The number of traps induced generally increased with increasing juvenile stages of C. elegans. The ability to capture the juveniles tended to be similar among isolates that produced the same kind of trap but differed among species that produced different kinds of traps. Trapping by Dr. stenobrocha and Da. cionopaga was correlated with trap number and with juvenile stage. A. oligospora and A. vermicola respectively captured more than 92 and 88% of the J1, J3, and J4 but captured a lower percentage of J2. The knob-producing isolates captured more younger than elder juveniles. Partial correlation analyses demonstrated that the trap induction of the most fungal species positively correlated with the juvenile size and motility, which was juvenile stage dependent. Overall, trap induction and trapping correlated with C. elegans juvenile stage (size and motility) in six species of trapping fungi.

  14. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... AGENCY Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent... of the designation of five new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY: Notice... measuring concentrations of PM 10-2.5 , two for measuring PM 2.5, and one for measuring NO 2 in the...

  15. On Equivalence and Non-equivalence of Words and Phrases In Different Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高新霞

    2008-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the study of the relationship among three concepts, namely, culture,psychological association and equivalence or non-equivalence of words and phrases with combination of Problems posed by my students and discuss three patterns of the relationship with an attempt to describe the importance of culture to equivalence.

  16. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  17. Independent trapping and manipulation of microparticles using dexterous acoustic tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Charles R. P., E-mail: c.r.p.courtney@bath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath (United Kingdom); Demore, Christine E. M.; Wu, Hongxiao; Cochran, Sandy [Institute of Medical Science and Technology, University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Grinenko, Alon; Wilcox, Paul D.; Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-14

    An electronically controlled acoustic tweezer was used to demonstrate two acoustic manipulation phenomena: superposition of Bessel functions to allow independent manipulation of multiple particles and the use of higher-order Bessel functions to trap particles in larger regions than is possible with first-order traps. The acoustic tweezers consist of a circular 64-element ultrasonic array operating at 2.35 MHz which generates ultrasonic pressure fields in a millimeter-scale fluid-filled chamber. The manipulation capabilities were demonstrated experimentally with 45 and 90-μm-diameter polystyrene spheres. These capabilities bring the dexterity of acoustic tweezers substantially closer to that of optical tweezers.

  18. The phenomenology of trapped inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Lauren; Sorbo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Trapped inflation is a mechanism in which particle production from the moving inflaton is the main source of friction in the inflaton equation of motion. The produced fields source inflaton perturbations, which dominate over the vacuum ones. We employ the set of equations for the inflaton zero mode and its perturbations which was developed in the original work on trapped inflation, and which we extend to second order in the perturbations. We build on this study by updating the experimental constraints, and by replacing the existing approximate solutions with more accurate ones. We obtain a different numerical value for the amplitude of the scalar power spectrum, and a parametrically different result for the bispectrum. This has implications for the allowed region of parameter space in models of trapped inflation, and for some of the phenomenological results obtained in this region. The main results in the allowed region are the following: monomial inflaton potentials, such as $V \\propto \\varphi,\\, \\varphi^2$ ...

  19. Antireflection design concepts with equivalent layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallenberg, Uwe B

    2006-03-01

    Some novel concepts of designing antireflection (AR) coatings with equivalent layers are presented. As an introduction, essential papers concerning thin-film optics and AR designs are cited, and the AR problem and a previously introduced AR-hard design type are discussed. Based on the known matrix formalism, a potential AR region, an equivalent stack index, and an equivalent substrate index are defined to use the theory of stop-band suppression as a starting point for the design of broadband AR coatings. The known multicycle AR design type is identified as a typical solution to the AR problem if the presented approach is used.

  20. Moment of inertia of a trapped superfluid gas of atomic fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Farine, M.; Schuck, Peter; Viñas Gausí, Xavier

    2000-01-01

    The moment of inertia of a trapped superfluid gas of atomic Fermions (6Li) is calculated as a function of two system parameters: temperature and deformation of the trap. For moderate deformations at zero temperature the moment of inertia takes on the irrotational flow value. Only for T very close to the critical temperature rigid rotation is attained. For very strong trap deformations the moment of inertia approaches its rigid body value even in the superfluid state. It is proposed that futur...

  1. Accretion discs trapped near corotation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Angelo, C.R.; Spruit, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    We show that discs accreting on to the magnetosphere of a rotating star can end up in a trapped state, in which the inner edge of the disc stays near the corotation radius, even at low and varying accretion rates. The accretion in these trapped states can be steady or cyclic; we explore these states over a wide range of parameter space. We find two distinct regions of instability: one related to the buildup and release of mass in the disc outside corotation, and the other to mass storage with...

  2. Dysprosium magneto-optical traps

    CERN Document Server

    Youn, Seo Ho; Ray, Ushnish; Lev, Benjamin L

    2010-01-01

    Magneto-optical traps (MOTs) of highly magnetic lanthanides open the door to explorations of novel phases of strongly correlated matter such as lattice supersolids and quantum liquid crystals. We recently reported the first MOTs of the five high abundance isotopes of the most magnetic atom, dysprosium. Described here are details of the experimental technique employed for repumper-free Dy MOTs containing up to half a billion atoms. Extensive characterization of the MOTs' properties---population, temperature, loading, metastable decay dynamics, trap dynamics---is provided.

  3. Rotation sensing with trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, W C

    2016-01-01

    We present a protocol for using trapped ions to measure rotations via matter-wave Sagnac interferometry. The trap allows the interferometer to enclose a large area in a compact apparatus through repeated round-trips in a Sagnac geometry. We show how a uniform magnetic field can be used to close the interferometer over a large dynamic range in rotation speed and measurement bandwidth without losing contrast. Since this technique does not require the ions to be confined in the Lamb-Dicke regime, thermal states with many phonons should be sufficient for operation.

  4. Equivalent circuit with complex physical constants and equivalent-parameters-expressed dissipation factors of piezoelectric materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yu; Wen Yu-Mei; Li Ping

    2006-01-01

    The equivalent circuit with complex physical constants for a piezoelectric ceramic in thickness mode is established.In the equivalent circuit, electric components (equivalent circuit parameters) are connected to real and imaginary parts of complex physical coefficients of piezoelectric materials. Based on definitions of dissipation factors, three of them (dielectric, elastic and piezoelectric dissipation factors) are represented by equivalent circuit parameters. Since the equivalent circuit parameters are detectable, the dissipation factors can be easily obtained. In the experiments, the temperature and the stress responses of the three dissipation factors are measured.

  5. Reversibility of trapped air on chest computed tomography in cystic fibrosis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeve, Martine [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Rosenow, Tim [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); School of Paediatrics and Child Health Research, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Telethon Kids Institute, The University of Western Australia (Australia); Gorbunova, Vladlena [Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Hop, Wim C.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Tiddens, Harm A.W.M., E-mail: H.Tiddens@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Pediatric Pulmonology & Allergology, Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Bruijne, Marleen de [Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC (Netherlands); Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC (Netherlands)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Trapped air in CF is thought to represent small airways disease. • Trapped air in CF is weakly associated with small airway measures of lung function. • Around one third of regional trapped air is stable in CF over 2 years. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate changes in trapped air volume and distribution over time and compare computed tomography (CT) with pulmonary function tests for determining trapped air. Methods: Thirty children contributed two CTs and pulmonary function tests over 2 years. Localized changes in trapped air on CT were assessed using image analysis software, by deforming the CT at timepoint 2 to match timepoint 1, and measuring the volume of stable (TA{sub stable}), disappeared (TA{sub disappeared}) and new (TA{sub new}) trapped air as a proportion of total lung volume. We used the difference between total lung capacity measured by plethysmography and helium dilution, residual volume to total lung capacity ratio, forced expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity, and maximum mid-expiratory flow as pulmonary function test markers of trapped air. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Spearman correlation coefficients. Results: Median (range) age at baseline was 11.9 (5–17) years. Median (range) of trapped air was 9.5 (2–33)% at timepoint 1 and 9.0 (0–25)% at timepoint 2 (p = 0.49). Median (range) TA{sub stable}, TA{sub disappeared} and TA{sub new} were respectively 3.0 (0–12)%, 5.0 (1–22)% and 7.0 (0–20)%. Trapped air on CT correlated statistically significantly with all pulmonary function measures (p < 0.01), other than residual volume to total lung capacity ratio (p = 0.37). Conclusion: Trapped air on CT did not significantly progress over 2 years, may have a substantial stable component, and is significantly correlated with pulmonary function markers.

  6. Photonic crystals for light trapping in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjessing, Jo

    2012-07-25

    Solar energy is an abundant and non-polluting source of energy. Nevertheless, the installation of solar cells for energy production is still dependent on subsidies in most parts of the world. One way of reducing the costs of solar cells is to decrease their thickness. This will reduce material consumption and, at the same time, unlock the possibility of using cheaper lower quality solar cell material. However, a thinner solar cell will have a higher optical loss due to insufficient absorption of long wavelength light. Therefore, light-trapping must be improved in order to make thin solar cells economically viable. In this thesis I investigate the potential for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells by the use of various photonic crystal back-side structures. The first structure I study consists of a periodic array of cylinders in a configuration with a layer of silicon oxide separating the periodic structure from the rear metal reflector. This configuration reduces unwanted parasitic absorption in the reflector and the thickness of the oxide layer provides a new degree of freedom for improving light trapping from the structure. I use a large-period and a small-period approximation to analyze the cylinder structure and to identify criteria that contributes to successful light-trapping. I explore the light-trapping potential of various periodic structures including dimples, inverted pyramids, and cones. The structures are compared in an optical model using a 20 m thick Si slab. I find that the light trapping potential differs between the structures, that the unit cell dimensions for the given structure is more important for light trapping than the type of structure, and that the optimum lattice period does not differ significantly between the different structures. The light-trapping effect of the structures is investigated as a function on incidence angle. The structures provide good light trapping also under angles of incidence up to 60 degrees. The behavior

  7. Photonic crystals for light trapping in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjessing, Jo

    2012-07-25

    Solar energy is an abundant and non-polluting source of energy. Nevertheless, the installation of solar cells for energy production is still dependent on subsidies in most parts of the world. One way of reducing the costs of solar cells is to decrease their thickness. This will reduce material consumption and, at the same time, unlock the possibility of using cheaper lower quality solar cell material. However, a thinner solar cell will have a higher optical loss due to insufficient absorption of long wavelength light. Therefore, light-trapping must be improved in order to make thin solar cells economically viable. In this thesis I investigate the potential for light-trapping in thin silicon solar cells by the use of various photonic crystal back-side structures. The first structure I study consists of a periodic array of cylinders in a configuration with a layer of silicon oxide separating the periodic structure from the rear metal reflector. This configuration reduces unwanted parasitic absorption in the reflector and the thickness of the oxide layer provides a new degree of freedom for improving light trapping from the structure. I use a large-period and a small-period approximation to analyze the cylinder structure and to identify criteria that contributes to successful light-trapping. I explore the light-trapping potential of various periodic structures including dimples, inverted pyramids, and cones. The structures are compared in an optical model using a 20 m thick Si slab. I find that the light trapping potential differs between the structures, that the unit cell dimensions for the given structure is more important for light trapping than the type of structure, and that the optimum lattice period does not differ significantly between the different structures. The light-trapping effect of the structures is investigated as a function on incidence angle. The structures provide good light trapping also under angles of incidence up to 60 degrees. The behavior

  8. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  9. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  10. Equivalent boundary integral equations for plane elasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海昌; 丁皓江; 何文军

    1997-01-01

    Indirect and direct boundary integral equations equivalent to the original boundary value problem of differential equation of plane elasticity are established rigorously. The unnecessity or deficiency of some customary boundary integral equations is indicated by examples and numerical comparison.

  11. On the Notion of Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to translations, varies cultures are allowed to exchange with one another. One the one hand, this has been promoting the studies of translation. On the other hand, this poses huge challenges on translators, because it is hard to define what is a good target translation when a source text is translated. There is a variety of standards to evaluate the quality of a translation, among which equivalence seems to be the most controversial one. On the analysis of studies on equivalence, this essay discusses the role of equivalence in the practice of translating with illustrations of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation. Indeed, to translate a source text into a target one is based on the equivalence among languages. However, in the process of translating, it can be adjusted to some extent for the sake of the acceptability in the target culture.

  12. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    Interpretation: signs and meaning, diversity in language use, equivalences and ... movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to express ... people who belong to the same culture given the similar experiences they have gone.

  13. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  14. Monte Carlo modeling and optimization of buffer gas positron traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Srđan; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2017-02-01

    Buffer gas positron traps have been used for over two decades as the prime source of slow positrons enabling a wide range of experiments. While their performance has been well understood through empirical studies, no theoretical attempt has been made to quantitatively describe their operation. In this paper we apply standard models as developed for physics of low temperature collision dominated plasmas, or physics of swarms to model basic performance and principles of operation of gas filled positron traps. The Monte Carlo model is equipped with the best available set of cross sections that were mostly derived experimentally by using the same type of traps that are being studied. Our model represents in realistic geometry and fields the development of the positron ensemble from the initial beam provided by the solid neon moderator through voltage drops between the stages of the trap and through different pressures of the buffer gas. The first two stages employ excitation of N2 with acceleration of the order of 10 eV so that the trap operates under conditions when excitation of the nitrogen reduces the energy of the initial beam to trap the positrons without giving them a chance to become annihilated following positronium formation. The energy distribution function develops from the assumed distribution leaving the moderator, it is accelerated by the voltage drops and forms beams at several distinct energies. In final stages the low energy loss collisions (vibrational excitation of CF4 and rotational excitation of N2) control the approach of the distribution function to a Maxwellian at room temperature but multiple non-Maxwellian groups persist throughout most of the thermalization. Optimization of the efficiency of the trap may be achieved by changing the pressure and voltage drops and also by selecting to operate in a two stage mode. The model allows quantitative comparisons and test of optimization as well as development of other properties.

  15. Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Michael A.; Blain, Matthew G.; Tigges, Chris P.; Linker, Kevin L.

    2011-04-19

    An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.

  16. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, M

    2000-01-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that...

  17. Equivalence of Matrix Models for Complex QCD Dirac Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Akemann, G

    2003-01-01

    Two different matrix models for QCD with a non-vanishing quark chemical potential are shown to be equivalent by mapping the corresponding partition functions. The equivalence holds in the phase with broken chiral symmetry. It is exact in the limit of weak non-Hermiticity, where the chemical potential squared is rescaled with the volume. At strong non-Hermiticity it holds only for small chemical potential. The first model proposed by Stephanov is directly related to QCD and allows to analyze the QCD phase diagram. In the second model suggested by the author all microscopic spectral correlation functions of complex Dirac operators can be calculated in the broken phase. We briefly compare those predictions to complex Dirac eigenvalues from quenched QCD lattice simulations.

  18. Mass Trapping for Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT In field tests conducted in south Florida to test grape juice as an alternative inexpensive bait for Anastrepha suspensa Loew, high numbers of Zaprionus indianus Gupta were captured in traps baited with aqueous grape juice. These experiments included comparisons of grape juice with standard...

  19. Evading the joint decision trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Jørgen; Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis

    2016-01-01

    is applied, including the concept of the joint-decision trap. The paper finds that the outcome was made possible by compensating the member states that were worst affected by the policy changes. A coalition of net contributors, centered on Germany and the United Kingdom, was influential regarding the overall...

  20. Quantum Games in ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluta, Iulia Maria [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: noa@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Fujiwara, Shingo [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: fujiwara@lyman.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hasegawa, Shuichi [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)]. E-mail: hasegawa@q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2006-10-09

    We propose a general, scalable framework for implementing two-choices-multiplayer Quantum Games in ion traps. In particular, we discuss two famous examples: the Quantum Prisoners' Dilemma and the Quantum Minority Game. An analysis of decoherence due to intensity fluctuations in the applied laser fields is also provided.

  1. Optical trapping of gold aerosols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Regina K.; Pedersen, Liselotte Jauffred; Taheri, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aerosol trapping has proven challenging and was only recently demonstrated.1 This was accomplished by utilizing an air chamber designed to have a minimum of turbulence and a laser beam with a minimum of aberration. Individual gold nano-particles with diameters between 80 nm and 200 nm were trappe...

  2. Optical trapping of coated microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bormuth, V.; Jannasch, A.; Ander, M.; van Kats, C.M.; van Blaaderen, A.; Howard, J.; Schäffer, E.

    2008-01-01

    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering a

  3. Optical trapping of coated microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Volker; Jannasch, Anita; Ander, Marcel; van Kats, Carlos M; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik

    2008-09-01

    In an optical trap, micron-sized dielectric particles are held by a tightly focused laser beam. The optical force on the particle is composed of an attractive gradient force and a destabilizing scattering force. We hypothesized that using anti-reflection-coated microspheres would reduce scattering and lead to stronger trapping. We found that homogeneous silica and polystyrene microspheres had a sharp maximum trap stiffness at a diameter of around 800 nm--the trapping laser wavelength in water--and that a silica coating on a polystyrene microsphere was a substantial improvement for larger diameters. In addition, we noticed that homogeneous spheres of a correct size demonstrated anti-reflective properties. Our results quantitatively agreed with Mie scattering calculations and serve as a proof of principle. We used a DNA stretching experiment to confirm the large linear range in detection and force of the coated microspheres and performed a high-force motor protein assay. These measurements show that the surfaces of the coated microspheres are compatible with biophysical assays.

  4. An Application of Equivalence Transformations to Reaction Diffusion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Torrisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a quite general class of advection reaction diffusion systems. By using an equivalence generator, derived in a previous paper, the authors apply a projection theorem to determine some special forms of the constitutive functions that allow the extension by one of the two-dimensional principal Lie algebra. As an example, a special case is discussed at the end of the paper.

  5. Funnel traps capture a higher proportion of juvenile Great Tits Parus major than automatic traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, J.C.; Domenech, J.; Conroy, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    We compared capture rates of Great Tits at funnel traps, where several birds can be captured at once so that some decoy effect may appear, to those obtained at automatic traps, where only one bird can be trapped at a time, at trapping stations in northeastern Spain. Juvenile birds were mainly captured at funnel traps (79% of juvenile captures), whereas adult plumaged birds were captured at both types of traps (51% of captures were at the funnel traps) (test between ages, PTits had lower body condition as measured by ptilochronology (P<0.01). These birds are more easily trapped in funnel traps, which may be acting as decoy traps, and thus are vulnerable to the same kinds of biases (eg age or body condition) that have been previously documented for decoy traps.

  6. Application of Adjoint Methodology to Supersonic Aircraft Design Using Reversed Equivalent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Sriram K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to shape an aircraft to equivalent area based objectives using the discrete adjoint approach. Equivalent areas can be obtained either using reversed augmented Burgers equation or direct conversion of off-body pressures into equivalent area. Formal coupling with CFD allows computation of sensitivities of equivalent area objectives with respect to aircraft shape parameters. The exactness of the adjoint sensitivities is verified against derivatives obtained using the complex step approach. This methodology has the benefit of using designer-friendly equivalent areas in the shape design of low-boom aircraft. Shape optimization results with equivalent area cost functionals are discussed and further refined using ground loudness based objectives.

  7. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  8. Visualization of trap dilution in polyfluorene based light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi, Elham; Michels, Jasper J.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2017-07-01

    The effects of electron trapping and resulting trap-assisted recombination can be strongly suppressed by diluting a semiconducting polymer with a large band gap polymer such as polystyrene. Polyfluorene (PFO)-based light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) are an excellent model system to visualize this trap dilution effect. The blue emission from the pristine PFO backbone is accompanied by a broad, featureless green emission band originating from monomeric ketone defects that act as an electron trap. We demonstrate that the green emission from radiative trap-assisted recombination at these ketone defects is nearly eliminated upon dilution. The ratio between bimolecular blue emission and trap-assisted green emission as a function of dilution is shown to be in quantitative agreement with model predictions.

  9. Regional Differences in Equivalence Scales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Betti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Equivalence scales have a crucial role in poverty measurement. For Turkey, there are no available up-todate equivalence scales, representing Turkish data. There were no efforts for calculation of equivalence scales at the regional level. The aim of the paper is to calculate and propose an equivalence scale for Turkey and estimate regional differences. Besides the models with Engel method, different equivalence scales were estimated by Almost Ideal Demand System. The results of the first model of AIDS approach composed of 5 age groups, is proposed for Turkey, but for simplicity the results of the second AIDS model could be used as well. In this model, the equivalence scale for Turkey is calculated as 0.65 for each additional adult after the first one and 0.35 for each child. For regional equivalence scales, we use two methods and comare the results. In the first one, regressions were run for each region separately and in the second one, dummy variables introduced. The highest difference in the results of the two methods was observed in Istanbul region. The findings for the regional scales are less reliable as the household size is bigger. This limitation is due to the relatively small size of the data sets. Having surveys with higher sample sizes would enable better results. After getting the results some conclusions could be drawn especially with regard to child cost differences among regions. It was expected to have higher costs for children in poorer regions and the regional results have confirmed this hypothesis.

  10. Scaling ion traps for quantum computing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Uys, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a chipscale, multi-zone, surface electrode ion trap is reported. The modular design and fabrication techniques used are anticipated to advance scalability of ion trap quantum computing architectures...

  11. A Portable Root-door Hog Trap

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since the early 1960's, over 4,500 wild hogs have been relocated through Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission trapping operations. The trap now used by the...

  12. Trapping Plan: Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Clarence Cannon NWR trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a renewable natural...

  13. Trapping Plan: Necedah National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah NWR trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a renewable natural resource...

  14. Oxford ion-trap quantum computing project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D M; Donald, C J S; Home, J P; McDonnell, M J; Ramos, A; Stacey, D N; Stacey, J-P; Steane, A M; Webster, S C

    2003-07-15

    We describe recent progress in the development of an ion-trap quantum information processor. We discuss the choice of ion species and describe recent experiments on read-out for a ground-state qubit and photoionization trap loading.

  15. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Trapping Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Benton Lake NWR trapping plan outlines trapping areas, species, regulations, equipment, and seasons. This plan will allow harvest of a renewable natural resource...

  16. Trap split with Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kazemi, Seyedeh Hamideh; Mahmoud, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The optical trapping techniques have been extensively used in physics, biophysics, micro-chemistry, and micro-mechanics to allow trapping and manipulation of materials ranging from particles, cells, biological substances, and polymers to DNA and RNA molecules. In this Letter, we present a convenient and effective way to generate a novel phenomenon of trapping, named trap split, in a conventional four-level double-$\\Lambda$ atomic system driven by four femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses. We find that trap split can be always achieved when atoms are trapped by such laser pulses, as compared to Gaussian ones. This work would greatly facilitate the trapping and manipulating the particles and generation of trap split. It may also suggest the possibility of extension into new research fields, such as micro-machining and biophysics.

  17. Optical and Magnetic Trapping of Potassium 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensher, Jason; Cornell, Eric; Cataliotti, Francesco; Fort, Chiara; Marin, Francesco; Prevedelli, Marco; Inguscio, Massimo; Ricci, Leonardo; Tino, Guglielmo

    1998-05-01

    We present measurments of optical trapping and cooling and magnetic trapping of ^39K in a double-MOT apparatus. (Optics Lett. 21, 290(1996)) We have measured light-assisted collisional loss rates from our second MOT over a range of trap light intensities. At an intensity of 10 mW/cm^2 we find a loss rate parameter β of 2 x 10-11 cc/s. β increases with trap light intensity and is consistent with the values measured by Williamson and Walker (JOSA B 12, 1393 (1995)). We also present studies of the temperature of atoms in a MOT of ^39K. Under certain conditions of repump light intensity and trap light detuning we measure temperatures nearly as low as the Doppler Limit. Finally, we report on prelimiary results of magnetic trapping in which we have trapped several 10^7 atoms in a quadrupole magnetic trap.

  18. Dynamic array of dark optical traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, V.R.; Rodrigo, P.J.; Glückstad, J.

    2004-01-01

    A dynamic array of dark optical traps is generated for simultaneous trapping and arbitrary manipulation of multiple low-index microstructures. The dynamic intensity patterns forming the dark optical trap arrays are generated using a nearly loss-less phase-to-intensity conversion of a phase-encode...... optical traps for simultaneous manipulation of hollow "air-filled" glass microspheres suspended in an aqueous medium. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  19. A Directional Dose Equivalent Monitor for Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, F.; Alberts, W.G.; Curzio, G.; Matzke, M.; Nath, R.; Siebert, B.R.L

    2001-07-01

    A directional dose equivalent monitor is introduced which consists of a 30 cm diameter spherical phantom hosting a superheated drop detector embedded at a depth of 10 mm. The device relies on the similarity between the fluence response of neutron superheated drop detectors based on halocarbon-12 and the quality-factor-weighted kerma factor. This implies that these detectors can be used for in-phantom dosimetry and provide a direct reading of dose equivalent at depth. The directional dose equivalent monitor was characterised experimentally with fast neutron calibrations and numerically with Monte Carlo simulations. The fluence response was determined at angles of 0, 45, 90, 135 and 180 degrees for thermal to 20 MeV neutrons. The response of the device is closely proportional to the fluence-to-directional dose equivalent conversion coefficient, H'{sub F}(10;a,E). Therefore, our monitor is suitable for a direct measurement of neutron directional dose equivalent, H'(10), regardless of angle and energy distribution of the neutron fluence. (author)

  20. The Aarhus Ion Micro-Trap Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; Nielsen, Otto; Poulsen, Gregers

    and installed in an ultra high vacuum chamber, which includes an ablation oven for all-optical loading of the trap [2]. The next steps on the project are to demonstrate the operation of the micro-trap and the cooling of ions using fiber delivered light. [1] D. Grant, Development of Micro-Scale Ion traps, Master...

  1. The Nanocluster Trap endstation at BESSY II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Lau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Nanocluster Trap endstation at BESSY II combines a cryogenic linear radio-frequency ion trap with an applied magnetic field for x-ray magnetic circular dichroism studies of cold and size-selected trapped ions. Applications include atomic, molecular, and cluster ions as well as ionic complexes.

  2. Superdense Coding via Hot Trapped Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Tao; FENG Mang; GAO Ke-Lin

    2004-01-01

    Superdense coding plays an important role in quantum information and can be performed with trapped ions. By confining the ions in a linear trap or a trap-cavity setup, we propose schemes to implement a reliable superdense coding by means of bichromatic radiation method. Experimental feasibility and reliability for achieving our schemes is discussed in detail.

  3. Microchip-Based Trapped-Atom Clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Vuletic, Vladan; Schleier-Smith, Monika H

    2011-01-01

    This is a chapter of a recently published book entitled Atom Chips, edited by Jakob Reichel and Vladan Vuletic. The contents of this chapter include: Basic Principles; Atomic-Fountain versus Trapped-Atom Clocks; Optical-Transition Clocks versus Microwave Clocks; Clocks with Magnetically Trapped Atoms--Fundamental Limits and Experimental Demonstrations; Readout in Trapped-Atom Clocks; and Spin Squeezing.

  4. On Multistep Bose-Einstein Condensation in Anisotropic Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, K

    2000-01-01

    Multistep Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas in anisotropic harmonic atom traps is studied. In the presence of strong anisotropy realized by the different trap frequency in each direction, finite size effect dictates a series of dimensional crossovers into lower-dimensional excitations. Two-step condensation and the dynamical reduction of the effective dimension can appear in three separate steps. When the multistep behavior occurs, the occupation number of atoms excited in each dimension is shown to behave similarly as a function of the temperature.

  5. Component separation in harmonically trapped boson-fermion mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Nicolai; Mølmer, Klaus

    1999-01-01

    We present a numerical study of mixed boson-fermion systems at zero temperature in isotropic and anise tropic harmonic traps. We investigate the phenomenon of component separation as a function of the strength ut the interparticle interaction. While solving a Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field equation...... for the boson distribution in the trap, we utilize two different methods to extract the density profile of the fermion component; a semiclassical Thomas-Fermi approximation and a quantum-mechanical Slater determinant Schrodinger equation....

  6. Position-dependent dynamics of a trapped ion in a standing wave laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方卯发

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the position-dependent dynamics of a trapped ion in a standing wave laser by transforming it to the Jaynes-Cummings-type system under the Lamb-Dicke limit. A variety of novel phenomena are exhibited,e.g. periodic collapse and revival features and long-time scaled revivals of the ionic inversion, depending on its position in the standing wave. Our result provides a way of producing a system equivalent to the two-photon Jaynes-Cummings model in the trapped ion system, with its exact periodicities.

  7. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xi

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  8. The New Wind Chill Equivalent Temperature Chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osczevski, Randall; Bluestein, Maurice

    2005-10-01

    The formula used in the U.S. and Canada to express the combined effect of wind and low temperature on how cold it feels was changed in November 2001. Many had felt that the old formula for equivalent temperature, derived in the 1960s from Siple and Passel's flawed but quite useful Wind Chill Index, unnecessarily exaggerated the severity of the weather. The new formula is based on a mathematical model of heat flow from the upwind side of a head-sized cylinder moving at walking speed into the wind. The paper details the assumptions that were made in generating the new wind chill charts. It also points out weaknesses in the concept of wind chill equivalent temperature, including its steady-state character and a seemingly paradoxical effect of the internal thermal resistance of the cylinder on comfort and equivalent temperature. Some improvements and alternatives are suggested.

  9. Scalar Trapping and Saxion Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Moroi, Takeo; Nakayama, Kazunori; Takimoto, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We study in detail the dynamics of a scalar field in thermal bath with symmetry breaking potential. In particular, we focus on the process of trapping of a scalar field at an enhanced symmetry point through the thermal/non-thermal particle production, taking into account the interactions of produced particles with the standard model particles. As an explicit example, we revisit the saxion dynamics with an initial amplitude much larger than the Peccei-Quinn scale and show that the saxion trapping phenomenon happens for the most cases and it often leads to thermal inflation. We also study the saxion dynamics after thermal inflation, and it is shown that thermal dissipation effect on the saxion can relax the axion overproduction problem from the saxion decay.

  10. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  11. Tachyon Physics with Trapped Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Tony E; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    It has been predicted that particles with imaginary mass, called tachyons, would be able to travel faster than the speed of light. So far, there has not been any experimental evidence for tachyons in either natural or engineered systems. Here, we propose how to experimentally simulate Dirac tachyons with trapped ions. Quantum measurement on a Dirac particle simulated by a trapped ion causes it to have an imaginary mass so that it may travel faster than the effective speed of light. We show that a Dirac tachyon must have spinor-motion entanglement in order to be superluminal. We also show that it exhibits significantly more Klein tunneling than a normal Dirac particle. We provide numerical simulations with realistic ion systems and show that our scheme is feasible with current technology.

  12. Optical two-beam trap in a polymer microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina Palanco, Marta; Catak, Darmin; Marie, Rodolphe; Matteucci, Marco; Bilenberg, Brian; Kristensen, Anders; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-09-01

    An optical two-beam trap, composed from two counter propagating laser beams, is an interesting setup due to the ability of the system to trap, hold, and stretch soft biological objects like vesicles or single cells. Because of this functionality, the system was also named "the optical stretcher" by Jochen Guck, Josep Käs and co-workers some 15 years ago. In a favorable setup, the two opposing laser beams meet with equal intensities in the middle of a fluidic channel in which cells may flow past, be trapped, stretched, and allowed to move on, giving the promise of a high throughput device. Yet, single beam optical traps, aka optical tweezers, by far outnumber the existing optical stretchers in research labs throughout the world. The ability to easily construct an optical stretcher setup in a low-cost material would possibly imply more frequent use of the optical stretching technique. Here, we will outline the design, the production procedures, and results obtained in a fiber-based experimental setup built within an injection molded microfluidic polymer chip. The microfluidic chip is constructed with a three layer technology in which we ensure both horizontal and vertical focusing of the cells we wish to trap, thereby preventing too many cells to flow below the line of focus of the two counter propagating laser beams that are positioned perpendicular to the direction of flow of the cells. Results will be compared to that from other designs from previous work in the group.

  13. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  14. Optical particle trapping and dynamic manipulation using spatial light modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge

    This thesis deals with the spatial phase-control of light and its application for optical trapping and manipulation of micron-scale objects. Utilizing the radiation pressure, light exerts on dielectric micron-scale particles, functionality of optical tweezers can be obtained. Multiple intensity...... of trapped colloidal micron-sized polystyrene particles and cell structures were accomplished. Furthermore, fixed arrays consisting of up to 25-trapped particles have been generated. Experimentally, ternary phase encoding has been demonstrated, supporting the GPC theory. Binary intensity patterns having...... proven capable of generating a phase pattern from an input amplitude distribution. The birefringent nature of liquid crystals in the SLM is utilized for the generation of an arbitrary two-dimensional state of polarization using two-cascaded SLMs. By means of elliptically polarized light, generated by one...

  15. Reactive collisions of two ultracold particles in a harmonic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Jankowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    We consider two ultracold particles confined in spherically symmetric harmonic trap and interacting via isotropic potential with absorbing boundary conditions at short range that models reactive scattering. First, we apply the contact pseudopotential with complex scattering length and investigate the properties of eigenergies and eigenfunctions for different trap states as a function of real and imaginary part of the scattering length. In the analyzed case the eigenenergies take complex values, and their imaginary part can be interpreted in terms of decay rates. Then we introduce the model of a square well with absorbing boundary conditions that is later used to investigate the effects of the finite range of interaction on the properties of a reactive scattering in the trap. Finally, we analyze the decay rates for some reactive alkali dimer molecules assuming short-range probability of reaction equal to unity. In this case the complex scattering length is given by universal value related to the mean scatterin...

  16. Isotropy and marginally trapped surfaces in a spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrerizo, J L; Fernandez, M; Gomez, J S, E-mail: jaraiz@us.e, E-mail: mafernan@us.e, E-mail: jsalvador@us.e [Geometria y Topologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1160, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-07-07

    In this paper we shall study the notions of an isotropic and marginally trapped surface in a spacetime by using a differential geometric approach. We first consider spacelike isotropic surfaces in a Lorentzian manifold and, in particular, in a four-dimensional spacetime, where the isotropy function appears to be determined by the mean curvature vector field of the surface. Explicit examples of isotropic marginally outer trapped surfaces are given in the standard four-dimensional space forms: Minkowski, de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces. Then we prove rigidity theorems for complete spacelike 0-isotropic surfaces without flat points in these standard space forms. As a consequence, we also obtain characterizations of complete spacelike isotropic marginally trapped surfaces in these backgrounds.

  17. Dissipative Trapped Electron Modes in a Heliac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasim, M.H.; Persson, M. [Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Signals and Systems

    2005-11-01

    The objective of the present paper is to study the dissipative trapped electron modes (DTEM) in a stellarator configuration. A perturbative-iterative process is used to study the non-adiabatic response of the electrons in the dissipative regimes on the drift wave instability. A ballooning mode formalism is used to drive the drift eigenvalue equation for adiabatic electron which is solved numerically. The eigenmodes are marginally stable. The non-adiabatic response of the electrons is calculated perturbatively which is used to resolve the eigenvalue equation. The process is iterated until electrons response converges. The effects of different parameters such as {eta}{sub e}, the ballooning angle {theta}{sub k}, normalised density scale length {epsilon}{sub n}, radial label s, and {chi} are studied. The mode localisation is correlated with the geometrical properties of the magnetic field. It is found that the wave functions of the most unstable modes are highly localised in a single helical ripple with the possibility of a variety of both helical and toroidal trapping. It is further fond that a perturbative calculations of the growth rate generally is not reliable and can give substantially lower or higher growth rate than the iterative method.

  18. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  19. TRAP SYNDROME: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha; Kanan; Chanda,, Abhra; Qazi,, S.

    2014-01-01

    TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion) sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin). This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart) is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.

  20. TRAP SYNDROME: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available TRAP (Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion sequence is a rare complication of monozygotic twin pregnancy. It is due to defect in early pregnancy where there is defective arterial anastomosis in placenta. This results in a fetus with an absent heart (acardiac twin. This acardiac twin has a poorly developed upper body and head also. The pump twin (with a normal heart is also at a risk of heart failure and problems related to preterm birth1.